Methods: A quasi-experimental research design using pre-test and post-test ... Intervention: One hundred and twenty women were exposed to ten weeks health education intervention; sixty (n=60) experimental group exposed to postnatal care ...
... can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort. Keywords: Health education intervention, knowledge, malaria, nursing mothers, practice, rural Nigeria
Gentry, Sarah; L'Estrade Ehrstrom, Beatrice; Gauthier, Andrea; Alvarez, Julian; Wortley, David; van Rijswijk, Jurriaan; Car, Josip; Lilienthal, Anneliese; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Nikolaou, Charoula K.; Zary, Nabil
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the effectiveness of Serious Gaming and Gamification interventions for delivering pre- and post-registration health professional education compared with traditional learning, other types of eLearning, or other Serious Gaming and Gamification interventions. We will primarily assess the impact of these interventions on students' knowledge, skills, professional attitudes and satisfaction.
Kim, J; Arrandale, V H; Kudla, I; Mardell, K; Lougheed, D; Holness, D L
Farmers are at increased risk of developing work-related respiratory diseases including asthma, but little is known about their occupational health and safety (OHS) knowledge and exposure prevention practices. Educational interventions may improve knowledge and practice related to prevention. To determine the feasibility of an educational intervention for farmers in a community health centre setting. This was a pilot study. Farmers were recruited by the community health centre and completed a questionnaire on symptoms, OHS knowledge and exposure prevention practices. The intervention group received education on work-related asthma and exposure control strategies, and was offered spirometry and respirator fit testing. All subjects were asked to repeat the questionnaire 6 months later. There were 68 study participants of whom 38 formed the intervention group. At baseline, almost 60% of farmers reported having received OHS training and were familiar with material safety data sheets (MSDSs); fewer (approximately 40%) reported knowledge of OHS legislation and availability of MSDSs. Approximately, two-thirds of subjects reported using respiratory protection. The response rate for repeating the questionnaire was 76% in the intervention group and 77% in the controls. Among the intervention subjects, statistically significant increases were observed in reported safety training, familiarity and availability of MSDSs and knowledge of OHS legislation. Gaps in OHS knowledge were observed. The educational intervention on OHS knowledge and exposure prevention practices in the community health centre setting was feasible. Larger, more-controlled studies should be undertaken as this study suggests a positive effect on OHS knowledge and prevention practices.
Albrecht, Martina; Kupfer, Ramona; Reissmann, Daniel R; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Köpke, Sascha
Associations between nursing home residents' oral health status and quality of life, respiratory tract infections, and nutritional status have been reported. Educational interventions for nurses or residents, or both, focusing on knowledge and skills related to oral health management may have the potential to improve residents' oral health. To assess the effects of oral health educational interventions for nursing home staff or residents, or both, to maintain or improve the oral health of nursing home residents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Trials Register (to 18 January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 January 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 18 January 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 18 January 2016), and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 18 January 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 18 January 2016. In addition, we searched reference lists of identified articles and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs comparing oral health educational programmes for nursing staff or residents, or both with usual care or any other oral healthcare intervention. Two review authors independently screened articles retrieved from the searches for relevance, extracted data from included studies, assessed risk of bias for each included study, and evaluated the overall quality of the evidence. We retrieved data about the development and evaluation processes of complex interventions on the basis of the Criteria for Reporting the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in healthcare: revised guideline (CReDECI 2). We contacted authors of relevant studies for additional information. We included nine RCTs involving
Full Text Available Introduction: School plays an important role in solving society’s health problems. Teachers are assigned a double role, that of the educator and that of the carrier of health-related behaviours and attitudes.Aim: The present study aims at investigating: a the type and frequency of health education programs in secondary schools, and b the teachers’ voluntary un-compensated contribution in promoting health-related behaviours by acting as role-models.Method: The data collection period lasted two months in the beginning of the school year 2007-2008. We used a 4-section questionnaire. The initial sample of 287 teachers which was selected by cluster random sampling, were secondary education teachers with permanent positions, working in 4 junior high-schools, 3 general high-schools, and 2 vocational high-schools in Larissa county. The final sample consisted of 216 teachers (response rate 75.3%.Results: 25% of the participants had attented seminars in health education, while 60% had read some handbook on Health Education in the last five years. 96 had participated in an organised health education program, and 70 were in charge of one. In 30% of the programs, the subjects were about mental health and they usually lasted about 6 to 12 months. 83% of the participants stated that they advise students, at least once per semester, on relaxation and satisfaction from life.Conclusion: The teachers’ socio-demographic and pedagogic profile, and their previous experience on health issues, may constitute prognostic indicators for their voluntary teaching of health education and, moreover, they are related with a teacher’s decision to get involed in health education interventions.
Tamim, Suha Rahif
The purpose of this study was to explore how health education professionals create ehealth and mhealth education interventions. Three research questions led this qualitative study. The first research question focused on the use of learning theories, instructional models, and instructional design models. The second research question focused on the…
Tamim, Suha R.; Grant, Michael M.
This qualitative study aimed at exploring how health professionals use instructional design principles to create health education interventions. A purposeful sample of 12 participants was selected, using criterion and snowballing sampling strategies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data, which were later analyzed through…
Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah
Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…
Full Text Available Objective: To promote awareness of healthy lifestyles, to help decrease the risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, through Health Education (HE. Material and Methods: Between November and December 2014 in the prison of Soria, HE intervention in cardiovascular diseases was performed. Participation was offered to 160 inmates at the Prison. The intervention consisted of individual interviews with anthropometric assessment and review of medical records and three group sessions with theoretical and practical content of these diseases, as well as dietary recommendations, Mediterranean diet and exercise. Knowledge gained from surveys conducted for that purpose was evaluated. Results: A total of 33 (21% of 160. Average age 38.2 (35.2 to 41.3. Prevalence: Normal weight (BMI 18 to 24.9 18 (54.5%, overweight BMI (25.0 to 29.9 11 (33.3%, obesity (IBMI from 30 4 (12. 1%. Cardiovascular risk (CVR as ICC (waist hip ratio 10 (30% high risk, REGICOR 4 (12.1% moderate risk. Relative risk of comorbidity in 2 (6.0% had a slightly increased risk, 4 (12.1% had increased risk. Conclusions: HE interventions are necessary and effective in modifying lifestyles. The calculation of CVT should serve to implement preventive measures to reduce the factors of cardiovascular risk.
Zhou, Kai-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Fan; Sun, Xiao-Sheng
Health communication and behavior intervention are main measures adopted in health education. Behavior intervention among these measures is the direct one to affect individual and group behaviors. Patients demand more than health information communication, but rely on health intervention service and related products. This essay starts from…
Full Text Available Currently, in the Bologna context, university teaching methods focus on the student and on a learning experience based on practical methods. Under the guidance of teachers, students in the second year of the first Environmental Health Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Beja have designed and developed the following nine community intervention projects relating to environmental health: dangerous products (mercury; habitability and geriatrics; health education and the environment; drinking water; information and communication in environmental health; efficient use of resources in public buildings; child development in outdoor spaces; and allergenic factors in housing. This pedagogical action takes place over three semesters, corresponding to the three distinct phases: design, implementation and evaluation / dissemination. To ensure the viability of the projects, each group of three students has established partnerships with various entities, such as city and parish councils, hospitals, schools, consumer cooperatives, companies dealing with hazardous waste, the Youth Institute and other commercial enterprises. Although it has not been possible to evaluate the whole project, preliminary results suggest that the planned activities have been very successful, with health benefits for the people involved, through environmental improvements or an increase in empowerment. It was also possible to achieve economic gains and contribute to the conservation of the environment. The students were able to gain skills and knowledge in a teaching model characterized by the absence of lectures in which students, assisted by teachers, take decisions and independent action, simulating a real context of professional practice. This experience suggests that, by utilizing the Bologna method, the polytechnic institutions may improve their real contribution to the health of communities.
Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele
A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.
Rusakaniko, S; Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbushu, W; Sebina-Zziwa, J; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J
Unwanted teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and the attendant morbidity and mortality necessitate the need for understanding factors influencing adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, reproductive behaviour, sexual and reproductive health. To determine the impact of an intervention package on knowledge levels of various reproductive health issues through trend analysis. Randomized controlled trial of a health education intervention in schools stratified for representativeness. Rural and urban secondary schools in Zimbabwe. 1,689 students recruited from 11 secondary schools in Mashonaland Central. Knowledge level before and after intervention. The demographic characteristics of the pupils at baseline, five months and nine months were comparable between the two groups. There was an overall increase in knowledge on menstruation. Students from the intervention schools were more likely to have correct knowledge over time on aspects of reproductive biology. A significant linear trend (p = 0.017) was observed in the area of family planning and contraception. A linear decreasing trend (p = 0.001) was observed on pregnancy risk. Though not significantly linear, the general trend of knowledge levels in all the areas of reproductive health, pregnancy risk, STDs and HIV/AIDS showed an upward trend, from 20% to 96%. Worth noting was that in all the areas the intervention group had knowledge above that in the control group. The reproductive health education intervention had an impact on aspects of reproductive biology and contraception as measured by the increased scoring at follow up when comparing intervention and control schools. The overall findings point to the need for early school based reproductive health education programmes incooperating correct information on reproductive biology and the prevention of subsequent reproductive morbidity by imparting information on non-risk behaviour during the early
Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell M; Dickson, Kelly; Patton, George; Bonell, Christopher
Health education in school classrooms can be effective in promoting sexual health and preventing violence and substance use but effects are patchy and often short term. Classroom education is also challenging because of schools' increasing focus on academic-performance metrics. Other school-based approaches are possible, such as healthy school policies, improving how schools respond to bullying, and parent outreach, which go beyond health education to address broader health determinants. Existing systematic reviews include such interventions but often alongside traditional health education. There is scope for a systematic review of reviews to assess and synthesize evidence across existing reviews to develop an overview of the potential of alternative school-based approaches. We searched 12 databases to identify reviews published after 1980. Data were reviewed by two researchers. Quality was assessed using a modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews checklist and results were synthesized narratively. We screened 7,544 unique references and included 22 reviews. Our syntheses suggest that multicomponent school-based interventions, for example, including school policy changes, parent involvement, and work with local communities, are effective for promoting sexual health and preventing bullying and smoking. There is less evidence that such intervention can reduce alcohol and drug use. Economic incentives to keep girls in school can reduce teenage pregnancies. School clinics can promote smoking cessation. There is little evidence that, on their own, sexual-health clinics, antismoking policies, and various approaches targeting at-risk students are effective. There is good evidence that various whole-school health interventions are effective in preventing teenage pregnancy, smoking, and bullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bartholomew, L K; Parcel, G S; Kok, G
The practice of health education involves three major program-planning activities: needs assessment, program development, and evaluation. Over the past 20 years, significant enhancements have been made to the conceptual base and practice of health education. Models that outline explicit procedures and detailed conceptualization of community assessment and evaluation have been developed. Other advancements include the application of theory to health education and promotion program development and implementation. However, there remains a need for more explicit specification of the processes by which one uses theory and empirical findings to develop interventions. This article presents the origins, purpose, and description of Intervention Mapping, a framework for health education intervention development. Intervention Mapping is composed of five steps: (1) creating a matrix of proximal program objectives, (2) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical strategies, (3) designing and organizing a program, (4) specifying adoption and implementation plans, and (5) generating program evaluation plans.
Best, Nakia C.; Oppewal, Sonda; Travers, Debbie
School nurses intervene with students, parents, and school staff to advance the health and academic success of students. We conducted an integrative literature review of published research to describe the types of school nurse interventions and health and education outcome measures and to examine how school nurse interventions were linked to…
Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be
Kure-Biegel, Nanna; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
BACKGROUND: Individual-based interventions aim to improve patient self-management of chronic disease and to improve lifestyle among people at high risk, to reduce the prevalence of diseases contributing to health inequality. The present study investigates risk factors for uncompleted health...... interventions, via a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. METHODS: From a health centre in Copenhagen, questionnaire data on educational level, gender, age, and cohabitation status from 104 participants in health interventions were used to examine risks for dropout. Qualitative telephone...... with low socioeconomic status will most likely have reduced opportunities for making healthy choices, in this case, completing the intervention, and this may increase health inequality....
Hoeeg, Didde; Grabowski, Dan; Christensen, Ulla
Purpose: To treat childhood obesity, health education interventions are often aimed at the whole family. However, such interventions seem to have a relatively limited effect on weight loss. The purpose of this paper is to examine how families enrolled in a family-based health education intervention manage the intervention in their daily lives and…
Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.
Robinson, Christie; Graham, Joy
The objective of this study was to assess perceived Internet health literacy of HIV-positive people before and after an Internet health information educational intervention. We developed a 50-min educational intervention on basic computer skills and online health information evaluation. We administered a demographic survey and a validated health literacy survey (eHEALS) at baseline, immediately after, and 3 months the class. Changes in scores between the surveys were analysed. Eighteen HIV-positive participants were included in the final analysis. Before the intervention, most respondents' assessment of their ability to access Internet health information was unfavourable. Post-intervention, the majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed they were able to access and identify Internet health information resources. The increase in self-assessed skill level was statistically significant for all eight items eHEALS (P Internet health information educational intervention HIV-positive people with baseline low perceived Internet health literacy significantly improves confidence in finding and using Internet health information resources. Studies with larger numbers of participants should be undertaken to determine if brief interventions improve self-care, patient outcomes and use of emergency services. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.
Blake, Holly; Dawett, Bhupinder; Leighton, Paul; Rose-Brady, Laura; Deery, Chris
To evaluate a brief oral health promotion intervention delivered in schools by a primary care dental practice, aimed at changing oral health care knowledge and oral health-related behaviors in children. Cohort study with pretest-posttest design. Three primary schools. One hundred and fifty children (aged 9-12 years). Children received a 60-minute theory-driven classroom-based interactive educational session delivered by a dental care professional and received take-home literature on oral health. All children completed a questionnaire on oral health-related knowledge and self-reported oral health-related behaviors before, immediately after, and 6 weeks following the intervention. Children's dental knowledge significantly improved following the intervention, with improvement evident at immediate follow-up and maintained 6 weeks later. Significantly more children reported using dental floss 6 weeks after the intervention compared with baseline. No significant differences were detected in toothbrushing or dietary behaviors. School-based preventative oral health education delivered by primary care dental practices can generate short-term improvements in children's knowledge of oral health and some aspects of oral hygiene behavior. Future research should engage parents/carers and include objective clinical and behavioral outcomes in controlled study designs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazavehei
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study as a systematic review investigated and analyzed interventions based on models and theories of health education and promotion in the field of physical activity in women. Materials and Methods: Three electronic databases, including Springer, Biomed Central and Science Direct were searched systematically. Only studies were selected that were quantitative, interventional and in English language as well as those that used at least one of the models and theories of health education and health promotion. Finally, 13 studies were reviewed that met the inclusion criteria and published from 2000 to 2013. Results: Of 13 studies reviewed, 10 studies measured levels of physical activity before and after the intervention, which nine interventions increased physical activity in the intervention group compared to the control group. Studies were conducted in different settings of health promotion including health care centers, community setting and workplace. The most widely used model was the Transtheoretical Model applied in eight of investigations. Conclusion: It is suggested to focus more on physical activity and duration of interventions to increase the efficacy of interventions. It is suggested to measure changes of physical activity habits in experimental and control groups in interventions based on the transtheoretical model to prepare a complementary scale to assess the efficacy of interventions. According to the results, no study had focused on changes in institutional policies or general health or providing changes in environment related to physical activity.
Quitério, Ana Luísa Dias
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of physical education (PE) interventions designed to foster health features among school-aged children, and to present a qualitative perspective of the different approaches that are most effective in promoting health among youth. Design: Systematic review. Method: An extensive electronic literature search was…
Haque, Syed Emdadul; Rahman, Mosiur; Itsuko, Kawashima; Mutahara, Mahmuda; Sakisaka, Kayako
To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Intervention study. Araihazar area, Bangladesh. 416 adolescent female students aged 11-16 years, in grade 6-8, and living with their parents. A school-based health education study conducted from April 2012 to April 2013. We randomly selected 3 of 26 high schools in the study area. We delivered 6 months of educational intervention by trained (by an obstetrician and gynaecologist) research assistants (RAs) on menstrual hygiene among school girls. RAs read the questionnaire and participants answered. The changes in knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding menstruation, menstrual disorders experienced, and the restrictions and behaviours practiced by menstruating adolescents were compared between the baseline and the follow-up assessments. After health education, participants reported a significant improvement (pmenstruation (78.6% vs 59.6%). The programme produced significant changes in the knowledge, beliefs and practices of menstrual hygiene, complications from lack of hygiene, and the behaviour and restrictions of the menstruating adolescents. These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a health education programme for adolescents on menstrual hygiene in secondary schools serving rural Bangladesh. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Zhou, Xing; Chen, Rao-Sheng; Zheng, De-Ren; Li, Jian-Ren; Cheng, Xiao-Bo; Ao, Jian-Qiu; Liu, He-Xing
To evaluate the effect of a new mode of health education in schools. In the Zhaiqian Primary School, Yanrui Town, Yushan County in a hilly schistosomiasis endemic area, a new mode of health education intervention, i. e. "rewards and punishment + advise others by using one's experience + teachers' participation" was carried out, and the knowledge, attitude and practice of schistosomiasis prevention of the pupils, and the schistosome infection rates of the pupils were investigated and the results were analyzed and compared before and after the intervention. Among 204 pupils investigated, the awareness rate of schistosomiasis prevention knowledge increased from 26.47% before the intervention to 86.76% and 99.51% one and two years after the intervention, respectively; the rate of correct attitude increased from 17.04% to 73.04% and 100%, respectively; the rate of the infested water contact decreased from 83.33% to 26.96% and 0, respectively; the schistosome infection rate decreased from 2.94% to 0.49% and 0, respectively. The health education of schistosomiasis prevention in schools is necessary, and the new mode of health education, "rewards and punishment + advise others by using one's experience + teachers' participation" is effective in the prevention from schistosome infection in pupils.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Maintaining a huge elderly health, health promotion and community development is very important. Workers' health status is largely influenced by their working conditions and job. Work in mines, including those considered threats to workers' health. Materials and Methods: A number of 45 workers in each of the control and intervention groups participated in a quasi-experimental study. Demographic information and data related to HAM constructs and safety were collected through a HAM questionnaire and the safe operation checklist 3 months after the intervention. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to confirm properties of the tools. Educational intervention accompanied was applied in the form of four training classes. The Data were analyzed based on distribution of variables. Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographics and the study main variables. After training, however, results showed significant changes of mean scores of attitude (P<0.001, norms (P<0.001, belief (P<0.001, intention (P<0.001, knowledge (P<0.001 in the experimental group. Conclusion: The research results show that HAM educational intervention is able to change workers’ awareness, attitude, norm, belief, and intention towards unsafe behavior and improve their safety performance.
Chisholm, Katharine Elizabeth; Patterson, Paul; Torgerson, Carole; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max
With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors' knowledge. If efficacious the intervention could provide a
Hansberry, David R; Kraus, Carl; Agarwal, Nitin; Baker, Stephen R; Gonzales, Sharon F
The Internet is frequently accessed by patients as a resource for medical knowledge. However, the provided material is typically written at a level well above the recommended 7th grade level. A clear understanding of the capabilities, limitations, risks, and benefits of interventional radiology by patients, both current and prospective, is hindered when the textual information offered to the public is pitched at a level of sophistication too high for general comprehension. In January 2013, all 25 patient education resources from the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology Society of Europe (CIRSE) Web site ( http://www.cirse.org ) and all 31 resources from the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) Web site ( http://www.sirweb.org ) were analyzed for their specific level of readability using ten quantitative scales: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, Gunning fog index, New Fog Count, Coleman-Liau index, FORCAST formula, Fry graph, Raygor Readability Estimate, and New Dale-Chall. Collectively, the patient education resources on the CIRSE Web site are written at the 12.3 grade level, while the resources on the SIR Web site are written at the 14.5 grade level. Educational health care materials available on both the CIRSE and the SIR Web sites are presented in language in the aggregate that could be too difficult for many lay people to fully understand. Given the complex nature of vascular and interventional radiology, it may be advantageous to rewrite these educational resources at a lower reading level to increase comprehension.
Tamim, Suha R; Grant, Michael M
This qualitative study aimed at exploring how health professionals use theories and models from the field of education to create ehealth and mhealth education interventions in an effort to provide insights for future research and practice on the development and implementation of health promotion initiatives. A purposeful sample of 12 participants was selected, using criterion and snowballing sampling strategies. Data were collected and analyzed from semistructured interviews, planning materials, and artifacts. The findings revealed that none of the participants used a specific learning theory or an instructional model in their interventions. However, based on participants' description, three themes emerged: (1) connections to behaviorist approaches to learning, (2) connections to cognitivist approaches to learning, and (3) connections to constructivist approaches to learning. Suggested implications for practice are (1) the design of a guidebook on the interplay of learning theories, instructional models, and health education and (2) the establishment of communities of practice. Further research can (1) investigate how learning theories and models intertwine with health behavior theories and models, (2) evaluate how the different instructional strategies presented in this study affect learning outcomes and health behavior change processes, and (3) investigate factors behind the instructional strategies choices made by health professionals. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
Boels, Anne Meike; Vos, Rimke C.; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rutten, Guy E.H.M.
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of diabetes self-management education and support delivered by mobile health interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Leach, Robert A; Yates, Joyce M
The purpose of this pilot novel chiropractic health education intervention was to gather preliminary evidence regarding possible benefits from recreational youth soccer and nutrition education in overweight women. A secondary purpose was to determine whether some nutrition knowledge is an independent predictor of changes in body mass index (BMI). A quiz developed and validated on separate age and sex appropriate blinded cohorts was used on study participants-22 volunteers of 57 eligible fourth-grade, overweight female Mississippi public school students. At the beginning of a 5-month study period, a 15-minute baseline nutrition intervention, grounded in Social Cognitive Theory and based on the United States Department of Agriculture's "My Tips for Families" information, was applied in a chiropractic clinic. Subjects were then randomized to 2 months of recreational soccer (n = 14) or waiting list control (n = 8). No preintervention differences were found in height, weight, BMI, or age. Higher follow-up BMI scores were found in both groups, and no significant differences between groups were found, possibly because of the small sample sizes and the short 8-week soccer intervention period. Gains in nutrition knowledge were sustained (P nutrition knowledge and follow-up BMI (r = -.185; P nutrition education alone may be an ineffective intervention for overweight children. The study provides an example of how youth soccer may benefit overweight children.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
This annotated bibliography contains 73 citations describing health education programs around the world. Countries represented include: Bangladesh, Egypt, Gambia, Gilbert Islands, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Indonesia, Nicaragua, Peru, Philippines, Swaziland, Thailand, Tunisia, Australia, Colombia, India, United Kingdom, Canada,…
Stabile, Cara; Goldfarb, Shari; Baser, Raymond E; Goldfrank, Deborah J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Barakat, Richard R; Dickler, Maura N; Carter, Jeanne
To assess sexual/vaginal health issues and educational intervention preferences in women with a history of breast or gynecologic cancer. Patients/survivors completed a cross-sectional survey at their outpatient visits. Main outcome measures were sexual dysfunction prevalence, type of sexual/vaginal issues, awareness of treatments, and preferred intervention modalities. Descriptive frequencies were performed, and results were dichotomized by age, treatment status, and disease site. Of 218 eligible participants, 109 (50%) had a history of gynecologic and 109 (50%) a history of breast cancer. Median age was 49 years (range 21-75); 61% were married/cohabitating. Seventy percent (n = 153) were somewhat-to-very concerned about sexual function/vaginal health, 55% (n = 120) reported vaginal dryness, 39% (n = 84) vaginal pain, and 51% (n = 112) libido loss. Many had heard of vaginal lubricants, moisturizers, and pelvic floor exercises (97, 72, and 57%, respectively). Seventy-four percent (n = 161) had used lubricants, 28% moisturizers (n = 61), and 28% pelvic floor exercises (n = 60). Seventy percent (n = 152) preferred the topic to be raised by the medical team; 48% (n = 105) raised the topic themselves. Most preferred written educational material followed by expert discussion (66%, n = 144/218). Compared to women ≥50 years old (41%, n = 43/105), younger women (54%, n = 61/113) preferred to discuss their concerns face-to-face (p = 0.054). Older women were less interested in online interventions (52%, p sexual/vaginal health needs. Preferences for receiving sexual health information vary by age. Improved physician-patient communication, awareness, and educational resources using proven sexual health promotion strategies can help women cope with treatment side effects.
Yolanda A. Serra
Full Text Available IntroductionColorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Puerto Rico (PR. Although largely preventable through screening and treatment of precancerous polyps, CRC screening rates in PR remain low while CRC incidence and mortality continue to increase.MethodsWe used intervention mapping (IM, a systematic framework using theory and evidence to plan a health promotion intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening (CRCS among Puerto Rican adults 50 years and older who are patients of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs in PR.ResultsTo inform the development of a logic model of the problem during the needs assessment phase, we determined the CRC incidence and mortality rates in PR using recent data from the PR Cancer Registry, conducted a literature review to better understand behavioral and environmental factors influencing CRC among Hispanics in general and in Puerto Ricans, and collected new data. We conducted seven focus groups to identify community needs and resources, specific sub-behaviors related to CRCS (performance objectives and the determinants of CRCS. We then developed matrices of change objectives that would guide the content, behavioral change method selection, and the practical applications that would be included in the program. We selected two overarching methods: entertainment education and behavioral journalism and developed practical applications, materials, and messages containing several other methods including modeling, persuasion, information, and tailoring. We developed and pretested a Tailored Interactive Multimedia Intervention, newsletter, an action plan, and supplemental print materials for patients. We also developed a patient mediated provider prompt to increase provider recommendation and improve patient provider communication.ConclusionThe use of IM for systematic planning produced a detailed coherent plan for the CRCS educational intervention. Guided by IM processes, steps
Serra, Yolanda A; Colón-López, Vivian; Savas, Lara S; Vernon, Sally W; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Ayala, Alelí; Fernández, María E
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Puerto Rico (PR). Although largely preventable through screening and treatment of precancerous polyps, CRC screening rates in PR remain low while CRC incidence and mortality continue to increase. We used intervention mapping (IM), a systematic framework using theory and evidence to plan a health promotion intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) among Puerto Rican adults 50 years and older who are patients of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in PR. To inform the development of a logic model of the problem during the needs assessment phase, we determined the CRC incidence and mortality rates in PR using recent data from the PR Cancer Registry, conducted a literature review to better understand behavioral and environmental factors influencing CRC among Hispanics in general and in Puerto Ricans, and collected new data. We conducted seven focus groups to identify community needs and resources, specific sub-behaviors related to CRCS (performance objectives) and the determinants of CRCS. We then developed matrices of change objectives that would guide the content, behavioral change method selection, and the practical applications that would be included in the program. We selected two overarching methods: entertainment education and behavioral journalism and developed practical applications, materials, and messages containing several other methods including modeling, persuasion, information, and tailoring. We developed and pretested a Tailored Interactive Multimedia Intervention, newsletter, an action plan, and supplemental print materials for patients. We also developed a patient mediated provider prompt to increase provider recommendation and improve patient provider communication. The use of IM for systematic planning produced a detailed coherent plan for the CRCS educational intervention. Guided by IM processes, steps, and tasks, we used community level information
Full Text Available Introduction: Education is a powerful tool in reducing dental diseases. It is known as an essential part of oral health services. This study evaluated the impact of education on oral health behavior of students based on health belief model. Methods: This educational intervention study was carried out on secondary school girls of Paveh, Iran in 2011. A standard questionnaire was used to collect the data, including demographic characteristics, dimensions of health belief model and performance of students before and after intervention. The educational intervention was conducted over three sessions. To examine differences between groups in terms of demographic factors, dimensions of health belief model and performance status before and after the intervention, Chi-square test and logistic regression were used. P0.05. Conclusion: The importance of education caused promoting dental health behaviors of students. It also emphasized adopting more appropriate methods for oral health training.
Zivković, M; Bjegović, V; Vuković, D; Marinković, J
Contemporary health-education intervention programs are increasingly used as a tool for improving health of school children [1-4]. Since 1992 a Network of 13 elementary Health Promoting Schools established in Yugoslavia (though not yet admitted to the European Network) has been operational. The Project was approved by the Ministries of Health, Education and Ecology from the very beginning, and financially supported by the Government of Serbia since 1995. The team of up to 40 health professionals, school principals and school project managers worked together for four years to change the working conditions in schools knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of school children and staff in order to improve their health . The goal of this paper is to present results of health education intervention in changing of hygienic conditions in schools, as well as some of the attitudes, behaviour and knowledge of pupils and their parents. The study took place before and after the intervention--at two points in time--during 1993 and 1996. The tri-angular approach including (1) pupils, (2) schools (teachers, school environment), and (3) parents, was used. A random pretest and post-test study design with control group (12 experimental and two control schools) has been implemented. The multiphase cluster sample was employed in order to represent all of the country typical regions. Six types of especially designed questionnaires were used to provide comparable variables in the sample of pupils, their parents and teachers. Exception were 1st-graders and 4th-graders for whom information were gathered by means of a "draw-and-write" investigation technique . The response rate was 88.70% before and 98.28% after intervention. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS/PC software. Schools are somewhat less overcrowded, much cleaner and better maintained after the four-year intervention. Toilets are in a better condition, but there is still much more to be done
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the burden of mental illness estimated to be costing the English economy alone around £22.5 billion a year 1, coupled with growing evidence that many mental disorders have their origins in adolescence, there is increasing pressure for schools to address the emotional well-being of their students, alongside the stigma and discrimination of mental illness. A number of prior educational interventions have been developed and evaluated for this purpose, but inconsistency of findings, reporting standards, and methodologies have led the majority of reviewers to conclude that the evidence for the efficacy of these programmes remains inconclusive. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial design has been employed to enable a feasibility study of 'SchoolSpace', an intervention in 7 UK secondary schools addressing stigma of mental illness, mental health literacy, and promotion of mental health. A central aspect of the intervention involves students in the experimental condition interacting with a young person with lived experience of mental illness, a stigma reducing technique designed to facilitate students' engagement in the project. The primary outcome is the level of stigma related to mental illness. Secondary outcomes include mental health literacy, resilience to mental illness, and emotional well-being. Outcomes will be measured pre and post intervention, as well as at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The proposed intervention presents the potential for increased engagement due to its combination of education and contact with a young person with lived experience of mental illness. Contact as a technique to reduce discrimination has been evaluated previously in research with adults, but has been employed in only a minority of research trials investigating the impact on youth. Prior to this study, the effect of contact on mental health literacy, resilience, and emotional well-being has not been evaluated to the authors
Josef I. Ruzek
Full Text Available Internet-facilitated interventions may offer numerous advantages in reaching the large numbers of military service men and women exposed to traumatic events. The Internet is now a primary source of health-related information for consumers and research has shown the effectiveness of web-based interventions in addressing a range of mental health problems.Clinicians can learn how to bring Internet education and intervention into routine care, to help clients better understand mental health issues and learn skills for self-management of problems.The Afterdeployment.org (AD Internet site can be used by health care professionals serving U.S. military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, and their families. The site currently addresses 18 key domains of functioning, including post-traumatic stress, sleep, anger, alcohol and drugs, and military sexual trauma. It provides an extensive amount of client and family education that is suitable for immediate use by clients and providers, as well as the kinds of interactive workshop content and self-assessment tools that have been shown to be helpful in other treatment contexts. AD can be utilized in clinical practice in a variety of ways: as an adjunct to treatment for PTSD, to supplement existing treatments for a range of post-deployment problems, or as the primary focus of treatment for a client.AD represents a kind of service that is likely to become increasingly available in coming years and that is important for mental health providers to actively explore as a tool for extending their reach, improving their efficiency, and improving quality of care.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.
Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele
A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…
Haque, S.E.; Rahman, M.; Itsuko, K.; Mutahara, M.; Sakisaka, K.
Objectives: To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Design: Intervention study. Setting: Araihazar area, Bangladesh. Participants:
Henning, Marcus A; Hawken, Susan; MacDonald, Joanna; McKimm, Judy; Brown, Menna; Moriarty, Helen; Gasquoine, Sue; Chan, Kwong; Hilder, Jo; Wilkinson, Tim
To establish the most effective approach and type of educational intervention for health professional students, to enable them to maintain a professionally safe online presence. This was a qualitative, multinational, multi-institutional, multiprofessional study. Practical considerations (availability of participants) led us to use a combination of focus groups and individual interviews, strengthening our findings by triangulating our method of data collection. The study gathered data from 57 nursing, medical and paramedical students across four sites in three countries (Aotearoa/New Zealand, Australia and Wales). A content analysis was conducted to clarify how and why students used Facebook and what strategies they thought might be useful to ensure professional usage. A series of emergent codes were examined and a thematic analysis undertaken from which key themes were crystallized. The results illuminated the ways in which students use social networking sites (SNS). The three key themes to emerge from the data analysis were negotiating identities, distancing and risks. Students expressed the wish to have material about professional safety on SNS taught to them by authoritative figures to explain "the rules" as well as by peers to assist with practicalities. Our interactive research method demonstrated the transformative capacity of the students working in groups. Our study supports the need for an educational intervention to assist health professional students to navigate SNS safely and in a manner appropriate to their future roles as health professionals. Because health professional students develop their professional identity throughout their training, we suggest that the most appropriate intervention incorporate small group interactive sessions from those in authority, and from peers, combined with group work that facilitates and enhances the students' development of a professional identity.
Thomas, Barbara; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg; Lafreniere, Kathryn D; Delahunt, Tabitha D
Health education programs supported by women's groups or workplaces have been successful in reaching large populations and changing intentions to perform breast health behaviors. This study examined the responses women working in the automotive industry had to two health education interventions, mailed pamphlets, and a combination of mailed material and classes at the worksite compared to a control group. A quasi-experimental design was used. Of the 948 women completing the pre-test, 437 also completed the post-test and were highly representative of the initial sample. The findings suggest that although the mailed information produced some change in practices and intentions, the classes in combination with the mailed pamphlets produced greater change. In addition, confidence in breast self examination as a method of detecting an existing breast lump increased from pre-test to post-test across all age groups. The reported influences on the women's decisions related to breast health varied across the life span. The results of this study can be used to support the development of effective health promotion programs for use at workplaces to increase the likelihood of women engaging in healthy breast practices.
Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza
Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P lifestyle related to vaginal health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P lifestyle in the intervention group (P lifestyle scores
Wheeler, Amanda; Fowler, Jane; Hattingh, Laetitia
Current mental health policy in Australia recognizes that ongoing mental health workforce development is crucial to mental health care reform. Community pharmacy staff are well placed to assist people with mental illness living in the community; however, staff require the knowledge and skills to do this competently and effectively. This article presents the systematic planning and development process and content of an education and training program for community pharmacy staff, using a program planning approach called intervention mapping. The intervention mapping framework was used to guide development of an online continuing education program. Interviews with mental health consumers and carers (n = 285) and key stakeholders (n = 15), and a survey of pharmacy staff (n = 504) informed the needs assessment. Program objectives were identified specifying required attitudes, knowledge, skills, and confidence. These objectives were aligned with an education technique and delivery strategy. This was followed by development of an education program and comprehensive evaluation plan. The program was piloted face to face with 24 participants and then translated into an online program comprising eight 30-minute modules for pharmacists, 4 of which were also used for support staff. The evaluation plan provided for online participants (n ≅ 500) to be randomized into intervention (immediate access) or control groups (delayed training access). It included pre- and posttraining questionnaires and a reflective learning questionnaire for pharmacy staff and telephone interviews post pharmacy visit for consumers and carers. An online education program was developed to address mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and skills required by pharmacy staff to work effectively with mental health consumers and carers. Intervention mapping provides a systematic and rigorous approach that can be used to develop a quality continuing education program for the health workforce
Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza
Background Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. Objectives This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Methods The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P 0.05). The independent t-test did not show significant
Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.
Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…
O'Malley, Teagen L.; Horowitz, Katie Rose; Garth, José; Mair, Christina; Burke, Jessica G.
Sexuality health education is moving beyond the classroom, with technology expanding youth access to sexual health information. While text message services are increasingly being used to provide information, a peer education approach has yet to be incorporated. Results from this feasibility study support a sexual health textline (IOTAS),…
Nagat Mohamed Amer
Full Text Available AIM: The study aimed to assess worksite health education workshops as a successful tool for health promotion of employees. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A one day workshop was held for individuals engaged in research activities in the National research Centre of Egypt at the worksite. Its main objective was to highlight the nature, causes, symptoms and management of job stress. Participants were asked to fill a personality assessment sheet, a self-reported questionnaire for job satisfaction. Other questionnaires for assessment of falsification of type and some socio-demographic data were filled by the attendants. A concise survey was introduced at the end of the workshop for feedback collection. RESULTS: Attendants of the workshop were 36 subjects mainly females (94.4%. Mean age was 40.5 years with 63.9% of participants at their postdoctoral studies stage. Participants were at midway in the scale of job satisfaction (3.3 and did not suffer from falsification (0.3. The feedback survey score (11.5 showed great acceptance for the intervention. Special interest in the topic of stress was reported by 35.1% of attendants who found it the best item in the workshop and the interactive manipulation came next as declared by 18.9% of the participants. CONCLUSION: Worksite health education workshops seem to be a successful practice for empowerment in the Egyptian workplace.
Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer
This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…
Lena V Nordheim
Full Text Available Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the certainty of the evidence.Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low.Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health
Nordheim, Lena V; Gundersen, Malene W; Espehaug, Birgitte; Guttersrud, Øystein; Flottorp, Signe
Adolescents are frequent media users who access health claims from various sources. The plethora of conflicting, pseudo-scientific, and often misleading health claims in popular media makes critical appraisal of health claims an essential ability. Schools play an important role in educating youth to critically appraise health claims. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents' abilities in critically appraising health claims. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Cinahl, Teachers Reference Centre, LISTA, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and sources of grey literature. Studies that evaluated school-based educational interventions to improve adolescents' critical appraisal ability for health claims through advancing the students' knowledge about science were included. Eligible study designs were randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, and interrupted time series. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in included studies. Due to heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, we performed a descriptive synthesis of studies. We used GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to assess the certainty of the evidence. Eight studies were included: two compared different teaching modalities, while the others compared educational interventions to instruction as usual. Studies mostly reported positive short-term effects on critical appraisal-related knowledge and skills in favour of the educational interventions. However, the certainty of the evidence for all comparisons and outcomes was very low. Educational interventions in schools may have beneficial short-term effects on knowledge and skills relevant to the critical appraisal of health claims. The small
Carmen L.G. de Aymar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to study the perception of a Neonatal Intensive Care team on pain assessment and management before and after an educational intervention created and implemented in the unit. METHODS: intervention study developed as action research, in three phases. In Phase 1, a quantitative study was performed to identify how professionals perceive pain management in the unit. In Phase 2, an educational intervention was carried out, using the Operational Group (OG, which defined strategies to be adopted to seek improvements in pain assessment and management. In Phase 3, the initial questionnaire was reapplied to assess professionals' perceptions about the subject after the intervention. All professionals directly working in newborn care were included. RESULTS: the perception of professionals about pain management and assessment in the unit showed a statistically significant difference between the two phases of research, highlighting the increase in frequency of reference for evaluation and use of some method of pain relief procedures for most analyzed procedures. Participation in training (one of the strategies defined by the operational group was reported by 86.4% of the professionals. They reported the use of scales for pain assessment, established by the protocol adopted in the service after the intervention, with a frequency of 94.4%. Changes in pain assessment and management were perceived by 79.6% of the participants. CONCLUSION: the professionals involved in the educational intervention observed changes in pain management in the unit and related them to the strategies defined and implemented by the OG.
Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…
Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer
This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum.
Amemori, Masamitsu; Virtanen, Jorma; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kinnunen, Taru H; Murtomaa, Heikki
Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Clinical guidelines recommend that oral health professionals promote tobacco abstinence and provide patients who use tobacco with brief tobacco use cessation counselling. Research shows that these guidelines are seldom implemented successfully. This study aimed to evaluate two interventions to enhance tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling among oral health professionals in Finland. We used a cluster-randomized community trial to test educational and fee-for-service interventions in enhancing TUPAC counselling among a sample of dentists (n=73) and dental hygienists (n=22) in Finland. Educational intervention consisted of 1 day of training, including lectures, interactive sessions, multimedia demonstrations and a role play session with standard patient cases. Fee-for-service intervention consisted of monetary compensation for providing tobacco use prevention or cessation counselling. TUPAC counselling procedures provided were reported and measured using an electronic dental records system. In data analysis, intent-to-treat principles were followed at both individual and cluster levels. Descriptive analysis included chi-square and t-tests. A general linear model for repeated measures was used to compare the outcome measures by intervention group. Of 95 providers, 73 participated (76.8%). In preventive counselling, there was no statistically significant time effect or group-by-time interaction. In cessation counselling, statistically significant group-by-time interaction was found after a 6-month follow-up (F=2.31; P=0.007), indicating that counselling activity increased significantly in intervention groups. On average, dental hygienists showed greater activity in tobacco prevention (F=12.13; P=0.001) and cessation counselling (F=30.19; PTUPAC counselling performance. Other approaches than monetary incentives may be needed to enhance the effectiveness of educational intervention. Further studies with focus
Tawfik, Mirella Youssef
This study aims to investigate the impact of a health belief model (HBM)-based educational intervention on knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational and postpartum weight in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cluster randomized controlled trial was performed, with randomization at the level of Primary Health Care centers in three Egyptian cities. Eligible women with GDM were enrolled at 24 weeks pregnancy. The intervention group (n = 103) received health education intervention based on the HBM construct. Control subjects (n = 98) received the usual care. The outcomes measured were: women's knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational weight gain (GWG), and postpartum weight retention. Patients were investigated at baseline, at end of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum. After the intervention, percentages of women who had high knowledge and beliefs scores had significantly increased from less than 50 % to more than 70 % in the intervention group (p < 0.001). More women in the intervention group reported practicing exclusive breast feeding (85.4 %) and screening for T2DM (43.7 %) at 6 weeks postpartum compared to the control group (63.3 and 19.4 % respectively) (p < 0.001). More women with excessive body mass index in the intervention group (65 %) compared to the control group (11.6 %) were meeting recommended GWG (p < 0.001), and postpartum weight (37.7, and 20.3 % respectively) (p < 0.01). This intervention significantly improved knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, and gestational and postpartum weight in patients with GDM. Further research is needed for investigating the effectiveness of applying early, multi-phase, and longer intervention.
