WorldWideScience

Sample records for health effects caused

  1. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, M.; Tadano, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.; Chen, X. [Regional Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-0083 Ibaraki (Japan); Asanuma, S. [Japan Institute of Rural Medicine, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Saku Central Hospital, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, T. [Matsumoto Dental College, Shiojiri, Nagano (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Otsuma Women' s University, Tama, Tokyo (Japan); Ji, R.; Liang, C.; Cao, S. [Institute of Environmental Health and Engineering, Beijing (China); Hong, Z. [Shanxi Maternity and Children' s Hospital, Taiyuan (China)

    2001-04-23

    Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the human respiratory tract. Major human fluoride exposure was caused by consumption of fluoride contaminated food, such as corn, chilies and potatoes. For each diagnostic syndrome of dental fluorosis, a log-normal distribution was observed on the logarithm of urinary fluoride concentration in students in China. Urinary fluoride content was found to be a primary health indicator of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the community. In the fluorosis areas, osteosclerosis in skeletal fluorosis patients was observed with a high prevalence. A biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline content was much higher in residents in China than in residents in Japan. It was suggested that bone resorption was stimulated to a greater extent in residents in China and fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Renal function especially glomerular filtration rate was very sensitive to fluoride exposure. Inorganic phosphate concentrations in urine were significantly lower in the residents in fluorosis areas in China than in non-fluorosis area in China and Japan. Since airborne fluoride from the combustion of coal pollutes extensively both the living environment and food, it is necessary to reduce fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

  2. Root-cause analysis and health failure mode and effect analysis: two leading techniques in health care quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqdan, Khalid; Aran, Shima; Daftari Besheli, Laleh; Abujudeh, Hani

    2014-06-01

    In this review article, the authors provide a detailed series of guidelines for effectively performing root-cause analysis (RCA) and health failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA). RCA is a retrospective approach used to ascertain the "root cause" of a problem that has already occurred, whereas HFMEA is a prospective risk assessment tool whose aim is to recognize risks to patient safety. RCA and HFMEA are used for the prevention of errors or recurring errors to create a safer workplace, maintain high standards in health care quality, and incorporate time-saving and cost-saving modifications to favorably affect the patient care environment. The principles and techniques provided here should allow reviewers to better understand the features of RCA and HFMEA and how to apply these processes appropriately. These principles include how to organize a team, identify root causes, seed out proximate causes, graphically describe the process, conduct a hazard analysis, and develop and implement potential action plans.

  3. Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Patil, Harshal R; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-09-17

    Coffee, after water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared. Regardless, a growing body of data suggests that habitual coffee consumption is neutral to beneficial regarding the risks of a variety of adverse CV outcomes including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Moreover, large epidemiological studies suggest that regular coffee drinkers have reduced risks of mortality, both CV and all-cause. The potential benefits also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases, improved asthma control, and lower risk of select gastrointestinal diseases. A daily intake of ∼2 to 3 cups of coffee appears to be safe and is associated with neutral to beneficial effects for most of the studied health outcomes. However, most of the data on coffee's health effects are based on observational data, with very few randomized, controlled studies, and association does not prove causation. Additionally, the possible advantages of regular coffee consumption have to be weighed against potential risks (which are mostly related to its high caffeine content) including anxiety, insomnia, tremulousness, and palpitations, as well as bone loss and possibly increased risk of fractures.

  4. Air Pollution and Forest Health: Establishing Cause and Effect in the Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I participated in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains,” in Stara Lesna, Slovakia from May 22–26, 2001. Researchers from Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the U.S. met to present their results from a three-year cooperative study of tree health and air quality monitoring in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Much of the work reported related to assessing the crown condition of trees in permanent plots in natural or managed (planted forests in the mountains. The endpoint was tree condition, with results extrapolated to the forests in the Carpathian range. From this I learned that, of the 50,000 trees evaluated, European beech (Fagus sylvatica was the most healthy, while Norway spruce (Picea abies (the principal forest tree and white fir (Abies alba sustained crown defoliation of up to 12.8%. The cause of this crown defoliation and tree decline was usually attributed to “air pollution” as a generic term and an automatic assumption. It is well known that deposition of heavy metals and acidic sulfur and nitrogen compounds can cause tree decline and predispose affected trees to bark beetles and climatic damage. Chemical analyses can also be done to detect metals and sulfur compounds in trees and soils. Sometimes these analyses were done, but most often the assumption was that crown defoliation was caused by air pollution. The assumption was that given sufficient exposure to high enough concentrations of toxic elements, sooner or later there will be a visible adverse response.

  5. Effects of Mental Health Support on the Grief of Bereaved People Caused by Sewol Ferry Accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Hyesung; Noh, Jin-Won; Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Joo, Ji-Young; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    Few studies have assessed the overall effects of multi-centered, complicated mental health support on the grief process. This study investigated the broader influence of mental health support provided practically to the bereaved family on the severity of complicated grief. Ninety-three bereaved

  6. Effects of Mental Health Support on the Grief of Bereaved People Caused by Sewol Ferry Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyesung; Noh, Jin Won; Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Joo, Ji Young; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Chae, Jeong Ho

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the overall effects of multi-centered, complicated mental health support on the grief process. This study investigated the broader influence of mental health support provided practically to the bereaved family on the severity of complicated grief. Ninety-three bereaved family members of the Sewol ferry accident were recruited. Severity of complicated grief, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive disorder was assessed through self-reporting questionnaire, inventory of complicated grief (ICG), PTSD Check List-5 (PCL-5) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We also included demographic, socioeconomic, health-related variables, and Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), which affect the ICG score. Participants were divided into 4 groups based on the experience of psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the accident and mental health support after the disaster. In univariate analysis, these 4 groups showed a significant difference in the mean ICG score (P = 0.020). Participants who received mental health support only after the Sewol ferry accident (group 2) showed a lower mean ICG score than those who received neither psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the disaster nor mental health support after the accident (group 4). There was no significant correlation between the ICG score and other variables except for subjective health status measured 1 month after the disaster (P = 0.005). There was no significant difference in PCL-5 (P = 0.140) and PHQ-9 scores (P = 0.603) among groups, respectively. In conclusion, mental health support significantly reduced the severity of grief only in those participants who had not received any psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the accident. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  7. An economic assessment of the health effects and crop yield losses caused by air pollution in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Weijie; Huang, Xin; Song, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution is severe in China, and pollutants such as PM2.5 and surface O3 may cause major damage to human health and crops, respectively. Few studies have considered the health effects of PM2.5 or the loss of crop yields due to surface O3 using model-simulated air pollution data in China. We used gridded outputs from the WRF-Chem model, high resolution population data, and crop yield data to evaluate the effects on human health and crop yield in mainland China. Our results showed that outdoor PM2.5 pollution was responsible for 1.70-1.99 million cases of all-cause mortality in 2006. The economic costs of these health effects were estimated to be 151.1-176.9 billion USD, of which 90% were attributed to mortality. The estimated crop yield losses for wheat, rice, maize, and soybean were approximately 9, 4.6, 0.44, and 0.34 million tons, respectively, resulting in economic losses of 3.4 billion USD. The total economic losses due to ambient air pollution were estimated to be 154.5-180.3 billion USD, accounting for approximately 5.7%-6.6% of the total GDP of China in 2006. Our results show that both population health and staple crop yields in China have been significantly affected by exposure to air pollution. Measures should be taken to reduce emissions, improve air quality, and mitigate the economic loss. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Policy Partners Climate Effects on Health Air Pollution Allergens Wildfires Temperature Extremes Precipitation Extremes Diseases Carried by Vectors Food and Waterborne Diarrheal Disease Food Security Mental Health and Stress-Related Disorders Climate-Ready States and ...

  9. Causes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  10. Cause and effect in studies on unemployment, mental health and suicide: a meta-analytic and conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A; Page, A; LaMontagne, A D

    2014-04-01

    There are ongoing questions about whether unemployment has causal effects on suicide as this relationship may be confounded by past experiences of mental illness. The present review quantified the effects of adjustment for mental health on the relationship between unemployment and suicide. Findings were used to develop and interpret likely causal models of unemployment, mental health and suicide. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted on five population-based cohort studies where temporal relationships could be clearly ascertained. Results of the meta-analysis showed that unemployment was associated with a significantly higher relative risk (RR) of suicide before adjustment for prior mental health [RR 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-1.83]. After controlling for mental health, the RR of suicide following unemployment was reduced by approximately 37% (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.00-1.30). Greater exposure to unemployment was associated with higher RR of suicide, and the pooled RR was higher for males than for females. Plausible interpretations of likely pathways between unemployment and suicide are complex and difficult to validate given the poor delineation of associations over time and analytic rationale for confounder adjustment evident in the revised literature. Future research would be strengthened by explicit articulation of temporal relationships and causal assumptions. This would be complemented by longitudinal study designs suitable to assess potential confounders, mediators and effect modifiers influencing the relationship between unemployment and suicide.

  11. Which health conditions cause the most unhappiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Carol; Higuera, Lucas; Lora, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    This paper assesses the effects of different health conditions on happiness. Based on new data for Latin America, we examine the effects of different conditions across age, gender, and income cohorts. Anxiety and pain have stronger effects than physical problems, likely because people adapt better to one-time shocks than to constant uncertainty. The negative effects of health conditions are very large when compared with the effects of income on happiness. And, while higher peer income typically elicits envy, better peer health provides positive signals for life and health satisfaction. Health norms vary widely across countries. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Dysfunctional health service conflict: causes and accelerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the causes and accelerants of dysfunctional health service conflict and how it emerges from the health system's core hierarchical structures, specialized roles, participant psychodynamics, culture, and values. This article sets out to answer whether health care conflict is more widespread and intense than in other settings and if it is, why? To this end, health care power, gender, and educational status gaps are examined with an eye to how they undermine open communication, teamwork, and collaborative forms of conflict and spark a range of dysfunctions, including a pervasive culture of fear; the deny-and-defend lawsuit response; widespread patterns of hierarchical, generational, and lateral bullying; overly avoidant conflict styles among non-elite groups; and a range of other behaviors that lead to numerous human resource problems, including burnout, higher staff turnover, increased errors, poor employee citizenship behavior, patient dissatisfaction, increased patient complaints, and lawsuits. Bad patient outcomes include decreased compliance and increased morbidity and mortality. Health care managers must understand the root causes of these problems to treat them at the source and implement solutions that avoid negative conflict spirals that undermine organizational morale and efficiency.

  13. Undressing "health fashion": an examination of health-cause clothing and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Gregg, Jennifer L; LaJoie, A Scott

    2010-09-01

    Today, fashion items such as rubber wristbands in various colors, pink ribbons, and red dresses represent different health-related causes and can be seen frequently across demographic groups. Complete with pithy slogans (e.g., "Go Red for Women"), these items are part of a larger "health fashion" trend--one that involves wearing, using, and displaying health-cause clothing and accessories. In this article, the authors explore recent interest in "health fashion," examining in particular its origins, effectiveness, and implications.

  14. Cause and effect: the linkage between the health information seeking behavior and the online environment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratucu, R; Gheorghe, I R; Purcarea, R M; Gheorghe, C M; Popa Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

    2014-09-15

    Today, health care consumers are taking more control over their health care problems, investing more time in finding and getting information as well as looking for proper methods in order to investigate more closely the health care information received from their physicians. Unfortunately, in health care consumers' views, the trustworthiness of health authorities and institutions has declined in the last years. So, consumers have found a new solution to their health problems, that is, the Internet. Recently, studies revealed that consumers seeking for health information have more options to look for data in comparison to the methods used a few years ago. Therefore, due to the available technology, consumers have more outlets to search for information. For instance, the Internet is a source that has revolutionized the way consumers seek data due its customized methods of assessing both quantitative and qualitative information which may be achieved with minimal effort and low costs, offering at the same time, several advantages such as making the decision process more efficient.

  15. Cause and effect: the linkage between the health information seeking behavior and the online environment- a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratucu, R; Gheorghe, IR; Purcarea, RM; Gheorghe, CM; Popa Velea, O; Purcarea, VL

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Today, health care consumers are taking more control over their health care problems, investing more time in finding and getting information as well as looking for proper methods in order to investigate more closely the health care information received from their physicians. Unfortunately, in health care consumers’ views, the trustworthiness of health authorities and institutions has declined in the last years. So, consumers have found a new solution to their health problems, that is, the Internet. Recently, studies revealed that consumers seeking for health information have more options to look for data in comparison to the methods used a few years ago. Therefore, due to the available technology, consumers have more outlets to search for information. For instance, the Internet is a source that has revolutionized the way consumers seek data due its customized methods of assessing both quantitative and qualitative information which may be achieved with minimal effort and low costs, offering at the same time, several advantages such as making the decision process more efficient. PMID:25408746

  16. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  17. Loss of labour productivity caused by disease and health problems: what is the magnitude of its effect on Spain's economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the economic impact of the non-medical costs of diseases and accidents in Spain. Its main premise sustains the idea that in addition to the number of deaths, the loss of quality of life and the pain suffered by patients and their family members as a result of diseases and accidents, there are other indicators that provide us with a better understanding of their socioeconomic impact. Our analysis provides estimates of the loss of labour productivity in Spain as a result of health problems in 2005. Our main finding suggests an estimated loss amounting to over 37,969 millions euros, of which 9,136 millions euros are due to premature deaths, 18,577 millions to permanent disability and 10,255 millions to temporary disability. The loss in labour productivity due to accidents and health problems was estimated to a figure equivalent to nearly 4.2% of the Gross Domestic Product of Spain in 2005. This study underscores the strong economic impact of non-medical costs of diseases. In addition, it stresses the need for better information systems for collecting data that is relevant to the topic at hand.

  18. What (or who) causes health inequalities: theories, evidence and implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Gerry; Collins, Chik; Mackenzie, Mhairi

    2013-12-01

    Health inequalities are the unjust differences in health between groups of people occupying different positions in society. Since the Black Report of 1980 there has been considerable effort to understand what causes them, so as to be able to identify actions to reduce them. This paper revisits and updates the proposed theories, evaluates the evidence in light of subsequent epidemiological research, and underlines the political and policy ramifications. The Black Report suggested four theories (artefact, selection, behavioural/cultural and structural) as to the root causes of health inequalities and suggested that structural theory provided the best explanation. These theories have since been elaborated to include intelligence and meritocracy as part of selection theory. However, the epidemiological evidence relating to the proposed causal pathways does not support these newer elaborations. They may provide partial explanations or insights into the mechanisms between cause and effect, but structural theory remains the best explanation as to the fundamental causes of health inequalities. The paper draws out the vitally important political and policy implications of this assessment. Health inequalities cannot be expected to reduce substantially as a result of policy aimed at changing health behaviours, particularly in the face of wider public policy that militates against reducing underlying social inequalities. Furthermore, political rhetoric about the need for 'cultural change', without the required changes in the distribution of power, income, wealth, or in the regulatory frameworks in society, is likely to divert from necessary action.

  19. Alarm Fatigue: Causes and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Marc; Hüske-Kraus, Dirk; Klausen, Andreas; Koch, Christian; Schlauch, Wolfgang; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The term "Alarm fatigue" is commonly used to describe the effect which a high number of alarms can have on caregivers: Frequent alarms, many of which are avoidable, can lead to inadequate responses, severely impacting patient safety. In the first step of a long-term effort to address this problem, both the direct and indirect impact of alarms, as well as possible causes of unnecessary alarms were focused. Models of these causes and impacts were developed using a scoping review which included guided interviews with experts from medical informatics, clinicians and medical device manufacturers. These models can provide the methodical grounds for the definition of targeted interventions and the assessment of their effects.

  20. Particulate air pollution and health effects for cardiovascular and respiratory causes in Temuco, Chile: a wood-smoke-polluted urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Pedro A; Torreblanca, Monica A; Diaz-Robles, Luis A; Schiappacasse, L Nicolas; Silva, Maria P; Astete, Teresa D

    2009-12-01

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke-polluted cities in the world. Its population in 2004 was 340,000 inhabitants with 1587 annual deaths, of which 24% were due to cardiovascular and 11% to respiratory causes. For hospital admissions, cardiovascular diseases represented 6% and respiratory diseases 13%. Emergency room visits for acute respiratory infections represented 28%. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the relationship between air pollution from particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10; mostly PM2.5, or particulate matter effects measured as the daily number of deaths, hospital admissions, and emergency room visits for cardiovascular, respiratory, and acute respiratory infection (ARI) diseases. The Air Pollution Health Effects European Approach (APHEA2) protocol was followed, and a multivariate Poisson regression model was fitted, controlling for trend, seasonality, and confounders for Temuco during 1998-2006. The results show that PM10 had a significant association with daily mortality and morbidity, with the elderly (population >65 yr of age) being the group that presented the greatest risk. The relative risk for respiratory causes, with an increase of 100 microg/m3 of PM10, was 1.163 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.057-1.279 for mortality, 1.137 (CI 1.096-1.178) for hospital admissions, and 1.162 for ARI (CI 1.144-1.181). There is evidence in Temuco of positive relationships between ambient particulate levels and mortality, hospital admissions, and ARI for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These results are consistent with those of comparable studies in other similar cities where wood smoke is the most important air pollution problem.

  1. [New aspects for the evaluation of health effects caused by exposure against halogenated hydrocarbons at the working place. A literature review (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebig, G

    1981-01-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons with over 150 toxicological relevant substances represent a considerable group among the numerous noxes at the working-places. Tri- and perchloroethylene are industrially widely used solvents for cleaning, degreasing and extraction. At the workplace the main amount of intake occurs via lung. Hepato-, nephro-, neuro- and cardiotoxicological effects are important solvent-induced health impairments. If the valid maximum concentrations in the work area (MAK-value) for the specific substance is not exceeded, altogether health hazards are impropable. With information of the "Unfallverhütungsbericht" only 23 cases of intoxications at the workplace were indemnified in 1977 for the first time. The causes for this low number are: installation of closed equipments, automation of the procedures and improvement of the personal hygiene. However praxis in occupational medicine shows, that there is a great number of persons in small firms that has contact with these solvents. For the surveillance and judgement of these solvent-exposed persons exist two methods. First the airborne concentration of the chemical compound can be determined at the working area. Second the solvent and/or its metabolites can be quantitative analyzed in the biological material. This method, called "biological Monitoring (BM)" has important advantages. BM should be prefered in cases of non-continuous, short-term exposures to concentrations of high degree. The judgement has to be done in relation to biological permissible limits (Biologische Arbeitsstoff-Toleranz-Werte, BAT, biological threshold limit values, BTLV's). Based on our longtime experience this specific and sensitive method should be used with priority.

  2. Distal and variably proximal causes: education, obesity, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2011-11-01

    Medical sociologists hold that social conditions generate disparities across a host of health conditions through exposure to a variety of more proximate risk factors. Though distal and proximal causes jointly influence disease, the nature of risk accumulation may differ appreciably by the link of a proximal cause to the outcome in question. This paper employs a representative sample of over 3000 American older adults to examine whether position in the educational gradient amplifies the effect of obesity on two health outcomes. Results indicate that educational inequalities amplify the effect of high body mass index on disability (unstandardized coefficients across education groups range from -.05 [ns] to .26 [p obese adults), but fail to amplify the consequences of severe obesity in the case of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Instead, educational gradients in CRP are most pronounced at lower levels of body mass. Sex-specific analyses further clarify these patterns, as the connections between CRP and body mass are particularly strong among women. We conclude that risk accumulation processes differ based on the proximity of causes to the health outcome under examination.

  3. Effects of various antimicrobial stewardship programs on antimicrobial usage and resistance among common gram-negative bacilli causing health care-associated infections: A multicenter comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Chih; Shi, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Fu-Der

    2016-02-01

    The effects of various antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) on both antibiotic consumption and resistance among different hospitals within the same insurance system have rarely been investigated. This 6-year retrospective study included three medical centers with similar facilities and infection control measures in Taiwan. These hospitals used different types of ASPs: one had a hospital-wide preauthorization requirement by infectious diseases physicians for all broad-spectrum antibiotics, covering all intensive care units; the second used the same program, but excluded all intensive care units; and the third used postprescription review only. The nonsusceptibility of unduplicated isolates of gram-negative bacilli causing health care-associated infections and consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics were analyzed. Overall, the usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics of all classes escalated significantly over time in all three hospitals, but consumption was lowest under the hospital-wide preauthorization program. Under this ASP, despite a 2-fold increase in the total broad-spectrum antibiotic consumption during study period, some declining trends of resistance were found, including ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. By contrast, the other two hospitals with preauthorization program excluding all intensive care units and postprescription review had similar high broad-spectrum antibiotic consumption, comparable growing trends of resistant strains in general, and the correlations of antibiotic consumption and resistance were basically positive. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii increased significantly over time in all three hospitals. This interhospital comparison suggested that hospital-wide preauthorization program is the most effective to reduce key gram-negative bacilli resistance, with the exception of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Climate change: Causes, effects and mitigation measures- A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change: Causes, effects and mitigation measures- A review. ... far more than at any time in the last 650,000 years resulting in climate change or global warming. ... loss of biodiversity, food insecurity, decreased animal health et cetera.

  5. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  6. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  7. Self-rated health and all-cause and cause-specific mortality of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Juerges, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    , ≥60 years at recruitment (1982–2008), in eight prospective studies in the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES). In each study, adjusted mortality ratios (hazard ratios, HRs) in relation to SRH were calculated and subsequently combined...... with random-effect meta-analyses. Main outcome measures All-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Results Within the median 12.5 years of follow-up, 93,014 (22%) deaths occurred. SRH “fair” or “poor” vs. “at-least-good” was associated with increased mortality: HRs 1.46 (95% CI 1·23–1.74) and 2.31 (1......Objectives To evaluate, among the elderly, the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mortality, and to identify determinants of self-rating health as “at-least-good”. Study design Individual data on SRH and important covariates were obtained for 424,791 European and United States residents...

  8. Multipollutant health effect simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Resulting betas (health effects) from a variety of copollutant epidemiologic models used to analyze the impact of exposure measurement error on health effect...

  9. Health endpoints caused by PM10 Exposure in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available PM10 emissions are defined as PM emissions that are less than ten microns in diameter. Long exposure of suspended particles as showed in his personal life. PM10 can cause harmful health effects such as the prevalence of bronchitis and reduced lung function in children and adults. Major sources of emissions are causing by human intervention particulate road traffic, stationary combustion and industrial processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate health- effects of carbon monoxide exposure in Ahvaz city (located in south-western Iran, during 2012. PM10 data were collected through Ahvaz Meteorological Organization and the Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software includes (instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering and after the impact of meteorological parameters was converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, respiratory mortality, cardiovascular death and hospital admissions respiratory disease of PM10 exposure was calculated. The results showed that the approximately 17% of total respiratory mortality, cardiovascular death and hospital admissions respiratory disease happened when the PM10 concentrations were more than 30μg/m3. The results showed that the concentration of PM10 was related to Ahvaz with an annual average 321 μg/m3. Sum of cardiovascular and respiratory death attributed to PM10 were 1055 and 189 cases in 2012. The higher percentage of these deaths perhaps could be the result of higher average PM10 or because of sustained high concentration days in Ahvaz. Therefore, the higher relative risk value can depict mismanagement in urban air quality.

  10. Depressive symptoms as a cause and effect of job loss in men and women: evidence in the context of organisational downsizing from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Elena; Linda L Magnusson Hanson; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres; Brenner, M. Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined depression as both a cause and effect of unemployment, but no prior work investigated these relationships in the context of organisational downsizing. We explored whether the exposure to downsizing is associated with subsequent depression (social causation), and whether pre-existing depression increases the risk of being laid off when organisations downsize (health selection). Methods Two successive waves of the nationally representative Swedish Longitudin...

  11. Enduring health effects of asbestos use in Belgian industries: a record-linked cohort study of cause-specific mortality (2001-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2015-06-24

    To investigate cause-specific mortality among asbestos workers and potentially exposed workers in Belgium and evaluate potential excess in mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. This cohort study is based on an individual record linkage between the 1991 Belgian census and cause-specific mortality information for Flanders and Brussels (2001-2009). Belgium (Flanders and Brussels region). The study population consists of 1,397,699 male workers (18-65,years) with 72,074 deaths between 1 October 2001 and 31 December 2009. Using a classification of high-risk industries, mortality patterns between 2056 asbestos workers, 385,046 potentially exposed workers and the working population have been compared. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs are calculated for manual and non-manual workers. Our findings show clear excess in asbestos-related mortality in the asbestos industry with SMRs for mesothelioma of 4071 (CI 2327 to 6611) among manual workers and of 4489 (CI 1458 to 10,476) among non-manual workers. Excess risks in asbestos-related mortality are also found in the chemical industry, the construction industry, the electrical generation and distribution industry, the basic metals manufacturing industry, the metal products manufacturing industry, the railroad industry, and the shipping industry. Oral cancer mortality is significantly higher for asbestos workers (SMR 383; CI 124 to 894), railroad workers (SMR 192; CI 112 to 308), shipping workers (SMR 172; CI 102 to 271) and construction workers (SMR 125; CI 100 to 153), indicating a possible association with occupational asbestos exposure. Workers in all four industries have elevated mortality rates for cancer of the mouth. Only construction workers experience significantly higher pharyngeal cancer mortality (SMR 151; CI 104 to 212). The study identifies vulnerable groups of Belgian asbestos workers, demonstrating the current-day health repercussions of historical asbestos use

  12. Enduring health effects of asbestos use in Belgian industries: a record-linked cohort study of cause-specific mortality (2001–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate cause-specific mortality among asbestos workers and potentially exposed workers in Belgium and evaluate potential excess in mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. Design This cohort study is based on an individual record linkage between the 1991 Belgian census and cause-specific mortality information for Flanders and Brussels (2001–2009). Setting Belgium (Flanders and Brussels region). Participants The study population consists of 1 397 699 male workers (18–65 years) with 72 074 deaths between 1 October 2001 and 31 December 2009. Using a classification of high-risk industries, mortality patterns between 2056 asbestos workers, 385 046 potentially exposed workers and the working population have been compared. Outcome measures Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs are calculated for manual and non-manual workers. Results Our findings show clear excess in asbestos-related mortality in the asbestos industry with SMRs for mesothelioma of 4071 (CI 2327 to 6611) among manual workers and of 4489 (CI 1458 to 10 476) among non-manual workers. Excess risks in asbestos-related mortality are also found in the chemical industry, the construction industry, the electrical generation and distribution industry, the basic metals manufacturing industry, the metal products manufacturing industry, the railroad industry, and the shipping industry. Oral cancer mortality is significantly higher for asbestos workers (SMR 383; CI 124 to 894), railroad workers (SMR 192; CI 112 to 308), shipping workers (SMR 172; CI 102 to 271) and construction workers (SMR 125; CI 100 to 153), indicating a possible association with occupational asbestos exposure. Workers in all four industries have elevated mortality rates for cancer of the mouth. Only construction workers experience significantly higher pharyngeal cancer mortality (SMR 151; CI 104 to 212). Conclusions The study identifies vulnerable groups of Belgian asbestos

  13. More on the Cause-Effect Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Jerzy A.

    2007-06-01

    Does every event have a cause? An answer is not simple. The notion of cause contains a particular being y acting on being x plus everything that may be called the boundary conditions. These may form necessary and suffcient conditions giving rise to a strong cause, or only necessary conditions, giving rise to a weak cause. These matters are discussed in this article with particular attention being paid to the argumentation of Thomas Aquinas known as prima via. Prima via is the analysis of a cause-effect sequence which leads (according to Thomas) to a First Cause (First Mover). It seems that the extrapolation of the cause-effect sequence to infinity is permissible from the logical point of view. But the possibility of weak causes seems to destroy the cause-effect "line". Here it is perhaps useful to "escape" to the metaphysical abstraction which looks at things sub ratione entitatis. If we ignore space and time (which is characteristic of this abstraction) we are led to believe that the IS of cause is finally unavoidable, which means that from the vantage point of this abstraction, i.e. from the point of view of IS, all causes are strong.

  14. The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

    Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…

  15. Health Effects of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resulting health effects. Extreme weather events due to climate change may cause people to experience geographic displacement, damage to their property, loss of loved ones, and chronic stress—all of which can negatively affect ... change may be associated with staple food shortages, malnutrition, ...

  16. Health Risks Caused by Particulate Emission During Laser Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Roman; Barcikowski, St.; Marczak, J.; Ostendorf, A.; Strzelec, M.; Walter, J.

    Air contaminants which emerge during laser ablation often cause health risks if released in the workplace and decrease laser cleaning efficiency if redeposited at the material surface. In addition, ultra-fine particles are generated if short pulses are applied. Consequently, a description of the nano-particle aerosol generation and the influence of laser parameters and material surface on the nano-particle size distribution are given in this paper. The high respirability of such particles can pose health risks, so suitable capture systems near the processing zone or personal protective equipment such as respiratory masks are required.

  17. Fundamental causes of health disparities: stratification, the welfare state, and health in the United States and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2007-09-01

    Research has established that those with higher social status have better health. Less is known about whether this relationship differs cross-nationally and whether it operates similarly across different institutional arrangements. To examine the relationship between stratification and health, two Western, industrialized societies at opposite ends of an equal/unequal continuum are compared: the United States and Iceland. Using data from the 1998 General Social Survey and the 1998 Health and Living Standards of Adult Icelanders survey, I draw from two theoretical perspectives. First, I explore the notion of fundamental causes of disease by examining whether stratification has similar effects on health. Second, I examine whether the organization of welfare states affects this relationship. The results show that education, employment, and relative poverty have similar effects on health in both nations, thus supporting the notion of a fundamental cause. However in Iceland relative affluence has a weaker relationship with health. Further, being a parent, regardless of marital status, has a stronger positive relationship with good health in Iceland. Welfare state intervention may be most successful in equalizing health outcomes by supporting families and by removing advantages traditionally accumulated by the wealthy in capitalist societies.

  18. Space storms and radiation causes and effects

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Carolus J

    2010-01-01

    Heliophysics is a fast-developing scientific discipline that integrates studies of the Sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and the environment and climate of planets. The Sun is a magnetically variable star and for planets with intrinsic magnetic fields, planets with atmospheres, or planets like Earth with both, there are profound consequences. This 2010 volume, the second in this series of three heliophysics texts, integrates the many aspects of space storms and the energetic radiation associated with them - from causes on the Sun to effects in planetary environments. It reviews t

  19. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: CONCEPTS CAUSES AND EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Some people made a wrong concept about Business Process Reengineering (BPR. Some were misunderstanding about the BPR term. In other way, so many researches were introduced to describe a better definition about BPR. The thinking about concepts, causes, and effect of BPR will make a new perception about the term of BPR itself as a better methodology instead of the other Quality Management Methodology such as Total Quality Management (TQM, Just In Time (JIT, etc. This paper will mention the context of BPR in some of case study's journal.

  20. CAUSE AND EFFECT IN PROMOTING A PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERIAN-VLĂDUȚ IACOB

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For a project to be considered successful it is necessary, besides a proper coordination, to be also done a good and wide promotion. In view of communication, promotion and maintenance ensures the organization's image. Disturbances occurring in any type of project, as a result of poor promotion, affect the image of the team and highlight the weaknesses in its management. Therefore, the promotion should be permanently monitored and evaluated. Cause-effect analysis is one of the ways we can identify some of nonconformities of the promotion process within a project.

  1. Health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The clearest effect to be seen to date is the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in children. The evidence for increased leukaemia is less clear, but there are indications of increased leukaemia incidence in Russian clean-up workers. There is also evidence of increases in breast cancer, cataract and cardiovascular disease. However, to date the largest public health problem caused by the accident is the mental health impact.

  2. Social inequalities in causes of death amenable to health care in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Hem

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate if there are educational inequalities in causes of death considered amenable to health care in Norway and compare this with non-amenable causes. Methods: The study used the concept of “amenable mortality”, which here includes 34 specific causes of death. A linked data file, with information from the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry and the Educational Registry was analyzed. The study population included the whole Norwegian population in two age groups of interest (25-49 and 50-74 years. Information on deaths was from the period 1990-2001. Education was recorded in 1990 and it was grouped in four categories as: basic, lower secondary, higher secondary and higher. In the study men and women were analysed seperately. The analysis was conducted for all amenable causes pooled with and without ischemic heart disease. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was fitted to estimate hazard rate ratios. Results: The study showed educational differences in mortality from causes of death considered amenable to health care, in both age groups and sexes. This was seen both when including and excluding ischemic heart disease. The effect sizes were comparable for amenable and non-amenable causes in both age groups and sexes. Conclusions: This study revealed systematic higher risk of death in lower educational groups in causes of death considered amenable to health care. This indicates potential weaknesses in equitable provision of health care for the Norwegian population. Additional research is needed to identify domains within the health care system of particular concern.

  3. BUDGET AMENDMENT – CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA ISPAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes both the causes and effects of budget amendment in Romania, taking into account the Fiscal Budget Responsibility Law. Reduction by 5% of the CSI payable by the employer from the 1st of October 2014 should be necessarily accompanied by a reform of the social security system, starting from the principle of equal treatment of taxpayers irrespective of their type of income and the elaboration and implementation of a medium-term strategy for financially rebalancing the social security budgets, especially the pensions' budget. Such a strategy should aim to increase the number of taxpayers, in particular by reducing "black" labor, and ensure a total transparency of budget expenditures as a whole in order to stimulate the growth of voluntary compliance to payment of taxes.

  4. [Allergies, an increasing public health problem: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weck, A

    2000-01-01

    Allergies due to IgE immunoglobulins and belonging to the atopic syndrome, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema have increased in prevalence three times during the past 20-30 years in most industrialized countries. The causes of that increase are still much debated but seem to be related to multiple changes in the environment. Our recent studies on dog atopy indicate that the interaction of a dominant gene responsible for high IgE production but with variable expression, according to several environmental factors acting during infancy, could explain observations made in man. Allergic diseases have become an important portion of public health costs, amounting to approximately 200 billions French Francs in the European Community. Early and adequate care for the about 20% of allergic patients which are severely affected, as well setting up a systematic prevention policy would have a moderating influence on the increasing costs, and would achieve improvements in the quality of life of allergic patients. Appropriate measures include fostering medical and political awareness about the problem's urgency, the formation of an appropriate body of specialists and an Allergological education at all levels, as well as the definition of a screening and care providing policy taking in account existing medical structures.

  5. [Health effects of electromagnetic fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Use of electricity causes extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and wireless communication devices emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Average ELF-MF exposure is mainly determined by high voltage power lines and transformers at home or at the workplace, whereas RF-EMF exposure is mainly caused by devices operating close to the body (mainly mobile and cordless phones). Health effects of EMF are controversially discussed. The IARC classified ELF-MF and RF-EMF as possible carcinogenic. Most consistent epidemiological evidence was found for an association between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. If causal, 1 - 4 percent of all childhood leukaemia cases could be attributed to ELF-MF. Epidemiological research provided some indications for an association between ELF-MF and Alzheimer's diseases as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although not entirely consistent. Regarding mobile phones and brain tumours, some studies observed an increased risk after heavy or long term use on the one hand. On the other hand, brain tumour incidence was not found to have increased in the last decade in Sweden, England or the US. Acute effects of RF-EMF on non-specific symptoms of ill health seem unlikely according to randomized and double blind provocation studies. However, epidemiological research on long term effects is still limited. Although from the current state of the scientific knowledge a large individual health risk from RF-EMF exposure is unlikely, even a small risk would have substantial public health relevance because of the widespread use of wireless communication technologies.

  6. [Mortality by cause. The trends demand changes in the health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas Elizalde, R; Fernandez Ham, P

    1994-01-01

    Three significant recent trends in Mexican mortality are the decline in deaths due to large groups of causes, the increasing proportion of deaths due to nontransmissible causes, and the convergence of state mortality rates. The World Bank has proposed a classification of causes of death into three large groups according to the type of intervention required to reduce them: transmissible, maternal, and perinatal; nontransmissible; and accidents and injuries. The first group concentrates disorders susceptible to reduction with low cost and highly effective interventions such as vaccines and sanitary measures, generally available at the primary level of care. The nontransmissible disorders include chronic degenerative diseases requiring more expensive and prolonged treatment corresponding to the second and third levels of care and implying lifestyle changes. Injuries and accidents are potentially preventable through specific programs of the health system. The proportion of Mexican deaths due to nontransmissible causes increased from 53.4% in 1979 to 67.8% in 1992. Five of the ten main causes of death are nontransmissible: heart disease, malignant tumors, cerebrovascular diseases, cirrhosis, and diabetes mellitus. The increased proportion of deaths due to nontransmissible diseases is a consequence of the rapid decline in deaths from transmissible causes. Deaths due to transmissible causes declined by 47.5% between 1979 and 1992. Increased educational levels, potable water and sewage services, increased vaccination coverage and similar interventions contributed to mortality decline in the least developed regions. The greatest mortality gains were in the areas with the highest initial rates, which helped to homogenize state mortality rates. Among transmissible diseases, diarrhea and pneumonia and influenza dropped from first and second to tenth and eighth place, respectively. In 1992, only Chiapas and Oaxaca maintained mortality rates significantly higher than the rest of

  7. Fatigue in traffic : causes and effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The role of fatigue must not be underestimated when studying the causes of crashes. Crashes in which driver fatigue plays a role are not only a matter of having spent too long behind the wheel; fatigue can also be caused by too little sleep, stress, or the time of the day. According to a conservativ

  8. Systematic review of emergency department crowding: causes, effects, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, Nathan R; Aronsky, Dominik

    2008-08-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding represents an international crisis that may affect the quality and access of health care. We conducted a comprehensive PubMed search to identify articles that (1) studied causes, effects, or solutions of ED crowding; (2) described data collection and analysis methodology; (3) occurred in a general ED setting; and (4) focused on everyday crowding. Two independent reviewers identified the relevant articles by consensus. We applied a 5-level quality assessment tool to grade the methodology of each study. From 4,271 abstracts and 188 full-text articles, the reviewers identified 93 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 33 articles studied causes, 27 articles studied effects, and 40 articles studied solutions of ED crowding. Commonly studied causes of crowding included nonurgent visits, "frequent-flyer" patients, influenza season, inadequate staffing, inpatient boarding, and hospital bed shortages. Commonly studied effects of crowding included patient mortality, transport delays, treatment delays, ambulance diversion, patient elopement, and financial effect. Commonly studied solutions of crowding included additional personnel, observation units, hospital bed access, nonurgent referrals, ambulance diversion, destination control, crowding measures, and queuing theory. The results illustrated the complex, multifaceted characteristics of the ED crowding problem. Additional high-quality studies may provide valuable contributions toward better understanding and alleviating the daily crisis. This structured overview of the literature may help to identify future directions for the crowding research agenda.

  9. Use of verbal autopsy in a national health information system: Effects of the investigation of ill-defined causes of death on proportional mortality due to injury in small municipalities in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Maria de Fátima M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mortality Information System (MIS in Brazil records mortality data in hospitals and civil registries with the responsibility of compiling underlying cause of death. Despite continuous improvements in the MIS, some areas still maintain a high proportion of deaths assigned to ill-defined causes. Deaths coded to this category have most likely been considered as miscoded deaths from communicable and noncommunicable diseases. However, some local studies have provided evidence of underreporting of injury in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate ill-defined causes of death using the verbal autopsy (VA method to estimate injury-specific mortality fraction in small municipalities in northeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods A sample size of reported death certificates with ill-defined conditions in a random sample of 10 municipalities was obtained, and then trained interviewers questioned family members using a standardized VA questionnaire to elicit information on symptoms experienced by the deceased before death. All attempts were made to collect existing information about the disease or death using health facilities records. Probable causes of death were assigned by a physician after review of the completed questionnaires following rules of the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results Of 202 eligible ill-defined deaths, 151 were investigated using the VA methodology, and 12.6% had injury as the underlying cause of death. The proportional mortality fraction from injury among all causes of death increases from 4.4% to 8.2% after investigation. Different specific injury category causes were observed between recorded injury causes and those detected by VA. Drowning was the top specific injury cause detected after investigation. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the use of VA in the investigation of registered ill-defined conditions in an existing MIS can furnish

  10. Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston; Beck, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, non-nutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, herbs, nuts and seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulfur compounds, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and soluble fibre, contains a host of active phytochemicals. Clinical trials have not yet been able to demonstrate the same protective effects from taking supplements. It is difficult to estimate how many Canadians achieve an adequate level of consumption, but it seems reasonable to assume that many Canadians could benefit from substantially increasing their intake of vegetables and fruit.