Eze, Christian N; Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C
High rates of poor knowledge of, and negative attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) are generally found among school teachers. Their first aid epilepsy management skills are poor. It remains unknown if this is different among trainee teachers and whether educational intervention might reduce these rates. We examined the effect of health education on the knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy on trainee teachers in Nigeria. Baseline data and socio-demographic determinants were collected from 226 randomly selected trainee teachers, at the Federal College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria, with self-administered questionnaires. They received a health intervention comprising an hour and half epilepsy lecture followed by a discussion. Baseline knowledge of, and attitudes towards PWE and their first aid epilepsy management skills were compared to post-interventional follow-up data collected twelve weeks later with similar questionnaires. At baseline the majority (61.9%) and largest proportion (44.2%) of respondents had negative attitudes and poor knowledge of epilepsy, respectively. The knowledge of, and attitudes towards epilepsy, and the first aid management skill increased in most respondents, post-intervention. The proportion of respondents with poor knowledge and negative attitudes dropped by 15.5% (pfirst aid management skills increased by 25.0% (pfirst aid management. This emphasizes the potential benefit of incorporating an epilepsy tailored intervention programme into teachers' training curricula. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mosquera, Margarita; Andrés-Prado, Maria José; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil; Latasa, Pello; Mosquera, Marta E G
In recent decades there has been a significant increase in waste generation. Training interventions in advanced health care waste management can improve the segregation of regulated medical waste and reduce volume and costs. We carried out a quasi-experimental intervention study with before and after training session analysis to compare waste segregation. Descriptive analysis of the segregated health care waste and an evaluation of the quality of segregation were done. A comparison of monthly average waste to assess the effectiveness of the educational intervention was performed. After the intervention, there was a significant reduction in the monthly average health care waste volume of 6.2%. Statistically significant differences in the infectious waste and genotoxic/pharmaceutical waste weight segregated before and after the intervention (P waste weight reduction and the improvement of waste classification, a savings cost of €125,205 was achieved. The health care waste management training improves biomedical waste segregation at the hospital, reducing the health care waste volume and costs as an added value. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Janine Margarita Dizon1,2, Karen Grimmer-Somers11International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2University of Santo Tomas, Manila, PhilippinesAbstract: There is currently no strong evidence regarding the most effective training approach for allied health professionals that will support them to consistently apply the best research evidence in daily practice. Current evidence-based practice training tends to be 'one size fits all', and is unlikely to be appropriate for all allied health disciplines because of the variability in their tasks and scope of practice. The scant body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of evidence-based practice training for allied health practitioners provides some support for improving knowledge and skills, but equivocal evidence about influencing behaviors and attitudes. We propose a new model of evidence-based practice training, based on the concept of complex interventions reported in the literature. We believe that by offering training in evidence-based practice based on complex interventions relevant to the needs of the attendees, using fixed and variable components, there may be greater success in significantly influencing knowledge skills, attitudes, and behaviors.Keywords: complex interventions, evidence-based practice training, allied health
Everson, Naleya; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Pitt, Victoria
This review aimed to identify programs that promote health professional students' empathic concern. Empathic concern is a key mediator of important outcomes for both patients and health professionals. However the empathic concern of health professional students tends to decline over the course of their studies. To date studies that have evaluated the impact of educational programs on empathic concern have not been reviewed. The databases ProQuest, CINAHL and Ovid were searched for studies that had evaluated educational programs for health professional students using a validated psychometric measure of empathic concern. Studies were graded using The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Of 2977 identified studies, fifteen met inclusion criteria. Seven studies separately reported empathic concern scores. Four of the fifteen studies reported increased empathy scale scores after students took part in a program. Two studies received a strong quality rating, six a moderate rating and seven a weak rating. This review did not identify any studies that clearly demonstrated an increase in students' empathic concern after taking part in an educational program. Mindfulness based stress reduction, providing empathy content at each stage of a degree, programs that incorporate the film Wit, and Balint groups, may promote empathic concern. In light of the significant impact of health professionals' levels of empathic concern on outcomes for patients and health professionals, further robustly designed research using appropriate psychometric scales is needed to inform the development of education programs in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maheri, Aghbabak; Tol, Azar; Sadeghi, Roya
INTRODUCTION: Internet addiction refers to the excessive use of the internet that causes mental, social, and physical problems. According to the high prevalence of internet addiction among university students, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention on preventive behaviors of internet addiction among Tehran University of Medical Sciences students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a quasi-experimental study conducted among female college students who live in the dormitories of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Two-stage cluster sampling was used for selection of eighty participants in each study groups; data were collected using “Young's Internet Addiction” and unstructured questionnaire. Validity and reliability of unstructured questionnaire were evaluated by expert panel and were reported as Cronbach's alpha. Information of study groups before and 4 months after the intervention was compared using statistical methods by SPSS 16. RESULTS: After the intervention, the mean scores of internet addiction, perceived barriers construct, and the prevalence of internet addiction significantly decreased in the intervention group than that in the control group and the mean scores of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs (susceptibility, severity, benefits, self-efficacy) significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: Education based on the HBM was effective on the reduction and prevention of internet addiction among female college students, and educational interventions in this field are highly recommended. PMID:28852654
Berggren, E; Orrevall, Y; Olin, A Ödlund; Strang, P; Szulkin, R; Törnkvist, L
Evaluate the effectiveness of a continuing educational intervention on primary health care professionals' familiarity with information important to nutritional care in a palliative phase, their collaboration with other caregivers, and their level of knowledge about important aspects of nutritional care. Observational cohort study. 10 primary health care centers in Stockholm County, Sweden. 140 district nurses/registered nurses and general practitioners/physicians working with home care. 87 professionals participated in the intervention group (IG) and 53 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of a web-based program offering factual knowledge; a practical exercise linking existing and new knowledge, abilities, and skills; and a case seminar facilitating reflection. The intervention's effects were measured by a computer-based study-specific questionnaire before and after the intervention, which took approximately 1 month. The CG completed the questionnaire twice (1 month between response occasions). The intervention effects, odds ratios, were estimated by an ordinal logistic regression. In the intra-group analyses, statistically significant changes occurred in the IG's responses to 28 of 32 items and the CG's responses to 4 of 32 items. In the inter-group analyses, statistically significant effects occurred in 20 of 32 statements: all 14 statements that assessed familiarity with important concepts and all 4 statements about collaboration with other caregivers but only 2 of the 14 statements concerning level of knowledge. The intervention effect varied between 2.5 and 12.0. The intervention was effective in increasing familiarity with information important to nutritional care in a palliative phase and collaboration with other caregivers, both of which may create prerequisites for better nutritional care. However, the intervention needs to be revised to better increase the professionals' level of knowledge about important aspects of nutritional care.
Amoran Olorunfemi E
Full Text Available Abstract Background ITN use is generally poor in Nigeria among all categories of people. Although use of ITNs has been shown to reduce malarial morbidity and mortality, this measure needs to be supported by an adequate healthcare system providing ITN possibly at the household level. This study was therefore designed to determine the effect of health education on the uptake of ITN among nursing mothers in rural communities in Nigeria. Methods The study design was a quasi-experimental study carried out in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage random sampling technique was used in choosing the required samples for this study and a semi- structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. The intervention consisted of a structured educational programme based on a course content adapted from the national malaria control programme. A total of 400 respondents were recruited into the study with 200 each in both the experimental and control groups and were followed up for a period of 3 months when the knowledge and uptake of ITN was reassessed. Result There was no significant difference (P >0.05 observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of socio-dermographic characteristics such as age, marital status, religion, and income. The ITN ever users in experimental group were 59 [29.5%] and 138 [72.6%] in pre and post intervention period, respectively (p value =0.0001. These proportions of ITN ever users were 55 [27.5%] and 57 [31.6%] in control group, during the pre and post intervention periods (p = 0.37. Post health education intervention, degree of change in knowledge of ITN re-treatment [37.0%] and mounting [33.5%], readiness to use if given free [30.5%] and belief in efficacy [36.9%] improved significantly in the experimental group while there was no significant change in the control group [p = 0.84, 0.51, 0.68 &0.69 respectively]. Majority [89%] of the respondents were willing to buy
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 3 million people in resource-poor countries receive antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, yet millions more require treatment. Key barriers to treatment scale up are shortages of trained health care workers, and challenges integrating HIV/AIDS care with primary care. The research PALM PLUS (Practical Approach to Lung Health and HIV/AIDS in Malawi is an intervention designed to simplify and integrate existing Malawian national guidelines into a single, simple, user-friendly guideline for mid-level health care workers. Training utilizes a peer-to-peer educational outreach approach. Research is being undertaken to evaluate this intervention to generate evidence that will guide future decision-making for consideration of roll out in Malawi. The research consists of a cluster randomized trial in 30 public health centres in Zomba District that measures the effect of the intervention on staff satisfaction and retention, quality of patient care, and costs through quantitative, qualitative and health economics methods. Results and outcomes In the first phase of qualitative inquiry respondents from intervention sites demonstrated in-depth knowledge of PALM PLUS compared to those from control sites. Participants in intervention sites felt that the PALM PLUS tool empowered them to provide better health services to patients. Interim staff retention data shows that there were, on average, 3 to 4 staff departing from the control and intervention sites per month. Additional qualitative, quantitative and economic analyses are planned. The partnership Dignitas International and the Knowledge Translation Unit at the University of Cape Town Lung Institute have led the adaptation and development of the PALM PLUS intervention, using experience gained through the implementation of the South African precursor, PALSA PLUS. The Malawian partners, REACH Trust and the Research Unit at the Ministry of Health, have led the qualitative and
Sodhi, Sumeet; Banda, Hastings; Kathyola, Damson; Burciul, Barry; Thompson, Sandy; Joshua, Martias; Bateman, Eric; Fairall, Lara; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Cornick, Ruth; Faris, Gill; Draper, Beverley; Mondiwa, Martha; Katengeza, Egnat; Sanudi, Lifah; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Schull, Michael J
Nearly 3 million people in resource-poor countries receive antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, yet millions more require treatment. Key barriers to treatment scale up are shortages of trained health care workers, and challenges integrating HIV/AIDS care with primary care. PALM PLUS (Practical Approach to Lung Health and HIV/AIDS in Malawi) is an intervention designed to simplify and integrate existing Malawian national guidelines into a single, simple, user-friendly guideline for mid-level health care workers. Training utilizes a peer-to-peer educational outreach approach. Research is being undertaken to evaluate this intervention to generate evidence that will guide future decision-making for consideration of roll out in Malawi. The research consists of a cluster randomized trial in 30 public health centres in Zomba District that measures the effect of the intervention on staff satisfaction and retention, quality of patient care, and costs through quantitative, qualitative and health economics methods. In the first phase of qualitative inquiry respondents from intervention sites demonstrated in-depth knowledge of PALM PLUS compared to those from control sites. Participants in intervention sites felt that the PALM PLUS tool empowered them to provide better health services to patients. Interim staff retention data shows that there were, on average, 3 to 4 staff departing from the control and intervention sites per month. Additional qualitative, quantitative and economic analyses are planned. Dignitas International and the Knowledge Translation Unit at the University of Cape Town Lung Institute have led the adaptation and development of the PALM PLUS intervention, using experience gained through the implementation of the South African precursor, PALSA PLUS. The Malawian partners, REACH Trust and the Research Unit at the Ministry of Health, have led the qualitative and economic evaluations. Dignitas and Ministry of Health have facilitated interaction with
Vallabh O Shah
Full Text Available One in three people will be diagnosed with diabetes by 2050, and the proportion will likely be higher among Native Americans. Diabetes control is currently suboptimal in underserved populations despite a plethora of new therapies. Patient empowerment is a key determinant of diabetes control, but such empowerment can be difficult to achieve due to resource limitation and cultural, language and health literacy barriers. We describe a home-based educational intervention using Community Health Representatives (CHRs, leading to improvement in Patient Activation Measures scores and clinical indicators of diabetes control.Sixty participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D completed a baseline evaluation including physical exam, Point of Care (POC testing, and the Patient Activation Measure (PAM survey. Participants then underwent a one hour group didactic session led by Community Health Representatives (CHRs who subsequently carried out monthly home-based educational interventions to encourage healthy lifestyles, including diet, exercise, and alcohol and cigarette avoidance until follow up at 6 months, when clinical phenotyping and the PAM survey were repeated.PAM scores were increased by at least one level in 35 (58% participants, while 24 participants who started at higher baseline score did not change. Six months after intervention, mean levels of A1C decreased by 0.7 ± 1.2%; fasting blood glucose decreased by 24.0 ± 38.0 mg/dl; BMI decreased by 1.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2; total cholesterol decreased by 12.0 ± 28.0 mg/dl; and triglycerides decreased by 52.0 ± 71.0 mg/dl. All of these changes were statistically significant (p < 0.05.This six month, CHR led and community-oriented educational intervention helps inform standards of practice for the management of diabetes, engages diabetic populations in their own care, and reduces health disparities for the underserved population of Zuni Indians.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02339311.
Rahim, Anika; Knights Née Jones, Felicity; Fyfe, Molly; Alagarajah, Janagan; Baraitser, Paula
International health electives pose specific ethical challenges for students travelling from to low and middle income countries. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on interventions to prepare students to identify ethical issues addressed, educational approaches and to collate evidence on the effectiveness of different strategies. We searched nine electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and identified grey literature through key word searches; supplemented through citation mapping and expert consultation. Articles that described ethical training conducted by universities or professional bodies were included for review. We reviewed forty-four full text articles. Ten sources of published literature and seven sources of grey literature met our inclusion criteria. We identified thirteen ethical situations that students should be prepared to manage and eight generic skills to support this process. Most interventions were delivered before the elective, used case studies or guidelines. Some suggested ethical principles or a framework for analysis of ethical issues. Only two papers evaluated the intervention described. Our paper collates a small but growing body of work on education to prepare students to manage ethical issues. Ethical training should have elements that are delivered before, during and after the elective. Interventions should include case studies covering thirteen ethical issues identified here, linked to ethical principles and a process for responding to ethical issues. We suggest that evaluations of interventions are an important area for future research.
Cuaresma, Charlene F; Sy, Angela U; Nguyen, Tung T; Ho, Reginald C S; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Tsoh, Janice Y; Jo, Angela M; Tong, Elisa K; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Stewart, Susan L
Filipino colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates fall below Healthy People 2020 goals. In this study, the authors explore whether a lay health educator (LHE) approach can increase CRC screening among Filipino Americans ages 50 to 75 years in Hawai'i. A cluster randomized controlled trial from 2012 through 2015 compared an intervention, which consisted of LHEs delivering 2 education sessions and 2 telephone follow-up calls on CRC screening plus a CRC brochure versus an attention control, in which 2 lectures and 2 follow-up calls on nutrition and physical activity plus a CRC brochure were provided. The primary outcome was change in self-reported ever receipt of CRC screening at 6 months. Among 304 participants (77% women, 86% had > 10 years of residence in the United States), the proportion of participants who reported ever having received CRC screening increased significantly in the intervention group (from 80% to 89%; P = .0003), but not in the control group (from 73% to 74%; P = .60). After covariate adjustment, there was a significant intervention effect (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.5). There was no intervention effect on up-to-date screening. This first randomized controlled trial for CRC screening among Hawai'i's Filipinos used an LHE intervention with mixed, but promising, results. Cancer 2018;124:1535-42. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Dongre, A R; Deshmukh, P R; Garg, B S
To study the effect of a community-based health education intervention on awareness and behaviour change of rural adolescent girls regarding their management of menstrual hygiene. A participatory-action study was undertaken in Primary Health Centres in 23 villages in Anji, in the Wardha district of Maharashtra state. Study subjects were unmarried rural adolescent girls (12-19 years). We conducted a needs assessment for health messages with this target audience, using a triangulated research design of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus group discussions) methods. Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) guidelines were used to develop a pre-tested, handmade flip book containing needs-based key messages about the management of menstrual hygiene. The messages were delivered at monthly meetings of village-based groups of adolescent girls, called Kishori Panchayat. After 3 years, the effect of the messages was assessed using a combination of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (trend analysis) methods. After 3 years, significantly more adolescent girls (55%) were aware of menstruation before its initiation compared with baseline (35%). The practice of using ready-made pads increased significantly from 5% to 25% and reuse of cloth declined from 85% to 57%. The trend analysis showed that adolescent girls perceived a positive change in their behaviour and level of awareness. The present community health education intervention strategy could bring significant changes in the awareness and behaviour of rural adolescent girls regarding management of their menstrual hygiene.
Alamgir, Hasanat; Drebit, Sharla; Li, Helen Guiyun; Kidd, Catherine; Tam, Helen; Fast, Catherine
To reduce the risk of patient handling-related musculoskeletal injury, overhead ceiling lifts have been installed in health care facilities. To increase ceiling lift usage for a variety of patient handling tasks, a peer coaching and mentoring program was implemented among the direct care staff in the long-term care subsector in British Columbia, Canada. They received a 4-day training program on body mechanics, ergonomics, patient-handling techniques, ceiling lift usage, in addition to coaching skills. A questionnaire was administered among staff before and after the intervention to evaluate the program's effectiveness. There were 403 and 200 respondents to the pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires. In general, staff perceived the peer-coaching program to be effective. The number of staff who reported to be using ceiling lifts "often and always" went higher from 64.5% to 80.5% (<0.001) after coaching program implementation. Furthermore, staff reported that they were using the ceiling lifts for more types of tasks post-intervention. Staff reported that the peer coaching program has increased their safety awareness at work and confidence in using the ceiling lifts. The findings suggest that this educational model can increase the uptake of mechanical interventions for occupational health and safety initiatives. It appears that the training led to a greater awareness of the availability of or increased perceptions of the number of ceiling lifts, presumably through coaches advocating their use. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Building capacity for education research among clinical educators in the health professions: A BEME (Best Evidence Medical Education) Systematic Review of the outcomes of interventions: BEME Guide No. 34.
Ahmed, Rabia; Farooq, Ameer; Storie, Dale; Hartling, Lisa; Oswald, Anna
There is a growing desire for health professions educators to generate high-quality education research; yet, few of them encounter the training to do so. In response, health professions faculties have increasingly been devoting resources to provide members with the skills necessary for education research. The form and impact of these efforts have not been reviewed, though such a synthesis could be useful for practice. The objectives of this systematic review were to (1) identify interventions aimed at building capacity for education research among health professions clinical educators and (2) review the outcomes of these interventions. We developed a systematic review protocol based on our pilot scoping search. This protocol underwent peer review and was prospectively registered with the Best Evidence Medical Education Collaboration. Based on this protocol, we conducted a comprehensive search of health professions' databases and related grey literature. Systematic methods were applied: two independent reviewers completed title screening and full text review for inclusion, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment. Studies were included if they reported outcomes for interventions designed to increase capacity for health professions clinical educators to conduct education research. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the evidence which included detailed reporting of intervention characteristics and outcomes. Our search returned 14, 149 results, 241 of which were retained after title and abstract screening, and 30 of which met inclusion criteria after full text review. Seven groups of interventions were identified, the most frequent being teaching scholars programs (n = 10), health professions education fellowships (n = 3) or master's programs (n = 4). The most commonly measured outcome was change related to enhanced scholarly outputs (grants, papers, abstracts, and presentations) post-intervention. Unfortunately, most of the included
health promotion interventions specifically focusing on developing countries would ... example from Kenya and Brazil of web-based education on adolescents' ... Master of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Malawi. Reviewed by: ...
Han, J; Nian, H; Zheng, Z-Y; Zhao, M-M; Xu, D; Wang, C
The study aimed to explore and analyze the effects of health education intervention on patients with laryngeal cancer and evaluate negative emotions and quality of life after receiving postoperative radiotherapy. Furthermore the relationship between health education intervention methods and its correlation to complications and relapse rates require greater understanding. Patients with aryngeal cancer receiving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy were randomly divided into observation and control groups. A quality of life questionnaire was used to evaluate patients' current life quality as well as negative emotions experienced. The collected data was evaluated using the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) as well as the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). At the time of discharge, patients' satisfaction on nursing and perception of health knowledge was assessed. Three and six months after discharge, patients were given follow-up visits and questionnaire surveys to evaluate their rehabilitation. This was done in relation with the Morningside Rehabilitation Stats Scale (MRSS), incidence of complications and recurrence. The scores of negative emotions, exhibited during the study, were lower in the observation group than in the control group. A month after discharge had a positive correlation to improved quality of life. This was highlighted in the observation group in comparison with the control group. The data collected following discharge revealed an improvement in quality of life, compared with that at the time of admission. Compared with the control group, the SAS and SDS scores in the observation group were decreased a month after discharge. Compared with the scores on admission, the SAS and SDS scores in both groups were decreased one month after discharge. The observation group had a lower incidence of complications than that of the control group. Six months after discharge, in the observation group, the MRSS score was lower than before discharge while in the
Full Text Available Background Obesity causes depression and undermines mental health in adolescents. It is also related to adulthood diseases and mortality. The current study drew upon an educational intervention to modify some Health Belief Model constructs to preventing overweight and obesity among adolescents. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study 100 boy students recruited from selected boys junior high schools in Isfahan. They were randomly assigned to intervention (n=50 and control (n=50 groups. In 4 training sessions, a nutritionist introduced different types of healthy foods and explained how to consume them. A sports coach also taught how to do physical exercises well in 4 sessions (each one 90 minutes in terms of nutrition and physical activity. Data of pretest and posttest gathered from demographic and a valid questionnaire were fed into the SPSS software, version 20.0 and analyzed using relevant statistical tests. Results: The independent t-test revealed that, before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean scores of knowledge, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, physical activity, and nutrition behavior (P>0.05; but, after the intervention, this difference between the two groups was significant (P
Tamari, Kotaro; Kawamura, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuya; Harada, Kazuhiro
The current study was aimed to examine the short-term effects of a 3-month health education program on health-related quality of life using the Short-Form 36. Twenty-five Japanese older people aged 65 and older in the health education program were compared with two historical control groups (n = 25 each) undertaking group and resistance exercise interventions and matched by age, sex and body mass index. A series of split-design two-way analyses of variance were conducted for data analysis. Significant improvements were observed in general health and vitality subscales of the Short-Form 36 in the educational program group. Multivariate analyses, adjusted for several confounding factors, revealed that the effects of the three programs were comparable. The findings suggest that a structured 3-month educational program may be as effective as exercise interventions in improving general health and vitality in a community-dwelling Japanese older population. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2011 ACOTA.
Nieminen, Irja; Kaunonen, Marja
Mental health service users (MHSUs) often face difficulties in achieving successful participation in education; however, the tools that could help them succeed are rarely investigated. This study aimed to illuminate the experiences of MHSUs in an education intervention based on a European Union (EU) project. Their experiences are compared across nine EU countries. The data were collected through individual interviews with MHSUs (n = 47) at day activity centres that provide mental health services. An inductive content analysis was used as the method of analysis. Three main categories, which include seven subcategories, are revealed by the analysis. The main categories are as follows: (i) the factors related to MHSUs' educational preparedness, (ii) the dimensions of the learning environment, and (iii) the effects of training intervention. The MHSUs' experiences with the education intervention were similar across all countries. The findings showed that this education intervention is a multidimensional process. It contains social, mental, and physical dimensions linked to a learner and learning environment. These dimensions influence the MHSUs' ability to participate in the education process. At its best, the education intervention supports the personal growth of MHSUs and prepares them for social integration. An education intervention can be a usable tool in the rehabilitation of MHSUs if the multidimensional nature of education is taken into consideration. Therefore, designing and executing education interventions requires the attendance of the MHSUs in cooperation with mental health and education professionals. Our findings suggest a tentative framework that can be used in designing and executing education for MHSUs. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Jonas, Jennifer A; Ronan, Jeanine C; Petrie, Ian; Fieldston, Evan S
There is growing consensus that to ensure that health care dollars are spent efficiently, physicians need more training in how to provide high-value, cost-conscious care. Thus, in fiscal year 2014, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia piloted a 9-part curriculum on health care costs and value for faculty in the Division of General Pediatrics. This study uses baseline and postintervention surveys to gauge knowledge, perceptions, and views on these issues and to assess the efficacy of the pilot curriculum. Faculty completed surveys about their knowledge and perceptions about health care costs and value and their views on the role physicians should play in containing costs and promoting value. Baseline and postintervention responses were compared and analyzed on the basis of how many of the sessions respondents attended. Sixty-two faculty members completed the baseline survey (71% response rate), and 45 faculty members completed the postintervention survey (63% response rate). Reported knowledge of health care costs and value increased significantly in the postintervention survey (P=.04 and Pvalue were 2.42 (confidence interval: 1.05-5.58) and 6.22 times greater (confidence interval: 2.29-16.90), respectively, postintervention. Reported knowledge of health care costs and value increased with number of sessions attended (P=.01 and Pvalue and initiated important discussions about the role physicians can play in containing costs and promoting value. Additional education, increased cost transparency, and more decision support tools are needed to help physicians translate knowledge into practice. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Merakou, K.; Knithaki, A.; Karageorgos, G.; Theodoridis, D.; Barbouni, A.
This study aims to assess the impact of a brief patient group education intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sample, 193 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were patients at the diabetic clinic of a primary health care setting in Attica, was assigned to two groups, intervention (138 individuals) and control group (55…
Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi
Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The participants were evaluated before and 3 months after the educational intervention. A multidimensional questionnaire was prepared based on the theoretical structures of the HBM to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There was no significant difference in the mean values of HBM constructs prior to the intervention between the intervention and control groups. However, after the administration of the educational program, the mean scores of knowledge and HBM constructs significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with the control group (p educational intervention based on the HBM was effective in improving the nurses' scores of knowledge and HBM constructs; therefore, theory-based health educational strategies are suggested as an effective alternative to traditional educational interventions.
Thériault, François L.; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Blouin, Brittany; Casapía, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W.
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a leading cause of disability and disease burden in school-age children of worm-endemic regions. Their effect on school absenteeism, however, remains unclear. The World Health Organization currently recommends delivering mass deworming and health hygiene education through school-based programs, in an effort to control STH-related morbidity. In this cluster-RCT, the impact of a health hygiene education intervention on absenteeism was measured. Fro...
Lua, Pei Lin; Neni, Widiasmoro Selamat
Improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people with epilepsy (PWE) has become the focus of various treatment programmes and behavioural interventions which continue to be challenging to both patients and healthcare professionals. To investigate the impact of SMS-based epilepsy education programme on PWE's HRQoL status and to determine the predictors for good HRQoL. Eligible epilepsy out-patients from three public hospitals in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia were randomized into two groups: intervention (IG) and control (CG). Patients in the CG were supplied with only printed epilepsy educational module, while those in the IG additionally received short message service (SMS) from the Mobile Epilepsy Educational System (MEES). The Malay Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-30 (MQOLIE-30) was utilized for HRQoL assessment. Descriptive statistics, paired t test, analysis of covariance and multiple logistic regression were employed for data analyses (SPSS 16). One hundred and forty-four PWE were recruited for the study (age = 30.5 ± 11.8; unmarried = 60.4 %; education level ≤ SPM/Cambridge O' level = 76.4 %; illness duration > 5 years = 51.1 %). After controlling for possible confounders, IG exhibited positive changes in HRQoL profile compared to CG particularly in Seizure Worry, Overall Quality of Life, Emotional Well-Being, Social Functioning and Overall Score (p < 0.05). After adjusting for covariates, being employed and receiving additional SMS-based epilepsy education programme emerged as the significant predictors of good HRQoL among PWE. Receiving continuous SMS-based epilepsy information from the MEES seemed to generate positive impacts on PWE's overall HRQoL. This study has provided a basis for future innovations to inspire efforts in ensuring the welfare and HRQoL of PWE and their families.
Tolli, M. V.
Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…
Phadnis, S; Kar, A
The impact of haemophilia education on the quality of life of parents of children with haemophilia from low income settings has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an education intervention on health related quality of life (HRQOL) of parents of children with haemophilia, parent's knowledge about haemophilia and its management, and to determine whether education about haemophilia can positively impact these outcomes. One hundred thirty-three parents from across Maharashtra state, India were provided information about haemophilia, care of child and self-care. The impact of the intervention was measured as changes occurring from baseline to 6 months and 1 year after intervention. Knowledge and practice of management of bleeding was measured using pretested structured questionnaires. HRQOL was measured using a validated Peds Quality of Life ™ Family Impact Module (PedsQL ™ FIM) tool. There was improvement in knowledge scores immediately after intervention, which remained significantly higher than baseline 1 year after intervention. HRQOL showed significant improvement at 6 months but reduced to baseline levels 1 year after intervention. There were statistically significant changes in terms of practice of management of bleeding episodes at 6 months and 1 year after intervention. Education about haemophilia resulted in improvement of knowledge, and practice of management of bleeding which was retained till a year after the intervention. However, a long-term effect on the HRQOL of parents could not be observed after administration of a single education intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ngowi, Helena; Ozbolt, Ivan; Millogo, Athanase; Dermauw, Veronique; Somé, Télesphore; Spicer, Paul; Jervis, Lori L; Ganaba, Rasmané; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Carabin, Hélène
Taeniasis and cysticercosis are two diseases caused by Taenia solium, a parasite transmitted between humans and pigs, leading to considerable economic loss and disabilities. Transmission of the parasite is linked to environmental and behavioural factors such as inadequate sanitation and hygiene, poor pig management, and consumption of infected pork. This study used implementation research method to design a health education intervention strategy for reducing T. solium infections in Burkina Faso, a country endemic for the parasite. Eighteen group discussions were conducted with 8-18 participants each in three villages. In addition, structured interviews were conducted among 4 777 participants and 2 244 pig owners, who were selected through cluster random sampling in 60 villages of three provinces of Burkina Faso. Both approaches assessed knowledge and practices related to T. solium. The information obtained was used to develop a community-adapted health education intervention strategy to control taeniasis and cysticercosis in Burkina Faso. The group discussions revealed that participants had a poor quality of life due to the diseases as well as inadequate access to latrines, safe water, and healthcare services. In addition, it was found that pig production was an important economic activity, especially for women. Furthermore, financial and knowledge constraints were important limitations to improved pig management and latrine construction. The survey data also showed that open defecation and drinking unboiled water were common behaviours, enhanced by a lack of knowledge regarding the transmission of the parasite, perceived financial barriers to the implementation of control measures, lack of public sensitization, as well as a lack of self-efficacy towards control of the parasite. Nevertheless, the perceived financial benefits of controlling porcine cysticercosis could be emphasized by an education program that discourages open defecation and encourages drinking safe
Full Text Available BackgroundMalnutrition can threaten mental and physical development of children while healthy nutrition can improve mental and physical status of children. To select the best foods, children need nutrition education. This study aimed to determine the effect of nutrition education on reducing the consumption of unhealthy snacks in female primary school students in Qom- Iran.Materials and MethodsThis interventional study was conducted on 88 students in intervention and control groups who were selected via multistage random sampling method. The data was collected using a valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire which was designed based on the health belief model (HBM. First four training sessions were held for the intervention group; two months later, data were collected again from both groups of students (intervention and control group. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 16.0 using descriptive statistics and independent and paired t-test.ResultsThe mean score of knowledge and performance of the intervention group, were 96.12 and 18.61 before the intervention which changed to 110.00 and 68.22 after the intervention. The results showed that before the intervention there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean scores of knowledge, and the constructs of the health belief model (P>0.05. After the intervention, the scores of all variables and the behavior of unhealthy snacks consumption were significantly increased in the intervention group (P
Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic beverages have been a part of social life for millennia, yet societies have always found it difficult to understand or restrain their use. Apart from the health concerns, chronic alcoholism is one of the greatest causes for poverty in the country. Objective: To assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based interventional study conducted in the Bareilly district among males aged >15 years during November 2015 to April 2017 taking a sample of 699 by 30 cluster sampling with PPS. Data was collected by home visit using WHO-AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire. After data collection, health education was given to study population in form of speech, posters, short films and focus group discussion. One year after providing health education, AUDIT questionnaire was re-filled by current alcohol drinkers to know the impact of health education. Results: Prevalence of drinking alcohol is 30.47% i.e. 213 current drinkers. AUDIT Scores before and after Health education were positively correlated (r=.768, p=0.0001. There was a significant average difference between AUDIT Scores before and after Health education (t178=2.973, p=0.003. Conclusion: Health education has a positive impact on alcohol use therefore research focus should be on primary prevention by health education/behaviour change communication in primary and secondary care settings.
Wolfe, Linda C.
This paper presents findings from a quantitative, correlational study that examined selected school nursing services, student academic outcomes, and school demographics. Ex post facto data from the 2011-2012 school year of Delaware public schools were used in the research. The selected variables were school nurse interventions provided to students…
Molinero Diaz, Patricia; Burgos Rodríguez, María José; Mejía Ramírez de Arellano, Mercedes
evaluate the efficacy of a nursing intervention based on active observation and resolution of the problems of breastfeeding in the period 24-48h post-partum as regards stopping breastfeeding in mothers who gave birth in Hospital General Universitario, Ciudad Real. A clinical trial was conducted on 100 healthy women who had given birth to a healthy baby in the maternity unit of the Hospital General Universitario Ciudad Real. The results showed that 39.8% of women have problems, and 72% need help to initiate the breastfeeding. Approximately 79.9% continue with breastfeeding after hospital discharge as a result of our intervention. Breastfeeding was stopped by 31.1% of the control group, and by 10.9% in the experimental group (nursing intervention), with significant differences being observed in both groups, with RR 1.29 and 95% CI; 1.04-1.61. Hypogalactia (low milk production) was the most frequent reason for stopping, with no differences in both groups. At 3 months, 16.9% had stopped breastfeeding in the control group, and 9% in the experimental group. At 6 months, 19.3% of the control group did not continue with breastfeeding versus 15.9% in the experimental group. Action, and not only intervention, protocols in the period 48h pospartum when there were problems with breastfeeding were effective for initiation breastfeeding at hospital discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lo, Kristin; Waterland, Jamie; Todd, Paula; Gupta, Tanvi; Bearman, Margaret; Hassed, Craig; Keating, Jennifer L.
Effects of interventions for improving mental health of health professional students has not been established. This review analysed interventions to support mental health of health professional students and their effects. The full holdings of Medline, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews, Cinahl Plus, ERIC and EMBASE were searched until 15th April 2016.…
Newman, Constance; Ng, Crystal; Pacqué-Margolis, Sara; Frymus, Diana
Gender discrimination and inequality in health professional education (HPE) affect students and faculty and hinder production of the robust health workforces needed to meet health and development goals, yet HPE reformers pay scant attention to these gender barriers. Gender equality must be a core value and professional practice competency for all actors in HPE and health employment systems. Peer-review and non-peer-review literature previously identified in a review of the literature identified interventions to counter gender discrimination and inequality in HPE and tertiary education systems in North America and the Caribbean; West, East, and Southern Africa; Asia; the Middle East and North Africa; Europe; Australia; and South America. An assessment considered 51 interventions addressing sexual harassment (18), caregiver discrimination (27), and gender equality (6). Reviewers with expertise in gender and health system strengthening rated and ranked interventions according to six gender-transformative criteria. Thirteen interventions were considered to have transformational potential to address gender-related obstacles to entry, retention, career progression, and graduation in HPE, when implemented in core sets of interventions. The review identified one set with potential to counter sexual harassment in HPE and two sets to counter caregiver discrimination. Gender centers and equal employment opportunity units are structural interventions that can address multiple forms of gender discrimination and inequality. The paper's broad aim is to encourage HPE leaders to make gender-transformative reforms in the current way of doing business and commit to themselves to countering gender discrimination and inequality. Interventions to counter gender discrimination should be seen as integral parts of institutional and instructional reforms and essential investments to scale up quality HPE and recruit and retain health workers in the systems that educate and employ them
Webb, Debb; Murphy, Dennis J.; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen
Three intervention models to reduce hazards and risks of farm work were tested: self-audit (n=73), youth safety and health program (n=64), and a community coalition for safety and health (n=17). Despite some difficulties, university researchers and agents did accomplish the primary goal: scientific evaluation of models of safety education. (SK)
Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi
Study Design?Randomized controlled trial. Objective?The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods?This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups....
Rosato, Mikey; Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Chapota, Hilda; Vergnano, Stefania; Newell, Marie-Louise; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony
The aim of this report is to describe a health education intervention involving volunteer infant feeding and care counselors being implemented in Mchinji district, Malawi. The intervention was established in January 2004 and involves 72 volunteer infant feeding and care counselors, supervised by 24 government Health Surveillance Assistants, covering 355 villages in Mchinji district. It aims to change the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of women to promote exclusive breastfeeding and other infant care practices. The main target population are women of child bearing age who are visited at five key points during pregnancy and after birth. Where possible, their partners are also involved. The visits cover exclusive breastfeeding and other important neonatal and infant care practices. Volunteers are provided with an intervention manual and picture book. Resource inputs are low and include training allowances and equipment for counselors and supervisors, and a salary, equipment and materials for a coordinator. It is hypothesized that the counselors will encourage informational and attitudinal change to enhance motivation and risk reduction skills and self-efficacy to promote exclusive breastfeeding and other infant care practices and reduce infant mortality. The impact is being evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial and results will be reported in 2012.
Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Black, Robert E
Process evaluation was used to explain the success of a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to improve the feeding behaviors of caregivers and the nutritional status of infants in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered a multicomponent intervention within the environment of usual care at government health centers. We created a model of the expected intervention pathway to successful outcomes. Process data were then collected on health center implementation of the intervention and caregiver reception to it. Using multivariate models, we found that variables of health center implementation, caregiver exposure, and caregiver message recall were all significant determinants in the pathway leading to improved feeding behaviors. These outcomes were consistent with our original intervention model. Further support for our model arose from the differences in caregiver reception between intervention and control centers. Process data allowed us to characterize the pathway through which an effective nutrition intervention operated. This study underscores the importance of including process evaluation, which will lead to the development and implementation of more effective nutrition interventions.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is among the most common zoonotic diseases. Educational programs can be effective in the prevention of this disease in humans. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in the empowerment of stockbreeders against high risk behaviors associated with brucellosis in Charuymaq county, East Azerbaijan. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 in Charuymaq county. A total of 200 people selected through stratified random sampling participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher-designed questionnaire including items on participants' demographic information, knowledge and the HBM constructs. Training sessions were then designed and held for the intervention group. Three months after the intervention was held, data were collected from both groups and then analyzed using descriptive statistics including the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon test. Results: The mean scores obtained for knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits and self-efficacy and brucellosis preventive behaviors showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention however, after the educational intervention, significant differences were observed between the mean scores obtained by the intervention group and the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The cooperation of charismatic individuals with intervention programs and the use of education theories can be more effective in modifying high-risk behaviors these programs should therefore be widely implemented across the country.
Elnaem, Mohamed Hassan; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Azarisman, Shah M
Previous research reported underutilization of statin therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Improving health care providers' awareness and understanding of the benefits and risks of statin treatment could be of assistance in optimizing the statin prescribing process. This study aimed to assess health care providers' knowledge related to statin therapy and the impact of educational outreach intervention based on the perceived knowledge. This was a cross-sectional study based on educational outreach intervention targeting physicians and pharmacists in 1 major tertiary hospital in the state of Pahang, Malaysia. Participants responded to a 12-item, validated questionnaire both prior to and after the outreach educational program. Two sessions were conducted separately for 2 cohorts of pharmacists and physicians. The knowledge scores prior to and after the educational intervention were calculated and compared using a paired-samples t-test. The response rate to both pre-and post-educational outreach questionnaires was 91% (40/44). Prior to the intervention, around 84% (n37) of the participants decided to initiate statin therapy for both pre-assessment clinical case scenarios; however, only 27% (n12) could state the clinical benefits of statin therapy. Forty-five percent (n20) could state the drug to drug interactions, and 52.3% (n23) could identify the statin therapy that can be given at any time day/evening. The educational outreach program increased participants' knowledge scores of 1.450 (95% CI, 0.918 to 1.982) point, P health care providers' knowledge and beliefs about statin therapy. This type of intervention is considered effective for short-term knowledge enhancement. Further research is needed to test the long-term efficacy of such intervention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Trivedi, Madhukar H; Greer, Tracy L; Rethorst, Chad D; Carmody, Thomas; Grannemann, Bruce D; Walker, Robrina; Warden, Diane; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Stoutenberg, Mark; Oden, Neal; Silverstein, Meredith; Hodgkins, Candace; Love, Lee; Seamans, Cindy; Stotts, Angela; Causey, Trey; Szucs-Reed, Regina P; Rinaldi, Paul; Myrick, Hugh; Straus, Michele; Liu, David; Lindblad, Robert; Church, Timothy; Blair, Steven N; Nunes, Edward V
To evaluate exercise as a treatment for stimulant use disorders. The STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study was a randomized clinical trial conducted in 9 residential addiction treatment programs across the United States from July 2010 to February 2013. Of 497 adults referred to the study, 302 met all eligibility criteria, including DSM-IV criteria for stimulant abuse and/or dependence, and were randomized to either a dosed exercise intervention (Exercise) or a health education intervention (Health Education) control, both augmenting treatment as usual and conducted thrice weekly for 12 weeks. The primary outcome of percent stimulant abstinent days during study weeks 4 to 12 was estimated using a novel algorithm adjustment incorporating self-reported Timeline Followback (TLFB) stimulant use and urine drug screen (UDS) data. Mean percent of abstinent days based on TLFB was 90.8% (SD = 16.4%) for Exercise and 91.6% (SD = 14.7%) for Health Education participants. Percent of abstinent days using the eliminate contradiction (ELCON) algorithm was 75.6% (SD = 27.4%) for Exercise and 77.3% (SD = 25.1%) for Health Education. The primary intent-to-treat analysis, using a mixed model controlling for site and the ELCON algorithm, produced no treatment effect (P = .60). In post hoc analyses controlling for treatment adherence and baseline stimulant use, Exercise participants had a 4.8% higher abstinence rate (78.7%) compared to Health Education participants (73.9%) (P = .03, number needed to treat = 7.2). The primary analysis indicated no significant difference between exercise and health education. Adjustment for intervention adherence showed modestly but significantly higher percent of abstinent days in the exercise group, suggesting that exercise may improve outcomes for stimulant users who have better adherence to an exercise dose. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01141608. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Sani, A Sadiq; Abraham, Charles; Denford, Sarah; Ball, Susan
School-based sexual health education has the potential to provide an inclusive and comprehensive approach to promoting sexual health among young people. We reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use. We searched ten electronic databases, hand-searched key journals, and reference lists of included articles for potential studies. Data were extracted on outcomes, intervention characteristics, methods and study characteristics indicative of methodological quality. Where possible, data were synthesized using random effect meta-analysis. Intervention features found predominantly in effective interventions were noted. The initial search retrieved 21634 potentially relevant citations. Of these, 51 papers reporting on 31 interventions were included. No evaluation reported statistically significant effects on the incidence or prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus 2 infections. However, intervention participants reported statistically significant greater condom use in both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised trials for short (less than 6 months) follow-up periods (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.55 and OR = 2.88, 95 % CI = 1.41-5.90 respectively). For intermediate (6-10 months) and long-term (more than 10 months) follow-up periods, the effect was statistically significant (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.68) and marginally significant (OR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 0.99-1.50) among the randomised trials respectively. Only 12 of the 31 interventions reported implementation details, out of which seven reported on fidelity. School-based sexual health education has the potential to promote condom use among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. However, further work is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that have measurable effects on sexually transmitted infections.
Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.
Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general
Mwidunda, Sylvester A; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B M; Winkler, Andrea S; Ngowi, Helena A
Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general
Sylvester A Mwidunda
Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and
Eze, Christian N.; Ebuehi, Olufunke M.; Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M.; Igwe, Stanley C.
Purpose: High rates of poor knowledge of, and negative attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) are generally found among school teachers. Their first aid epilepsy management skills are poor. It remains unknown if this is different among trainee teachers and whether educational intervention
Yamaguchi, Sosei; Mino, Yoshio; Uddin, Shahir
There is a need to reduce stigma and increase awareness in order to prevent social exclusion of people with mental illness and to facilitate the use of mental health services in young people. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of educational interventions to reduce stigmatization and improve awareness of mental health problems among young people. An electronic search using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Academic Search Complete was carried out for studies that evaluated the effectiveness of educational interventions. Forty eligible studies were identified. There were three types of educational interventions (Educational condition, Video-based Contact condition and Contact condition). Eighteen of 23 studies reported significant improvements in knowledge, 27 of 34 studies yielded significant changes in attitudes towards people with mental illness. Significant effects in social distance were found in 16 of 20 studies. Two of five studies significantly improved young people's awareness of mental illness. However, six studies reported difficulties in maintaining improved knowledge, attitudes and social distance in young people. Furthermore, the majority of studies did not measure the actual behavioral change. From the comparison of the three types of educational interventions, direct contact with people with mental illness (Contact condition) seems to be key in reducing stigmatization, while the components of Education and Video-based contact conditions are still arguable. Despite the demonstration of the positive effects of each educational intervention, their long-term effects are still unclear. Further research needs to involve measuring actual behavioral change and performing a long-term follow up. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Roosmarijn M. C. Schelvis
Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related stress is highly prevalent in the educational sector. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an organizational level, participatory intervention on need for recovery and vitality in educational workers. It was hypothesized that the intervention would decrease need for recovery and increase vitality. Methods A quasi-experiment was conducted at two secondary Vocational Education and Training schools (N = 356 with 12- and 24-months follow-up measurements. The intervention consisted of 1 a needs assessment phase, wherein staff and teachers developed actions for happy and healthy working under supervision of a facilitator, and 2 an implementation phase, wherein these actions were implemented by the management teams. Mixed model analysis was applied in order to assess the differences between the intervention and control group on average over time. All analyses were corrected for baseline values and several covariates. Results No effects of the intervention were found on need for recovery, vitality and most of the secondary outcomes. Two small, statistically significant effects were in unfavorable direction: the intervention group scored on average over time significantly lower on absorption (i.e. a subscale of work engagement and organizational efficacy than the control group. Conclusions Since no beneficial effects of this intervention were found on the primary and most of the secondary outcomes, further implementation of the intervention in its current form is not eligible. We recommend that future organizational level interventions for occupational health 1 incorporate an elaborate implementation strategy, 2 are more specific in relating actions to stressors in the context, and 3 are integrated with secondary preventive, individual focused stress management interventions. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR3284 (date registered: February 14 2012.
Schelvis, Roosmarijn M C; Wiezer, Noortje M; van der Beek, Allard J; Twisk, Jos W R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Oude Hengel, Karen M
Work-related stress is highly prevalent in the educational sector. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an organizational level, participatory intervention on need for recovery and vitality in educational workers. It was hypothesized that the intervention would decrease need for recovery and increase vitality. A quasi-experiment was conducted at two secondary Vocational Education and Training schools (N = 356) with 12- and 24-months follow-up measurements. The intervention consisted of 1) a needs assessment phase, wherein staff and teachers developed actions for happy and healthy working under supervision of a facilitator, and 2) an implementation phase, wherein these actions were implemented by the management teams. Mixed model analysis was applied in order to assess the differences between the intervention and control group on average over time. All analyses were corrected for baseline values and several covariates. No effects of the intervention were found on need for recovery, vitality and most of the secondary outcomes. Two small, statistically significant effects were in unfavorable direction: the intervention group scored on average over time significantly lower on absorption (i.e. a subscale of work engagement) and organizational efficacy than the control group. Since no beneficial effects of this intervention were found on the primary and most of the secondary outcomes, further implementation of the intervention in its current form is not eligible. We recommend that future organizational level interventions for occupational health 1) incorporate an elaborate implementation strategy, 2) are more specific in relating actions to stressors in the context, and 3) are integrated with secondary preventive, individual focused stress management interventions. Netherlands Trial Register NTR3284 (date registered: February 14 2012).
Moshki, Mahdi; Baloochi Beydokhti, Tahereh; Cheravi, Khadijeh
To assess the effectiveness of application of health locus of control in pregnant women for prevention of postpartum depression in Iran. Nearly 10-15% of women suffer postnatal depression by the end of the second week after delivery, which creates problems in caring for the child that may affect child's future learning and concentration. Pre-post experimental design. Two hundred and thirty volunteer women were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale and the Edinburg Depression Scale. Based on the associations found in the pretest, intervention programme was planned and carried out in the focused group discussion method. Data were collected after the end of scheduled sessions, immediately and one month later. The data were analysed with SPSS-16 using statistical methods including anova, chi-square test, Student's t-test and paired t-test. Chance health locus of control significantly reduced and internal health locus of control significantly increased, immediately after intervention. Also, a month after intervention, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in reducing postpartum depression. The planned participatory intervention led to empowerment and increased awareness and internalisation of health control beliefs and less tendency towards external health control beliefs, especially chance, improvement in general health leading to improved psychological health for prevention of postpartum depression in mothers. Clinicians might assess chance and internal health locus of control to identify the women at risk of developing depression during their pregnancy and to develop prevention and treatment plans. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic beverages have been a part of social life for millennia, yet societies have always found it difficult to understand or restrain their use. Apart from the health concerns, chronic alcoholism is one of the greatest causes for poverty in the country. Objective: To assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based interventional study conducted in the Bareilly district among males aged >15 years during November 2015 to April 2017 taking a sample of 699 by 30 cluster sampling with PPS. Data was collected by home visit using WHO-AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire. After data collection, health education was given to study population in form of speech, posters, short films and focus group discussion. One year after providing health education, AUDIT questionnaire was re-filled by current alcohol drinkers to know the impact of health education. Results: Prevalence of drinking alcohol is 30.47% i.e. 213 current drinkers. AUDIT Scores before and after Health education were positively correlated (r=.768, p=0.0001. There was a significant average difference between AUDIT Scores before and after Health education (t178=2.973, p=0.003. Conclusion: Health education has a positive impact on alcohol use therefore research focus should be on primary prevention by health education/behaviour change communication in primary and secondary care settings.
Atkinson, Nancy L.; Gold, Robert S.
Discusses how health education researchers can use the Internet to both intervene in health behavior and evaluate the effects of interventions (eHealth), describing the potential of computer technology for behavior interventions via message tailoring, intervention tailoring, simulations, games, and online communities, and noting implementation…
Sun, Yi-Qin; Jiang, An-Li; Chen, San-Mei; Li, Hui; Xing, Hai-Yan; Wang, Fang
To explore the effects of a Traditional Chinese Medicine health educational intervention on the quality of life and self-care agency of elderly patients living with chronic cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The secondary prevention and treatment for chronic cardiovascular disease emphasize the importance of lifestyle modification. However, behavior-changing is difficult and individual choices are influenced by broader environmental factors. The lifestyle intervention for the purpose of self-care enhancing should be considered the driving force from the cultural element. The study was conducted from April 2014 to October 2014. Ninety-eight community dwelling individuals with chronic cardiovascular disease were recruited from Shaoxing and randomized. 48 participants were in the intervention group with a 6-month Traditional Chinese Medicine health education and 50 participants were in the control group with routine care. The main measurements included health-related quality of life and self-care agency, which was assessed by the Short Form-36 Chinese version and the Exercise of Self-Care Agency Scale respectively, and were measured at the baseline and post intervention (6months after baseline). After 6months of intervention, the quality of life and self-care agency in the intervention group were significantly improved. The traditional Chinese medicine health education is an effective method for promoting quality of life and self-care agency in cardiovascular disease patients. It could be applied as adjunctive care for cardiovascular disease patients self-care supporting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This was an intervention study to compare the effects of health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraception (EC) pills on the knowledge and attitudes to EC by female students of University of Nigeria in South‑East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Astructured questionnaire was ...
Sodhi, Sumeet; Banda, Hastings; Kathyola, Damson; Burciul, Barry; Thompson, Sandy; Joshua, Martias; Bateman, Eric; Fairall, Lara; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Cornick, Ruth; Faris, Gill; Draper, Beverley; Mondiwa, Martha; Katengeza, Egnat; Sanudi, Lifah
Abstract Background Nearly 3 million people in resource-poor countries receive antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, yet millions more require treatment. Key barriers to treatment scale up are shortages of trained health care workers, and challenges integrating HIV/AIDS care with primary care. The research PALM PLUS (Practical Approach to Lung Health and HIV/AIDS in Malawi) is an intervention designed to simplify and integrate existing Malawian national guidelines into a single, simp...
Zhou Zheng; Jin Yinlong; Liu Fan; Cheng Yibin; Liu Jiang; Kang Jiaqi; He Gongli; Tang Ning; Chen Xun; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid
Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO 2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone
Multidisciplinary and participatory workshops with stakeholders in a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon: development of priority concerns and potential health, nutrition and education interventions.
Casapia, Martin; Joseph, Serene A; Gyorkos, Theresa W
Communities of extreme poverty suffer disproportionately from a wide range of adverse outcomes, but are often neglected or underserved by organized services and research attention. In order to target the first Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty, thereby reducing health inequalities, participatory research in these communities is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the priority problems and respective potential cost-effective interventions in Belen, a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon, using a multidisciplinary and participatory focus. Two multidisciplinary and participatory workshops were conducted with important stakeholders from government, non-government and community organizations, national institutes and academic institutions. In Workshop 1, participants prioritized the main health and health-related problems in the community of Belen. Problem trees were developed to show perceived causes and effects for the top six problems. In Workshop 2, following presentations describing data from recently completed field research in school and household populations of Belen, participants listed potential interventions for the priority problems, including associated barriers, enabling factors, costs and benefits. The top ten priority problems in Belen were identified as: 1) infant malnutrition; 2) adolescent pregnancy; 3) diarrhoea; 4) anaemia; 5) parasites; 6) lack of basic sanitation; 7) low level of education; 8) sexually transmitted diseases; 9) domestic violence; and 10) delayed school entry. Causes and effects for the top six problems, proposed interventions, and factors relating to the implementation of interventions were multidisciplinary in nature and included health, nutrition, education, social and environmental issues. The two workshops provided valuable insight into the main health and health-related problems facing the community of Belen. The participatory focus of the workshops ensured the
Multidisciplinary and participatory workshops with stakeholders in a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon: Development of priority concerns and potential health, nutrition and education interventions
Gyorkos Theresa W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities of extreme poverty suffer disproportionately from a wide range of adverse outcomes, but are often neglected or underserved by organized services and research attention. In order to target the first Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty, thereby reducing health inequalities, participatory research in these communities is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the priority problems and respective potential cost-effective interventions in Belen, a community of extreme poverty in the Peruvian Amazon, using a multidisciplinary and participatory focus. Methods Two multidisciplinary and participatory workshops were conducted with important stakeholders from government, non-government and community organizations, national institutes and academic institutions. In Workshop 1, participants prioritized the main health and health-related problems in the community of Belen. Problem trees were developed to show perceived causes and effects for the top six problems. In Workshop 2, following presentations describing data from recently completed field research in school and household populations of Belen, participants listed potential interventions for the priority problems, including associated barriers, enabling factors, costs and benefits. Results The top ten priority problems in Belen were identified as: 1 infant malnutrition; 2 adolescent pregnancy; 3 diarrhoea; 4 anaemia; 5 parasites; 6 lack of basic sanitation; 7 low level of education; 8 sexually transmitted diseases; 9 domestic violence; and 10 delayed school entry. Causes and effects for the top six problems, proposed interventions, and factors relating to the implementation of interventions were multidisciplinary in nature and included health, nutrition, education, social and environmental issues. Conclusion The two workshops provided valuable insight into the main health and health-related problems facing the community of
Olayemi, S O; Oreagba, I A; Akinyede, A; Adepoju, G E
Community based participation has been advocated by a number of international health organisations including the World Health Organization (WHO) as a solution to the problems of poor patient adherence and default from Directly Observed Treatment Short course [DOTs] programmes for tuberculosis control. To determine the impact of a health educational intervention on the management of tuberculosis in relation to the outcome and adherence to therapy by Tuberculosis patients residing in a densely populated urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was conducted using forty tuberculosis patients (confirmed by acid fast bacilli positive sputum), and selected randomly from those who attend the Mainland Hospital in Lagos. They were divided into two groups of twenty each made up of those to be provided with education intervention at the community level and the control groups followed up at the hospital level only. An initial assessment of the knowledge about tuberculosis management was done through a structured questionnaire for both groups. This was followed by continuous health talks for intervention group in form of neighbourhood self help approach. The results showed that the intervention had a significant impact on the understanding of disease and its management (X(2) =11.842 peducation is therefore beneficial for TB control in Nigeria.
Wang Xiuqing; Lv Shukun; Ma Shuxian; Shi Liang
By introducing patient education into the nursing care of interventional therapy, the medical workers can effectively help and encourage the patients to actively participate in and cooperate with the interventional therapy and related nursing care service. Besides, the relevant education and guidance can greatly help the patients to promote functional restoration and psychological recovery. This article systematically describes the approaches, the principles, the choice of the right moment for health education and the education contents in clinical interventional work. (authors)
Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin
Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092
, sustainability of symptom-reductions were evident for depression with intervention effect lasting up to 13–18 months (ES = −0.30 (95% CI [−0.51, −0.08], for anxiety up to 7–12 months (ES = −0.27 (95% CI [−0.54, −0.01], and for stress up to 3–6 months (ES = −0.30 (95% CI [−0.58, −0.03]. The effects of interventions to enhance positive mental health were sustained up to 3–6 months for the combined positive mental health outcomes (ES = 0.32 (95% CI [0.05, 0.59]. For enhanced active coping, sustainability up to 3–6 months was observed with a medium and significant effect (ES = 0.75 (95% CI [0.19, 1.30]. Discussion The evidence suggests long-term effect sustainability for mental ill health preventive interventions, especially for interventions to reduce the symptoms of depression and symptoms of anxiety. Interventions to promote positive mental health offer promising, but shorter-lasting effects. Future research should focus on mental health organizational interventions to examine their potential for students in tertiary education.
Price, Amy; Verma, Arpana; Welfare, William
An estimated 129 million people are infected with urogenital schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control recommendations endorse mass administration of praziquantel. Health education is an important component of effective schistosomiasis prevention and control, but there has been limited research on its effectiveness. This paper reviews the effectiveness of health education as an intervention in the prevention and control of urogenital schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. The outcomes of interest were prevalence, incidence or transmission of schistosomiasis, behaviour change associated with infection, or changes in knowledge of the disease. The findings from this review suggest that health education has a beneficial impact on knowledge and understanding of schistosomiasis within the target groups. However, further research is needed due to the poor quality of the included studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Liossi, Christina; Failo, Alessandro; Schoth, Daniel E; Williams, Glyn; Howard, Richard F
Online educational interventions are increasingly developed for health professionals and students, although graduate and undergraduate medical curricula often contain limited information about how to assess and manage pain. This study reviews the literature on the effectiveness of pain-related online educational resources. Studies were identified through a search of Medline, PsychINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey databases. Search terms included 3 concept blocks: (1) type of intervention-online education, computer-based, e-learning, web-based, and internet-based; (2) population-pediatrician, physician, nurse, psychologist, and medical; and (3) outcome-pain*. Thirty-two studies (13 randomised controlled trials, 5 nonrandomised controlled trials, and 14 single-group pre-post studies) were included. Ten provided data for inclusion in a series of between-groups meta-analyses. After intervention, participants receiving online instruction had significantly greater knowledge compared with those receiving training as usual/alternative training (Hedges' g = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-1.49), and students had significantly greater skills compared with students receiving training as usual (g = 1.34, CI: 0.38-2.30). No significant differences were found for confidence/competence (g = 0.02, CI: -0.79 to 0.84) or attitudes/beliefs (g = 0.16, CI: -0.48 to 0.79). Although online educational resources show promise in improving learner knowledge, considerable heterogeneity exists between studies in quality, design, educational content, and outcomes. Furthermore, methodologically robust RCTs are required to establish the effectiveness of online educational interventions and a greater understanding of the key features of successful online resources, including cognitive interactivity. Few studies assessed health outcomes for patients, remaining a major priority for future investigations.
Fan, Rui; Xu, Meihong; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Qihe; Li, Ye; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Guo, Qianying; Bao, Lei; Li, Yong
Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were "Healthy", "Monotonous", "Vegetarian", "Japanese", "Low energy", and "Traditional" diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the "Japanese diet" decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, "Japanese" and "Healthy" diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.
Kimura, Akiko C; Nguyen, Christine N; Higa, Jeffrey I; Hurwitz, Eric L; Vugia, Duc J
We examined barriers to influenza vaccination among long-term care facility (LTCF) health care workers in Southern California and developed simple, effective interventions to improve influenza vaccine coverage of these workers. In 2002, health care workers at LTCFs were surveyed regarding their knowledge and attitudes about influenza and the influenza vaccine. Results were used to develop 2 interventions, an educational campaign and Vaccine Day (a well-publicized day for free influenza vaccination of all employees at the worksite). Seventy facilities were recruited to participate in an intervention trial and randomly assigned to 4 study groups. The combination of Vaccine Day and an educational campaign was most effective in increasing vaccine coverage (53% coverage; prevalence ratio [PR]=1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.24, 1.71, compared with 27% coverage in the control group). Vaccine Day alone was also effective (46% coverage; PR= 1.41; 95% CI=1.17, 1.71). The educational campaign alone was not effective in improving coverage levels (34% coverage; PR=1.18; 95% CI=0.93, 1.50). Influenza vaccine coverage of LTCF health care workers can be improved by providing free vaccinations at the worksite with a well-publicized Vaccine Day.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year. The newly formed dietary patterns were “Healthy”, “Monotonous”, “Vegetarian”, “Japanese”, “Low energy”, and “Traditional” diets. The 2h-PG of female participants as well as those favoring the “Japanese diet” decreased above 12 mmol/L. Participants who selected “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets showed an obvious reduction in FPG while the FPG of participants from Group A declined slightly. “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets also obtained the highest DDP scores, and thus can be considered suitable for T2DM treatment in China. The results of the newly formed dietary patterns, “Japanese” and “Healthy” diets, confirmed the profound efficacy of nutritional intervention combined with health education for improving dietary behavior and glycemic control although health education played a more important role. The present study is encouraging with regard to further exploration of comprehensive diabetes care.
Pahwa, Smriti; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Toteja, G S
Diarrhoeal infections are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and continue to take a high toll on child health. Mushrooming of slums due to continuous urbanization has made diarrhoea one of the biggest public-health challenges in metropolitan cities in India. The objective of the study was to carry out a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention, focusing on several factors influencing child health with special emphasis on diarrhoea, in a slum of Delhi, India. Mothers (n=370) of children, aged >12-71 months, identified by a door-to-door survey from a large urban slum, were enrolled in the study in two groups, i.e. control and intervention. To ensure minimal group interaction, enrollment for the control and intervention groups was done purposively from two extreme ends of the slum cluster. Baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on diarrhoea-related issues, such as oral rehydration therapy (ORT), oral rehydration salt (ORS), and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea, was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. Thereafter, mothers (n=195) from the intervention area were provided health and nutrition education through fortnightly contacts achieved by two approaches developed for the study--'personal discussion sessions' and 'lane approach'. The mothers (n=175) from the control area were not contacted. After the intervention, there was a significant (p=0.000) improvement in acquaintance to the term 'ORS' (65-98%), along with its method of reconstitution from packets (13-69%); preparation of home-made sugar-salt solution (10-74%); role of both in the prevention of dehydration (30-74%) and importance of their daily preparation (74-96%); and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea (47-90%) in the intervention area. Sensitivity about age-specific feeding of ORS also improved significantly (p=0.000) from 13% to 88%. The reported usage of ORS packets and sugar-salt solution improved significantly from 12% to 65
Ball, James W.; Bice, Matthew R.; Adkins, Megan M.
Motivating people to engage in regular physical activity (PA) is a constant struggle for many health education professionals. The purchase of activity-tracking devices (Fitbit, Nike Fuel Band, etc…) has been a popular trend in recent years, presumably to assist users to increase their PA. However, limited research has examined consumer feedback…
Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Shute, Rosalyn H.
We examined teacher characteristics predicting likelihood of intervening in indirect bullying (N=55) and piloted a 45-minute educational presentation about its mental health impact. Teachers' global empathy and perceived seriousness of indirect bullying vignettes were predictors of their likelihood of intervening, but knowledge of mental health…
Thériault, François L.; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Blouin, Brittany; Casapía, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W.
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a leading cause of disability and disease burden in school-age children of worm-endemic regions. Their effect on school absenteeism, however, remains unclear. The World Health Organization currently recommends delivering mass deworming and health hygiene education through school-based programs, in an effort to control STH-related morbidity. In this cluster-RCT, the impact of a health hygiene education intervention on absenteeism was measured. From April to June 2010, all Grade 5 students at 18 schools in a worm-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon were dewormed. Immediately following deworming, nine schools were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of the trial using a matched-pair design. The Grade 5 students attending intervention schools (N = 517) received four months of health hygiene education aimed at increasing knowledge of STH prevention. Grade 5 students from the other nine schools (N = 571) served as controls. Absenteeism was measured daily through teachers' attendance logs. After four months of follow-up, overall absenteeism rates at intervention and control schools were not statistically significantly different. However, post-trial non-randomized analyses have shown that students with moderate-to-heavy Ascaris infections and light hookworm infections four months after deworming had, respectively, missed 2.4% (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.7%) and 4.6% (95% CI: 1.9%, 7.4%) more schooldays during the follow-up period than their uninfected counterparts. These results provide empirical evidence of a direct effect of STH infections on absenteeism in school-age children. PMID:25122469
Thériault, François L; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Blouin, Brittany; Casapía, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a leading cause of disability and disease burden in school-age children of worm-endemic regions. Their effect on school absenteeism, however, remains unclear. The World Health Organization currently recommends delivering mass deworming and health hygiene education through school-based programs, in an effort to control STH-related morbidity. In this cluster-RCT, the impact of a health hygiene education intervention on absenteeism was measured. From April to June 2010, all Grade 5 students at 18 schools in a worm-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon were dewormed. Immediately following deworming, nine schools were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of the trial using a matched-pair design. The Grade 5 students attending intervention schools (N = 517) received four months of health hygiene education aimed at increasing knowledge of STH prevention. Grade 5 students from the other nine schools (N = 571) served as controls. Absenteeism was measured daily through teachers' attendance logs. After four months of follow-up, overall absenteeism rates at intervention and control schools were not statistically significantly different. However, post-trial non-randomized analyses have shown that students with moderate-to-heavy Ascaris infections and light hookworm infections four months after deworming had, respectively, missed 2.4% (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.7%) and 4.6% (95% CI: 1.9%, 7.4%) more schooldays during the follow-up period than their uninfected counterparts. These results provide empirical evidence of a direct effect of STH infections on absenteeism in school-age children.
François L Thériault
Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are a leading cause of disability and disease burden in school-age children of worm-endemic regions. Their effect on school absenteeism, however, remains unclear. The World Health Organization currently recommends delivering mass deworming and health hygiene education through school-based programs, in an effort to control STH-related morbidity. In this cluster-RCT, the impact of a health hygiene education intervention on absenteeism was measured. From April to June 2010, all Grade 5 students at 18 schools in a worm-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon were dewormed. Immediately following deworming, nine schools were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of the trial using a matched-pair design. The Grade 5 students attending intervention schools (N = 517 received four months of health hygiene education aimed at increasing knowledge of STH prevention. Grade 5 students from the other nine schools (N = 571 served as controls. Absenteeism was measured daily through teachers' attendance logs. After four months of follow-up, overall absenteeism rates at intervention and control schools were not statistically significantly different. However, post-trial non-randomized analyses have shown that students with moderate-to-heavy Ascaris infections and light hookworm infections four months after deworming had, respectively, missed 2.4% (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.7% and 4.6% (95% CI: 1.9%, 7.4% more schooldays during the follow-up period than their uninfected counterparts. These results provide empirical evidence of a direct effect of STH infections on absenteeism in school-age children.
Ho, Rainbow T H; Sing, Cheuk Yan; Wong, Venus P Y
To examine the effectiveness of a body-mind-spirit (BMS) intervention program in improving the holistic well-being and work empowerment among helping professionals in continuous education. Forty-four helping professionals, who were in their first-year part-time postgraduate study, participated in the present study. All participants attended a 3-day BMS intervention program which emphasized a holistic approach to health and well-being. Ratings on their levels of physical distress, daily functioning, affect, spirituality, and psychological empowerment at work were compared before and immediately after the intervention. Participants reported significantly lower levels of negative affect and physical distress, and were less spiritually disoriented after the intervention. Enhanced levels of daily functioning, positive affect, spiritual resilience, and tranquility were also reported. Results also suggested that participants were empowered at work, and specifically felt more able to make an impact on work outcomes. The 3-day BMS intervention program produced a positive and measurable effect on participants' holistic well-being and empowerment at work. Educators in related fields could incorporate holistic practices into the curriculum to better prepare the future practitioners, leading to better outcomes both to the professionals themselves and their clients or patients.
Ugwoke, Samuel C; Eseadi, Chiedu; Igbokwe, Chima C; Chiaha, Gertrude T U; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O; Orji, Chibueze Tobias; Ugwuanyi, Leonard T; Chukwuma, Ifeoma S; Edikpa, Edith C; Ogakwu, Vera N; Onu, Eucharia A; Agu, Patricia; Nwobi, Ujunwa A; Omeke, Faith; Okeke, Francisca C; Ezema, Rita N; Abugu, Lawretta I
Stress is the product of how an individual reacts and adapts to the specific demands and threats they encounter while carrying out given tasks. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a rational-emotive health education intervention (REHEI) on stress management, and irrational beliefs in a sample of technical college teachers in Southeast Nigeria. The study design was a pretest-posttest control group. Repeated measures analysis of variance, paired t test and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data collected. The REHEI significantly reduced teacher stress in those teaching staff exposed to the treatment intervention, relative to a waitlist control group. Furthermore, the REHEI program significantly decreased irrational beliefs about teaching in those teaching staff exposed to the treatment intervention compared to a waitlist control group. The REHEI program can be used to coach teachers on how to manage and cope with stress and overcome irrational beliefs in teaching.
Donato, Cynthia; Shane, Howard C; Hemsley, Bronwyn
To explore the views of key stakeholders on using visual supports for children with developmental disabilities in early intervention group settings. Specifically, this study aimed to determine stakeholders' views on the barriers to and facilitators for the use of visual supports in these settings to inform the feasibility of implementing an immersive Visual Language in Autism program. This study involved three focus groups of parents, educators, and health professionals at one Australian early intervention group setting. Lack of time, limited services, negative attitudes in society, and inconsistent use were cited as common barriers to using visual supports. Facilitators included having access to information and evidence on visual supports, increased awareness of visual supports, and the use of mobile technologies. The Visual Language in Autism program is feasible in early intervention group settings, if barriers to and facilitators for its use are addressed to enable an immersive visual language experience.
Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Villamizar, Kira; Er, Deja L; DeVarona, Martina; Taveras, Janelle; Painter, Thomas M; Lang, Delia L; Hardin, James W; Ullah, Evelyn; Stallworth, JoAna; Purcell, David W; Jean, Reynald
We developed and assessed AMIGAS (Amigas, Mujeres Latinas, Inform andonos, Gui andonos, y Apoy andonos contra el SIDA [friends, Latina women, informing each other, guiding each other, and supporting each other against AIDS]), a culturally congruent HIV prevention intervention for Latina women adapted from SiSTA (Sistas Informing Sistas about Topics on AIDS), an intervention for African American women. We recruited 252 Latina women aged 18 to 35 years in Miami, Florida, in 2008 to 2009 and randomized them to the 4-session AMIGAS intervention or a 1-session health intervention. Participants completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at baseline and follow-up. Over the 6-month follow-up, AMIGAS participants reported more consistent condom use during the past 90 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.81; P < .001) and 30 (AOR = 3.14; P < .001) days and at last sexual encounter (AOR = 2.76; P < .001), and a higher mean percentage condom use during the past 90 (relative change = 55.7%; P < .001) and 30 (relative change = 43.8%; P < .001) days than did comparison participants. AMIGAS participants reported fewer traditional views of gender roles (P = .008), greater self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex (P < .001), greater feelings of power in relationships (P = .02), greater self-efficacy for using condoms (P < .001), and greater HIV knowledge (P = .009) and perceived fewer barriers to using condoms (P < .001). Our results support the efficacy of this linguistically and culturally adapted HIV intervention among ethnically diverse, predominantly foreign-born Latina women.
Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Rakhshani, Tayebeh
Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in Iran. Farmers are exposed to the sun's ultraviolet radiation due to their job and are susceptible to skin cancer. The aim of this study is to survey the effect of educational intervention based on health belief model and social support on promoting skin cancer preventive behaviors in farmers of Fasa City, Fars province, Iran. In this quasi-experimental study, 200 farmers (100 in experimental group and 100 in control group) in Fasa City, Fars, Iran, were selected in 2017. The educational intervention for the experimental group consisted of eight training sessions (introduction to skin cancer, risk factors, complications, benefits and barriers to proper use of sunscreen, UV sunglasses and physical protection, self-efficacy in applying preventive behaviors, role of social support). A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and cues to action), and social support was used to measure skin cancer preventive behaviors before, 3 months after the intervention, and 6 months later. Data were analyzed using SPSS-22 via chi-squared, independent samples t test, Mann-Whitney, and repeated measures ANOVA at a significance level of 0.5. The mean age of the farmers was 42.21 ± 10.52 years in the experimental group and 44.28 ± 10.16 years in the control group. Three months after the intervention and 6 months after the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, cues to action, social support, and skin cancer preventive behaviors compared to the control group. This study showed the effectiveness of the intervention based on the HBM constructs and social support in adoption of skin cancer preventive behaviors in 3 and 6 months post intervention in farmers. Hence, these models can act as a
Abood, Doris A; Black, David R; Birnbaum, Rachel D
To evaluate the efficacy of a nutrition education intervention for college female athletes to improve nutrition knowledge, build self-efficacy with respect to making healthful dietary choices, and improve dietary intake. A pretest-posttest control group design was implemented. A women's soccer team (n =15) and a women's swim team (n = 15) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. The intervention focused on nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy in making healthful dietary choices, and dietary practices to demonstrate treatment effect. Dependent variables were nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, and dietary practices. Independent variables were group assignment. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results between groups, and the Fisher exact probability test was used to detect differences between groups in the number of positive dietary changes. Treatment participants significantly improved nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy (P nutrition education intervention research among athletes and demonstrates the ability to increase not only nutrition knowledge, which is typically reported, but also self-efficacy and improvement in overall positive dietary changes during an 8-week intervention.
Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....
Barnes, Andrew J; Xu, Haiyong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Tallen, Louise; Moore, Alison A; Marshall, Deborah C; Mirkin, Michelle; Ransohoff, Kurt; Duru, O Kenrik; Ettner, Susan L
At-risk drinking, defined as alcohol use that is excessive or potentially harmful in combination with select comorbidities or medications, affects about 10% of older adults in the United States and is associated with higher mortality. The Project SHARE intervention, which uses patient and provider educational materials, physician counseling, and health educator support, was designed to reduce at-risk drinking among this vulnerable population. Although an earlier study showed that this intervention was successful in reducing rates of at-risk drinking, it is unknown whether these reductions translate into improved health and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aim of this study was to examine changes in health and HRQL of older adult at-risk drinkers resulting from a patient-provider educational intervention. A randomized controlled trial to compare the health and HRQL outcomes of patients assigned to the Project SHARE intervention vs. care as usual at baseline, 6- and 12-months post assignment. Control patients received usual care, which may or may not have included alcohol counseling. Intervention group patients received a personalized patient report, educational materials on alcohol and aging, a brief provider intervention, and a telephone health educator intervention. Current drinkers 60years and older accessing primary care clinics around Santa Barbara, California (N=1049). Data were collected from patients using baseline, 6- and 12-month mail surveys. Health and HRQL measures included mental and physical component scores (MCS and PCS) based on the Short Form-12v2 (SF-12v2), the SF-6D, which is also based on the SF-12, and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Adjusted associations of treatment assignment with these outcomes were estimated using generalized least squares regressions with random provider effects. Regressions controlled for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, home ownership and the baseline value of
Schelvis, R.M.C.; Wiezer, N.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Oude Hengel, K.M.
Background. Work-related stress is highly prevalent in the educational sector. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an organizational level, participatory intervention on need for recovery and vitality in educational workers. It was hypothesized that the intervention
Schelvis, Roosmarijn M.C.; Wiezer, Noortje M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Oude Hengel, Karen M.
Background: Work-related stress is highly prevalent in the educational sector. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an organizational level, participatory intervention on need for recovery and vitality in educational workers. It was hypothesized that the intervention
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of educational intervention by health care providers on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients in a Yemeni health facility. Methods: A .... compliance, exercise and diets recommended for diabetes patients.
Jones, Stephanie P; Miller, Colette; Gibson, Josephine M E; Cook, Julie; Price, Chris; Watkins, Caroline L
The aim of this review was to explore the impact of stroke education and training of nurses and other health care staff involved in the delivery of stroke care. We performed an integrative review, following PRISMA guidance where possible. We searched MEDLINE, ERIC, PubMed, AMED, EMBASE, HMIC, CINAHL, Google Scholar, IBSS, Web of Knowledge, and the British Nursing Index from 1980 to 2016. Any intervention studies were included if they focused on the education or training of nurses and other health care staff in relation to stroke care. Articles that appeared to meet the inclusion criteria were read in full. Data were extracted from the articles, and the study quality assessed by two researchers. We assessed risk of bias of included studies using a pre-specified tool based on Cochrane guidance. Our initial search identified 2850 studies of which 21 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies were randomised controlled trials, and one was an interrupted time series. Fourteen studies were quasi-experimental: eight were pretest-posttest; five were non-equivalent groups; one study had a single assessment. Thirteen studies used quality of care outcomes and eight used a patient outcome measure. None of the studies was identified as having a low risk of bias. Only nine studies used a multi-disciplinary approach to education and training and nurses were often taught alone. Interactive education and training delivered to multi-disciplinary stroke teams, and the use of protocols or guidelines tended to be associated with a positive impact on patient and quality of care outcomes. Practice educators should consider the delivery of interactive education and training delivered to multi-disciplinary groups, and the use of protocols or guidelines, which tend to be associated with a positive impact on both patient and quality of care outcomes. Future research should incorporate a robust design. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Palfrey, Judith S; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Bronson, Martha B; Warfield, Marji Erickson; Sirin, Selcuk; Chan, Eugenia
Clinicians, scientists, and policy makers are increasingly taking interest in the long-term outcomes of early intervention programs undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, which were intended to improve young children's health and educational prospects. The Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) was an innovative, community-based program that provided health and developmental services for children and their families from 3 months before birth until entry into kindergarten. It was open to all families in the town of Brookline and to families from neighboring Boston, to include a mixture of families from suburban and urban communities. The goal of the project, which was administered by the Brookline Public Schools, was to ensure that children would enter kindergarten healthy and ready to learn. Outcome studies of BEEP and comparison children during kindergarten and second grade demonstrated the program's effectiveness during the early school years. The goal of this follow-up study was to test the hypotheses that BEEP participants, in comparison with their peers, would have higher levels of educational attainment, higher incomes, and more positive health behaviors, mental health, and health efficacy during the young adult period. Participants were young adults who were enrolled in the BEEP project from 1973 to 1978. Comparison subjects were young adults in Boston and Brookline who did not participate in BEEP but were matched to the BEEP group with respect to age, ethnicity, mother's educational level, and neighborhood (during youth). A total of 169 children were enrolled originally in BEEP and monitored through second grade. The follow-up sample included a total of 120 young adults who had participated in BEEP as children. The sample differed from the original BEEP sample in having a slightly larger proportion of college-educated mothers and a slightly smaller proportion of urban families but otherwise resembled the original BEEP sample. The demographic features of
Sabin, Lora L; Larson Williams, Anna; Le, Bao Ngoc; Herman, Augusta R; Viet Nguyen, Ha; Albanese, Rebecca R; Xiong, Wenjun; Shobiye, Hezekiah Oa; Halim, Nafisa; Tran, Lien Thi Ngoc; McNabb, Marion; Hoang, Hai; Falconer, Ariel; Nguyen, Tam Thi Thanh; Gill, Christopher J
A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2015 to evaluate a mobile continuing medical education (mCME) intervention that provided daily text messages to community-based physicians' assistants (CBPAs) in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. Although the intervention failed to improve medical knowledge over a 6-month period, a companion qualitative study provided insights on the views and experiences of intervention participants. We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) among participants randomized to receive text messages containing either simple medical facts or quiz questions. Trained interviewers collected data immediately following the conclusion of the trial in December 2015. Using semi-structured question guides, respondents were queried on their views of the intervention, positive and negative, and perceived impacts of the intervention. During analysis, after learning that the intervention had failed to increase knowledge among participants, we also examined reasons for lack of improvement in medical knowledge. All analyses were performed in NVivo using a thematic approach. A total of 70 CBPAs engaged in one of 8 FGDs or an IDI. One-half were men; average age among all respondents was 40 years. Most (81%) practiced in rural settings and most (51%) focused on general medicine. The mean length of work experience was 3 years. All respondents made positive comments about the intervention; convenience, relevance, and quick feedback (quiz format) were praised. Downsides encompassed lack of depth of information, weak interaction, technology challenges, and challenging/irrelevant messages. Respondents described perceived impacts encompassing increased motivation, knowledge, collegial discussions, Internet use to search for more information, and clinical skills. Overall, they expressed a desire for the intervention to continue and recommended expansion to other medical professionals. Overreliance on the text messages, lack of
Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Yaping
We evaluated the effect of two Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)-based health educational interventions on varicella vaccine (VarV) vaccination among pregnant women in a province in the east China. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted among 200 pregnant women with ≥12 gestation weeks to test two interventions, including a messaging video and a messaging booklet. The participants were randomly assigned into the control group, the video group or the booklet group. The VarV coverage at 12 and 24 months old was compared among the children of the three groups and relative risks (RRs) were calculated, by using the coverage of the control group as reference. The timeliness of VarV was also assessed. Furthermore, differences in the effects on the knowledge and attitude of VarV vaccination between the two interventions was evaluated. The VarV coverage of their children by 24 months of age was 86.4%, 76.1% and 56.7% for the video group, the booklet group and the control group, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) for the coverage of VarV at 24 months of age were 4.8 (95% CI: 2.06-11.3) for the video group and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-5.1) for the booklet group. The means of delays were 57.3 days in the video group, 76.9 days in the booklet group, and 100.6 days in the control group. The proportion of women who intended to vaccinate their children with VarV was higher in the video group than the booklet group (93.9% vs. 82.1%, p < 0.05). Our findings indicated that perinatal health education through booklet or video could improve the coverage and schedule adherence for children's VarV vaccination.
Leahy, Deana; Simovska, Venka
Purpose - This Special Issue is the second in a series that aims to place the spotlight on educational research and its contribution to the field of school-based health and wellbeing promotion. The purpose of both special issues is to bring together scholars from across the world to consider...... current developments in research on curricula, interventions, policies and practices concerning health education and promotion and related professional development of teachers. Design/methodology/approach – As in the first Special Issue published in 2017 (School health education and promotion: Health...... and wellbeing promotion. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education website and on the EERA website. There was considerable interest from those such as researchers, scholars and practitioners, and as a result, we have been able to publish a second Special Issue. Findings...
Waters, Allison M; Groth, Trisha A; Sanders, Mary; O'Brien, Rosanne; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
Clinical scientists are calling for strong partnerships in the provision of evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems in real-world contexts. In the present study, we describe the implementation of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to address grade 5 children's anxiety symptoms. The CBI arose from a long-standing partnership between University and Education Department stakeholders. The partnership integrates school-based, evidence-informed treatment delivery with clinical education, and also supports a school-based psychology clinic to provide assessment and treatment services to children attending schools within the catchment area and clinical training for university graduate students. Children in the active condition (N=74) completed the CBI during regular class time, while children in the control condition (N=77) received the standard classroom curriculum. Children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, threat interpretation biases (perceived danger and coping ability), and perceptions of their social skills were assessed before and after condition. Children in the active condition reported significant improvements in self-reported anxiety symptoms, and perceptions of their social skills and coping ability, whereas no significant differences were observed for children in the control condition from pre- to post-assessment. For a subset of children assessed 12 months after the CBI (n=76), symptom improvement remained stable over time and estimates of danger and coping ability showed even greater improvement. Results demonstrate the value of strong stakeholder partnerships in innovative youth mental health services, positive child outcomes, and clinical education. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I; Shea, Steven
This randomized controlled trial assessed different educational approaches for increasing colorectal cancer screening uptake in a sample of primarily non-US born urban minority individuals, over aged 50, with health insurance, and out of compliance with screening guidelines. In one group, participants were mailed printed educational material (n = 180); in a second, participants' primary care physicians received academic detailing to improve screening referral and follow-up practices (n = 185); in a third, physicians received academic detailing and participants received tailored telephone education (n = 199). Overall, 21.5% of participants (n = 121) received appropriate screening within one year of randomization. There were no statistically significant pairwise differences between groups in screening rate. Among those 60 years of age or older, however, the detailing plus telephone education group had a higher screening rate than the print group (27.3 vs. 7.7%, p = .02). Different kinds of interventions will be required to increase colorectal cancer screening among the increasingly small population segment that remains unscreened. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02392143.
Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. © The Author(s) 2015.
Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2% reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6% of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%, to improve performance (9.8% and to reduce fatigue (5.4%. Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.
Fatungase Kehinde O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is currently the most important cause of death and disability in children aged under 5 years in Africa. A health education interventional study of this nature is essential in primary control of an endemic communicable disease such as malaria. This study was therefore designed to determine the effect of health education on the home management of Malaria among the caregivers of children under 5 years old in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods The study design was a quasi-experimental study carried out in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage random sampling technique was used in choosing the required samples for this study and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. The intervention consisted of a structured educational program based on a course content adapted from the national malaria control program. A total of 400 respondents were recruited into the study, with 200 each in both the experimental and control groups, and were followed up for a period of 3 months when the knowledge and uptake of insecticide treated net was reassessed. Results There was no statistically significant differences observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics such as age (P = 0.99, marital status (P = 0.48, religion (P = 0.1, and income (P = 0.51. The majority in both the experimental (75.0% and control (71.5% groups use arthemisinin-based combination therapy as first line home treatment drugs pre intervention. Post health education intervention, the degree of change in the knowledge of referral signs and symptoms in the experimental group was 52.8% (P P = 0.93. Tepid sponging improved by 45.0%, paracetamol use by 55.3%, and the use of herbs and other drugs were not significantly influenced in the experimental (P = 0.65 and 0.99 and control group (P = 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. Furthermore, there was a 55
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of educational intervention by health care providers on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients in a Yemeni health facility. Methods: A prospective, one-group and pre- and post-test design to assess the effects of health care providers' education on clinical patient outcomes was ...
The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are concei......The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...
Matterne, Uwe; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke
Occupational skin diseases are a significant public health concern. Little is known about the cognitive representations individuals with occupational skin disease have towards measures of personal skin protection and occupational safety and whether they change during an intervention. We aimed to evaluate whether social cognitions as embodied by the theory of planned behaviour become more favourable during a tertiary inpatient individual prevention programme (TIP) and whether the model's predictions hold in a setting to which the model has not been applied. We used a longitudinal design. A questionnaire, assessing the theory of planned behaviour variables attitude, subjective and descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention was developed and administered to 101 patients before (at admission) and after (at discharge) a 3-week inpatient TIP. The scales showed good internal consistency. Before the TIP, patients had favourable cognitions towards skin protection measures and these improved during the TIP. Attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention to perform skin protection significantly increased during TIP. Attitude and perceived behavioural control were significant predictors of behavioural intention in multiple regression analyses with perceived behavioural control being the strongest predictor in the equations. Descriptive norm was a significant predictor of intention only at admission but not at discharge. This is the first study attempting to explain the motivation to perform skin protection measures in patients with occupational skin disease by applying an otherwise well established health-behaviour theory. The results emphasise the importance of health-educational and psychological interventions for patients with occupational skin disease. Promoting personal control over and attitudes towards skin protection measures may enhance the occupational health of individuals with occupational skin disease.
Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS): development and implementation of a multiethnic health education intervention to increase stroke awareness among middle school students and their parents.
Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Juhl Majersik, Jennifer; Gonzales, Nicole R; Maddox, Katherine E; Pary, Jennifer K; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A; Espinosa, Nina; Grotta, James C; Morgenstern, Lewis B
The Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS) project is a 3-year prospective, randomized, controlled, multiethnic school-based intervention study. Project goals include increasing knowledge of stroke signs and treatment and intention to immediately call 911 among Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) middle school students and their parents. This article describes the design, implementation, and interim evaluation of this theory-based intervention. Intervention students received a culturally appropriate stroke education program divided into four 50-minute classes each year during the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Each class session also included a homework assignment that involved the students' parents or other adult partners. Interim-test results indicate that this educational intervention was successful in improving students' stroke symptom and treatment knowledge and intent to call 911 upon witnessing a stroke compared with controls. The authors conclude that this school-based educational intervention to reduce delay time to hospital arrival for stroke shows early promise.