  11. Perceived Health System Causes of Obstetric Fistula from Accounts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of Affected Women in Rural Tanzania: A Qualitative Study. 1*. Lilian T. Mselle and. 2. Thecla W. Kohi. 1Department of Clinical Nursing, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box ..... and maternal deaths and disabilities.

  12. Psychological Health of the Youth Cause for Concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; HUA

    2002-01-01

    ON February 23, 2002, astudent named LiuHaiyang from TsinghuaUniversity threw vitriolover the black bears on Bear Hillin Beijing Zoo, causing seriousand extensive burns to one, andcompletely blinding another. Liu

  13. Evaluating Public Health Interventions: 5. Causal Inference in Public Health Research-Do Sex, Race, and Biological Factors Cause Health Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glymour, M Maria; Spiegelman, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Counterfactual frameworks and statistical methods for supporting causal inference are powerful tools to clarify scientific questions and guide analyses in public health research. Counterfactual accounts of causation contrast what would happen to a population's health under alternative exposure scenarios. A long-standing debate in counterfactual theory relates to whether sex, race, and biological characteristics, including obesity, should be evaluated as causes, given that these variables do not directly correspond to clearly defined interventions. We argue that sex, race, and biological characteristics are important health determinants. Quantifying the overall health effects of these variables is often a natural starting point for disparities research. Subsequent assessments of biological or social pathways mediating those effects can facilitate the development of interventions designed to reduce disparities.

  14. Commodity Price Volatility: Causes, Effects and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mugera, Harriet Kasidi

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural commodities experienced substantial increases in prices over the most recent decade with major surges in both 2007-08 and again in 2010-11. These price movements coincided with sharp rises in energy prices, in particular crude oil. Sharp increases in agricultural prices were not uncommon, but it is the short period between the recent two price surges that has drawn concerns and raised questions. What were the causes of the increase in world agricultural prices and what are the pr...

  15. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272

  16. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 267-272

  17. [Haematological adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2008-01-01

    Almost all clases of psychiatric drugs (typical and atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines) have been reported as possible causes of haematological toxicity. This is a review of the literature in which different clinical situations involving red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and impaired coagulation are detailed and the drugs more frequently involved are listed. The haematological adverse reactions detailed here include: aplastic anemia, haemolitic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, disordered platelet function and impaired coagulation. The haematologic toxicity profile of the drugs more frequently involved: lithium, clozapine, carbamazepine, valproic acid and SSRI antidepressants is mentioned.

  18. A global health problem caused by arsenic from natural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Shraim, A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen to both humans and animals. Arsenicals have been associated with cancers of the skin, lung, and bladder. Clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic poisoning include non-cancer end point of hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, keratosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Epidemiological evidence indicates that arsenic concentration exceeding 50 {mu}g l{sup -1} in the drinking water is not public health protective. The current WHO recommended guideline value for arsenic in drinking water is 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}, whereas many developing countries are still having a value of 50 {mu}g 1{sup -1}. It has been estimated that tens of millions of people are at risk exposing to excessive levels of arsenic from both contaminated water and arsenic-bearing coal from natural sources. The global health implication and possible intervention strategies were also discussed in this review article.

  19. Effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Mathew; Melancon, Jim; Sneed, Demarcus; Nunning, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Currently, heart disease and diabetes dominate society as the leading cause of death for Americans. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a lifestyle enhancement program on factors related to the development of heart disease. The Wabash Valley Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) is a community-based lifestyle change program with…

  20. Downsizing of a provincial department of health--causes and implications for fiscal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Mark

    2002-06-01

    To analyse the financial basis for downsizing of a provincial health department and suggest implications for fiscal policy. Analysis of relevant departmental, provincial and national financing and expenditure trends from 1995/96 to 2002/03. Western Cape (WC) Department of Health (DOH). Downsizing involving 9,282 health workers (27.9%) and closure of 3,601 hospital beds (24.4%) over 5 years. Total aggregate provincial transfers (all provinces) remained fairly constant in real terms. The WC's share decreased from 11.8% in 1996/97 to 9.8% in 2002/03. This was offset by the DOH's share of the WC budget increasing from 25.6% to 29.6%, mainly because of an increase in national health conditional grants. The net effect of financing changes was that the DOH's allocation in real terms was similar in 2002/03 and 1995/96, which suggests that financing changes are not the major cause of downsizing. Expenditure analysis revealed a 39.7% real rise in the average cost of health personnel. Substantial interprovincial inequities remain. The major cause of downsizing was wage growth, particularly following the 1996 wage agreement. Disjointed fiscal and wage policy has affected health services. Simultaneous application of policies of fiscal constraint, redistribution and substantial real wage growth has resulted in substantial downsizing with limited inroads into inequities. Inequities will continue to call for further redistribution, reduction in conditional grants and downsizing, much of which could have been avoided if fiscal and wage policy choices had been optimal.

  1. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  2. An overview of health effects on noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Although noise can damage the inner ear and cause other pathological changes, its most common negative effects are non-somatic, such as a perception of noisiness and disturbance of daily activities. According to the definition of health by WHO, this should be considered as a health hazard. These health effects of noise can be classified into the following three categories: (I) hearing loss, perception of noisiness and masking are produced along the auditory pathway and are thus direct and specific effects of noise; (II) interference with performance, rest and sleep, a feeling of discomfort and some physiological effects are produced as indirect and non-specific effects via reticular formation of the midbrain; (III) annoyance is not merely a feeling of unpleasantness but the feeling of being bothered or troubled, and includes the development of a particular attitude toward the noise source. Individual or group behavioral responses will be evoked when annoyance develops. Annoyance and behavioral response are integrated and composite effects. The health effects of noise are modified by many factors related to both the noise and the individual. Noise level, frequency spectrum, duration and impulsiveness modify the effects. Sex, age, health status and mental character also have an influence on the effects. Direct effects of noise are most dependent on the physical nature of the noise and least dependent on human factors. Indirect effects are more dependent, and integrated effects most dependent, on human factors.

  3. Technostress in Libraries: Causes, Effects and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichteler, Julie

    1987-01-01

    Examines some of the fears, frustrations, and misconceptions of library staff and patrons that hamper the effective use of computers in libraries. Strategies that library administrators could use to alleviate stress are outlined, including staff participation in the automation process, well-designed workstations, and adequate training for staff…

  4. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  5. Contextual dissonance effects: nature and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M

    1977-08-01

    Contextual consonance or dissonance refers to the concordance of, or the discrepancy between, the individual's social characteristics and those of the population by which he is surrounded. Although a number of advantageous consequences have been shown to issue from contextual dissonance, self-esteem is not one of them. This article seeks to account for the deleterious effect of contextual dissonance on self-esteem by examining the nature of dissonant communications environments, dissonant cultural environments, and dissonant comparison reference groups.

  6. Risking Your Health : Causes, Consequences, and Interventions to Prevent Risky Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    de Walque, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Behaviors that pose risks for an individual’s health and that also represent important threats for public health, such as drug use, smoking, alcohol, unhealthy eating causing obesity, and unsafe sex, are highly prevalent in low income countries, even though they are traditionally associated with richer countries. Individual choices are an important part of the risky behaviors. Risking Your Health: Causes, Consequences, and Interventions to Prevent Risky Behaviors explore how those choices...

  7. Smoking is a cause of social inequality in health, but is social position is cause of smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    The paper by Hart and colleagues describes occupational class differences in cause specific mortality among women who had never smoked.1 In the accompanying commentary smoking is discussed as if it was a mediator of the relationship between social position and health.2 But the uptake of smoking...... will likely take place many years before the individual's own social position has formed. For example, this author moved into occupational class I at age 26, but ceased being a never smoker around age 14. A similar argument can be made for weight gains over the life course that, in the end, result in obesity...... (for an elaborate example of these misconceptions, see e.g. Mortensen et al.).3 I think this highlights the need for great caution when we apply prescriptive interpretations to descriptive studies. Smoking is a cause of social inequality in health: If smoking was eliminated social differences would...

  8. Smoking is a cause of social inequality in health, but is social position is cause of smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    The paper by Hart and colleagues describes occupational class differences in cause specific mortality among women who had never smoked.1 In the accompanying commentary smoking is discussed as if it was a mediator of the relationship between social position and health.2 But the uptake of smoking...... will likely take place many years before the individual's own social position has formed. For example, this author moved into occupational class I at age 26, but ceased being a never smoker around age 14. A similar argument can be made for weight gains over the life course that, in the end, result in obesity...... decrease. Also, social position is an important factor (causal or not) in smoking cessation. But one's own adult social position is likely not a terribly important cause of never smoking. (1) Hart CL, Gruer L, Watt GC. Cause specific mortality, social position, and obesity among women who had never smoked...

  9. Health Equity and the Fallacy of Treating Causes of Population Health as if They Sum to 100%

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Numerous examples exist in population health of work that erroneously forces the causes of health to sum to 100%. This is surprising. Clear refutations of this error extend back 80 years. Because public health analysis, action, and allocation of resources are ill served by faulty methods, I consider why this error persists. I first review several high-profile examples, including Doll and Peto’s 1981 opus on the causes of cancer and its current interpretations; a 2015 high-publicity article in Science claiming that two thirds of cancer is attributable to chance; and the influential Web site “County Health Rankings & Roadmaps: Building a Culture of Health, County by County,” whose model sums causes of health to equal 100%: physical environment (10%), social and economic factors (40%), clinical care (20%), and health behaviors (30%). Critical analysis of these works and earlier historical debates reveals that underlying the error of forcing causes of health to sum to 100% is the still dominant but deeply flawed view that causation can be parsed as nature versus nurture. Better approaches exist for tallying risk and monitoring efforts to reach health equity. PMID:28272952

  10. Polygamy and its Effect on Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polygamy is a form of marriage in which more than one gender involved in its institution. It's seen all around the world, being especially common in the Middle East, South Asia and Africa. Polygamy is a multidisciplinary subject with social, cultural, economic, political and religious aspects. Polygamy mainly has various effects on mental health of women and children. The objective of this article is to accomplish a review on the prevalence and causes of polygamy, studies conducted by various disciplines about the features of polygamic marriage institution and its effect on mental health. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 221-228

  11. A Qualitative Study of Bottlenecks and Causes of Fractions for Dedicated Incomes of Health Centers and Solutions for their Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Alidoost, Saeide; Abdolahi, Hossein Mashhadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary health care is one of effective approaches for improving public health. Providing optimal cares requires supplication of various resources such as financial resources. “Fractions of incomes” in health centers is one of the remarkable problems for the domain of financial resources management in Iran. This study was aimed to identify bottlenecks and causes of fractions for incomes in health centers and solutions for their reduction. Methods: The current study was conducted in a qualitative phenomenology method in East Azerbaijan province of Iran in 2014. Data collection method was focus group discussion and semi-structured interview. Purposive sampling was used for selecting participants. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted based on pre-prepared guidance and continued till data saturation. Validity of guidance was approved by qualitative studies experts. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Results: Based on the opinions of participants, two and six themes were respectively extracted for bottlenecks of fractions and causes and solutions for their reduction. Themes for bottlenecks of fractions included cash (monetary) and non-cash (non-monetary) fractions and themes for causes and solutions included causes and solutions for fractions per capita, insurance deductions, fractions related to sending documents, registration fractions, discounts fractions, and incomplete deposit of cash incomes. Conclusion: All cash and non-cash incomes of health centers are subject to fractions. The causes of fractions are related to the whole process of converting services to incomes and insurance requirements. Identified solutions and interventions also focus on these areas.

  12. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Porter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD, cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications.

  13. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kirsty; Hoey, Leane; Hughes, Catherine F; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene

    2016-11-16

    The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin) in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine) with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications.

  14. Health Effects of Noise Exposure in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Clark, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Environmental noise exposure, such as road traffic noise and aircraft noise, is associated with a range of health outcomes in children. Children demonstrate annoyance responses to noise, and noise is also related to lower well-being and stress responses, such as increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Noise does not cause more serious mental health problems, but there is growing evidence for an association with increased hyperactivity symptoms. Studies also suggest that noise might cause changes in cardiovascular functioning, and there is some limited evidence for an effect on low birth weight. There is robust evidence for an effect of school noise exposure on children's cognitive skills such as reading and memory, as well as on standardised academic test scores. Environmental noise does not usually reach levels that are likely to affect children's hearing; however, increasing use of personal electronic devices may leave some children exposed to harmful levels of noise.

  15. The Joint Effect of Sleep Duration and Disturbed Sleep on Cause-Specific Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kumari, Meena; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Both sleep duration and sleep quality are related to future health, but their combined effects on mortality are unsettled. We aimed to examine the individual and joint effects of sleep duration and sleep disturbances on cause-specific mortality in a large prospective cohort study....

  16. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  17. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  18. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects thousands... strides can be made by assessing the causes of gun violence and the successful efforts in place for...

  19. Noise Pollution and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geravandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Noise pollution is of particular importance due to the physical and psychological effects on humans. Noise is a stressor that affects the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Noise is also a threat to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Health risks from noise are correlated with road traffic. In other words, noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Objectives This study aims to determine the effect of noise pollution (near roadways on health issues in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, equivalent sound pressure level were measured by sound level meters TES-1353 in 75 locations around 4 roadways, which had a high load of traffic in Ahvaz City during day time. During the study, 820 measurements were recorded at measuring stations, for 7 days per week with 1-hour interval between each measurement. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS software. Results According to the research findings, the equivalent sound pressure levels in all stations were 76.28 ± 3.12 dB (Mean ± SD. According to sound measurements and the survey questionnaire, noise pollution is higher than EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency and Iran standard level. Based on result of this study the worst noise health effects were the nervousness and sleep quality during 2012. Conclusions According to the results of this study, with increasing load of traffic, there is an increasing need for proper consideration plans to control noise pollution and prevent its effects.

  20. Random safety auditing, root cause analysis, failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursprung, Robert; Gray, James

    2010-03-01

    Improving quality and safety in health care is a major concern for health care providers, the general public, and policy makers. Errors and quality issues are leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the health care industry. There is evidence that patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at high risk for serious medical errors. To facilitate compliance with safe practices, many institutions have established quality-assurance monitoring procedures. Three techniques that have been found useful in the health care setting are failure mode and effects analysis, root cause analysis, and random safety auditing. When used together, these techniques are effective tools for system analysis and redesign focused on providing safe delivery of care in the complex NICU system.

  1. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  2. Causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Thomsen, Sarah

    2012-08-11

    Inequities in health are a major challenge for health care planners and policymakers globally. In Vietnam, rapid societal development presents a considerable risk for disadvantaged populations to be left behind. The aim of this review is to map the known causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam in order to promote policy action. A review was performed through systematic searches of Pubmed and Proquest and manual searches of "grey literature." A thematic content analysis guided by the conceptual framework suggested by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health was performed. More than thirty different causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health were identified. Some determinants worth highlighting were the influence of informal fees and the many testimonies of discrimination and negative attitudes from health staff towards women in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Research gaps were identified, such as a lack of studies investigating the influence of education on health care utilization, informal costs of care, and how psychosocial factors mediate inequity. The evidence of corruption and discrimination as mediators of health inequity in Vietnam calls for attention and indicates a need for more structural interventions such as better governance and anti-discriminatory laws. More research is needed in order to fully understand the pathways of inequities in health in Vietnam and suggest areas for intervention for policy action to reach disadvantaged populations.

  3. Causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Inequities in health are a major challenge for health care planners and policymakers globally. In Vietnam, rapid societal development presents a considerable risk for disadvantaged populations to be left behind. The aim of this review is to map the known causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam in order to promote policy action. Methods A review was performed through systematic searches of Pubmed and Proquest and manual searches of “grey literature.” A thematic content analysis guided by the conceptual framework suggested by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health was performed. Results More than thirty different causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health were identified. Some determinants worth highlighting were the influence of informal fees and the many testimonies of discrimination and negative attitudes from health staff towards women in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Research gaps were identified, such as a lack of studies investigating the influence of education on health care utilization, informal costs of care, and how psychosocial factors mediate inequity. Conclusions The evidence of corruption and discrimination as mediators of health inequity in Vietnam calls for attention and indicates a need for more structural interventions such as better governance and anti-discriminatory laws. More research is needed in order to fully understand the pathways of inequities in health in Vietnam and suggest areas for intervention for policy action to reach disadvantaged populations. PMID:22883138

  4. How Thailand's greater convergence created sustainable funding for emerging health priorities caused by globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naowarut Charoenca

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global health is shifting gradually from a limited focus on individual communicable disease goals to the formulation of broader sustainable health development goals. A major impediment to this shift is that most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs have not established adequate sustainable funding for health promotion and health infrastructure. Objective: In this article, we analyze how Thailand, a middle-income country, created a mechanism for sustainable funding for health. Design: We analyzed the progression of tobacco control and health promotion policies over the past three decades within the wider political-economic and sociocultural context. We constructed a parallel longitudinal analysis of statistical data on one emerging priority – road accidents – to determine whether policy shifts resulted in reduced injuries, hospitalizations and deaths. Results: In Thailand, the convergence of priorities among national interest groups for sustainable health development created an opportunity to use domestic tax policy and to create a semi-autonomous foundation (ThaiHealth to address a range of pressing health priorities, including programs that substantially reduced road accidents. Conclusions: Thailand's strategic process to develop a domestic mechanism for sustainable funding for health may provide LMICs with a roadmap to address emerging health priorities, especially those caused by modernization and globalization.

  5. How Thailand's greater convergence created sustainable funding for emerging health priorities caused by globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenca, Naowarut; Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Mock, Jeremiah; Hamann, Stephen; Vathesatogkit, Prakit

    2015-01-01

    Global health is shifting gradually from a limited focus on individual communicable disease goals to the formulation of broader sustainable health development goals. A major impediment to this shift is that most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not established adequate sustainable funding for health promotion and health infrastructure. In this article, we analyze how Thailand, a middle-income country, created a mechanism for sustainable funding for health. We analyzed the progression of tobacco control and health promotion policies over the past three decades within the wider political-economic and sociocultural context. We constructed a parallel longitudinal analysis of statistical data on one emerging priority - road accidents - to determine whether policy shifts resulted in reduced injuries, hospitalizations and deaths. In Thailand, the convergence of priorities among national interest groups for sustainable health development created an opportunity to use domestic tax policy and to create a semi-autonomous foundation (ThaiHealth) to address a range of pressing health priorities, including programs that substantially reduced road accidents. Thailand's strategic process to develop a domestic mechanism for sustainable funding for health may provide LMICs with a roadmap to address emerging health priorities, especially those caused by modernization and globalization.

  6. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  7. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzermans, C.J.; Donker, G.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aim: We are involved in research on the possible health effects of three disasters in the Netherlands: a plane crash in an Amsterdam neighbourhood, the explosion of a firework factory in the city of Enschede and a fire in a discotheque in Volendam. Which methodologies were used and

  8. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: We carry out prospective, longitudinal studies on the possible health effects of two disasters in the Netherlands: the explosion of fireworks depot in a residential area (Enschede) and a fire in discotheque in Volendam. Learning from the chaotic aftermath previous disasters, the Dutch g

  9. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzermans, C.J.; Donker, G.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aim: We are involved in research on the possible health effects of three disasters in the Netherlands: a plane crash in an Amsterdam neighbourhood, the explosion of a firework factory in the city of Enschede and a fire in a discotheque in Volendam. Which methodologies were used and wh

  10. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  11. Intelligence: is it the epidemiologists' elusive "fundamental cause" of social class inequalities in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S

    2004-01-01

    Virtually all indicators of physical health and mental competence favor persons of higher socioeconomic status (SES). Conventional theories in the social sciences assume that the material disadvantages of lower SES are primarily responsible for these inequalities, either directly or by inducing psychosocial harm. These theories cannot explain, however, why the relation between SES and health outcomes (knowledge, behavior, morbidity, and mortality) is not only remarkably general across time, place, disease, and kind of health system but also so finely graded up the entire SES continuum. Epidemiologists have therefore posited, but not yet identified, a more general "fundamental cause" of health inequalities. This article concatenates various bodies of evidence to demonstrate that differences in general intelligence (g) may be that fundamental cause.

  12. Analysis on Causes and Countermeasures of Bullwhip Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dai Jianhua; Li Shibiao; Peng Shengbo

    2017-01-01

    Bullwhip effect is an inevitable phenomenon in supply chain management, because of its objective existence. This phenomenon is very common and harmful to make the operating costs of enterprises double and become one of the main concerns of many enterprises. In this paper, the causes of the bullwhip effect are explored through the methods of literature research and investigated consultation to weaken the bullwhip effect. This paper analyzes the key countermeasures with Wal-Mart successful logi...

  13. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  14. From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum Fran E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues

  15. Removal of health hazards causing acidic dyes from aqueous solutions by the process of adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanjit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of dyes, particularly acidic dyes with health related problems is not a new phenomenon. A lot of well established literature is already available on the role of dyes as a major cause in skin and respiratory diseases. The adsorbents which are of low cost, locally available and are relatively new for their acidic dyes removal capacity from aqueous solutions were investigated. Bagasse, cow dung, groundnut shells, pea shells, used tea leaves, wheat straw were used in their charcoal form whereas brick kiln ash and cement kiln ash adsorbents were used as such for the removal of acid violet 17, acid violet 49, acid violet 54, acid blue 15 and acid red 119. The effects of various experimental parameters, initial pH, dye concentration, sorbent dosage, ion strength, contact time were examined and optimal experimental conditions were decided. At initial basic pH more than 8.0, all the five dyes studied could be removed effectively. The isothermal data for adsorption followed the Freundlich and Langmuir models. The adsorption results in this study indicated that all the adsorbents were attractive candidates for removing acidic dyes from dye wastewater.

  16. Fluency and positivity as possible causes of the truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Bayer, Myriam; Alves, Hans; Koch, Alex; Stahl, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    Statements' rated truth increases when people encounter them repeatedly. Processing fluency is a central variable to explain this truth effect. However, people experience processing fluency positively, and these positive experiences might cause the truth effect. Three studies investigated positivity and fluency influences on the truth effect. Study 1 found correlations between elicited positive feelings and rated truth. Study 2 replicated the repetition-based truth effect, but positivity did not influence the effect. Study 3 conveyed positive and negative correlations between positivity and truth in a learning phase. We again replicated the truth effect, but positivity only influenced judgments for easy statements in the learning phase. Thus, across three studies, we found positivity effects on rated truth, but not on the repetition-based truth effect: We conclude that positivity does not explain the standard truth effect, but the role of positive experiences for truth judgments deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    The effects of REM deprivation on electrodermal - activity in human sleep . In Weitzman ED (ed): Adv Sleep Res 2:164-176, 1976. 21. Baust W, Moppeney H...and health consequences of total, selective, and partial sleep loss were documented in this paper by examining adrenimedullary activity ...kinds of sleep loss on the functional integrity of the human organism. The factors discussed include: adrenomedullary activity , adrenocortical activ - ity

  18. Quantifying nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TerHorst, Casey P; Lau, Jennifer A; Cooper, Idelle A; Keller, Kane R; La Rosa, Raffica J; Royer, Anne M; Schultheis, Elizabeth H; Suwa, Tomomi; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2015-09-01

    In natural biological communities, species interact with many other species. Multiple species interactions can lead to indirect ecological effects that have important fitness consequences and can cause nonadditive patterns of natural selection. Given that indirect ecological effects are common in nature, nonadditive selection may also be quite common. As a result, quantifying nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects may be critical for understanding adaptation in natural communities composed of many interacting species. We describe how to quantify the relative strength of nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects compared to the strength of pairwise selection. We develop a clear method for testing for nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects and consider how it might affect adaptation in multispecies communities. We use two case studies to illustrate how our method can be applied to empirical data sets. Our results suggest that nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects may be common in nature. Our hope is that trait-based approaches, combined with multifactorial experiments, will result in more estimates of nonadditive selection that reveal the relative importance of indirect ecological effects for evolution in a community context.

  19. Algorithms for enhancing public health utility of national causes-of-death data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmalek Farshad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coverage and quality of cause-of-death (CoD data varies across countries and time. Valid, reliable, and comparable assessments of trends in causes of death from even the best systems are limited by three problems: a changes in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD over time; b the use of tabulation lists where substantial detail on causes of death is lost; and c many deaths assigned to causes that cannot or should not be considered underlying causes of death, often called garbage codes (GCs. The Global Burden of Disease Study and the World Health Organization have developed various methods to enhance comparability of CoD data. In this study, we attempt to build on these approaches to enhance the utility of national cause-of-death data for public health analysis. Methods Based on careful consideration of 4,434 country-years of CoD data from 145 countries from 1901 to 2008, encompassing 743 million deaths in ICD versions 1 to 10 as well as country-specific cause lists, we have developed a public health-oriented cause-of-death list. These 56 causes are organized hierarchically and encompass all deaths. Each cause has been mapped from ICD-6 to ICD-10 and, where possible, they have also been mapped to the International List of Causes of Death 1-5. We developed a typology of different classes of GCs. In each ICD revision, GCs have been identified. Target causes to which these GCs should be redistributed have been identified based on certification practice and/or pathophysiology. Proportionate redistribution, statistical models, and expert algorithms have been developed to redistribute GCs to target codes for each age-sex group. Results The fraction of all deaths assigned to GCs varies tremendously across countries and revisions of the ICD. In general, across all country-years of data available, GCs have declined from more than 43% in ICD-7 to 24% in ICD-10. In some regions, such

  20. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the effects of global climate change are of growing concerns in Ethiopia. ... air pollution and health, occupational health and safety and climate change and health. Methods: The methods used in this work include a systematic review of ...

  1. Health impact caused by exposure to particulate matter in the air of Tehran in the past decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kermani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution, especially the phenomenon of dust and particulate matter can cause mortality of many civilians, and causes various diseases including cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. One of the major pollutants in the air is particulate matter that concentration has increased over recent years. So, present study with aim of Quantification Health Endpoints Attributed to particulate matter in Tehran, Capital of Iran during the past decade (2005-2014 by AirQ software, version 2.2.3 (WHO European Centre for Environment and Health was performed. Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytic investigation. The process of performance this study lasted 12 months. Subject of this the study and research was in Environmental Health Engineering Department of Iran University of Medical Sciences. Exact data of every hour pollutants were taken from Department of environmental (DOE Islamic Republic Iran and Air Quality Control Company of Tehran. Then validated according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines and Statistical parameters for quantifying health effects were calculated in excel software. Finally, assessment of cases total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality and cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease, with AirQ software was performed. Results: The results of this study showed that the number of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality and respiratory mortality caused by exposure to Particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10 in the past decade is 11776, 12121 and 33066 cases respectively. Also the total number of hospital admission due to cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease in the past decade is 20990 and 54352 cases in 2005-2014 years. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, during the last decade the level of air pollution and Concentration of pollutants in Tehran Increased. Effects and health consequences due to exposure to Particulate matter smaller than 10

  2. Causes, Spectrum and Effects of Surgical Child Abuse and Neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes, Spectrum and Effects of Surgical Child Abuse and Neglect in a Nigerian City. ... where they are not protected against child abuse; many die as a result of denial of appropriate treatment. ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajm.v28i5.55009.

  3. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Rosell, Magdalena S

    2006-02-01

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  4. Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    -income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health......-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Methods We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through...... the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks...

  5. Estimated causes of death in Thailand, 2005: implications for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos Theo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost 400,000 deaths are registered each year in Thailand. Their value for public health policy and planning is greatly diminished by incomplete registration of deaths and by concerns about the quality of cause-of-death information. This arises from misclassification of specified causes of death, particularly in hospitals, as well as from extensive use of ill-defined and vague codes to attribute the underlying cause of death. Detailed investigations of a sample of deaths in and out of hospital were carried out to identify misclassification of causes and thus derive a best estimate of national mortality patterns by age, sex, and cause of death. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11,984 deaths in 2005 was selected, and verbal autopsy interviews were conducted for almost 10,000 deaths. Verbal autopsy procedures were validated against 2,558 cases for which medical record review was possible. Misclassification matrices for leading causes of death, including ill-defined causes, were developed separately for deaths inside and outside of hospitals and proportionate mortality distributions constructed. Estimates of mortality undercount were derived from "capture-recapture" methods applied to the 2005-06 Survey of Population Change. Proportionate mortality distributions were applied to this mortality "envelope" and ill-defined causes redistributed according to Global Burden of Disease methods to yield final estimates of mortality levels and patterns in 2005. Results Estimated life expectancy in Thailand in 2005 was 68.5 years for males and 75.6 years for females, two years lower than vital registration data suggest. Upon correction, stroke is the leading cause of death in Thailand (10.7%, followed by ischemic heart disease (7.8% and HIV/AIDS (7.4%. Other leading causes are road traffic accidents (males and diabetes mellitus (females. In many cases, estimated mortality is at least twice what is estimated in vital

  6. Man-made mineral fibre boards in buildings--health risks caused by quality deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B; Sobottka, A; Willer, H; Weidhase, J

    1996-11-01

    The Institute of Hygiene was requested to determine causes and scope of health complaints made by the employees of Haldensleben district administration after sound absorbing mineral fibre boards had been installed as suspended ceilings. The boards were coated with a lean water-carried paint; however, the edges, which were partially frayed, were not coated. The air inside the rooms was measured on all four storeys of the building, followed by scanning electron microscopy in compliance with VDI Code 3492. In addition, measurements showed fibres with diameters of > 3 microns which are not subject to the regulations for carcinogenic substances, but, in contrast to the thinner fibres, they may cause irritations of skin and mucosa. The employees were questioned about their health problems. At the beginning of 1994, a total of 79 of the 133 employees complained about itching, reddening and burning of their eyes as well as irritations of the upper respiratory tract. More than 50% had consulted a doctor. Late in 1994, another questionnaire survey was completed. The fibre content of the office air was determined to vary from 1000 to 3500 fibres/m3 and, in addition, 100-200 fibres with diameters of > 3 microns. Our investigations showed that there is an interrelationship between the degree of dust accumulation in the offices and health complaints. Independently of the current discussion of the cancer causing potential of thin man-made mineral fibres, the very long and thick mineral fibres (> 3 microns in diameter) are of topical importance to health.

  7. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Zarfeshany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions.

  8. CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE GLOBAL DECREASE IN DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenko Krajisnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has been lasting too long, and particular examples of economic growth and unemployment reduction in some countries have not been the accelerator sufficient for the global recovery. The general level of demand is low, hence so are the investments, although the most powerful economic factors, i.e. the highly developed countries and transnational companies, have the capacities for new investment cycles. This work analyses the causes and effects of decrease in demand, as well as the options available for removal of those causes and revitalization of the effects. One of the main causes of decrease in demand in a long run is the asymmetrical distribution of income which has led to a reduction in purchasing power of a large number of consumers, high debt level and change in demand structure. An additional problem, which can be regarded also as a cause of decline in demand in the short run, is the austerity policy which is being implemented both where necessary and conditioned and where voluntary albeit not necessary. In order to overcome the problem, it is necessary to increase and maintain demand, first initially and then permanently, which is where the state plays an important role.

  9. Medical net cost of low alcohol consumption - a cause to reconsider improved health as the link between alcohol and wage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdtham Ulf G

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have found a positive effect of low/moderate alcohol consumption on wages. This has often been explained by referring to epidemiological research showing that alcohol has protective effects on certain diseases, i.e., the health link is normally justified using selected epidemiological information. Few papers have tested this link between alcohol and health explicitly, including all diseases where alcohol has been shown to have either a protective or a detrimental effect. Aim Based on the full epidemiological information, we study the effect of low alcohol consumption on health, in order to determine if it is reasonable to explain the positive effect of low consumption on wages using the epidemiological literature. Methods We apply a non-econometrical cost-of-illness approach to calculate the medical care cost and episodes attributable to low alcohol consumption. Results Low alcohol consumption carries a net cost for medical care and there is a net benefit only for the oldest age group (80+. Low alcohol consumption also causes more episodes in medical care then what is saved, although inpatient care for women and older men show savings. Conclusion Using health as an explanation in the alcohol-wage literature appears invalid when applying the full epidemiological information instead of selected information.

  10. Health effects of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Ötles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fi bres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fi bres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous benefi cial effects on human health. Dietary fi bre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fi bers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal refl ux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fi bers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  11. Metabolic effects as a cause of myotoxic effects of fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metterlein, Thomas; Schuster, Frank; Hager, Martin; Roewer, Norbert; Anetseder, Martin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if fluoroquinolones (FQs) influence skeletal muscle metabolism of healthy and malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) pigs. After approval from of the Animal Care Committee, 10 MHS pigs, and 6 MHS pigs were anesthetized with hemodynamic and systemic metabolic monitoring. Microdialysis catheters were placed intramuscularly. After equilibration, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were injected as a rapid bolus and continuous infusions. Lactate was measured in the dialysate and statistically analyzed was done (Wilcoxon-test; U-test; P < 0.05). There were no differences in age, weight, and baseline lactate levels between the groups. Both applications of levofloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-induced an increase of local lactate levels in healthy and MHS pigs. No difference between the two groups was observed. FQs influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Myotoxic effects of FQs can, therefore, be explained by an influence on the cellular energy balance.

  12. Health promotion: An effective tool for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes.

  13. E-health: effect on health system efficiency of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Afshan; Rashid, Audil; Kureshi, Nadeem Ishaq

    2014-01-01

    The health system in Pakistan is spraining because of increasing cost and demand gravities. The shortage of skilled health care workers is one of the main factors of health issues. There is a need to move away from the dependency of tools such as pen, paper, and human memory to a milieu where patients and health care providers can reliably access and share health information in real time across geographic and health sector boundaries. The purpose of this research is to observe the effect of e-health on the physician-patient relationship and to analyze the capacity of health professionals by noting information and communication technologies usage as indicators. Structured questionnaire was used to gather data from physicians to judge the success and effect of existing e-health policy. Both categorical and Likert scale variables were used. The analysis of data was per.formed using chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Specialist doctors comprised the major proportion of health care professionals in both male and female categories with good knowledge about Internet usage. E-health-based communication does not seem to be gender specific. Logistic regression revealed that busy doctors whose patients are more than 100 per week believe that e-health would significantly strengthen their communication with patients (OR=3.06; 95% CI=1.05- 8.87). Among other significant impacts of e-health include reduced consultation period and time of diagnosis. E-health technology can play a crucial role in controlling many epidemic diseases through effective surveillance. E-health implementation will result in improving the efficiency, better access of general public to the health care system, and eradication of diseases in Pakistan.

  14. Effects of chronic parasitosis on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiso, R

    1997-07-01

    Parasitic diseases are closely related to the lack of sanitation (unavailability of potable water, inadequate disposal of human waste, lack of latrines) or the absence of personal hygiene. They are also closely linked to warm and humid climates, and are therefore considered tropical diseases. This chapter addresses chronic hookworm parasitosis and malaria, and their effect on women's health. Of all Helminthes, hookworms cause the most severe anemia because of iron deficiency due to chronic blood loss. Worldwide, an estimated 51% of pregnant women suffer from anemia-almost twice as many as non-pregnant women. In severe cases (Hb deficiency affects the fetus, causes retarded intrauterine growth, and reduces fetal ability to absorb iron provided by the mother. Hookworms are nematodes that infect roughly 1 billion people. Their preferred habitat is the jejunum, where they attach to the mucous tissue to feed, and secrete an anticoagulant causing bleeding. Hookworm infections often begin in childhood. The worm enters the body through the skin and reaches the highest number at the end of adolescence and young adulthood. Little attention has been given to the treatment of pregnant women because of unavailability of safe antiparasitic drugs and fear of teratogenesis. However, there are new treatments, and the anthelminthic drugs may be administered in schools and organized women's groups in communities. During pregnancy anthelminthic treatment can improve maternal, fetal and infant health. Treatment given every 4 months has been shown to interrupt the transmission cycle of the parasite and help to improve the iron status of all women. Therapeutic strategies should be linked to other measures, such as promoting the use of shoes, introduction of potable water, education and treatment of the population at large, especially the school-age population. An estimated 267 million people are annually infected by malaria, a parasitic disease caused by Protozoa of the genus Plasmodium

  15. Health professionals' migration in emerging market economies: patterns, causes and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Webster, Premila

    2013-03-01

    About a third of the countries affected by shortage of human resources for health are the emerging market economies (EMEs). The greatest shortage in absolute terms was found to be in India and Indonesia leading to health system crisis. This review identifies the patterns of migration of health workers, causes and possible solutions in these EMEs. A qualitative synthesis approach based on the 'critical review' and 'realist review' approaches to the literature review was used. The patterns of migration of health professionals' in the EMEs have led to two types of discrepancies between health needs and healthcare workers: (i) within country (rural-urban, public-private or government healthcare sector-private sector) and (ii) across countries (south to north). Factors that influence migration include lack of employment opportunities, appropriate work environment and wages in EMEs, growing demand in high-income countries due to demographic transition, favourable country policies for financial remittances by migrant workers and medical education system of EMEs. A range of successful national and international initiatives to address health workforce migration were identified. Measures to control migration should be country specific and designed in accordance with the push and pull factors existing in the EMEs.

  16. Revisiting the Effect of Anthropomorphizing a Social Cause Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Williams

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that anthropomorphism can be harnessed as a tool to boost intentions to comply with social cause campaigns. Drawing on the human tendency to extend moral concern to entities portrayed as humanlike, it has been argued that adding personified features to a social campaign elevates anticipated guilt at failing to comply, and this subsequently boosts intentions to comply with that campaign. The present research aimed to extend extant research by disentangling the effects of emotional and non-emotional anthropomorphism, and differentiating amongst other emotional mechanisms of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect (namely, anticipated pride and anticipated regret. Experiment 1 (N = 294 compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and emotionally-neutral anthropomorphized campaign posters for boosting campaign compliance intentions against non-anthropomorphized posters. We also measured potential mechanisms including anticipated guilt, regret, and pride. Results failed to support the anthropomorphism-compliance effect, and no changes in anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. Experiments 2 (N = 150 and 3 (N = 196 represented further tests of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect. Despite high statistical power and efforts to closely replicate the conditions under which the anthropomorphism-compliance effect had been previously observed, no differences in compliance intention or anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. A meta-analysis of the effects of anthropomorphism on compliance and anticipated emotion across the three experiments revealed effect size estimates that did not differ significantly from zero. The results of these three experiments suggest that the anthropomorphism-compliance effect is fragile and perhaps subject to contextual and idiographic influences. Thus, this research provides important insight and impetus for future research on the applied and theoretical

  17. Revisiting the Effect of Anthropomorphizing a Social Cause Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa A; Masser, Barbara; Sun, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that anthropomorphism can be harnessed as a tool to boost intentions to comply with social cause campaigns. Drawing on the human tendency to extend moral concern to entities portrayed as humanlike, it has been argued that adding personified features to a social campaign elevates anticipated guilt at failing to comply, and this subsequently boosts intentions to comply with that campaign. The present research aimed to extend extant research by disentangling the effects of emotional and non-emotional anthropomorphism, and differentiating amongst other emotional mechanisms of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect (namely, anticipated pride and anticipated regret). Experiment 1 (N = 294) compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and emotionally-neutral anthropomorphized campaign posters for boosting campaign compliance intentions against non-anthropomorphized posters. We also measured potential mechanisms including anticipated guilt, regret, and pride. Results failed to support the anthropomorphism-compliance effect, and no changes in anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. Experiments 2 (N = 150) and 3 (N = 196) represented further tests of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect. Despite high statistical power and efforts to closely replicate the conditions under which the anthropomorphism-compliance effect had been previously observed, no differences in compliance intention or anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. A meta-analysis of the effects of anthropomorphism on compliance and anticipated emotion across the three experiments revealed effect size estimates that did not differ significantly from zero. The results of these three experiments suggest that the anthropomorphism-compliance effect is fragile and perhaps subject to contextual and idiographic influences. Thus, this research provides important insight and impetus for future research on the applied and theoretical utility of

  18. A Framework on Causes and Effects of Design Iterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujumdar, Purva; Matsagar, Vasant

    2017-06-01

    Design is an evolutionary process that involves several teams collaborating with each other to achieve the final design solution. Due to an intrinsic association of teams participating during design stages, frequent exchanges of information take place among them to execute various design activities. These information exchanges occur in cycles/loops where the design is improved/refined at each information exchange. This process is referred as design iteration. Iteration is one of the most complex and unavoidable phenomenon of a design process and they last until the specifications and design requirements are met. Hence, design teams need to acquire a thorough understanding of the factors that cause iterations. As the causes of iterations have not been identified in a classified manner, a causes and effects framework of design iteration is presented in this paper. The methodology adopted to develop this framework was detailed literature review and interactions done with industry experts. This framework guides project planners to identify the possible causes of iterations and enables them to plan their design projects efficiently.

  19. Causes of mortality in eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center 1975-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We summarized the cause of death for 2,980 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 1,427 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, for diagnosis between 1975 and the beginning of 2013. We compared the proportion of eagles with a primary diagnosis as electrocuted, emaciated, traumatized, shot or trapped, diseased, poisoned, other, and undetermined among the 4 migratory bird flyways of the United States (Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific). Additionally, we compared the proportion of lead-poisoned bald eagles submitted before and after the autumn 1991 ban on lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Trauma and poisonings (including lead poisoning) were the leading causes of death for bald eagles throughout the study period, and a greater proportion of bald eagles versus golden eagles were diagnosed as poisoned. For golden eagles, the major causes of mortality were trauma and electrocution. The proportion of lead poisoning diagnoses for bald eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center displayed a statistically significant increase in all flyways after the autumn 1991 ban on the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Thus, lead poisoning was a significant cause of mortality in our necropsied eagles, suggesting a continued need to evaluate the trade-offs of lead ammunition for use on game other than waterfowl versus the impacts of lead on wildlife populations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Health effects of dietary phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küllenberg Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.

  1. Causes for the underreporting of adverse drug events by health professionals: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rossi Varallo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identifying the main causes for underreporting of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR by health professionals. Method: A systematic review carried out in the following databases: LILACS, PAHO, SciELO, EMBASE and PubMed in the period between 1992 and 2012. Descriptors were used in the search for articles, and the identified causes of underreporting were analyzed according to the classification of Inman. Results: In total, were identified 149 articles, among which 29 were selected. Most studies were carried out in hospitals (24/29 for physicians (22/29, and pharmacists (10/29. The main causes related to underreporting were ignorance (24/29, insecurity (24/29 and indifference (23/29. Conclusion: The data show the eighth sin in underreporting, which is the lack of training in pharmacovigilance. Therefore, continuing education can increase adherence of professionals to the service and improve knowledge and communication of risks due to drug use.

  2. Acute health effects common during graffiti removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langworth, S; Anundi, H; Friis, L; Johanson, G; Lind, M L; Söderman, E; Akesson, B A

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify possible health effects caused by different cleaning agents used in graffiti removal. In 38 graffiti removers working 8-h shifts in the Stockholm underground system, the exposure to organic solvents was assessed by active air sampling, biological monitoring, and by interviews and a questionnaire. Health effects were registered, by physical examinations, porta7ble spirometers and self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of symptoms was compared with 49 controls working at the underground depots, and with 177 population controls. The 8-h time-weighted average exposures (TWA) were low, below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents. The short-term exposures occasionally exceeded the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL), especially during work in poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators. The graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of tiredness and upper airway symptoms compared with the depot controls, and significantly more tiredness, headaches and symptoms affecting airways, eyes and skin than the population controls. Among the graffiti removers, some of the symptoms increased during the working day. On a group basis, the lung function registrations showed normal values. However, seven workers displayed a clear reduction of peak expiratory flow (PEF) over the working shift. Though their average exposure to organic solvents was low, the graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of unspecific symptoms such as fatigue and headache as well as irritative symptoms from the eyes and respiratory tract, compared with the controls. To prevent adverse health effects it is important to inform the workers about the health risks, and to restrict use of the most hazardous chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working practices and to encourage the use of personal protective equipment.

  3. Causes, Effects and Way Forward to Food Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Ilaboya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some important causes and challenges of the global food crisis on human and economic development. The main focus is on analysis of the causes and impact of food insecurity coupled with the measures to achieve adequate food security. Attempt was made to give an overview of the fundamental threat pose by insecurity of food on the people; these include: a moral and humanitarian threat, developmental threat and strategic threat. Issues on the role of biofuels on food insecurity were also discussed. Data on grain production and consumption were collated, in which the surplus/deficit values were computed. The data werethen subjected to statistical testing using the step wise regression model to ascertain the real effects of utilization of grains in biofuels production on the overall security of food. Result of the model shows significant effects of biofuels on food security. A mathematical model was also used to analyse the impact of foodinsecurity on the terms of trade of nations, data generated were also subjected to statistical analysis using the step wise regression model to ascertain the real effects of food insecurity on the terms of trade. Results also show a very high significant effect. Finally, the way forward in ensuring adequate security of food were critically analysed to include among others: Increasing agricultural production, enhancement of science and technology, facilitating market access, rural off farm opportunities and capacity building

  4. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  5. Political Economy, Capability Development, and Fundamental Cause: Integrating Perspectives on Child Health in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Burroway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several dominant theoretical perspectives attempt to account for health disparities in developing countries, including political economy, the capability approach, and fundamental cause. This study combines the perspectives in a multi-level analysis of child malnutrition and diarrhea in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of who faces increased health risks and who is shielded from them. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys and World Bank data, I estimate a series of models that predict the likelihood of child malnutrition and diarrhea, based on a set of country- and individual-level explanatory variables. Results suggest that at the individual-level, household wealth and maternal education are the most robust predictors of child health. These social factors are even more important than more proximate factors like clean water or sanitation. At the country-level, gross domestic product (GDP per capita reduces malnutrition, but does not significantly affect incidence of diarrhea. Contrary to the predominant economic development paradigm, health care and education are more important in accounting for the prevalence of diarrhea than GDP. Finally, trade in and of itself is not harmful to well-being in developing countries. It is when countries become too dependent on one or a few commodities that trade starts to have detrimental costs. Thus, a synthesis of theoretical frameworks best illustrates the complex web of social structural factors that manifest as unequal life chances for children.

  6. Early dioxin exposure causes toxic effects in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tracie R; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    2013-09-01

    The acute effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure have been well documented in many vertebrate species. However, less is known about the consequences in adulthood from sublethal exposure during development. To address this, we exposed zebrafish to sublethal levels of TCDD (1h; 50 pg/ml), either in early embryogenesis (day 0) or during sexual determination (3 and 7 weeks), and assessed the effects later in adulthood. We found that exposure during embryogenesis produced few effects on the adults themselves but did affect the offspring of these fish: Malformations and increased mortality were observed in the subsequent generation. Zebrafish exposed during sexual development showed defects in the cranial and axial skeleton as adults. This was most clearly manifested as scoliosis caused by malformation of individual vertebrae. These fish also showed defects in reproduction, producing fewer eggs with lower fertilization success. Both males and females were affected, with males contributing to the decrease in egg release from the females and exposed females contributing to fertilization failure. TCDD exposure at 3 and 7 weeks produced feminization of the population. Surprisingly, part of this was due to the appearance of fish with clearly female bodies, yet carrying testes in place of ovaries. Our results show that exposures that produce little if any impact during development can cause severe consequences during adulthood and present a model for studying this process.

  7. I and C functional test facility malfunction cause and effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon

    1997-06-01

    The objective of I and C function test facility (FTF) is to validate newly developed digital control and protection algorithm, alarm reduction algorithm and the function of operator support system and so on. To realize transient and accident situation in the FTF, the result of the activation of malfunction should be similar to the situation of real nuclear power plants. In this technical report, describe the Group, Malfunction No., Description, Option, Recommendations, Considered in Subroutine, Limitations, Cause, and Effect of the malfunctions implemented in FTF. (author).

  8. Effects of operative treatment for muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the effects of operative treatment for muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria. METHODS:Twenty-one cases(42 eyeswith muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria were included. After examination of refraction, phoria and fusion function, all cases were given operative treatment to correct esophoria. RESULTS:At 1wk after surgery, clinical symptoms were improved evidently in all cases, such as headache, diplopia and eye swelling. After followed up for 1a, no recrudescence was found. Before surgery, at 1wk and 1a after surgery, esophoria in the distance were 20.3△±6.3△,-3.1△±1.4△,0.7△±1.6△ respectively and esophoria in the near distance were 10.5△±3.1△,-1.3△±0.6△,1.5△±0.8△ respectively. By comparison of esophoria before and after surgery in different stages separately, the differences were statistically(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Esophoria operation may relieve obviously muscular asthenopia caused by esophoria without changing fusion function.

  9. Health Effects of Petroleum Coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant quantities of fugitive dust from pet coke storage and handling operations present a health risk. EPA’s research suggests that petcoke does not pose a different health risk than similar-sized particulate matter (PM10).

  10. Perceived Health System Causes of Obstetric Fistula from Accounts of Affected Women in Rural Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2015-03-01

    Obstetric fistula is still a major problem in low income countries. While its main cause is untreated obstructed labour, misconceptions about it still persist. This study aimed at exploring and describing perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women affected by it in rural Tanzania. This exploratory qualitative study included twenty-eight women affected by obstetric fistula. Semi structured interviews and focus group discussions were held and thematic analysis used to analyse perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women's account. Perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula fundamentally reflected the poor quality of obstetric care women received at health care facilities relating to staff unaccountability, late referral, and torture by nurses. The women's perception emphasizes the importance of improving the quality of obstetric care provided by health care providers in health care facilities.

  11. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  12. [Nutrient content and health effects of nuts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías-Rangil, I; García-Lorda, P; Torres-Moreno, M; Bulló, M; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2004-06-01

    Nuts are foods with a high energy density, due in part to its small water content. They also present a low saturated fat content (unsaturated fat contribution (40-60%). They represent one of the richest sources of dietary fiber, which is basically of the insoluble type. The effects of nut intake on health have been widely studied. Several prospective epidemiological studies performed on large cohorts have consistently shown that regular consumption of small amounts of nuts is negatively related to the risk of cardiovascular disease and to the risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. From these studies can be concluded that regular consumption of small amounts of nuts leads to a 30-50% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, intervention studies have shown a positive effect of nut intake on lipid profile with significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels and small or null effects on the HDL fraction. More recently, some studies have focused on the effect of nuts on body weight. At present, no evidences support a detrimental effect of nut consumption on body weight. On the contrary some weight loss studies suggest a beneficial effect of nut intake on body weight regulation.

  13. Huge gastric bezoar caused by honeycomb, an unusual complication of health faddism: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Katsinelos, Taxiarchis; Lazaraki, Georgia; Fasoulas, Kostas; Zavos, Christos; Kountouras, Jannis

    2009-01-01

    We report a young healthy woman, who believed that the consumption of large amounts of honeycomb would lead to good health and who finally developed a huge gastric bezoar of hard consistency. The conventional endoscopic techniques failed to manage the bezoar. Using the combination of injection of hydrogen peroxide 3% solution inside the bezoar to induce disintegration and a special designed needle-knife sphincterotome (bezotome) we managed to remove the bezoar in fragments. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported bezoar caused by honeycomb. PMID:19829904

  14. Industrial PM2.5 cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM2.5, including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM2.5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Thyroid Disorders on Skeletal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVS Krishna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid physiology is linked to skeletal health. T3 and TSH independently affect bone growth and development, mineralization and remodeling. Thyrotoxicosis, a clinical syndrome characterized by excess thyroid hormone is one of the commonly recognized conditions of the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis causes accelerated bone remodeling and serves as one of the risk factors for osteoporosis. Treatment of thyrotoxicosis leads to reversal of bone loss and decreases fracture risk. Though treatment of thyrotoxicosis leads to improvement of bone mineral density (BMD, it is not necessarily to normal levels. The effects of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the bone are controversial. Thyroidectomy and methimazole may decrease the risk of fractures in these patients compared with treatment with radioiodine. Hypothyroidism may also be risk factor for fractures. Replacement therapy with levothyroxine in hypothyroid patients may temporarily reduce bone density after initiation of therapy. However it is not associated with osteoporosis or increased fracture risk. TSH suppressing doses of levothyroxine may reduce BMD, especially in post menopausal women. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D in hyperthyroid patients should be considered. There are limited studies in India pertinent to reversibility of these changes. In this review, we have discussed about the effects of various aspects of skeletal health in thyroid disorders Turk Jem 2012; 16: 19-25

  16. Leveraging "big data" to enhance the effectiveness of "one health" in an era of health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Asokan, Vanitha

    2015-12-01

    Zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. The major obstacles to control zoonoses include insensitive systems and unreliable data. Intelligent handling of the cost effective big data can accomplish the goals of one health to detect disease trends, outbreaks, pathogens and causes of emergence in human and animals.

  17. Vascular pathology: Cause or effect in Alzheimer disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Pérez, S; Tormos, A M; Pérez, S; Taléns-Visconti, R

    2015-09-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the main cortical neurodegenerative disease. The incidence of this disease increases with age, causing significant medical, social and economic problems, especially in countries with ageing populations. This review aims to highlight existing evidence of how vascular dysfunction may contribute to cognitive impairment in AD, as well as the therapeutic possibilities that might arise from this evidence. The vascular hypothesis emerged as an alternative to the amyloid cascade hypothesis as an explanation for the pathophysiology of AD. This hypothesis locates blood vessels as the origin for a variety of pathogenic pathways that lead to neuronal damage and dementia. Destruction of the organisation of the blood brain barrier, decreased cerebral blood flow, and the establishment of an inflammatory context would thus be responsible for any subsequent neuronal damage since these factors promote aggregation of β-amyloid peptide in the brain. The link between neurodegeneration and vascular dysfunction pathways has provided new drug targets and therapeutic approaches that will add to the treatments for AD. It is difficult to determine whether the vascular component in AD is the cause or the effect of the disease, but there is no doubt that vascular pathology has an important relationship with AD. Vascular dysfunction is likely to act synergistically with neurodegenerative changes in a cycle that exacerbates the cognitive impairment found in AD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidant pollution - Effects on health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignon, J.

    Oxidizing pollution consists of air-borne gaseous, liquid and particle pollutants acting like reducing agents that can react with oxygen to produce toxic derivatives: superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicles and other free radicles. The major oxidizing gaseous pollutants are NO/sub x,/ particularly NO/sub 2/, ozone and photo-oxidizing agents as derivatives. Epidemiological studies have generally failed to show any significant relation between NO/sub 2/ concentration and respiratory disorders. Correlations are better with SO/sub 2/ and total suspended particles. In certain very sunny areas with high ozone levels, there is a link between O/sub 3/ concentration and respiratory disorders. Controlled trials comparing healthy and asthmatic volunteers have given variable results with highly raised bronchoreactivity at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm NO/sub 2/ and 0.25 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1 to 2 hours in about half the studies. Using this data, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has established maximum exposure levels. Numerous investigations on exposure of animals to NO/sub 2/ and ozone have been performed using rodents, the dog, the cat and the primate. At concentrations close to peak urban air pollution levels various biochemical and cellular changes in the respiratory apparatus are generally observed. The areas most affected by NO/sub 2/ and ozone are the peripheral airways with distal stenosal bronchiolitis. NO/sub 2/ led to emphysematous lesions and O/sub 3/ to fibrosal hyperplasic lesions in alveolar tissue. Short bursts at high levels were generally more toxic than long exposure at low levels. There is an additive effect between NO/sub 2/ and ozone and with other pollutants. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and ozone is conducive to bacterial and viral infection. Results for genitotoxicity and carcinogenic effects produced by NO/sub 2/ and ozone have hitherto been inconclusive.

  19. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  20. The Irish famine of 1740–1741: causes and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mauelshagen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the current debate on causes and effects of famines. Since Sen's food entitlement decline theory emerged in the 1980's, climate and environmental factors are widely excluded in famine analysis. Studying the causation and the processes of famines as well as the adaptations to it before the 20th century will enhance modern famine theories and lead to a rethinking of the role of climate/environmental aspects in current research. In our case study, the "Famine Vulnerability Analysis Model" (FVAM serves as an explanatory model and will open up new perspectives on famines. Special emphasis will be put on the Europe-wide crises of 1740–1741, with a focus on the famine of the "great frost" in Ireland. The interaction of demographic, political, economic and environmental aspects is characteristic in this famine.

  1. Prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrite, Silvia; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. We selected 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) through probability proportionate to size sampling. Initial hearing screening was undertaken through an otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. Participants aged 4+ years who failed this test in both ears or for whom an OAE reading could not be taken underwent a manual pure-tone audiometry (PTA) screening. Cases of hearing impairment were defined as those with pure-tone average ≥41 dBHL in adults and ≥35 dBHL in children in the better ear, or children under age 4 who failed the OAE test in both ears. Each case with hearing loss was examined by an ear, nose and throat nurse who indicated the main likely cause. We examined 3567 (86.9%) of 4104 eligible people. The overall prevalence of hearing impairment was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.6). The prevalence was low in people aged 0-17 (1.1%, 0.7-1.8%) and 18-49 (1.1%, 0.5-2.6%) and then rose sharply in people aged 50+ (14.8%, 11.7-19.1%). Among cases, the majority were classified as moderate (76%), followed by severe (15%) and profound (9%). More than one-third of cases of hearing impairment were classified as unknown (37%) or conductive (37%) causes, while sensorineural causes were less common (26%). Prevalence of hearing impairment in North-West Cameroon is in line with the WHO estimate for sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of cases with known causes are treatable, with impacted wax playing a major role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Health Effects and Energy Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1975-01-01

    The United States will continue to have a high energy demand to maintain our present life style. The development of a national health policy statement that would serve to coordinate federal programs for research and regulation of environmental health is suggested. (BT)

  3. Health Knowledge Effects: An Integrated Community Health Promotion Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Chiu; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Hsiao-Ting; Ho, Wen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The Taiwanese government subsidizes healthcare providers offering preventive medicine to patients to help reduce the threats of chronic sickness and halt skyrocketing medical expenditures. Usually, nurses are the primary workers who perform community health promotion; however, because of the chronic shortage of working nurses, many Taiwan hospitals have closed wards and deferred the responsibility of promoting primary prevention. With a community health promotion platform integrating interactive response features and Web sites for community patients and hospital staff, a case hospital efficiently sustained the community health services. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the integrated community health promotion platform for conducting education. Fifty-four patients/residents were invited to join a quasi-experiment of health education, and a follow-up survey was conducted to assess the acceptance of the community health promotion platform from both the experimental group of learners/users and the hospital staff. The results showed that the community health promotion platform was effective in improving participant health awareness. The experimental group outperformed the control group, with higher posttest scores and longer knowledge retention. Furthermore, users indicated a high acceptance of the community health promotion platform.

  4. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease and stroke. 2,4,5 Secondhand smoke causes nearly 34,000 premature deaths from heart disease each year in the United States among nonsmokers. 4 Nonsmokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or at ... smoke exposure causes more than 8,000 deaths from stroke annually. ...

  5. The causes of bullying: results from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the characteristics and reasons reported by Brazilian students for school bullying. Method: this cross-sectional study uses data from an epidemiological survey (National Survey of School Health conducted in 2012. A total of 109,104 9th grade students from private and public schools participated. Data were collected through a self-applied questionnaire and the analysis was performed using SPSS, version 20, Complex Samples Module. Results: the prevalence of bullying was 7.2%, most frequently affecting Afro-descendant or indigenous younger boys, whose mothers were characterized by low levels of education. In regard to the reasons/causes of bullying, 51.2% did not specify; the second highest frequency of victimization was related to body appearance (18.6%; followed by facial appearance (16.2%; race/color (6.8%; sexual orientation 2.9%; religion 2.5%; and region of origin 1.7%. The results are similar to those found in other sociocultural contexts. Conclusion: the problem belongs to the health field because it gathers aspects that determine the students' health-disease-care continuum.

  6. The causes of bullying: results from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; de Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta; Porto, Denise Lopes; Yoshinaga, Andréa Cristina Mariano; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identify the characteristics and reasons reported by Brazilian students for school bullying. Method: this cross-sectional study uses data from an epidemiological survey (National Survey of School Health) conducted in 2012. A total of 109,104 9th grade students from private and public schools participated. Data were collected through a self-applied questionnaire and the analysis was performed using SPSS, version 20, Complex Samples Module. Results: the prevalence of bullying was 7.2%, most frequently affecting Afro-descendant or indigenous younger boys, whose mothers were characterized by low levels of education. In regard to the reasons/causes of bullying, 51.2% did not specify; the second highest frequency of victimization was related to body appearance (18.6%); followed by facial appearance (16.2%); race/color (6.8%); sexual orientation 2.9%; religion 2.5%; and region of origin 1.7%. The results are similar to those found in other sociocultural contexts. Conclusion: the problem belongs to the health field because it gathers aspects that determine the students' health-disease-care continuum. PMID:26039298

  7. The causes of bullying: results from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio de; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta de; Porto, Denise Lopes; Yoshinaga, Andréa Cristina Mariano; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2015-04-14

    to identify the characteristics and reasons reported by Brazilian students for school bullying. this cross-sectional study uses data from an epidemiological survey (National Survey of School Health) conducted in 2012. A total of 109,104 9th grade students from private and public schools participated. Data were collected through a self-applied questionnaire and the analysis was performed using SPSS, version 20, Complex Samples Module. the prevalence of bullying was 7.2%, most frequently affecting Afro-descendant or indigenous younger boys, whose mothers were characterized by low levels of education. In regard to the reasons/causes of bullying, 51.2% did not specify; the second highest frequency of victimization was related to body appearance (18.6%); followed by facial appearance (16.2%); race/color (6.8%); sexual orientation 2.9%; religion 2.5%; and region of origin 1.7%. The results are similar to those found in other sociocultural contexts. the problem belongs to the health field because it gathers aspects that determine the students' health-disease-care continuum.

  8. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  9. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-06-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Consequently, HIT is being promoted as a more time-efficient and practical approach to optimize health thereby reducing the burden of disease associated with physical inactivity. However, no studies to date have examined the impact of HIT on the cerebrovasculature and corresponding implications for cognitive function. This review critiques the implications of HIT for cerebrovascular function, with a focus on the mechanisms and translational impact for patient health and well-being. It also introduces similarly novel interventions currently under investigation as alternative means of accelerating exercise-induced cerebrovascular adaptation. We highlight a need for studies of the mechanisms and thereby also the optimal dose-response strategies to guide exercise prescription, and for studies to explore alternative approaches to optimize exercise outcomes in brain-related health and disease prevention. From a clinical perspective, interventions that selectively target the aging brain have the potential to prevent stroke and associated neurovascular diseases.

  10. Effect of Alcohol to Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization there are almost two billion people worldwide who consume alcohol on a regular basis. It’s a common abuse and almost 80 million are diagnozed with “alcohol abuse disorders” (WHO 2002, 2004. Excessive alcohol consumption is related to more than 60 different medical conditions, as suicide, homicide and different forms of accidents. Some conditions are acute, while other conditions such as liver cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, haemorrhagic stroke and various forms of cancer, are chronic consequences. Non-carious destructions of teeth like dental erosion are also associated with frequent alcohol consumption, because of precipitation of salivary proline-rich proteins caused by polyphenols present in most alcoholic drinks. The high concentration of organic and inorganic acids and the habit of keeping the alcoholic drink in the mouth can cause chronic inflammations of the soft tissues in the mouth and can increase the negative side effects from metals of crowns, bridges, orthodontic devises and various restorations. A literature review has been made due to the authors clinical observations and experiences.

  11. Geosmin occurrence in riverine cyanobacterial mats: is it causing a significant health hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bláha, L; Sabater, S; Babica, P; Vilalta, E; Marsálek, B

    2004-01-01

    Toxicity endpoints (nonspecific cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and mutagenicity) were studied in cyanobacterial mats obtained from a shallow river. Some of the cyanobacterial mats tested were known to be non-geosmin producers, while others were geosmin-producers. No microcystin-like compounds were detected by HPLC in any of the biofilm samples. The mutagenicity and neurotoxicity of biofilm metabolites was negligible, and generally weak adverse effects of biofilm extracts detected in a battery of in-vitro assays indicated relatively low human health risks associated with biofilm toxicity. While the toxicity responses detected in the studied biofilms were weak, effects were not related to production of geosmin. It was therefore concluded that the production of this metabolite cannot be taken as an indication per se of the existence of a health hazard.

  12. Variations in the relation between education and cause-specific mortality in 19 European populations: a test of the "fundamental causes" theory of social inequalities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Eikemo, Terje A; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulik, Margarete C; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle

    2015-02-01

    Link and Phelan have proposed to explain the persistence of health inequalities from the fact that socioeconomic status is a "fundamental cause" which embodies an array of resources that can be used to avoid disease risks no matter what mechanisms are relevant at any given time. To test this theory we compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality between more and less preventable causes of death in 19 European populations, and assessed whether inequalities in mortality from preventable causes are larger in countries with larger resource inequalities. We collected and harmonized mortality data by educational level on 19 national and regional populations from 16 European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. We calculated age-adjusted Relative Risks of mortality among men and women aged 30-79 for 24 causes of death, which were classified into four groups: amenable to behavior change, amenable to medical intervention, amenable to injury prevention, and non-preventable. Although an overwhelming majority of Relative Risks indicate higher mortality risks among the lower educated, the strength of the education-mortality relation is highly variable between causes of death and populations. Inequalities in mortality are generally larger for causes amenable to behavior change, medical intervention and injury prevention than for non-preventable causes. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is large for causes amenable to behavior change, but absent for causes amenable to injury prevention among women. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is larger in Central & Eastern Europe, where resource inequalities are substantial, than in the Nordic countries and continental Europe, where resource inequalities are relatively small, but they are absent or small in Southern Europe, where resource inequalities are also large. In conclusion, our results provide some further support for the theory of "fundamental causes". However

  13. Perceptions of the health effects of stoves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joanna K; Emmel, Nick D; Manaseki, Semira; Chambers, Jacky

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the views of stove users in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on how stoves affect their health. In this paper focus groups were conducted with improved stove users; traditional stove users; and a mix of traditional and improved stove users. Individual interviews were also held with various types of stove users. A translator moderated all discussions with a questioning route. All discussions were fully transcribed and translated. The transcripts were analysed by identifying common themes in responses to form an emerging theory. The findings in the paper are that all stove users recognised respiratory symptoms caused by stove smoke and other health effects such as warmth, dirt and workload, which they perceived to be important. Stove users had a lack of knowledge about the diseases caused by the smoke. Public health was a key driver for the improved stove project, yet has been neglected in improved stove marketing. The study used in this paper was limited by the language barrier. Some of the meanings of participants' responses may have been lost in translation. This paper has highlighted the importance of the health effects of stove smoke to stove users. Uptake of the improved stoves has been low. Public health should be included in marketing strategies for improved stoves to increase their uptake. The paper shows that acute respiratory infections are a major cause of mortality world-wide. Indoor air pollution from burning biomass fuels in household stoves causes a significant proportion of respiratory infections. No qualitative research has been published exploring stove users' views on the health effects of stoves. This paper provides an insight into stove users' perceptions for those interested in people-centred approaches to tackling international health issues.

  14. Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-05-01

    Recently it became known that Volkswagen Group has been cheating with emission tests for diesel engines over the last six years, resulting in on-road emissions vastly exceeding legal standards for nitrogen oxides in Europe and the United States. Here, we provide an estimate of the public health consequences caused by this fraud. From 2009 to 2015, approximately nine million fraudulent Volkswagen cars, as sold in Europe and the US, emitted a cumulative amount of 526 ktonnes of nitrogen oxides more than was legally allowed. These fraudulent emissions are associated with 45 thousand disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and a value of life lost of at least 39 billion US dollars, which is approximately 5.3 times larger than the 7.3 billion US dollars that Volkswagen Group has set aside to cover worldwide costs related to the diesel emissions scandal.

  15. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  16. Collective violence caused by climate change and how it threatens health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2014-06-14

    The weight of scientific evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence. This evidence arises from individual studies over wide ranges of time and geographic location, and from two extensive meta-analyses. Complex pathways that underlie this association are not fully understood; however, increased ambient temperatures and extremes of rainfall, with their resultant adverse impacts on the environment and risk factors for violence, appear to play key roles. Collective violence due to climate change poses serious threats to health and human rights, including by causing morbidity and mortality directly and also indirectly by damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of society, forcing people to migrate from their homes and communities, damaging the environment, and diverting human and financial resources. This paper also briefly addresses issues for future research on the relationship between climate change and collective violence, the prevention of collective violence due to climate change, and States' obligations to protect human rights, to prevent collective violence, and to promote and support measures to mitigate and adapt to climate change.

  17. Obesity, Oxidative Stress, Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, and the Associated Health Risks: Causes and Therapeutic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Prasenjit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is gaining acceptance as a serious primary health burden that impairs the quality of life because of its associated complications, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, asthma, sleep disorders, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and infertility. It is a complex metabolic disorder with a multifactorial origin. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role as the critical factor linking obesity with its associated complications. Obesity per se can induce systemic oxidative stress through various biochemical mechanisms, such as superoxide generation from NADPH oxidases, oxidative phosphorylation, glyceraldehyde auto-oxidation, protein kinase C activation, and polyol and hexosamine pathways. Other factors that also contribute to oxidative stress in obesity include hyperleptinemia, low antioxidant defense, chronic inflammation, and postprandial reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, recent studies suggest that adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating the pathophysiological mechanisms of obesity and its related co-morbidities. To establish an adequate platform for the prevention of obesity and its associated health risks, understanding the factors that contribute to the cause of obesity is necessary. The most current list of obesity determinants includes genetic factors, dietary intake, physical activity, environmental and socioeconomic factors, eating disorders, and societal influences. On the basis of the currently identified predominant determinants of obesity, a broad range of strategies have been recommended to reduce the prevalence of obesity, such as regular physical activity, ad libitum food intake limiting to certain micronutrients, increased dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, and meal replacements. This review aims to highlight recent findings regarding the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of obesity and its associated risk factors, the role of dysfunctional adipose tissue

  18. Obesity, Oxidative Stress, Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, and the Associated Health Risks: Causes and Therapeutic Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Prasenjit; Jain, Sushil K

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is gaining acceptance as a serious primary health burden that impairs the quality of life because of its associated complications, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, asthma, sleep disorders, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and infertility. It is a complex metabolic disorder with a multifactorial origin. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role as the critical factor linking obesity with its associated complications. Obesity per se can induce systemic oxidative stress through various biochemical mechanisms, such as superoxide generation from NADPH oxidases, oxidative phosphorylation, glyceraldehyde auto-oxidation, protein kinase C activation, and polyol and hexosamine pathways. Other factors that also contribute to oxidative stress in obesity include hyperleptinemia, low antioxidant defense, chronic inflammation, and postprandial reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, recent studies suggest that adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating the pathophysiological mechanisms of obesity and its related co-morbidities. To establish an adequate platform for the prevention of obesity and its associated health risks, understanding the factors that contribute to the cause of obesity is necessary. The most current list of obesity determinants includes genetic factors, dietary intake, physical activity, environmental and socioeconomic factors, eating disorders, and societal influences. On the basis of the currently identified predominant determinants of obesity, a broad range of strategies have been recommended to reduce the prevalence of obesity, such as regular physical activity, ad libitum food intake limiting to certain micronutrients, increased dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, and meal replacements. This review aims to highlight recent findings regarding the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of obesity and its associated risk factors, the role of dysfunctional adipose tissue in

  19. Somatic versus cognitive symptoms of depression as predictors of all-cause mortality and health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pelle, Aline J; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a predictor of adverse health outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF), but it is not known whether specific symptoms drive this relationship. We examined the impact of somatic/affective, cognitive/affective, and total depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality and health status in CHF....

  20. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  1. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

  2. Effects of Minerals on Human Health and Their Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Kavak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Health effects of minerals depend on mineralogical structure and dimension ofinhaled dust. Diseases caused by minerals were known as only occupational diseases upto recently. However, many researchers pointed out that many diseases at various partsof body resulted from minerals. Minerals are naturally occurred solid particles whichhave a determined chemical and physical structure properties and interior crystalstructure. In mineral analyses basic disciplines such as chemistry, physics andmathematics are used. In this study, especially minerals that effect human health andtheir mineralogical analyses will be considered.

  3. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, Julian E; Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH(3)Se(minus sign) which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. L-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of L-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that L-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. L-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of L-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of L-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of L-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of L-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when L-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing

  4. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  5. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, L

    1990-01-01

    health workers and community as a whole. Besides the needful enlargement of sources, these complicated questions are resolvable in observing unity of medical, organizational and economical rationality on all levels of health service management and in all health institutions. This is also the way how to improve the efficiency of health care. The term of efficiency in relation to the health services. In economics, the efficiency is the ratio between the achieved result (effect) and the expenditure of a specified amount of resources. Mathematically, this ratio is expressed as follows: efficiency = end-result/costs Linked to the Health care, the efficiency may be understood also differently from its economic term.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  6. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  7. Ocular Health Status and Causes of Enrolment into Special Schools in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaeline Isawumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Knowledge of the status of eye diseases among students’ enrolled in the special schools would assist in planning preventive and treatment strategies. Objectives To determine the types and causes of ocular morbidity leading to enrolment of students in special schools of Osun state. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study by utilizing a total-sampling-technique on students attending all 8 special primary and integrated secondary schools to find out the common ophthalmic diseases between July and September 2013. Teachers’ registers, oral interview and clinical examination were used to obtain data. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics through SPSS 17 software. Results Four hundred and seventy-two (472 students between the ages of 4 and 36 years with mean of 13.7 ± 4.7 were examined. Two hundred and seventy-six (58.5% were males and one hundred-ninety- six were females. Fathers’ occupation were mostly farmers 142 (30.1% and Artisans 133 (28.2%. Abnormal ocular findings were seen in 9.9% of students. The prevalence of blindness was 4.7% [95% Confidence Interval (CI 2.7 - 6.6]. Anatomical causes of blindness were corneal scarring (2.1% especially post measles keratopathy, whole globe disorders (1.1%, toxoplasma chorioretinal scars and maculopathies (0.6%, amblyopia/uncorrected refractive errors (0.4% and cortical visual impairment (0.2% . The prevalence of visual impairment was 1.4% [CI 0.0 -1.7], with cataracts and refractive error being the most common causes. Other findings included nystagmus (0.2%, vernal conjunctivitis (0.4%, and pigmentary retinopathy (4.2%. Ocular pathologies occurred most frequently among the lower socio-economic group (χ2 169.69, P < 0.001. Conclusions The common causes of ocular diseases leading to enrolment are avoidable. Mandatory eye examination at birth, preschool years and school age is needed for early detection and intervention. Health education, adequate nutrition, and immunization

  8. WINEMAKING WASTE EFFECTIVE AGAINST CARIES-CAUSING BACTERIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amy E Lund

    2008-01-01

    A study published in the December 12, 2007 issue of Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry shows that a class of chemicals in red wine grapes may reduce the ability of bacteria to cause cavities...

  9. Effect of corticosteroid therapy in acute pain edema caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and skin lesions caused by herpes zoster, and to develop some pertinent therapeutic guidelines. Methods: A total of ... neuralgia continues after skin lesions subside. (usually 4 weeks ..... nursing progress of cancer patients. Med Innov Chin,.

  10. Scorched earth: how will changes in ozone deposition caused by drought affect human health and ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, L. D.; Kitwiroon, N.; Beevers, S.; Büker, P.; Cinderby, S.

    2012-10-01

    This unique study investigates the effect of ozone (O3) deposition on ground level O3 concentrations and subsequent human health and ecosystem risk under hot summer "heat wave" type meteorological events. Under such conditions, extended drought can effectively "turn off" the O3 vegetation sink leading to a substantial increase in ground level O3 concentrations. Two models that have been used for human health (the CMAQ chemical transport model) and ecosystem (the DO3SE O3 deposition model) risk assessment are combined to provide a powerful policy tool capable of novel integrated assessments of O3 risk using methods endorsed by the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This study investigates 2006, a particularly hot and dry year during which a heat wave occurred during the summer across much of the UK and Europe. To understand the influence of variable O3 dry deposition three different simulations were investigated during June and July: (i) actual conditions in 2006; (ii) conditions that assume a perfect vegetation sink for O3 deposition and (iii) conditions that assume an extended drought period that reduces the vegetation sink to a minimum. The risk of O3 to human health, assessed by estimating the number of days during which running 8-h mean O3 concentrations exceeded 100 μg m-3, show that on average across the UK, there is a difference of 16 days exceedance of the threshold between the perfect sink and drought conditions. These average results hide local variation with exceedances reaching as high as 20 days in the East Midlands and Eastern UK. Estimates of acute exposure effects show that O3 removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition during the June and July period would have been responsible for approximately 460 premature deaths. Conversely, reduced O3 dry deposition will decrease the amount of O3 taken up by vegetation and, according to flux-based assessments of vegetation damage, will lead to protection from O3 across the UK

  11. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  12. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that vegetarian diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  14. Male infertility: a public health issue caused by sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Souza, Raquel P; Bento, Jaqueline C; Teixeira, Jorge J V; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Bonini, Marcelo G; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by several pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa, and can induce male infertility through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, horizontal transmission of STD pathogens to sexual partners or vertical transmission to fetuses and neonates is possible. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, HIV-1 and human cytomegalovirus have all been detected in semen from symptomatic and asymptomatic men with testicular, accessory gland and urethral infections. These pathogens are associated with poor sperm quality and decreased sperm concentration and motility. However, the effects of these STD agents on semen quality are unclear, as are the effects of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma spp., Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis, because few studies have evaluated the influence of these pathogens on male infertility. Chronic or inadequately treated infections seem to be more relevant to infertility than acute infections are, although in many cases the exact aetiological agents remain unknown.

  15. Probiotics and oral health effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics are living micro-organisms added to food which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present a general background on probiotics and its health effects in children, and to examine the evidence for oral...... colonization and the possible impact on oral health in children and young adults. METHODS: For delivery and general health effects, recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and other relevant papers were used. Concerning oral installation and oral effects, a broad search for publications in English...... of daily consumption of probiotic milk. CONCLUSION: Bacteriotheraphy in the form of probiotic bacteria with an inhibitory effect on oral pathogens is a promising concept, especially in childhood, but this may not necessarily lead to improved oral health. Further placebo controlled trials that assess...

  16. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

  17. The coming health crisis: indirect health effects of global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S; Bernstein, Aaron

    2011-02-01

    Global climate change threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people. While much has been written about the direct impacts of climate change on health as a result of more severe storms, more intense heat stress, changes in the distribution of infectious disease, and reduced air quality, we are concerned that the indirect impacts of a disrupted climate system may be orders of magnitude more important in terms of the human suffering they cause. Because these indirect effects will result from changes in biophysical systems, which are inherently complex, there is significant uncertainty about their magnitude, timing, and location. However, the uncertainty that shrouds this issue should not be cause for complacency; rather it should serve as an organizing principle for adaptation to its ill effects.

  18. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  19. Platelet count and total and cause-specific mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Verma, Amit K; Manson, JoAnn E; Lin, Juan; Lessin, Lawrence; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-04-01

    We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association of platelet count with total mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, cancer mortality, and non-CHD/noncancer mortality. Platelet count was measured at baseline in 159,746 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 75,339 participants. Participants were followed for a median of 15.9 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline platelet count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 platelet count. Low and high deciles of both baseline and mean platelet count were positively associated with total mortality, CHD mortality, cancer mortality, and non-CHD/noncancer mortality. The association was robust and was not affected by adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, exclusion of women with comorbidity, or allowance for reverse causality. Low- and high-platelet counts were associated with all four outcomes in never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers. In this large study of postmenopausal women, both low- and high-platelet counts were associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude, Ambiente e Trabalho; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica da Terra. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira, E-mail: mvtn@ifba.edu.b [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LAFIR/NTS/IFBA) Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica

    2011-07-01

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  1. Short-run Effects of Job Loss on Health Conditions, Health Insurance, and Health Care Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Jessamyn Schaller; Ann Huff Stevens

    2014-01-01

    Job loss in the United States is associated with long-term reductions in income and long-term increases in mortality rates. This paper examines the short- to medium-term changes in health, health care access, and health care utilization after job loss that lead to these long-term effects. Using a sample with more than 9800 individual job losses and longitudinal data on a wide variety of health-related measures and outcomes, we show that job loss results in worse self-reported health, includin...

  2. Health effects of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  3. Health effects of air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C.; Caillaud, D.

    The air conditioning used in residential or commercial buildings (offices, hotels, sterile areas of hospitals, computer and electronics industries) is responsible for a certain number of well identified ailments which can be classified in three groups: infections (legionnaires'disease, ornithosis), allergies (mainly respiratory) eg. rhinitis, asthma, alveolitis but also Monday morning illness or humidifier fever, various functional disorders grouped under the name Sick Building Syndrome. To avoid these problems, a certain number of recommendations may be made. They concern: installation of air conditioning, humidification which is the cause of bacterial and fungal contamination, filtration, monitoring of the installation by qualitative and quantitative measurements, maintenance. The legal problems relating to these illnesses, the responsibility for which is ultimately laid at the door of the installers, should also be mentioned. Allergies are recognized to be of professional origin in Table 66 of allergic illnesses issued by the Social Security.