Lefebvre, R C; Flora, J A
The rapid proliferation of community-based health education programs has out-paced the knowledge base of behavior change strategies that are appropriate and effective for public health interventions. However, experiences from a variety of large-scale studies suggest that principles and techniques of social marketing may help bridge this gap. This article discusses eight essential aspects of the social marketing process: the use of a consumer orientation to develop and market intervention techniques, exchange theory as a model from which to conceptualize service delivery and program participation, audience analysis and segmentation strategies, the use of formative research in program design and pretesting of intervention materials, channel analysis for devising distribution systems and promotional campaigns, employment of the "marketing mix" concept in intervention planning and implementation, development of a process tracking system, and a management process of problem analysis, planning, implementation, feedback and control functions. Attention to such variables could result in more cost-effective programs that reach larger numbers of the target audience.
Sælid, Gry Anette; Nordahl, Hans M
Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) is effective in reducing distress in several target groups. No other study has tested the mental health effects on adolescents in a high school setting while expanding a Cognitive Behaviour-based therapy, REBT, into the concept of mental health literacy. The format of the ABC model, which is an important element of REBT, functioned as a working manual in and between three sessions. This study tested whether knowledge and practical use of the ABC model increased self-esteem and hope, and reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, and dysfunctional thinking. Sixty-two high school students with subclinical levels of anxiety and depression were randomly allocated into three groups; three individual REBT sessions, or three individual attentional placebo (ATP) sessions or no sessions (control). However, dysfunctional thinking, self-esteem and hope were not measured in the control group. Repeated measures with ANOVA and t-tests were conducted. Both REBT and ATP significantly reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, but only REBT was significantly different from the control group at the six-month follow-up. Only REBT significantly reduced dysfunctional thinking, and both REBT and ATP significantly increased self-esteem and hope. REBT had both an immediate and a long-term effect. The findings show the potential positive effects of educating well-documented psychological techniques as ordinary education in school. Further research might contribute to decide whether or not to change the school system by enclosing mental health literacy classes for all students.
Rustvold, Susan Romano
A self-perpetuating cycle of poor health literacy and poor oral health knowledge and behavior affects approximately 90 million people in the United States, most especially those from low-income groups and other at-risk populations such as those with addiction. Poor oral health can result from lack of access to regular preventive dental…
Pal, Kingshuk; Dack, Charlotte; Ross, Jamie; Michie, Susan; May, Carl; Stevenson, Fiona; Farmer, Andrew; Yardley, Lucy; Barnard, Maria; Murray, Elizabeth
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing globally, and health services in many countries are struggling with the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with the complications of this long-term condition. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and behavioral support can reduce the risks of developing diabetes-related complications and improve glycemic control. However, their uptake is low. Digital health interventions (DHI) can provide sustained support and may overcome challenges associated with attending diabetes self-management sessions. They have the potential for delivery at multiple locations at convenient times, anonymity, and presentation of content in attractive and tailored formats. This study investigates the needs and wants of patients with type 2 diabetes to inform the development of digital self-management education and support. The objective of this study was to explore patient perspectives on unmet needs for self-management and support and the role of DHI in adults living with type 2 diabetes. This study used a qualitative approach based on data generated from 4 focus groups with 20 patients. The data generated by the focus groups illustrated the significant burden that the diagnosis of diabetes places on many patients and the negative impacts on their emotional well-being, work, social life, and physical health. Although patients' experiences of the health care services varied, there was agreement that even the best services were unable to meet all users' needs to support the emotional regulation, psychological adjustment, and behavioral changes needed for successful self-management. By focusing on medical management and information provision, existing health care services and education programs may not be adequately meeting all the needs of patients with type 2 diabetes. DHIs have the potential to improve access to DSME and behavioral support and extend the range of content offered by health services to fit with a wider range of
Morjaria, Priya; Bastawrous, Andrew; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Evans, Jennifer; Gilbert, Clare
Uncorrected refractive errors are the commonest cause of visual loss in children despite spectacle correction being highly cost-effective. Many affected children do not benefit from correction as a high proportion do not wear their spectacles. Reasons for non-wear include parental attitudes, overprescribing and children being teased/bullied. Most school programmes do not provide health education for affected children, their peers, teachers or parents. The Portable Eye Examination Kit (Peek) will be used in this study. Peek has applications for measuring visual acuity with software for data entry and sending automated messages to inform providers and parents. Peek also has an application which simulates the visual blur of uncorrected refractive error (SightSim). The hypothesis is that higher proportion of children with uncorrected refractive errors in schools allocated to the Peek educational package will wear their spectacles 3-4 months after they are dispensed, and a higher proportion of children identified with other eye conditions will access services, compared with schools receiving standard school screening. Cluster randomized, double-masked trial of children with and without uncorrected refractive errors or other eye conditions. Government schools in Hyderabad, India will be allocated to intervention (Peek) or comparator (standard programme) arms before vision screening. In the intervention arm Peek will be used for vision screening, SightSim images will be used in classroom teaching and will be taken home by children, and voice messages will be sent to parents of children requiring spectacles or referral. In both arms the same criteria for recruitment, prescribing and dispensing spectacles will be used. After 3-4 months children dispensed spectacles will be followed up to assess spectacle wear, and uptake of referrals will be ascertained. The cost of developing and delivering the Peek package will be assessed. The cost per child wearing their spectacles or
Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...
Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; McDonald, Andrea; McKyer, Lisako
While health literacy research has experienced tremendous growth in the last two decades, the field still struggles to devise interventions that lead to lasting change. Most health literacy interventions are at the individual level and focus on resolving clinician-patient communication difficulties. As a result, the interventions use a deficit model that treats health literacy as a patient problem that needs to be fixed or circumvented. We propose that public health health literacy interventions integrate the principles of socioecology and critical pedagogy to develop interventions that build capacity and empower individuals and communities. Socioecology operates on the premise that health outcome is hinged on the interplay between individuals and their environment. Critical pedagogy assumes education is inherently political, and the ultimate goal of education is social change. Integrating these two approaches will provide a useful frame in which to develop interventions that move beyond the individual level.
Polcyn, Dawn M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Perfect, Michelle M.; Obrzut, John E.
This study examined whether consistently implementing reading fluency interventions prior to referring students for a special education evaluation led to fewer overall special education referrals, as well as more accurate special education referrals. Results indicated that the implementation of a peer-mediated reading fluency intervention…
Zhuang, Runsen; Xiang, Yueying; Han, Tieguang; Yang, Guo-An; Zhang, Yuan
The ubiquity of cell phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. To explore the use of cell phone-based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select representative study communities and participants ≥ 18 years old. Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, basic health education measures. Health literacy levels of the residents before and after the intervention were evaluated between intervention and control groups. Public health literacy scores increased 1.5 points, from 61.8 to 63.3, after SMS intervention for 1 year (P<0.01); the increase was greater for males than females (2.01 vs. 1.03; P<0.01) and for Shenzhen local residents than non-permanent residents (2.56 vs. 1.14; P<0.01). The frequency of high health literacy scores was greater for the intervention than control group (22.03% to 30.93% vs. 22.07% to 20.82%). With health literacy as a cost-effective index, the cost-effectiveness per intervention was 0.54. SMS may be a useful tool for improving health literacy.
Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…
Bofí Martínez, Patricia; García Jiménez, Emilio; Martínez Martínez, Fernando
To compare health education (HE) and drug therapy monitoring (DTM) interventions in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Randomised experimental studys: 100 patients per group. Playa-Miramar pharmacy (Valencia, Spain). March 2010-November 2011. Patients with one or more CVRF detected based on medication they were taking or questions they asked when drugs were dispensed. Patients were assigned to one of the two groups (HE or DTM) using a random number table. 100 patients by group were included. Six months of DTM (DTMG) or health education (HEG) per patient. The primary variables were modifiable CVRF: hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, obesity and low physical activity. Secondary variables were non modifiable CVRF (age, sex, cardiovascular disease), heart rate, body mass index, waist measurement, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, body fat, treatment compliance. The differences in the reduction percentages were statistically greater in DTMG than in HEG for the following variables: systolic pressure 5.40% (p=0.001); heart rate 2.95%(p=0.015); weight 2.00% (p=0.002); BMI 2.24% (p=0.003); fasting glucose 8.65% (p=0.004); total cholesterol 6.45% (p=0.002); waist measurement 1.85% (p=0.010); and waist-to-height ratio 1.66% (p=0.002). Triglycerides and body fat were reduced by 12.78% (p<0.001) and 1.84% (p<0.001) more, respectively, in DTMG. These differences were not statistically significant. The reduction percentages were generally higher for all variables in DTMG except diastolic blood pressure, which decreased by 4.7% (P<.001) more in HEG because the baseline values were higher. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Belar, Cynthia D.
The objective of the study was to discuss critical connections between psychological interventions and health can at various levels: the individual/family, the community/worksite, the health care system, and the general population itself. Psychologists have developed interventions that have positively impacted health in the areas of prevention and health promotion, recovery from illness, management of physical symptoms, stressful medical procedures, adherence and health care systems design. S...
Hoorman, James J.
Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…
Mendes,Karina Dal Sasso; Silva Junior,Orlando de Castro e; Ziviani,Luciana da Costa; Rossin,Fabiana Murad; Zago,Márcia Maria Fontão; Galvão,Cristina Maria
OBJECTIVE: The objective in this study was to analyze candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process before and after putting in practice an educational intervention. METHOD: A quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest research design was adopted. The final sample included 15 subjects. Research data were collected between January and March 2010 in three phases, which were: pretest, implementation of the educational intervention (two meetings) and posttest. RESULTS: The result...
Research has demonstrated that siblings of chronically ill children can experience significant emotional and behavior changes; however, few studies have looked at the specific impact of pediatric hospitalization on the nonhospitalized child. Studies also indicate that children who receive age-appropriate information are better equipped to handle the stress and anxiety often associated with hospitalization.This study explored whether siblings of hospitalized children who received educational interventions had lower anxiety levels compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. A pretest-posttest experimental design was used with 50 subjects, ages 6-17 years, recruited from a children's hospital within a university medical center. Subjects were matched according to age, sex, and race, with 25 siblings each in the experimental and control groups. Siblings assigned to the experimental group received interventions from a standardized educational intervention protocol developed by the researcher. Interventions focused on teaching the sibling about hospitalization, illness or injury, and treatment for the patient, based on cognitive stages of development. All interventions were conducted by child life specialists on staff at the hospital with extensive training and experience in preparation and procedural teaching. Results shows that siblings who received educational interventions had significantly lower anxiety levels after interventions, compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. These findings have significant impact on children's health care and supporting family needs when a child is hospitalized.
Dunlap, Shannon L.; Taboada, Arianna; Merino, Yesenia; Heitfeld, Suzanne; Gordon, Robert J.; Gere, David; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.
We examined the sexual health change process experienced by 26 college student sexual health educators from three geographic regions of the United States who participated in a multisite arts-based sexual health prevention program. We conducted eight focus groups and used a phenomenological approach to analyze data. We drew from social cognitive…
The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation (BRIE) Study will evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different approaches to breast health messages--a fear appeal, a positive affect appeal, and an affectively neutral, cognitive appeal...
Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS): Development and Implementation of a Multi-Ethnic Health Education Intervention to Increase Stroke Awareness Among Middle School Students and Their Parents
Conley, Kathleen M; Majersik, Jennifer; Gonzales, Nicole R; Maddox, Katherine E; Pary, Jennifer K; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A; Espinosa, Nina; Grotta, James C; Morgenstern, Lewis B
The KIDS (Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke) Program is a three-year prospective, randomized, controlled, multiethnic school-based intervention study. Program goals include increasing knowledge of stroke signs and treatment and intention to immediately call 911 among Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) middle school students and their parents. This article describes the design, implementation and interim evaluation of this theory-based intervention. Intervention students received a culturally appropriate stroke education program divided into four 50-minute classes each year during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Each class session also included a homework assignment that involved the students’ parents or other adult partners. Interim-test results indicate that this educational intervention was successful in improving students’ stroke symptom and treatment knowledge and intent to call 911 upon witnessing a stroke compared with controls (p<0.001). We conclude that this school-based educational intervention to reduce delay time to hospital arrival for stroke shows early promise. PMID:18332150
Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the application of quality principles in Greek Secondary Education and comprises of two interrelated parts. In the first part of this work definitions, a theoretical framework and multimodels of quality in education are introduced and discussed, in brief. Next, the initiatives applied for improving the quality of education are emphasized. Since 1996 and for more than a decade, a series of ESF interventions have been applied in Greece with measurable impact on improving the quality of Greek Secondary Education. The most important policy measures focused at Secondary Education together with their results are presented in the second part of the paper.
Newman, Constance; Ng, Crystal; Pacqu?-Margolis, Sara; Frymus, Diana
Background Gender discrimination and inequality in health professional education (HPE) affect students and faculty and hinder production of the robust health workforces needed to meet health and development goals, yet HPE reformers pay scant attention to these gender barriers. Gender equality must be a core value and professional practice competency for all actors in HPE and health employment systems. Methods Peer-review and non-peer-review literature previously identified in a review of the ...
Martinsson, Camilla; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Kwak, Lydia; Bergström, Gunnar; Hellman, Therese
To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: "law and provisions", "consequences for the workplace", "knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions", "characteristics of the intervention", "communication and collaboration with the provider". The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.
Strengthening health services to deliver nutrition education to promote complementary feeding and healthy growth of infants and young children: formative research for a successful intervention in peri-urban Trujillo, Peru.
Robert, Rebecca C; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Villasante, Ruben; Narro, M Rocio; Penny, Mary E
Formative research is critical for developing effective nutrition-specific interventions to improve infant and young child (IYC) feeding practices and promote healthy growth. Health workers interact with caregivers during health facility visits, yet there is limited research about how to optimize delivery of such interventions during these visits. The extensive reach of IYC health services globally calls for research to address this gap. In Trujillo, Peru, formative research was conducted to explore complementary feeding practices with caregivers as well as health worker routines and interactions with caregivers related to feeding and healthy growth; results informed the development and delivery of an educational intervention. Multiple qualitative methods were used to collect data on a purposive sample of health workers and caregivers from three health facilities and communities: household trials followed. Complementary feeding messages with doable behaviours were developed, and three were selected as key to promote based on their nutritional impact and cultural acceptability. In the health facilities, medical consultation, well-child visits and nutrition consultation all dealt with aspects of IYC nutrition/growth during their interactions with caregivers but were independent and inconsistent in approach. A nutrition education strategy was developed based on consistency, quality and coverage in the IYC health services. We conclude that formative research undertaken in the community and IYC health services was critical to developing a successful and culturally relevant intervention to promote optimal complementary feeding practices and healthy growth during interactions between health workers and caregivers at routine health facility visits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
O'Reilly, Michelle; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Adams, Sarah; Dogra, Nisha
The prevalence of mental disorders amongst children and adolescents is an increasing global problem. Schools have been positioned at the forefront of promoting positive mental health and well-being through implementing evidence-based interventions. The aim of this paper is to review current evidence-based research of mental health promotion interventions in schools and examine the reported effectiveness to identify those interventions that can support current policy and ensure that limited resources are appropriately used. The authors reviewed the current state of knowledge on school mental health promotion interventions globally. Two major databases, SCOPUS and ERIC were utilised to capture the social science, health, arts and humanities, and education literature. Initial searches identified 25 articles reporting on mental health promotion interventions in schools. When mapped against the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 studies were included and explored. Three of these were qualitative and seven were quantitative. A range of interventions have been tested for mental health promotion in schools in the last decade with variable degrees of success. Our review demonstrates that there is still a need for a stronger and broader evidence base in the field of mental health promotion, which should focus on both universal work and targeted approaches to fully address mental health in our young populations.
Full Text Available Education and health care policies in Ghana since independence have been universalist in approach providing free universal health care and free basic and tertiary education until the early 1980s. Precipitated primarily by a severe drought, stagnant economic growth, mismanagement, and political instability, Ghana undertook major economic reforms with prodding from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund in a bid to salvage the economy. These economic measures included cost recovery and cutback spending in education and health sectors. However, in recent years, purposive targeted interventions have been pursued to address inequalities in education and health care. These new programs include the Education Capitation Grant, school feeding program, and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, which are propelling Ghana toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The prospects of these programs in addressing disparities in access to education and health care in the country and recommendations for improved delivery are discussed.
Sieverding, John; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Siller, Jacqueline; Gallaread, Alonzo; Krone, Melissa; Chang, Y. Jason
The early detection and treatment of STDs is an effective strategy for slowing the sexual transmission of HIV. The goal of the YUTHE (Youth United Through Health Education) program, a collaborative effort between the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) and the University of California, San Francisco, is to increase sexually…
Huang, Z; Ning, P S; Cheng, P X; Hu, G Q
With the rapid development of mobile communication technology and the growing popularity of smartphones worldwide, mobile health has become an extension of e-Health and Tele-Health, and is of value in the research and practice of public health. In this paper, we systematically assessed research literature of mobile health' s application on disease prevention and control as well as health promotion. Based on the characteristics of current literature, this paper focused on the application of mobile health in maternal health promotion, chronic disease management, and communicable disease prevention and control to provide reference for the mobile health intervention research in China.
Yuan, Si-Yang; Freeman, Ruth
Objective: To examine if social support in the guise of a culturally sensitive, community-based oral health intervention could promote mother-infant bonding in socially-isolated immigrant mothers. Design: A quasi-experimental design. Participants: A convenience sample of 36 Chinese immigrant mothers with 8-week-old infants was divided into…
Problem Statement: As a result of wars, starvation, traffic accidents, homicide, infectious diseases, insufficient adult protection, migration, and inadequate legal reforms the mortality rate of children has become a serious problem in the world. Protective health education contributes to a child's physical and social health. In this case, the…
Methods: A quasi-experimental controlled study with pretest and post-test design was ... Health education intervention was carried out one week after baseline data collection and repeated after four weeks for the intervention group only.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Method Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Results Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: “law and provisions”, “consequences for the workplace”, “knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions”, “characteristics of the intervention”, “communication and collaboration with the provider”. The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. Conclusions This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.
Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario
van der Velde Gabrielle; Côté Pierre; Bayoumi Ahmed M; Cassidy J David; Boyle Eleanor; Shearer Heather M; Stupar Maja; Jacobs Craig; Ammendolia Carlo; Carette Simon; van Tulder Maurits
Abstract Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1) physician-based education and activation, 2) a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers), and 3) the legislated st...
Zhang, Jing; Luo, Rong; Chen, Shi; Petrovic, Djordje; Redfern, Julie; Xu, Dong Roman; Patel, Anushka
Background With rapidly expanding infrastructure in China, mobile technology has been deemed to have the potential to revolutionize health care delivery. There is particular promise for mobile health (mHealth) to positively influence health system reform and confront the new challenges of chronic diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review existing mHealth initiatives in China, characterize them, and examine the extent to which mHealth contributes toward the health system strengthening in China. Furthermore, we also aimed to identify gaps in mHealth development and evaluation. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature from English and Chinese electronic database and trial registries, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge of Infrastructure (CNKI), and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We used the English keywords of mHealth, eHealth, telemedicine, telehealth, mobile phone, cell phone, text messaging, and China, as well as their corresponding Chinese keywords. All articles using mobile technology for health care management were included in the study. Results A total of 1704 articles were found using the search terms, and eventually 72 were included. Overall, few high quality interventions were identified. Most interventions were found to be insufficient in scope, and their evaluation was of inadequate rigor to generate scalable solutions and provide reliable evidence of effectiveness. Most interventions focused on text messaging for consumer education and behavior change. There were a limited number of interventions that addressed health information management, health workforce issues, use of medicines and technologies, or leadership and governance from a health system perspective. Conclusions We provide four recommendations for future mHealth interventions in China that include the need for the development, evaluation and trials examining integrated mHealth
Akl, E A; Sackett, K; Pretorius, R; Erdley, S; Bhoopathi, P S; Mustafa, R; Schünemann, H J
The use of games as an educational strategy has the potential to improve health professionals' performance (e.g. adherence to standards of care) through improving their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The objective was to assess the effect of educational games on health professionals' performance, knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction, and on patient outcomes. We used a comprehensive search strategy including an electronic search of the following databases: DARE, EPOC register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ERIC, and Dissertation Abstracts Online (search date: January 2007). We also screened the reference list of included studies and relevant reviews, contact authors of relevant papers and reviews, and searched ISI Web of Science for papers citing studies included in the review We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after (CBA) and interrupted time-series analysis (ITS). Study participants were qualified health professionals or in postgraduate training. The intervention was an educational game with "a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules". Using a standardized data form we extracted data on methodological quality, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest that included patient outcomes, professional behaviour (process of care outcomes), and professional's knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction. The search strategy identified 1156 citations. Out of 55 potentially eligible citations, we included one RCT. The methodological quality was fair. The game, used as a reinforcement technique, was based on the television game show "Family Feud" and focused on infection control. The study did not assess any patient or process of care outcomes. The group that was randomized to the game had statistically higher scores on the knowledge test (P = 0.02). The findings of this systematic review do not confirm nor refute the utility of games as a teaching
Duffett-Leger, Linda; Lumsden, Jo
As an increasingly popular medium by which to access health promotion information, the Internet offers significant potential to promote (often individualized) health-related behavioral change across broad populations. Interactive online health promotion interventions are a key means, therefore, by which to empower individuals to make important well being and treatment decisions. But how ldquohealthyrdquo are interactive online health promotion interventions? This paper discusses a literature ...
Full Text Available Background: Puberty is a period of psychological, physical, mental, emotional and social growth that stability and development of personality occurs in this period. This study aimed to determine the effect of planned behavior theory on improving pubertal health behavior in female first grade high school students. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in female high school in Khamir city, Iran in 2015. One of the schools were randomly assigned to the control group and other to the experimental group. Using the formula sample, 60 students were selected from each school. Samples were evaluated in two stages through pre-test and two months later via post-test by administered questionnaire including questions about demographic characteristics and structures of planned behavior theory. The content of training was presented through lecture group discussion with teaching aids such as booklet and pamphlet. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: The intervention group mean age at first menstrual period was 12.30 ± 0.84 years old and for control group was 12.25 ± 0.79 years old. The results showed that two months after the intervention, health behaviors, subjective norms, behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude, were significantly higher than pre- intervention (P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The registration of clinical trials has been promoted to prevent publication bias and increase research transparency. Despite general agreement about the minimum amount of information needed for trial registration, we lack clear guidance on descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions in trial registries. We aimed to evaluate the quality of registry descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs of patient education. Methods On 6 May 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the 10 trial registries accessible through the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included trials evaluating an educational intervention (that is, designed to teach or train patients about their own health and dedicated to participants, their family members or home caregivers. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data related to the description of the experimental intervention, the centers, and the caregivers. Results We selected 268 of 642 potentially eligible studies and appraised a random sample of 150 records. All selected trials were registered in 4 registers, mainly ClinicalTrials.gov (61%. The median [interquartile range] target sample size was 205 [100 to 400] patients. The comparator was mainly usual care (47% or active treatment (47%. A minority of records (17%, 95% CI 11 to 23% reported an overall adequate description of the intervention (that is, description that reported the content, mode of delivery, number, frequency, duration of sessions and overall duration of the intervention. Further, for most reports (59%, important information about the content of the intervention was missing. The description of the mode of delivery of the intervention was reported for 52% of studies, the number of sessions for 74%, the frequency of sessions for 58%, the duration of each session for 45% and the overall duration for 63
Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne
Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.
Bzowyckyj, Andrew S; Dow, Alan; Knab, Mary S
Health professions education programs can have direct effects on patients and communities as well as on learners. However, few studies have examined the patient and community outcomes of educational interventions. To better integrate education and health care delivery, educators and researchers would benefit from a unifying framework to guide the planning of educational interventions and evaluation of their impact on patients.The authors of this Perspective mirrored approaches from Miller's pyramid of educational assessment and Moore and colleagues' framework for evaluating continuing professional development to propose a conceptual framework for evaluating the impact of educational interventions on patients and communities. This proposed framework, which complements these existing frameworks for evaluating the impact of educational interventions on learners, includes four levels: (1) interaction; (2) acceptability; (3) individual outcomes (i.e., knowledge, skills, activation, behaviors, and individual health indicators); and (4) population outcomes (i.e., community health indicators, capacity, and disparities). The authors describe measures and outcomes at each level and provide an example of the application of their new conceptual framework.The authors encourage educators and researchers to use this conceptual framework to evaluate the impact of educational interventions on patients and to more clearly identify and define which educational interventions strengthen communities and enhance overall health outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related pain is common and under-treated. This article describes a study designed to test the effectiveness of a theory-driven, patient-centered coaching intervention to improve cancer pain processes and outcomes. Methods/Design The Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP Study is an American Cancer Society sponsored randomized trial conducted in Sacramento, California. A total of 265 cancer patients with at least moderate pain severity (Worst Pain Numerical Analog Score >=4 out of 10 or pain-related impairment (Likert score >= 3 out of 5 were randomly assigned to receive tailored education and coaching (TEC or educationally-enhanced usual care (EUC; 258 received at least one follow-up assessment. The TEC intervention is based on social-cognitive theory and consists of 6 components (assess, correct, teach, prepare, rehearse, portray. Both interventions were delivered over approximately 30 minutes just prior to a scheduled oncology visit. The majority of visits (56% were audio-recorded for later communication coding. Follow-up data including outcomes related to pain severity and impairment, self-efficacy for pain control and for patient-physician communication, functional status and well-being, and anxiety were collected at 2, 6, and 12 weeks. Discussion Building on social cognitive theory and pilot work, this study aims to test the hypothesis that a brief, tailored patient activation intervention will promote better cancer pain care and outcomes. Analyses will focus on the effects of the experimental intervention on pain severity and impairment (primary outcomes; self-efficacy and quality of life (secondary outcomes; and relationships among processes and outcomes of cancer pain care. If this model of coaching by lay health educators proves successful, it could potentially be implemented widely at modest cost. Trial Registration [Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00283166
Akl, Elie A; Kairouz, Victor F; Sackett, Kay M; Erdley, William S; Mustafa, Reem A; Fiander, Michelle; Gabriel, Carolynne; Schünemann, Holger
The use of games as an educational strategy has the potential to improve health professionals' performance (e.g. adherence to standards of care) through improving their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The objective was to assess the effect of educational games on health professionals' performance, knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction, and on patient outcomes. We searched the following databases in January 2012: MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Database of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, EPOC Register, ERIC, Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database, and PsycINFO. Related reviews were sought in DARE and the above named databases. Database searches identified 1546 citations. We also screened the reference lists of included studies in relevant reviews, contacted authors of relevant papers and reviews, and searched ISI Web of Science for papers citing studies included in the review. These search methods identified an additional 62 unique citations for a total of 1608 for this update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), controlled before and after (CBA) and interrupted time-series analysis (ITS). Study participants were qualified health professionals or in postgraduate training. The intervention was an educational game with "a form of competitive activity or sport played according to rules". Using a standardized data form we extracted data on methodological quality, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest that included patient outcomes, professional behavior (process of care outcomes), and professional's knowledge, skills, attitude and satisfaction. The search strategy identified a total of 2079 unique citations. Out of 84 potentially eligible citations, we included two RCTs. The game evaluated in the first study used as a reinforcement technique, was based on the television game show "Family Feud" and focused on infection control. The study did not assess any patient or process of care outcomes. The
Zusevics, Kaija L.; Johnson, Sheri
Hope is positively correlated with educational attainment and health. Interventions based on project-based learning (PBL) may increase youth hope. This study examined how a PBL intervention affected hope among urban students of color. Students in health classes were invited to participate. A PBL health class was implemented in four classrooms. The…
Rao, A R
Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.
Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario
Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1) physician-based education and activation, 2) a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers), and 3) the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs) will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February 27, 2008] PMID
Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario
van der Velde Gabrielle
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD. A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1 physician-based education and activation, 2 a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers, and 3 the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February
Dania María Horta Muñoz
belonging to Medical Offices No-272, 264 and 265 attending to "Guama" Dentist Clinic, their level of knowledge about oral health was insufficient; thus a survey of 10 questions was applied before and after the development of the program. This program was implemented weekly by means of participative techniques. Corroborating that the level of knowledge about oral health of diabetic patients included in the research before the application of the educative program was insufficient, and after putting the program into practice the level of knowledge increased significantly, verifying that it was very successful with the patients. The results obtained were recorded in a database of the statistical system, score estimations of relative frequencies to perform the descriptive and the chi square test in its variable of contingency table to the inferential statistical analysis.
Goldman, Dana; Smith, James P
This paper assesses how the relationship between health and educational attainment has changed over the last three decades. We examine trends in disease prevalence and self-reported health using the US National Health Interview Survey for five chronic conditions-arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and lung diseases. The sample is limited to non-Hispanic Whites ages 40-64 to focus on the value of education and not changing representation of minority populations. We find that health benefits associated with additional schooling rose over time by more than ten percentage points as measured by self-reported health status. This can be attributed to both a growing disparity by education in the probability of having major chronic diseases during middle age, and better health outcomes for those with each disease. The value of education in achieving better health has increased over the last 25 years; both in protecting against onset of disease and promoting better health outcomes amongst those with a disease. Besides better access to health insurance, the more educated increasingly adapted better health behaviors, particularly not smoking and engaging in vigorous exercise, and reaped the benefits of improving medical technology. Rising health disparities by education are an important social concern which may require targeted interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusions: Awareness of CVD and its risk factors was far from optimal among the adolescent school-aged children in this study. A school-based educational program may help improve awareness of CVD and reduce the future disease burden in the community. The results of this study may be useful in formulating a nationwide school health program to deal with the emerging epidemic of CVD in countries such as India.
MacMillan, Freya; Karamacoska, Diana; El Masri, Aymen; McBride, Kate A; Steiner, Genevieve Z; Cook, Amelia; Kolt, Gregory S; Klupp, Nerida; George, Emma S
To systematically review studies of health promotion intervention in the police force. Four databases were searched for articles reporting on prepost single and multigroup studies in police officers and trainees. Data were extracted and bias assessed to evaluate study characteristics, intervention design and the impact of interventions on health. Database searching identified 25 articles reporting on 21 studies relevant to the aims of this review. Few studies (n=3) were of long duration (≥6 months). Nine of 21 studies evaluated structured physical activity and/or diet programmes only, 5 studies used education and behaviour change support-only interventions, 5 combined structured programmes with education and behaviour change support, and 2 studies used computer prompts to minimise sedentary behaviour. A wide array of lifestyle behaviour and health outcomes was measured, with 11/13 multigroup and 8/8 single-group studies reporting beneficial impacts on outcomes. High risk of bias was evident across most studies. In those with the lowest risk of bias (n=2), a large effect on blood pressure and small effects on diet, sleep quality, stress and tobacco use, were reported. Health promotion interventions can impact beneficially on health of the police force, particularly blood pressure, diet, sleep, stress and tobacco use. Limited reporting made comparison of findings challenging. Combined structured programmes with education and behaviour change support and programmes including peer support resulted in the most impact on health-related outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Vetter, R.J.; O'Riordan, M.C.
'Full-Text:' There is more to education in radiation protection than curricula, courses and certificates. In a broader sense, education implies the provision of knowledge, the development of competence, and the promotion of understanding. These purposes are served by 'Health Physics', the journal of radiation protection. The leading role of the journal is supported by an Advisory Board composed of members of the IRPA Publications Commission. A review is presented of the diversity of material in Health Physics throughout the last few years and set against the historical background. Expansion in the range of topics is described as well as the increase in didactic content both theoretical and operational. The global range of contributions is noted as is the attempt to provide an international perspective on developments in the discipline. Plans for the future are discussed. (author)
Effect of an integrated intervention package of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation and health education on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections in Côte d'Ivoire.
Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Zouzou, Fabien; Ouattara, Mamadou; Schmidlin, Thomas; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse A; Dongo, Kouassi; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Koné, Siaka; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Raso, Giovanna
Preventive chemotherapy with donated anthelminthic drugs is the cornerstone for the control of helminthiases. However, reinfection can occur rapidly in the absence of clean water and sanitation coupled with unhygienic behaviour. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an integrated package of interventions, consisting of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation (CLTS) and health education, on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections and on participants' knowledge, attitude, practice and beliefs (KAPB) towards these diseases including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). A cross-sectional survey was carried out in nine communities of south-central Côte d'Ivoire to assess people's infection with helminths and intestinal protozoa and KAPB. Subsequently, interventions were targeted to five communities, while the remaining communities served as control. The intervention encouraged latrine construction and an evaluation was done 6-7 months later to determine open defecation status of the respective communities. Anthelminthic treatment was provided to all community members. A follow-up cross-sectional survey was conducted approximately one year later, using the same procedures. Overall, 810 people had complete baseline and follow-up data and were given anthelminthic treatment. The baseline prevalence of hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni and Ascaris lumbricoides was 31.1%, 7.0%, 2.0%, 1.0% and 0.3%, respectively. Four of the five intervention communities were classified open-defecation free. For hookworm infection, we observed higher negative changes in terms of proportion of decrease (-0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): - 0.16, -0.04) and higher egg reduction rate (64.9 vs 15.2%) when comparing intervention with control communities. For intestinal protozoa, prevalence reduction was higher in intervention compared to control communities (8.2 vs 2.6%) and WASH indicators and
Town, Katy; McNulty, Cliodna A M; Ricketts, Ellie J; Hartney, Thomas; Nardone, Anthony; Folkard, Kate A; Charlett, Andre; Dunbar, J Kevin
Providing sexual health services in primary care is an essential step towards universal provision. However they are not offered consistently. We conducted a national pilot of an educational intervention to improve staff's skills and confidence to increase chlamydia testing rates and provide condoms with contraceptive information plus HIV testing according to national guidelines, known as 3Cs&HIV. The effectiveness of the pilot on chlamydia testing and diagnosis rates in general practice was evaluated. The pilot was implemented using a step-wedge design over three phases during 2013 and 2014 in England. The intervention combined educational workshops with posters, testing performance feedback and continuous support. Chlamydia testing and diagnosis rates in participating general practices during the control and intervention periods were compared adjusting for seasonal trends in chlamydia testing and differences in practice size. Intervention effect modification was assessed for the following general practice characteristics: chlamydia testing rate compared to national median, number of general practice staff employed, payment for chlamydia screening, practice urban/rurality classification, and proximity to sexual health clinics. The 460 participating practices conducted 26,021 tests in the control period and 18,797 tests during the intervention period. Intention-to-treat analysis showed no change in the unadjusted median tests and diagnoses per month per practice after receiving training: 2.7 vs 2.7; 0.1 vs 0.1. Multivariable negative binomial regression analysis found no significant change in overall testing or diagnoses post-intervention (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.07, P = 0.72; 0.98 CI 0.84-1.15, P = 0.84, respectively). Stratified analysis showed testing increased significantly in practices where payments were in place prior to the intervention (IRR 2.12 CI 1.41-3.18, P service improvement intervention to
Flores, Elaine C; Fuhr, Daniela C; Bayer, Angela M; Lescano, Andres G; Thorogood, Nicki; Simms, Victoria
Mental disorders are a major contributor to the global burden of disease and disability, and can be extremely costly at both individual and community level. Social capital, (SC) defined as an individual's social relationships and participation in community networks, may lower the risk of mental disorders while increasing resilience capacity, adaptation and recovery. SC interventions may be a cost-effective way of preventing and ameliorating these conditions. However, the impact of these SC interventions on mental health still needs research. We conducted a systematic review of SC-based interventions to investigate their effect on mental health outcomes from controlled, quasi-experimental studies or pilot trials. We searched twelve academic databases, three clinical trials registries, hand-searched references and contacted field experts. Studies' quality was assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tools for randomized and non-randomized studies. Seven studies were included in the review, published between 2006 and 2016. There was substantial heterogeneity in the definitions of both SC and mental disorders among the studies, preventing us from calculating pooled effect sizes. The interventions included community engagement and educative programs, cognitive processing therapy and sociotherapy for trauma survivors, and neighbourhood projects. There are paucity of SC interventions investigating the effect on mental health outcomes. This study showed that both SC scores and mental health outcomes improved over time but there was little evidence of benefit compared to control groups in the long term. Further high-quality trials are needed, especially among adverse populations to assess sustainability of effect.
A cluster randomised controlled trial of the Wellbeing in Secondary Education (WISE) Project - an intervention to improve the mental health support and training available to secondary school teachers: protocol for an integrated process evaluation.
Evans, Rhiannon; Brockman, Rowan; Grey, Jillian; Bell, Sarah; Harding, Sarah; Gunnell, David; Campbell, Rona; Murphy, Simon; Ford, Tamsin; Hollingworth, William; Tilling, Kate; Morris, Richard; Kadir, Bryar; Araya, Ricardo; Kidger, Judi
Secondary school teachers have low levels of wellbeing and high levels of depression compared with the general population. Teachers are in a key position to support students, but poor mental health may be a barrier to doing so effectively. The Wellbeing in Secondary Education (WISE) project is a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention to improve the mental health support and training available to secondary school teachers through delivery of the training package Mental Health First Aid and a staff peer support service. We will conduct a process evaluation as part of the WISE trial to support the interpretation of trial outcomes and refine intervention theory. The domains assessed will be: the extent to which the hypothesised mechanisms of change are activated; system level influences on these mechanisms; programme differentiation and usual practice; intervention implementation, including any adaptations; intervention acceptability; and intervention sustainability. Research questions will be addressed via quantitative and qualitative methods. All study schools (n = 25) will provide process evaluation data, with more detailed focus group, interview and observation data being collected from a subsample of case study schools (4 intervention and 4 control). Mechanisms of change, as outlined in a logic model, will be measured via teacher and student surveys and focus groups. School context will be explored via audits of school practice that relate to mental health and wellbeing, combined with stakeholder interviews and focus groups. Implementation of the training and peer support service will be assessed via training observations, training participant evaluation forms, focus groups with participants, interviews with trainers and peer support service users, and peer supporter logs recording help provided. Acceptability and sustainability will be examined via interviews with funders, head teachers, trainers and peer support services users, and
Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia
African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.
Sperber, Nina R.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Lindquist, Jennifer H.; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Weinberger, Morris; Allen, Kelli D.
We explored whether the effects of a telephone-based osteoarthritis (OA) self-management support intervention differed by race and health literacy. Participants included 515 veterans with hip and/or knee OA. Linear mixed models assessed differential effects of the intervention compared with health education (HE) and usual care (UC) on pain…
Background: Secondary school students are a high risk group for HIV transmission. They could also be easily reached with health education interventions. There is as yet no global consensus on the nature, content and effectiveness of this intervention among this group. It is also not known how effective this intervention is in ...
Parmier, Matthieu; Gourieux, Bénédicte; Krummel, Thierry; Bazin-Kara, Dorothée; Dory, Anne; Hannedouche, Thierry
The treatment of end-stage renal disease requires a significant number of drug treatments. At patient level, daily management is somewhat difficult: Number of prescribed pills, medication side effects, treatment of asymptomatic diseases… The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of guidance tailored to each patient receiving hemodialysis, performed by the pharmacist (educational interventions). Adult haemodialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia despite phosphate binders were eligible for study entry. The study was controlled with a retrospective group. The primary end point was a change in serum phosphate levels. The secondary end points were therapy adherence, knowledge regarding phosphate management and patient satisfaction with the programme. Sixteen patients in each group participated in the study. The mean serum phosphate level at endpoint was decreased by 0.25 mmol/L in the intervention group (0.41 mmol/L for patients with expectancy for this reduction) and by 0.11 mmol/L in the control group. Five patients normalized their serum phosphate level in the intervention group against three patients in the control group. The mean score of adherence decreased from 1.75 to 1.50. The main factors affecting adherence were forgetfulness or carelessness in taking medications and number of daily doses. This study showed the feasibility of an improvement in serum phosphate level and adherence driven by therapeutic education, though effect was highly amplified by the motivation induced by pharmaceutical guidance. Patients emphasize the importance of the involvement of pharmacist in their care. Copyright Â© 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Harris, Muriel J; Newton, Samuel
OBJECTIVES: Hygiene education appears to be the commonest school-based intervention for preventing infectious diseases, especially in the developing world. Nevertheless, there remains a gap in literature regarding a school-specific theory-based framework for designing a hand hygiene educational...... (normative beliefs and motivation to comply). CONCLUSIONS: A framework underpinned by formalized psychosocial theories has relevance and could enhance the design of hand hygiene educational interventions, especially in schools....... of school-based hand hygiene educational interventions is summarized narratively. RESULTS: School-based hand hygiene educational interventions seeking to positively influence behavioural outcomes could consider enhancing psychosocial variables including behavioural capacity, attitudes and subjective norms...
Tian, Maoyi; Zhang, Jing; Luo, Rong; Chen, Shi; Petrovic, Djordje; Redfern, Julie; Xu, Dong Roman; Patel, Anushka
With rapidly expanding infrastructure in China, mobile technology has been deemed to have the potential to revolutionize health care delivery. There is particular promise for mobile health (mHealth) to positively influence health system reform and confront the new challenges of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to systematically review existing mHealth initiatives in China, characterize them, and examine the extent to which mHealth contributes toward the health system strengthening in China. Furthermore, we also aimed to identify gaps in mHealth development and evaluation. We systematically reviewed the literature from English and Chinese electronic database and trial registries, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge of Infrastructure (CNKI), and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We used the English keywords of mHealth, eHealth, telemedicine, telehealth, mobile phone, cell phone, text messaging, and China, as well as their corresponding Chinese keywords. All articles using mobile technology for health care management were included in the study. A total of 1704 articles were found using the search terms, and eventually 72 were included. Overall, few high quality interventions were identified. Most interventions were found to be insufficient in scope, and their evaluation was of inadequate rigor to generate scalable solutions and provide reliable evidence of effectiveness. Most interventions focused on text messaging for consumer education and behavior change. There were a limited number of interventions that addressed health information management, health workforce issues, use of medicines and technologies, or leadership and governance from a health system perspective. We provide four recommendations for future mHealth interventions in China that include the need for the development, evaluation and trials examining integrated mHealth interventions to guide the development of future mHealth
Phan, Hang Thi; Tran, Hang Thi Thuy; Tran, Hanh Thi My; Dinh, Anh Pham Phuong; Ngo, Ha Thanh; Theorell-Haglow, Jenny; Gordon, Christopher J
Hand hygiene compliance is the basis of infection control programs. In developing countries models to improve hand hygiene compliance to reduce healthcare acquired infections are required. The aim of this study was to determine hand hygiene compliance following an educational program in an obstetric and gynecological hospital in Vietnam. Health care workers from neonatal intensive care, delivery suite and a surgical ward from Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam undertook a 4-h educational program targeting hand hygiene. Compliance was monitored monthly for six months following the intervention. Hand hygiene knowledge was assessed at baseline and after six months of the study. There were 7124 opportunities over 370 hand hygiene recording sessions with 1531 opportunities at baseline and 1620 at 6 months following the intervention. Hand hygiene compliance increased significantly from baseline across all sites (43.6% [95% Confidence interval CI: 41.1-46.1] to 63% [95% CI: 60.6-65.3]; p hygiene compliance increased significantly after intervention (p hygiene compliance for an extended period of time. Hand hygiene knowledge increased during the intervention. This hand hygiene model could be used in developing countries were resources are limited.
Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising and analysing health educational potentials of technologies are presented.
Furu, Peter; Tellier, Siri; Vestergaard, Lasse S
Climate change and variability are considered some of the biggest threats to human health in the 21st century. Extreme weather events such as floods and storms are examples of natural hazards resulting in highest number of disasters and with considerable mortality and morbidity among vulnerable communities. A coordinated, well-planned management of health interventions must be taken for timely action in the response, recovery, prevention and preparedness phases of disasters. Roles and responsibilities of international as well as national organizations and authorities are discussed.
Emergency psychology and psychotraumatology deal with the psychological sequelae of traumatic experiences, i.e., the prevention and early intervention of posttraumatic mental health disorders. Accidents are the most prevalent traumatic events in the general population that may result in a range of severe trauma and adjustment disorders. Accidents happen suddenly, unexpectedly, and can gravely threaten health, personal integrity, and life. The prevalence of intermittent and chronic psychiatric disorders in the aftermath of severe accidents varies between 5 and 30 %. Victims suffer from unknown and frightening posttraumatic symptoms, often irreversible handicaps as a consequence of their injuries, impairments in everyday functioning, and negative impact on the quality of life. The direct and indirect burden for society is high. Comprehensive secondary prevention, starting with early detection and early intervention of post-accident disorders, is not well established in clinical care. In case of severe accidental injuries, emergency and medical treatment has absolute priority. But all too often, severe mental health problems remain undetected in later treatment phases and therefore cannot be addressed adequately. In primary care, knowledge of specific psychodiagnostic and treatment options is still insufficient. Prejudices, denial, and fear of stigmatization in traumatized victims as well as practical constraints (availability, waiting time) in the referral to special evidence-based interventions limit the access to adequate and effective support. This overview presents the objectives, concepts, and therapeutic tools of a stepped-care model for psychological symptoms after accidental trauma, with reference to clinical guidelines.
Porru, S; Arici, C
The occupational physician (OP) has nowadays to face health and safety of migrant workers on new ethical, scientific, epidemiologic and legislative basis. Objective of our contribution is to describe area of interventions and perspectives in good medical practices for OP when dealing with migrant workers. Risk assessment should focus on differences of immigrants versus natives as regards exposures and effects, quality of and access to health services, organizational issues. Health surveillance should take into account cultural, educational, religious, life style differences, as well as susceptibility; time must be dedicated by the OP to search and evaluate such differences. Counselling, health promotion and case management are part of good medical practice. The professional role of the OP is depicted, trying to identify weaknesses and strengths, as well as priorities for intervention especially in applied research. In conclusion, migrant workers may suffer from occupational health inequalities. By means of good medical practices in risk assessment, health surveillance, fitness for work and health promotion, OP can proactively improve migrant workers' health and guarantee same levels of protection and prevention in workplaces as for the natives.
Valerie Onyinyechi Umaefulam
Full Text Available Humans are social beings and communication is vital and necessary for every cultural group which may be the primary motivator, why many populations worldwide have taken up mobile phones (1. Communication via mobile has significant cultural and identity implications for Indigenous people worldwide particularly those living in rural and hard to reach communities because due to globalization, a number of people now live away from their local communities for trade, employment, education, etc. Thus, mobile phones are devices for social networking and communication; and enables cultural connection and identification with family and friends. Its affordability, versatility of features, and portability create an opportunity for utilizing mobile technology to positively impact the health via health education, promotion, and provision of remote health services among others.
Avlund, K; Vass, M; Kvist, K
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether immediate effects of a 3-year educational intervention in primary health care were confirmed 18 months after the end of the intervention. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A controlled 3-year intervention study in 34 Danish municipalities with randomization and intervent......: The effect of a brief, feasible educational intervention for primary care professionals is sustained in women 1(1/2) years after the end of the intervention.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether immediate effects of a 3-year educational intervention in primary health care were confirmed 18 months after the end of the intervention. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A controlled 3-year intervention study in 34 Danish municipalities with randomization...... and intervention at municipality level. The 17 intervention municipality visitors received regular education, and GPs were introduced to a short assessment program. The effect was measured at the individual level by questions about functional ability at the end of the intervention period and 1(1/2) years later; 4...
Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd
It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…
Ni Caifang; Ouyang Yong
Interventional radiology now is facing many challenges. The education quality has declined, and the high-level professional talents have been lost. This paper aims to analyze the present situation of the postgraduate education and the relevant issues in the field of interventional radiology, and to make a preliminary exploration into how we can train the postgraduates to become qualified interventional radiologists with high comprehensive quality in order to meet the urgent requirements demanded by the development of interventional radiology. (authors)
Juan Félix Albert Díaz
Full Text Available El insuficiente nivel de conocimientos sobre salud e higiene bucal deficiente continúan siendo un problema en gran parte de la población. El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar el nivel de conocimientos sobre salud e higiene bucal en los niños de la escuela primaria "Gerardo Medina" del municipio Pinar del Río, antes y después de realizada la intervención educativa, evaluando así su eficacia. Se realizó un estudio en el período comprendido desde enero a noviembre de 2007. La muestra estuvo constituida por 142 niños, 70 del sexo masculino y 72 del femenino, en edades comprendidas entre los 9 y 11 años. Se les aplicó una encuesta con el fin de determinar sus conocimientos sobre salud bucal y se determinó el IHB-S para evaluar su higiene bucal antes y después de realizada la intervención. Los estudiantes de estomatología actuaron como promotores de salud bucal. Los datos fueron procesados mediante las pruebas, t de Student, Ji cuadrado y de comparación de 2 proporciones, con niveles de confianza del 95 % y 99 %. Los resultados mostraron que antes de la intervención existían bajos niveles de conocimientos sobre salud bucal, así como deficiente higiene bucal en la mayoría de los niños, mostrando ambas variables una estrecha relación; después de la intervención se alcanzó una mejoraría significativa en los conocimientos y la higiene bucal. Se concluye con una eficacia del programa educativo participativo aplicado y de los métodos y medios de enseñanza utilizados, dado por los cambios favorables alcanzados después de realizada la intervención.The poor level of knowledge about dental health and hygiene is still a health problem in part of the population. The aimed of this research paper was to identify the level of knowledge, children in "Gerardo Medina" Primary School, Pinar del Rio had before and after the establishment of the educative intervention and assessing its effectiveness. The study was conducted
Bonell, C; Wells, H; Harden, A; Jamal, F; Fletcher, A; Thomas, J; Campbell, R; Petticrew, M; Whitehead, M; Murphy, S; Moore, L
Owing to the limited effectiveness of traditional health education curricula in schools, there is increasing interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by modifying the school environment. Existing systematic reviews cannot determine whether environmental intervention is effective because they examine interventions combining environmental modifications and traditional health education. This gap is significant because school-environment interventions are complex to implement and may be sidelined in underfunded and attainment-focused school systems without evidence to support such an approach. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of school-environment interventions without health-education components on student health and inequalities. This was a systematic review of experimental/quasi-experimental studies of school-environment interventions. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and narratively synthesised. Sixteen reports of 10 studies were included, all from the USA and the UK. Five evaluations of interventions aiming to develop a stronger sense of community and/or improve relationships between staff and students suggested potential benefits particularly regarding violence and aggression. Two trials of interventions enabling students to advocate for changes in school catering and physical activity reported benefits for physical activity but not diet. Three evaluations of improvements to school playgrounds offered weak evidence of effects on physical activity. School environment interventions show the potential to improve young people's health particularly regarding violence, aggression and physical activity. Further trials are required to provide a stronger and more generalisable evidence base.
Summary:This was an intervention study to assess the effects of health education on ... emergency contraception (EC) by female students of University of Nigeria in .... Use of mass media .... Kingdom where the proportion of teenagers knowing.
Sandra Quiroz A.
Full Text Available In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively and quietly. In search of the definitions given by the FITS (International Federation of Social Workers said that through educational institutions can identify problems at individual, household and community level, considering this educational unit as a source of wealth for intervention and create opportunities for promotion and prevention social problems. The school environment is an area that can work in collaboration with the directors and management team to articulate the lines of action that are necessary to deal with any problems. That may arise in this area should guide the social worker, prevent and rehabilitate as specificity of their profession and recognize these bio-psycho-social changes that develop students and students who make up this educational unit, as during this educational process to develop their personality, learning social skills related to work in our society and interact with their environment. (Levels micro-meso-macro. It is for this and needs that arise in our youth and students is that we understand and incorporate processes involving atingentes for learning development issues and includes areas related to sex education, sexuality and identity to support families in this discovery.In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively andquietly. In search of the
Lu Chuan; Liu Linxiang; Cheng Yongde
For recent years, although interventional radiology in China has achieved rapid development, it is still facing some rigorous challenges, such as the lack of personnel in interventional field and the flowing-away of certain patients who are definitely suitable for interventional therapy. This paper aims to discuss the reform of interventional radiology education for the undergraduates, postgraduates and clinical practitioners in the medical colleges in order to seek effective solutions to these issues the interventional radiology has confronted with. (authors)
O'Connor, Amanda; Blewitt, Claire; Nolan, Andrea; Skouteris, Helen
Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process. Early childhood pedagogical programs are also shaped by these principles; however, educators tend to draw on implicit knowledge when working with families. IM offers this sector the opportunity to formally incorporate theoretical, evidence-based research into the development of early childhood education and care social and emotional interventions. Emerging literature indicates IM is useful for designing health and wellbeing interventions for children within early childhood education and care settings. Considering the similar underlying principles of IM, existing applications within early childhood education and care and development of interventions beyond health behaviour change, it is recommended IM be utilised to design early childhood education and care interventions focusing on supporting children's social and emotional development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen
Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…
Physicians have a responsibility to educate people about their health as well as to treat them. In fact, achievement of "Health for All" requires that people become educated about immunization, nutrition, family planning, and environmental sanitation. The goal of health education is to change behavior by changing attitudes. Health education encourages self-reliance and motivates people to make their own health-related decisions. In order to reach patients, physicians must bridge the social gap created by the gulf between technical priorities and what is really possible for people to achieve. The process of health education moves from the sender to the message to the channel to the receivers to the effects. Appropriate methods can be used for individual or group communication and methods can focus on information provision and/or behavior change. Participatory methods are effective in changing behavior and include group analysis of a situation, group dialogue, persuasion, and educational games. An effective strategy for individual instruction is woman-to-woman or child-to-child communication, which depends upon the identification of "key" women and children. Development of a community-based health education strategy relies on community participation and the involvement of influential members of the community. After a message has been transmitted, innovators will begin the new practice, early adopters will follow, and slow adopters will wait and watch. The innovators and early adopters can help reduce resistance to the innovation. While it is a slow process, health education can improve attitudes and behavior.
ICIT Report, 1976
This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radio education program. Kenya's Swahili language radio serial, "Giving Birth and Caring for your…
Grace, Aimee M; Lippert, Suzanne; Collins, Kristin; Pineda, Noelle; Tolani, Alisha; Walker, Rebecca; Jeong, Monica; Trounce, Milana Boukhman; Graham-Lamberts, Caroline; Bersamin, Melina; Martinez, Jeremy; Dotzler, Jennifer; Vanek, John; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Horwitz, Sarah M
The US Department of State estimates that there are between 4 and 27 million individuals worldwide in some form of modern slavery. Recent studies have demonstrated that 28% to 50% of trafficking victims in the United States encountered health care professionals while in captivity, but were not identified and recognized. This study aimed to determine whether an educational presentation increased emergency department (ED) providers' recognition of human trafficking (HT) victims and knowledge of resources to manage cases of HT. The 20 largest San Francisco Bay Area EDs were randomized into intervention (10 EDs) or delayed intervention comparison groups (10 EDs) to receive a standardized educational presentation containing the following: background about HT, relevance of HT to health care, clinical signs in potential victims, and referral options for potential victims. Participants in the delayed intervention group completed a pretest in the period the immediate intervention group received the educational presentation, and all participants were assessed immediately before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention. The intervention effect was tested by comparing the pre-post change in the intervention group to the change in 2 pretests in the delayed intervention group adjusted for the effect of clustering within EDs. The 4 primary outcomes were importance of knowledge of HT to the participant's profession (5-point Likert scale), self-rated knowledge of HT (5-point Likert scale), knowledge of who to call for potential HT victims (yes/no), and suspecting that a patient was a victim of HT (yes/no). There were 258 study participants from 14 EDs; 141 from 8 EDs in the intervention group and 117 from 7 EDs in the delayed intervention comparison group, of which 20 served as the delayed intervention comparison group. Participants in the intervention group reported greater increases in their level of knowledge about HT versus those in the delayed intervention comparison
Soto Mas, Francisco; Schmitt, Cheryl L; Jacobson, Holly E; Myers, Orrin B
Spanish speakers in the United States are in need of effective interventions that address both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and health literacy. However, the literature lacks interventions that have used and evaluated a strategies that focus on both, particularly at the community level. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a health literacy curriculum on cardiovascular health behavior among Spanish speaking adults. It used a randomized controlled pre-posttest design. Participants included Hispanic adults with a low-to-intermediate level of English proficiency. The intervention group received the health literacy and English as a second language (ESL) Curriculum with CVD specific content, while the control group received a conventional ESL curriculum. Tools included the Spanish Cardiovascular Health Questionnaire (CSC), the test of functional health literacy in adults (TOFHLA), and the Combined English Language Skills Assessment. Analysis of change scores included independent sample t test and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 participants completed the study. There was a significant greater improvement for the intervention group in change of CSC score from pretest to posttest (P = 0.049) compared to controls. The study also found significantly improved TOFHLA (P = 0.011), however it did not find a relationship between changes in CVD behavior and health literacy or English proficiency. The Health Literacy and ESL Curriculum constitutes a valuable resource for addressing the cardiovascular health, literacy, and language needs of Spanish-speaking adults. Interventions that take a multilevel education and health approach may be more effective in addressing the needs of immigrants. Research should further explore the interactions between CVD behavior, health literacy, and English proficiency.
Hennemann, Severin; Beutel, Manfred E; Zwerenz, Rüdiger
eHealth interventions can be effective in treating health problems. However, adoption in inpatient routine care seems limited. The present study therefore aimed to investigate barriers and facilitators to acceptance of eHealth interventions and of online aftercare in particular in health professionals of inpatient treatment. A total of 152 out of 287 health professionals of various professional groups in four inpatient rehabilitation facilities filled out a self-administered web-based questionnaire (response rate: 53%); 128 individuals were eligible for further data analysis. Acceptance and possible predictors were investigated with a complex research model based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Acceptance of eHealth interventions was rather low (M = 2.47, SD = 0.98); however, acceptance of online aftercare was moderate (M = 3.08, SD = 0.96, t(127) = 8.22, p eHealth literacy was elevated. Social influence, performance expectancy, and treatment-related internet and mobile use significantly predicted overall acceptance. No differences were found between professional and age groups. Although acceptance of eHealth interventions was limited in health professionals of inpatient treatment, moderate acceptance of online aftercare for work-related stress implies a basis for future implementation. Tailored eHealth education addressing misconceptions about inferiority and incongruity with conventional treatment considering the systemic aspect of acceptance formation are needed.
de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen
To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and environmental determinants of healthy diet; and the psychological interventions that have been designed to promote healthy diet. A systematic review of the psychological literature on healthy diet. Our findings suggest that consumers have a relatively poor understanding of a healthy diet. The literature also demonstrates that there is poor evidence on the health protective effects of single foods or nutrients. We further show that low SES is the single consistent risk factor for not adhering to a healthy diet. Our review of the literature on determinants demonstrates that intentions, habits, self-regulatory skills, and the social and physical environment are the most important determinants of a healthy diet, which are in turn amenable to change by intervention strategies with varying levels of effectiveness. Educational interventions generally show a limited effect on practising a healthy diet whereas interventions targeting habitual behaviour and/or the physical environment seem more promising. In view of the large number of people who are concerned about their diets and make attempts to change their dietary patterns, we conclude that it is crucial to gain a better understanding of both the automatic and environmental influences that are responsible for people not acting upon their good intentions for diet change.
Teachers in the school subject Health and Physical Education (HPE) need to be able both to teach health and to do so in a healthy (equitable) way. The health field has, however, met with difficulties in finding its form within the subject. Research indicates that HPE can be excluding, meaning that it may give more favours to some pupils (bodies)…
Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...
Ebina, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Fumiko; Taniguchi, Izumi; Togari, Taisuke; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Sparks, Michael
Japan's 2008 health policy focuses more than ever on health education for behaviour change and outcome measures for physical health status. This is at odds with contemporary health promotion and health education, which frame health as a resource for everyday life and indicate that the evaluation of interventions should measure broader aspects of health rather than just physical aspects. The application of a combination of different health communication models and theories allows for a customized approach, depending on the types of change that are being sought, and can lead to increased relevance as well as a better fit when it comes to evaluating the achievement of broad health promotion goals. This article explores the application of the Outcome Model for Health Promotion to a two-year health education intervention in Kushima, Japan. This model measures program effectiveness from four aspects: physical health outcomes; intermediate health outcomes; health promotion outcomes; and health promotion actions. A quantitative and qualitative longitudinal, mixed model study design and methods were used for the analysis. Data was taken from health exams, structured interviews, and participant observations collected from 67 participants at four times over two years. This intervention relied primarily on health education and communication to achieve mental and social health outcomes more significantly and faster than physical health outcomes. The importance of moving outcome measurement beyond direct health achievements is discussed in light of the relationships between physical, mental, and social health and its determinants, and our results.
The thesis "Physical measurements and health education" looks at physical quantities that are related to human health and can be measured in a elementary school environment. It focuses especially on the cross-curricular relationship between physics and health education and also on the use of relevant online measurement systems. As part of this thesis, we suggest a number of activities that exploit this relationship.
Ramaswamy, Megha; Simmons, Rebekah; Kelly, Patricia J
The primary objective of this article was to describe the development and pilot implementation of a brief jail-based cervical health promotion intervention. The intervention was guided by a preliminary study of incarcerated women's cervical health knowledge, awareness, and health literacy, as well as a social and feminist approach to intervention development. We developed and conducted a pilot implementation of the Sexual Health Empowerment Project to increase cervical health knowledge, reduce barriers related to beliefs about cervical cancer, and improve self-efficacy and confidence in navigating health systems. This article offers a framework for how empirically and theory-based interventions are developed and tailored for a jail setting. Future work should include the evaluation of the long-term effects of such a disease-specific program on health behaviors and outcomes among high-risk and vulnerable groups of women as they leave jails and enter communities. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Birnbaum, David; Gretsinger, Kathryn; Ellis, Ursula
Purpose The aim of this paper is to describe the experience and educational benefits of a course that has several unique educational design features. Design/methodology/approach This includes narrative description of faculty and student experience from participants in a flipped-instructional-design inter-professional education course. Findings "Improving Public Health - An Interprofessional Approach to Designing and Implementing Effective Interventions" is an undergraduate public health course open to students regardless of background. Its student activities mirror the real-life tasks and challenges of working in a public health agency, including team-building and leadership; problem and project definition and prioritization; evidence-finding and critical appraisal; written and oral presentation; and press interviews. Students successfully developed project proposals to address real problems in a wide range of communities and settings and refined those proposals through interaction with professionals from population and public health, journalism and library sciences. Practical implications Undergraduate public health education is a relatively new endeavor, and experience with this new approach may be of value to other educators. Originality/value Students in this course, journalism graduate students who conducted mock interviews with them and instructors who oversaw the course all describe unique aspects and related personal benefit from this novel approach.
Conclusion: Interprofessional inner city health educational programs are beneficial for students to learn about poverty intervention and resources, and may represent a strategy to address a gap in the healthcare professional curriculum.
Health related goals are majorly driven by public health interventions, and some good progress has been noticed in issues relating to maternal mortality and morbidity i.e. Improve Maternal Health (MDG 5). 1The public health interventions utilized include, but are not limited to: surveillance, outreach, referral and follow up, ...
Christensen, Marie Ernst; Thorø, Karsten
, Department of Physiotherapy, Department of Nutrition and Health, VIA University College, Aarhus, Denmark. Background Previous studies have shown that the workplace is an ideal arena for health promotion interventions. Most studies focus on the ways in which health promoting interventions influence the health...
Lorenzetti, Lara M J; Leatherman, Sheila; Flax, Valerie L
Solutions delivered within firm sectoral boundaries are inadequate in achieving income security and better health for poor populations. Integrated microfinance and health interventions leverage networks of women to promote financial inclusion, build livelihoods, and safeguard against high cost illnesses. Our understanding of the effect of integrated interventions has been limited by variability in intervention, outcome, design, and methodological rigour. This systematic review synthesises the literature through 2015 to understand the effect of integrated microfinance and health programs. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, EconLit, and Global Health databases and sourced bibliographies, identifying 964 articles exclusive of duplicates. Title, abstract, and full text review yielded 35 articles. Articles evaluated the effect of intentionally integrated microfinance and health programs on client outcomes. We rated the quality of evidence for each article. Most interventions combined microfinance with health education, which demonstrated positive effects on health knowledge and behaviours, though not health status. Among programs that integrated microfinance with other health components ( i.e. health micro-insurance, linkages to health providers, and access to health products), results were generally positive but mixed due to the smaller number and quality of studies. Interventions combining multiple health components in a given study demonstrated positive effects, though it was unclear which component was driving the effect. Most articles (57%) were moderate in quality. Integrated microfinance and health education programs were effective, though longer intervention periods are necessary to measure more complex pathways to health status. The effect of microfinance combined with other health components was less clear. Stronger randomized research designs with multiple study arms are required to improve evidence and disentangle the effects of multiple component
Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A
Asthma educational interventions have been shown to improve several clinically and economically important outcomes. However, these interventions are costly in themselves and could lead to even higher disease costs. A cost-effectiveness threshold analysis would be helpful in determining the threshold value of the cost of educational interventions, leading to these interventions being cost-effective. The aim of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness threshold analysis to determine the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention would be cost-effective and cost-saving. A Markov-type model was developed in order to estimate costs and health outcomes of a simulated cohort of pediatric patients with persistent asthma treated over a 12-month period. Effectiveness parameters were obtained from a single uncontrolled before-and-after study performed with Colombian asthmatic children. Cost data were obtained from official databases provided by the Colombian Ministry of Health. The main outcome was the variable "quality-adjusted life-years" (QALYs). A deterministic threshold sensitivity analysis showed that the asthma educational intervention will be cost-saving to the health system if its cost is under US$513.20. Additionally, the analysis showed that the cost of the intervention would have to be below US$967.40 in order to be cost-effective. This study identified the level at which the cost of a pediatric asthma educational intervention will be cost-effective and cost-saving for the health system in Colombia. Our findings could be a useful aid for decision makers in efficiently allocating limited resources when planning asthma educational interventions for pediatric patients.
Full Text Available Škerbinek writes about life-long education and its influence on the quality of life. Through education, people assume a different attitude towards health, and above all develop an awareness that they are themselves responsible for their health and general well-being. The majority of mental disorders spring from prolonged psychological pressures. Psychiatrists believe in the principle » Prevention is better than cure«, and it is therefore understandable that strong emphasis should be put on education, particularly education leading to formation in the emotional sphere, resistance to consumerism, healthy productivity motivation, and a balanced and healthy life.
Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of physician education and activation versus two rehabilitation programs for the treatment of Whiplash-associated Disorders: The University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash injuries are an important public health problem that is associated with significant disability and high health care utilization. Recent cohort studies suggest that physician care may be the most effective treatment for patients with whiplash-associated disorders. However, these findings have not been tested in a randomized controlled trial. The purpose of this study is to determine which of physician care or two rehabilitation programs of care is most effective in improving recovery of patients with recent whiplash associated disorders. Methods and Design We designed a pragmatic randomized clinical trial. A total of 444 participants (148 in each of three arms who reside in Southern Ontario, Canada will be recruited from a large insurer. We will include individuals who are 18 years of age or older and who are diagnosed with Grade I or II Whiplash-associated Disorders. Participants will be randomized to physician-based education and activation or one of two rehabilitation programs of care currently in use in Ontario. Our primary outcome, self-rated global recovery and all secondary outcomes (neck pain intensity, whiplash disability, health-related quality of life, depressive symptomatology and satisfaction with care will be measured at baseline by a trial coordinator and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up by an interviewer who is blind to the participants' baseline characteristics and treatment allocation. We will also collect information on general health status, other injuries, comorbidities, expectation of recovery, work status, pain coping, legal representation, and co-interventions. The primary intention-to-treat analysis will compare time to recovery between the three interventions. This trial will have 90% power at an alpha of 0.05 to detect a 20% difference in the rate of perceived recovery at one year. Secondary analyses will compare the health outcomes, rate of recurrence and the rate of adverse
Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of physician education and activation versus two rehabilitation programs for the treatment of Whiplash-associated Disorders: The University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial
Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J David; Carette, Simon; Boyle, Eleanor; Shearer, Heather M; Stupar, Maja; Ammendolia, Carlo; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Hayden, Jill A; Yang, Xiaoqing; van Tulder, Maurits; Frank, John W
Background Whiplash injuries are an important public health problem that is associated with significant disability and high health care utilization. Recent cohort studies suggest that physician care may be the most effective treatment for patients with whiplash-associated disorders. However, these findings have not been tested in a randomized controlled trial. The purpose of this study is to determine which of physician care or two rehabilitation programs of care is most effective in improving recovery of patients with recent whiplash associated disorders. Methods and Design We designed a pragmatic randomized clinical trial. A total of 444 participants (148 in each of three arms) who reside in Southern Ontario, Canada will be recruited from a large insurer. We will include individuals who are 18 years of age or older and who are diagnosed with Grade I or II Whiplash-associated Disorders. Participants will be randomized to physician-based education and activation or one of two rehabilitation programs of care currently in use in Ontario. Our primary outcome, self-rated global recovery and all secondary outcomes (neck pain intensity, whiplash disability, health-related quality of life, depressive symptomatology and satisfaction with care) will be measured at baseline by a trial coordinator and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up by an interviewer who is blind to the participants' baseline characteristics and treatment allocation. We will also collect information on general health status, other injuries, comorbidities, expectation of recovery, work status, pain coping, legal representation, and co-interventions. The primary intention-to-treat analysis will compare time to recovery between the three interventions. This trial will have 90% power at an alpha of 0.05 to detect a 20% difference in the rate of perceived recovery at one year. Secondary analyses will compare the health outcomes, rate of recurrence and the rate of adverse events between intervention
Full Text Available This study describes the content of entrepreneurship education in health care education and the kinds of teaching methods that are used when teaching about entrepreneurship. Health care entrepreneurship has increased in many countries in recent decades and there is evidence that entrepreneurs have also a role in public health care. Therefore the health care professionals need to be educated to have the entrepreneurial skills. Education in the field of health care is still based on traditional forms of teaching and does not give enough attention to the issue of becoming an entrepreneur. The data was collected from teachers (n=111 via e-mail from six Finnish polytechnics. The data were analysed statistically and the open-ended questions were analysed via content analysis. Approximately 23% of the teachers had taught about entrepreneurship. The most popular teaching methods were company visits and cases, lecturing, and project work. The courses dealt with establishing a company, entrepreneurship in general, and marketing. Nearly all of the teachers had cooperated with the entrepreneurs or with the companies in question. Approximately 33% of the teachers took entrepreneurship into consideration often in other courses related to entrepreneurship.
Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard
Abstract Objective To present Cirque du Soleil’s social circus program, Cirque du Monde, to explore its potential as a primary health care tool for family physicians. Data sources A review of the literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, LaPresse, Eureka, Google Scholar, and Érudit using the key words circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde, and Cirque du Soleil; a Montreal-based initiative, Espace Transition, modeled on Cirque du Monde; and personal communication with Cirque du Soleil’s Social Circus Training Advisor. Study selection The first 50 articles or websites identified for each key word in each of the databases were examined on the basis of their titles and abstracts in the case of articles, and on the basis of their titles and page content in the case of websites. Articles and websites that explored an aspect of social circuses or that described an intervention that involved circuses were then retained for analysis. Because all literature on social circuses was searched, no criterion for year of publication was used. Synthesis No articles on the social circus as a health intervention were found. One study on the use of the circus as an intervention in schools was identified. It demonstrated an increase in self-esteem in the children who took part. One study on the use of the circus in a First Nations community was found; it contained nonspecific, qualitative findings. The other articles identified were merely descriptions of social circuses. One website was identified on the use of the social circus to help youth who had been treated in a hospital setting for major psychiatric disorders to re-enter the community. The team in the pediatric psychiatry department at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, the children’s hospital in Montreal, Que, was contacted; they were leading this project, called Espace Transition. The unpublished preliminary findings of its pilot project demonstrate substantial improvements in overall patient
Key words: Health Professionals' Education, Undergraduate Medical Education, Primary Health Care, Social. Medicine ... tion process to gather all health professions educations .... integrated program in the revised 5-year medical degree.
Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C
Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen
Ethnic minorities may constitute vulnerable groups within Western health care systems as their ability to master severe chronic diseases could be affected by barriers such as different culture and health/illness beliefs, communication problems and limited educational background. An intervention...
Jones, Caroline H. D.; Owens, Judith A.; Pham, Brian
Objective: Insufficient and poor quality sleep is prevalent in children, and is a significant public health concern due to the negative consequences for health. Certain sleep-related behaviours are associated with improved sleep, and sleep behaviours are amenable to efforts targeted towards behaviour change. Parental educational interventions have…
Poster presented at International Conference "Communicating for Social Change: Lessons learnt from public health", Glocal NOMAD, Aidsnet (The Danish NGO Network on AIDS and Development), ADRA Denmark and Enreca Health. Copenhagen: Copenhagen University, May 4., 2010,Denmark....
Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare
into two groups. Mothers in the intervention group were given health education according to WHO's recommendations; about exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 4 mo, prolonged breastfeeding and family planning methods. At 4 mo of age introduction of weaning food was delayed in the intervention...
Bøje, Rikke Buus; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this scoping review is to identify, organize and present existing literature on training interventions on handovers for healthcare professionals to highlight the existing gaps in evidence to inform future research in this field. More specifically the objectives are to....
Ovelil, Bernd Pflug
Ayurveda is prevention in itself. It is not necessary for Ayurveda to develop a comprehensive structure of preventive approaches as it is found in modern health education. On the other hand has Ayurveda not modernized its preventive principles according to the present living and working conditions of the people. It is so far not understood as integral part of the socio-economic development of the country. This has saved Ayurveda to become part of the highly structured and bureaucratic form of health care and health education- at the expense of not being consulted by others when working on a social health oriented development strategy. PMID:22556952
Kanika Singh Dhull
Full Text Available Dental assessments and evaluations for children during their 1st year of life have been recommended by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and the American Association of Pediatrics. Early dental intervention evaluates a child's risk status based on parental interviews and oral examinations. These early screenings present an opportunity to educate parents about the medical, dental, and cost benefits of preventive rather than restorative care and may be more effective in reducing early childhood caries than traditional infectious disease models. A comprehensive infant oral care program includes: (1 risk assessments at regularly scheduled dental visits, (2 preventive treatments such as fluoride varnishes or sealants, (3 parental education on the correct methods to clean the baby's mouth, and (4 establishment of dental home and use of anticipatory guidance. The present article highlights the important guidelines of infant oral health care.
Fedele, David A; Cushing, Christopher C; Fritz, Alyssa; Amaro, Christina M; Ortega, Adrian
Mobile health interventions are increasingly popular in pediatrics; however, it is unclear how effective these interventions are in changing health outcomes. To determine the effectiveness of mobile health interventions for improving health outcomes in youth 18 years or younger. Studies published through November 30, 2016, were collected through PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, and PsychINFO. Backward and forward literature searches were conducted on articles meeting study inclusion criteria. Search terms included telemedicine, eHealth, mobile health, mHealth, app, and mobile application. Search results were limited to infants, children, adolescents, or young adults when possible. Studies were included if quantitative methods were used to evaluate an application of mobile intervention technology in a primary or secondary capacity to promote or modify health behavior in youth 18 years or younger. Studies were excluded if the article was an unpublished dissertation or thesis, the mean age of participants was older than 18 years, the study did not assess a health behavior and disease outcome, or the article did not include sufficient statistics. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied by 2 independent coders with 20% overlap. Of 9773 unique articles, 36 articles (containing 37 unique studies with a total of 29 822 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Of 9773 unique articles, 36 articles (containing 37 unique studies) with a total of 29 822 participants met the inclusion criteria. Effect sizes were calculated from statistical tests that could be converted to standardized mean differences. All aggregate effect sizes and moderator variables were tested using random-effects models. Change in health behavior or disease control. A total of 29 822 participants were included in the studies. In studies that reported sex, the total number of females was 11 226 (53.2%). Of those
Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie
Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.
NC van Wyk
Full Text Available Paolo Freire’s theory of critical thinking shows remarkable similarities to the principles supported by health education. In his capacity as Brazilian educationalist, Freire emphasized man’s active participation in his own development. Without this active involvement, growth and development become quite impossible to attain.
Lazowski, Rory A.; Hulleman, Chris S.
This meta-analysis provides an extensive and organized summary of intervention studies in education that are grounded in motivation theory. We identified 74 published and unpublished papers that experimentally manipulated an independent variable and measured an authentic educational outcome within an ecologically valid educational context. Our…
Boutayeb, Wiam; Lamlili, Mohamed; Maamri, Abdellatif; Ben El Mostafa, Souad; Boutayeb, Abdesslam
health intervention on the access to health care due to synergetic and overlapping effect of interventions and initiatives aiming to improve the wellbeing of the Moroccan population. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to illustrate the correlation existing between different variables measuring access to health and health outcomes on one side and variables like income, education, employment and health staff on the other side. In Morocco, average access to health care and services as well as health outcomes have improved during the last decades. However, socio-economic inequalities and health inequity are persistent. The present study indicates that urgent and efficient actions on social determinants of health are needed in order to sustain average achievements and improve health equity for the whole Moroccan population.
Comparison of an interactive with a didactic educational intervention for improving the evidence-based practice knowledge of occupational therapists in the public health sector in South Africa: a randomised controlled trial
Background Despite efforts to identify effective interventions to implement evidence-based practice (EBP), uncertainty remains. Few existing studies involve occupational therapists or resource-constrained contexts. This study aimed to determine whether an interactive educational intervention (IE) was more effective than a didactic educational intervention (DE) in improving EBP knowledge, attitudes and behaviour at 12 weeks. Methods A matched pairs design, randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Western Cape of South Africa. Occupational therapists employed by the Department of Health were randomised using matched-pair stratification by type (clinician or manager) and knowledge score. Allocation to an IE or a DE was by coin-tossing. A self-report questionnaire (measuring objective knowledge and subjective attitudes) and audit checklist (measuring objective behaviour) were completed at baseline and 12 weeks. The primary outcome was EBP knowledge at 12 weeks while secondary outcomes were attitudes and behaviour at 12 weeks. Data collection occurred at participants’ places of employment. Audit raters were blinded, but participants and the provider could not be blinded. Results Twenty-one of 28 pairs reported outcomes, but due to incomplete data for two participants, 19 pairs were included in the analysis. There was a median increase of 1.0 points (95% CI = -4.0, 1.0) in the IE for the primary outcome (knowledge) compared with the DE, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.098). There were no significant differences on any of the attitude subscale scores. The median 12-week audit score was 8.6 points higher in the IE (95% CI = -7.7, 27.0) but this was not significant (P = 0.196). Within-group analyses showed significant increases in knowledge in both groups (IE: T = 4.0, P <0.001; DE: T = 12.0, P = 0.002) but no significant differences in attitudes or behaviour. Conclusions The results suggest that the interventions had
Comparison of an interactive with a didactic educational intervention for improving the evidence-based practice knowledge of occupational therapists in the public health sector in South Africa: a randomised controlled trial.
Buchanan, Helen; Siegfried, Nandi; Jelsma, Jennifer; Lombard, Carl
Despite efforts to identify effective interventions to implement evidence-based practice (EBP), uncertainty remains. Few existing studies involve occupational therapists or resource-constrained contexts. This study aimed to determine whether an interactive educational intervention (IE) was more effective than a didactic educational intervention (DE) in improving EBP knowledge, attitudes and behaviour at 12 weeks. A matched pairs design, randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Western Cape of South Africa. Occupational therapists employed by the Department of Health were randomised using matched-pair stratification by type (clinician or manager) and knowledge score. Allocation to an IE or a DE was by coin-tossing. A self-report questionnaire (measuring objective knowledge and subjective attitudes) and audit checklist (measuring objective behaviour) were completed at baseline and 12 weeks. The primary outcome was EBP knowledge at 12 weeks while secondary outcomes were attitudes and behaviour at 12 weeks. Data collection occurred at participants' places of employment. Audit raters were blinded, but participants and the provider could not be blinded. Twenty-one of 28 pairs reported outcomes, but due to incomplete data for two participants, 19 pairs were included in the analysis. There was a median increase of 1.0 points (95% CI = -4.0, 1.0) in the IE for the primary outcome (knowledge) compared with the DE, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.098). There were no significant differences on any of the attitude subscale scores. The median 12-week audit score was 8.6 points higher in the IE (95% CI = -7.7, 27.0) but this was not significant (P = 0.196). Within-group analyses showed significant increases in knowledge in both groups (IE: T = 4.0, P <0.001; DE: T = 12.0, P = 0.002) but no significant differences in attitudes or behaviour. The results suggest that the interventions had similar outcomes at 12 weeks and that the
Nusbaum, N. J.; Mistretta, M.; Wegner, J.
As part of a research project aimed at the health care needs of the vulnerable community-dwelling elderly, an educational intervention was delivered to police and firefighters in worksite settings. A single educational intervention proved insufficient to produce lasting attitudinal and behavioral change as measured by follow-up surveys 3 and 6…
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen
focusing on immigrant families with children with type 1 diabetes is described. The intervention included the development of adapted educational material and guidelines, and a subsequent re-education of children, adolescents and parents from 37 families. The study demonstrated that it was possible......Ethnic minorities may constitute vulnerable groups within Western health care systems as their ability to master severe chronic diseases could be affected by barriers such as different culture and health/illness beliefs, communication problems and limited educational background. An intervention...... to improve health outcome. During the study, the knowledge of diabetes increased, but with considerable differences between the families. HbA(1c) also decreased significantly during the intervention, but increased during follow-up. The paper discusses possible explanations and suggestions for optimising...
Welker, Kristen; Nabors, Laura; Lang, Myia; Bernstein, Jonathan
This review examined the impact of environmental change and educational interventions targeting young children from minority groups living in urban environments and who were from low-income families. A scoping methodology was used to find research across six databases, including CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. 299 studies were identified. Duplicates were removed leaving 159 studies. After reviewing for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 manuscripts were identified for this study: 11 featured home-environment change interventions and 12 emphasized education of children. Studies were reviewed to determine key interventions and outcomes for children. Both environmental interventions and educational programs had positive outcomes. Interventions did not always impact health outcomes, such as emergency department visits. Results indicated many of the environmental change and education interventions improved asthma management and some symptoms. A multipronged approach may be a good method for targeting both education and change in the home and school environment to promote the well-being of young children in urban areas. New research with careful documentation of information about study participants, dose of intervention (i.e., number and duration of sessions, booster sessions) and specific intervention components also will provide guidance for future research.
Raul Rodrigues Cipriano Sousa
Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is, without a doubt, the food that provides all the nutrients essential for the healthy growth and development of children. Through effective breastfeeding practices, it is possible to prevent several chronic noncommunicable diseases in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Objective: To investigate the relevance of using an educational strategy in breastfeeding promotion. Methods: It was a descriptive study with uncontrolled analytical approach conducted with 36 mothers of children under 2 years of age about breastfeeding, through an educational intervention using the booklet “Breastfeeding: an act of love”. Data collection took place in two moments (pre-test and post-test. Ethics Committee approved the project under protocol No. 058657. Results: Data analysis revealed that 41.6% of the interviewees stated that they did not receive guidance about breast problems from any professional during prenatal care, and 22% reported having presented nipple fissures. Regarding the initiation of breastfeeding, 11.1% of the women interviewed did not knowthe importance of colostrum, and 30.6% did not know its benefits. Assessment of the mothers’ knowledge before and after the intervention obtained a percentage of correctness of 50.7% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion: The educational activity to encourage breastfeeding was able to increase the mothers’ knowledge about breastfeeding and its health benefits for women and children. It is imperative to carry out activities such as the one proposed in this study, which enables the prevention of several problems that directly affect the health of families, acting effectively to promote a solid knowledge for the population. Keywords: Breast Feeding. Child Health. Health Education. Infant Nutrition. Food and Nutrition Education.
Health educators should be able to use mass comunications media and should be knowledgeable about the most recent media theories, methods, and technologies. Suggestions for making effective use of television, newspapers, and other media for disseminating health information and for conducting media campaigns are given. (PP)
Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising...
van den Berg, Joost W; Mastenbroek, Nicole J J M; Scheepers, Renée A; Jaarsma, A Debbie C
Work engagement deserves more attention in health professions education because of its positive relations with personal well-being and performance at work. For health professions education, these outcomes have been studied on various levels. Consider engaged clinical teachers, who are seen as better clinical teachers; consider engaged residents, who report committing fewer medical errors than less engaged peers. Many topics in health professions education can benefit from explicitly including work engagement as an intended outcome such as faculty development programs, feedback provision and teacher recognition. In addition, interventions aimed at strengthening resources could provide teachers with a solid foundation for well-being and performance in all their work roles. Work engagement is conceptually linked to burnout. An important model that underlies both burnout and work engagement literature is the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. This model can be used to describe relationships between work characteristics, personal characteristics and well-being and performance at work. We explain how using this model helps identifying aspects of teaching that foster well-being and how it paves the way for interventions which aim to increase teacher's well-being and performance.
Karanth, Siddharth S; Lairson, David R; Savas, Lara S; Vernon, Sally W; Fernández, María E
Mobile technology is opening new avenues for healthcare providers to create and implement tailored and personalized health education programs. We estimate and compare the cost of developing an i-Pad based tailored interactive multimedia intervention (TIMI) and a print based (Photonovella) intervention to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization. The development costs of the interventions were calculated using a societal perspective. Direct cost included the cost of planning the study, conducting focus groups, and developing the intervention materials by the research staff. Costs also included the amount paid to the vendors who produced the TIMI and Photonovella. Micro cost data on the staff time and materials were recorded in logs for tracking personnel time, meeting time, supplies and software purchases. The costs were adjusted for inflation and reported in 2015 USD. The total cost of developing the Photonovella was $66,468 and the cost of developing the TIMI was $135,978. The amortized annual cost for the interventions calculated at a 3% discount rate and over a 7-year period was $10,669 per year for the Photonovella and $21,825 per year for the TIMI intervention. The results would inform decision makers when planning and investing in the development of interactive multimedia health interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shiina, Akihiro; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Sato, Aiko; Omiya, Soichiro; Nagata, Takako; Tomoto, Aika; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Yoshito; Iyo, Masaomi
To evaluate the effect of educational intervention on individuals' knowledge of and attitudes toward forensic mental health. We conducted a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward various ideas about forensic mental health. The respondents attended a 1-h seminar regarding forensic mental health after answering the questionnaire. On completion of the seminar, the respondents answered another questionnaire containing many of the same questions as contained in the pre-seminar questionnaire. A total of 86 individuals attended the seminar, and 78 responded to the questionnaire. Only 13 (18.8%) participants were supportive of the concept of criminal responsibility initially, and there was a statistically significant increase in those who became more supportive after the seminar, with 22 (33%) being supportive after the seminar (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P criminal responsibility after the intervention. These results suggest that public attitudes toward criminal responsibility and mental health can be influenced via educational interventions.
... offer discounts to healthy activities in the area: Biking, hiking, or walking tours Museums Fitness clubs Farms Festivals Your hospital may offer discounts for: Retail stores such as sporting goods, health food, and art stores Acupuncture Skin care Eye ...
Hirshman, Brian R; Birukou, Alaiksandr; Martin, Michael K; Bigrigg, Michael W; Carley, Kathleen M
..., and a variety of other factors. The social simulation tool Construct was used to evaluate the effectiveness of several educational interventions on one stylized and four real cities to examine the types of behavior that could be...
Hirshman, Brian R; Martin, Michael; Bigrigg, Michael W; Carley, Kathleen M
.... It specifies the experimental design, describes parameters used, presents a series of results which explore the effect of literacy and information access on societal sub-populations, and identifies educational interventions which may and may not be effective.