  4. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  5. Environmental contaminants and children's health: Cause for concern, time for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, G W

    2001-12-01

    The present paper provides an outline of the developmental and behavioural characteristics that make children, especially the fetus and young child, more vulnerable to contaminants than adults. The major categories of contaminants are briefly described. The evidence for their possible effects on neurobehavioural development; immune, endocrine and respiratory systems; childhood cancer based on research studies with animals; children exposed to catastrophic 'accidents' involving overdose exposures; and pregnant women and children from communities with high 'background' levels of contamination who participated in studies is reviewed. While the data are worrisome, especially for children living in northern and certain urban communities, much remains to be learned about possible subtle effects and the potential for long term effects of the current background contamination experienced by the majority of Canadian children before its significance to their health can be fully evaluated. The present regulatory processes, which are based on risk assessment, are so cumbersome and costly that the great majority of chemicals in use have not been fully evaluated, and the ingenuity of new chemical production continually exceeds the capacity to test the new chemicals. Moreover, despite past insistence on scientific proof of adverse effects and safety, unanticipated effects have occurred that will threaten the sustainability of human life unless more effective control measures are taken to limit the release of toxic substances and persistent chemicals into the environment. Therefore, the shortcomings of risk assessment are discussed, and the precautionary principle, which is used in some countries and is proposed for use internationally as an alternative measure that may offer improved control for the future, is outlined. Finally, opportunities for physician action are suggested.

  6. Coriolis effects are principally caused by gyroscopic angular acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isu, N; Yanagihara, M; Mikuni, T; Koo, J

    1994-07-01

    A cause of nausea evoked by cross-coupled rotation (termed Coriolis stimulus) was determined. Subjects were provided with two types of cross-coupled rotations: neck-forward flexion (Neck Flx) and upper body-forward flexion (Body Flx) during horizontal whole body rotation at a constant angular velocity. These Coriolis stimuli were given alternatively in an experimental sequence, and the severity of the nausea they evoked was compared by the subjects. The results indicated that the same quality of nausea was evoked by a slightly higher angular velocity during Body Flx (100.5 degrees/s) than during Neck Flx (90 degrees/s). While Body Flx generated Coriolis linear acceleration several times larger than Neck Flx, both the stimuli generated a similar magnitude of gyroscopic angular acceleration in this condition. Therefore, it was inferred that the nausea evoked by a Coriolis stimulus is principally caused by gyroscopic angular acceleration.

  7. Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, N. E.

    2000-01-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a reinterpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of th...

  8. Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    2000-02-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a re-interpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of the evidence implicating selenium is circumstantial.

  9. Short-term effects of air temperature on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitner, Susanne; Wolf, Kathrin; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2014-08-01

    This time series study aimed to examine the association between daily air temperature and cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in Bavaria, Southern Germany. We obtained data from the cities Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg and two adjacent administrative districts (Augsburg and Aichach-Friedberg), for the period 1990-2006. Data included daily cause-specific cardiovascular death counts, mean daily meteorological variables and air pollution concentrations. In the first stage, data were analysed for Munich, Nuremberg and the Augsburg region separately using Poisson regression models combined with distributed lag non-linear models adjusting for long-term trend, calendar effects and meteorological factors. In a second stage, we combined city-specific exposure-response relationships through a multivariate meta-analysis framework. An increase in the 2-day average temperature from the 90th (20.0°C) to the 99th centiles (24.8°C) resulted in an increase of cardiovascular mortality by 10% (95% CI 5% to 15%) in the pooled analysis, while for a decrease from the 10th (-1.0°C) to the 1st centiles (-7.5°C) in the 15-day average temperature cardiovascular mortality increased by 8% (95% CI 2% to 14%). Strongest consistent risk estimates were seen for high 2-day average temperatures and mortality due to other heart diseases (including arrhythmias and heart failure) and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in the elderly. Results indicate that, in addition to low temperatures, high temperatures increase cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in temperature climates. These findings may guide planning public health interventions to control and prevent the health effects of exposure to air temperature, especially for individuals at risk for mortality due to heart failure, arrhythmias or cerebrovascular diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Survey on prevalence and causes of self-medication in women referring to health centers in Ahwaz, in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourandoght Afshary

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, considerable advances achieved in different scientific fields have led to an ever-increasing access of people to various medications and their unauthorized consumption, which negatively affects the healthcare and treatment system. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the Prevalence and causes of this phenomenon in the female population of Ahwaz. Material and Methods: In this Cross-sectional study364 Women referring to seven health centers in Ahwaz were selected randomly and based on the family medical file number and by proportional distribution to each center and semi-structured questionnaires were completed through interviews. The data were analyzed by Chi square test and logistic regression. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Self-medication was observed in 70.1% of women. The most frequent group  was those above the age of 30. The most common self-medication case was urogenitaldisorders (58.7%. there was a significant relation between education (p<0.003 and number of births (p=0.003 and unauthorized drug consumption. The most causes for synthetic drug use were previous illness background (48.6% and high medication costs (50.6%, and about herbal drugs were high medication costs (41.1%, and the effectiveness of these products about medicinal herbs (38.1 %. Conclusion: High rate of self-medication in the studied society necessitates training on proper use of drugs through the use of social media.

  11. Orphanhood by AIDS-Related Causes and Child Mental Health: A Developmental Psychopathology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Jardin, Charles; Marais, Lochner; Boivin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework. Results showed that the immediate and longterm effects of AIDS orphanhood are moderated by a number of important risk and protective factors that may serve as strategic targets for intervention. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27668289

  12. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  13. Age and cause mortality structure in the Italian regions at the beginning of the health transition: a research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Del Panta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring Italian mortality structure (by age and cause of death at the regional level in the last decades of the 19th Century. These years, corresponding to the beginning of the health transition process, were crucial in the Italian experience. The analysis is based on a careful exploitation of the volume “Statistica delle cause delle morti 1888”, published in 1890, by the General Directorate of Statistics. This volume is the only one which offers for the Italian regions, before the second World war, death statistics classified according to both age and cause together. The principal objectives of this descriptive contribution are essentially to illustrate the territorial variation of mortality conditions in the first phase of the health transition process as well as to underline the relevance and the complexities of the causes specific mortality analysis to explain the geographical mortality differentials in terms of age and sex.

  14. Examining age-related shared variance between face cognition, vision, and self-reported physical health: a test of the common cause hypothesis for social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing), and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain). We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17-88 years old), we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident.

  15. Examining Age-Related Shared Variance Between Face Cognition, Vision, and Self-Reported Physical Health: A Test of the Common Cause Hypothesis for Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally eOlderbak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The shared decline in cognitive abilities, sensory functions (e.g., vision and hearing, and physical health with increasing age is well documented with some research attributing this shared age-related decline to a single common cause (e.g., aging brain. We evaluate the extent to which the common cause hypothesis predicts associations between vision and physical health with social cognition abilities, specifically face perception and face memory. Based on a sample of 443 adults (17 to 88 years old, we test a series of structural equation models, including Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause (MIMIC models, and estimate the extent to which vision and self-reported physical health are related to face perception and face memory through a common factor, before and after controlling for their fluid cognitive component and the linear effects of age. Results suggest significant shared variance amongst these constructs, with a common factor explaining some, but not all, of the shared age-related variance. Also, we found that the relations of face perception, but not face memory, with vision and physical health could be completely explained by fluid cognition. Overall, results suggest that a single common cause explains most, but not all age-related shared variance with domain specific aging mechanisms evident.

  16. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2015-06-11

    Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a

  17. Circadian clock disruption in neurodegenerative diseases: Cause and effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Steven Musiek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance of the circadian system, manifested as disrupted daily rhythms of physiologic parameters such as sleep, activity, and hormone secretion, has long been observed as a symptom of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer Disease. Circadian abnormalities have generally been considered consequences of the neurodegeneration. Recent evidence suggests, however, that circadian disruption might actually contribute to the neurodegenerative process, and thus might be a modifiable cause of neural injury. Herein we will review the evidence implicating circadian rhythms disturbances and clock gene dysfunction in neurodegeneration, with an emphasis on future research directions and potential therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Fundamental Causes of Health Disparities: Stratification, the Welfare State, and Health in the United States and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2007-01-01

    Research has established that those with higher social status have better health. Less is known about whether this relationship differs cross-nationally and whether it operates similarly across different institutional arrangements. To examine the relationship between stratification and health, two Western, industrialized societies at opposite ends…

  19. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  20. Causes and effects of a hole. [in Antarctic ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margitan, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary results from the U.S. National Ozone Expedition (NOZE) to Antarctica are reviewed. The NOZE ozonesonde measurements showed significant vertical structure in the hole, with 80 percent depletion in some of the 1 km layers but only 20 percent in adjacent layers. The depletion was confined to the 12-20 km region, beginning first at higher altitude and progressing downward. This is strong evidence against the theory that the ozone hole is due to solar activity producing odd nitrogen at high altitudes which is transported downwards, leading to enhanced odd-nitrogen catalytic cycles that destroy ozone. Nitrous oxide data show unusually low concentrations within the polar vortex, which is evidence against the theory that the hole is caused by a purely dynamical mechanism in which rising air motions within the polar vortex lead to reduced column densities of ozone. It is tentatively concluded that a chemical mechanism involving man-made chlorofluorocarbons is the likely cause of ozone depletion in the hole.

  1. A methodology of estimation on air pollution and its health effects in large Japanese cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Keiko; Shibuya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Shogo; Kashima, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between air pollution and health effects in large Japanese cities presents a great challenge owing to the limited availability of data on the exposure to pollution, health effects and the uncertainty of mixed causes. A methodology for quantitative relationships (between the emission volume and air quality, and the air quality and health effects) is analysed with a statistical method in this article; the correlation of air pollution reduction policy in Japan from 1974 to 2007. ...

  2. Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2015-12-01

    The water quality in South Africa's river systems is rapidly deteriorating as a consequence of increased discharge of wastewater effluents. The natural ability of rivers and reservoirs to trap toxic chemicals and nutrients in their sediments enables these systems to accumulate contaminants, altering the natural balance in environmental water quality, thereby raising a plethora of public and environmental health concerns. Impaired water quality has been linked to an array of problems in South Africa including massive fish mortalities, altered habitat template leading to the thinning of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity, shifts in microbial community structures with drastic ecological consequences and evolvement of antibiotic resistance genes that, under natural conditions, can be transferred to waterborne pathogens. Urban wastewater discharge has also been implicated in increased bioaccumulation of metals in edible plant parts, elevated concentrations of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are blamed for reduced fertility and increased cancer risk, excessive growth of toxic cyanobacteria and an increase in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms which constitute a potential health threat to humans. However, despite the ecotoxicological hazards posed by wastewater effluents, ecotoxicological studies are currently underutilised in South African aquatic ecosystem assessments, and where they have been done, the observation is that ecotoxicological studies are mostly experimental and restricted to small study areas. More research is still needed to fully assess especially the ecotoxicological consequences of surface water pollution by urban wastewater effluents in South Africa. A review of the effects of urban effluent discharges that include domestic effluent mixed with industrial effluent and/or urban stormwater run-off is hereby presented.

  3. Religiosity and Parochial School Choice: Cause or Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William; Cohen-Zada, Danny

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the effect of religiosity as measured by attendance at religious services on religious school choice. Particular attention is given to the possibly endogenous relationship between school choice and religiosity. We find that religiosity has an important causal effect on the demand for parochial schools. It is also shown…

  4. Causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of health workers: key findings from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret; Runnels, Vivien; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sood, Atul; Nair, Sreelekha; Thomas, Philomina; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Labonté, Ronald; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2017-04-05

    This study sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health professional migration, its consequences, and the various strategies countries have employed to mitigate its negative impacts. The study was conducted in four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-that have historically been "sources" of health workers migrating to other countries. The aim of this paper is to present the findings from the Indian portion of the study. Data were collected using surveys of Indian generalist and specialist physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, dieticians, and other allied health therapists. We also conducted structured interviews with key stakeholders representing government ministries, professional associations, regional health authorities, health care facilities, and educational institutions. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Shortages of health workers are evident in certain parts of India and in certain specialty areas, but the degree and nature of such shortages are difficult to determine due to the lack of evidence and health information. The relationship of such shortages to international migration is not clear. Policy responses to health worker migration are also similarly embedded in wider processes aimed at health workforce management, but overall, there is no clear policy agenda to manage health worker migration. Decision-makers in India present conflicting options about the need or desirability of curtailing migration. Consequences of health work migration on the Indian health care system are not easily discernable from other compounding factors. Research suggests that shortages of skilled health workers in India must be examined in relation to domestic policies on training, recruitment, and retention rather than viewed as a direct consequence of the international migration of health workers.

  5. Inhaled Lavender Effect on Anxiety and Pain Caused From Intrauterine Device Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Shahnazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intrauterine device (IUD is the most common reliable, effective and reversible contraceptive method used worldwide and in areas with high growth rate is of particular importance. IUD insertion is associated with high anxiety in most people that causes pain and discomfort. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aromatherapy on anxiety and pain caused by IUD insertion. Methods: This study was conducted on 106 women in a health care center located in Ardebil, Iran. Participants were divided into two groups by randomized blocks of 4 and 6. In the experimental group lavender scent was inhaled and in the control group the placebo was inhaled 30 minutes before IUD insertion. The anxiety of the participants was measured by Spielberger questionnaire, and the pain of IUD insertion was measured immediately after the insertion using visual analog scale (range 0-10. Results: The mean score (standard deviation of anxiety before intervention was 43.2 (9.2 in the experimental group that decreased after intervention to 39.0 (10.5 (p < 0.001, while this score was 42.2 (9.0 and 41.5 (8.4 before and after the intervention in the control group (p = 0.21. Mean differences of anxiety in both groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The pain score after intervention did not show significant difference between two groups (p = 0.51. Conclusion: Aromatherapy with lavender inhalation was effective in decreasing anxiety in IUD procedure, and this method can be used in health care centers as complementary treatments.

  6. The Health Effects and Keep Down of Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibration was defined that oscillation of the body according to the reference point. The tools that are used in industry and are the source of vibration cause diseases. For this reason, the vibration has been one of the factors that affect the health and of the most widely researched in the field of ergonomics. The perceived intensity and health effects of vibration depend on the vibration frequency, intensity, direction, acceleration, duration of exposure, vibration affects the region, age, gender, posture, distance from the source person, activity, time of day and the person\\s overall health condition. The one of the most common health effects of whole body vibration is impact on musculoskeletal system. In many studies, indicated that whole-body vibration effect waist, back, shoulder and neck especially. There were varied studies that hormone levels were not changed as well there were varied studies that hormone levels were increased or decreased. There were varied studies about the digestive and circulatory system. In these studies, digestive system complaints, peptic ulcer, gastritis, varicose veins and hemorrhoids were determined frequently. For protection the health effect of vibration, Directives of the European Commission, Turkish Standards, Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise and Vibration Regulations were published. For the control of vibration are need technical and medical measures and education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(2.000: 177-186

  7. [Study protocol on the effect of the economic crisis on mortality and reproductive health and health inequalities in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Glòria; Gotsens, Mercè; Palència, Laia; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Puig, Vanessa; Bartoll, Xavier; Gandarillas, Ana; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Díez, Elia; Ruiz, Miguel; Esnaola, Santiago; Calvo, Montserrat; Sánchez, Pablo; Luque Fernández, Miguel Ángel; Borrell, Carme

    The aim is to present the protocol of the two sub-studies on the effect of the economic crisis on mortality and reproductive health and health inequalities in Spain. Substudy 1: describe the evolution of mortality and reproductive health between 1990 and 2013 through a longitudinal ecological study in the Autonomous Communities. This study will identify changes caused by the economic crisis in trends or reproductive health and mortality indicators using panel data (17 Autonomous Communities per study year) and adjusting Poisson models with random effects variance. Substudy 2: analyse inequalities by socioeconomic deprivation in mortality and reproductive health in several areas of Spain. An ecological study analysing trends in the pre-crisis (1999-2003 and 2004-2008) and crisis (2009-2013) periods will be performed. Random effects models Besag York and Mollié will be adjusted to estimate mortality indicators softened in reproductive health and census tracts.

  8. Social media in public health: an analysis of national health authorities and leading causes of death in Spanish-speaking Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novillo-Ortiz, David; Hernández-Pérez, Tony

    2017-02-03

    Information and communications technologies, like social media, have the potential to reduce some barriers in disease prevention and control in the Americas. National health authorities can use these technologies to provide access to reliable and quality health information. A study was conducted to analyze availability of information about the leading causes of death on social media channels of national health authorities in 18 Spanish-speaking Latin American and Caribbean countries. We gathered data of national health authorities's institutional presence in social media. Exploratory-descriptive research was useful for analysis and interpretation of the data collected. An analysis was carried out for 6 months, from April 1 to September 30, 2015. Sixteen of the 18 countries studied have institutional presences on social media. National health authorities have a presence in an average of almost three platforms (2.8%). An average of 1% of the populations with Internet access across the 18 countries in this study follows national health authorities on social media (approximately, an average of 0.3% of the total population of the countries under study). On average, information on 3.2 of the 10 leading causes of death was posted on the national health authorities' Facebook pages, and information on 2.9 of the 10 leading causes of death was posted on their Twitter profiles. Additionally, regarding public health expenditures and the possibility of retrieving information on the leading causes of death, an apparent negative correlation exists in the case of Facebook, r(13) = -.54, P = .03 and a weak negative correlation in the case of Twitter, r(14) = -.26, P = .31, for the countries with presences in those networks. National health authorities can improve their role in participating in conversations on social media regarding the leading causes of death affecting their countries. Taking into account Internet accessibility levels in the countries under study

  9. Public participation for women's health: strange bedfellows or partners in a cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Meadows, Lynn M; Rutherford, Erin

    2005-05-01

    A major focus of health system reform in Canada has been the regionalization of health services administration. With a goal of bringing decision-making closer to the community, there has been a commitment to public participation in planning by some health authorities. Women, however, often feel that their participation is minimal or their needs are not addressed. During regionalization of the Alberta health system, the Calgary Health Region (CHR) negotiated an agreement with the Salvation Army to provide women's health services through the Grace Women's Health Centre, a major part of the region's women's health program. We present a case study exploring the process and final agreement and the impact of this agreement on women's participation in health policy development. The historical context and the nature and impact of the agreement are described and several participation strategies that occurred within the partnership are discussed. The development of a formal partnership agreement, a governance model, was a success for public participation in this case; however, the greatest success for women was maintenance of a political space in which women's health as a priority could be discussed in a context where the forces against gender equity talk are strong.

  10. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Zungu, M Philip; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n=283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg(-1) dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ(15)N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ(13)C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat.

  11. Public health genomics Relevance of genomics for individual health information management, health policy development and effective health services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brand

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare delivery systems are facing fundamental challenges. New ways of organising theses systems based on the different needs of stakeholders’ are required to meet these challenges. While medicine is currently undergoing remarkable developments from its morphological and phenotype orientation to a molecular and genotype orientation, promoting the importance of prognosis and prediction, the discussion about the relevance of genome-based information and technologies for the health care system as a whole and especially for public health is still in its infancy. The following article discusses the relevance of genome-based information and technologies for individual health information management, health policy development and effective health services.

  12. Pathophysiological effects caused by the venom of the social wasp Synoeca surinama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro e Silva, Juliana; Oliveira, Fagner Neves; Moreira, Karla Graziela; Mayer, Andreia Biolchi; Freire, Daniel Oliveira; Cherobim, Mariana Dornelas; Gomes de Oliveira Junior, Nelson; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Mortari, Márcia Renata

    2016-04-01

    Envenomation by wasp stings is a public health preoccupation, and signals after stings have variable effects depending on the number of attacks and individual sensitivities. Even with the high rate of wasp sting cases, the study of phatophysiological effects of the envenomation is still very incipient. In this context, early and accurate assessment of this prognostic can aid in the reduction of the symptomatology and complete remission of the later symptoms. Then, the present study evaluated the toxicological effects caused by envenomation produced by Synoeca surinama, a wasp easily found in Neotropical regions. In vivo tests comprised the evaluation of LD50 (OECD 423), nociception, edema, myotoxic lesion and hemorrhage induction, in vitro tests were realized to evaluate hemolysis, contractile and coagulation alteration. The envenomation effects observed were dose- and time-dependent; the LD50 observed for S. surinama was 178 μg/kg, approximately 17 times more lethal than that of the honeybee. Moreover, a potent algesic and oedema effect, and weak hemorrhagic signal were observed after injection of the venom wasp. Assays in vitro showed that this venom is able to prolong the clotting time of plasma and to increase creatine kinase levels. Our results demonstrated that this venom induced serious local and systemic effects in mammals and, so, to avoid permanent damage to the patient, health professionals should carefully investigate each accident. Moreover, due to its high occurrence in Neotropical regions, ecological management, particularly in areas with free access of children and elderly, should be performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient health causes substantial portion of geographic variation in Medicare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Megan

    2013-10-01

    Key findings. (1) Substantial geographic variation exists in Medicare costs, but to determine the source and extent of this variation requires proper accounting for population health differences. (2) While physician practice patterns likely affect Medicare geographic cost variations, population health explains at least 75 to 85 percent of the variations—more than previously estimated. (3) Policy strategies should consider the magnitude of the impact of beneficiary health status on Medicare costs in order to address geographic variation.

  14. Influence of Health Warnings on Beliefs about the Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking, in the Context of an Experimental Study in Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Reid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette package health warnings can be an important and low-cost means of communicating the health risks of smoking. We examined whether viewing health warnings in an experimental study influenced beliefs about the health effects of smoking, by conducting surveys with ~500 adult male smokers and ~500 male and female youth (age 16–18 in Beijing, China (n = 1070, Mumbai area, India (n = 1012, Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 1018, and Republic of Korea (n = 1362. Each respondent was randomly assigned to view and rate pictorial health warnings for 2 of 15 different health effects, after which they reported beliefs about whether smoking caused 12 health effects. Respondents who viewed relevant health warnings (vs. other warnings were significantly more likely to believe that smoking caused that particular health effect, for several health effects in each sample. Approximately three-quarters of respondents in China (Beijing, Bangladesh (Dhaka, and Korea (which had general, text-only warnings thought that cigarette packages should display more health information, compared to approximately half of respondents in the Mumbai area, India (which had detailed pictorial warnings. Pictorial health warnings that convey the risk of specific health effects from smoking can increase beliefs and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, particularly for health effects that are lesser-known.

  15. Changes in Health-Seeking Behavior Did Not Result in Increased All-Cause Mortality During the Ebola Outbreak in Western Area, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vygen, Sabine; Tiffany, Amanda; Rull, Monica; Ventura, Alexandre; Wolz, Anja; Jambai, Amara; Porten, Klaudia

    2016-10-05

    Little is known about the residual effects of the west African Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic on non-Ebola mortality and health-seeking behavior in Sierra Leone. We conducted a retrospective household survey to estimate mortality and describe health-seeking behavior in Western Area, Sierra Leone, between May 25, 2014, and February 16, 2015. We used two-stage cluster sampling, selected 30 geographical sectors with probability proportional to population size, and sampled 30 households per sector. Survey teams conducted face-to-face interviews and collected information on mortality and health-seeking behavior. We calculated all-cause and Ebola-specific mortality rates and compared health-seeking behavior before and during the Ebola epidemic using χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests. Ninety-six deaths, 39 due to Ebola, were reported in 898 households. All-cause and Ebola-specific mortality rates were 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29-0.76) and 0.19 (95% CI = 0.01-0.38) per 10,000 inhabitants per day, respectively. Of those households that reported a sick family member during the month before the survey, 86% (73/85) sought care at a health facility before the epidemic, compared with 58% (50/86) in February 2015 (P = 0.013). Reported self-medication increased from 4% (3/85) before the epidemic to 23% (20/86) during the epidemic (P = 0.013). Underutilization of health services and increased self-medication did not show a demonstrable effect on non-Ebola-related mortality. Nevertheless, the residual effects of outbreaks need to be taken into account for the future. Recovery efforts should focus on rebuilding both the formalized health system and the population's trust in it. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. SCALE EFFECT OF IMPINGING PRESSURE CAUSED BY SUBMERGED JET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhong; XU Wei-lin; WANG Wei; LIU Shan-jun; DONG Jian-wei

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of the impinging pressure at the jet equipment where the maximum jet velocity can reach 50m/s were studied. By comparing the impinging pressure with the one measured at the low velocity conditions, two conclusions of the scale effect are drawn: firstly, the velocity attenuation degree is smaller than that of low-velocity jet, and secondly, the relative impinging width is narrower than that of low-velocity jet. The reasons of the scale effect of the impinging pressure were elucidated through numerical simulation.

  17. Examples of the application of the cause-effect ergonomic evaluation model to the wheelchair cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà-Guillem, Ricard; Page, Álvaro; Laparra, José; Durà, Juan V

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the potential of the application of the cause-effect model for the ergonomic evaluation in the field of cushions. User involvement in the prescription and development of assistive devices have been identified a key aspect for positive interventions, although the reality is that we lack of systematic approaches and examples of best practices. The potential benefits are identified for the development of new products and in the prescription process. Additional research would be necessary to better link the characteristics of the cushions and users with the biomechanical and physiological performance of the interface cushion-user and the consequences measured in health, user perception and activity performance. This article shows examples of the relationship in this three levels from the point of view of the user perception.

  18. Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis--cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, L J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis are two distinct diseases encountered commonly in small animal practice. Whilst the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are usually unmistakeable, a firm diagnosis of pancreatitis can prove more elusive, as clinical signs are often variable. Over the past 10 to 15 years, despite the fact that the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are remarkably consistent, it has become more apparent that the underlying pathology of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats is heterogeneous, with exocrine pancreatic inflammation accompanying diabetes mellitus in a number of cases. However, the question remains as to whether the diabetes mellitus causes the pancreatitis or whether, conversely, the pancreatitis leads to diabetes mellitus--as there is evidence to support both scenarios. The concurrence of diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis has clinical implications for case management as such cases may follow a more difficult clinical course, with their glycaemic control being "brittle" as a result of variation in the degree of pancreatic inflammation. Problems may also arise if abdominal pain or vomiting lead to anorexia. In addition, diabetic cases with pancreatitis are at risk of developing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the following months to years, which can complicate their management further.

  19. Hypoxemia in patients with COPD: cause, effects, and disease progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and disability internationally. Alveolar hypoxia and consequent hypoxemia increase in prevalence as disease severity increases. Ventilation\\/perfusion mismatch resulting from progressive airflow limitation and emphysema is the key driver of this hypoxia, which may be exacerbated by sleep and exercise. Uncorrected chronic hypoxemia is associated with the development of adverse sequelae of COPD, including pulmonary hypertension, secondary polycythemia, systemic inflammation, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. A combination of these factors leads to diminished quality of life, reduced exercise tolerance, increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity, and greater risk of death. Concomitant sleep-disordered breathing may place a small but significant subset of COPD patients at increased risk of these complications. Long-term oxygen therapy has been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, reduce erythrocytosis, and improve survival in selected patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, the optimal treatment for patients with exertional oxyhemoglobin desaturation, isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, or mild-to-moderate resting daytime hypoxemia remains uncertain.

  20. Hypoxemia in patients with COPD: cause, effects, and disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brian D Kent1,2, Patrick D Mitchell1, Walter T McNicholas1,21Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin; 2Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, IrelandAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of death and disability internationally. Alveolar hypoxia and consequent hypoxemia increase in prevalence as disease severity increases. Ventilation/perfusion mismatch resulting from progressive airflow limitation and emphysema is the key driver of this hypoxia, which may be exacerbated by sleep and exercise. Uncorrected chronic hypoxemia is associated with the development of adverse sequelae of COPD, including pulmonary hypertension, secondary polycythemia, systemic inflammation, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. A combination of these factors leads to diminished quality of life, reduced exercise tolerance, increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity, and greater risk of death. Concomitant sleep-disordered breathing may place a small but significant subset of COPD patients at increased risk of these complications. Long-term oxygen therapy has been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, reduce erythrocytosis, and improve survival in selected patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, the optimal treatment for patients with exertional oxyhemoglobin desaturation, isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, or mild-to-moderate resting daytime hypoxemia remains uncertain.Keywords: COPD, hypoxia, sleep, inflammation, pulmonary hypertension

  1. Health worker migration from South Africa: causes, consequences and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David; Mathole, Thubelihle; Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel; Dambisya, Yoswa; Runnels, Vivien; Packer, Corinne; MacKenzie, Adrian; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2015-12-03

    This paper arises from a four-country study that sought to better understand the drivers of skilled health worker migration, its consequences, and the strategies countries have employed to mitigate negative impacts. The four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-have historically been "sources" of skilled health workers (SHWs) migrating to other countries. This paper presents the findings from South Africa. The study began with a scoping review of the literature on health worker migration from South Africa, followed by empirical data collected from skilled health workers and stakeholders. Surveys were conducted with physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists. Interviews were conducted with key informants representing educators, regulators, national and local governments, private and public sector health facilities, recruitment agencies, and professional associations and councils. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Interview data were analyzed thematically. There has been an overall decrease in out-migration of skilled health workers from South Africa since the early 2000s largely attributed to a reduced need for foreign-trained skilled health workers in destination countries, limitations on recruitment, and tighter migration rules. Low levels of worker satisfaction persist, although the Occupation Specific Dispensation (OSD) policy (2007), which increased wages for health workers, has been described as critical in retaining South African nurses. Return migration was reportedly a common occurrence. The consequences attributed to SHW migration are mixed, but shortages appear to have declined. Most promising initiatives are those designed to reinforce the South African health system and undertaken within South Africa itself. In the near past, South Africa's health worker shortages as a result of emigration were viewed as significant and harmful. Currently, domestic policies to improve health care and

  2. Protective effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetti, Raghu; Raghuveer, C V; Mallikarjuna, Rao C

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is present in the ground water, World Health Organization permitted level of fluoride in the ground water is 0.5 ppm. Tooth pastes, mouth washes, tea and sea fish are the sources of fluoride. Exposure to these multiple sources results in several adverse effects in addition to the fluorosis. The present study aimed to test the effect of vitamin C and Ginkgo biloba against the behavioural deficits caused by fluoride. Rats were divided into five groups with six animals in each group (n = 6). Control group received ordinary tap water with 0.5 ppm of fluoride, the remaining groups received 100 ppm of fluoride for 30 days prior to fluoride exposure. Two groups of animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and G. biloba for 15 days prior to fluoride exposure. After 45 days, behavioural studies (T-Maze, passive avoidance) were conducted on the experimental animals. The results of the present study showed no behavioural deficits in the control group of animals however, the rats that received fluoride water exhibited impairment in their spatial learning and memory deficits. The deficits are not marked in the vitamin C and G. biloba groups. To conclude chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride causes severe impairment in the spatial learning and memory, these deficits can be ameliorated with the vitamin C and G. biloba.

  3. Correlates, Causes, Effects, and Treatment of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Ray

    1988-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the results of 562 studies illustrates the nature, effect, and treatment of academic test anxiety (TA). TA correlated inversely to students' self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Ability, gender, and school grade level also affect TA. (TJH)

  4. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: Cause for concern & call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sunitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition, tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries.

  5. Social inequalities and health among children aged 10–11 in The Netherlands : Causes and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lucht, Fons; Groothoff, Johan

    Socioeconomic health differences (SEHD) are relatively small in childhood. In adolescence they almost seem to disappear and among young adults they re-emerge. This article deals with mechanisms that contribute to the emergence of health differences by studying a group of 10-11 year old children in

  6. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: cause for concern & call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Singh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna

    2014-08-01

    The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition), tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types) specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs) including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal) coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries.

  7. Similar compositional biases are caused by very different mutational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo P.C.; Touchon, Marie; Feil, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    Compositional replication strand bias, commonly referred to as GC skew, is present in many genomes of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses. Although cytosine deamination in ssDNA (resulting in C→T changes on the leading strand) is often invoked as its major cause, the precise contributions of this and other substitution types are currently unknown. It is also unclear if the underlying mutational asymmetries are the same among taxa, are stable over time, or how closely the observed biases are to mutational equilibrium. We analyzed nearly neutral sites of seven taxa each with between three and six complete bacterial genomes, and inferred the substitution spectra of fourfold degenerate positions in nonhighly expressed genes. Using a bootstrap procedure, we extracted compositional biases associated with replication and identified the significant asymmetries. Although all taxa showed an overrepresentation of G relative to C on the leading strand (and imbalances between A and T), widely variable substitution asymmetries are noted. Surprisingly, all substitution types show significant asymmetry in at least one taxon, but none were universally biased in all taxa. Notably, in the two most biased genomes, A→G, rather than C→T, shapes the compositional bias. Given the variability in these biases, we propose that the process is multifactorial. Finally, we also find that most genomes are not at compositional equilibrium, and suggest that mutational-based heterotachy is deeply imprinted in the history of biological macromolecules. This shows that similar compositional biases associated with the same essential well-conserved process, replication, do not reflect similar mutational processes in different genomes, and that caution is required in inferring the roles of specific mutational biases on the basis of contemporary patterns of sequence composition. PMID:17068325

  8. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  9. [Cost effectiveness and health sector reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, P

    1995-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a health intervention is an estimate of the relation between what it costs to be provided, and the improvement in health which results from such intervention. Health may improve because the incidence of illness or injury is reduced, because death is avoided or delayed, or because the duration or severity of disability is limited. The calculation of this health benefit combines objective factors, such as the age at incidence and whether or not the outcome is death, with subjective factors such as the severity of disability, the judgement as to the value of life lived at different ages, and the rate at which the future is discounted. The construction and interpretation of the estimate are explained. Also, the paper examines whether the concept of cost-effectiveness is consistent with ethical norms such as equity, and concludes that they are not in conflict. Finally, it addresses the question of how to incorporate cost-effectiveness into a health sector reform, and possible ways to implement it.

  10. Linguistic ostracism causes prejudice: Support for a serial mediation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.

  11. The Groupon Effect on Yelp Ratings: A Root Cause Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, John W.; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Zervas, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Daily deals sites such as Groupon offer deeply discounted goods and services to tens of millions of customers through geographically targeted daily e-mail marketing campaigns. In our prior work we observed that a negative side effect for merchants using Groupons is that, on average, their Yelp ratings decline significantly. However, this previous work was essentially observational, rather than explanatory. In this work, we rigorously consider and evaluate various hypotheses about underlying c...

  12. Reduced effectiveness of selection caused by a lack of recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Andrea J; Welch, John J; Charlesworth, Brian

    2009-04-28

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction is expected to have important consequences for the effectiveness of natural selection. These effects may be evident within genomes, in the form of contrasting patterns of molecular variation and evolution in regions with different levels of recombination. Previous work reveals patterns that are consistent with a benefit of recombination for adaptation at the level of protein sequence: both positive selection for adaptive variants and purifying selection against deleterious ones appear to be compromised in regions of low recombination [1-11]. Here, we re-examine these patterns by using polymorphism and divergence data from the Drosophila dot chromosome, which has a long history of reduced recombination. To avoid confounding selection and demographic effects, we collected these data from a species with an apparently stable demographic history, Drosophila americana. We find that D. americana dot loci show several signatures of ineffective purifying and positive selection, including an increase in the rate of protein evolution, an increase in protein polymorphism, and a reduction in the proportion of amino acid substitutions attributable to positive selection.

  13. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  14. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Moreira Ramiro do Carmo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polydextrose (PDX is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases.

  15. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  16. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; Dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-09-08

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases.

  17. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Melissa A., E-mail: melissa.mckinney@uconn.edu [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Biomedical Resource Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dudley, Sheldon F.J. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Zungu, M. Philip [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg{sup −1} dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ{sup 15}N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ{sup 13}C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local

  18. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  19. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring.

  20. Red mud a byproduct of aluminum production contains soluble vanadium that causes genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mišík, Miroslav [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Ian T. [Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Reismüller, Matthias; Pichler, Clemens; Rainer, Bernhard [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Mišíková, Katarina [Department of Botany, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mayes, William M. [Centre for Environmental and Marine Sciences, University of Hull, Scarborough YO11 3AZ (United Kingdom); Knasmueller, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Red mud (RM) is a byproduct of aluminum production; worldwide between 70 and 120 million tons is produced annually. We analyzed RM which was released in the course of the Kolontar disaster in Hungary into the environment in acute and genotoxicity experiments with plants which are widely used for environmental monitoring. We detected induction of micronuclei which reflect chromosomal damage in tetrads of Tradescantia and in root cells of Allium as well as retardation of root growth with contaminated soils and leachates. Chemical analyses showed that RM contains metals, in particular high concentrations of vanadium. Follow-up experiments indicated that vanadate causes the effects in the plants. This compound causes also in humans DNA damage and positive results were obtained in carcinogenicity studies. Since it was found also in RM from other production sites our findings indicate that its release in the environment is a global problem which should be studied in more detail. Capsule abstract: Our findings indicate that the red mud causes genotoxic effect in plants probably due to the presence of vanadate which is contained at high concentrations in the residue. - Highlights: • Red mud, a by-product of aluminum production, causes DNA-damage in higher plants. • We showed that this effect is caused by vanadate a known carcinogenic genotoxin. • Vanadate is contained in high concentrations in the residue. • Release of red mud may cause adverse effects in ecosystems and affect human health.

  1. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Materials and Methods: Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. Statistical Analysis: The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy. PMID:26729954

  2. Effects of magnetic fields on dissolution of arthritis causing crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Iwasaka, M.

    2015-05-01

    The number of gout patients has rapidly increased because of excess alcohol and salt intake. The agent responsible for gout is the monosodium urate (MSU) crystal. MSU crystals are found in blood and consist of uric acid and sodium. As a substitute for drug dosing or excessive water intake, physical stimulation by magnetic fields represents a new medical treatment for gout. In this study, we investigated the effects of a magnetic field on the dissolution of a MSU crystal suspension. The white MSU crystal suspension was dissolved in an alkaline solution. We measured the light transmission of the MSU crystal suspension by a transmitted light measuring system. The magnetic field was generated by a horizontal electromagnet (maximum field strength was 500 mT). The MSU crystal suspension that dissolved during the application of a magnetic field of 500 mT clearly had a higher dissolution rate when compared with the control sample. We postulate that the alkali solution promoted penetration upon diamagnetic rotation and this magnetic field orienting is because of the pronounced diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy of the MSU crystal. The results indicate that magnetic fields represent an effective gout treatment approach.

  3. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy.

  4. What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

    2002-07-21

    In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that

  5. Dietary flavonoids: intake, health effects and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. They may have beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant properties and their inhibitory role in various stages of tumour development in animal stud

  6. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... has a potential as a healthy and highly satisfying diet for the general population....

  7. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  8. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... has a potential as a healthy and highly satisfying diet for the general population....

  9. Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015 : a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barber, Ryan M.; Fullman, Nancy; Sorensen, Reed JD; Bollyky, Thomas; McKee, Martin; Nolte, Ellen; van Boven, Job; Murray, Christopher J L

    2017-01-01

    Background National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on

  10. Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015 : a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barber, Ryan M.; Fullman, Nancy; Sorensen, Reed JD; Bollyky, Thomas; McKee, Martin; Nolte, Ellen; van Boven, Job; Murray, Christopher J L

    2017-01-01

    Background National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-

  11. Effects of nutrition on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G A Agbelusi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition represents a summation of intake, absorption, storage and utilization of foods by the tissues. Oral tissues are one of the most sensitive indicators of nutritional state of the body. Nutritional deficiencies are associated with changes in the integrity (health and appearance of the oral structures/ tissues and these changes are frequently the first clinical signs of deficiency. Nutrition affects oral health and oral health affects nutrition. The effects of malnutrition can be seen in the oral structures in all stages of human growth and development from conception to old age. The consequence of certain oral diseases may compromise the nutrition by affecting the intake and mastication particularly in some vulnerable groups like people with severe caries, severe oral ulceration, advanced periodontal disease and the resulting edentulousness. The HIV pandemic has added another dimension to the issue of nutrition and oral health. Oral lesions are some of the earliest lesions seen in HIV/AIDS and 90% of HIV/AIDS patients will have oral lesions at a point in the course of the disease. These oral lesions are painful; disturb food intake and mastication thereby further compromising the nutrition of the affected individuals. In Africa, particularly the Sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of poverty, economic downturn and the HIV pandemic have added another dimension to the issue of food availability and nutrition. Malnutrition is a real problem in this area. This paper will examine the effects of compromised nutrition on oral health and the reverse.