Ciciriello, Sabina; Johnston, Renea V; Osborne, Richard H; Wicks, Ian; deKroo, Tanya; Clerehan, Rosemary; O'Neill, Clare; Buchbinder, Rachelle
Health consumers increasingly want access to accurate, evidence-based information about their medications. Currently, education about medications (that is, information that is designed to achieve health or illness related learning) is provided predominantly via spoken communication between the health provider and consumer, sometimes supplemented with written materials. There is evidence, however, that current educational methods are not meeting consumer needs. Multimedia educational programs offer many potential advantages over traditional forms of education delivery. To assess the effects of multimedia patient education interventions about prescribed and over-the-counter medications in people of all ages, including children and carers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2011), EMBASE (1974 to June 2011), CINAHL (1982 to June 2011), PsycINFO (1967 to June 2011), ERIC (1966 to June 2011), ProQuest Dissertation & Theses Database (to June 2011) and reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of multimedia-based patient education about prescribed or over-the-counter medications in people of all ages, including children and carers, if the intervention had been targeted for their use. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Where possible, we contacted study authors to obtain missing information. We identified 24 studies that enrolled a total of 8112 participants. However, there was significant heterogeneity in the comparators used and the outcomes measured, which limited the ability to pool data. Many of the studies did not report sufficient information in their methods to allow judgment of their risk of bias. From the information that was reported, three of the studies had a high risk of selection bias and one was at high risk of bias due to lack of blinding of the outcome
Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Haafkens, Joke A.; Bindels, Patrick J. E.
Objective: To identify barriers and enablers influencing the implementation of an intervention to stimulate culturally appropriate hypertension education (CANE) among health care providers in primary care. Methods: The intervention was piloted in three Dutch health centers. It consists of a toolkit
Full Text Available Current immunisation levels in England currently fall slightly below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization, and the three-year trend for vaccination uptake is downwards. Attitudes towards vaccination can affect future decisions on whether or not to vaccinate, and this can have significant public health implications. Interventions can impact future vaccination decisions, and these interventions can take several forms. Relatively little work has been reported on the use of vaccination interventions in young people, who form the next generation of individuals likely to make vaccination decisions.We investigated the impact of two different types of educational intervention on attitudes towards vaccination in young people in England. A cohort of young people (n = 63 was recruited via a local school. This group was divided into three sub-groups; one (n = 21 received a presentation-based intervention, one (n = 26 received an interactive simulation-based intervention, and the third (n = 16 received no intervention. Participants supplied information on (1 their attitudes towards vaccination, and (2 their information needs and views on personal choice concerning vaccination, at three time points: immediately before and after the intervention, and after six months.Neither intervention had a significant effect on participants' attitudes towards vaccination. However, the group receiving the presentation-based intervention saw a sustained uplift in confidence about information needs, which was not observed in the simulation-based intervention group.Our findings with young people are consistent with previous work on vaccination interventions aimed at adults, which have shown limited effectiveness, and which can actually reduce intention to vaccinate. Our findings on the most effective mode of delivery for the intervention should inform future discussion in the growing "games for health" domain, which proposes the use of interactive digital
Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa
Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…
George, Christine Marie; Inauen, Jennifer; Perin, Jamie; Tighe, Jennifer; Hasan, Khaled; Zheng, Yan
More than 100 million people globally are estimated to be exposed to arsenic in drinking water that exceeds the World Health Organization guideline of 10 µg/L. In an effort to develop and test a low-cost sustainable approach for water arsenic testing in Bangladesh, we conducted a randomized controlled trial which found arsenic educational…
Eva Zafra Aparici
Full Text Available Using a theoretical-reflexive approach, this article connects the results of various qualitative studies in social conflict and medical anthropology, in order to investigate how food can be a tool for social transformation in terms of health but also in terms of the dialogue, respect and coexistence among people, groups and communities. In this sense the article presents a first approximation to a new theoretical and methodological approach to food education. In this approach, food adopts a political, sociocultural and participatory perspective that brings us closer to an innovative understanding of the phenomenon of food: not only as an analytic and diagnostic tool, but also as an instrument for health education interventions toward conflict resolution and the promotion of healthier societies overall – nutritionally, but also in terms of equality and social cohesion.
Geraghty, Adam W A; Torres, Leandro D; Leykin, Yan; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F
Worldwide automated Internet health interventions have the potential to greatly reduce health disparities. High attrition from automated Internet interventions is ubiquitous, and presents a challenge in the evaluation of their effectiveness. Our objective was to evaluate variables hypothesized to be related to attrition, by modeling predictors of attrition in a secondary data analysis of two cohorts of an international, dual language (English and Spanish) Internet smoking cessation intervention. The two cohorts were identical except for the approach to follow-up (FU): one cohort employed only fully automated FU (n = 16 430), while the other cohort also used 'live' contact conditional upon initial non-response (n = 1000). Attrition rates were 48.1 and 10.8% for the automated FU and live FU cohorts, respectively. Significant attrition predictors in the automated FU cohort included higher levels of nicotine dependency, lower education, lower quitting confidence and receiving more contact emails. Participants' younger age was the sole predictor of attrition in the live FU cohort. While research on large-scale deployment of Internet interventions is at an early stage, this study demonstrates that differences in attrition from trials on this scale are (i) systematic and predictable and (ii) can largely be eliminated by live FU efforts. In fully automated trials, targeting the predictors we identify may reduce attrition, a necessary precursor to effective behavioral Internet interventions that can be accessed globally.
Reavley, Nicola J; McCann, Terence V; Jorm, Anthony F
With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 in tertiary education, these are potential settings for programmes to improve mental health literacy. A survey was carried out with students and staff of a tertiary education institution to investigate recognition of depression, help-seeking intentions, beliefs about interventions and stigmatizing attitudes. Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group) participated in a telephone interview. They answered questions relating to mental health literacy. Of the completed interviews, 774 (65%) were students and 422 (35%) were staff. Over 70% of students and staff were able to recognize depression in a vignette, with greater likelihood of recognition in students associated with older age, female gender, being born in Australia and a higher level of education. Over 80% of respondents said they would seek help if they had a problem similar to that of the vignette. However, rates of specific help-seeking intentions for students were relatively low, with only 26% nominating a general practitioner and only 10% nominating a student counsellor. Factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes included male gender, younger age, lower level of education, being born outside Australia and lack of recognition of depression. There is a need for mental health literacy interventions targeted at students, particularly those who are younger, male, born outside Australia and of a lower level of education. As rates of specific help-seeking intentions for students were relatively low, there is a need for further exploration of the barriers to help seeking from professional sources. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Horvat, Lidia; Horey, Dell; Romios, Panayiota; Kis-Rigo, John
Cultural competence education for health professionals aims to ensure all people receive equitable, effective health care, particularly those from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. It has emerged as a strategy in high-income English-speaking countries in response to evidence of health disparities, structural inequalities, and poorer quality health care and outcomes among people from minority CALD backgrounds. However there is a paucity of evidence to link cultural competence education with patient, professional and organisational outcomes. To assess efficacy, for this review we developed a four-dimensional conceptual framework comprising educational content, pedagogical approach, structure of the intervention, and participant characteristics to provide consistency in describing and assessing interventions. We use the term 'CALD participants' when referring to minority CALD populations as a whole. When referring to participants in included studies we describe them in terms used by study authors. To assess the effects of cultural competence education interventions for health professionals on patient-related outcomes, health professional outcomes, and healthcare organisation outcomes. We searched: MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to June 2012); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library) (June 2012); EMBASE (OvidSP) (1988 to June 2012); CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1981 to June 2012); PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1806 to June 2012); Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (1861 to October 2011); ERIC (CSA) (1966 to October 2011); LILACS (1982 to March 2012); and Current Contents (OvidSP) (1993 Week 27 to June 2012).Searches in MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, ERIC and Current Contents were updated in February 2014. Searches in CINAHL were updated in March 2014.There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs, and controlled clinical trials of
Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen
, Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...
Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don
Although e-health interventions provide new opportunities for health education, there has been cause for concern regarding the purported information technology gap between those who have access to digital applications and those who do not--termed the "digital divide." The literature suggests, however, that this divide may now be illusory, driven…
Sharma, Priya; Rani, M Usha
The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in knowledge of information technology (IT) professionals after receiving a nutrition education intervention for a month. The sample comprised of 40 IT professionals (29 males and 11 females). The sample was drawn from four IT companies of Hyderabad city using random sampling techniques. The data on the general information of the subjects was collected. The data regarding the commonly accessed sources of nutrition and health information by the subjects was also obtained from the study. The intervention study group received nutrition education by distribution of the developed CD-ROMs to them followed by interactive sessions. To assess the impact of nutrition education intervention, the knowledge assessment questionnaire (KAQ) was developed and administered before and after the education programme. A significant improvement in the mean nutritional knowledge scores was observed among the total study subjects from 22.30 to 40.55 after the intervention (p educated groups on nutrition, physical activity and overall health education to improve their health, lifestyle and eating habits.
The purpose of this paper is to help public health actors with an interest in health promotion and health care professionals involved in therapeutic education to develop and implement an educational strategy consistent with their vision of health and health care. First, we show that the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the French Charter for Popular Education share common values. Second, an examination of the career and work of Paulo Freire, of Ira Shor's pedagogical model and of the person-centered approach of Carl Rogers shows how the work of educational practitioners, researchers and theorists can help health professionals to implement a truly "health-promoting" or "therapeutic" educational strategy. The paper identifies a number of problems facing health care professionals who become involved in education without reflecting on the values underlying the pedagogical models they use.
Full Text Available Mary Laurenson, Tracey Heath, Sarah GribbinUniversity of Hull, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Department of Health Professional Studies, Cottingham, Hull, United KingdomIntroduction: Communication is an intrinsic part of collaborative working but can be problematic when the complexities of professional and personal identities inhibit quality care provision. This paper investigates these complexities and recommends interventions to facilitate collaborative working.Methods: A qualitative comparative approach examined data collected from participants using purposive non-probability sampling. Perspectives were obtained from four professional groups (nurses, social workers, care managers, and police, from different organizations with different theoretical and practice frameworks, and from a fifth group (informal carers.Results: Curriculum change and leadership initiatives are required to address the complexities inhibiting collaborative working relationships. Integrating complexity theory, personality typology, and problem-based learning into the curriculum to understand behavioral actions will enable interventions to effect change and promote the centrality of those being cared for.Keywords: interprofessional education and working, complexity, communication, personality, problem-based learning
SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. Objective: To explore the use of cell phone–based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. Methods: ...
Verbeek, J.; Salmi, J.; Pasternack, I.; Jauhiainen, M.; Laamanen, I.; Schaafsma, F.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.
As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and
We conducted a scoping review of evidence on digital interventions for sexual health promotion for young people aged 13 to 24 years in the UK, defining sexual health in holistic terms, to include physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. Interactive digital interventions (IDI are defined as digital media programmes that provide sexual health information and tailored decision support, behaviour-change support, and/or emotional support for sexual health issues. We conducted a thorough review of literature to locate and synthesise available evidence on digital interventions for sexual health spanning the last ten years, integrating the findings with the views of key informants (young people, parents, and experts in digital media/sexual health. Results and conclusions There were few studies that assess the factors related to successful implementation of sexual health promotion IDIs. Potential barriers and facilitators to implementation of IDI should be addressed at the very beginning of an intervention development process. Engaging with sexual health promotion interventions online allows private and convenient access as well as potentially reaching populations who engage less frequently with mainstream services. However, it is difficult to ensure that users will find the intervention, or engage for long enough for them to be effective. The reach of online IDI could be enhanced by linking sexual health promotion interventions with existing digital systems such as STI self-test websites, or with trusted branded websites or popular social networking sites. Offering interventions in static settings such as the clinic or classroom encourages engagement and enables interventions to be delivered with fidelity but potentially at the expense of the privacy and convenience offered by online interventions. Using the knowledge of local staff is vital for both successful intervention development and successful implementation. An effective
Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; Lima, Ana Amélia Antunes; Souza, Emiliane Nogueira de; Nauderer, Tais Maria; Paz, Adriana Aparecida; da Costa, Cíntia
to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on the quality of nursing records. quasi-experimental study with before-and-after design conducted in a hospital. All the nurses in the cardiac intensive care unit of the hospital received the intervention, which consisted of weekly meetings during five months. To collect data, the instrument Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes was applied to the patients' charts in two moments: baseline and after intervention. the educational intervention had an impact on the quality of the records, since most of the items presented a significant increase in their mean values after the intervention, despite the low values in the two moments. the educational intervention proved to be effective at improving the quality of nursing records and a lack of quality was identified in the evaluated records, revealed by the low mean values and by the weakness of some questions presented in the items, which did not present a significant increase. Therefore, educational actions focused on real clinical cases may have positive implications for nursing practice.
Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Harris, Muriel J; Newton, Samuel; Gulis, Gabriel
Hygiene education appears to be the commonest school-based intervention for preventing infectious diseases, especially in the developing world. Nevertheless, there remains a gap in literature regarding a school-specific theory-based framework for designing a hand hygiene educational intervention in schools. We sought to suggest a framework underpinned by psychosocial theories towards bridging this knowledge gap. Furthermore, we sought to propound a more comprehensive definition of hand hygiene which could guide the conceptualisation of hand hygiene interventions in varied settings. Literature search was guided by a standardized tool and literature was retrieved on the basis of a predetermined inclusion criteria. Databases consulted include PubMed, ERIC, and EBSCO host (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, etc.). Evidence bordering on a theoretical framework to aid the design of school-based hand hygiene educational interventions is summarized narratively. School-based hand hygiene educational interventions seeking to positively influence behavioural outcomes could consider enhancing psychosocial variables including behavioural capacity, attitudes and subjective norms (normative beliefs and motivation to comply). A framework underpinned by formalized psychosocial theories has relevance and could enhance the design of hand hygiene educational interventions, especially in schools.
The recounted experiences of an emergency support engineer revealed the importance of involving women in decision making at the local level. The task involved the provision of a gender sensitive technical program: a construction project to identify and supply safe, clean tap water for Sudanese refugees resettled in Uganda border areas where Ugandans had just returned as refugees in Zaire. There was squabbling among refugees because soap distribution was unsatisfactory, and a village elder revealed that corruption among elected officials was interfering with relief supplies. The village elder was able to notify an Oxfam spring technician, and other village women were consulted about suitable springs for providing permanent supplies during the dry season. Several springs were located, and one was selected. Six women helped prepare the spring for piped water, and, in the process, learned about spring technology. The location of tapstands was accomplished with village men and women mapping exact locations. Six taps were needed to serve a population of 100 people. Refugees helped with the digging of trenches, fixing the pipes, and assembling the tapstands. The operation took two weeks, but after the work was done, no one would use the tap water. A health educator consultant had to assure the villagers that the water was safe. Within days, villagers and refugees were using the tap water. Street theater was used to convey another health message about the importance of water tap maintenance. As a consequence, six men and women formed a sanitary committee to make certain the areas remained clean and well drained and that water was not wasted. Committee members were trained to make simple repairs. The lesson learned was that women can be effectively involved at the local level, if one listens intently, talks with women, and watches behavior carefully.
Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal
The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…
Chen, Huan; Chai, Yanling; Dong, Le; Niu, Wenyi; Zhang, Puhong
Background The application of mobile health (mHealth) technology in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) is increasing worldwide. However, best practice and the most effective mHealth interventions have not been reviewed systematically. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of mHealth interventions for RMNCH around the world were conducted to investigate their characteristics as well as the features and effectiveness of mHealth interventions. Methods ...
Arden-Close, Emily; McGrath, Nuala
Partners are a significant influence on individuals' health, and concordance in health behaviours increases over time in couples. Several theories suggest that couple-focused interventions for health behaviour change may therefore be more effective than individual interventions. A systematic review of health behaviour change interventions for couples was conducted. Systematic search methods identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized interventions of health behaviour change for couples with at least one member at risk of a chronic physical illness, published from 1990-2014. We identified 14 studies, targeting the following health behaviours: cancer prevention (6), obesity (1), diet (2), smoking in pregnancy (2), physical activity (1) and multiple health behaviours (2). In four out of seven trials couple-focused interventions were more effective than usual care. Of four RCTs comparing a couple-focused intervention to an individual intervention, two found that the couple-focused intervention was more effective. The studies were heterogeneous, and included participants at risk of a variety of illnesses. In many cases the intervention was compared to usual care for an individual or an individual-focused intervention, which meant the impact of the couplebased content could not be isolated. Three arm studies could determine whether any added benefits of couple-focused interventions are due to adding the partner or specific content of couple-focused interventions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Health behaviours and health behaviour change are more often concordant across couples than between individuals in the general population. Couple-focused interventions for chronic conditions are more effective than individual interventions or usual care (Martire, Schulz, Helgeson, Small, & Saghafi, ). What does this study add? Identified studies targeted a variety of health behaviours, with few studies in any one area. Further
Poulsen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Lund, Rikke
AIM: To analyse if social capital modifies the effect of educational intervention of home visitors on mobility disability. Earlier studies have found that educational intervention of home visitors has a positive effect of older peoples' functional decline, but how social capital might modify....... RESULTS: We found that 80-year-olds living in municipalities with high bonding (B=0.089, p=0.0279) and high linking (B=0.0929; p=0.0217) had significant better mobility disability in average at 3-year follow up if their municipality had received intervention. CONCLUSIONS: With the unique design...... of the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits and with theory-based measures of social capital that distinguish between three aspects of social capital with focus on older people, this study contributes to the literature about the role of social capital for interventions on mobility disability....
Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Magnussen, Rikke
of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today’s teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...
Magnussen, Rikke; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach......The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often...... problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research...
To determine the knowledge and oral hygiene status of orphange children in apune and a changes in them after health education. Study Design: Interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Centers for Orphan Children in Pune, India, from April to June 2014. Methodology: A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the dental problems and existing oral hygiene maintenance practice among children between 5 - 12 years of age (n=100) in an orphanage center. Pre- and post interventional intra-oral examination was carried out to check their oral hygiene status which included DMFS (Decayed Missing Filled Tooth Surfaces index (for permanent teeth)), OHIS (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index) and gingival indices. Intervention was in the form of oral health education, demonstration of correct brushing technique, diet counselling and maintenance of overall oral hygiene. Results: Present study shows that the orphans had multiple dental problems along with improper oral hygiene practices and careless attitude towards oral health. Pre- and post-interventional DMFS was compared using Wilcoxon sign rank test, which was not significant; while OHIS and gingival indices were compared by using repeat measures ANOVA(p < 0.001) which was significant for each, respectively. Conclusion: There was considerable improvement in the oral hygiene status of orphans due to educational intervention. Oral health education at right age can help to cultivate healthy oral hygiene practices in orphans which will benefit them for lifelong. Caretakers should be educated and trained about oral hygiene practices so that they can implement it and supervise the orphan children. (author)
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting
Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the
Carolan, Kate; Verran, Joanna; Crossley, Matthew; Redfern, James; Whitton, Nicola
Background Current immunisation levels in England currently fall slightly below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization, and the three-year trend for vaccination uptake is downwards. Attitudes towards vaccination can affect future decisions on whether or not to vaccinate, and this can have significant public health implications. Interventions can impact future vaccination decisions, and these interventions can take several forms. Relatively little work has been reported on the use of vaccination interventions in young people, who form the next generation of individuals likely to make vaccination decisions. Method We investigated the impact of two different types of educational intervention on attitudes towards vaccination in young people in England. A cohort of young people (n = 63) was recruited via a local school. This group was divided into three sub-groups; one (n = 21) received a presentation-based intervention, one (n = 26) received an interactive simulation-based intervention, and the third (n = 16) received no intervention. Participants supplied information on (1) their attitudes towards vaccination, and (2) their information needs and views on personal choice concerning vaccination, at three time points: immediately before and after the intervention, and after six months. Results Neither intervention had a significant effect on participants’ attitudes towards vaccination. However, the group receiving the presentation-based intervention saw a sustained uplift in confidence about information needs, which was not observed in the simulation-based intervention group. Discussion Our findings with young people are consistent with previous work on vaccination interventions aimed at adults, which have shown limited effectiveness, and which can actually reduce intention to vaccinate. Our findings on the most effective mode of delivery for the intervention should inform future discussion in the growing “games for health” domain, which
Wicks, K M
This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.
Li, Wei; Han, Le Qiang; Guo, Yan Jun; Sun, Jing
Malaria is the main health risk for Chinese expatriates working in Niger. Health education is a recommended intervention for prevention of malaria among non-immune travellers and expatriate workers. It is urgent to develop an effective and feasible way for these populations to obtain information about the prevention and treatment of malaria. An individually randomized, unblinded, controlled trial was used to evaluate the effectiveness of using WeChat official accounts for health education to improve malaria health literacy among Chinese expatriates in Niger. A total 1441 participants completed a baseline malaria health literacy questionnaire and were randomly assigned to an intervention or comparison group in a ratio of 1:1. From July to October 2014, 50 malaria prevention and treatment messages were sent to the intervention group; 50 health news messages were concurrently sent to the control group. Both groups completed the malaria health literacy questionnaire again 4 months after the start of the education intervention. A questionnaire addressing satisfaction with the health education programme was completed by the intervention group. Malaria morbidity data for 2013 and 2014 were also collected. At baseline, participant health literacy rates were 58.29, 62, 54, and 34% for skills, knowledge, practice, and attitude, respectively. After the intervention, rates for all four aspects of malaria literacy were above 70%. There was greater change in knowledge, attitude, practice, skills, and overall health literacy among the intervention group compared with the controls, with a statistically significant difference (p WeChat health education programme with over 80% stating that they would continue to follow the programme. The present health education intervention, via a WeChat official account, for the prevention and treatment of malaria among non-immune travellers and expatriate workers proved to be an effective, sustainable, feasible, and well accepted strategy for
LeBron, Alana M; Schulz, Amy J; Bernal, Cristina; Gamboa, Cindy; Wright, Conja; Sand, Sharon; Valerio, Melissa; Caver, Deanna
Contextually and culturally congruent interventions are urgently needed to reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequities in physical activity and cardiovascular disease. To examine a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process that incorporated storytelling into a physical activity intervention, and consider implications for reducing health inequities. We used a CBPR process to incorporate storytelling in an existing walking group intervention. Stories conveyed social support and problem-solving intervention themes designed to maintain increases in physical activity over time, and were adapted to the walking group context, group dynamics, challenges, and traditions. After describing of the CBPR process used to adapt stories to walking group sites, we discuss challenges and lessons learned regarding the adaptation and implementation of stories to convey key intervention themes. A CBPR approach to incorporating storytelling to convey intervention themes offers an innovative and flexible strategy to promote health toward the elimination of health inequities.
Wang, S; Carlton, EJ; Chen, L; Liu, Y; Spear, RC
Health education is an important component of efforts to control schistosomiasis. In China, while education programmes have been implemented intensively, few articles in recent years in either the Chinese or English literature report randomised, controlled interventions of the impacts on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Thus, we designed and carried out a cluster-randomised controlled education intervention trial that targeted 706 adults from rural areas in 28 villages in Sichuan, China. ...
Pool, Michelle S; Agyemang, Charles O; Smalbrugge, Martin
Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative health outcomes. The goal of this article was to identify effective interventions that improve social participation, and minimise social isolation and loneliness in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. An electronic database (PubMed) was systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for intervention studies in English, French, Dutch of German, without time limit. Additional articles were found using references. Articles were included if they studied an intervention aimed to improve social participation or minimise social isolation or loneliness and were focusing on community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Data regarding studies characteristics and results were extracted. Six studies (three randomized controlled trials, three non-controlled intervention studies) were included in the review. All studies were group-based interventions and had a theoretical basis. Five out of six studies showed improvement on a social participation, -isolation or loneliness outcome. Type of intervention included volunteering-, educational- and physical activities. In three studies active participation of the participant was required, these interventions were not more effective than other interventions. Some interventions improved the included social determinants of health in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Investment in further development and implementation of these interventions may help to improve social determinants of health in these populations. It is necessary to evaluate these interventions in the European setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Keefe, Robert H.; Ruth, Betty J.; Cox, Harold; Maramaldi, Peter; Rishel, Carrie; Rountree, Michele; Zlotnik, Joan; Marshall, Jamie
Social work education plays a critical role in preparing social workers to lead efforts that improve health. Because of the dynamic health care landscape, schools of social work must educate students to facilitate health care system improvements, enhance population health, and reduce medical costs. We reviewed the existing contributions of social work education and provided recommendations for improving the education of social workers in 6 key areas: aging, behavioral health, community health, global health, health reform, and health policy. We argue for systemic improvement in the curriculum at every level of education, including substantive increases in content in health, health care, health care ethics, and evaluating practice outcomes in health settings. Schools of social work can further increase the impact of the profession by enhancing the curricular focus on broad content areas such as prevention, health equity, population and community health, and health advocacy. PMID:29236540
Masters, Rebecca; Anwar, Elspeth; Collins, Brendan; Cookson, Richard; Capewell, Simon
Public sector austerity measures in many high-income countries mean that public health budgets are reducing year on year. To help inform the potential impact of these proposed disinvestments in public health, we set out to determine the return on investment (ROI) from a range of existing public health interventions. We conducted systematic searches on all relevant databases (including MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; AMED; PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus) to identify studies that calculated a ROI or cost-benefit ratio (CBR) for public health interventions in high-income countries. We identified 2957 titles, and included 52 studies. The median ROI for public health interventions was 14.3 to 1, and median CBR was 8.3. The median ROI for all 29 local public health interventions was 4.1 to 1, and median CBR was 10.3. Even larger benefits were reported in 28 studies analysing nationwide public health interventions; the median ROI was 27.2, and median CBR was 17.5. This systematic review suggests that local and national public health interventions are highly cost-saving. Cuts to public health budgets in high income countries therefore represent a false economy, and are likely to generate billions of pounds of additional costs to health services and the wider economy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Cuff, Patricia A.
"Assessing Health Professional Education" is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health professional education. At the event, Forum members shared personal experiences and learned from patients, students, educators, and…
Morvarid Ghasab Shirazi
Full Text Available BackgroundNutrition behaviors of adolescent girls is of serious health concerns. Although nutrition education interventions in Iran have met with some success, most of them could not promote nutrition behavioral changes. The aim of our study is to determine a school-based nutrition education intervention to improve adolescents’ nutrition behaviors and behavioral mediators based on the social cognitive theory (SCT.Materials and MethodsThis study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants will be all student girls in grade 6 and 7, their parents and teachers in Isfahan governmental schools. This multi component school-based intervention include adolescents’ nutrition education package, parents’ nutrition massages, participatory homework, parents and teachers nutrition education package, supportive group, and collaboration with decision makers. Changing in nutrition behaviors including breakfast, fruit and vegetable, snack and fast food consumption will be examined, as primary outcome. Secondary outcome will be behavioral mediators such as knowledge, self-efficacy, intention, situation, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations and expectancies, in adolescent girls. The outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and after 3 and 6-month follow-up.DiscussionThis study evaluates a school-based, guided SCT intervention, designed to improve healthy dietary behaviors, nutrition knowledge of adolescent girls. Few behavioral interventions have targeted this high-risk population in Iran. The intervention seems to be promising and has the potential to bridge the gap of the limited program outcomes of nutrition education in Iranian adolescents.
Danis, Marion; Kotwani, Namrata; Garrett, Joanne; Rivera, Ivonne; Davies-Cole, John; Carter-Nolan, Pamela
To determine the priorities of low-income urban residents for interventions that address the socio-economic determinants of health. We selected and estimated the cost of 16 interventions related to education, housing, nutrition, employment, health care, healthy behavior, neighborhood improvement, and transportation. Low-income residents of Washington, D.C. (N=431) participated in decision exercises to prioritize these interventions. Given a budget valued at approximately twice an estimated cost of medical and dental care ($885), the interventions ultimately prioritized by the greatest percentage of individuals were: health insurance (95%), housing vouchers (82%) dental care (82%), job training (72%), adult education (63%), counseling (68%), healthy behavior incentives (68%), and job placement (67%). The percentages of respondents who received support for housing, adult education, and job training and placement were far less than the percentage who prioritized these interventions. Poor and low-income residents' priorities may usefully inform allocation of social services that affect health.
Full Text Available Chronotherapy involves altering the timing of medication administration in coordination with the body’s circadian rhythms to improve the overall control of disease and to minimise treatment side effects. Training on chronotherapy requires students to map different topics learnt in earlier years of their professional degree and apply these concepts clinically. This requires strategic educational design. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop, implement and evaluate an educational intervention focusing on the application of chronotherapy for final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. An educational intervention utilizing multiple learning strategies for enhancing chronotherapy related awareness was designed and implemented in the final year undergraduate pharmacy cohort at the University of Sydney Australia (2013. A custom-designed questionnaire measuring awareness about (13 items scored 0 or 1, and attitudes (12 items scored on a Likert scale of 1–5 towards chronotherapy was administered pre and post intervention to evaluate its impact. The pre-intervention mean total awareness and attitude scores were 6.5 ± 2.0 (score range 0–13 and 47.4 ± 6.9 (score range 12–60 respectively. The mean total post-intervention scores were significantly higher for total awareness (10.1 ± 1.9 and attitude (54.0 ± 6.0. Carefully designed educational interventions utilising pedagogic principles for pharmacy students can improve awareness of and enhance positive attitudes toward pharmacists’ roles in optimizing drug therapy using chronotherapy.
Hickman, Nichole Erin; Schaar, Gina
Health care providers need to develop improved methods of educating adolescents. This study was developed to evaluate adolescents' responses to and satisfaction with an educational text message intervention to promote healthy behaviors, reduce the incidence of unhealthy behaviors, and prevent high-risk behaviors. Adolescent participants received weekly text messages regarding high-risk sexual behaviors, healthy dietary habits, exercise, drug, or alcohol use, and social issues. Results indicate adolescents learned something new, made a behavioral change, and overall liked the delivery of educational information via text message. This indicates long-term continuation of a text message intervention is a viable means to deliver adolescent health information, thereby improving an adolescent's current and future health status.
A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a support and training intervention to improve the mental health of secondary school teachers and students - the WISE (Wellbeing in Secondary Education) study.
Kidger, Judi; Stone, Tracey; Tilling, Kate; Brockman, Rowan; Campbell, Rona; Ford, Tamsin; Hollingworth, William; King, Michael; Araya, Ricardo; Gunnell, David
Secondary school teachers are at heightened risk of psychological distress, which can lead to poor work performance, poor quality teacher-student relationships and mental illness. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) - the WISE study - evaluated the feasibility of a full-scale RCT of an intervention to support school staff's own mental health, and train them in supporting student mental health. Six schools were randomised to an intervention or control group. In the intervention schools i) 8-9 staff received Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training and became staff peer supporters, and ii) youth MHFA training was offered to the wider staff body. Control schools continued with usual practice. We used thematic qualitative data analysis and regression modelling to ascertain the feasibility, acceptability and potential usefulness of the intervention. Thirteen training observations, 14 staff focus groups and 6 staff interviews were completed, and 438 staff (43.5 %) and 1,862 (56.3 %) students (years 8 and 9) completed questionnaires at baseline and one year later. MHFA training was considered relevant for schools, and trainees gained in knowledge, confidence in helping others, and awareness regarding their own mental health. Suggestions for reducing the length of the training and focusing on helping strategies were made. A peer support service was established in all intervention schools and was perceived to be helpful in supporting individuals in difficulty - for example through listening, and signposting to other services - and raising the profile of mental health at a whole school level. Barriers to use included lack of knowledge about the service, concerns about confidentiality and a preference for accessing support from pre-existing networks. The WISE intervention is feasible and acceptable to schools. Results support the development of a full-scale cluster RCT, if steps are taken to improve response rates and implement the suggested improvements to the
Evelyn Helena Corgosinho Ribeiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of interventions on the levels of physical activity of healthy adults, users of the Brazilian Unified Health System and attended by the Family Health Strategy. METHODS Non-randomized experimental study with 157 adults allocated in three groups: 1 physical exercise classes (n = 54, 2 health education (n = 54, 3 control (n = 49. The study lasted for18 months, with 12 months of interventions and six months of follow-up after intervention. Assessments took place at the beginning, in the 12 months, and in the 18 months of study. Physical activity has been assessed by questionnaires and accelerometry. For the analyses, we have used the intention-to-treat principle and generalized estimating equations. RESULTS After 12 months, both intervention groups have increased the minutes of weekly leisure time physical activity and annual scores of physical exercise, leisure and transport-related physical activity. The exercise class group has obtained the highest average annual physical exercises score when compared to the other groups (p < 0.001. In the follow-up period, the exercise class group reduced its annual score (average: -0.3; 95%CI -0.5–-0.1, while the health education group increased this score (average: 0.2; 95%CI 0.1–0.4. There have been no differences in the levels of physical activity measured by accelerometry. CONCLUSIONS The interventions have been effective in increasing the practice of physical activity. However, we have observed that the health education intervention was more effective for maintaining the practice of physical activity in the period after intervention. We recommend the use of both interventions to promote physical activity in the Brazilian Unified Health System, according to the local reality of professionals, facilities, and team objectives.
Leigh-Hunt, Nicholas; Cooper, Duncan; Furber, Andrew; Bevan, Gwyn; Gray, Muir
The Socio-Technical Allocation of Resources (STAR) has been developed for value for money analysis of health services through stakeholder workshops. This article reports on its application for prioritization of interventions within public health programmes. The STAR tool was used by identifying costs and service activity for interventions within commissioned public health programmes, with benefits estimated from the literature on economic evaluations in terms of costs per Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs); consensus on how these QALY values applied to local services was obtained with local commissioners. Local cost-effectiveness estimates could be made for some interventions. Methodological issues arose from gaps in the evidence base for other interventions, inability to closely match some performance monitoring data with interventions, and disparate time horizons of published QALY data. Practical adjustment for these issues included using population prevalences and utility states where intervention specific evidence was lacking, and subdivision of large contracts into specific intervention costs using staffing ratios. The STAR approach proved useful in informing commissioning decisions and understanding the relative value of local public health interventions. Further work is needed to improve robustness of the process and develop a visualization tool for use by public health departments. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Rosen, Brittany L; Bishop, James M; McDonald, Skye L; Kahn, Jessica A; Kreps, Gary L
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates fall far short of Healthy People 2020 objectives. A leading reason is that clinicians do not recommend the vaccine consistently and strongly to girls and boys in the age group recommended for vaccination. Although Web-based HPV vaccine educational interventions for clinicians have been created to promote vaccination recommendations, rigorous evaluations of these interventions have not been conducted. Such evaluations are important to maximize the efficacy of educational interventions in promoting clinician recommendations for HPV vaccination. The objectives of our study were (1) to expand previous research by systematically identifying HPV vaccine Web-based educational interventions developed for clinicians and (2) to evaluate the quality of these Web-based educational interventions as defined by access, content, design, user evaluation, interactivity, and use of theory or models to create the interventions. Current HPV vaccine Web-based educational interventions were identified from general search engines (ie, Google), continuing medical education search engines, health department websites, and professional organization websites. Web-based educational interventions were included if they were created for clinicians (defined as individuals qualified to deliver health care services, such as physicians, clinical nurses, and school nurses, to patients aged 9 to 26 years), delivered information about the HPV vaccine and how to increase vaccination rates, and provided continuing education credits. The interventions' content and usability were analyzed using 6 key indicators: access, content, design, evaluation, interactivity, and use of theory or models. A total of 21 interventions were identified, out of which 7 (33%) were webinars, 7 (33%) were videos or lectures, and 7 (33%) were other (eg, text articles, website modules). Of the 21 interventions, 17 (81%) identified the purpose of the intervention, 12 (57%) provided the
Lúcia Rondelo Duarte
Full Text Available Aiming at contributing inputs to the learning process of community health agents from Family Health Strategy, this study has sought to devise an Educational Program to qualify seven community agents from the Family Health Unit on Habiteto, a neighborhood in the Brazilian city of Sorocaba. Speeches on the perception these agents have of their work, their difficulties and proposals were captured and analyzed within the framework of the "Collective Subject Speech". Results showed the group's learning needs, and guided the devising and implementation of the Educational Program, which adopted the "Problem-Based Education" model. This knowledge was built by the agents through a problem-focused reality, debating, searching for solutions, and implementing intervention projects. They noticed that being a community health agent means, above all, to struggle and harness community forces for purposes of defending health & education public services and for improving social health determinants.
Lindgren, Kurt; Koldkjær Sølling, Ina; Carøe, Per; Siggaard Mathiesen, Kirsten
The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration creates natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction between these three areas of expertise is to create an understanding of skills and cultural differences in each area. Futhermore, the aim is to enable future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve health literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view of welfare technology, a Student Academy was created as a theoretically- and practically-oriented learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management related to e-health and health literacy. The Student Academy inspires students, stakeholders, politicians, DanAge Association members, companies, and professionals to participate in training, projects, workshops, and company visits.
Lindgren, Kurt; Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per
The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration contributes to the creation of a natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction between the 3...... as a theoretical and practical learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management in relation to e-health and Health Literacy. The Student Academy inspires students...... areas of expertise is to create an understanding for each other's skills and cultural differences. Futhermore enabling future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve Health Literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view on welfare technology a Student Academy was created...
Lindgren, Kurt; Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration contributes to the creation of a natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction...... as a theoretical and practical learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management in relation to e-health and Health Literacy. The Student Academy inspires students...... between the 3 areas of expertise is to create an understanding for each other's skills and cultural differences. Futhermore enabling future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve Health Literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view on welfare technology a Student Academy was created...
Campbell, M E; Gardner, C E; Dwyer, J J; Isaacs, S M; Krueger, P D; Ying, J Y
To summarize evidence on the effectiveness of public health interventions regarding food safety at restaurants, institutions, homes and other community-based settings. This systematic review of published and unpublished studies involved a comprehensive literature search, screening for relevance, quality assessment of relevant studies, data extraction and synthesis. The interventions identified in 15 studies included in this review were grouped into three categories: inspections, food handler training, and community-based education. The evidence suggests that: routine inspection (at least once per year) of food service premises is effective in reducing the risk of foodborne illness; food handler training can improve the knowledge and practices of food handlers; and selected community-based education programs can increase public knowledge of food safety. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of multiple public health interventions on food safety. Future research needs include evaluation of HACCP and community-based education programs.
Full Text Available Introduction: The study was carried out in Cruz del Eje Department, Cordoba Province, Argentina. It was based on diagnosis of conceptions of health, concentration of fluoride in drinking water and accessibility to dental coverage in 71 rural schools. Additionally, parents and teachers’ conceptions of general and oral health, dental clinical status and sialochemistry of students from eight schools were considered. Objective: To evaluate a community intervention strategy for promoting oral health in rural contexts. Through the participation of the teacher as a mediator of healthy pattern, this strategy was developed. Methods: In order to elaborate oral health promoting strategies, educational workshops, epistolary communication and on site tutorials meetings were implemented. Specific health projects to be added to the Educational Institutional Programs, as a contextualized mediating strategy for promoting oral health were designed by teachers. The strategy was evaluated comparing dental caries increase (CI detected the previous year and the one following the implementation of the educational plans. Mac Nemar's test was applied, and p<0.05 was set to indicate statistical differences between both periods. Results: A 30.43% CI (p<0.0001 was observed the year before implementing the educational programs as well as a CI reduction to 17.39% (p=0.0002 a year after their application. Conclusion: The drop off in 57.14% of the CI in rural areas, confirms the intervention strategy of designed for this particular context.Keywords: community intervention, oral health promotion, rural communities.
The impact of a knowledge translation intervention employing educational outreach and a point-of-care reminder tool vs standard lay health worker training on tuberculosis treatment completion rates: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.
Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; van Lettow, Monique; Makwakwa, Austine; Chan, Adrienne K; Hamid, Jemila S; Kawonga, Harry; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Schull, Michael J; van Schoor, Vanessa; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Barnsley, Jan; Straus, Sharon E
Despite availability of effective treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with low- and middle-income countries most affected. In many such settings, including Malawi, the high burden of disease and severe shortage of skilled healthcare workers has led to task-shifting of outpatient TB care to lay health workers (LHWs). LHWs improve access to healthcare and some outcomes, including TB completion rates, but lack of training and supervision limit their impact. The goals of this study are to improve TB care provided by LHWs in Malawi by refining, implementing, and evaluating a knowledge translation strategy designed to address a recognized gap in LHWs' TB and job-specific knowledge and, through this, to improve patient outcomes. We are employing a mixed-methods design that includes a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation using qualitative methods. Trial participants will include all health centers providing TB care in four districts in the South East Zone of Malawi. The intervention employs educational outreach, a point-of-care reminder tool, and a peer support network. The primary outcome is proportion of treatment successes, defined as the total of TB patients cured or completing treatment, with outcomes taken from Ministry of Health treatment records. With an alpha of 0.05, power of 0.80, a baseline treatment success of 0.80, intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.1 based on our pilot study, and an estimated 100 clusters (health centers providing TB care), a minimum of 6 patients per cluster is required to detect a clinically significant 0.10 increase in the proportion of treatment successes. Our process evaluation will include interviews with LHWs and patients, and a document analysis of LHW training logs, quarterly peer trainer meetings, and mentorship meeting notes. An estimated 10-15 LHWs and 10-15 patients will be required to reach saturation in each of 2 planned interview
Nielsen, Karina; Randall, Raymond; Holten, Ann-Louise
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in how organizational-level occupational health interventions aimed at improving psychosocial working conditions and employee health and well-being may be planned, implemented and evaluated. It has been claimed that such interventions have...... the alteration of the way in which work is designed, organized and managed. The methods identified are the Risk Management approach and the Management Standards from Great Britain, the German Health Circles approach, Work Positive from Ireland and Prevenlab from Spain. Comparative analyses reveal...... their appropriateness in conducting organizationallevel occupational health interventions. Finally, we discuss where we still need more research to determine the working ingredients of organizational-level occupational health interventions....
The objectives of this study are to assess undergraduate awareness of cancer risk factors, prevention strategies, and warning signs and to evaluate whether an educational intervention increases cancer awareness. This study adopts a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Of the 386 students who completed the pretest, only 35-39 % identified low fruit and vegetable intake, being overweight, and physical inactivity as cancer risk factors, and cancer warning signs. After the educational intervention, the analysis of variance of changes from baseline (the pretest score) for all four experimental groups were all significantly higher than those of the two control groups (p ≤.001), except for the change of the retention test score from the pretest score for experimental group 3. This study highlights the need to improve undergraduates' cancer awareness and the effectiveness of educational intervention.