  12. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  13. Study of the Rate and Causes of Islamshahr Urban Residents’ Voiding to Refer to the Health Centers for Receiving Health Services (2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ghazy Sharei

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It was believed that Inhabitant of Islamshahr avoid referring to their health centers and health posts to receive bargain medical services. In search for the rate and causes of such neglect, this study was formed. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study from all urban centers and health posts under the supervision of Islamshahr health network, 712 files were selected randomly. Results: Investigating the selected files it revealed that 25% were complete, 51% were defective and 24% were blank. In other words, only 25% of the files were complete and 75% of the files showed lack of full participation in primary care services. In the process of evaluation of each separate service unit, more defective files were found in family planning and oral health programs. But in the prenatal care and growth observation units, the number of complete files was a little higher than the number of defective ones. This is probably justifiable de to free vaccination of children and pregnant women, which causes the customer to refer to the mentioned units. In search for the causes of this lack of participation, 533 defective files were selected and those families were interviewed through some questionnaires. Conclusion: In family planning and growth observation and prenatal care, the interviewees believed that there was no need for them to seek such services. This in turn shows their lack of knowledge about the necessity of these cares. In case of oral health, lack of such unite in the health center was mentioned as the reason. More details are discussed in the article.

  14. Oral Health Problems And Causes Of Tooth Loss At The University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context Several oral diseases and conditions are associated with tooth loss. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral health ... The data were computer- analysed; Chi square statistics was used to test for ...

  15. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to

  16. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is

  17. The causes and effects of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yimin

    The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard is the major policy tool to improve the fleet average miles per gallon of automobile manufacturers in the U.S. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) provides special treatment in calculating the fuel economy of alternative fuel vehicles to give manufacturers CAFE incentives to produce more alternative fuel vehicles. AMFA has as its goals an increase in the production of alternative fuel vehicles and a decrease in gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This dissertation examines theoretically the effects of the program set up under AMFA. It finds that, under some conditions, this program may actually increase gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The dissertation also uses hedonic techniques to examine whether the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) has a significant effect on the implicit price of fuel economy and whether the marginal value of vehicle fuel efficiency changes over time. It estimates the change of implicit price in miles per gallon after the production of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Results indicate that every year consumers may evaluate vehicle fuel economy differently, and that since AFVs came to the market, the marginal value of fuel economy from specific companies producing AFVs has decreased. This finding suggests that since the AMFA provides extra Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) credit for those automakers producing AFVs, the automakers can take advantage of the incentive to produce more profitable conventional vehicles and meet CAFE standards without improving the fleet fuel economy. In this way, manufacturers who produce AFVs are willing to offer a lower price for the fuel economy under the AMFA. Additionally, this paper suggests that the flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the market are not significantly more expensive than comparable conventional vehicles, even if FFVs are also able to run on an alternative fuel and may cost more than conventional vehicles

  18. Health Behavior Theory for Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Root-Cause Analysis Project in Critical Care Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kristen R; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Bickmann, Jonathan D; Saarinen, Hannah A; Gosselin, Ann K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use a behavioral theory to examine pressure ulcer prevention by nurses in a critical care setting. A root-cause analysis approach was used, including an integrative literature review, operationalization of behavioral constructs into a survey, and root-cause analysis application in a cardiovascular intensive care unit. This article highlights an innovative approach to quality improvement in critical care.

  19. Ethnocentrism: a barrier to effective health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiederman, S B

    1986-08-01

    The effective delivery of health care to growing ethnic populations within the United States is a challenge for nurse practitioners. A breakdown in cross-cultural communication and understanding, which stems from the tendency of health care professionals to project their own culturally specific values and behaviors onto the foreign-born patient, has contributed significantly to non-compliance in this patient population. In order to remedy this situation, it is important for nurse practitioners to separate the values of their own cultural background from the cultural background and values of the patients for whom they provide care.

  20. Effect of the patient-to-patient communication model on dysphagia caused by total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, L; An, R; Zhang, J; Sun, Y; Zhao, R; Liu, M

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of a patient-to-patient communication model on dysphagia in laryngeal cancer patients after total laryngectomy. Sixty-five patients who had undergone total laryngectomy were randomly divided into three groups: a routine communication group, a patient communication group (that received the patient-to-patient communication model) and a physician communication group. Questionnaires were used to compare quality of life and swallowing problems among all patient groups. The main factors causing dysphagia in total laryngectomy patients were related to fear and mental health. The patient communication group had improved visual analogue scale scores at one week after starting to eat. Quality of life in swallowing disorders questionnaire scores were significantly higher in the patient communication and physician communication groups than in the routine communication group. In addition, swallowing problems were much more severe in patients educated to high school level and above than in others. The patient-to-patient communication model can be used to resolve swallowing problems caused by psychological factors in total laryngectomy patients.

  1. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  2. Effects of Heavy Metal Toxicity on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Ozbolat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are the elements that can be toxic even at low concentrations. It is often used as a group name for metals and semimetals (metalloids that have been associated with contamination and potential toxicity or ecotoxicity. Heavy metals are toxic to human health. Because it cannot be discarded with (kidney, liver intestine, skin, lung without special support from most of the body's normal excretion routes Therefore, a large part of the heavy metals accumulate in biological organisms. As a result of the accumulation of these metals that are focused within living things, when they have reached the effective dose severe diseases (such as autism neurological, thyroid and infertility even can cause death. In this review information about the properties and effects of some heavy metals that affects human health have been provided.. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 502-521

  3. [Dependent relative: Effects on family health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Fernández, M Eugenia; Gil Lacruz, Ana I; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Viñas López, Antonio

    2017-04-18

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The study included 19,351 participants aged over 25 years who completed the 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. This research is based on demographic information obtained from a Spanish National Health Survey (2011/12). Using an empirical framework, the Logit model was select and the data reported as odds ratio. The estimations were repeated independently by sub-groups of age and gender. The study showed that the health of people who share their lives with a dependent person is worse than those who do not have any dependent person at home (they are 5 times at higher risk of developing health problems). The study found that being a woman, advance age, low educational level and does not work, also has an influence. Being a caregiver reduces the likelihood of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise, relaxation, or eating a balanced diet. Living with a dependent person reduces the likelihood of maintaining healthy lifestyles and worsens the state of health of family members. Significant differences in gender and age were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Mental health effects of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.

  5. Why Ineffective Psychotherapies Appear to Work: A Taxonomy of Causes of Spurious Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ritschel, Lorie A; Lynn, Steven Jay; Cautin, Robin L; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-07-01

    The past 40 years have generated numerous insights regarding errors in human reasoning. Arguably, clinical practice is the domain of applied psychology in which acknowledging and mitigating these errors is most crucial. We address one such set of errors here, namely, the tendency of some psychologists and other mental health professionals to assume that they can rely on informal clinical observations to infer whether treatments are effective. We delineate four broad, underlying cognitive impediments to accurately evaluating improvement in psychotherapy-naive realism, confirmation bias, illusory causation, and the illusion of control. We then describe 26 causes of spurious therapeutic effectiveness (CSTEs), organized into a taxonomy of three overarching categories: (a) the perception of client change in its actual absence, (b) misinterpretations of actual client change stemming from extratherapeutic factors, and (c) misinterpretations of actual client change stemming from nonspecific treatment factors. These inferential errors can lead clinicians, clients, and researchers to misperceive useless or even harmful psychotherapies as effective. We (a) examine how methodological safeguards help to control for different CSTEs, (b) delineate fruitful directions for research on CSTEs, and (c) consider the implications of CSTEs for everyday clinical practice. An enhanced appreciation of the inferential problems posed by CSTEs may narrow the science-practice gap and foster a heightened appreciation of the need for the methodological safeguards afforded by evidence-based practice.

  6. Viral Causes of Hearing Loss: A Review for Hearing Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brandon E.; Durstenfeld, Anne

    2014-01-01

    A number of viral infections can cause hearing loss. Hearing loss induced by these viruses can be congenital or acquired, unilateral or bilateral. Certain viral infections can directly damage inner ear structures, others can induce inflammatory responses which then cause this damage, and still others can increase susceptibility or bacterial or fungal infection, leading to hearing loss. Typically, virus-induced hearing loss is sensorineural, although conductive and mixed hearing losses can be seen following infection with certain viruses. Occasionally, recovery of hearing after these infections can occur spontaneously. Most importantly, some of these viral infections can be prevented or treated. For many of these viruses, guidelines for their treatment or prevention have recently been revised. In this review, we outline many of the viruses that cause hearing loss, their epidemiology, course, prevention, and treatment. PMID:25080364

  7. Viral causes of hearing loss: a review for hearing health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brandon E; Durstenfeld, Anne; Roehm, Pamela C

    2014-07-29

    A number of viral infections can cause hearing loss. Hearing loss induced by these viruses can be congenital or acquired, unilateral or bilateral. Certain viral infections can directly damage inner ear structures, others can induce inflammatory responses which then cause this damage, and still others can increase susceptibility or bacterial or fungal infection, leading to hearing loss. Typically, virus-induced hearing loss is sensorineural, although conductive and mixed hearing losses can be seen following infection with certain viruses. Occasionally, recovery of hearing after these infections can occur spontaneously. Most importantly, some of these viral infections can be prevented or treated. For many of these viruses, guidelines for their treatment or prevention have recently been revised. In this review, we outline many of the viruses that cause hearing loss, their epidemiology, course, prevention, and treatment.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickan, Sharon M

    2005-05-01

    While it is recognised that effective health care teams are associated with quality patient care, the literature is comparatively sparse in defining the outcomes of effective teamwork. This literature review of the range of organisational, team and individual benefits of teamwork complements an earlier article which summarised the antecedent conditions for (input) and team processes (throughput) of effective teams. This article summarises the evidence for a range of outcome measures of effective teams. Organisational benefits of teamwork include reduced hospitalisation time and costs, reduced unanticipated admissions, better accessibility for patients, and improved coordination of care. Team benefits include efficient use of health care services, enhanced communication and professional diversity. Patients report benefits of enhanced satisfaction, acceptance of treatment and improved health outcomes. Finally, team members report enhanced job satisfaction, greater role clarity and enhanced well-being. Due to the inherent complexity of teamwork, a constituency model of team evaluation is supported where key stakeholders identify and measure the intended benefits of a team.

  9. A multilevel model of organizational health culture and the effectiveness of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2014-01-01

    Organizational health culture is a health-oriented core characteristic of the organization that is shared by all members. It is effective in regulating health-related behavior for employees and could therefore influence the effectiveness of health promotion efforts among organizations and employees. This study applied a multilevel analysis to verify the effects of organizational health culture on the organizational and individual effectiveness of health promotion. At the organizational level, we investigated the effect of organizational health culture on the organizational effectiveness of health promotion. At the individual level, we adopted a cross-level analysis to determine if organizational health culture affects employee effectiveness through the mediating effect of employee health behavior. The study setting consisted of the workplaces of various enterprises. We selected 54 enterprises in Taiwan and surveyed 20 full-time employees from each organization, for a total sample of 1011 employees. We developed the Organizational Health Culture Scale to measure employee perceptions and aggregated the individual data to formulate organization-level data. Organizational effectiveness of health promotion included four dimensions: planning effectiveness, production, outcome, and quality, which were measured by scale or objective indicators. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Scale was adopted for the measurement of health behavior. Employee effectiveness was measured subjectively in three dimensions: self-evaluated performance, altruism, and happiness. Following the calculation of descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test the multilevel hypotheses. Organizational health culture had a significant effect on the planning effectiveness (β = .356, p organizational health culture on three dimensions of employee effectiveness were completely mediated by health behavior. The construct connections established in this multilevel model will help in

  10. Efficacy of Hospital Germicides against Adenovirus 8, a Common Cause of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis in Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A.; Peacock, Jeffrey E.; Gergen, Maria F.; Sobsey, Mark D.; Weber, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The inactivation of virus-contaminated nonporous inanimate surfaces was investigated using adenovirus type 8, a common cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. A 10-μl inoculum of adenovirus was placed onto each stainless steel disk (1-cm diameter), and the inoculum was allowed to air dry for 40 min. Twenty-one different germicides (including disinfectants and antiseptics) were selected for this study based on their current uses in health care. After a 1- or 5-minute exposure to 50 μl of the germicide, the virus-germicide test mixture was neutralized and assayed for infectivity. Using an efficacy criterion of a 3-log10 reduction in the titer of virus infectivity and regardless of the virus suspending medium (i.e., hard water, sterile water, and hard water with 5% fetal calf serum), only five disinfectants proved to be effective against the test virus at 1 min: 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde, 2.4% glutaraldehyde, 2.65% glutaraldehyde, ∼6,000 ppm chlorine, and ∼1,900 ppm chlorine. Four other disinfectants showed effectiveness under four of the five testing conditions: 70% ethanol, 65% ethanol with 0.63% quaternary ammonium compound, 79.6% ethanol with 0.1% quaternary ammonium compound, and 0.2% peracetic acid. Of the germicides suitable for use as an antiseptic, 70% ethanol achieved a 3-log10 reduction under four of the five test conditions. These results emphasize the need for proper selection of germicides for use in disinfecting noncritical surfaces and semicritical medical devices, such as applanation tonometers, in order to prevent outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. PMID:16569860

  11. Towards a new procedure for identifying causes of health and comfort problems in office buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Fossati, S.; Mandin, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Carrer, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the European project OFFICAIR a procedure has been prepared for the inventory and identification of associations between possible characteristics of European modern offices (building, sources and events) and health and comfort of office workers, via a questionnaire and a checklist including envir

  12. #SupportTheCause: Identifying Motivations to Participate in Online Health Campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; van den Broek, Tijs Adriaan; Hauff, C.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Ehrenhard, Michel Léon

    We consider the task of automatically identifying participants’ motivations in the public health campaign Movember and investigate the impact of the different motivations on the amount of campaign donations raised. Our classification scheme is based on the Social Identity Model of Collective Action

  13. What caused the breach? An examination of use of information technology and health data breaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss

    2014-01-01

    Data breaches arising from theft, loss, unauthorized access/disclosure, improper disclosure, or hacking incidents involving personal health information continue to increase every year. As of September 2013, reported breaches affecting individuals reached close to 27 million since 2009, when compilation of records on breaches began. These breaches, which involved 674 covered entities and 153 business associates, involved computer systems and networks, desktop computers, laptops, paper, e-mail, electronic health records, and removable/portable devices (CDs, USBs, x-ray films, backup tapes, etc.). Even with the increased use of health information technology by health institutions and allied businesses, theft and loss (not hacking) constitute the major types of data breaches encountered. Removable/portable devices, desktop computers, and laptops were the top sources or locations of the breached information, while the top six states-Virginia, Illinois, California, Florida, New York, and Tennessee-in terms of the number of reported breaches accounted for nearly 75 percent of the total individual breaches, 33 percent of breaches in covered entities, and about 30 percent of the total breaches involving business associates.

  14. Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenkamp, R.; Zelm, R. van; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently it became known that Volkswagen Group has been cheating with emission tests for diesel engines over the last six years, resulting in on-road emissions vastly exceeding legal standards for nitrogen oxides in Europe and the United States. Here, we provide an estimate of the public health cons

  15. Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenkamp, R.; Zelm, R. van; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently it became known that Volkswagen Group has been cheating with emission tests for diesel engines over the last six years, resulting in on-road emissions vastly exceeding legal standards for nitrogen oxides in Europe and the United States. Here, we provide an estimate of the public health cons

  16. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effect of health-related ad information on perceived product healthfulness and purchase intention. Also, the study investigates whether consumers' health motivation moderates the effects, because of the way health motivation affects processing of health-related information...... in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...... evaluations, while functional claims and process claims have much smaller effects. Health motivation shows significant interaction with process claims on product evaluations....

  17. Cause-Effect Analysis: Improvement of a First Year Engineering Students' Calculus Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoff, Quay; Harding, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the mathematics department at a South African university and in particular on teaching of calculus to first year engineering students. The paper reports on a cause-effect analysis, often used for business improvement. The cause-effect analysis indicates that there are many factors that impact on secondary school teaching of…

  18. Cause-Effect Analysis: Improvement of a First Year Engineering Students' Calculus Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoff, Quay; Harding, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the mathematics department at a South African university and in particular on teaching of calculus to first year engineering students. The paper reports on a cause-effect analysis, often used for business improvement. The cause-effect analysis indicates that there are many factors that impact on secondary school teaching of…

  19. Effect of Grouping of Evidence Types on Learning about Interactions between Observed and Unobserved Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2011-01-01

    When a cause interacts with unobserved factors to produce an effect, the contingency between the observed cause and effect cannot be taken at face value to infer causality. Yet it would be computationally intractable to consider all possible unobserved, interacting factors. Nonetheless, 6 experiments found that people can learn about an unobserved…

  20. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  1. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  2. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.

  3. Analysis of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze and scientifically substantiate peculiarities of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children. Material and Methods: analysis and systematization of scientific and methodological literature, medical histories, anamneses, interviews and questionings. Results: it is specified that failure to timely identify and eliminate the symptoms of hip dysplasia in pre-school children leads to negative consequences, namely limited amplitude of hip joint movements; lower limp muscle weakness; valgus and varus deformations of lower limp; increasing of L-lordosis; skewness of hip bones; scoliosis; claudication. Conclusions: the modern state of the problem of hip dysplasia in pre-school children is analyzed. The cause-effect relationship is defined, their mutual transition is projected. All cause-effect relationships are in direct proportion and in constant interaction: the cause the forms effect and the effect influences the cause

  4. Oral health in relation to all-cause mortality: the IPC cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Margaux; Darnaud, Christelle; Thomas, Frédérique; Pannier, Bruno; Danchin, Nicolas; Batty, G. David; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the association between oral health and mortality. The study population comprised 76,188 subjects aged 16–89 years at recruitment. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 ± 2.4 years. Subjects with a personal medical history of cancer or cardiovascular disease and death by casualty were excluded from the analysis. A full-mouth clinical examination was performed in order to assess dental plaque, dental calculus and gingival inflammation. The number of teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth (HR = 2.31, [95% CI: 1.40–3.82]) and functional masticatory units oral health and mortality. PMID:28294149

  5. Low enrolment in Ugandan Community Health Insurance Schemes: underlying causes and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criel Bart

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the promotion of Community Health Insurance (CHI in Uganda in the second half of the 90's, mainly under the impetus of external aid organisations, overall membership has remained low. Today, some 30,000 persons are enrolled in about a dozen different schemes located in Central and Southern Uganda. Moreover, most of these schemes were created some 10 years ago but since then, only one or two new schemes have been launched. The dynamic of CHI has apparently come to a halt. Methods A case study evaluation was carried out on two selected CHI schemes: the Ishaka and the Save for Health Uganda (SHU schemes. The objective of this evaluation was to explore the reasons for the limited success of CHI. The evaluation involved review of the schemes' records, key informant interviews and exit polls with both insured and non-insured patients. Results Our research points to a series of not mutually exclusive explanations for this under-achievement at both the demand and the supply side of health care delivery. On the demand side, the following elements have been identified: lack of basic information on the scheme's design and operation, limited understanding of the principles underlying CHI, limited community involvement and lack of trust in the management of the schemes, and, last but not least, problems in people's ability to pay the insurance premiums. On the supply-side, we have identified the following explanations: limited interest and knowledge of health care providers and managers of CHI, and the absence of a coherent policy framework for the development of CHI. Conclusion The policy implications of this study refer to the need for the government to provide the necessary legislative, technical and regulative support to CHI development. The main policy challenge however is the need to reconcile the government of Uganda's interest in promoting CHI with the current policy of abolition of user fees in public facilities.

  6. Variation in growth of herbivorous tortoises: causes and consequences for reproduction and health management

    OpenAIRE

    Ritz, J

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles have very flexible growth rates, depending on living conditions - in particular dietary resources. Here, I demonstrate a difference in the growth rates of captive specimens, as compared to literature data for free-ranging ones, in Leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis), African spurred tortoises (G. sulcata), Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni) and Spur-thighed tortoises (T. graeca). Such high growth rates are traditionally thought to be linked to health problems. In the case of ...

  7. [The current state of health education in France: cause or consequence of the lack of political commitment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeulemeester, René

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, the limited resources allocated to health education in France were due to a lack of legitimacy compounded by a lack of professional recognition, in addition to a lack of research and a state of methodological anarchy. A national health education program was launched in 2001 to address this issue. However, the program was only partially implemented. Recent reforms have strengthened the national structure and promoted health communication campaigns. Therapeutic patient education has also been legally recognized. However, the resources allocated to community health education have steadily declined, despite efforts to promote training, quality improvement and rationalization. Health promotion--without which health education activities cannot be developed--is still struggling to gain recognition. Investments in health promotion have not increased as a result of the demonstrable effectiveness and professionalization of the sector and of the quality of its services. Indeed, the reverse may be true. In other words, investments in this area may promote the development of research, assessment and quality, while also highlighting the impact on the determinants of health and well-being. Ultimately, there is evidence to suggest that investments in this area can help to reduce premature mortality rates and the number of preventable deaths.

  8. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and assessment of health risk caused by their ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, V K; Yadav, Poonam; Mor, Suman; Singh, Balvinder; Pulhani, Vandana

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the non-carcinogenic human health risk of heavy metals through the ingestion of locally grown and commonly used vegetables viz. Raphanus sativus (root vegetable), Daucus carota (root vegetable), Benincasa hispida (fruit vegetable) and Brassica campestris leaves (leafy vegetable) in a semi-urbanized area of Haryana state, India. Heavy metal quantification of soil and vegetable samples was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Lead, cadmium and nickel concentration in vegetable samples varied in range of 0.12-6.54 mg kg(-1), 0.02-0.67 mg kg(-1) and vegetable samples exceeded maximum permissible limit given by World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization and Indian standards. Much higher concentrations of Pb (40-190.5 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.56-9.85 mg kg(-1)) and Ni (3.21-45.87 mg kg(-1)) were reported in corresponding vegetable fields' soils. Correlation analysis revealed the formation of three primary clusters, i.e. Cu-Cd, Cd-Pb and Ni-Zn in vegetable fields' soils further supported by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Bioconcentration factor revealed that heavy metals' uptake was more by leafy vegetable than root and fruit vegetables. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the ingestion of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  9. The effect of trends in health and longevity on health services use by older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, B.; Huisman, M.; Meijboom, Bert; Deeg, D.J.H.; Polder, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of population aging on future health services use depends on the relationship between longevity gains and health. Whether further gains in life expectancy will be paired by improvements in health is uncertain. We therefore analyze the effect of population ageing on health servi

  10. [Influenza vaccination in health-care workers: an effective method to reduce the consequences of influenza in health care users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, J C

    2007-09-29

    Only few usable studies into the effect of influenza vaccination of health-care workers on sick leave and influenza among their patients are available in the literature. However, together these studies provide consistent evidence that this vaccination is effective and cost effective, reducing the death rate from all causes of residents of nursing homes for the elderly by 27-44%. Therefore, measures to raise the vaccination rate among health-care workers, which is at present under 25%, are highly recommended. However, more studies in this field are needed.

  11. Family Food Providers’ Perceptions of the Causes of Obesity and Effectiveness of Weight Control Strategies in Five Countries in the Asia Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Worsley; Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Rani Sarmugam; Quynh Pham; Judhiastuty Februhartanty; Stacey Ridley

    2017-01-01

    The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group’s awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. A...

  12. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negeri KG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results: Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000 in the region. Conclusion: Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: health aid, infant mortality, developing countries, panel data

  13. A hospital-based estimate of major causes of death among under-five children from a health facility in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria: possible indicators of health inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Bamgboye M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Current evidence on the root-causes of deaths among children younger than 5years is critical to direct international efforts to improve child survival, focus on health promotion and achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. We report a hospital-based estimate for 2005-2007 of the major causes of death in children in this age-group in south-west Nigeria. Methods We used retrospective data from the intensive care unit of a second-tier health facility to extract the presenting complaints, clinical diagnosis, treatment courses, prognosis and outcome among children aged 6—59months. SPSS-19 was used for data analysis. Results Of the 301 children (58% males, 42% females admitted into the ICU within the period of study, 173 (26% presented with complaints related to the gastrointestinal system, 138 (21% with respiratory symptoms and 196 (29% with complaints of fever. Overall, 708 investigations were requested for among which were full blood count (215, 30% and blood slides for malaria parasite (166, 23%. Infection ranked highest (181, 31% in clinicians’ diagnosis, followed by haematological health problems (109, 19% and respiratory illnesses (101, 17%. There were negative correlations between outcome of the illness and patient’s weight (r=-0.195, p=0.001 and a strong positive correlation between prognosis and outcome of admission (r=0.196, p=0.001. Of the 59 (20% children that died, presentation of respiratory tract illnesses were significantly higher in females (75% than in males (39% (χ²=7.06; p=0.008 and diagnoses related to gastrointestinal pathology were significantly higher in males (18% than in females (0% (χ²=4.07; p=0.05. Majority of the deaths (21% occurred among children aged 1.0 to 1.9years old and among weight group of 5.1-15.0kg. Conclusion The major causes of deaths among under-five years old originate from respiratory, gastrointestinal and infectious diseases – diseases that were recognized as major causes

  14. Causes of mortality and development: Evidence from large health shocks in 20th century America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm Hansen, Casper

    Exploiting pre-intervention variation in flu/pneumonia, tuberculosis and maternal mortality, together with time variation arising from medical breakthroughs starting in the late 1930s, this paper studies the aggregate impact of large health shocks across US states. The analysis demonstrates...... that the shocks influenced income per capita in different ways. While the shock to flu/pneumonia mortality has been conductive for development, the large reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis deaths has been a negative force in the development of US states over the second-half of 20th century. In addition...

  15. Vibrations on board and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places......, seafarers are also exposed to vibrations to the feet when standing on vibrating surfaces onboard. Anecdotal reports have related the development of “white feet” to local exposure to vibration, e.g. in mining, but this connection has not been investigated in the maritime setting. As known from studies...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...

  16. Health effects of toxicants: Online knowledge support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Philip; Judson, Richard; de Marcellus, Sally; de Knecht, Joop; Leinala, Eeva

    2016-01-15

    Research in toxicology generates vast quantities of data which reside on the Web and are subsequently appropriated and utilized to support further research. This data includes a broad spectrum of information about chemical, biological and radiological agents which can affect health, the nature of the effects, treatment, regulatory measures, and more. Information is structured in a variety of formats, including traditional databases, portals, prediction models, and decision making support tools. Online resources are created and housed by a variety of institutions, including libraries and government agencies. This paper focuses on three such institutions and the tools they offer to the public: the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Reference is also made to other relevant organizations.

  17. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-03-22

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Environmental exposure to silver and its health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Arai, Yuta; Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-05-01

    Silver (Ag) possesses a well-known antibacterial activity and has been used for medical treatment and cosmetics such as wound dressing and deodorant powders. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposed that the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for both metallic and most soluble Ag compounds should be 0.01 mg/m3. Argyria and argyrosis are known to be caused by deposition of insoluble Ag in the dermis and cornea/conjunctiva. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag have not been well characterized in mammals. Ag can be absorbed into the systemic circulation from drinking water, and also through parenteral routes such as inhalation and dermal exposure. Experimental studies have demonstrated that Ag+ induces and binds to metallothionein I and II (MTs), which are cysteine-rich proteins, in cells. MTs are major cytoplasmic metal binding proteins and thereby reduce cellular damage caused by toxic heavy metals including Ag. Profiles of Ag distribution in MTs and other Ag-binding proteins can be determined using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). This technique directly provides information on the intracellular behavior of Ag, which is important for elucidating the mechanism underlying Ag toxicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are also commercially used mainly as antimicrobial agents. Despite the widespread use of AgNPs, relatively few studies have been undertaken to evaluate the health effects of AgNP exposure. In the present paper, we discuss the absorption, toxicodynamics, and metabolism of both Ag and AgNPs in mammals and their health effects.

  19. Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N; Hansen, A M; Ivens, U I; van Lelieveld, D; Malmros, P; Matthiasen, L; Nielsen, B H; Nielsen, E M

    1995-08-18

    During the last decade, a growing interest in recycling of domestic waste has emerged, and action plans to increase the recycling of domestic waste have been agreed by many governments. A common feature of these plans is the implementation of new systems and equipment for the collection of domestic waste which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered as an integrated entity, i.e. technical factors (poor accessibility to the waste, design of equipment) may act in concert with high working rate, visual fatigue due to poor illumination and perhaps muscle fatigue due to high work load. Musculoskeletal problems are also common among waste collectors. A good deal of knowledge has accumulated on mechanical load on the spine and energetic load on the cardio-pulmonary system in relation to the handling of waste bags, bins, domestic containers and large containers. However, epidemiologic studies with exposure classification based on field measurement are needed, both to further identify high risk work conditions and to provide a detailed basis for the establishment of occupational exposure limits for mechanical and energetic load particularly in relation to pulling, pushing and tilting of containers. In 1975, an excess risk for chronic bronchitis was reported for waste collectors in Geneva (Rufèner-Press et al., 1975) and data from the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents and Diseases also indicate an excess risk for pulmonary problems among waste collectors compared with the total work force. Surprisingly few measurements of potentially hazardous airborne exposures have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of

  20. POOR QUALITY OF PRODUCT DESIGN AS A CAUSE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko D. Jovanović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of product design, which is expected from manufacturers on world market these days, could be provided exclusively by integral approach to product design. Such approach aims to achievement of optimal design solution of product, which is in line with a number of requirements, conditions and limitations of functionality, technology, market and usage. Only those manufacturers who are able to provide such approach to product design have prospective on market. This paper deals with a case study of neglect of integral approach to product design and its consequencies, in order to spread awareness of necessity of its adoption. Scope of this case study is focused on bridge crane whose working vibrations are meant to be potential cause of occupational desease of spinal column of crane operator.

  1. Cadmium and children: exposure and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Zuurbier, Moniek; Naginiene, Rima; van den Hazel, Peter; Stilianakis, Nikolaos; Ronchetti, Roberto; Koppe, Janna G

    2006-10-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis which are observed at adult age. Cadmium exposure through inhalation is also associated with lung cancer in adulthood. Although transfer to the neonate through the placenta and through breast milk is limited, teratogenic and developmental effects were observed in experimental animals. The database on human studies involving children is limited, yet effects on motoric and perceptual behaviour in children have been associated with elevated in utero cadmium exposure. In school age children urinary cadmium levels were associated with immune suppressive effects. More studies are needed to confirm these results. Experimental data in vitro and in animals refer to effects of cadmium on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis at different levels. This may lead to disorders of the endocrine and/or immune system. Cadmium exposure at early age should be limited as much as possible to prevent direct effects on children and to prevent accumulation of cadmium which may have serious health effects only becoming manifest at older age.

  2. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae, commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  3. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica)], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  4. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar; Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus[Tamarindus indica L.(T.Indira)],belongs to the family Leguminosae(Fabaceae),commonly known as Tamarind tree,is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine.The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T.indir.a.Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google.The keywords Tamarind,T.indica were used for search.Only the health related articles selected.Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent,Africa,Pakistan,Bangladesh,Nigeria and most of the tropical countries.It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain,diarrhea and dysentery,some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations,wound healing,constipation and inflammation.It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals,and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic,antimicrobial,antivenomic,antioxidant,antimalarial,cardioprotective,hepatoprotective,antiasthmatic,laxative and anti-hyperlipidemir activity.T.indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases.It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access.Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  5. The Anthropogenic "Greenhouse Effect": Greek Prospective Primary Teachers' Ideas about Causes, Consequences and Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomidis, Simos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Melas, Dimitris; Avgoloupis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the ideas of Greek prospective primary teachers about the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, particularly about its causes, consequences and cures. For this purpose, a survey was conducted: 265 prospective teachers completed a closed-form questionnaire. The results showed serious misconceptions in all areas (causes, consequences…

  6. Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women in Jos, Plateau State. ... and practices of proper domestic refuse handling and factors affecting same ... Conclusion: Health education intervention was found to be effective in ...

  7. Determinants of Perceived Health and Environmental Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Perceived Health and Environmental Effects of Fuelwood Exploitation among Farm Families in Ogun State, Nigeria. ... fuelwood exploitation on their perception of environmental and health effects of fuelwood ... Article Metrics.

  8. Health effects of the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.

    1987-02-01

    The paper on radiation health effects was presented to the United Kingdom (U.K.) Nuclear Electricity Information Group, 1986. The radiation risks to workers in the U.K. nuclear industry are discussed in terms of the results of mortality studies and allowable dose limits. The radiation doses to members of the public from the nuclear industry, i.e. from discharges of radioactive wastes to the environment, are also described, along with epidemiological studies. Finally risks to the public from radiation accidents are briefly outlined. (U.K.).

  9. [Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster. Fifteen years afterwards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra Anta, M A; Amor Cabrera, M A; Díaz Mier, F; Cámara Moraño, C

    2002-04-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986 released large quantities of radioactive material causing heavy contamination in widespread areas of the former Soviet Union. Each summer, several hundred children visit Spain from Chernobyl. In this article we describe the accident, the environmental contamination, the mechanisms of radiation injury and the dose-response relationships. We review the health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe. We propose guidelines for the medical management and evaluation of children on temporary visits. The health status of adults and especially that of children in Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation has been adversely affected. According to present knowledge, Chernobyl has given rise to a marked increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, psychological consequences and socioeconomic disruption. Many studies report that the incidence of other diseases has increased, but not all health problems seen after the nuclear accident can be attributed to radiation. Given the long latency period for diseases induced by radiation exposure, long-term follow-up of all potentially affected individuals is important. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident the international community is still learning scientific, medical and humanitarian lessons.

  10. The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Broers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effects of stimulants as potential drugs of abuse. It will cover essentially cocaine, amphetamines and its derivatives (including methamphetamines and 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy, nicotine, caffeine and khat, and touch upon the issues of prescribed substances (anti-depressants, weight control medications, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medications, hypersomniac disorder. Their pharmacology, addictive potential, health consequences and treatment will be discussed. We used Medline for the literature review from 1990 to the date of this review, and mention the findings of human and animal studies (the latter only if they are of clinical relevance.

  11. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  12. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  13. Protective effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on acute lung injury caused by severe dichlorvos poisoning in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Juan; LI Chun-sheng; HE Xin-hua; SONG Yu-guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Organophosphate poisoning is an important health problem in developing countries which causes death mainly by inducing acute lung injury.In this study,we examined the effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC),a selective M-receptor inhibitor,on dichlorvos-induced acute lung injury in swine.Methods Twenty-two female swines were randomly divided into control (n=5),dichlorvos (n=6),atropine (n=6),and PHC (n=5) groups.Hemodynamic data,extravascular lung water index (EVLWI),and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were monitored; blood gas analysis and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) levels were measured.PaO2/FiO2,cardiac index (Cl),and pulmonary vascular resistance indices (PVRI) were calculated.At termination of the study,pulmonary tissue was collected for ATPase activity determination and wet to dry weight ratio (W/D) testing 6 hours post-poisoning.TUNEL assay,and Bax,Bcl-2,and caspase-3 expression were applied to pulmonary tissue,and histopathology was observed.Results After poisoning,PHC markedly decreased PVRI,increased CI more effectively than atropine.Anticholinergic treatment reduced W/D,apoptosis index (AI),and mitigated injury to the structure of lung; however,PHC reduced AI and caspase-3 expression and improved Bcl-2/Bax more effectively than atropine.Atropine and PHC improved ATPase activities; a significant difference between groups was observed in Ca2+-ATPase activity,but not Na+-K+-ATPase activity.Conclusions The PHC group showed mild impairment in pathology,less apoptotic cells,and little impact on cardiac function compared with the atropine group in dichlorvos-induced acute lung injury.

  14. A prospective study of low fasting glucose with cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality: The Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sears, Dorothy D; Garcia, Lorena; Phillips, Lawrence S; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2017-05-01

    While there is increasing recognition of the risks associated with hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, few studies have investigated incident cause-specific cardiovascular outcomes with regard to low fasting glucose in the general population. We hypothesized that low fasting glucose would be associated with cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women. To test our hypothesis, we used both continuous incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models in 17,287 participants from the Women's Health Initiative with fasting glucose measured at baseline. Participants were separated into groups based on fasting glucose level: low (fasting glucose distribution exhibited evidence of a weak J-shaped association with heart failure and mortality that was predominantly due to participants with treated diabetes. Impaired and diabetic fasting glucose were positively associated with all outcomes. Associations for low fasting glucose differed, with coronary heart disease (HR=0.64 (0.42, 0.98)) significantly inverse; stroke (0.73 (0.48, 1.13)), combined cardiovascular disease (0.91 (0.73, 1.14)), and all-cause mortality (0.97 (0.79, 1.20)) null or inverse and not significant; and heart failure (1.27 (0.80, 2.02)) positive and not significant. Fasting glucose at the upper range, but not the lower range, was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health effects of sleep deprivation on nurses working shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Čedomirka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atypical work schedules cause reduced sleep, leading to drowsiness, fatigue, decline of cognitive performance and health problems among the members of the nursing staff. The study was aimed at reviewing current knowledge and attitudes concerning the impact of sleep disorders on health and cognitive functions among the members of the nursing staff. Sleep and Interpersonal Relations in Modern Society. The modern 24-hour society involves more and more employees (health services, police departments, public transport in non-standard forms of work. In European Union countries, over 50% of the nursing staff work night shifts, while in the United States of America 55% of nursing staff work more than 40 hours a week, and 30-70% of nurses sleep less than six hours before their shift. Cognitive Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Sleep deprivation impairs the performance of tasks that require intensive and prolonged attention which increases the number of errors in patients care, and nurses are subject to increased risk of traffic accidents. Sleep Deprivation and Health Disorders. Sleep deprived members of the nursing staff are at risk of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and cardio­vascular disease. The risk factors for breast cancer are increased by 1.79 times, and there is a significantly higher risk for colorectal carcinoma. Conclusion. Too long or repeated shifts reduce the opportunity for sleep, shorten recovery time in nurses, thus endangering their safety and health as well as the quality of care and patients’ safety. Bearing in mind the significance of the problem it is necessary to conduct the surveys of sleep quality and health of nurses in the Republic of Serbia as well in order to tackle this issue which is insufficiently recognized.

  16. Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    This is the first of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. The authors define the components of health literacy, as well as describing the extent and implications of limited health literacy for parents/caregivers and their children. The article also identifies the link between poor health literacy and health outcomes and outlines a framework for adolescent health literacy. Part two will be published in May.

  17. Health effects and wind turbines: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollson Christopher A

    2011-09-01

    levels are not measured. Conclusions What both types of studies have in common is the conclusion that wind turbines can be a source of annoyance for some people. The difference between both types is the reason for annoyance. While it is acknowledged that noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some and associated with some reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance, especially when found at sound pressure levels greater than 40 db(A, given that annoyance appears to be more strongly related to visual cues and attitude than to noise itself, self reported health effects of people living near wind turbines are more likely attributed to physical manifestation from an annoyed state than from wind turbines themselves. In other words, it appears that it is the change in the environment that is associated with reported health effects and not a turbine-specific variable like audible noise or infrasound. Regardless of its cause, a certain level of annoyance in a population can be expected (as with any number of projects that change the local environment and the acceptable level is a policy decision to be made by elected officials and their government representatives where the benefits of wind power are weighted against their cons. Assessing the effects of wind turbines on human health is an emerging field and conducting further research into the effects of wind turbines (and environmental changes on human health, emotional and physical, is warranted.

  18. Health care provider beliefs concerning the adverse health effects of environmental and ecosystem degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckner, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about health care provider interest, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the health effects of human-induced environmental degradation (HIED). A survey was created and distributed to better characterize health provider beliefs about the adverse health effects of HIED. An invitation to participate in an online 24-question survey was e-mailed to 2177 members of the Wilderness Medical Society to characterize experience with health effects of HIED, types of health effects attributed to HIED, attitudes toward HIED, and educational sources about HIED. Data were analyzed from 665 responses, a response rate of 35%. Results demonstrate that health care providers identify a large number and variety of health effects associated with HIED, although exacerbation of asthma, reactive airways disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were most commonly identified. Over 80% report that HIED has affected the health of a patient they have cared for; 60% report patients have asked about HIED effects on health; and 93% report that they do not distribute information to patients about HIED. Over 75% of respondents believe there is an unfulfilled need for information and education about the adverse health effects of HIED. Respondents report continuing medical education, journal articles, and medical schools/residency programs as the best methods for education and for raising awareness of the health effects of HIED. Results indicate strong health professional belief in health effects of HIED, patient concern related to the health effects of HIED, and a need to educate both health care providers and patients on the adverse health effects of HIED.