Barker, Mary; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Colbourn, Tim; Fall, Caroline H D; Kriznik, Natasha M; Lawrence, Wendy T; Norris, Shane A; Ngaiza, Gloria; Patel, Dilisha; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine; Vogel, Christina; Woods-Townsend, Kathryn; Stephenson, Judith
The nutritional status of both women and men before conception has profound implications for the growth, development, and long-term health of their offspring. Evidence of the effectiveness of preconception interventions for improving outcomes for mothers and babies is scarce. However, given the large potential health return, and relatively low costs and risk of harm, research into potential interventions is warranted. We identified three promising strategies for intervention that are likely to be scalable and have positive effects on a range of health outcomes: supplementation and fortification; cash transfers and incentives; and behaviour change interventions. On the basis of these strategies, we suggest a model specifying pathways to effect. Pathways are incorporated into a life-course framework using individual motivation and receptiveness at different preconception action phases, to guide design and targeting of preconception interventions. Interventions for individuals not planning immediate pregnancy take advantage of settings and implementation platforms outside the maternal and child health arena, since this group is unlikely to be engaged with maternal health services. Interventions to improve women's nutritional status and health behaviours at all preconception action phases should consider social and environmental determinants, to avoid exacerbating health and gender inequalities, and be underpinned by a social movement that touches the whole population. We propose a dual strategy that targets specific groups actively planning a pregnancy, while improving the health of the population more broadly. Modern marketing techniques could be used to promote a social movement based on an emotional and symbolic connection between improved preconception maternal health and nutrition, and offspring health. We suggest that speedy and scalable benefits to public health might be achieved through strategic engagement with the private sector. Political theory supports
Lee, Tae Wha; Lee, Seon Heui; Kim, Hye Hyun; Kang, Soo Jin
Systematic studies on the relationship between health literacy and health outcomes demonstrate that as health literacy declines, patients engage in fewer preventive health and self-care behaviors and have worse disease-related knowledge. The purpose of this study was to identify effective intervention strategies to improve health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and low literacy skills. This study employs the following criteria recommended by Khan Kunz, Keijnen, and Antes (2003) for systematic review: framing question, identifying relevant literature, assessing quality of the literature, summarizing the evidence, and interpreting the finding. A total of 235 articles were reviewed by the research team, and 9 articles met inclusion criteria. Although nine studies were reviewed for their health outcomes, only six studies, which had a positive quality grade evaluation were used to recommend effective intervention strategies. Interventions were categorized into three groups: tailored counseling, self-monitoring, and periodic reminder. The main strategies used to improve health outcomes of low literacy patients included tailored counseling, improved provider-patient interactions, organizing information by patient preference, self-care algorithms, and self-directed learning. Specific strategies included written materials tailored to appropriate reading levels, materials using plain language, emphasizing key points with large font size, and using visual items such as icons or color codes. With evidence-driven strategies, health care professionals can use tailored interventions to provide better health education and counseling that meets patient needs and improves health outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Barnes, Michael D.; Wykoff, Randy; King, Laura Rasar; Petersen, Donna J.
The article provides an overview of efforts to improve public health and health education training and on the potential use of Critical Component Elements (CCEs) for undergraduate health education programs toward more consistent quality assurance across programs. Considered in the context of the Galway Consensus Conference, the authors discuss the…
Effectiveness of outputs of a qualified intervention can be valued by several positive criteria corresponding to the "quality of life" conception, which is based on the feeling of the health and contentment. The finding that great differences in the income among different social groups in conditions of the liberal market society correlate with several health and social problems brought about to the hypothesis that the decrease of the differences in the income, accompanied by strengthening of various forms of the social cohesion, civic solidarity, legitimate equality, and ethical justice may substantially improve the health status of the population. The hypothesis has been verified in many epidemiological studies and found to be valid enough for the health policy and far-seeing economy. Analytics of the World Bank recommend to governments primary invest into the health of socially week groups in order to decrease their poverty and to keep social conciliation. World Health Organization (WHO) sets in its new program for Europe called "21 Goals for the 21st Century" that differences in the health status among the European states should diminish till 2020 by one third and within the countries by one quarter at least. Both goals should be achieved by a substantial improvement of the health status of the ill-adapted social groups and by significant improvement of those socioeconomical conditions which may have adverse effects namely on the differences in incomes, education and opportunities for employment.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Incidence rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been estimated to be 18.5%. GDM is associated with various challenges in terms of care and public health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of health education and behavioral interventions on the quality of life in the patients diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 149 eligible participants, who were randomly assigned to the intervention and control group with the allocation ratio of 1:1. Participants were divided into four groups, including nutrition therapy with and without education and insulin therapy with and without education. Follow-up of the patients was performed during 12 weeks (January 2014-April 2015. The educational intervention consisted of various aspects, including diet, exercise, glycemic control, postpartum diabetes control and recommendations for delivery. Primary and secondary outcomes were the effects of the educational intervention on the metabolic control and quality of life, respectively. All the women completed the Iranian version of the Diabetes Quality of Life Brief Clinical Inventory (IDQL-BCI prior to and after the educational intervention. Data analysis was performed using variance, covariance and Chi-square in SPSS version 15, at the significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant difference was observed between the four groups in terms of the quality of life score in the DQOL-BCL before the educational program. However, this score increased in all study groups, especially in the insulin therapy group (mean difference=16.43. Conclusion: According to the results, health education program could be effective in enhancing health-related quality of life in the women with GDM.
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.
Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…
Franks, H; Hardiker, N R; McGrath, M; McQuarrie, C
This study identified and reviewed grey literature relating to factors facilitating and inhibiting effective interventions in three areas: the promotion of mental health and well-being, the improvement of food and nutrition, and interventions seeking to increase engagement in physical activity. Sourcing, reviewing and analysis of relevant grey literature. Evidence was collected from a variety of non-traditional sources. Thirty-six pieces of documentary evidence across the three areas were selected for in-depth appraisal and review. A variety of approaches, often short-term, were used both as interventions and outcome measures. Interventions tended to have common outcomes, enabling the identification of themes. These included improvements in participant well-being as well as identification of barriers to, and promoters of, success. Most interventions demonstrated some positive impact, although some did not. This was particularly the case for more objective measures of change, such as physiological measurements, particularly when used to evaluate short-term interventions. Objective health measurement as part of an intervention may act as a catalyst for future behaviour change. Time is an important factor that could either promote or impede the success of interventions for both participants and facilitators. Likewise, the importance of involving all stakeholders, including participants, when planning health promoting interventions was established as an important indicator of success. Despite its limited scope, this review suggests that interventions can be more efficient and effective. For example, larger-scale, longer-term interventions could be more efficient, whilst outcomes relating to the implementation and beyond could provide a clearer picture of effectiveness. Additionally, interventions and evaluations must be flexible, evolve in partnership with local communities, and reflect local need and context. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health
Hernández Contreras, Natividad; Noguerol Oliva, Jagiorkis; Cantelar de Francisco, C Nereyda; Sánchez Valdés, C Lizet; Hernández Alvarez, C Hilda; Cabrera Cantelar, Nereyda
Aedes aegypti is a common vector in Cuba, which damages human health. Santiago de Cuba is one of the provinces with high number of mosquito foci in a sustained way. Therefore, it is very important, from the social viewpoint, to carry out educational interventions with anti-vector campaign workers in Mella municipality in this province. to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on dengue, Aedes aegypti and monitoring actions with anti-vector program workers from Mella municipality in Santiago de Cuba. a quasi-experimental research was conducted before and after the educational intervention from November to December, 2010. Lectures and workshops were given in each of the three health areas of the municipality. The sample was made up of 64 workers. The addressed topics were dengue, Aedes aegypti and actions to control them. An Excel database was created. Wilconxon's sign tests were applied to check changes in knowledge. SPSS statistical processor was used (11.5 version). before the educational interveption, the knowledge on dengue was broader than those on the rest of the addressed topics. After the intervention, except for the responses about the disease, the rest of the topics increased their initial assessment values. The topic Aedes aegypti had the highest number of satisfactory answers (100 %), followed by actions to control the vector (90 %). the educational strategy was effective, since it achieved high impact on the increase of knowledge of the anti-vector campaign workers in Mella municipality, Santiago de Cuba province.
Pope, Zachary; Lee, Jung Eun; Zeng, Nan; Lee, Hee Yun; Gao, Zan
Breast cancer survivors are at risk for poor health, with physical activity a possible treatment. Little research has examined how technology might promote breast cancer survivor physical activity or health. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of employing a commercially available mobile health application- and social media-based health education intervention to improve breast cancer survivor physical activity or health.Ten breast cancer survivors (X̅ age = 45.80 ± 10.23 years; X̅ weight = 79.51 ± 20.85 kg) participated in this 10-week single-group pilot study from 2015 to 2016. Participants downloaded the MapMyFitness application, documented all physical activity with MapMyFitness, and were enrolled in a Social Cognitive Theory-based, Facebook-delivered health education intervention. Objectively measured physical activity, weight or body composition, cardiovascular fitness, psychosocial constructs, and quality of life indices were measured at baseline and 10 weeks. Intervention use and acceptability was evaluated during and following the intervention. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all study outcomes, with qualitative analyses performed regarding use and acceptability. At postintervention, average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps increased by 2.6 min and 1,657, respectively, with notable decreases in weight (2.4 kg) and body fat percentage (2.3%). Physical activity-related social support and ability to engage in social roles or activity demonstrated the greatest improvements among all psychosocial and quality of life indices, respectively. Participants enjoyed the feedback and tracking features of MapMyFitness, with most finding the Facebook component helpful. All participants recommended the intervention for future use.Physical activity interventions combining commercially available mobile health applications and theoretically based social media-delivered health interventions may promote certain
Rönngren, Ylva; Björk, Annette; Audulv, Åsa; Enmarker, Ingela; Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Haage, David
Although persons with severe mental illness face an increased risk of mortality and of developing negative health outcomes, research has shown that lifestyle interventions can sufficiently support their health. In response, this study examined a nurse-led lifestyle intervention developed in cooperation with members of municipal and county councils to gauge its impact on the quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and body composition of persons with severe mental illness. Lasting 26 weeks and involving 38 persons with severe mental illness, the intervention prioritised two components: the interpersonal relationships of persons with severe mental illness, staff, and group leaders and group education about physical and mental health. Pre-post intervention measurements of quality of life collected with the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, cognitive performance with the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale, walking capacity with a 6-min walk test, and body composition in terms of waist circumference and body mass index were analysed using a nonparametric test Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results suggest that the intervention afforded significant improvements in the health-related variables of quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and waist circumference for persons with severe mental illness. However, long-term studies with control groups and that examine parameters related to cardiovascular risk factors are essential to ensure the sustained impact of the intervention. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
De Cesaro, Bruna Campos; Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Nunes, Gabriela Pisoni Canedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi
Systematically review the literature on interventions in children's language in primary health care. One searched the electronic databases (January 1980 to March 2013) MEDLINE (accessed by PubMed), Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo. The search terms used were "child language", "primary health care", "randomized controlled trial" and "intervention studies" (in English, Portuguese and Spanish). There were included any randomized controlled trials that addressed the issues child language and primary health care. The analysis was based on the type of language intervention conducted in primary health care. Seven studies were included and used intervention strategies such as interactive video, guidance for parents and group therapy. Individuals of both genders were included in the seven studies. The age of the children participant in the samples of the articles included in this review ranged from zero to 11 years. These seven studies used approaches that included only parents, parents and children or just children. The mainly intervention in language on primary health care, used in randomized controlled trials, involved the use of interactional video. Several professionals, beyond speech and language therapist, been inserted in the language interventions on primary health care, demonstrating the importance of interdisciplinary work. None of the articles mentioned aspects related to hearing. There was scarcity of randomized controlled trials that address on language and public health, either in Brazil or internationally.
Griffiths, P E; West, C
The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leahy, Deana; Simovska, Venka
Purpose - This Special Issue aims to place the spotlight on educational research and its contribution to the field of school-based health and wellbeing promotion. The purpose is to bring together scholars from across the world to consider current developments in research on curricula, interventions......, policies and practices concerning health and wellbeing promotion and related professional development of teachers. Design/methodology/approach - The members of European Educational Research Association (EERA) Network Research on Health Education (Network 8) were invited to submit their conceptual...... or empirical work addressing processes and outcomes in school health and wellbeing promotion. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education website and on EERA website. Following the double blind peer review process and editorial work by the guest editors and the editor in chief...
Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: Cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario
van de Velde, G.; Cote, P.; Bayoumi, A.M.; Cassidy, J.D.; Boyle, E.; Shearer, H.M.; Stupar, M.; Jacobs, C.; Ammendolia, C.; Carette, S.; van Tulder, M.W.
Background: Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the
François L. Thériault
Full Text Available The World Health Organization currently recommends that school-based deworming programs include health hygiene education as a complementary measure. However, the sustainability and long-term impact of such hygiene education had yet to be assessed. In July 2012, this cross-sectional study was conducted in 18 primary schools in the Peruvian Amazon to gauge continuing adherence to a health hygiene education intervention introduced 2 years earlier to reduce soil-transmitted helminth infections. Due in large part to high teacher turn-over, only 9 of 47 (19.1% teachers were still implementing the intervention. Health hygiene education interventions must, therefore, be designed to ensure sustainability in order to contribute to the overall effectiveness of school-based deworming programs.
Thériault, François L; Blouin, Brittany; Casapía, Martín; Gyorkos, Theresa W
The World Health Organization currently recommends that school-based deworming programs include health hygiene education as a complementary measure. However, the sustainability and long-term impact of such hygiene education had yet to be assessed. In July 2012, this cross-sectional study was conducted in 18 primary schools in the Peruvian Amazon to gauge continuing adherence to a health hygiene education intervention introduced 2 years earlier to reduce soil-transmitted helminth infections. Due in large part to high teacher turn-over, only 9 of 47 (19.1%) teachers were still implementing the intervention. Health hygiene education interventions must, therefore, be designed to ensure sustainability in order to contribute to the overall effectiveness of school-based deworming programs.
Beratarrechea, Andrea; Moyano, Daniela; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo
mHealth constitutes a promise for health care delivery in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where health care systems are unprepared to combat the threat of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This article assesses the impact of mHealth on NCD outcomes in LMICs. A systematic review identified controlled studies evaluating mHealth interventions that addressed NCDs in LMICs. From the 1274 abstracts retrieved, 108 articles were selected for full text review and 20 randomized controlled trials were included from 14 LMICs. One-way SMS was the most commonly used mobile function to deliver reminders, health education, and information. mHealth interventions in LMICs have positive but modest effects on chronic disease outcomes. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Harris, Jeffrey
As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and…
Duplaga, Mariusz; Grysztar, Marcin; Rodzinka, Marcin; Kopec, Agnieszka
The ageing of modern societies remains one of the greatest challenges for health and social systems. To respond to this challenge, we need effective strategies assuring healthy active life for elderly people. Health promotion and related activities are perceived as a key intervention, which can improve wellbeing in later life. The main aim of this study is the identification and classification of such interventions addressed to older adults and elderly. Therefore, the strategy based on the scoping review as a feasible tool for exploring this domain, summarizing research findings and identifying gaps of evidence, was applied. The scoping review relies on the analysis of previous reviews of interventions aimed at older adults (55-64 years old) and elderly persons (65 years and above) assessed for their effectiveness in the framework of a systematic review and/or meta-analysis. The search strategy was based on the identification of interventions reported as health promotion, primary disease prevention, screening or social support. In the analysis, the reviews published from January 2000 to April 2015 were included. The search strategy yielded 334 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses addressed to target groups of interest, 182 of them assessed interventions belonging to health promotion, 219 to primary prevention, 34 to screening and 35 to social support. The studies focused on elderly (65 years and above) made up 40.4 % of all retrieved reviews and those addressing population of 55 years and above accounted for 24.0 %. Interventions focused on health maintenance and improvement in elderly and older adults represent frequently combined health promotion and disease prevention actions. Many interventions of this type are not addressed exclusively to elderly populations and/or older adults but are designed for the general population. The most common types of interventions addressed to elderly and older adults in the area of health promotion include health
Tsui, Emma K
A growing literature on the social determinants of health strongly suggests the value of examining social policy interventions for their potential links to health equity. I investigate how sectoral job training, an intervention favored by the Obama administration, might be conceptualized as an intervention to improve health equity. Sectoral job training programs ideally train workers, who are typically low income, for upwardly mobile job opportunities within specific industries. I first explore the relationships between resource redistribution and health equity. Next, I discuss how sectoral job training theoretically redistributes resources and the ways in which these resources might translate into improved health. Finally, I make recommendations for strengthening the link between sectoral job training and improved health equity.
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Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah; Wood, Fiona
This article outlines the contribution that ethnography could make to process evaluations for trials of complex health-behaviour interventions. Process evaluations are increasingly used to examine how health-behaviour interventions operate to produce outcomes and often employ qualitative methods to do this. Ethnography shares commonalities with the qualitative methods currently used in health-behaviour evaluations but has a distinctive approach over and above these methods. It is an overlooked methodology in trials of complex health-behaviour interventions that has much to contribute to the understanding of how interventions work. These benefits are discussed here with respect to three strengths of ethnographic methodology: (1) producing valid data, (2) understanding data within social contexts, and (3) building theory productively. The limitations of ethnography within the context of process evaluations are also discussed.
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
Fortune, Nicola; Madden, Richard; Almborg, Ann-Helene
Development of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is currently underway. Once finalised, ICHI will provide a standard basis for collecting, aggregating, analysing, and comparing data on health interventions across all sectors of the health system. In this paper, we introduce the classification, describing its underlying tri-axial structure, organisation and content. We then discuss the potential value of ICHI for capturing information on met and unmet need for health interventions relevant to people with a disability, with a particular focus on interventions to support functioning and health promotion interventions. Early experiences of use of the Swedish National Classification of Social Care Interventions and Activities, which is based closely on ICHI, illustrate the value of a standard classification to support practice and collect statistical data. Testing of the ICHI beta version in a wide range of countries and contexts is now needed so that improvements can be made before it is finalised. Input from those with an interest in the health of people with disabilities and health promotion more broadly is welcomed.
Ramchand, Rajeev; Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C; Xenakis, Lea; Apaydin, Eric; Raaen, Laura; Grimm, Geoffrey
Prior research has examined peer programs with respect to specific peer roles (e.g.; peer support) or specific health/wellness domains (e.g.; exercise/diet), or have aggregated effects across roles and domains. We sought to conduct a systematic review that categorizes and assesses the effects of peer interventions to promote health and wellness by peer role, intervention type, and outcomes. We use evidence mapping to visually catalog and synthesize the existing research. We searched PubMed and WorldCat databases (2005 to 2015) and New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report (1999 to 2016) for English-language randomized control trials. We extracted study design, study participants, type of intervention(s), peer role(s), outcomes assessed and measures used, and effects from 116 randomized controlled trials. Maps were created to provide a visual display of the evidence by intervention type, peer role, outcome type, and significant vs null or negative effects. There are more null than positive effects across peer interventions, with notable exceptions: group-based interventions that use peers as educators or group facilitators commonly improve knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions; peer educators also commonly improved social health/connectedness and engagement. Dyadic peer support influenced behavior change and peer counseling shows promising effects on physical health outcomes. Programs seeking to use peers in public health campaigns can use evidence maps to identify interventions that have previously demonstrated beneficial effects. Those seeking to produce health outcomes may benefit from identifying the mechanisms by which they expect their program to produce these effects and associated proximal outcomes for future evaluations. Although we attempted to register our protocol with PROSPERO, we did not meet eligibility criteria because we were past the data collection phase. The full PROSPERO-aligned protocol is available from the authors
Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah
Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.
DiCarlo, Abby; Fayorsey, Ruby; Syengo, Masila; Chege, Duncan; Sirengo, Martin; Reidy, William; Otieno, Juliana; Omoto, Jackton; Hawken, Mark P; Abrams, Elaine J
The recent scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services has rapidly accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa. The Mother and Infant Retention for Health (MIR4Health) study evaluates the impact of a combination intervention administered by trained lay health workers to decrease attrition among HIV-positive women initiating PMTCT services and their infants through 6 months postpartum. This was a qualitative study nested within the MIR4Health trial. MIR4Health was conducted at 10 health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya from September 2013 to September 2015. The trial intervention addressed behavioral, social, and structural barriers to PMTCT retention and included: appointment reminders via text and phone calls, follow-up and tracking for missed clinic visits, PMTCT health education at home visits and during clinic visits, and retention and adherence support and counseling. All interventions were administered by lay health workers. We describe results of a nested small qualitative inquiry which conducted two focus groups to assess the experiences and perceptions of lay health workers administering the interventions. Discussions were recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated into English. Data were analyzed using framework analysis approach. Study findings show lay health workers played a critical role supporting mothers in PMTCT services across a range of behavioral, social, and structural domains, including improved communication and contact, health education, peer support, and patient advocacy and assistance. Findings also identified barriers to the uptake and implementation of the interventions, such as concerns about privacy and stigma, and the limitations of the healthcare system including healthcare worker attitudes. Overall, study findings indicate that lay health workers found the interventions to be feasible, acceptable, and well received by clients. Lay
Ramsey, Alex T; Montgomery, Katherine
Despite concerns around the use of technology-based interventions, they are increasingly being employed by social workers as a direct practice methodology to address the mental health needs of vulnerable clients. Researchers have highlighted the importance of using innovative technologies within social work practice, yet little has been done to summarize the evidence and collectively assess findings. In this systematic review, we describe accounts of technology-based mental health interventions delivered by social workers over the past 10 years. Results highlight the impacts of these tools and summarize advantages and disadvantages to utilizing technologies as a method for delivering or facilitating interventions.
Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriëtte Maassen
Education and health are the two most important characteristics of human capital. Their economic value lies in the effects they have on productivity: both education and health make individuals more productive. Education and health have a considerable impact on individual well-being, as well. The
Public speculation about bioterrorism and the increasing obesity epidemic are examples of current public health issues that continue to be illuminated in the spotlight. Major public health threats continue to drive the health job market and impact higher education health curricula (e.g., public health, health promotion, community health). Also,…
Shet, Arun S; Rao, Abha; Jebaraj, Paul; Mascarenhas, Maya; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Atkins, Salla
Lay health workers (LHWs) are increasingly used to complement health services internationally. Their perceptions of the interventions they implement and their experiences in delivering community based interventions in India have been infrequently studied. We developed a novel LHW led intervention to improve anemia cure rates in rural community dwelling children attending village day care centers in South India. Since the intervention is delivered by the village day care center LHW, we sought to understand participating LHWs' acceptance of and perspectives regarding the intervention, particularly in relation to factors affecting daily implementation. We conducted a qualitative study alongside a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a complex community intervention for childhood anemia control in Karnataka, South India. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with trained LHWs assigned to deliver the educational intervention. These were complemented by non-participant observations of LHWs delivering the intervention. Transcripts of the FGDs were translated and analyzed using the framework analysis method. Several factors made the intervention acceptable to the LHWs and facilitated its implementation including pre-implementation training modules, intervention simplicity, and ability to incorporate the intervention into the routine work schedule. LHWs felt that the intervention impacted negatively on their preexisting workload. Fluctuating relationships with mothers weakened the LHWs position as providers of the intervention and hampered efficient implementation, despite the LHWs' highly valued position in the community. Modifiable barriers to the successful implementation of this intervention were seen at two levels. At a broader contextual level, hindering factors included the LHW being overburdened, inadequately reimbursed, and receiving insufficient employer support. At the health system level, lack of streamlining of LHW duties, inability of LHWs to
Carr, Susan M; Lhussier, Monique; Forster, Natalie
The use of lay health advisers has become an established approach within public health, in particular for impact on health inequalities and engaging socially excluded groups. Evidence on how differences in terms of the multiple role dimensions impact the outcomes of programs is limited. This creates ambiguity for decision makers on which roles should be implemented in different contexts for different needs. This paper applies realist logic to an inquiry to explore the mechanisms that may operate in lay-led intervention models and understand how, why, and in what respect these lead to particular outcomes. It draws on a project focusing on health-related lifestyle advisers and further insights gained from a subsequent related project about outreach with traveler communities. Analysis highlights multiple and potentially interacting aspects of lay health-adviser roles that may influence their success, including characteristics of lay health advisers, characteristics of target populations, purpose or intent of interventions, and how advice is given. A model is proposed from which to examine the contexts and mechanisms of lay health advisers that may impact outcomes, and is subsequently applied to two examples of reported lay health-adviser interventions. The combination of skills and characteristics of lay health advisers must be considered when planning which interventions might be appropriate when targeting specific needs or target populations. Focus only on the peer/layperson distinction may overlook other potentially important skills and mechanisms of action integral to lay health-adviser roles.
Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L
Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skogrand, Linda; Torres, Eliza; Higginbotham, Brian J.
This program evaluation was conducted by interviewing 40 low-income participants in a relationship education (RE) program for stepfamilies to determine specific benefits of a group-formatted intervention. The benefits that were most often identified were learning from others and having personal stepfamily challenges normalized. Participants also…
Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine
The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…
The paper outlines guidelines for developing policy on use of nontraditional educational interventions (such as timeout, aversive stimulation, biofeedback, behavior modification, relaxation therapy, and group meetings) with behavior disordered students. A model policy statement on the use of isolation rooms is presented. Such a statement should…
Aug 8, 2014 ... a group of Nigerian dental students and dentists to smoking cessation counseling in the dental clinic. Methods: A ... E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ... Impact of an educational intervention on smoking counseling practice among Nigerian dentists and dental students. Omolara Uti, Oyinkansola Sofola.
Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping
The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…
Crapanzano, Kathleen; Vath, Richard J; Fisher, Dixie
Stigma towards people with substance use disorders is pervasive and imbedded in our US culture. Prejudicial attitudes that are part of a health care practitioner's value system are a barrier to people accessing health care and substance use treatment. This study aimed to reduce stigmatizing attitudes of graduate health care professional students by implementing an innovative curriculum combining multiple teaching methods. Physician assistant students received a 3-h educational intervention that consisted of lecture and discussion sessions, direct interaction with a recovering substance user, viewing a film portrayal of addiction and addiction treatment, and written self-reflection. Changes in student attitudes were measured using a subscale of the Attitudes to Mental Illness Questionnaire (AMIQ) instrument and analysis of coded written reflections. A follow-up focus group resulted in additional qualitative insight into attitudes. Post-intervention scores for the "heroin" AMIQ vignette significantly improved compared to pre-test scores (pstigma towards people with substance use following the intervention. Focus group data suggested students believed that stigma beliefs about substance use were common among health care professionals, though they believed that their own level and quality of care would not be influenced by these beliefs. The persistence of negative attitudes following this and others' educational interventions suggests the need for a new approach to changing health care professionals' stigma towards substance users.
Full Text Available We present an investigation that seeks to understand a specific case of a young female, attending secondary and then higher education school, who was diagnosed with dyslexia in the primary school and then ceased to have expert support after the start of the 5th grade. This study has as its main goal to identify the changes resulting from the implementation of specific activities, established in the intervention and rehabilitation program in the specific difficulty of learning- Dyslexia. Moreover, we want to see if these changes result in success in basic areas of development and in the academic area of reading. The intervention and rehabilitation was performed for three months in areas where the student had difficulties.Keywords: Dyslexia; secondary and higher education; intervention and rehabilitation
Flood, Ann B; Fennell, Mary L; Devers, Kelly J
To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation's health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform.
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a continuing education (CE) program on the attitudes of health care professionals (HCPs) towards diabetes care in Yemen. Methods: A pre- and post-intervention study was carried out in Mukalla City, Hadramout, Yemen and was offered to all physicians, pharmacists, and nurses ...
Anello, Vittoria; Weist, Mark; Eber, Lucille; Barrett, Susan; Cashman, Joanne; Rosser, Mariola; Bazyk, Sue
Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) and school mental health (SMH) are prominent initiatives in the United States to improve student behavior and promote mental health and wellness, led by education and mental health systems, respectively. Unfortunately, PBIS and SMH often operate separately in districts and schools, resulting in…
Hublet, Anne; Maes, Lea; Mommen, Jasmine; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Disadvantaged groups are often not reached by mainstream health promotion interventions. Implementing health promotion (HP) interventions in social economy companies, can be an opportunity to reach those people. The implementation of these interventions in social economy companies was studied. Factors that could be related to the implementation of HP and being supportive towards implementation in the future, were investigated. An online, quantitative survey was sent to all 148 sheltered and social workshops in Flanders. In the questionnaire, the status of HP interventions and characteristics of the workshop were explored. Personal factors (such as attitudes towards HP, behavioural control, social norms and moral responsibility) were asked to the person responsible for implementation of HP interventions. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Respondents of 88 workshops completed the questionnaire. Almost 60% of the workshops implemented environmental or policy interventions. Having a positive attitude towards HP, being more morally responsible, and having the subjective norm that employees are positive towards health promotion at work, were related to being more supportive towards the implementation of HP in the univariate analyses. Only attitude stayed significantly related to being more supportive towards the implementation of HP in the multivariate analyses. Sheltered and social workshops are open to HP interventions, but more can be done to optimize the implementation. To persuade persons responsible for the implementation of HP to invest more in HP, changing attitudes concerning the benefits of health promotion for the employee and the company, is an important strategy.
Wathne, K O; Bøhler, E
Over the last decades, better drinking water and hygiene, improved nutrition and vaccines and antibiotics have greatly reduced child mortality and morbidity. Still, 11 million children under the age of five die every year, many of them from diseases that could have been prevented or treated, given existing knowledge and technology. On the basis of a review of recent literature, this paper discusses current strategies to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Sufficient knowledge and technology exist to further improve the health of the worlds' children. Poverty and its consequences--weak implementation and organisation of health services--is a major obstacle. In order to improve health services in developing countries, additional resources are needed. There is also a need for better quality of service. This will require increased efforts in the field of health policy and systems research.
Kang, Hee Sun; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seong Man; Kim, Jung-Hee
Online interventions have the advantages of being widely available, accessible, comfortable, cost effective, and they can provide tailored information and support. Despite these benefits, the effects of specifically devised online intervention programs for cancer patients' sexual problems are somewhat unclear. The aim of this review is to describe online-based interventions and to assess their effects on sexual health among cancer survivors and/or their partners. We investigated the effects of online sexual interventions among individuals with cancer or their partners. Among these, we considered 4 eligible articles. Despite the diversity of contents of the interventions, the identified modes of delivery among most of the interventions were as follows: education, interactive methods, cognitive behavior therapy, tailored information, and self-monitoring. Methods of monitoring the interventions, including the utilization of the web site and post-treatment program rating, were reported. All the online intervention programs incorporated a focus on physical, psychological, cognitive, and social aspects of sexual health. Significant effects on patient sexual function and interest and the psychological aspect of sexual problems were reported. This study provides evidence that online-based interventions would be effective in improving the psycho-sexual problems of cancer survivors and their partners.
Mirza, M; Krischer, A; Stolley, M; Magaña, S; Martin, M
A large number of U.S. children are identified as having special health care needs (CSHCN). Despite parents' central role in managing their child's needs, many parents report difficulties in navigating service systems, finding information about their child's condition, and accessing health care and community resources. Therefore, there is a need for interventions that "activate" parents of children with special health care needs to increase their knowledge, skills, and confidence in managing, coordinating, and advocating for their child's needs. This study sought to review the existing literature and examine the effects of parent support interventions that focus on parental activation either in part or whole, on child, parent, or family outcomes. Specific aims included (a) summarizing the nature and content of interventions; (b) describing changes in relevant outcomes; (c) identifying limitations and making recommendations for future research. Following electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO via ProQuest, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health via EBSCO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) via ProQuest, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register), and Google Scholar. Twenty-two studies were selected, data were extracted, and quality was assessed using standardized procedures. Five intervention categories were identified: parent-to-parent supports, psycho-educational groups, content-specific groups, community health worker model, and self-management-based interventions. Although most studies showed positive effects of the intervention, evidence was inconsistent for parental outcomes such as self-efficacy, confidence, strain, depression, and perceived social support. Evidence was more consistent in showing improvement in parent coping and in use of community-based services and resources. There is a need to boost active
A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a support and training intervention to improve the mental health of secondary school teachers and students – the WISE (Wellbeing in Secondary Education study
Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary school teachers are at heightened risk of psychological distress, which can lead to poor work performance, poor quality teacher-student relationships and mental illness. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT – the WISE study – evaluated the feasibility of a full-scale RCT of an intervention to support school staff’s own mental health, and train them in supporting student mental health. Methods Six schools were randomised to an intervention or control group. In the intervention schools i 8–9 staff received Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training and became staff peer supporters, and ii youth MHFA training was offered to the wider staff body. Control schools continued with usual practice. We used thematic qualitative data analysis and regression modelling to ascertain the feasibility, acceptability and potential usefulness of the intervention. Results Thirteen training observations, 14 staff focus groups and 6 staff interviews were completed, and 438 staff (43.5 % and 1,862 (56.3 % students (years 8 and 9 completed questionnaires at baseline and one year later. MHFA training was considered relevant for schools, and trainees gained in knowledge, confidence in helping others, and awareness regarding their own mental health. Suggestions for reducing the length of the training and focusing on helping strategies were made. A peer support service was established in all intervention schools and was perceived to be helpful in supporting individuals in difficulty – for example through listening, and signposting to other services - and raising the profile of mental health at a whole school level. Barriers to use included lack of knowledge about the service, concerns about confidentiality and a preference for accessing support from pre-existing networks. Conclusions The WISE intervention is feasible and acceptable to schools. Results support the development of a full-scale cluster RCT, if steps are taken to
One of the company's actions for strengthening human capital is the protection of health and safety of its employees. Its implementation needs financial resources, therefore, employers expect tangible effectiveness in terms of health and economics. Business plan as an element of company planning can be a helpful tool for new health interventions management. The aim of this work was to elaborate a business plan framework for occupational health interventions at the company level, combining occupational health practices with company management and economics. The business plan of occupational health interventions was based on the literature review, the author's own research projects and meta-analysis of research reports on economic relations between occupational health status and company productivity. The study resulted in the development of the business plan for occupational health interventions at the company level. It consists of summary and several sections that address such issues as the key elements of the intervention discussed against a background of the company economics and management, occupational health and safety status of the staff, employees' health care organization, organizational plan of providing the employees with health protection, marketing plan, including specificity of health interventions in the company marketing plan and financial plan, reflecting the economic effects of health care interventions on the overall financial management of the company. Business plan defines occupational health and safety interventions as a part of the company activities as a whole. Planning health care interventions without relating them to the statutory goals of the company may have the adverse impact on the financial balance and profitability of the company. Therefore, business plan by providing the opportunity of comparing different options of occupational health interventions to be implemented by employers is a key element of the management of employees
Furberg, Robert D; Ortiz, Alexa M; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Hudson, Jordan P; Taylor, Olivia M; Lewis, Megan A
Background Tablet-based health care interventions have the potential to encourage patient care in a timelier manner, allow physicians convenient access to patient records, and provide an improved method for patient education. However, along with the continued adoption of tablet technologies, there is a concomitant need to develop protocols focusing on the configuration, management, and maintenance of these devices within the health care setting to support the conduct of clinical research. Obj...
McNamee, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Kelly, Michael P; Bojke, Laura; Chilcott, Jim; Fischer, Alastair; West, Robert; Yardley, Lucy
This paper introduces and discusses key issues in the economic evaluation of digital health interventions. The purpose is to stimulate debate so that existing economic techniques may be refined or new methods developed. The paper does not seek to provide definitive guidance on appropriate methods of economic analysis for digital health interventions. This paper describes existing guides and analytic frameworks that have been suggested for the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Using selected examples of digital health interventions, it assesses how well existing guides and frameworks align to digital health interventions. It shows that digital health interventions may be best characterized as complex interventions in complex systems. Key features of complexity relate to intervention complexity, outcome complexity, and causal pathway complexity, with much of this driven by iterative intervention development over time and uncertainty regarding likely reach of the interventions among the relevant population. These characteristics imply that more-complex methods of economic evaluation are likely to be better able to capture fully the impact of the intervention on costs and benefits over the appropriate time horizon. This complexity includes wider measurement of costs and benefits, and a modeling framework that is able to capture dynamic interactions among the intervention, the population of interest, and the environment. The authors recommend that future research should develop and apply more-flexible modeling techniques to allow better prediction of the interdependency between interventions and important environmental influences. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Korzeniowska, Elzbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof
Article addresses the problem of increasing Polish employees health education effectiveness according to the differences in educational level. Research model assume that effective method of developing recommendations improving the health education will synthesise scientific findings regarding methodology of conducting such education and knowledge about needs of two target groups: low and high educated employees. Educational solutions were searched in publications related to: health education, andragogy, propaganda and direct marketing. The empirical material used to characterize two target groups came from four research (qualitative and quantitative) conducted by the National Centre for Workplace Health Promotion (Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine) in 2007-2010. Low educated employees' health education should be focused on increasing responsibility for health and strengthening their self-confidence according to the introduction of healthy lifestyle changes. To achieve these goals, important issue is to build their motivation to develop knowledge about taking care of health. In providing such information we should avoid the methods associated with school. Another important issue is creating an appropriate infrastructure and conditions facilitating the change of harmful behaviors undertaken at home and in the workplace. According to high-educated employees a challenge is to support taking health behaviors--although they are convinced it is important for their health, such behaviors are perceived as a difficult and freedom restriction. Promoting behavior change techniques, avoiding prohibitions in the educational messages and creating favorable climate for taking care of health in groups they participate are needed.
Teng, Ellen J; Friedman, Lois C
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community intervention in increasing awareness of mental health issues and available resources among elderly Chinese Americans. Twenty-seven members of a community church received a 1-h didactic presentation, in English and Mandarin, and completed surveys regarding their help-seeking preferences before and after the intervention. Results were analyzed using a series of Wilcoxon matched-pair signed rank tests and comparing pre- and post-test scores. Findings indicated an increase (pmental health professional for psychiatric symptoms at post-test. A significant increase also was found in preference for consulting a physician for physical symptoms. The pilot educational intervention increased awareness of mental health and treatment issues and the role of mental health professionals, lending support to evaluate the intervention on a larger scale. Greater awareness of mental health among Chinese Americans can be promoted via education forums provided through faith-based organizations. Stigma of mental illness leads many Chinese individuals to seek help for psychiatric problems from primary care physicians. Integrating mental health practitioners in primary care settings may help decrease stigma and encourage appropriate help-seeking behavior.
Camic, Paul M; Chatterjee, Helen J
The majority of public health programmes are based in schools, places of employment and in community settings. Likewise, nearly all health-care interventions occur in clinics and hospitals. An underdeveloped area for public health-related planning that carries international implications is the cultural heritage sector, and specifically museums and art galleries. This paper presents a rationale for the use of museums and art galleries as sites for public health interventions and health promotion programmes through discussing the social role of these organisations in the health and well-being of the communities they serve. Recent research from several countries is reviewed and integrated into a proposed framework for future collaboration between cultural heritage, health-care and university sectors to further advance research, policy development and evidence-based practice.
Barretto Cardoso, Laís Souza; de Souza-Machado, Carolina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir
Objective. To review the literature on the impact of educational asthma interventions in schools regarding the knowledge and morbidity of the disease among children and adolescents. Methods. A systematic review was conducted for controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of educational asthma interventions for students, asthmatic or nonasthmatic, families, and school staff. Databases were CENTRAL, PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO. Articles published in any language were considered, in the period from 2005 to 2014, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. Seventeen articles were selected (N = 5,879 subjects). 94% of the interventions (16 of 17 studies) were applied in developed countries that were led by health professionals and most of them targeted asthmatics. Asthma education promotes the improvement of knowledge about the disease in at least one of the evaluated areas. 29% of the interventions (5 of 17 studies) showed a reduction of the asthma symptoms, 35% (6 of 17 studies) reduction of the hospitalization instances and emergency visits, 29% (5 of 17 studies) reduction of school absenteeism, and 41% (7 of 17 studies) increase in the quality of life of the individuals. Conclusions. Educational interventions in schools raise the awareness of asthma and weaken the impact of morbidity indicators. PMID:27656097
Ana Carla Carvalho Coelho
Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the impact of educational asthma interventions in schools regarding the knowledge and morbidity of the disease among children and adolescents. Methods. A systematic review was conducted for controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of educational asthma interventions for students, asthmatic or nonasthmatic, families, and school staff. Databases were CENTRAL, PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO. Articles published in any language were considered, in the period from 2005 to 2014, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. Seventeen articles were selected (N=5,879 subjects. 94% of the interventions (16 of 17 studies were applied in developed countries that were led by health professionals and most of them targeted asthmatics. Asthma education promotes the improvement of knowledge about the disease in at least one of the evaluated areas. 29% of the interventions (5 of 17 studies showed a reduction of the asthma symptoms, 35% (6 of 17 studies reduction of the hospitalization instances and emergency visits, 29% (5 of 17 studies reduction of school absenteeism, and 41% (7 of 17 studies increase in the quality of life of the individuals. Conclusions. Educational interventions in schools raise the awareness of asthma and weaken the impact of morbidity indicators.
Girod, Sabine; Fassiotto, Magali; Grewal, Daisy; Ku, Manwai Candy; Sriram, Natarajan; Nosek, Brian A; Valantine, Hannah
One challenge academic health centers face is to advance female faculty to leadership positions and retain them there in numbers equal to men, especially given the equal representation of women and men among graduates of medicine and biological sciences over the last 10 years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the explicit and implicit biases favoring men as leaders, among both men and women faculty, and to assess whether these attitudes change following an educational intervention. The authors used a standardized, 20-minute educational intervention to educate faculty about implicit biases and strategies for overcoming them. Next, they assessed the effect of this intervention. From March 2012 through April 2013, 281 faculty members participated in the intervention across 13 of 18 clinical departments. The study assessed faculty members' perceptions of bias as well as their explicit and implicit attitudes toward gender and leadership. Results indicated that the intervention significantly changed all faculty members' perceptions of bias (P leadership of all participants regardless of age or gender (P = .008). These results suggest that providing education on bias and strategies for reducing it can serve as an important step toward reducing gender bias in academic medicine and, ultimately, promoting institutional change, specifically the promoting of women to higher ranks.
Doaa Mohammed Youssef
Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients′ scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD.
Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Abo Al Fotoh, Mohammad Nagib; Elibehidy, Rabab Mohamed; Ramadan, Shreen Magdy Ahmad; Mohammad, Ehab Mohammady
To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD) at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients' scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD.
Freeman, Rachel; Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Kiyange, Fatia
The high burden of non-communicable diseases and communicable diseases in Africa characterised by late presentation and diagnosis makes the need for palliative care a priority from the point of diagnosis to death and through bereavement. Palliative care is an intervention that requires a multidisciplinary team to address the multifaceted needs of the patient and family. Thus, its development takes a broad approach that involves engaging all key stakeholders ranging from policy makers, care providers, educators, the public, patients, and families. The main focus of stakeholder engagement should address some core interventions geared towards improving knowledge and awareness, strengthening skills and attitudes about palliative care. These interventions include educating health and allied healthcare professionals on the palliative care-related problems of patients and best practices for care, explaining palliative care as a clinical and holistic discipline and demonstrating its effectiveness, the need to include palliative care into national policies, strategic plans, training curriculums of healthcare professionals and the engagement of patients, families, and communities. Interventions from a five-year programme that was aimed at strengthening the health system of Namibia through the integration of palliative care for people living with HIV and AIDS and cancer in Namibia are shared. This article illustrates how a country can implement the World Health Organisation's public health strategy for developing palliative care services, which recommends four pillars: government policy, education, drug availability, and implementation.
Charafeddine, Lama; El Rafei, Rym; Azizi, Sophie; Sinno, Durriyah; Alamiddine, Kawthar; Howson, Christopher P; Walani, Salimah R; Ammar, Walid; Nassar, Anwar; Yunis, Khalid
Maternal behavior before and after conception affects maternal and child health. Limited awareness of adolescents in preconception health may be addressed through school education. The aim of this intervention is to assess preconception health awareness among adolescents in Lebanese high schools and to test the effectiveness of a one-time educational session in improving preconception knowledge. The intervention consisted of a 30-minute educational session about good practices in preconception health, developed by the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network's (NCPNN) research team. A convenience sample of high school Lebanese students in grades 10 to 12, aged 14 to 26 years old, from 70 private and public schools in all six Lebanese provinces, participated in the intervention in 2011 and 2012. A multiple-choice questionnaire administered prior to and 2 months after the session was used to assess knowledge improvement among the students. A total of 7,290 students were enrolled. After the session, mean scores of correct answers increased from 4.36 to 6.42 out of 10, representing a 47.2% improvement (p improvement was observed for questions about Trisomy 21, folic acid intake and toxoplasmosis with percentages improvement of 96%, 172% and 83% respectively. Being female or in private school was a significant predictor of higher scores in both pre-test and post-test (p students. We recommend expanding the scope of this intervention into universities in Lebanon.