  19. Suicide deaths in rural Andhra Pradesh--a cause for global health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohina; Guggilla, Rama; Praveen, Devarsetty; Maulik, Pallab K

    2015-02-01

    To determine the proportion of deaths attributable to suicides in rural Andhra Pradesh, India over a 4-year period using a verbal autopsy method. Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003 to 2007 by non-physician healthcare workers trained in the use of a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by physicians trained in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10. All data were entered and processed electronically using a secure study website. Verbal autopsies were completed for 98.2% (5786) of the deaths (5895) recorded. The crude death rate was 8.0/1000. 4.8% (95% CI 4.3-5.4) of all deaths were suicides, giving a suicide rate of 37.5/100,000 population. Forty-three percent of suicides occurred in the age group 15-29 years, and 62% were in men. In the younger age groups (10-29 years), suicides by women (56%) were more common than by men (44%). Poisoning (40%) was the most common method of self-harm followed by hanging (12%). The suicide rate in this part of rural Andhra Pradesh is three times higher than the national average of 11.2/100,000, but is in line with that reported in the Million Death Study. There is an urgent need to develop strategies targeted at young individuals to prevent deaths by suicide in India. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health impact, is particulate matter (PM) of which road traffic is a major source. Therefore, the health effects of traffic-related air pollution have been under considerable scrutiny. We examined in vivo t...

  1. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  2. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  3. On Ultra-High Dilutions: Global Effects Caused by Minimal Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Vannucci

    2011-09-01

    of DNA helixes. Thus, it is reasonable to accept that water, having the possibly of structuring itself in an almost endless variety of ways, it will impact in a unique and own peculiar way the individual cells and even entire organs. That is, the codified information related to the specific architecture of the water cluster, in result to previous stimulus (infotrans, will be passed on to the living organism through the nervous system and induce, in consequence, a prompt reaction. The specific type of response commanded by the mind, after detecting a particular infotrans, will depend on the array of experiences the living being had previously undergone. In some circumstances, however, the mind may mistake the information received from the nervous system, treating a harmless organic process as a dangerous attack. In this situation the overall body reaction can be very dramatic, as the reported cases of children that had to be hospitalized in serious health conditions (even with some fatal occurrences after the ingestion of only residual amounts of allergic foods like peanut, wheat and milk. The Transfer of Information (InfoTrans and the Placebo Effect: Interestingly, the mechanism of infotrans is much more extensive and does not restrict itself to transference of information by material means. All our five senses are channels that bring information to the mind and which might cause global body reactions. The picture of a grotesque insect, for example, may induce a sensitive (entomophobic person to sweat, feel dizzy and, sometimes, even trigger severe emotional reactions like panic and terror. Moreover, different persons that listen to a playing music are observed to react in different ways. Of course, it is not the music being played that causes, by itself, these reactions. What happens is that each individual’s mind will process the same stimulus (the music differently, based on the various situations experienced throughout the person

  4. Exploring Spanish health social media for detecting drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Revert, Ricardo; Moreno-Schneider, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) cause a high number of deaths among hospitalized patients in developed countries. Major drug agencies have devoted a great interest in the early detection of ADRs due to their high incidence and increasing health care costs. Reporting systems are available in order for both healthcare professionals and patients to alert about possible ADRs. However, several studies have shown that these adverse events are underestimated. Our hypothesis is that health social networks could be a significant information source for the early detection of ADRs as well as of new drug indications. In this work we present a system for detecting drug effects (which include both adverse drug reactions as well as drug indications) from user posts extracted from a Spanish health forum. Texts were processed using MeaningCloud, a multilingual text analysis engine, to identify drugs and effects. In addition, we developed the first Spanish database storing drugs as well as their effects automatically built from drug package inserts gathered from online websites. We then applied a distant-supervision method using the database on a collection of 84,000 messages in order to extract the relations between drugs and their effects. To classify the relation instances, we used a kernel method based only on shallow linguistic information of the sentences. Regarding Relation Extraction of drugs and their effects, the distant supervision approach achieved a recall of 0.59 and a precision of 0.48. The task of extracting relations between drugs and their effects from social media is a complex challenge due to the characteristics of social media texts. These texts, typically posts or tweets, usually contain many grammatical errors and spelling mistakes. Moreover, patients use lay terminology to refer to diseases, symptoms and indications that is not usually included in lexical resources in languages other than English.

  5. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  6. Epidemiology of health effects of radiofrequency exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbom, Anders; Green, Adele; Kheifets, Leeka; Savitz, David; Swerdlow, Anthony

    2004-12-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies about the effects of radiofrequency fields (RFs) on human health in order to summarize the current state of knowledge, explain the methodologic issues that are involved, and aid in the planning of future studies. There have been a large number of occupational studies over several decades, particularly on cancer, cardiovascular disease, adverse reproductive outcome, and cataract, in relation to RF exposure. More recently, there have been studies of residential exposure, mainly from radio and television transmitters, and especially focusing on leukemia. There have also been studies of mobile telephone users, particularly on brain tumors and less often on other cancers and on symptoms. Results of these studies to date give no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relation between RF exposure and any adverse health effect. On the other hand, the studies have too many deficiencies to rule out an association. A key concern across all studies is the quality of assessment of RF exposure. Despite the ubiquity of new technologies using RFs, little is known about population exposure from RF sources and even less about the relative importance of different sources. Other cautions are that mobile phone studies to date have been able to address only relatively short lag periods, that almost no data are available on the consequences of childhood exposure, and that published data largely concentrate on a small number of outcomes, especially brain tumor and leukemia.

  7. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  8. RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAREN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern world, living without radiation is impossible. Radiation is defined as ?energy transmitted through space as waves or particles? and also determined as ?particles or waves emitted from the nucleus of unstable radioactive atoms to become stable? Mainly two types of radiation are exist; ionising radiation and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation is consist of alpha, beta particules, neutrons, x rays and gamma rays. Ionising radiation which can be measured by ion chambers, geiger-Mueller detectors, Scintillation Counters, fluorescent counters etc. Has harmfull effects on human health in levels of molecular, cellular, tissue, organs and organ systems. These harmfull effects can also be named somatic and genetic. One of the most encountered problem is ?Acute Radiation Syndrom? which has three sub syndroms called haematopoetic syndrom, gastrointestinal syndrom and neurovascular syndrom. Exposure time, distance and armorisation are the key elements of protection from radiation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 199-208

  9. Effective Feedback Procedures in Games for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Moderator Tom; Bower, Participants Kelly; Krebs, Paul; Lamoth, Claudine J; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    Feedback on game performance can be provided in many ways (e.g., cumulative points on game achievements, points on selected aspects of game play, biofeedback, brief statements offered during gameplay on choices made, verbal feedback at end of gameplay on overall performance, etc.). Feedback could be used motivationally to maintain player interest and involvement, informationally to guide the player in more effective choices, to build player confidence, and for a variety of other purposes. Although diverse feedback types and purposes are possible, some are more likely to be useful and effective. We have contacted several accomplished game designers and game researchers to obtain their insights into issues in feedback in Games for Health Journal.

  10. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahrendorf Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis, the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours, although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher

  11. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  12. Teaching cause-effect text structure through social studies content to at-risk second graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna P; Nubla-Kung, Abigail M; Pollini, Simonne; Stafford, K Brooke; Garcia, Amaya; Snyder, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a comprehension program integrated with social studies instruction designed for at-risk second graders. The program included instruction in cause-effect text structure, emphasizing clue words, generic questions, graphic organizers, and the close analysis of specially constructed cause-effect target paragraphs. This program was compared (a) to a content-only program that focused only on social studies and did not include text structure instruction and (b) to a no-instruction control. Fifteen classroom teachers, randomly assigned to treatment, provided the instruction. The program improved the comprehension of instructional cause-effect texts, and there were transfer effects on some comprehension measures. The performance of the 2 instructed groups did not differ on any of the content measures, indicating that such integrated instruction can be accomplished without a loss in the amount of content acquired. This study supports our previous findings on the effectiveness of explicit instruction at the primary-grade level.

  13. Delayed effects of obese and overweight population conditions on all-cause adult mortality rate in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A Okunade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.

  14. Cause-specific childhood mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood mortality, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major global concern and the target of Millennium Development Goal 4. Although the majority of childhood deaths occur in Africa and Asia, these are also the regions where such deaths are least likely to be registered. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To present a description of cause-specific mortality rates and fractions over the first 15 years of life as documented by INDEPTH Network sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Design: All childhood deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with verbal autopsy (VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provided person-time denominators for mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions are presented according to WHO 2012 VA cause groups for neonatal, infant, 1–4 year and 5–14 year age groups. Results: A total of 28,751 childhood deaths were documented during 4,387,824 person-years over 18 sites. Infant mortality ranged from 11 to 78 per 1,000 live births, with under-5 mortality from 15 to 152 per 1,000 live births. Sites in Vietnam and Kenya accounted for the lowest and highest mortality rates reported. Conclusions: Many children continue to die from relatively preventable causes, particularly in areas with high rates of malaria and HIV/AIDS. Neonatal mortality persists at relatively high, and perhaps sometimes under-documented, rates

  15. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  16. Effects of fluorotherapy on oral changes caused by a vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, F; Laffranchi, L; Fontana, P; Dalessandri, D; Bonetti, S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of fluorotherapy on the oral health of subjects who had been following a vegan diet (lacking in meat and animal derivatives) for a long period of time (at least 1 year and 6 months). A preliminary study (t0) evaluated 50 subjects, all from northern Italy and aged 24-60 years (28 male and 22 female) who had been following a vegan diet for a minimum of 18 months to a maximum of 20 years, and compared them with a control group of 50 individuals following a Mediterranean diet. All vegan subjects showed oral changes such as white spots, lesions invisible to the naked eye and decreased salivary pH values (~5-6). In a second study (t1), the 50 vegan subjects were randomly divided into two subgroups of 25. Subgroup SG1 underwent fluorotherapy with sodium fluoride (Elmex fluoride gel® 1.25%) administered once daily for 1 year. Subgroup SG2 served as controls and did not receive fluorotherapy. The following parameters were recorded before the start of fluorotherapy and again after 1 year: salivary pH; Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth Index; presence and location of white spots and lesions not visible to the naked eye; Plaque Index, and Gingival Index. In SG1, larger lesions became smaller in diameter and small lesions disappeared, a statistically significant improvement compared with SG2, despite the persistence of restricted eating habits and the oral hygiene conditions being similar to those at t0. Salivary pH showed no significant change in either subgroup. Daily application of a topical 1.25% fluoride gel is effective in reducing the incidence of white spot lesions caused by a vegan diet.

  17. What is the effect of unemployment on all-cause mortality? A cohort study using propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Tom; Popham, Frank; Boyle, Paul

    2015-02-01

    There is a strong association between unemployment and mortality, but whether this relationship is causal remains debated. This study utilizes population-level administrative data from Scotland within a propensity score framework to explore whether the association between unemployment and mortality may be causal. The study examined a sample of working men and women aged 25-54 in 1991. Subsequent employment status in 2001 was observed (in work or unemployed) and the relative all-cause mortality risk of unemployment between 2001 and 2010 was estimated. To account for potential selection into unemployment of those in poor health, a propensity score matching approach was used. Matching variables were observed prior to unemployment and included health status up to the year of unemployment (hospital admissions and self-reported limiting long-term illness), as well as measures of socioeconomic position. Unemployment was associated with a significant all-cause mortality risk relative to employment for men (hazard ratio [HR] 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-2.55). This effect was robust to controlling for prior health and sociodemographic characteristics. Effects for women were smaller and statistically insignificant (HR 1.51; 95% CI 0.68-3.37). For men, the findings support the notion that the often-observed association between unemployment and mortality may contain a significant causal component; although for women, there is less support for this conclusion. However, female employment status, as recorded in the census, is more complex than for men and may have served to underestimate any mortality effect of unemployment. Future work should examine this issue further. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, James [Center for Nuclear Technology and Society at WPI, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    resulted in quick political rejection of the proposed policy. It was seen as stating that, while very small radiation doses would in fact cause 'small' adverse health consequences (seen by the public and their political leaders as 'cancer deaths'), such consequences are seen as found 'acceptable' by the radiation protection authorities. Such implied but non-existent consequences are NOT seen as acceptable to the public and its political leaders. No explanation of 'context' or providing public education' can reasonably be expected to overcome the perception provided by the proposal that such trivial radiation produce 'a few deaths' that, because they are 'lost in cancer statistics' are perceived as accepted' by the radiation protection policy-makers, which results in the permanent loss of public acceptance and credibility of these organizations and individuals. This proposal considers the lack of adverse health effects from data at, e.g., variations in natural background, confirmed by medical and biological data, establish that radiation at low levels can have no relevant net adverse consequences. Such a basis can provide public assurance that appropriate radiation protection limits produce no residual public health and safety consequences. (author)

  19. EFFECT OF TOBACCO ON ORAL - HEALTH AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubeen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Tobacco is the greatest disease-producing product, with its prevalent addictive habit influencing the behavior of human beings for more t han four centuries. Tobacco is consumed orally in a variety of forms such as smoking and chewable forms. Smoking is increasing rapidly throughout the developing world and is one of the b iggest threats to current and future world health. By 2030, if current trends continue, smokin g will kill more than nine million people annually. On an average, to date 47.5% of men and 1 0.3% of women are smokers. In India, tobacco products are commercially available with added scen ts and flavouring agents which not only attracts rural population but also influences urban population. Tobacco smoking is linked with many serious illnesses, such as cardiopulmonary dis eases, cancer, low birth weight, as well as with many other health problems, contributing to thousan ds of premature deaths each year When exposed to tobacco salivary behaviour is reversed a nd saliva loses its antioxidant capacity, becoming a potent pro-oxidant milieu Most oral cons equences of tobacco use impair quality of life be they as simple as halitosis or as complex as ora l birth defects, as common as periodontal disease or as troublesome as complications during wound hea ling. Tobacco smoking and chewing not only causes discolouration of teeth, periodontitis, dent al caries, altered taste, nicotinic stomatitis, but also causes leukoplakia & carcinoma with high morbi dity and mortality. It is especially important to understand that harmful effects of tobacco products are dose-dependent, that they depend more on abuse than on simple use. The aim of this review is to highlight the effect of smoking and chewing forms of tobacco on oral health. and remedies which can be thought of

  20. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health im

  1. Effect of cause-of-death training on agreement between hospital discharge diagnoses and cause of death reported, inpatient hospital deaths, New York City, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio; Madsen, Ann

    2015-01-15

    Accurate cause-of-death reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City death certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of death following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-death reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which death certificates citing heart disease as cause of death agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. We analyzed 74,373 death certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were linked with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient deaths and calculated the proportion of discordant deaths, that is, death certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient deaths reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Citywide discordance between death certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions should employ similar interventions to improve cause-of-death reporting and use linked discharge data to monitor data quality.

  2. Effect of Cause-of-Death Training on Agreement Between Hospital Discharge Diagnoses and Cause of Death Reported, Inpatient Hospital Deaths, New York City, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate cause-of-death reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City death certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of death following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-death reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which death certificates citing heart disease as cause of death agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. Methods We analyzed 74,373 death certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were linked with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient deaths and calculated the proportion of discordant deaths, that is, death certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient deaths reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Results Citywide discordance between death certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions should employ similar interventions to improve cause-of-death reporting and use linked discharge data to monitor data quality. PMID:25590598

  3. In vitro chronic effects on hERG channel caused by the marine biotoxin Yessotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernández Ferreiro

    2014-06-01

    far from the almost three-fold surface hERG increase. HERG channel is fully glycosylated in the Golgi and externalized to the plasma membrane in vesicles (Smyth and Shaw, 2010 so the amount of fully glycosylated hERG detected by western blot is bigger than the amount detected by flow cytometry. If the externalized fraction of fully glycosylated hERG is small, the elevation of extracellular hERG levels will probably not be detected by Western blot. These data suggest that an impairment of channel internalization could be responsible for the increase of extracellular hERG. Many studies are being done to describe hERG channel degradation pathways, but the exact mechanism by which mature hERG channels are internalized is still unknown (Guo et al., 2012. In summary in vitro chronic treatment with YTX causes an increase of hERG channels on the plasma membrane probably due to a reduction of channel internalization. No functional effects have been observed on hERG currents but more studies are needed to better characterize the effects that YTX can exert on this channel and to know the consequences that can suppose for human health.

  4. Causes of mortality and associated modifiable health care factors for children (< 5-years admitted at Onandjokwe Hospital, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnface F. Mdala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many countries, especially those from sub-Saharan Africa, are unlikely to reach the Millennium Development Goal for under-5 mortality reduction by 2015. This study aimed to identify the causes of mortality and associated modifiable health care factors for under-5year-old children admitted to Onandjokwe Hospital, Namibia.Method: A descriptive retrospective review of the medical records of all children under fiveyears who died in the hospital for the period of 12 months during 2013, using two differentstructured questionnaires targeting perinatal deaths and post-perinatal deaths respectively.Results: The top five causes of 125 perinatal deaths were prematurity 22 (17.6%, birth asphyxia 19 (15.2%, congenital anomalies 16 (12.8%, unknown 13 (10.4% and abruptio placenta 11 (8.8%. The top five causes of 60 post-perinatal deaths were bacterial pneumonia 21 (35%, gastroenteritis 12 (20%, severe malnutrition 6 (10%, septicaemia 6 (10%, and tuberculosis 4 (6.7%. Sixty-nine (55% perinatal deaths and 42 (70% post-perinatal deaths were potentially avoidable. The modifiable factors were: late presentation to a health care facility, antenatal clinics not screening for danger signs, long distance referral, district hospitals not providing emergency obstetric care, poor monitoring of labour and admitted children in the wards, lack of screening for malnutrition, failure to repeat an HIV test in pregnant women in the third trimesteror during breastfeeding, and a lack of review of the urgent results of critically ill children.Conclusion: A significant number of deaths in children under 5-years of age could be avoided by paying attention to the modifiable factors identified in this study.

  5. Demonstrating a lack of brand/cause effects on point of sale donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Joshua T.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Point of sale cause-related marketing has raised over $2 billion for charities over the past 30 years, yet the subject remains largely unexplored in academic literature. The subject of brand/cause fit, however, is prolific throughout extant research, with many studies showing that high congruence between a company and a charity is necessary to achieve philanthropic success. This paper challenges current marketing thinking both conceptually and empirically. Employing tests of no-effect hypotheses following the guidelines set out by Cortina and Folger (1998, it is established that, in the point of sale cause-related marketing context, the traditional effects of brand/cause fits do not apply. Across three studies involving experimental designs and over 500 respondents, the results of one-way ANOVA analyses consistently demonstrate that a low brand/cause fit can be just as effective as a high/brand cause fit. These findings contribute to a profound understanding of social efforts such as cause-related marketing may not be as simple or easily understood as was once thought.

  6. Causes and management of aggression and violence in a forensic mental health service: perspectives of nurses and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Geoffrey; Piccirillo, Maria; Alderman, Nick

    2013-12-01

    Nurses' attitudes about the causes and management of aggression affects their choice of intervention. We aimed to compare the attitudes held by patients and staff in a forensic mental health service with the Management of Aggression and Violence Attitudes Scale, and examine the factor validity of the tool in this setting by conducting a prospective comparative questionnaire survey. Staff (n = 72) and patient (n = 98) attitudes differed to a limited extent. Confirmatory factor analysis refuted the previously reported structure of the tool. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three underlying factors related to modifiability of aggression, hands on management, and hands off management. Patients were more optimistic than nurses about the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. Male patients and those with diagnoses other than personality disorder were significantly more likely to agree about modifiability than controls. Forensic inpatients recognize the need for the use of a range of techniques to prevent and manage aggression and violence, but selected groups are most likely to believe that aggression is modifiable. Prevention and management of aggression training should emphasize the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. The development of measures of modifiability and management style would assist in the evaluation of training and would offer new avenues for research. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  8. Update on human health effects of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being.

  9. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  10. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  11. Gonadal and Adrenal Abnormalities in Drug Users: Cause or Consequence of Drug Use Behavior and Poor Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd T. Brown

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opiates and cocaine both have effects on adrenal and gonadal function. Opiates suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis, whereas cocaine leads to HPA activation. Opiates also cause gonadal dysfunction in both men and women. During withdrawal from opiates and cocaine, the HPA axis is activated which may reinforce relapse behavior. This review describes these hormonal effects and explores the potential consequences, including the effects on mood cognition and cardiovascular risk. Modification of the drug-induced hormonal dysfunction may represent a treatment strategy for drug rehabilitation.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Health Coaching: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rachel; Giese, Jeannie

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate published literature to distinguish how health coaching influences the cost of chronic disease management in insured adults with chronic conditions. An integrated literature review was conducted. MEDLINE, Business Source Complete, and OneSearch were searched for the years 2001-2016 utilizing the following key words: health coaching, health coaching AND insurance companies, health coaching AND cost, health coaching AND health insurance, and health coaching AND insurance cost. A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed for applicability. Of those, 27 articles were found to be relevant to the research question. The practice settings of these articles are mostly primary care and wellness programs. Throughout the literature, health coaching has been found effective in chronic disease management such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of health coaching are limited. The current literature does not clearly demonstrate that health coaching lowers expenditures and patient copayments in the short term but projects future savings. Health coaching has the potential to improve chronic disease management and lower health care expenditures. Further long-term research is needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health coaching. It has been projected that the cost-effectiveness of health coaching will be long-term or over 12 months after initiating the health coaching program.

  13. Comparative effectiveness research and health care reform in C hina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilong Wang; Yongjun Wang

    2016-01-01

    China has made significant progress in modernizing its healthcare system in the past 20 years. However, there are some issues that are difficult to solve on the current healthcare status, including the lack of medical care satisfaction in rural areas and urban areas, excessive consumption of medical resources, conflict and tension between the healthcare provider and patients, and the problems caused by the change of model of healthcare. Therefore, the State Council in-troduced the Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Deepening the Health Care System Reform in 2009 in order to provide basic, safe, effective, convenient and affordable healthcare for all residents. Despite the goals and policies set by the gov-ernment, how to implement them remains to be chal-lenging. Like evidence-based medicine, comparative effective research ( CER ) which started in the US in 2000 ’s can provide diagnosis and treatment information for patients, doctors, and health policy makers to make decisions on the effective ways of caring for both indi-vidual and population. It also may apply to the condi-tions of healthcare reform in China. And there are op-portunities and challenges of conducting CER in our country. We suggest that the government should estab-lish the national-level CER research institute, CER Leadership Committee and relevant standards, fund the CER projects, and begin CER in certain disciplines.

  14. Patient provider communication about the health effects of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durant, Nefertiti H.; Bartman, Barbara; Person, Sharina D.; Collins, Felicia; Austin, S. Bryn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the influence of race/ethnicity and provider Communication oil overweight and obese patients' perceptions of the damage weight causes to their health. Methods: The-study included 1071 overweight and obese patients who completed the 2002 Community Health Center (CHC) User surve

  15. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk.

  16. Health Effects of Carotenoids during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika A. Zielińska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child’s health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have also demonstrated the significant role of carotenoids during pregnancy and infancy. Some studies indicate a correlation between carotenoid status and lower risk of pregnancy pathologies induced by intensified oxidative stress, but results of these investigations are equivocal. Carotenoids have been well studied in relation to their beneficial role in the prevention of preeclampsia. It is currently hypothesized that carotenoids can play an important role in the prevention of preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Carotenoid status in the newborn depends on the nutritional status of the mother, but little is known about the transfer of carotenoids from the mother to the fetus. Carotenoids are among the few nutrients found in breast milk, in which the levels are determined by the mother’s diet. Nutritional status of the newborn directly depends on its diet. Both mix feeding and artificial feeding may cause depletion of carotenoids since infant formulas contain only trace amounts of these compounds. Carotenoids, particularly lutein and zeaxanthin play a significant role in the development of vision and nervous system (among others, they are important for the development of retina as well as energy metabolism and brain electrical activity. Furthermore, more scientific evidence is emerging on the role of carotenoids in the prevention of disorders affecting preterm

  17. Green tea as an effective antimicrobial for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda eReygaert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a very most common type of infection worldwide, and result in billions of dollars in medical care costs. Escherichia coli is the infective agent for 80%-90% of all UTIs. Green tea, derived from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant has been shown to have various potential health benefits (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer. The major beneficial components of green tea have been characterized, and are now known to be polyphenolic catechins. The main catechins in green tea are (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epicatechin (EC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. EGCG and EGC have been shown to have antimicrobial effects, but only EGC has been shown to be excreted in urine. Isolates of E. coli from urinary tract infections collected between 2007-2008 were characterized for antimicrobial resistance to standard drugs. Then 80 of these isolates, representing a wide spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, were selected for testing using an extract of green tea.Results: The concentrations of green tea extract tested were 0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mg/ml. All of the strains tested, except one, had MICs of ≤4.0 mg/ml, with 40% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, 36% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.0 mg/ml, 18% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and 5% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml. Two control strains varied in susceptibility, one having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, another having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and the third having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml.Conclusion: Since EGC has been shown to have antimicrobial effects on E. coli, and EGC has been shown to be excreted in the urine in a high enough concentration to potentially be effective as an antimicrobial; these MIC results suggest that ingesting green tea could have potential antimicrobial effects on urinary tract infections caused by E. coli.

  18. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mec

  19. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular

  20. Analysis of effects of radiotherapy on pain caused by metastic tumor of bone%骨转移癌放疗止痛疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪祥; 陈法爱; 张友平

    2001-01-01

    @@ Background:Metastic tumor of bone is a kind of complications common in clinic,which severely injured patients'quality of life and health.Local therapy was emphasized for pain caused by metastic tumor of bone.Radiotherapy quickly alleviated pain and the effects was lonstanding.

  1. Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective is the Current Public Health Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Woo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance. However, public health intervention programs have had limited success in tackling the rising prevalence of obesity. This paper reviews the definition of overweight and obesity and the variations with age and ethnicity; health consequences and factors contributing to the development of obesity; and critically reviews the effectiveness of current public health strategies for risk factor reduction and obesity prevention.

  2. Workers' opinions on the effect of contact with health care providers on sickness absence duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy

    2014-01-01

    Because of the aging working population and the increasing age of retirement the number of workers with chronic illnesses and disabilities is growing. It is important that workers with health complaints receive efficient health care in order to remain fully or at least partly productive. To explore workers' opinions about the effectiveness of contact with health care providers in shortening sickness absence duration. Data come from a four-wave study from 2005 to 2008 among Dutch workers (n=1,424). Data were obtained on visits to health care providers, sickness absence and workers' opinions on whether and how their absence could have been shortened. A third of the workers were of the opinion that the health care provider (most often the general practitioner, GP) had played a role in preventing sickness absence and 35% were of the opinion that the health care provider had limited their absence. Most often the physical therapist (71%) and mental health therapist (61%) shortened sickness absence duration, in contrast to the occupational physician (OP, 25%) and GP (32%). The effectiveness of the health care providers' treatment was associated with the cause of sickness absence. Approximately 15% of the workers reported that their sickness absence could have been shortened if health care providers had provided the proper treatment and if waiting times had been reduced. Health care providers differ in their potential to shorten sickness absence duration. Health care providers can further reduce sickness absence and health care costs by providing the proper treatment and by reducing waiting times.

  3. A review on the analysis of ingredients with health care effects in health food in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Wen Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the analysis of ingredients with health care effects in health food in Taiwan. The top 10 items on the list of registered health food products up to 2014 in Taiwan are described, including monocolin K, ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, β-glucans, inulin, catechins, oligosaccharides, resistant maltodextrin, amino acids, medium chain fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Some analytical methods for the analysis of ingredients with health care effects are announced to the public on the website of health food section of the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for the application and the postmarket surveillance of health food. Each application of health food should include the appropriate analytical method for the analysis of the ingredient or specific compound that has the health care effect, for the sake of quality assurance. Self-management of each applicant is required for regulation, the reputation of its own, and social responsibility to the consumers.

  4. Effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthyala Pavana Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary dental care can be a way of achieving good oral health for the community. This can be achieved by integration of oral health care with the existing primary health care activities through training of primary health care workers on aspects of oral health. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of oral health education among primary health care workers at the primary health center (PHC in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Descriptive longitudinal study was conducted from June 2010 to August 2010 at a PHC. Knowledge about oral health among primary health care workers was pretested using a self-administered questionnaire prepared in local language (Telugu. Later after a month health education was provided to the health workers, and pamphlets with information on oral health were distributed. Posttest assessment was done 1-month after providing health education using the same questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 12.0 software, Student′s t-test was used to compare knowledge scores between pre and posttests. Results: A total of 118 Primary Health Care Workers with the majority in the 20-30 years age group participated in the study. Posttest assessment showed a change in knowledge level with an overall increase in knowledge level of primary health care workers with a mean difference of 12.56 ± 3.23, which was highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The knowledge about oral health was poor, and it improved after providing health education to primary health care workers. Change in knowledge was appreciable and may play a key role in oral health promotion of the vast majority of the rural population.

  5. Investigation of photodynamic effect caused by MPPa-PDT on breast cancer Investigation of photodynamic effect caused by MPPa-PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y. Y.; Hu, X. Y.; Leung, W. N.; Yuan, H. Q.; Zhang, L. Y.; Cui, F. A.; Tian, X.

    2012-10-01

    Breast cancer is the common malignant tumor, the incidence increases with age. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new technique applied in tumors, which involves the administration of a tumor localizing photosensitizer and it is followed by the activation of a specific wavelength. Pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (MPPa), a derivative of chlorophyll, is a novel potent photosensitizer. We are exploring the photodynamic effect caused by MPPa-PDT on breast cancer. The in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that MPPa is a comparatively ideal photosensitizer which can induce apoptosis in breast cancer.

  6. Allyl nitrile: Toxicity and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Hideji

    2017-03-28

    Allyl nitrile (3-butenenitrile) occurs naturally in the environment, in particular, in cruciferous vegetables, indicating a possible daily intake of the compound. There is no report on actual health effects of allyl nitrile in humans, although it is possible that individuals in the environment are at a risk of exposure to allyl nitrile. However, little is known about its quantitative assessment for the environment and bioactivity in the body. This study provides a review of previous accumulated studies on allyl nitrile. Published literature on allyl nitrile was examined for findings on toxicity, metabolism, risk of various cancers, generation, intake estimates, and low-dose effects in the body. High doses of allyl nitrile produce toxicity characterized by behavioral abnormalities, which are considered to be produced by an active metabolite, 3,4-epoxybutyronitrile. Cruciferous vegetables have been shown to have a potential role in reducing various cancers. Hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinigrin, rich in cruciferous vegetables, results in the generation of allyl nitrile. An intake of allyl nitrile is estimated at 0.12 μmol/kg body weight in Japan. Repeated exposure to low doses of allyl nitrile upregulates antioxidant/phase II enzymes in various tissues; this may contribute to a reduction in neurotoxicity and skin inflammation. These high and low doses are far more than the intake estimate. Allyl nitrile in the environment is a compound with diverse bioactivities in the body, characterized by inducing behavioral abnormalities at high doses and some antioxidant/phase II enzymes at low doses.

  7. Health effects of prenatal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela M; Fletcher, Stacy

    2010-09-01

    Pregnant women are at risk of exposure to nonionizing and ionizing radiation resulting from necessary medical procedures, workplace exposure, and diagnostic or therapeutic interventions before the pregnancy is known. Nonionizing radiation includes microwave, ultrasound, radio frequency, and electromagnetic waves. In utero exposure to nonionizing radiation is not associated with significant risks; therefore, ultrasonography is safe to perform during pregnancy. Ionizing radiation includes particles and electromagnetic radiation (e.g., gamma rays, x-rays). In utero exposure to ionizing radiation can be teratogenic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic. The effects are directly related to the level of exposure and stage of fetal development. The fetus is most susceptible to radiation during organogenesis (two to seven weeks after conception) and in the early fetal period (eight to 15 weeks after conception). Noncancer health effects have not been detected at any stage of gestation after exposure to ionizing radiation of less than 0.05 Gy (5 rad). Spontaneous abortion, growth restriction, and mental retardation may occur at higher exposure levels. The risk of cancer is increased regardless of the dose. When an exposure to ionizing radiation occurs, the total fetal radiation dose should be estimated and the mother counseled about the potential risks so that she can make informed decisions about her pregnancy management.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of IPTi on malaria using routine health information from sentinel health centres in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi consists of the administration of a treatment dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP at the time of routine vaccinations. The use of routine Health Management and Information Services (HMIS data to investigate the effect of IPTi on malaria, anaemia, and all-cause attendance in children aged 2-11 months presenting to 11 health centres in southern Tanzania is described. Methods Clinical diagnosis of malaria was confirmed with a positive blood slide reading from a quality assurance laboratory. Anaemia was defined using two thresholds (mild [Hb Results Seventy two per cent of infants presenting in intervention areas received at least one dose of IPTi- 22% received all three. During March 2006 - April 2007, the incidence of all cause attendance was two attendances per person, per year (pppy, including 0.2 episodes pppy of malaria, 0.7 episodes of mild and 0.13 episodes of severe anaemia. Point estimates for the effect of IPTi on malaria varied between 18% and 52%, depending on the scope of the analysis, although adjustment for clustering rendered these not statistically significant. Conclusions The point estimate of the effect of IPTi on malaria is consistent with that from a large pooled analysis of randomized control trials. As such, it is plausible that the difference seen in health centre data is due to IPTi, even thought the effect did not reach statistical significance. Findings draw attention to the challenges of robust inference of effects of interventions based on routine health centre data. Analysis of routine health information can reassure that interventions are being made available and having desired effects, but unanticipated effects should trigger data collection from representative samples of the target population.

  9. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; O' Banion, K.D.

    1981-12-04

    Several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MW/sub e/ for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10/sup 18/ J) are assessed. The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in water. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. For individuals living within an 80 km radius of the geothermal resources, chronic exposure to particulate sulfate could result in between 0 to 95 premature deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity generated. The mean population risk of leukemia from the inhalation of benzene was calculated to be 3 x 10/sup -2/ cases per 10/sup 18/ J. Exposure to elemental mercury in the atmosphere could produce between 0 and 8.2 cases of tremors per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity. Inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters poses a mean population risk of 4.2 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancers per 10/sup 18/ J. Analysis of skin cancer risk from the ingestion of surface water contaminated with geothermally derived arsenic suggests that a dose-response model is inconsistent with data showing that arsenic is an essential element and that excessive body burdens do not appear even when arsenic reaches 100 ..mu..g/liter in drinking water. Estimates of occupational health effects were based on rates of accidental deaths and occupational diseases in surrogate industries. According to calculations, there would be 14 accidental deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity and 340 cases of occupational diseases per 10/sup 18/ J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants.

  10. Economic evaluation of the air pollution effect on public health in China's 74 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Pan, Dongyan; Yu, Chen; Si, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Air deterioration caused by pollution has harmed public health. The existing studies on the economic loss caused by a variety of air pollutants in multiple cities are lacking. To understand the effect of different pollutants on public health and to provide the basis of the environmental governance for governments, based on the dose-response relation and the willingness to pay, this paper used the latest available data of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from January 2015 to June 2015 in 74 cities by establishing the lowest and the highest limit scenarios. The results show that (1) in the lowest and highest limit scenario, the health-related economic loss caused by PM10 and SO2 represented 1.63 and 2.32 % of the GDP, respectively; (2) For a single city, in the lowest and the highest limit scenarios, the highest economic loss of the public health effect caused by PM10 and SO2 was observed in Chongqing; the highest economic loss of the public health effect per capita occurred in Hebei Baoding. The highest proportion of the health-related economic loss accounting for GDP was found in Hebei Xingtai. The main reason is that the terrain conditions are not conducive to the spread of air pollutants in Chongqing, Baoding and Xingtai, and the three cities are typical heavy industrial cities that are based on coal resources. Therefore, this paper proposes to improve the energy structure, use the advanced production process, reasonably control the urban population growth, and adopt the emissions trading system in order to reduce the economic loss caused by the effects of air pollution on public health.

  11. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  12. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  13. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were...... between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship...... between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake...

  14. Health Promoting Effects of Phytochemicals from Brassicaceae: A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savinder Kaur Mann and Namita Khanna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, natural antioxidants have attracted considerable interest as potential treatment for a wide variety of disease states, including cancer and other causes e.g. chronic inflammatory diseases and aging. Therefore, plant derived antioxidants are now receiving a special attention as they possess good antioxidant properties and hence a worldwide trend towards the use of natural phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables have been reported. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases and reduced incidence of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and other sites. The substances that seem to be responsible for these properties are phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, polyphenols etc. and sulphur-containing organic compound glucosinolates and their derived products. The present review focuses on the health promoting effects of phytochemicals and their beneficial bioactivities in Brassicaceae.

  15. Exposure to the airborne mould Botrytis and its health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgensen, Claudia Wurtz; Madsen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations into the correlation between exposure to fungi and detrimental health effects focus on the 2-4 most prevalent genera in ambient air, both outdoors and indoors. Yet over 80 genera of fungi have been shown to have allergenic potential. Also, there is no agreement about threshold values for exposure to fungi. One of the fungal genera expected to be less prevalent in ambient air and known to cause allergy is Botrytis. In this review, we investigate the airborne exposure level and health effect of Botrytis, both at general exposure and in occupational settings. The surveyed papers show that Botrytis is found globally with different spore seasons depending on the region investigated. The levels of Botrytis in the percentage of all fungi have a calculated median of around 1.1% in the different environments, confirming that it is among the less prevalent fungi. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients and workers are allergic to Botrytis cinerea, and when B. cinerea was included in extended test panels additional allergic patients were found. Thus, B. cinerea is as important as the more prevalent mould genera Cladosporium and Alternaria and we suggest that it should be included in standard allergic tests panels.

  16. The effects of oestrogens and their receptors on cardiometabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Santos, Roberta S; Criollo, Alfredo; Nelson, Michael D; Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in developed countries. The incidence of CVD is sexually dimorphic, and research has focused on the contribution of sex steroids to the development and progression of the cardiometabolic syndrome, which is defined as a clustering of interrelated risk factors that promote the development of atherosclerosis (which can lead to CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data are inconclusive as to how sex steroids and their respective receptors increase or suppress the risk of developing the cardiometabolic syndrome and thus CVD. In this Review, we discuss the potential role, or roles, of sex hormones in cardiometabolic health by first focusing on the influence of oestrogens and their receptors on the risk of developing cardiometabolic syndrome and CVD. We also highlight what is known about testosterone and its potential role in protecting against the development of the cardiometabolic syndrome and CVD. Given the inconclusive nature of the data regarding the direct effects of each sex hormone, we advocate and highlight the importance of studying the relative levels and the ratio of sex hormones to each other, as well as the use of cross sex hormone therapy and its effect on cardiometabolic health.

  17. Family Food Providers' Perceptions of the Causes of Obesity and Effectiveness of Weight Control Strategies in Five Countries in the Asia Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei; Sarmugam, Rani; Pham, Quynh; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ridley, Stacey

    2017-01-18

    The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group's awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. An online survey was conducted in late 2013, early 2014 among 3945 respondents. Information about body weight concerns, perceived causes of obesity, effectiveness of weight control methods, demographics, self-reported height and weight, and personal values was elicited. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) derived nine reliable factors which were used in structural equation modelling (SEM). Two thirds of respondents were trying to change their body weight, of them, 71% were trying to lose weight. The CFA and SEM showed that demographics, region of residence, personal values and perceptions of the causes of obesity (Unhealthy food behaviours, influences Beyond personal control and Environmental influences) had direct and indirect associations with three weight control methods factors, named: Healthy habits, Eat less, sit less, and Dieting. Middle class food providers in the study regions share public health views of obesity causation and personal weight control. These findings could inform public health and food policies, and the design of public health interventions and communications. Further research is required among lower socio economic status (SES) populations.

  18. Family Food Providers’ Perceptions of the Causes of Obesity and Effectiveness of Weight Control Strategies in Five Countries in the Asia Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Worsley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group’s awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. An online survey was conducted in late 2013, early 2014 among 3945 respondents. Information about body weight concerns, perceived causes of obesity, effectiveness of weight control methods, demographics, self-reported height and weight, and personal values was elicited. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA derived nine reliable factors which were used in structural equation modelling (SEM. Two thirds of respondents were trying to change their body weight, of them, 71% were trying to lose weight. The CFA and SEM showed that demographics, region of residence, personal values and perceptions of the causes of obesity (Unhealthy food behaviours, influences Beyond personal control and Environmental influences had direct and indirect associations with three weight control methods factors, named: Healthy habits, Eat less, sit less, and Dieting. Middle class food providers in the study regions share public health views of obesity causation and personal weight control. These findings could inform public health and food policies, and the design of public health interventions and communications. Further research is required among lower socio economic status (SES populations.

  19. Oral Health of Drug Abusers: A Review of Health Effects and Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ekhtiari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral health problems, among the most prevalent comorbidities related to addiction, require more attention by both clinicians and policy-makers. Our aims were to review oral complications associated with drugs, oral health care in addiction rehabilitation, health services available, and barriers against oral health promotion among addicts. Drug abuse is associated with serious oral health problems including generalized dental caries, periodontal diseases, mucosal dysplasia, xerostomia, bruxism, tooth wear, and tooth loss. Oral health care has positive effects in recovery from drug abuse: patients’ need for pain control, destigmatization, and HIV transmission. Health care systems worldwide deliver services for addicts, but most lack oral health care programs. Barriers against oral health promotion among addicts include difficulty in accessing addicts as a target population, lack of appropriate settings and of valid assessment protocols for conducting oral health studies, and poor collaboration between dental and general health care sectors serving addicts. These interfere with an accurate picture of the situation. Moreover, lack of appropriate policies to improve access to dental services, lack of comprehensive knowledge of and interest among dental professionals in treating addicts, and low demand for non-emergency dental care affect provision of effective interventions. Management of drug addiction as a multi-organ disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. Health care programs usually lack oral health care elements. Published evidence on oral complications related to addiction emphasizes that regardless of these barriers, oral health care at various levels including education, prevention, and treatment should be integrated into general care services for addicts.

  20. Health Effects & Wine: The FDA Should Regulate the Health Effects on Wine Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Sara L.

    2002-01-01

    In 1976, the District Court of the Western District of Kentucky, in Brown-Forman Distillers Corp. v. Matthews, found that alcoholic beverages were exempt from the Food & Drug Administration labeling requirements. Since then the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms has had exclusive jurisdiction over the labeling of alcoholic beverages. As a result of the recent findings on the health effects of alcoholic beverages, in particular wine, it is necessary to revisit that 1976 decision. The...

  1. The effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme on health care utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, N J; Fink, G; Osei-Akoto, I

    2012-06-01

    The study investigates the effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) on health care utilisation. We provide a short history of health insurance in Ghana, and briefly discuss general patterns of enrolment in Ghana as well as in Accra in a first step. In a second step, we use data from the Women's Health Study of Accra wave II to evaluate the effect of insurance on health seeking behaviour using propensity score matching. We find that on average individuals enrolled in the insurance scheme are significantly more likely to obtain prescriptions, visit clinics and seek formal health care when sick. These results suggest that the government's objective to increase access to the formal health care sector through health insurance has at least partially been achieved.

  2. Quantile treatment effects of job loss on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Valentin; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    Studies on health effects of job loss mostly estimate mean effects. We argue that the effects might differ over the distribution of the health status and use quantile regression methods to provide a more complete picture. To take the potential endogeneity of job loss into account, we estimate quantile treatment effects where we rely on job loss due to plant closures. We find that the effect of job loss indeed varies across the mental and physical health distribution. Job loss due to plant closures affects physical health adversely for individuals in the middle and lower part of the health distribution while those in best physical condition do not seem to be affected. The results for mental health, though less distinct, point in the same direction. We find no effects on BMI.

  3. Effects of television programs about Family Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is an observational study, which sought to reflect on the impact of television programs on family health. Thus, from February to July 2011, a Family Health Unit of Barra do Garças - Mato Grosso, the researcher observed the behavior of customers, through spontaneous expressions which referred to the materials or articles about health programs. At the end of the study, it wasfound that such programs stimulated and generated new behaviors, especially in women. But to do so, health professionals must engage with this media education and participate in the conduct of learned information in accordance with the need of the viewer.

  4. Coalfield health effects: Variation in health across former coalfield areas in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M.; Terashima, M.; Curtis, S.; Shucksmith, J.; Carlebach, S. [University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Regions affected by deindustrialisation are often characterised by unfavourable local health profiles. This was the situation in coalfield areas in England, where the scale and suddenness of the job losses in the 1980s and 1990s left these communities experiencing difficult socioeconomic conditions, and associated poor health status. Using data from the Health Survey for England, this paper examines whether poorer health outcomes still characterise coalfield areas today. Findings confirm a 'coalfield health effect' related to limiting long-term illness. With regards to self reported general health and mental health outcomes, results are less clear. The population health profile of coalfield communities is not homogeneous, with some coalfield communities faring worse than others, indicating more localised health issues.

  5. Cardiovascular health metrics and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among middle-aged men in Korea: the Seoul male cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Ko, Young-Jin; Rhee, Chul Woo; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Jong-Myon; Shin, Myung-Hee; Lee, Moo-Song; Li, Zhong Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2013-11-01

    This study estimated the association of cardiovascular health behaviors with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in middle-aged men in Korea. In total, 12 538 men aged 40 to 59 years were enrolled in 1993 and followed up through 2011. Cardiovascular health metrics defined the following lifestyle behaviors proposed by the American Heart Association: smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet habit score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The cardiovascular health metrics score was calculated as a single categorical variable, by assigning 1 point to each ideal healthy behavior. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of cardiovascular health behavior. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated from the significant cardiovascular health metrics. There were 1054 total and 171 CVD deaths over 230 690 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was 0.67%. Current smoking, elevated blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The adjusted PARs for the 3 significant metrics combined were 35.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7 to 47.4) and 52.8% (95% CI, 22.0 to 74.0) for all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios of the groups with a 6-7 vs. 0-2 cardiovascular health metrics score were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.59) for all-cause mortality and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for CVD mortality. Among cardiovascular health behaviors, not smoking, normal blood pressure, and recommended fasting blood glucose levels were associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.

  6. Thallium in the environment and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazantzis, G. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Environmental Geochemistry Research Group, TH Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Royal School of Mines

    2000-12-01

    Thallium is present in the natural environment in low concentration, being found most frequently in the sulphide ores of a number of heavy metals. Atmospheric emission and deposition from industrial sources has resulted in raised levels in the vicinity of mineral smelters, coal burning power plants, brick works and cement plants. In contaminated areas, raised levels are found in vegetables, fruit and in farm animals. Thallium is used industrially in small quantities, with uses in electronics, in the production of certain glasses and crystals and in medical diagnostics. It has in the past been commonly used as a rodenticide, but its use has now been banned in many countries. Thallium salts are now considered to be amongst the most toxic compounds known. With regard to population exposure, an epidemiological study in an area with high thallium concentrations in soil and garden vegetables centred on a cement plant, has found evidence of a dose response relationship between thallium concentration in urine and a number of non-specific subjective symptoms. Much further research is required to investigate the possible adverse health effects of thallium following population exposure. 7 refs.

  7. Causes and Effects of Change Orders on Construction Projects in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Alaryan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the change orders in public and private construction projects in Kuwait. The study in this research presents the results of a questionnaire surveying the owners, contractors and consultants on a sample comprising 385 engineers representing the construction industry. The responses to the questionnaire help in identifying the general characteristics of the construction industry in Kuwait as well as ranking the most common causes of changes, their effects on the projects and the control measures to address the changes. The results of the questionnaire indicate that the owner is the most responsible party causing changes. The study identifies that the first cause is change of plans by owner, otherwise increase in cost of the project is the first effect. All changes to design documents are checked and reviewed is the first control.

  8. Harm to patients and others caused by impaired junior doctors compelled to work 30-hour shifts or longer: Can the minister of health, provincial MECs for health and public health officials be held liable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jan McQuoid-Mason

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Junior doctors in most provinces in South Africa are compelled to work 30-hour shifts without a break. Shifts in excess of 24 hours can result in serious bodily harm to patients, third parties and the doctors themselves. These risks have been drawn to the attention of the health authorities but the 30-hour policy continues to be implemented in all provinces, except recently in the Western Cape. Public health officials may be held directly liable for the harm caused to patients, third parties or the junior doctors themselves, if it can be shown that they are at fault and are acting unlawfully in violation of the Constitution. Where officials carry out the unlawful orders of senior officials, including the minister of health and provincial members of the executive council (MECs for health, they may not raise the defence of ‘obedience to orders’ and may be held directly liable for harm caused. Superior officials issuing such orders will also be held directly liable for harm caused.

  9. The Effects of Educational Intervention & Parental Support on Dental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Edward J.; Behr, Mary T.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine the effectiveness of a school-based dental health education program which included a parental support component. It was hypothesized that changes in dental health attitudes would be positively affected by the outreach effort to educate parents on the importance of dental health. (JN)

  10. Health and Environmental Effects Document on Geothermal Energy -- 1982 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, David W.; Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; O' Banion, Kerry D.

    1983-11-30

    We assess several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MWe for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10{sup 18} J). The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in food. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in 29 of 51 geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. Our best estimates and ranges of uncertainty for the health risks of chronic population exposures to atmospheric pollutants are as follows (risks expressed per 10{sup 18} J of electricity): particulate sulfate, 44 premature deaths (uncertainty range of 0 to 360); benzene, 0.15 leukemias (range of 0 to 0.51); elemental mercury, 14 muscle tremors (range of 0 to 39); and radon, 0.68 lung cancers (range of 0 to 1.8). The ultimate risk of fatal skin cancers as the result of the transfer of waste arsenic to the general population over geologic time ({approx} 100,000 y) was calculated as 41 per 10{sup 18} J. We based our estimates of occupational health effects on rates of accidental deaths together with data on occupational diseases and injuries in surrogate industries. According to our best estimates, there would be 8 accidental deaths per 10{sup 18} J of electricity, 300 cases of occupational diseases per 10{sup 18} J, and 3400 occupational injuries per 10{sup 18}J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants. We also studied the possible consequences of accidental releases of geothermal fluids and concluded that probably less than 5 ha of land would be affected by such releases during the production of 20 x 10{sup 18} J of electricity. Boron emitted from cooling towers in the

  11. Quantification of microbial risks to human health caused by waterborne viruses and bacteria in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; van der Steen, P; Foppen, J W A; Lens, P N L

    2014-02-01

    To determine the magnitude of microbial risks from waterborne viruses and bacteria in Bwaise III in Kampala (Uganda), a typical slum in Sub-Saharan Africa. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was carried out to determine the magnitude of microbial risks from waterborne pathogens through various exposure pathways in Bwaise III in Kampala (Uganda). This was based on the concentration of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., rotavirus (RV) and human adenoviruses F and G (HAdV) in spring water, tap water, surface water, grey water and contaminated soil samples. The total disease burden was 680 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1000 persons per year. The highest disease burden contribution was caused by exposure to surface water open drainage channels (39%) followed by exposure to grey water in tertiary drains (24%), storage containers (22%), unprotected springs (8%), contaminated soil (7%) and tap water (0.02%). The highest percentage of the mean estimated infections was caused by E. coli O157:H7 (41%) followed by HAdV (32%), RV (20%) and Salmonella spp. (7%). In addition, the highest infection risk was 1 caused by HAdV in surface water at the slum outlet, while the lowest infection risk was 2.71 × 10(-6) caused by E. coli O157:H7 in tap water. The results show that the slum environment is polluted, and the disease burden from each of the exposure routes in Bwaise III slum, with the exception of tap water, was much higher than the WHO reference level of tolerable risk of 1 × 10(-6) DALYs per person per year. The findings of this study provide guidance to governments, local authorities and nongovernment organizations in making decisions on measures to reduce infection risk and the disease burden by 10(2) to 10(5) depending on the source of exposure to achieve the desired health impacts. The infection risk may be reduced by sustainable management of human excreta and grey water, coupled with risk communication during hygiene awareness

  12. Effects of subfertility cause, smoking and body weight on the success rate of IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintsen, A.M.E.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Boer, E.J. de; Burger, C.W.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Kortman, M.; Velde, E.R. te; Macklon, N.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Leerentveld, R.A.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schats, R.; Naaktgeboren, N.; Helmerhorst, F.M.; Bots, R.S.G.M.; Simons, A.H.M.; Hogerzeil, H.V.; Evers, J.L.H.; Dop, P.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: We investigated the separate and combined effects of smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the success rate of IVF for couples with different causes of subfertility. Methods: The success rate of IVF was examined in 8457 women. Detailed information on reproduction and lifestyle factors was

  13. Chinese University EFL Learners' Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…

  14. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Bullying in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Mary Juliana; Okoli, Georgina; Obeten, Okoi Okorn; Akeke, M. N. G.

    2016-01-01

    This research is an evaluation of the impact of causes, consequences and effects of bullying in academic setting on student academic performance in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The research made use of purposive and random sampling techniques made up of 302 students. Questionnaire served as the data collection instrument.…

  15. Expanded DEMATEL for Determining Cause and Effect Group in Bidirectional Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Falatoonitoosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL methodology has been proposed to solve complex and intertwined problem groups in many situations such as developing the capabilities, complex group decision making, security problems, marketing approaches, global managers, and control systems. DEMATEL is able to realize casual relationships by dividing important issues into cause and effect group as well as making it possible to visualize the casual relationships of subcriteria and systems in the course of casual diagram that it may demonstrate communication network or a little control relationships between individuals. Despite of its ability to visualize cause and effect inside a network, the original DEMATEL has not been able to find the cause and effect group between different networks. Therefore, the aim of this study is proposing the expanded DEMATEL to cover this deficiency by new formulations to determine cause and effect factors between separate networks that have bidirectional direct impact on each other. At the end, the feasibility of new extra formulations is validated by case study in three numerical examples of green supply chain networks for an automotive company.

  16. Fire in Ghana's dry forest: Causes, frequency, effects and management interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Opoku Agyemang; Michael Muller; Victor Rex Barnes

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the number of fires, area burned, causes and seasonality of fires over a ten year period from 2002-2012 and investigates different fire management strategies and their effectiveness in the Afram headwaters forest reserve in Ghana. Data were collected from interviews of stakeholders in two communities adjacent to the reserve, and from 2002-2012 fire...

  17. Expanded DEMATEL for determining cause and effect group in bidirectional relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatoonitoosi, Elham; Ahmed, Shamsuddin; Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2014-01-01

    Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) methodology has been proposed to solve complex and intertwined problem groups in many situations such as developing the capabilities, complex group decision making, security problems, marketing approaches, global managers, and control systems. DEMATEL is able to realize casual relationships by dividing important issues into cause and effect group as well as making it possible to visualize the casual relationships of subcriteria and systems in the course of casual diagram that it may demonstrate communication network or a little control relationships between individuals. Despite of its ability to visualize cause and effect inside a network, the original DEMATEL has not been able to find the cause and effect group between different networks. Therefore, the aim of this study is proposing the expanded DEMATEL to cover this deficiency by new formulations to determine cause and effect factors between separate networks that have bidirectional direct impact on each other. At the end, the feasibility of new extra formulations is validated by case study in three numerical examples of green supply chain networks for an automotive company.

  18. Effects of subfertility cause, smoking and body weight on the success rate of IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintsen, A.M.E.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Boer, E.J. de; Burger, C.W.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Kortman, M.; Velde, E.R. te; Macklon, N.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Leerentveld, R.A.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schats, R.; Naaktgeboren, N.; Helmerhorst, F.M.; Bots, R.S.G.M.; Simons, A.H.M.; Hogerzeil, H.V.; Evers, J.L.H.; Dop, P.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: We investigated the separate and combined effects of smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the success rate of IVF for couples with different causes of subfertility. Methods: The success rate of IVF was examined in 8457 women. Detailed information on reproduction and lifestyle factors was

  19. Immunostimulatory Potential of β-Lactoglobulin Preparations: Effects Caused by Endotoxin Contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bovetto, L.; Fritsche, R.

    2003-01-01

    the immunomodulatory activity. Eventually, the immunostimulatory effect was found to be caused by endotoxin contamination.Conclusion: These results identify endotoxin as the main immunostimulatory component present in some commercial beta-lactoglobulin preparations. Moreover, the present study makes it evident...

  20. [Renoprotective effects of statins under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorskiĭ, I I; Zeleniuk, V G

    2014-01-01

    The experiment on white rats was targeted at the examination of influence of statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin) under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis. Renoprotective effects of statins were demonstrated by reduction of hyperazotemia and proteinuria and improvement of renal excretory function, which correlated with antioxidant properties of drugs.

  1. Effects of subfertility cause, smoking and body weight on the success rate of IVF.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintsen, A.M.E.; Pasker-de Jong, P.C.M.; Boer, E.J. de; Burger, C.W.; Jansen, C.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the separate and combined effects of smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the success rate of IVF for couples with different causes of subfertility. METHODS: The success rate of IVF was examined in 8457 women. Detailed information on reproduction and lifestyle factors was

  2. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air...

  3. New views of dioxin's effect on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports that although dioxin has been shown to cause disease in animals, data from human studies collected over the last 30 years have failed to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between exposure to dioxin and a variety of diseases, including cancer. This disparity leads many scientists and public health officials to question the value of using animal study data to assess human risk from dioxin exposure. And, as information from human studies has evolved, the scientific evidence strongly suggests that dioxin-at very low levels- does not constitute a significant health risk to humans.

  4. Effect of air pollution on athlete health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth William

    2012-05-01

    Unfavourable effects on the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems from short-term and long-term inhalation of air pollution are well documented. Exposure to freshly generated mixed combustion emissions such as those observed in proximity to roadways with high volumes of traffic and those from ice-resurfacing equipment are of particular concern. This is because there is a greater toxicity from freshly generated whole exhaust than from its component parts. The particles released from emissions are considered to cause oxidative damage and inflammation in the airways and the vascular system, and may be related to decreased exercise performance. However, few studies have examined this aspect. Several papers describe deleterious effects on health from chronic and acute air pollution exposure. However, there has been no research into the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on athletic performance and a paucity of studies that describe the effects of acute exposure on exercise performance. The current knowledge of exercising in the high-pollution environment and the consequences that it may have on athlete performance are reviewed.

  5. Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

  6. Study on Enhancement Effect of Cavitation Caused by HIFU Piezoelectricity Transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinnan Fan; Changping Zhu; Shichuan He; Minglei Shan; Jiacai Chen

    2006-01-01

    An orthogonal ultrasonic irradiation system consisting of HIFU with frequency at 1.05 MHz combined with ultrasound with frequency at 28 kHz was applied in this paper. Effect of cavitation was detected by pH-value measurement and conductance measurement. The result shows that the effect of cavitation caused by ultrasound with frequency at 28 kHz is greatly enhanced by HIFU piezoelectricity transducer with frequency at 1.05 MHz.

  7. [Analysis on the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiatai; Chen, Bo; Guo, Yongming; Guo, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Based on traditional acupuncture theory and modern researches, the factors that cause the difference of acupoints synergy effect are summarized and analyzed. It is found that the factors include the specificity of acupoint, the interaction of acupoints, the pathway of acupuncture signal, the body condition level, acupuncture manipulation, etc. It is believed that the specificity of acupoint is the key factor to determine the difference of acupoints synergy effect. Interaction of acupoints may be related to the pathway of selected acupuncture signal, which is an important factor in difference of acupoints synergy effect. The body condition level and acupuncture manipulation are internal and external factor to influence acupoints synergy effect, respectively.

  8. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    association between glucose intolerance, impaired insulin production, and dioxin exposure was revealed, but cause and effect...remain to be established. Also revealed was a significant association between selected peripheral pulses and dioxin exposure , and a significant...patterns within or across clinical areas that were suggestive of health detriment due to dioxin exposure

  9. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Evidence for a possible association between glucose intolerance, impaired insulin production, and dioxin exposure was revealed, but cause and effect...remain to be established. Also revealed was a significant association between selected peripheral pulses and dioxin exposure , and a significant...patterns within or across clinical areas that were suggestive of health detriment due to dioxin exposure

  10. Health effects of chronic noise exposure in pregnancy and childhood: A systematic review initiated by ENRIECO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohmann, C.; Grabenhenrich, L.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Tischer, C.; Heinrich, J.; Chen, C.-M.; Thijs, C.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Keil, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic noise is an environmental pollutant and well-known to cause annoyance and sleep disturbance. Its association with clinical and subclinical adverse health effects has been discussed. Objectives: This systematic review aimed to examine associations between chronic noise exposure du

  11. Risk-based estimate of effect of foodborne diseases on public health, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Reij, M.W.; Havelaar, A.H.; Zwietering, M.H.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The public health effects of illness caused by foodborne pathogens in Greece during 1996–2006 was quantified by using publicly available surveillance data, hospital statistics, and literature. Results were expressed as the incidence of different disease outcomes and as disability-adjusted life years

  12. Health effects of chronic noise exposure in pregnancy and childhood: A systematic review initiated by ENRIECO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohmann, C.; Grabenhenrich, L.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Tischer, C.; Heinrich, J.; Chen, C.-M.; Thijs, C.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Keil, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic noise is an environmental pollutant and well-known to cause annoyance and sleep disturbance. Its association with clinical and subclinical adverse health effects has been discussed. Objectives: This systematic review aimed to examine associations between chronic noise exposure

  13. Health effects of refractory ceramic fibres: scientific issues and policy considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, L R; Brown, R. C.; Hoskins, J A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review the scientific literature on the health effects of refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs). The adverse effects of exposure to asbestos has led to concern about the potential for other fibrous materials to cause diseases. For this reason the human populations most heavily exposed to synthetic mineral fibres have been examined for any adverse effects and many types of fibre have been studied in animal experiments. One type of man made vitreous fibres (MMVFs), refractory ceramic ...

  14. Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested.

  15. Causes and risk factors for maternal mortality in rural Tanzania--case of Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illah, Evance; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Masanja, Honorati; Kahn, Kathleen

    2013-09-01

    Complications of childbirth and pregnancy are leading causes of death among women of reproductive age. Developing countries account for 99% of maternal deaths. The aim of this study was to explore levels, causes and risk factors associated with maternal mortality in rural Tanzania. Longitudinal data (2002-2006) from Rufiji HDSS was used where a total of 26 427 women aged 15-49 years were included in the study; 64 died and there were 15 548 live births. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the risk factors associated with maternal deaths. MMR was 412 per 100 000 live births. The main causes of death were haemorrhage (28%), eclampsia (19%) and puerperal sepsis (8%). An increased risk of 154% for maternal death was found for women aged 30-39 versus 15-19 years (HR=2.54, 95% CI=1.001-6.445). Married women had a protective effect of 62% over unmarried ones (HR=0.38, 95% CI=0.176-0.839).

  16. [Health promotion effectiveness: testing the German statutory health insurance agencies evaluation system in health promotion, and preliminary findings from 212 health training courses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, T; Schreiner-Kürten, K; Wanek, V; Koch, U

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement system for the evaluation of health promotion training courses offered by German statutory health insurance companies. In a field test, N=1 671 participants from 212 youth and adult courses for the promotion of either physical activity, coping with stress or nutritional improvement were included. 80% were female. Participants were questioned in a pre-post-design with a three month follow-up. The questionnaires covered health behaviour and health status. Participants' compliance and psychometric quality of the measurement instruments were good. On average, the health insurance companies assigned participants to different interventions adequately according to the participant's individual health problems. The health promotion courses triggered improvements of high effect sizes for health behaviour patterns, of moderate effect sizes for physical complaints, subjective health ratings, and health-related quality of life. Effects decreased after the end of the intervention but remained significantly above the initial values. BMI values continued their improvement after the end of the training courses. Thus, health promotion training courses generated stable health improvements of practically relevant effect sizes. The interventions provided good support and health improvements for all subgroups of participants, regardless of age, gender and educational background. Thus, the health promotion curricula of the health insurance companies offer a ubiquitous and easily accessible but effective intervention for health promotion in Germany, although men are clearly underrepresented among the participants. The trainings may be recommended and used by other health-care suppliers. The evaluation toolkit provides practical and valid instruments for a routine evaluation of health promotion trainings. It should be applied within random sampling designs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. The Effect of Health Information Technology on Health Care Provider Communication: A Mixed-Method Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P.; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication...

  18. Health effects of a subway environment in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepczyńska Nyström, A; Svartengren, M; Grunewald, J; Pousette, C; Rödin, I; Lundin, A; Sköld, C M; Eklund, A; Larsson, B-M

    2010-08-01

    Environmental particle exposure, often estimated as the particulate mass of particles with a diameter environment causes a cellular inflammatory response in the airways of healthy individuals. In the present study, our aim was to investigate potential airway health effects from exposure to a subway environment. 20 healthy volunteers were exposed to a subway and a control environment for 2 h, followed by measurements of lung function and the inflammatory response in the lower airways (bronchoscopy) and in the peripheral blood. No cellular response was found in the airways after exposure to the subway environment. In the blood, we found a statistically significant increase in fibrinogen and regulatory T-cells expressing CD4/CD25/FOXP3. Subway and road tunnel environments have similar levels of PM(10) and PM(2.5), whilst the concentrations of ultrafine particles, nitrogen monoxide and dioxide are lower in the subway. Although no cellular response was detected, the findings indicate a biological response to the subway environment. Our studies show that using gravimetric estimates of ambient particulate air pollution alone may have clear limitations in health-risk assessment.

  19. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  20. Causes and effects of Romania deepening financial crisis. Short term means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Florin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Deepening and expanding financial crisis triggered in October 2008 in the U.S. and other countries is the event that has caused the utmost concern of the policy makers in the economy and society. Forecasts for Romania show a slowdown in economy. As the current global status indicates the likelihood of a major global economic crisis, we attempt through this study to identify the real causes of this deepening crisis in Romania. As well as public policy priorities to counteract the effects of the crisis and restore confidence of financial institutions and investors to Romania.

  1. The effect of health value and ethnicity on the relationship between hardiness and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shanette M

    2004-04-01

    Associations among hardiness, health value, and health protective behaviors were examined as a function of ethnicity among 80 African American and 100 European American college students. The role of health value as moderator versus mediator in the hardiness-health behavior link was explored. Racial differences in correlations among hardiness, control, and commitment were found, with stronger relations for African American than European Americans. Moderate positive relations between hardiness, control, commitment, and health value for African American, as contrasted with weak relations between commitment and health value for European Americans, were also shown. A partial mediational effect for health value with personal distress and moderator effects for health value with personal distress and health habits were found for African American only. Race predicted hardiness variables, tobacco and alcohol use, personal distress, and health habits beyond what was accounted for by occupation and income. The ramifications of these data with regard to future studies on hardiness, health value, and health behaviors for African American are discussed.

  2. Infant death clustering in families: magnitude, causes, and the influence of better health services, Bangladesh 1982-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Unnati Rani; van Soest, Arthur

    2011-11-01

    This analysis of infant mortality in Bangladesh focuses on explaining death clustering within families, using prospective data from a rural region in Bangladesh, split into areas with and without extensive health services (the area covered by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research and the comparison area, respectively). The modelling framework distinguishes between two explanations of death clustering: (observed and unobserved) heterogeneity across families and a causal 'scarring' effect of the death of one infant on the survival chances of the next to be born. Keeping observed and unobserved characteristics constant, we find scarring in the comparison area only. There the likelihood of infant death is about 29 per cent greater if the previous sibling died in infancy than otherwise. This effect mainly works through birth intervals: infant deaths are followed by shorter birth intervals, which increases the risk of infant death for the next child.

  3. HIV, tobacco use, and poverty: a potential cause of disparities in health status by race and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowah, Leonard Anang; Busse, Sarah; Amoroso, Anthony

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco use in the U.S. has declined significantly since the 1960s, but differentially by socioeconomic status. Current HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection rates in the United States are higher in minorities and underprivileged individuals. Effective highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has changed HIV into a chronic infection. Mortality among HIV patients is now as likely to be due to heart disease and cancers as HIV-related infections. In the current situation, one would expect public insurance plans to focus on interventions targeting lifestyle-associated behaviors such as tobacco use that have been found to be associated with increased risk for heart disease and cancers. Review of the AIDS Drug Assistance Program formularies and the Medicaid Programs of 50 states and the District of Columbia, however, revealed that coverage for smoking cessation is inadequate in most instances. To reduce health disparities, publicly funded programs that serve the nation's most vulnerable should provide coverage for effective tobacco cessation.

  4. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Effects on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanocco, Kyle A; Yeh, Michael W

    2017-03-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of chronic hypercalcemia. With the advent of routine calcium screening, the classic presentation of renal and osseous symptoms has been largely replaced with mild, asymptomatic disease. In hypercalcemia caused by PHPT, serum parathyroid hormone levels are either high, or inappropriately normal. A single-gland adenoma is responsible for 80% of PHPT cases. Less frequent causes include 4-gland hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma. Diminished bone mineral density and nephrolithiasis are the major current clinical sequelae. Parathyroidectomy is the only definitive treatment for PHPT, and in experienced hands, cure rates approach 98%.

  5. Causes and Effects of Stress Among Faculty Members in a State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydee Colacion-Quiros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to ascertain the level of stress among the faculty members of West Visayas State University Janiuay Campus when they were taken as a whole and when they were grouped as to sex, age, civil status, academic rank, and workload. It likewise determined the causes and effects of stress among the respondents and if there were significant differences in their level of stress when classified as to sex, age, civil status, academic rank, and workload. This study utilized the descriptive method in determining the levels, causes and effects of stress among the fifty-five (55 randomly selected faculty respondents. Results revealed that there was a low level of stress among the respondents as a whole and when classified as to the defined variables except those faculty aged 58 and above, whose stress level was moderate. The leading cause of stress was paperwork, the leading physical effect was high blood pressure, emotional effect was irritability and spiritual effect was anxiety. There were no significant differences in the level of stress when the respondents were grouped as to age, sex, civil status and workload while a significant difference existed when the respondents were grouped as to academic rank.

  6. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  7. Divergent effects of obesity on bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Casazza, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Historically, obesity was thought to be advantageous for maintaining healthy bones due to the greater BMD observed in overweight individuals. However, recent observations of increased fracture in some obese individuals has led to concern that common metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and inflammation may be associated with poor bone health. In support of this hypothesis, greater visceral fat, a hallmark of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, is associated with lower BMD. Research is needed to determine if and how visceral fat and/or poor metabolic health are causally associated with bone health. Clinicians should consider adding a marker metabolic health, such as waist circumference or fasting plasma glucose concentration, to other known risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture. PMID:24063845

  8. Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brubaker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities.In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects.The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses.The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska.Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate.The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.

  9. Health selection and the process of social stratification: the effect of childhood health on socioeconomic attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Steven A

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates whether childhood health acts as a mechanism through which socioeconomic status is transferred across generations. The study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to track siblings and to estimate fixed-effects models that account for unobserved heterogeneity at the family level. The results demonstrate that disadvantaged social background is associated with poor childhood health. Subsequently, poor health in childhood has significant, direct, and large adverse effects on educational attainment and wealth accumulation. In addition, childhood health appears to have indirect effects on occupational standing, earnings, and wealth via educational attainment and adult health status. The results further show that socioeconomic health gradients are best understood as being embedded within larger processes of social stratification.

  10. Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Hossain, Md. Amir; Samanta, Gautam; Roy, M. M.; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy; Mukherjee, Adreesh; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-03-01

    During a 28-year field survey in India (1988-2016), groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects were registered in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the Ganga River flood plain, and the states of Assam and Manipur in the flood plain of Brahamaputra and Imphal rivers. Groundwater of Rajnandgaon village in Chhattisgarh state, which is not in a flood plain, is also arsenic contaminated. More than 170,000 tubewell water samples from the affected states were analyzed and half of the samples had arsenic >10 μg/L (maximum concentration 3,700 μg/L). Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water causes various health problems, like dermal, neurological, reproductive and pregnancy effects, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, and cancers, typically involving the skin, lungs, liver, bladder, etc. About 4.5% of the 8,000 children from arsenic-affected villages of affected states were registered with mild to moderate arsenical skin lesions. In the preliminary survey, more than 10,000 patients were registered with different types of arsenic-related signs and symptoms, out of more than 100,000 people screened from affected states. Elevated levels of arsenic were also found in biological samples (urine, hair, nails) of the people living in affected states. The study reveals that the population who had severe arsenical skin lesions may suffer from multiple Bowens/cancers in the long term. Some unusual symptoms, such as burning sensation, skin itching and watering of eyes in the presence of sun light, were also noticed in arsenicosis patients.

  11. Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Hossain, Md. Amir; Samanta, Gautam; Roy, M. M.; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy; Mukherjee, Adreesh; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-06-01

    During a 28-year field survey in India (1988-2016), groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects were registered in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the Ganga River flood plain, and the states of Assam and Manipur in the flood plain of Brahamaputra and Imphal rivers. Groundwater of Rajnandgaon village in Chhattisgarh state, which is not in a flood plain, is also arsenic contaminated. More than 170,000 tubewell water samples from the affected states were analyzed and half of the samples had arsenic >10 μg/L (maximum concentration 3,700 μg/L). Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water causes various health problems, like dermal, neurological, reproductive and pregnancy effects, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, and cancers, typically involving the skin, lungs, liver, bladder, etc. About 4.5% of the 8,000 children from arsenic-affected villages of affected states were registered with mild to moderate arsenical skin lesions. In the preliminary survey, more than 10,000 patients were registered with different types of arsenic-related signs and symptoms, out of more than 100,000 people screened from affected states. Elevated levels of arsenic were also found in biological samples (urine, hair, nails) of the people living in affected states. The study reveals that the population who had severe arsenical skin lesions may suffer from multiple Bowens/cancers in the long term. Some unusual symptoms, such as burning sensation, skin itching and watering of eyes in the presence of sun light, were also noticed in arsenicosis patients.

  12. Effects of Smoking on Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osteoporosis. Smoking lowers the level of the hormone estrogen in your body, which can cause you to go through menopause earlier, boosting your risk for osteoporosis. Back to top How does smoking affect my ...

  13. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... monitors show unhealthy levels of one or both—meaning the air a family breathes could shorten life or cause lung cancer. So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to ...

  14. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  15. Metabolites are key to understanding health effects of wine polyphenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester, Sarah C; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2009-09-01

    Phenolic compounds in grapes and wine are grouped within the following major classes: stilbenes, phenolic acids, ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. Consumption of foods containing phenolic substances has been linked to beneficial effects toward chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease and colorectal cancer. However, such correlations need to be supported by in vivo testing and bioavailability studies are the first step in establishing cause and effect. Class members from all phenolic groups can be glucuronidated, sulfated, and/or methylated and detected at low concentrations in the bloodstream and in urine. But the majority of phenolic compounds from grapes and wine are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract, where they are broken down by gut microflora. This typically involves deglycosylation, followed by breakdown of ring structures to produce phenolic acids and aldehydes. These metabolites can be detected in bloodstream, urine, and fecal samples by using sophisticated instrumentation methods for quantitation and identification at low concentrations. The health effects related to grape and wine consumption may well be due to these poorly understood phenolic acid metabolites. This review discusses the known metabolism of each major class of wine and grape phenolics, the means to measure them, and ideas for future investigations.

  16. A Quasar Spectrum with a Multiplet-Like Structure Caused by the Raman Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永镇

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown that if a photon is scattered by a relativistic electron in a strong magnetic field, this may cause the Raman effect due to a transition between Landau levels. We study the possibility that this quantum effect occurs in some compact objects. We find that there is a multiplet-like structure in the quasi-stellar object (QSO) 1303 + 308 spectrum, which is consistent with that expected by the Raman effect. It indicates that there might be a magnetic field strength about 5 × 106 G in the environment of this QSO at redshift 1.7175.

  17. Effects of student participation in school health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griebler, Ursula; Rojatz, Daniela; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize systematically the existing evidence for the effects of student participation in designing, planning, implementing and/or evaluating school health promotion measures. The focus was on the effects of participation in school health promotion measur...

  18. Discounting health effects in pharmacoeconomic evaluations : Current controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Postma, MJ; Annemans, L

    2005-01-01

    Currently, much debate still surrounds the discounting of health effects: Most general consensus statements have argued for the same discount rate for health and money; however, this practice has been questioned by several authors. The choice of discount rate can have varying effects on intervention

  19. Health Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter Trace Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG GAO; QI YU; LI-MIN CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) trace elements on health are widely concerned nowadays. Many achievements have been made while many unknowns exist. This article reports the recent research progresses, describes the effects of exposure to PM trace elements on health epidemiological evidence, toxicology findings, and raises some questions for future studies.

  20. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  1. Health-Related Effects of Creative and Expressive Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some health-related effects of creative and expressive writing. Design/methodology/approach: Reviews some of the main research studies exploring links between expressive writing and aspects of health, including two new experimental studies showing effects of poetry on mood and immune…

  2. Health education: Effect on knowledge and practice of workplace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health education: Effect on knowledge and practice of workplace personal ... using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 and P-value of ... of participants (P < 0.001), whereas work experience had no effect (P = 0.285).

  3. Potential health effects of electronic cigarettes: A systematic review of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, My; Talbot, Prue

    2016-12-01

    The health risks associated with electronic cigarettes (ECs) are largely unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate published case reports that deal with health effects attributed to EC use. An Internet search was conducted to identify case reports dealing with the effects of EC use on health. Twenty-six case reports representing 27 individuals (one study contained reports for two individuals) were published between April 2012 and January 2016, and these were grouped into categories of effect according to their health outcomes. Of the 27 individuals, 25 had negative effects subsequent to use or exposure to ECs and their refill fluids, while two reported improvement in chronic immune and gastrointestinal conditions. Three categories of negative health effects were identified: systemic effects, nicotine poisoning, and mechanical injury. Thirteen cases reported EC effects on different systems including: respiratory (6), gastrointestinal or developing intestine of an infant (3), cardiovascular (2), neurological (1), and immune (1). Twelve cases involved nicotine poisoning resulting from accidental (N = 3), misuse/abuse (N = 1), or suicidal/intentional ingestion (N = 8); four of these involved children and three resulted in adult fatalities. Two cases reported mechanical injury caused by an EC battery explosion. Most case reports show that the health of children and adults can be negatively affected by EC products and that if death does not occur, negative effects can be reversed. Data further indicate that EC use can cause negative health effects in previously healthy individuals and exacerbate pre-existing conditions.

  4. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongel, Aybike, E-mail: aybike.ongel@eng.bahcesehir.edu.tr [Bahcesehir University, Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul 34353 (Turkey); Sezgin, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.sezgin@ibb.gov.tr [Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Protection Agency, Istanbul 34169 (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  5. Refresher course title: human health effects abstract title: Case Report: Iridium 192 - Health effects during 20 years after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezana, Milacica [Belgrade Univ. of Institute of Occupational Medicine and Radiological Protection, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Jadranko, Simic [South East Europe Consultants, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    Case Report has presented health effects of high level of irradiation with gamma rays from {sup 192}Ir on the patient M. L. during 21 years after an incident. The main purpose was to investigate long time consequences of partial high level irradiation on human health. Locally, short-term irradiation with high, deadly dose, caused acute radiation syndrome with reversible disorder of function of the individual, most exposed, organs. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations (dicentric), characteristic for direct irradiation, was increased. However, dicentric analyzes did not give expected result for an acute radioactivity illness. Radio-dermatitis had begun already after the incident, while changes on the heart began gradually, not earlier than six months, up to two years after the incident. Irradiated parts of the patient skin have been changed with auto-transplanted skin and appropriate therapy had been taken. More than two decades after the irradiation, system (leukemia) nor solitary tumor on near organs (liver, heart, lungs, bones) did not happened. Radiation illness did not happened in spite of very large dose, because impacts were local and body was uneven irradiated. Also, an appropriate therapy was organized and potential illness did not happen. (authors)

  6. Oxidative effects in human erythrocytes caused by some oximes and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, N G; Evelo, C T

    1998-04-01

    Both oximes and hydroxylamine (HYAM) are compounds with known oxidative capacity. We tested in vitro whether acetaldoxime (AAO), cyclohexanone oxime (CHO), methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO) or HYAM affect haemoglobin oxidation (into HbFe3+), formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and glutathione (GT) depletion in human haemolysate, erythrocytes or blood. All these parameters are known to be related to oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was measured as it may be affected by oxygen radicals. All three oximes caused a low degree of HbFe3+ accumulation in erythrocytes. This was higher in haemolysates indicating that membrane transport may be limiting or that protective mechanisms within erythrocytes are more effective. HbFe3+ accumulation was lower for the oximes than for HYAM. AAO and HYAM caused TBARS formation in blood. For HYAM this was expected as free radicals are known to be generated during HbFe3+ formation. Free radical generation by AAO and HYAM in erythrocytes was confirmed by the inhibition of GST. For the other two oximes (CHO and MEKO) some special effects were found. CHO did inhibit erythrocyte GST while it did not cause TBARS formation. MEKO was the least potent oxime as it caused no TBARS formation, little HbFe3+ accumulation and little GST inhibition in erythrocytes. However, GT depletion was more pronounced for MEKO than for the other oximes, indicating that glutathione conjugation occurs. TBARS formation, GT depletion and GST modulation caused by the oximes and HYAM were also tested in rat hepatocytes. However, no effects were found in hepatocytes. This suggests that a factor present in erythrocytes is necessary for free radical formation. Studies with proposed metabolites of the oximes (i.e. cyclohexanone, acetaldehyde or methylethyl ketone) and addition of rat liver preparations to the erythrocyte incubations with oximes, suggest that metabolism is not a limiting factor in erythrocyte toxicity.