Full Text Available Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the
Vamos, Sandra; Hayos, Julia
The health education profession has developed over recent years garnering national and international attention. Canada's evolving health education perspective emphasizing the concept of health literacy within the broader public health system reflects the need for trained, competent and skilled health educators designing, implementing and…
There have been significant developments in health education over recent years. Focusing on France, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of health education in reducing social inequalities based on the example of the Atelier santé ville de Cahors (Cahors Health Workshop). The paper addresses the following questions: What are the results and outcomes of the workshop? What kind of health education issues are at stake in the territorial approach to policy-making in an urban context? We examined the methods underlying the health education measures taken in the Cahors Health Workshop, which involve project-based approaches and the promotion of community health. Health education aimed at improving health is central to issues such as listening and speaking, the development of autonomy and the responsibilization of urban actors. Based on a rigorous methodology and the underlying values, health education in the Cahors Health Workshop places local residents, elected representatives and health professionals at the heart of the health care process (from the diagnostic process to the assessment process) and contributes to the reduction of social inequalities in health while facilitating access to information and health care. The goal of health education is to encourage individuals to be responsible for their own health in order to empower them to make informed choices adapted to the demands of their environment.
Wolff, Jonathan; Edwards, Sarah; Richmond, Sarah; Orr, Shepley; Rees, Geraint
Health-related Quality of Life measures have recently been attacked from two directions, both of which criticize the preference-based method of evaluating health states they typically incorporate. One attack, based on work by Daniel Kahneman and others, argues that 'experience' is a better basis for evaluation. The other, inspired by Amartya Sen, argues that 'capability' should be the guiding concept. In addition, opinion differs as to whether health evaluation measures are best derived from consultations with the general public, with patients, or with health professionals. And there is disagreement about whether these opinions should be solicited individually and aggregated, or derived instead from a process of collective deliberation. These distinctions yield a wide variety of possible approaches, with potentially differing policy implications. We consider some areas of disagreement between some of these approaches. We show that many of the perspectives seem to capture something important, such that it may be a mistake to reject any of them. Instead we suggest that some of the existing 'instruments' designed to measure HR QoLs may in fact successfully already combine these attributes, and with further refinement such instruments may be able to provide a reasonable reconciliation between the perspectives. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sarmiento, Juan Pablo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…
Luca, Nadina Raluca; Suggs, L Suzanne
The existing literature suggests that theories and models can serve as valuable frameworks for the design and evaluation of health interventions. However, evidence on the use of theories and models in social marketing interventions is sparse. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify to what extent papers about social marketing health interventions report using theory, which theories are most commonly used, and how theory was used. A systematic search was conducted for articles that reported social marketing interventions for the prevention or management of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, HIV, STDs, and tobacco use, and behaviors related to reproductive health, physical activity, nutrition, and smoking cessation. Articles were published in English, after 1990, reported an evaluation, and met the 6 social marketing benchmarks criteria (behavior change, consumer research, segmentation and targeting, exchange, competition and marketing mix). Twenty-four articles, describing 17 interventions, met the inclusion criteria. Of these 17 interventions, 8 reported using theory and 7 stated how it was used. The transtheoretical model/stages of change was used more often than other theories. Findings highlight an ongoing lack of use or underreporting of the use of theory in social marketing campaigns and reinforce the call to action for applying and reporting theory to guide and evaluate interventions.
Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva
To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and
Ogilvie, David; Mitchell, Richard; Mutrie, Nanette; Petticrew, Mark; Platt, Stephen
There is little evidence about the effects of environmental interventions on population levels of physical activity. Major transport projects may promote or discourage physical activity in the form of walking and cycling, but researching the health effects of such "natural experiments" in transport policy or infrastructure is challenging. Case study of attempts in 2004-2005 to evaluate the effects of two major transport projects in Scotland: an urban congestion charging scheme in Edinburgh, and a new urban motorway (freeway) in Glasgow. These interventions are typical of many major transport projects. They are unique to their context. They cannot easily be separated from the other components of the wider policies within which they occur. When, where, and how they are implemented are political decisions over which researchers have no control. Baseline data collection required for longitudinal studies may need to be planned before the intervention is certain to take place. There is no simple way of defining a population or area exposed to the intervention or of defining control groups. Changes in quantitative measures of health-related behavior may be difficult to detect. Major transport projects have clear potential to influence population health, but it is difficult to define the interventions, categorize exposure, or measure outcomes in ways that are likely to be seen as credible in the field of public health intervention research. A final study design is proposed in which multiple methods and spatial levels of analysis are combined in a longitudinal quasi-experimental study.
Stephenson, J M; Strange, V; Forrest, S; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Allen, E; Babiker, A; Black, S; Ali, M; Monteiro, H; Johnson, A M
Improvement of sex education in schools is a key part of the UK government's strategy to reduce teenage pregnancy in England. We examined the effectiveness of one form of peer-led sex education in a school-based randomised trial of over 8000 pupils. 29 schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). In intervention schools, peer educators aged 16-17 years delivered three sessions of sex education to 13-14 year-old pupils from the same schools. Primary outcome was unprotected (without condom) first heterosexual intercourse by age 16 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. By age 16 years, significantly fewer girls reported intercourse in the peer-led arm than in the control arm, but proportions were similar for boys. The proportions of pupils reporting unprotected first sex did not differ for girls (8.4% intervention vs 8.3% control) or for boys (6.2% vs 4.7%). Stratified estimates of the difference between arms were -0.4% (95% CI -3.7% to 2.8%, p=0.79) for girls and -1.4% (-4.4% to 1.6%, p=0.36) for boys. At follow-up (mean age 16.0 years [SD 0.32]), girls in the intervention arm reported fewer unintended pregnancies, although the difference was borderline (2.3% vs 3.3%, p=0.07). Girls and boys were more satisfied with peer-led than teacher-led sex education, but 57% of girls and 32% of boys wanted sex education in single-sex groups. Peer-led sex education was effective in some ways, but broader strategies are needed to improve young people's sexual health. The role of single-sex sessions should be investigated further.
Asad, Asad L; Kay, Tamara
Although a substantial literature examines the relationship between culture and health in myriad individual contexts, a lack of comparative data across settings has resulted in disparate and imprecise conceptualizations of the concept for scholars and practitioners alike. This article examines scholars and practitioners' understandings of culture in relation to health interventions. Drawing on 169 interviews with officials from three different nongovernmental organizations working on health issues in multiple countries-Partners in Health, Oxfam America, and Sesame Workshop-we examine how these respondents' interpretations of culture converge or diverge with recent developments in the study of the concept, as well as how these understandings influence health interventions at three different stages-design, implementation, and evaluation-of a project. Based on these analyses, a tripartite definition of culture is built-as knowledge, practice, and change-and these distinct conceptualizations are linked to the success or failure of a project at each stage of an intervention. In so doing, the study provides a descriptive and analytical starting point for scholars interested in understanding the theoretical and empirical relevance of culture for health interventions, and sets forth concrete recommendations for practitioners working to achieve robust improvements in health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.
Vitolins, Mara Z; Crandall, Sonia; Miller, David; Ip, Eddie; Marion, Gail; Spangler, John G
Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. However, physicians feel poorly trained to address the obesity epidemic. This article examines effective training methods for overweight and obesity intervention in undergraduate medical education. Using indexing terms related to overweight, obesity, and medical student education, we conducted a literature searched PubMed PsycINFO, Cochrane, and ERIC for relevant articles in English. References from articles identified were also reviewed to located additional articles. We included all studies that incorporated process or outcome evaluations of obesity educational interventions for U.S. medical students. Of an initial 168 citations, 40 abstracts were retrieved; 11 studies were found to be pertinent to medical student obesity education, but only 5 included intervention and evaluation elements. Quality criteria for inclusion consisted of explicit evaluation of the educational methods used. Data extraction identified participants (e.g., year of medical students), interventions, evaluations, and results. These 5 studies successfully used a variety of teaching methods including hands on training, didactic lectures, role-playing, and standardized patient interaction to increase medical students' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding overweight and obesity intervention. Two studies addressed medical student bias toward overweight and obese patients. No studies addressed health disparities in the epidemiology and bias of obesity. Despite the commonly cited "obesity epidemic," there are very few published studies that report the effectiveness of medical school obesity educational programs. Gaps still exist within undergraduate medical education including specific training that addresses obesity and long-term studies showing that such training is retained.
Juel, Anette; Hjorth, Peter; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
We aimed to explore beliefs about physical health from the perspective of patients with concurrent mental illness and substance use and to explore how a health promotion intervention influenced their personal agency for changing health-related behaviour. Our findings were that patients' beliefs...... into their health and appeared to prevent patients from minimizing physical health problems....
Poultney, Nathan; Maeder, Anthony; Ginige, Jeewani Anupama
Recently games in the form of video, computer, or mobile apps have been utilised as an effective component of interventions for health behaviour change. This paper provides an overview of related projects reported in peer-review literature in the period 2006 to 2016. Nine highly relevant references were considered for analysis. The findings are presented according to 3 dimensions of characterisation: health intention, behaviour change principle, and health purpose.
Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H
Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.
Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve the mental health support and training available to secondary school teachers - the WISE (Wellbeing in Secondary Education) study.
Kidger, Judi; Evans, Rhiannon; Tilling, Kate; Hollingworth, William; Campbell, Rona; Ford, Tamsin; Murphy, Simon; Araya, Ricardo; Morris, Richard; Kadir, Bryar; Moure Fernandez, Aida; Bell, Sarah; Harding, Sarah; Brockman, Rowan; Grey, Jill; Gunnell, David
Teachers are reported to be at increased risk of common mental health disorders compared to other occupations. Failure to support teachers adequately may lead to serious long-term mental disorders, poor performance at work (presenteeism), sickness absence and health-related exit from the profession. It also jeopardises student mental health, as distressed staff struggle to develop supportive relationships with students, and such relationships are protective against student depression. A number of school-based trials have attempted to improve student mental health, but these have mostly focused on classroom based approaches and have failed to establish effectiveness. Only a few studies have introduced training for teachers in supporting students, and none to date have included a focus on improving teacher mental health. This paper sets out the protocol (version 4.4 20/07/16) for a study aiming to address this gap. Cluster randomised controlled trial with secondary schools as the unit of randomisation. Intervention schools will receive: i) Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for a group of staff nominated by their colleagues, after which they will set up a confidential peer support service for colleagues ii) training in MHFA for schools and colleges for a further group of teachers, which will equip them to more effectively support student mental health iii) a short mental health awareness raising session and promotion of the peer support service for all teachers. Comparison schools will continue with usual practice. The primary outcome is teacher wellbeing measured using the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS). Secondary outcomes are teacher depression, absence and presenteeism, and student wellbeing, mental health difficulties, attendance and attainment. Measures will be taken at baseline, one year follow up (teachers only) and two year follow up. Economic and process evaluations will be embedded within the study. This study will establish the
Full Text Available Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated public health policies is intersectoral collaboration. Since the development of integrated policies is still in its early stages, this study aimed to answer the following research question: “What interventions can promote intersectoral collaboration and the development of integrated health policies for the prevention of childhood obesity?” Data were collected through a literature search and observations of and interviews with stakeholders. Based on a theoretical framework, we categorized potential interventions that could optimize an integrated approach regarding children's physical activity and diet. The intervention categories included education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, and enablement.
Kwang, Ng Beng; Mahayudin, Tasneem; Yien, Hii Ling; Abdul Karim, Abdul Kadir; Teik, Chew Kah; Shan, Lim Pei
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Studies evaluating the effect of health education on knowledge and perception of cervical cancer have generated conflicting results. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of educational intervention towards knowledge of HPV vacccination for cervical cancer prevention among pre-university students in Malaysia. This was an experimental before and after study performed between October 2014 and March 2015. Five hundred and eighty students were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. All were required to complete both pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires. Those in the intervention group were given an information leaflet to read before answering the post-intervention questionnaire. Almost half (48.3%) of the students had poor knowledge, with a score less than 5, and only 51 (8.8%) exhibited good knowledge, with a score of 11 and above. After educational intervention, the number of students with poor knowledge was reduced to 177 (29.3%) and the number of students who exhibited good knowledge increased to 148 (25.5%). Students from the intervention group demonstrated significant higher total scores in knowledge regarding 'HPV infection and cervical cancer' (p=0.000) and 'HPV vaccination and cervical cancer prevention' (p=0.000) during post-intervention as compared to the control group. Knowledge on HPV infection and vaccination is low among pre-university students. Educational intervention in the form of information leaflets appears effective in creating awareness and improving knowledge.
Worawong, Chiraporn; Borden, Mary Jo; Cooper, Karen M; Pérez, Oscar A; Lauver, Diane
Effective promotion of health behaviors requires strong interventions. Applying person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from two motivational theories could strengthen the effects of such interventions. The aim of the study was to report the effect sizes, fidelity, and acceptability of a person-centered, health behavior intervention based on self-regulation and self-determination theories. Using a pre- and postintervention design, with a 4-week follow-up, advanced practice registered nurses made six weekly contacts with 52 volunteer participants. Most participants were educated White women. Advanced practice registered nurses elicited participant motives and particular goals for either healthy diet or physical activity behaviors. Minutes and type of activity and servings of fat and fruit/vegetables were assessed. Effect sizes for engaging in moderate aerobic activity and in fruit/vegetable and fat intake were 0.53, 0.82, and -0.57, respectively. The fidelity of delivery was 80-97% across contacts, and fidelity of participants' receipt of intervention components was supported. Participant acceptance of the intervention was supported by positive ratings on aspects of relevance and usefulness. To advance the science of health behavior change and improve client health status, person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from motivational theories can be applied and tested with a randomized, controlled design and diverse samples to replicate and extend this promising behavioral intervention.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of an Emergency Department (ED based, educational intervention for at-risk health behaviors. Methods. A randomized trial over a one-year period. African American women, aged 21–55, presenting to the ED waiting room were eligible. Each participant took a computer-based survey on health risk behaviors. Participants who screened positive on any of four validated scales (for IPV, nicotine, alcohol, or drug dependence were randomized to standard information about community resources (control or to targeted educational handouts based upon their screening results (intervention. Participants were surveyed at 3 months regarding contacts with community resources and harm-reduction actions. Results. 610 women were initially surveyed; 326 screened positive (13.7% for IPV, 40.1% for nicotine addiction, 26.6% for alcohol abuse, and 14.4% for drug abuse. 157 women were randomized to intervention and 169 to control. Among women who completed follow-up (=71, women in the Intervention Group were significantly more likely to have contacted local resources (37% versus 9%, =0.04 and were more likely to have taken risk-reducing action (97% versus 79%, =0.04. Conclusion. Targeted, brief educational interventions may be an effective method for targeting risk behaviors among vulnerable ED populations.
Mueses De Molina, C
This literature review of popular education in health and nutrition is intended to provide the necessary theoretical framework for proposals and programs for human resource development in food and nutrition. The work contains a summary of the objectives, purposes, and methodology of popular education in general, a discussion of applications of popular education techniques to health and nutrition education, and a description of some projects based on popular education. Popular education was developed in Latin America by Paulo Freire and others as a response to political domination. Its basic objective was to make the oppressed masses aware of their condition and able to struggle for the transformation of society. Popular education views community participation, development of consciousness, and integration with social and economic activity as fundamental attributes. Participation should be developed through community organizations and should continue for the duration of the educational intervention. The right of all persons to participate in a plane of equality should be recognized. Community or popular education should be conceived as a process of permanent education that will continue throughout the lifetime of individuals and groups. Popular education is directed toward population sectors excluded from participation in employment, family, community, mass communications, education, and leisure activities. Such population sectors are concentrated in the urban periphery and in rural areas. Abandonment of traditional educational techniques and assumption of an active role by community members are elements in development of the methodology of popular education. Steps in the methodology include investigation of possible themes, selection of themes to serve as points of departure, definition of the problem, and action programs. Popular education in nutrition and health begins by asking what problems need to be remedied. The entire process of training and education in
Ginossar, Tamar; Nelson, Sara
The innovative educational communication interventions described in this paper include the use of bi-lingual, low literacy level websites and training created by low income Latina women to increase access to health care, health information, and the internet. We focus on one grassroots intervention, aimed at increasing access to health care for…
Pinto, Bernardine M; Floyd, Andrea
To review the theories that have been the basis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) promoting health behavior change among adults diagnosed and treated for cancer. Electronic databases and recent review papers. Several theories have been used in intervention development: Transtheoretical Model, Motivational Interviewing, Social Learning and Social Cognitive Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Cognitive Behavioral Theory. There is support for the efficacy of some of these interventions. However, there has been limited assessment of theory-based constructs and examination of the mediational role of theoretical constructs in intervention efficacy. There is a need to apply theory in the development of interventions to assess the effects of the intervention on the constructs and to conduct mediational tests of these constructs.
Tamboli Kshitij S, Avachat Subhada S, Tamboli Suchit S
Full Text Available Context: Adolescents comprise one-fifth of India’s total population. There is widespread ignorance associated with unprotected sex, contraceptives, among young people. As majority adolescents in slum areas have illiterate and ignorant family backgrounds; they are misguided by the myths. Hence providing sex education for them is the need of the hour. Aims: 1 To assess the knowledge and awareness of adolescents in an urban slum area regarding some aspects of reproductive health. 2 To assess the need of sex education among them. 3 To study the impact of sex education on their knowledge Material and Methods: An interventional study was done on 132 adolescents of urban slum area, selected by simple random sampling. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire prepared by literature search. Response of adolescents was recorded through questionnaires. A sensitization workshop was organized as intervention. The same questionnaire was given to them and the effect of intervention was assessed. Statistical analysis of data was done using percentage, proportion and appropriate tests of significance. Result and Conclusions: Only 31.06% adolescents had discussed the topic of reproductive health with some or other person and out of them friends were the major sources (39.2% of information. Only 38.63% knew the hazards of teenage pregnancy which significantly rose to 89.4% after intervention workshop. The study concludes that the slum adolescents profoundly lack adequate knowledge of sexuality related matters. Even before intervention workshop, unmet need of reproductive health education was 59.1% and 93.93% was the felt need in the post test.
Senecal, Conor; Widmer, R Jay; Johnson, Matthew P; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir
Hypertension is a common and difficult-to-treat condition; digital health tools may serve as adjuncts to traditional pharmaceutical and lifestyle-based interventions. Using a retrospective observational study we sought to evaluate the effect of a desktop and mobile digital health intervention (DHI) as an adjunct to a workplace health program in those previously diagnosed with hypertension. As part of a workplace health program, 3330 patients were identified as previously diagnosed with hypertension. A DHI was made available to participants providing motivational and educational materials assisting in the management of hypertension. We evaluated changes in blood pressure, weight, and body mass index (BMI) between users and nonusers based on login frequency to the DHI using multivariate regression through the five visits over the course of 1 year. One thousand six hundred twenty-two (49%) participants logged into the application at least once. DHI users had significant greater improvements in systolic blood pressure (SBP; -2.79 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (-2.12 mm Hg), and BMI (-0.23 kg/m 2 ) at 1 year. Increased login frequency was significantly correlated with reductions in SBP, diastolic blood pressure, weight, and BMI (P ≤ .014). This large, observational study provides evidence that a DHI as an adjunct to a workplace health program is associated with greater improvement in blood pressure and BMI at 1 year. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that DHIs may be useful in augmenting the treatment of hypertension in addition to traditional management with pharmaceuticals and lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Racicot-Matta, Cassandra; Wilcke, Markus; Egeland, Grace M
A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a culturally appropriate health intervention over radio within the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Nunavut (NU), Canada. The radio dramas were developed, recorded and tested pre-intervention through the use of Participatory Process and informed by the extended elaboration likelihood model (EELM) for education-communication. The radio messages were tested in two focus groups (n = 4 and n = 5) to determine fidelity of the radio dramas to the EELM theory. Focus group feedback identified that revisions needed to be made to two characteristics required of educational programmes by the EELM theorem: first, the quality of the production was improved by adding Inuit youth recorded music and second, the homophily (relatability of characters) of radio dramas was improved by re-recording the dramas with voices of local youth who had been trained in media communication studies. These adjustments would not have been implemented had pre-intervention testing of the radio dramas not taken place and could have reduced effectiveness of the overall intervention. Therefore, it is highly recommended that media tools for health communication/education be tested with the intended target audience before commencement of programmes. Participatory Process was identified to be a powerful tool in the development and sustainability of culturally appropriate community health programming. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Overweight or obese adults aged 20~55 years and living in Beijing more than one year were randomly divided into different management groups. A one-year integrated health management intervention was applied in the health management groups. The physical indicators and metabolic indicators changed after one-year intervention on the overweight and obese adults. The annual reduction of the physical indicators was significant in all groups (p<0.05 except the weight loss in the placebo + general management group. The health management and the dietary supplement have statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001 effects on the annual reduction of these indicators and interactive effect between them was found on some of these indicators such as bodyweight, body mass index (BMI, body fat ratio (BFR, and hipline (p<0.05. The dietary supplement + health management group had the best annual reduction effects for the indicators among the groups. Integrated health management interventions including both dietary supplements intervention and health management could improve metabolic indicators in overweight and obese adults together with the physical indicators, suggesting the intermediated role of metabolic indictors in controlling obesity.
Breitenstein, Donna; Ewert, Alan
This article reviews literature related to the positive effects of outdoor education. The following dimensions of health, and the benefits associated with each, are discussed: emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual. A model of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation is presented, and implications for health education are…
Fibbins, Hamish; Ward, Philip B; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Rosenbaum, Simon
Exercise interventions are efficacious in reducing cardiometabolic risk and improving symptoms in people with severe mental illness, yet evidence guiding the implementation and scalability of such efforts is lacking. Given increasing efforts to address the disparity in physical health outcomes facing people with a mental illness, novel approaches to increasing adoption of effective interventions are required. Exercise interventions targeting mental health staff may improve staff health while also creating more positive attitudes towards the role of lifestyle interventions for people experiencing mental illness. We aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of exercise interventions delivered to staff working in mental health services. A systematic review was conducted from database inception, until November 2017. Studies recruiting staff participants to receive an exercise intervention were eligible for inclusion. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Physical health interventions for mental health staff were feasible and acceptable with low dropout rates. Reductions in anthropometric measures and work-related stress were reported. Limited evidence suggests that exercise interventions targeting mental health staff are feasible and acceptable. Further research is required to determine the efficacy of such interventions and the impact such strategies may have on staff culture and patient outcomes.
Malmir, Shabnam; Barati, Majid; Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Bashirian, Saeed; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi
Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer among marginalized Iranianwomen based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 143 women of Kermanshah City in western Iran during 2017. Participants were recruited through cluster and simple random sampling and randomly divided into experimental (n=72) and control groups (n=71). All completed a self-administered questionnaire including PMT constructs and demographic variables. An intervention over six sessions was then applied to the experimental group. Reassessment was conducted three months after the intervention, with data was analyzed with SPSS-16 using chi-square, McNemar, paired T- and independent T-tests. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of PMT, and cervical cancer screening behavior showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05). The educational manipulation had significant effects on the experimental groups’ average response for perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived reward, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost and protection motivation (all p health centers were significantly increased after 3 months in the experimental (P=0.048), but notthe control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results show that applying an educational intervention based on PMT might help prevent cervical cancer and improve regular Pap smear testing. Creative Commons Attribution License
Yuri Arnold Domínguez
Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyles incorporated in early ages could influence the most important behaviours and risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease in order to reduce the incidence of this condition during adulthood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the educational-participatory intervention on students' knowledge as to cardiovascular risk factors. Material: An educational intervention with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from April 2007 to October 2008 in eighth grade junior high school students from Old Havana (the intervention group and Center Havana (the control group. The nonparametric Chi square tests from McNemar and Mantel-Haenszel were used. Results: There were significant statistical associations with a confidence limit of 95% between initial and final state of knowledge in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in the intervention group (p = 0.0001, in the control group (p = 0.035 and between the study group versus the control group after the intervention (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: An educational-participatory program for health promotion and prevention of major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (inadequate dietary habits, smoking and physical inactivity among adolescents, contributes to increase their knowledge and encourages the adoption of healthy daily habits and lifestyles.
Health Education is one of the critical eight essential pillars of the primary health care (PHC) adopted world-wide by WHO member countries in 1978. After over two decades of health education to support PHC implementation, the epidemiological profile of Ghana continues to be dominated by communicable diseases, and ...
Glatt, Kevin; Okunseri, Christopher; Flanagan, Diane; Simpson, Pippa; Cao, Yumei; Willis, Earnestine
Home visiting programs promote the education and health of Early Head Start (EHS) children and pregnant women. However, EHS's oral health component is unevenly implemented. We conducted an educational intervention to improve oral health knowledge and motivational interviewing techniques among Wisconsin EHS home visitors. A questionnaire assessing oral health-related knowledge and confidence was administered to home visitors before and after an educational session. Changes between pre/post-responses were analyzed with McNemar's test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. After the intervention there were increases in both knowledge and confidence related to oral health communication. Knowledge increases were observed in such topics as fluoridation, dental caries, and caregivers' role in assisting and supervising children's tooth brushing. A brief educational intervention was associated with increased home visitor knowledge and confidence in communicating oral health messages to EHS caregivers and pregnant women. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Hershner, Shelley; O'Brien, Louise M
Sleep deprivation can impair attention, mood, and performance; however, few effective sleep education programs are available. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a sleep education website, Sleep to Stay Awake (sleeptostayawake.org), on sleep behaviors of college students. College students (age 18 years or older) attending a public Midwestern university were randomized to control or intervention groups. All subjects completed baseline surveys that included demographics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire, sleep knowledge, and measures of sleepiness and circadian rhythm. The intervention group then undertook the online intervention. Surveys were repeated at 1 week and at 8 weeks. Students who participated included 295 controls and 254 intervention subjects. The mean age was 21.9 ± 4.1 years and 41.7% were male. Survey results at 8 weeks showed that more intervention subjects reported improved sleep behaviors (50.3% versus 39.5%, P = .04). Intervention subjects were more likely to stop electronics use earlier (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.5 [1.0-2.4]), keep a more regular sleep schedule (1.6 [1.06-2.4]), have an earlier weekday rise time (2.4 [1.3-4.4]), and have a lower likelihood of insufficient sleep prior to examinations (0.46 [0.28-0.76]). The intervention group had improvement in mean sleep quality (odds ratio = 5.8 versus 6.6, P sleep education intervention improved sleep behaviors, sleep quality, and depressions scores. This novel approach to address sleep deprivation, poor sleep habits, and mood among college students may offer an effective and inexpensive remedy. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
The health promotion and health education literature has references to health counselling. Yet, beyond the field of health, coaching has become a popular method to enhance and facilitate individual and group performance in business, sports, and personal areas of life. This paper focuses on the recent development of health coaching by practitioners…
Fatemeh Mokhtari1 , Soheila Ehsanpour2 and Ashraf Kazemi 3*
Background: Social support is one of the important effective factors on health-related behaviors in different groups. The present study has evaluated the effect of an educational intervention on parents’ nutritional social support for having a healthy diet by teenagers. Methods: This field trial was conducted in two groups on the parents of 63 female early adolescent.The level of parents’ nutritional social support for having a healthy diet were measured using a questionnaire. One month after...
Williams, Daniel; Tricomi, Gian; Gupta, Jay; Janise, Annie
Little is known about the efficacy of current interventions to mitigate burnout among medical students and residents, despite its association with mood disorders, absenteeism, low job satisfaction, and medical errors. This review summarizes the efficacy data of burnout interventions and how each modality is used. OVID-SP Medline, Google Scholar and PsychINFO were searched for combinations of medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: premedical students, medical students, internships, intern, medical graduate, clinical clerkship, and residents in combination with a keyword group of burnout, professional burnout, suicide, attempted suicide, and prevention. Studies with data on the efficacy from burnout prevention programs were included for review. Nineteen studies were selected for inclusion in this review. Eleven different types of interventions and combinations of interventions were used. There were six studies on the impact of the 2003 duty-hour restrictions by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education on burnout. Other approaches included self-development groups, conversion to a pass-fail grading system and training in mindfulness, communication, and stress management. Half of the intervention approaches had at least one study demonstrating benefit in reducing burnout. Self-development groups, the Respiratory One Method for relaxation, and conversion to a pass-fail grading system appear to reduce burnout. The burnout data on mindfulness training and the 2003 resident duty-hour restrictions are mixed. There were no studies available on burnout among premedical students or suicide prevention among medical students or residents. There is a growing body of evidence-based interventions to mitigate burnout which can be used in the development of future programs. More research is needed to identify and intervene against burnout earlier in the medical education pipeline, including at the undergraduate level.
Improvement of knowledge, procedures and attitudes of students in Secondary Education after being exposed to an intervention in Physical Education for Health Mejora de los conocimientos, procedimientos y actitudes del alumnado de secundaria tras un programa de intervención en educación física para la salud
I. J. Pérez
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La scarce amount of works in Spain about the promotion of healthy physical education in teenagers from the educational scope provoked an intervention program, from Physical Education, to improve the conceptual, procedural and attitudinal scopes in secondary students. The intervention program (with the duration of a term was characterised mainly by the use of a methodology in which the implication of the students, in an active and eminently reflexive way, had priority in class, under an integrative view of P.E. curriculum. In order to do so, the teaching performance made use of a series of resources such as the use of leaflets, a logbook (diary-like or the creation of forums by means of e-mail groups in Internet. The results of the investigation reveal a highly meaningful increase (p≤0.001, in the experimental group, in the conceptual, procedural and attitudinal sections of the curriculum around the practice of health-related physical activity, with regard to a control group. Therefore, it can be concluded highlighting the suitability of the intervention program designed to the improvement of learning in every one of the mentioned scopes in secondary students.
Key words: physical activity, physical education, health promotion, educational intervention, teenagers.
La escasez de trabajos en España sobre la promoción de actividad física saludable en adolescentes, desde el ámbito educativo, propició un programa de intervención desde la E.F. para mejorar en el alumnado de E.S.O. los ámbitos conceptual, procedimental y actitudinal. El programa de intervención (con una duración de un trimestre se caracterizó principalmente por la utilización de una metodología en la que primó la implicación de los alumnos en las clases de una forma activa y eminentemente reflexiva, bajo una perspectiva
Dave, Jayna M; Thompson, Deborah I; Svendsen-Sanchez, Ann; McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria
The focus of this article is the development of a nutrition education intervention for food bank clients. Formative research using mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) and community-based participatory research principles was conducted to assess the nutrition education needs of clients obtaining service from the Houston Food Bank (HFB). Participants were HFB and pantry staff and clients. Interview data were coded and analyzed using grounded theory approach. Themes were then identified. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies and descriptives. Data were used to tailor the curriculum to the target population. Six HFB staff, 49 pantry staff from 17 pantries, and 54 clients from 10 pantries participated in interviews and focus groups and completed questionnaires. The participants provided opinion on the current nutrition education provided via the food bank and made suggestions on strategies for development of an intervention. Their feedback was used to develop the six-session intervention curriculum to be delivered over 6 months. This research provides evidence that it is critical for members of the target audience be included in formative research to develop behavior change programs that are relevant and appealing and target their needs and interests.
Hansman, Catherine A.
This chapter is a case story of the evolution of the Master of Education in Health Professions Education (MEHPE), a collaborative graduate program developed by the Adult Learning and Development program at Cleveland State University and the Cleveland Clinic.
Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2018). Log in or ... The AJHPE is a journal for health professions educators. ... Transition-to-practice guidelines: Enhancing the quality of nursing education · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Ipsen, Christine; Jenny, Gregor
or networks of employees. The intervention process is designed to involve the most effective set of stakeholders (leaders, management, experts, co-workers) and connect them to an efficient network of change agents. For this, the current interventions offer models, handbooks and indicators that inform...... Health Index”. The study, conducted in Switzerland, shows that the index predicts sick leave, stress symptoms, work engagement and self-rated productivity. • The fourth contribution Torsten Holstad and his colleagues present their summative evaluation of a tailor-made training program focusing on health...
Amiri, Parisa; Hamzavi Zarghani, Najmeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Karimi, Mehrdad; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun
Because of their increased need for iodine, pregnant women are among the high-risk groups for iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on the iodine nutrition status of pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 pregnant women were randomly selected from five healthcare centers in the southern region of Tehran, the capital of Iran. In the intervention group, pregnant women received a four-month educational program, which included two face-to-face educational sessions, using a researcher-designed educational pamphlet in the second and third trimesters, and two follow-up telephone calls. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and salt iodine content were assessed at baseline and four months after the intervention. At baseline, there were significant associations between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.38, p = 0.03) between practice and UIC (r = 0.28, p = 0.01) and between UIC and iodine content of salt (r = 0.24, p = 0.009). Although a significant difference was found in mean KAP scores between the two groups after the educational intervention, scores were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with controls (p educational intervention increasing KAP among women regarding the importance of iodine and iodized salt consumption during pregnancy, their iodine status did not improve. Considering the main socio-environmental determinants of iodine deficiency, in particular, the monitoring of salt fortification, prescribing iodine containing supplements as well as improving health literacy in pregnant women seem essential strategies.
Tompsett, Claire; Sanders, Ross; Taylor, Caitlin; Cobley, Stephen
Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are assumed to be the basic prerequisite motor movements underpinning coordination of more integrated and advanced movement capabilities. FMS development and interventions have been associated with several beneficial health outcomes in individual studies. The primary aim of this review was to identify FMS intervention characteristics that could be optimised to attain beneficial outcomes in children and adolescents, while the secondary aim was to update the evidence as to the efficacy of FMS interventions on physiological, psychological and behavioural health outcomes. A systematic search [adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines] was conducted in seven databases. Studies were included if they conducted an FMS intervention and targeted at least one physiological, behavioural or psychological outcome in school-aged children (5-18 years). Twenty-nine studies examining the effect of FMS interventions relative to controls were identified. Specialist-led interventions, taught in conjunction with at-home practice and parent involvement, appeared more efficacious in enhancing FMS proficiency than school physical education alone. Intervention environments encouraging psychological autonomy were likely to enhance perceived and actual competence in FMS alongside physical activity. FMS interventions had little influence on overweight/obesity reduction, strength or flexibility. In 93% of studies, evidence indicated interventions improved FMS motor proficiency. Favourable specific physiological, psychological and behavioural outcomes were also identified across a variety of interventions. With reference to clinical and normative school-age populations, future studies should be directed toward determining validated standard FMS assessments to enable accurate effect estimates, permit intervention comparisons and improve the efficacy of FMS development.
Watson-Jones, Deborah; Lees, Shelley; Mwanga, Joseph; Neke, Nyasule; Changalucha, John; Broutet, Nathalie; Maduhu, Ibrahim; Kapiga, Saidi; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Bloem, Paul; Ross, David A
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers an opportunity to strengthen provision of adolescent health interventions (AHI). We explored the feasibility of integrating other AHI with HPV vaccination in Tanzania. A desk review of 39 policy documents was preceded by a stakeholder meeting with 38 policy makers and partners. Eighteen key informant interviews (KIIs) with health and education policy makers and district officials were conducted to further explore perceptions of current programs, priorities and AHI that might be suitable for integration with HPV vaccination. Fourteen school health interventions (SHI) or AHI are currently being implemented by the Government of Tanzania. Most are delivered as vertical programmes. Coverage of current programs is not universal, and is limited by financial, human resource and logistic constraints. Limited community engagement, rumours, and lack of strategic advocacy has affected uptake of some interventions, e.g. tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization. Stakeholder and KI perceptions and opinions were limited by a lack of experience with integrated delivery and AHI that were outside an individual's area of expertise and experience. Deworming and educational sessions including reproductive health education were the most frequently mentioned interventions that respondents considered suitable for integrated delivery with HPV vaccine. Given programme constraints, limited experience with integrated delivery and concern about real or perceived side-effects being attributed to the vaccine, it will be very important to pilot-test integration of AHI/SHI with HPV vaccination. Selected interventions will need to be simple and quick to deliver since health workers are likely to face significant logistic and time constraints during vaccination visits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Paradis, Gilles
Better alignment between academia and public health practice and policies are critical to improve public health actions. Training of future researchers to address complex issues and to conduct transdisciplinary and collaborative research will help improve this alignment. In this paper, we describe the role of internship placements and mentorship for trainees' skills development in population health intervention research and the benefits of embedding research trainees within public health organizations. This qualitative descriptive study assessed the perceptions of the role and benefits of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research training among former doctoral and postdoctoral students, public health mentors, and senior public health managers who participated in the 4P Program, a research training program which bridges academic training and the public health system in Quebec, Canada. Two types of interviews were conducted: telephone semi-structured interviews by an external evaluator and face-to-face trainee "exit" interviews by the Program co-director. Semi-annual evaluation reports from each trainee were also reviewed. Qualitative data were subjected to a thematic analysis. Internships provided trainees with a working knowledge of the public health system and the context in which decisions and public health interventions are implemented. It was an opportunity for trainees to interact with knowledge-user partners and assess the gap between research and practice. Effective mentorship was key to help trainees interpret the public health reality and develop population health intervention research skills. Trainees learned to ask the "how" questions that are critical for in-depth understanding of complex interventions and the conditions under which they can be best implemented. Conditions of success of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research included the alignment of the interests between the trainee, the
Fleming, Michael; Olsen, Dale; Stathes, Hilary; Boteler, Laura; Grossberg, Paul; Pfeifer, Judie; Schiro, Stephanie; Banning, Jane; Skochelak, Susan
Background Educating physicians and other health care professionals to identify and treat patients who drink above recommended limits is an ongoing challenge. Methods An educational Randomized Control Trial (RCT) was conducted to test the ability of a stand alone training simulation to improve the clinical skills of health care professionals in alcohol screening and intervention. The “virtual reality simulation” combines video, voice recognition and non branching logic to create an interactive environment that allows trainees to encounter complex social cues and realistic interpersonal exchanges. The simulation includes 707 questions and statements and 1207 simulated patient responses. Results A sample of 102 health care professionals (10 physicians; 30 physician assistants [PAs] or nurse practitioners [NPs]; 36 medical students; 26 pharmacy, PA or NP students) were randomly assigned to no training (n=51) or a computer based virtual reality intervention (n=51). Subjects in both groups had similar pre-test standardized patient alcohol screening skill scores – 53.2 (experimental) vs. 54.4 (controls), 52.2 vs. 53.7 alcohol brief intervention skills, and 42.9 vs. 43.5 alcohol referral skills. Following repeated practice with the simulation there were significant increases in the scores of the experimental group at 6 months post-randomization compared to the control group for the screening (67.7 vs. 58.1, pvirtual reality simulation to demonstrate an increase in the alcohol screening and brief intervention skills of health care professionals. PMID:19587253
Fleming, Michael; Olsen, Dale; Stathes, Hilary; Boteler, Laura; Grossberg, Paul; Pfeifer, Judie; Schiro, Stephanie; Banning, Jane; Skochelak, Susan
Educating physicians and other health care professionals about the identification and treatment of patients who drink more than recommended limits is an ongoing challenge. An educational randomized controlled trial was conducted to test the ability of a stand-alone training simulation to improve the clinical skills of health care professionals in alcohol screening and intervention. The "virtual reality simulation" combined video, voice recognition, and nonbranching logic to create an interactive environment that allowed trainees to encounter complex social cues and realistic interpersonal exchanges. The simulation included 707 questions and statements and 1207 simulated patient responses. A sample of 102 health care professionals (10 physicians; 30 physician assistants or nurse practitioners; 36 medical students; 26 pharmacy, physican assistant, or nurse practitioner students) were randomly assigned to a no training group (n = 51) or a computer-based virtual reality intervention (n = 51). Professionals in both groups had similar pretest standardized patient alcohol screening skill scores: 53.2 (experimental) vs 54.4 (controls), 52.2 vs 53.7 alcohol brief intervention skills, and 42.9 vs 43.5 alcohol referral skills. After repeated practice with the simulation there were significant increases in the scores of the experimental group at 6 months after randomization compared with the control group for the screening (67.7 vs 58.1; P virtual reality simulation to demonstrate an increase in the alcohol screening and brief intervention skills of health care professionals.
Olga N. Makhubela-Nkondo
Full Text Available For South Africa, the continent and the world as a whole, formal health literacy begins at school. Higher Education in South Africa is challenged to take heed of the World Health Organization’s (WHO (1996 definition of school health. For the WHO, school health is not merely hygiene, health promotion, health literacy or health education but a ‘combination of services ensuring the physical, mental and social well-being of learners so as to maximize their learning capabilities’. The WHO Expert Committee on School Health asserts that school health can advance public health, education, social and economic development, and that the global expansion of school health attests to the value placed internationally on such programmes (WHO 1996.
Lam, Lawrence T; Lam, Mary K
Excessive use of the Internet is considered a problematic behaviour by clinicians and researchers. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been advocated for a long time as a treatment approach and has been extended to include family therapy in the recent years. As eTherapy (eHealth) has become an important component in the treatment of many mental health problems, it is prudent to explore the current status of the eHealth approach as an intervention option for this problem. This systematic review aims to examine the current development of online intervention programmes for this particular condition. The PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analysis were employed to conduct the search for literature following a systematic and structured approach. Of the 182 articles screened, three satisfied the selection criteria. Information was extracted and analysed systematically for each study and tabulated. All these studies were pilot studies with small sample sizes. Two of these articles aimed to explore the therapeutic efficacy of newly developed online intervention programmes for Internet addiction (IA) and online gaming addiction. The third article described the design and development of an App for smartphone addiction. The results obtained from this review have provided insight into the on-going development of eHealth interventions as well as the health informatics approaches in offering a possible and practical solution to tackle this growing problem.
Full Text Available Chronic disease rates have become more prevalent in the modern American workforce, which has negative implications for workplace productivity and healthcare costs. Offering workplace health interventions is recognized as an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease progression, absenteeism, and healthcare costs as well as improve population health. This review documents intervention and evaluation strategies used for health promotion programs delivered in workplaces. Using predetermined search terms in five online databases, we identified 1,131 published items from 1995 to 2014. Of these items, 27 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria; reporting data from completed United States-based workplace interventions that recruited at-risk employees based on their disease or disease-related risk factors. A content rubric was developed and used to catalogue these 27 published field studies. Selected workplace interventions targeted obesity (n = 13, cardiovascular diseases (n = 8, and diabetes (n = 6. Intervention strategies included instructional education/counseling (n = 20, workplace environmental change (n = 6, physical activity (n = 10, use of technology (n = 10, and incentives (n = 13. Self-reported data (n = 21, anthropometric measurements (n = 17, and laboratory tests (n = 14 were used most often in studies with outcome evaluation. This is the first literature review to focus on interventions for employees with elevated risk for chronic diseases. The review has the potential to inform future workplace health interventions by presenting strategies related to implementation and evaluation strategies in workplace settings. These strategies can help determine optimal worksite health programs based on the unique characteristics of work settings and the health risk factors of their employee populations.
Meng, Lu; Wolff, Marilyn B; Mattick, Kelly A; DeJoy, David M; Wilson, Mark G; Smith, Matthew Lee
Chronic disease rates have become more prevalent in the modern American workforce, which has negative implications for workplace productivity and healthcare costs. Offering workplace health interventions is recognized as an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease progression, absenteeism, and healthcare costs as well as improve population health. This review documents intervention and evaluation strategies used for health promotion programs delivered in workplaces. Using predetermined search terms in five online databases, we identified 1,131 published items from 1995 to 2014. Of these items, 27 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria; reporting data from completed United States-based workplace interventions that recruited at-risk employees based on their disease or disease-related risk factors. A content rubric was developed and used to catalogue these 27 published field studies. Selected workplace interventions targeted obesity ( n = 13), cardiovascular diseases ( n = 8), and diabetes ( n = 6). Intervention strategies included instructional education/counseling ( n = 20), workplace environmental change ( n = 6), physical activity ( n = 10), use of technology ( n = 10), and incentives ( n = 13). Self-reported data ( n = 21), anthropometric measurements ( n = 17), and laboratory tests ( n = 14) were used most often in studies with outcome evaluation. This is the first literature review to focus on interventions for employees with elevated risk for chronic diseases. The review has the potential to inform future workplace health interventions by presenting strategies related to implementation and evaluation strategies in workplace settings. These strategies can help determine optimal worksite health programs based on the unique characteristics of work settings and the health risk factors of their employee populations.
Uno, Hideo; Zakariasen,Kenneth