  7. Internal migration, area effects and health: Does where you move to impact upon your health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mark A; Subramanian, S V; Vickers, Daniel; Dorling, Danny

    2015-07-01

    Evidence surrounding the importance of neighbourhood on health has been mostly restricted to observational data analyses. However, observational data are often the only source of information available to test this association and can fail to accurately draw out casual effects. This study employs a pseudo-experimental design to provide a novel test for the evidence of neighbourhood effects on health, using migration as a mechanism for assessing the role of neighbourhood. Coarsened exact matching was employed on the British Household Panel Survey (2006-2008) to analyse the association between migration (by area type, measured using a classification of mortality patterns) and health. Although an overall significant positive association between migration and health was observed, once the effect was disaggregated by location and destination it disappeared. Rather, evidence of health selective migration was found whereby individuals of poorer health migrated to areas that displayed poorer health and social characteristics (and vice versa). Migration is an important process that through the social sorting of individuals in terms of their health, contributes to the growing polarisation and inequality in health patterns. The study helps to build upon previous research through providing a new and stronger form of analysis that reduces the influence of bias on results. Incorporating this under-utilised methodology and research design in future studies could help develop public health and geographical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low health literacy: a barrier to effective patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seurer, Andrea C; Vogt, H Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Health literacy is defined in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services initiative Healthy People 2010 as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." It is estimated that 48.8 million Americans are functionally illiterate, making health literacy a major obstacle for providing health care. Although communicating with physicians is a small component of the tasks that are incorporated in a definition of health literacy, it remains the most important aspect of this concept contributing to personal health. Primary care clinics within the Sioux Falls area were provided with both English and Spanish patient education brochures on communicating with physicians. A survey was then distributed to determine how low health literacy was affecting physician practices and what they were doing to remove the obstacles that health literacy presented. Physicians were asked to evaluate the multiple skills and competencies required by patients to access health care services and resources they use to assist patients. A total of 77 surveys were distributed. Twenty-two (28.6 percent) were returned. Of the physicians who returned the survey, the majority (77 percent) thought that low health literacy is a moderate obstacle in their practices. Several physicians stated that their offices had at least one method in place to assist those with low health literacy, but none of them were using a formal test of health literacy. Only six physicians could name a community resource to assist patients with low health literacy. Low health literacy is an unavoidable barrier to effective patient care for physicians across the country. If the full spectrum definition of health literacy is understood by physicians and carefully considered in the context of their own practices, it is likely they would come to the realization that health literacy is a greater obstacle to

  9. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  10. Effect of Health Services Quality to Inpatient Satisfaction in Health Centre of Jayapura Regency, Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik A AWibowo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To measure the quality of health care using five dimensions of service quality that is direct evidence (Tangibles responsiveness (responsiveness, reliability (realibility, security (assurance, and empathy. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the quality of inpatient health care with patient satisfaction in the health center Jayapura district. Survey method with cross sectional analytic study population in this study that all patients hospitalized at the health center during the month of August to September 2016. Sampling was conducted with a total sampling technique with a number of 106 respondents. Sources of primary data obtained from questionnaires and secondary data from six health centers in the county inpatient Jayapura. Analysis of data using multiple linear regression. The results showed that the most dominant variables linked to patient satisfaction compared with other variable is direct evidence (tangibles. The quality of health services at the health center Jayapura district has a significant relationship to the direct evidence (tangibles with patient satisfaction. Jayapura Regency Government through the Department of Health to maintain and continuously improve the quality of health care is the most basic health centers by strengthening institutions, infrastructure, and financing of adequate health centers so as to improve the quality of health centers and satisfaction to the patient.

  11. Neutralizing Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora Extracts against Inflammation Caused by Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Angélica Oliveira Bitencourt; Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza Lima; Manoela Torres-Rêgo; Júlia Morais Fernandes; Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior; Denise Vilarinho Tambourgi; Silvana Maria Zucolotto; Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fr...

  12. Living in poverty and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnerton, Sally

    2006-07-01

    Poverty has been identified as the greatest threat to health. Generally speaking, poor people are sick more often than wealthier people, and poor people die younger due to poorer economic, social, political and physical conditions. The article explains the difference between relative poverty and absolute poverty, before going on to explore various reasons why people living in relative poverty are more susceptible to ill health than their wealthier counterparts. The article delves into how poverty contributes to ill health by the effects of low income and poor health behaviours, with cigarette smoking being identified as the health behaviour with the largest negative impact on people living in relative poverty.

  13. The Effect of parent's socioeconomic status on Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shahraki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child health is one of the main indicators of economic development so that four objectives of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are directly referred to children's health and nutritional status. Due to increase in mothers' employment and parent education as well as children's malnutrition, the effects of parent's socioeconomic status on children's health were analyzed in this paper. statistics in health case of families from health centers of five areas in Tehran were gathered. Research model were estimated by Probit and Ordered Probit methods in STATA software. The mean for mother's education is 3.76 it is more than diploma and less than associate's degree. The average mothers' age for normal, stunting, and severe stunting children is 32.25, 32.92, and 34.20, respectively. "Being twin" has a negative effect on the possibility of children's health it decreases this possibility as 89 percent. Also, if children do not have jaundice, the probability of their health will increase as much as 72 percent. The result shown that mothers' employment has a negative effect on children's health i.e. mothers' employment increases the possibility of stunting due to children's malnutrition. Also, increasing education of working mothers can lead to stunting in children. Family size, being twin, and jaundice have negative effect and father's education has positive effect on children's health.

  14. USAGE OF INTERVAL CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP COEFFICIENTS IN THE QUANTITATIVE MODEL OF STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry M. Yershov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the method to obtain values of the coefficients of cause-effect relationships between strategic objectives in the form of intervals and use them in solving the problem of the optimal allocation of organization’s resources. We suggest taking advantage of the interval analytical hierarchy process for obtaining the ntervals. The quantitative model of strategic performance developed by M. Hell, S. Vidučić and Ž. Garača is employed for finding the optimal resource allocation. The uncertainty originated in the optimization problem as a result of interval character of the cause-effect relationship coefficients is eliminated through the application of maximax and maximin criteria. It is shown that the problem of finding the optimal maximin, maximax, and compromise resource allocation can be represented as a mixed 0-1 linear programming problem. Finally, numerical example and directions for further research are given.

  15. Cause and effect analysis by fuzzy relational equations and a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotshtein, Alexander P. [Industrial Engineering and Management Department, Jerusalem College of Technology-Machon Lev, Havaad Haleumi St., 21, 91160, Jerusalem (Israel)]. E-mail: rot@jct.ac.il; Posner, Morton [Industrial Engineering and Management Department, Jerusalem College of Technology-Machon Lev, Havaad Haleumi St., 21, 91160, Jerusalem (Israel); Rakytyanska, Hanna B. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Vinnitsa State Technical University, Khmelnitske Sh., 95, 21021, Vinnitsa (Ukraine)]. E-mail: h_rakit@hotmail.com

    2006-09-15

    This paper proposes using a genetic algorithm as a tool to solve the fault diagnosis problem. The fault diagnosis problem is based on a cause and effect analysis which is formally described by fuzzy relations. Fuzzy relations are formed on the basis of expert assessments. Application of expert fuzzy relations to restore and identify the causes through the observed effects requires the solution to a system of fuzzy relational equations. In this study this search for a solution amounts to solving a corresponding optimization problem. An optimization algorithm is based on the application of genetic operations of crossover, mutation and selection. The genetic algorithm suggested here represents an application in expert systems of fault diagnosis and quality control.

  16. Effect of motivational interviewing-based health coaching on employees' physical and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Susan; Linden, Ariel; McClay, Wende; Leo, Michael C

    2006-10-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) based health coaching is a relatively new behavioral intervention that has gained popularity in public health because of its ability to address multiple behaviors, health risks, and illness self-management. In this study, 276 employees at a medical center self-selected to participate in either a 3-month health coaching intervention or control group. The treatment group showed significant improvement in both SF-12 physical (p = .035) and mental (p = .0001) health status compared to controls. Because of concerns of selection bias, a matched case-control analysis was also performed, eliciting similar results. These findings suggest that MI-based health coaching is effective in improving both physical and mental health status in an occupational setting.

  17. [Development of a system for the early diagnosis and prevention of children's health changes caused by exposure to heavy metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'chenko, I N; Bialkov, A I; Syrtsova, L E; Liapunov, S M; Okina, O I

    2007-01-01

    At the moment, the making a diagnosis of an environment-induced disease in Russia is not routine and this is not relied on a rather evidence basis. Nevertheless, the choice of exposure methods from educational and preventive to therapeutic depends on the intensity and pattern of exposure to ecotoxicants and on the magnitude of appropriate specific changes. Epidemiological surveys of 5-7-year-old children from 3 towns of Russia have revealed that 8.3-24.5% of the children have moderate excesses of the allowable levels of lead in blood; 4.6-12.8% have excess hair magnesium levels, and 5.9-33.8% have excess hair copper levels. The real damage to the children's neuropsychic health manifests as a significant reduction in the memory and academic achievement indices, the parameters of fine and gross motor coordination, speech expressiveness, and in the rate of minor successive movements. The prevalence of environment-dependent neuropsychic malformations is 3-7%, as calculated with reference to all the children examined. The children aged 5-7 years are shown not to be in need of therapeutic measures in all the towns compared. At the same time, 61.1-83.2% of the children need neuropsychic health-promoting measures. For this, it is expedient to use informational and educational technologies. About 4.3-17.8 and 11.5 - 21.1% need primary and secondary preventive measures against environment-dependent neuropsychic changes. The authors present approaches to developing measures to promote neuropsychic health and to prevent neuropsychic malformations. There is evidence that primary prevention is more effective for the pediatric population. There is no question that multivariate analysis of the problems associated with childhood neuropsychic development, including environmental, behavioral, sociomedical components, is of importance. These approaches may be realized at the municipal level and taken as the basis for preparing national guidelines for the promotion of health and for

  18. Causes, effects and management of conflict among educators in the Mafikeng District / Simon Kelepile Manyedi

    OpenAIRE

    Manyedi, Simon Kelepile

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the causes, effects and management of conflict among school based educators. The dissertation acknowledge the existence of conflict in every human interaction. Conflict in organizations should be managed systematically. An appropriate approach in conflict management should aim at enhancing the benefits of conflict. The study aimed at determining whether site-managers possess the essential skill of managing healthy conflict while de...

  19. The effect of programmed distraction on the pain caused by venipuncture among adolescents on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhani, Fatemah

    2010-06-01

    Pain is described as the fifth vital sign, and inadequate pain management is linked to numerous immediate and long-term negative outcomes. Venipuncture is one of the most painful medical procedures and one of the most frequently performed ones, and children and adolescents on hemodialysis are anxious about repeated venipunctures. Distraction is one of the most effective ways to relieve pain, and nurses are responsible for pain control. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to test the effect of programmed distraction on the pain caused by venipuncture among adolescents on hemodialysis. All of the pediatric hemodialysis centers in Tehran (three centers) were assigned to case group (one center with 21 patients) and control groups (two centers with a total of 21 patients) randomly. The Wong-Baker face pain scale was used to assess pain caused by venipuncture. Assessing of pain was done in 12 sessions in both case and control groups. Three first sessions were held without intervention (pretest) and the next nine sessions were held with distraction intervention (posttest). To cause distraction, the adolescents were asked to look at two similar pictures and tell the number of differences between them during venipuncture. Results showed that case and control groups matched in demographic variables and pain intensity. After distraction, pain intensity during venipuncture significantly decreased (p=.003); but this decrease began from the sixth session; at the five first sessions, pain intensity had not changed. This study shows the effect of distraction with a simple, inexpensive, and quick way for decreasing the pain caused by venipuncture. We recommend that the reasons of the intervention's delay in effect be assessed in future studies.

  20. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-26

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects.We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model.Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males.

  1. Effects of donor proliferation in development aid for health on health program performance: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-02-01

    Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework. In the framework, increases in the number of donors are hypothesized to increase inter-donor competition, transaction costs, donor poaching of recipient staff, recipient control over aid, and donor fragmentation, and to decrease donors' sense of accountability for overall development outcomes. There is mixed evidence on whether donor proliferation increases or decreases aid volume. These primary effects in turn affect donor innovation, information hoarding, and aid disbursement volatility, as well as recipient country health budget levels, human resource capacity, and corruption, and the determinants of health program performance. The net effect of donor proliferation on health will vary depending on the magnitude of the framework's competing effects in specific country settings. The conceptual framework provides a foundation for improving design of aid effectiveness practices to mitigate negative effects from donor proliferation while preserving its potential benefits.

  2. Workplace health promotion: participation and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLifestyle factors are an important determinant of health. The prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviours is high, most notably low physical activity and poor nutrition (e.g. low fruit and vegetable consumption and high saturated fat intake). In the Netherlands, 56% engage in sufficient

  3. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  4. Triangulating on success: innovation, public health, medical care, and cause-specific US mortality rates over a half century (1950-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, George; Satcher, David; Fryer, George Edgar; Levine, Robert S; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2010-04-01

    To identify successes in improving America's health, we identified disease categories that appeared on vital statistics lists of leading causes of death in the US adult population in either 1950 or 2000, and that experienced at least a 50% reduction in age-adjusted death rates from their peak level to their lowest point between 1950 and 2000. Of the 9 cause-of-death categories that achieved this 50% reduction, literature review suggests that 7 clearly required diffusion of new innovations through both public health and medical care channels. Our nation's health success stories are consistent with a triangulation model of innovation plus public health plus medical care, even when the 3 sectors have worked more in parallel than in partnership.

  5. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    In this paper we estimate the causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health. To handle the selection bias problem, we use longitudinal data for deployed and non-deployed eligible men in a difference-in-differences setting. Using pair-wise matching, we impute deployment dates...... for important variables like intelligence tests and family background. We find significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use. Highlights: - Causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ use of mental health service - Using a difference-in-differences approach...... - First evidence relying on administrative records of measures of mental health service use - Significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use....

  6. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    In this paper we estimate the causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health. To handle the selection bias problem, we use longitudinal data for deployed and non-deployed eligible men in a difference-in-differences setting. Using pair-wise matching, we impute deployment dates...... for important variables like intelligence tests and family background. We find significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use. Highlights: - Causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ use of mental health service - Using a difference-in-differences approach...... - First evidence relying on administrative records of measures of mental health service use - Significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use....

  7. Temperature effects in ultrasonic Lamb wave structural health monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Salamone, Salvatore

    2008-07-01

    There is a need to better understand the effect of temperature changes on the response of ultrasonic guided-wave pitch-catch systems used for structural health monitoring. A model is proposed to account for all relevant temperature-dependent parameters of a pitch-catch system on an isotropic plate, including the actuator-plate and plate-sensor interactions through shear-lag behavior, the piezoelectric and dielectric permittivity properties of the transducers, and the Lamb wave dispersion properties of the substrate plate. The model is used to predict the S(0) and A(0) response spectra in aluminum plates for the temperature range of -40-+60 degrees C, which accounts for normal aircraft operations. The transducers examined are monolithic PZT-5A [PZT denotes Pb(Zr-Ti)O3] patches and flexible macrofiber composite type P1 patches. The study shows substantial changes in Lamb wave amplitude response caused solely by temperature excursions. It is also shown that, for the transducers considered, the response amplitude changes follow two opposite trends below and above ambient temperature (20 degrees C), respectively. These results can provide a basis for the compensation of temperature effects in guided-wave damage detection systems.

  8. Mental health care and average happiness: strong effect in developed nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touburg, Giorgio; Veenhoven, Ruut

    2015-07-01

    Mental disorder is a main cause of unhappiness in modern society and investment in mental health care is therefore likely to add to average happiness. This prediction was checked in a comparison of 143 nations around 2005. Absolute investment in mental health care was measured using the per capita number of psychiatrists and psychologists working in mental health care. Relative investment was measured using the share of mental health care in the total health budget. Average happiness in nations was measured with responses to survey questions about life-satisfaction. Average happiness appeared to be higher in countries that invest more in mental health care, both absolutely and relative to investment in somatic medicine. A data split by level of development shows that this difference exists only among developed nations. Among these nations the link between mental health care and happiness is quite strong, both in an absolute sense and compared to other known societal determinants of happiness. The correlation between happiness and share of mental health care in the total health budget is twice as strong as the correlation between happiness and size of the health budget. A causal effect is likely, but cannot be proved in this cross-sectional analysis.

  9. Establishing cause for developing and implementing a broad-based marketing effort for the health education field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Barry, Adam; Chaney, Beth H; Chaney, J Don; Hanik, Bruce

    2011-05-01

    What exactly is health education? Professionals with advanced degrees in health education have most likely encountered questions such as these either during introductory coursework or from those inquiring about the field. These queries can prove quite perplexing when asked by individuals who are unaware of the health education profession. Because the act of marketing health education is crucial to the sustainability of the field, the purpose of this article is to (a) explore the issue of describing and promoting health education, (b) establish ideas that can facilitate the provision of coordinated marketing efforts, and (c) offer marketing management and implementation principles that can assist in marketing both health education and health educators. Based on this discussion, the authors suggest building mainstream consensus in regards to marketing message development and implementation to better position health education.

  10. Direct comparison of metabolic health effects of the flavonoids quercetin, hesperetin, epicatechin, apigenin and anthocyanins in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek-van den Hil, E.F.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Stelt, van der I.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Vliet, van M.A.; Amolo, T.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, possibly by affecting metabolic health. The relative potency of different flavonoids in causing beneficial effects on energy and lipid metabolism has not been investigated. Effects of quercetin, hesperetin, epicatec

  11. Recession Depression: Mental Health Effects of the 2008 Stock Market Crash*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M.; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-01-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  12. Recession depression: mental health effects of the 2008 stock market crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-12-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression.

  13. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect under low magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qian Liu; Xiao-Bing Bian; Jian-Ping Zhou; Peng Liu

    2011-04-01

    The colossal magnetodielectric effect is reported in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Terfenol-D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect. Both the amplitude and resonance frequency change with the external magnetic field. The colossal magnetodielectric coefficient of 5 × 104%at low magnetic field of 20 Oe is achieved near the electromechanical resonance frequency.

  14. In silico investigation of molecular effects caused by missense mutations in creatine transporter protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Schwatz, Charles; Alexov, Emil

    2011-03-01

    Creatine transporter (CT) protein, which is encoded by SLC6A8 gene, is essential for taking up the creatine in the cell, which in turn plays a key role in the spatial and temporal maintenance of energy in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. It was shown that some missense mutations in CT cause mental retardation, while others are harmless non-synonymous single nucleoside polymorphism (nsSNP). Currently fifteen missense mutations in CT are known, among which twelve are disease-causing. Sequence analysis reveals that there is no clear trend distinguishing disease-causing from harmless missense mutations. Because of that, we built 3D model of the CT using highly homologous template and use the model to investigate the effects of mutations of CT stability and hydrogen bond network. It is demonstrated that disease-causing mutations affect the folding free energy and ionization states of titratable group in much greater extend as compared with harmless mutations. Supported by grants from NLM, NIH, grant numbers 1R03LM009748 and 1R03LM009748-S1.

  15. STUDY OF INCIDENCE, MORTALITY & CAUSES OF NEONATAL TETANUS AMONG ALL NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT [NICU] ADMISSIONS IN TERTIARY HEALTH CARE CENTER OF SBHGMC, DHULE

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta; Neelam; Syed; Arjun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To find out incidence & mortality due to Neonatal Tetanus and to study its causes among all the admissions in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit [NICU] of tertiary health care center of Shri Bhausaheb Hire Government Medical College, [SBHGMC] Dhule. OBJECTIVES: 1] To find out incidence of Neonatal Teta nus in all neonatal admissions. 2] To find out mortality rate among all Neonatal Tetanus cases. 3] To take detailed history to find out causes of Neonatal Tetanu...

  16. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Treatment of Physical Health Problems Without a Known Cause, Exemplified by Hypertension and Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the medical clinic, we often face health problems that have no known cause, even after a thorough examination. Biomedicine is often unable to find a cure in these situations, leaving the problem unsolved or leaving the patient on a palliative pharmaceutical cure, which is often for a lifetime. In this case, consciousness-based, holistic medicine could be an alternative. Using the theories and tools of holistic medicine wisely, the physician can often provide treatment for the patient. The toolbox of holistic medicine makes it possible to work on everybody because there is always something related to the patients quality of life that can be improved: his love, his purpose of life, and the way he uses his talents, his mind, his feelings, his body, and his sexuality. For treatment in holistic medicine, it really does not matter as much that you cannot give the patient a precise medical diagnosis, because you can always work on the patient with the intention of healing his or her whole life and existence. It is quite a paradox that many of these diseases can be understood on the level of the individual patient at the same moment that the patient is cured; many of these diseases seem to be clearly related to the repression of the individual character, as stressed already by Hippocrates. So if you simply start working with the patient to help him confront old existential pain and coach him in his personal development of his life by intensifying its meaning and purpose, the symptoms very often simply disappear. The toolbox of holistic medicine also seems relevant to even difficult, neurotic, psychosomatic, and hypochondriac patients. Believing in the treatment and not giving up on your patient, and moving forward in the treatment with the patient himself is the ultimate goal, even when you yourself do not understand the mechanism fully. This will force you to develop your own competence and is, in essence, what makes an outstanding holistic

  17. The effects of school poverty on adolescents' sexual health knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

    2012-06-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students' sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment.

  18. The effects of Ghana's national health insurance scheme on maternal and infant health care utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna); Breebaart, L. (Lyn); De Poel, E.V. (Ellen Van)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIncreasing equitable access to health care is a main challenge African policy makers are facing. The Ghanaian government implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme in 2004 and the aim of this study is to evaluate its early effects on maternal and infant healthcare use. We exploit d

  19. Effectiveness of a Multilevel Workplace Health Promotion Program on Vitality, Health, and Work-Related Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Snoijer, M.; Kok, B.P. de; Vlisteren, J. van; Hofstetter, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees’ vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors’ role on these outcomes. Methods: The 5-month intervention included activities at

  20. The positive and negative health effects of alcohol- and the public health implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the negative and the positive effects of alcohol on health are reviewed. It is first of all established facts that a high alcohol intake implies an increased risk of a large number of health outcomes, such as dementia, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis, upper digestive...

  1. Nitrate and Nitrogen Oxides: Sources, Health Effects and Their Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Sabir, Muhammad; Ozturk, Munir; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel

    Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer. Despite these evident negative environmental as well as health impacts, consumption of N fertilizer cannot be reduced in view of the food security for the teeming growing world population. Various agronomic and genetic modifications have been practiced to tackle this problem. Some agronomic techniques adopted include split application of N, use of slow-release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and encouraging the use of organic manure over chemical fertilizers. As a matter of fact, the use of chemical means to remediate nitrate from the environment is very difficult and costly. Particularly, removal of nitrate from water is difficult task because it is chemically non-reactive in dilute aqueous solutions. Hence, the use of biological means for nitrate remediation offers a promising strategy to minimize the ill effects of nitrates and nitrites. One of the important goals to reduce N-fertilizer application can be effectively achieved by choosing N-efficient genotypes. This will ensure the optimum uptake of applied N in a balanced manner and exploring the molecular mechanisms for their uptake as well as metabolism in assimilatory pathways. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the interrelations which exist in the terrestrial ecosystems between the plant type and characteristics of nutrient uptake and analyze the global consumption and demand for fertilizer nitrogen in relation to cereal production, evaluate the various methods

  2. Late health effects of chronic radiation exposure of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, Ilia V.; Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Konshina, Lidia G.; Zhukovsky, Michael V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Tuzankina, Irina A. [Institute of Immunology and Physiology UB RAS, 620049, 106, Pervomayskaya St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Accidental explosion of waste storage tank at former soviet plutonium production plant 'Mayak' in 1957 resulted in emission of considerable amount of radioactive substances to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transfer and fallout caused contamination of the environment by Sr-90 and short-lived radionuclides (East-Ural Radioactive Trace, EURT). Due to consumption of contaminated food and milk some internal organs were affected to relatively high radiation exposure. Archive data of causes of deaths of rural population of EURT northern part for period 1957-2000 were used to create the Register on causes of deaths. Register records related to the settlements where initial surface contamination by Sr-90 was above and below 3.7 kBq/m2 were included to exposed (4 844 records) and unexposed (6 158 records) group respectively. Basing on the Register the analysis of cancer and non-cancer health effects of radiation exposure was conducted. By estimating proportionate mortality ratios statistically significant excess mortality due to the groups of causes of death as follow was observed in exposed population: stomach, liver and cervix cancers; group consisted only of stomach cancer; non-cancer deceases of infectious etiology. Non-significant but remarkably high risk was observed for the following groups of causes of death: bone cancer; leukemia; liver cancer; cervix cancer. Insignificant, virtually zero risk was found for: non-gastrointestinal solid cancers; colon and lung cancers; non-infectious non-cancer deceases. At the same time, considerable radiation doses were absorbed in bone (mean bone surface dose about 0.1 Gy) and colon (mean dose about 0.07 Gy). Doses absorbed in other organs and tissues were negligible and amounted less than 0.01 Gy for most tissues. It can be seen that some disagreement between observed effects and absorbed doses is revealed. Most remarkable is the high excess risks of stomach, liver and cervix cancers as well as non-cancer deceases of

  3. The need for investigations to elucidate causes and effects of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Malcolm G; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Haththotuwa, Rohana; Tank, Jaydeep D; Fraser, Ian S

    2011-09-01

    This article describes a modern perspective on the basic investigations for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in low-resource settings compared with a much more detailed approach for high-resource settings, bearing in mind issues of effectiveness and cost effectiveness. AUB includes any one or more of several symptoms, and it should be evaluated for the characteristics of the woman's specific bleeding pattern, her "complaint" and the presence of other symptoms (especially pain), the impact on several aspects of body functioning and lifestyle, and the underlying cause(s), especially cancer. Ideally, the evaluation is comprehensive, considering each of the potential etiological domains defined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics PALM-COEIN system for the classification of causes. However, the detail of the questions and the extent of investigations will be significantly influenced by the technologies available and the time allotted for a consultation. In general, investigations should be performed only if they will make a material difference to the management approaches that can be offered. This should be an important consideration when a range of costly high-technology tests is accessible or when certain tests only have limited availability.

  4. Colonic hydrogen absorption: quantification of its effect on hydrogen accumulation caused by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H F

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess (quantitatively) colonic hydrogen absorption. Hydrogen volumes in flatus and breath were measured over periods of six hours in normal subjects during fasting and after ingestion of the non-absorbable carbohydrate lactulose to simulate the effect of fermentable dietary fibres. If less than 76 ml/6 h of hydrogen accumulated in the colon then all of it was absorbed, as suggested by the intercept of the regression line of the correlation between hydrogen volumes in flatus and breath after ingestion of lactulose. As total flatus volume increased, efficiency of colonic hydrogen absorption decreased from 90% to 20%. The positive correlation between hydrogen volumes of flatus and breath showed that the eightfold interindividual differences in flatus volume after ingestion of 12.5 g of lactulose were caused by differences in bacterial net gas production, not gas absorption. Differences in colonic gas emptying rate are the consequence rather than the cause of interindividual differences in flatus volume. In conclusion: (1) colonic hydrogen absorption is highly effective at low colonic hydrogen accumulation rates, but not at higher accumulation rates; (2) ineffective colonic gas absorption is the consequence and not the cause of high colonic gas accumulation rate after ingestion of non-absorbable carbohydrates; and (3) future therapeutic approaches to the large interindividual variability in colonic gas accumulation after ingestion of poorly absorbable fermentable carbohydrates, such as some kinds of dietary fibres, should be directed towards altering colonic bacterial metabolism. PMID:8314516

  5. The effect of floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital in older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition...

  6. Vaccination and all-cause child mortality from 1985 to 2011: global evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark E; Canning, David

    2015-11-01

    Based on models with calibrated parameters for infection, case fatality rates, and vaccine efficacy, basic childhood vaccinations have been estimated to be highly cost effective. We estimated the association of vaccination with mortality directly from survey data. Using 149 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys, we determined the relationship between vaccination coverage and the probability of dying between birth and 5 years of age at the survey cluster level. Our data included approximately 1 million children in 68,490 clusters from 62 countries. We considered the childhood measles, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, polio, and maternal tetanus vaccinations. Using modified Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk of child mortality in each cluster, we also adjusted for selection bias that resulted from the vaccination status of dead children not being reported. Childhood vaccination, and in particular measles and tetanus vaccination, is associated with substantial reductions in childhood mortality. We estimated that children in clusters with complete vaccination coverage have a relative risk of mortality that is 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.77) times that of children in a cluster with no vaccinations. Although widely used, basic vaccines still have coverage rates well below 100% in many countries, and our results emphasize the effectiveness of increasing coverage rates in order to reduce child mortality.

  7. The differentiated effects of health on political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Jérôme; Breux, Sandra

    2017-01-19

    Several studies have shown that an individual's state of health can significantly affect their decision to vote, but analysis is often only done on a single level of government; the national level. However, prior research has shown that the determining factors for voting can differ according to the level of government being considered. Our analysis is the first attempt to take a comprehensive look at the magnitude of health and political participation in a same country on different levels. Based on Canadian General Social Survey-Social Identity (2013; N = 27 695), we examined both the direct and indirect effect of self-rated health and self-rated mental health on (1) national voter turnout; (2) local voter turnout and (3) other forms of political participation. The results show that health has a different effect on turnout depending the level of government. While health certainly affects participation on both levels of government, general health significantly affects national electoral participation levels while mental health more significantly affects electoral participation on the municipal level. Additionally, people who consider their mental health to be poorer, are more likely to sign an online petition. These elements highlight the necessity of questioning the cost of voting according to the level of government, and that further research into the potential offered by Internet and remote voting, is worthwhile-despite the opinions of critics who eschew these means of voting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Address Health Equity Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard; Mirelman, Andrew J; Griffin, Susan; Asaria, Miqdad; Dawkins, Bryony; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Verguet, Stéphane; J Culyer, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs. Who gains and who loses from a cost-increasing health program depends on differences among people in terms of health risks, uptake, quality, adherence, capacity to benefit, and-crucially-who bears the opportunity costs of diverting scarce resources from other uses. We describe two main ways of using CEA to address health equity concerns: 1) equity impact analysis, which quantifies the distribution of costs and effects by equity-relevant variables, such as socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, sex, and severity of illness; and 2) equity trade-off analysis, which quantifies trade-offs between improving total health and other equity objectives. One way to analyze equity trade-offs is to count the cost of fairer but less cost-effective options in terms of health forgone. Another method is to explore how much concern for equity is required to choose fairer but less cost-effective options using equity weights or parameters. We hope this article will help the health technology assessment community navigate the practical options now available for conducting equity-informative CEA that gives policymakers a better understanding of equity impacts and trade-offs.

  9. Bioactive Components of Soybeans and Their Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Özcan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depending on scientific developments and advancement in consumer awareness differences in types of nutrition and choice of foods resulted in increment on tendance to functional foods which have favorable effects on human health. The occurrence of positive effects on human health and inclusion of functional characteristics of the bioactive components in soybean compound has made possible adding of these soybean components in to the foods. In this compilation the importance of soybean active components in food are mentioned and along with this their positive effects on human health are introduced.

  10. The Effect of Mangiferin Against Brain Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Induced by Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Siswanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is an anthracycline antibiotic used for anticancer therapy. However, this agent can cause various systemic side effects including cognitive impairments in chronic use. Brain damage due to DOX is caused by an increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level in the brain. Increased TNF-α can further lead to chronic inflammation which can lead to neuronal deaths or neurodegenerative diseases. Mangiferin (MAG, a compound extracted from Mangifera indica, has been found neuroprotective activities, but its effect on DOX-induced brain damage is unknown. This study aims to determine the effect of MAG on brain damage induced by DOX. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced by DOX intraperitoneally. MAG was given orally at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg bw for 7 consecutive weeks. The parameters measured were inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in brain tissue. Coadministration of MAG with DOX reduced inflammation which was marked by the reduction of TNF-α mRNA expression, decreased TNF-α level and reduction of oxidative stress marked by increase of superoxide dismutase level and decrease of malondialdehyde level. In conclusion, MAG was shown to have a neuroprotective effect on brain damage induced by DOX, partly due to inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  11. The effectiveness of M-health technologies for improving health and health services: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of mobile computing and communication technology is rapidly expanding in the fields of health care and public health. This systematic review will summarise the evidence for the effectiveness of mobile technology interventions for improving health and health service outcomes (M-health around the world. Findings To be included in the review interventions must aim to improve or promote health or health service use and quality, employing any mobile computing and communication technology. This includes: (1 interventions designed to improve diagnosis, investigation, treatment, monitoring and management of disease; (2 interventions to deliver treatment or disease management programmes to patients, health promotion interventions, and interventions designed to improve treatment compliance; and (3 interventions to improve health care processes e.g. appointment attendance, result notification, vaccination reminders. A comprehensive, electronic search strategy will be used to identify controlled studies, published since 1990, and indexed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, or the UK NHS Health Technology Assessment database. The search strategy will include terms (and synonyms for the following mobile electronic devices (MEDs and a range of compatible media: mobile phone; personal digital assistant (PDA; handheld computer (e.g. tablet PC; PDA phone (e.g. BlackBerry, Palm Pilot; Smartphone; enterprise digital assistant; portable media player (i.e. MP3 or MP4 player; handheld video game console. No terms for health or health service outcomes will be included, to ensure that all applications of mobile technology in public health and health services are identified. Bibliographies of primary studies and review articles meeting the inclusion criteria will be searched manually to identify further eligible studies. Data on objective and self-reported outcomes and study quality will

  12. Apocynin prevents vascular effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danize A Rizzetti

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mercury increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress and alters vascular reactivity. This metal elicits endothelial dysfunction causing decreased NO bioavailability via increased oxidative stress and contractile prostanoid production. NADPH oxidase is the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the vasculature. Our aim was to investigate whether treatment with apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevents the vascular effects caused by chronic intoxication with low concentrations of mercury. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with a intramuscular injections (i.m. of saline; b HgCl(2 (i.m. 1(st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses: 0.07 µg/kg/day; c Apocynin (1.5 mM in drinking water plus saline i.m.; and d Apocynin plus HgCl(2. The mercury treatment resulted in 1 an increased aortic vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced endothelium-dependent responses to acetylcholine; 2 the increased involvement of ROS and vasoconstrictor prostanoids in response to phenylephrine, whereas the endothelial NO modulation of such responses was reduced; and 3 the reduced activity of aortic superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Treatment with apocynin partially prevented the increased phenylephrine responses and reduced the endothelial dysfunction elicited by mercury treatment. In addition, apocynin treatment increased the NO modulation of vasoconstrictor responses and aortic SOD activity and reduced plasma MDA levels without affecting the increased participation of vasoconstrictor prostanoids observed in aortic segments from mercury-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Mercury increases the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine by reducing NO bioavailability and increasing the involvement of ROS and constrictor prostanoids. Apocynin protects the vessel from the deleterious effects caused by NADPH oxidase, but not from those

  13. Climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion. Early effects on our health in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovats, S.; Menne, B.; McMichael, A.; Bertollini, R.; Soskolne, C. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    People are concerned about the impact on their health of the climate warming and stratosperic ozone depletion that Europe has been experiencing for the last century. This publication attempts to clarify what early effects these environmental changes are having on our health, and what further effects they may have in the future. What is certain is that more frequent thermal stress, associated or not with air pollution, causes illness and death, especially among the elderly; extreme weather events such as floods cause death, illness and material damage; some water- and foodborne diseases increase during extreme weather conditions, such as heavy rainfall and heatwaves; malaria could increase with climate warming; and ozone depletion increases skin cancer and weakens the immune system. While much is still uncertain about the precise relationship between changes in the climate and changes in disease patterns, the need for action is clear; action either to reduce the climate change itself, or to reduce its harmful effects. (au)

  14. The urban heat island effect, its causes, and mitigation, with reference to the thermal properties of asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Bakaric, Jason; Jeffrey-Bailey, Tristan

    2017-07-15

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a phenomenon that affects many millions of people worldwide. The higher temperatures experienced in urban areas compared to the surrounding countryside has enormous consequences for the health and wellbeing of people living in cities. The increased use of manmade materials and increased anthropogenic heat production are the main causes of the UHI. This has led to the understanding that increased urbanisation is the primary cause of the urban heat island. The UHI effect also leads to increased energy needs that further contribute to the heating of our urban landscape, and the associated environmental and public health consequences. Pavements and roofs dominate the urban surface exposed to solar irradiation. This review article outlines the contribution that pavements make to the UHI effect and analyses localized and citywide mitigation strategies against the UHI. Asphalt Concrete (AC) is one of the most common pavement surfacing materials and is a significant contributor to the UHI. Densely graded AC has low albedo and high volumetric heat capacity, which results in surface temperatures reaching upwards of 60 °C on hot summer days. Cooling the surface of a pavement by utilizing cool pavements has been a consistent theme in recent literature. Cool pavements can be reflective or evaporative. However, the urban geometry and local atmospheric conditions should dictate whether or not these mitigation strategies should be used. Otherwise both of these pavements can actually increase the UHI effect. Increasing the prevalence of green spaces through the installation of street trees, city parks and rooftop gardens has consistently demonstrated a reduction in the UHI effect. Green spaces also increase the cooling effect derived from water and wind sources. This literature review demonstrates that UHI mitigation techniques are best used in combination with each other. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the current mitigation

  15. Mental Health Service Providers: College Student Perceptions of Helper Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ashley M.; Wantz, Richard A.; Firmin, Michael W; Poindexter, Dawn C.; Pujara, Amita L.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate perceptions of the overall effectiveness of six types of mental health service providers (MHSPs) were obtained with a survey. Although many mental health services are available to consumers in the United States, research has indicated that these services are underutilized. Perceptions have been linked to therapeutic outcomes and may…

  16. Effect of Sexual Education on Sexual Health in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, Farnaz; Pakgohar, Minoo; Mirmohamadali, Mandana; Mahmoodi, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a special sex education program in sexual health on Iranian newly-wed couples. A sample of 64 couples referred to three health centers of Tehran Medicine University, a few months prior to their marriage, were divided into case and control groups. The case group received three lecture sessions…

  17. PFOA and possible health effects : A review of scientific literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs KJ; Bogers RP; M&G; M&V

    2017-01-01

    Associations were found between blood concentrations of PFOA in humans and possible health effects and functioning of the body. This is the result of a review of previously performed reviews of the scientific literature on studies conducted among humans by the National Institute for Public Health

  18. Effect of Sexual Education on Sexual Health in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnam, Farnaz; Pakgohar, Minoo; Mirmohamadali, Mandana; Mahmoodi, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a special sex education program in sexual health on Iranian newly-wed couples. A sample of 64 couples referred to three health centers of Tehran Medicine University, a few months prior to their marriage, were divided into case and control groups. The case group received three lecture sessions…

  19. Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…

  20. Older and Younger Workers: The Equalling Effects of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Vanessa; Quinn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the statistical evidence on the effects that ill health has on labour market participation and opportunities for younger and older workers in the East Midlands (UK). Design/methodology/approach: A statistical analysis of Labour Force Survey data was undertaken to demonstrate that health issues…