WorldWideScience

Sample records for health disparities education

  1. Disseminating Health Disparities Education Through Tele-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaSonya Knowles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years of research demonstrate that there are wide disparities in health throughout America. Health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist when specific population subgroups are compared. Health Disparities in America: Working Toward Social Justice is a course instructed every fall by Dr. Lovell Jones, director of The Center for Research on Minority Health (CRMH at UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The CRMH has created a course that examines the social and societal factors that are fundamental in creating disparities in health. Students from 10 different academic programs and institutions participate in this course. The course is unique in the aspect that various, diverse speakers whom are experts in their field of study instruct each class. This health disparities course is conducted at one of three different academic institutions in the Houston area and broadcast via satellite to various academic institutions by means of teleeducation. Tele-education is defined as a mode of instruction utilizing different forms of media such as video, audio technology tools and computers. Video and audio technologies involve the transmission of interface between learners and instructors, either interactive or non-interactive. Tele-education technologies have an important role to play in addressing the dissemination of health disparities education. The purpose of this program is to determine the feasibility of tele-education as a mode of instruction to introduce the multi-disciplinary components of health disparities. Our findings suggest that tele-education is a useful tool in imparting health disparities education.

  2. Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Health Disparities conduct transdisciplinary research involving social, behavioral, biological, and genetic research to improve knowledge of the causes of health disparities and devise effective methods of preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease and promoting ...

  3. Literacy and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.

  4. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Conyers, F. Garrett; Estapé, Estela S.; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J.; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R.; Nivet, Marc A.; Oppenheim, Joel D.; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa

    2015-01-01

    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. PMID:23659676

  5. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R; Conyers, F Garrett; Estapé, Estela S; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R; Nivet, Marc A; Oppenheim, Joel D; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa

    2013-05-01

    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. An Approach to Integrating Health Disparities within Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Maribel; Marte, Otto; Barba, Joseph; Hubbard, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Health disparities are preventable differences in the incidence, prevalence and burden of disease among communities targeted by gender, geographic location, ethnicity and/or socio-economic status. While biomedical research has identified partial origin(s) of divergent burden and impact of disease, the innovation needed to eradicate health disparities in the United States requires unique engagement from biomedical engineers. Increasing awareness of the prevalence and consequences of health disparities is particularly attractive to today's undergraduates, who have undauntedly challenged paradigms believed to foster inequality. Here, the Department of Biomedical Engineering at The City College of New York (CCNY) has leveraged its historical mission of access-and-excellence to integrate the study of health disparities into undergraduate BME curricula. This article describes our novel approach in a multiyear study that: (i) Integrated health disparities modules at all levels of the required undergraduate BME curriculum; (ii) Developed opportunities to include impacts of health disparities into undergraduate BME research projects and mentored High School summer STEM training; and (iii) Established health disparities-based challenges as BME capstone design and/or independent entrepreneurship projects. Results illustrate the rising awareness of health disparities among the youngest BMEs-to-be, as well as abundant undergraduate desire to integrate health disparities within BME education and training.

  7. Educating clinicians about cultural competence and disparities in health and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    An extensive body of literature has documented significant racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care. Cultural competency interventions, including the training of physicians and other health care professionals, have been proposed as a key strategy for helping to reduce these disparities. The continuing medical education (CME) profession can play an important role in addressing this need by improving the quality and assessing the outcomes of multicultural education programs. This article provides an overview of health care policy, legislative, accreditation, and professional initiatives relating to these subjects. The status of CME offerings on cultural competence/disparities is reviewed, with examples provided of available curricular resources and online courses. Critiques of cultural competence training and selected studies of its effectiveness are discussed. The need for the CME profession to become more culturally competent in its development, implementation, and evaluation of education programs is examined. Future challenges and opportunities are described, and a call for leadership and action is issued. Copyright © 2010 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  8. The role that graduate medical education must play in ensuring health equity and eliminating health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Maria E; Fried, Ethan D; DuBose, Thomas D; Nelson, Consuelo; Breida, Margaret

    2014-05-01

    Despite the 2002 Institute of Medicine report that described the moral and financial impact of health care disparities and the need to address them, it is evident that health care disparities persist. Recommendations for addressing disparities include collecting and reporting data on patient race and ethnicity, supporting language interpretation services, increasing awareness of health care disparities through education, requiring cultural competency training for all health care professionals, and increasing diversity among those delivering health care. The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education places strong emphasis on graduate medical education's role in eliminating health care disparities by asking medical educators to objectively evaluate and report on their trainees' ability to practice patient-centered, culturally competent care. Moreover, one of the objectives of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education Clinical Learning Environment Review visits as part of the Next Accreditation System is to identify how sponsoring institutions engage residents and fellows in the use of data to improve systems of care, reduce health care disparities, and improve patient outcomes. Residency and fellowship programs should ensure the delivery of meaningful curricula on cultural competency and health care disparities, for which there are numerous resources, and ensure resident assessment of culturally competent care. Moreover, training programs and institutional leadership need to collaborate on ensuring data collection on patient satisfaction, outcomes, and quality measures that are broken down by patient race, cultural identification, and language. A diverse physician workforce is another strategy for mitigating health care disparities, and using strategies to enhance faculty diversity should also be a priority of graduate medical education. Transparent data about institutional diversity efforts should be provided to interested medical students

  9. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ik People" People Awakening Resilience Project (PARP), Cuqyun "Measuring" Treatment and Health Services Research Alcohol Treatment and ... addressing Health Disparities . 1 2009-2013 Health Disparities Strategic Plan, p.4 2 Ibid, p.4 3 ...

  10. Integrating Interprofessional Education and Cultural Competency Training to Address Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl Anna; Moore, Ramey; Buron, Bill; Hudson, Jonell; Long, Christopher R; Purvis, Rachel S; Schulz, Thomas K; Rowland, Brett; Warmack, T Scott

    2018-01-01

    Many U.S. medical schools have accreditation requirements for interprofessional education and training in cultural competency, yet few programs have developed programs to meet both of these requirements simultaneously. Furthermore, most training programs to address these requirements are broad in nature and do not focus on addressing health disparities. The lack of integration may reduce the students' ability to apply the knowledge learned. Innovative programs that combine these two learning objectives and focus on disenfranchised communities are needed to train the next generation of health professionals. A unique interprofessional education program was developed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Northwest. The program includes experiential learning, cultural exposure, and competence-building activities for interprofessional teams of medicine, nursing, and pharmacy students. The activities include (a) educational seminars, (b) clinical experiential learning in a student-led clinic, and (c) community-based service-learning through health assessments and survey research events. The program focuses on interprofessional collaboration to address the health disparities experienced by the Marshallese community in northwest Arkansas. The Marshallese are Pacific Islanders who suffer from significant health disparities related to chronic and infectious diseases. Comparison tests revealed statistically significant changes in participants' retrospectively reported pre/posttest scores for Subscales 1 and 2 of the Readiness for Interpersonal Learning Scale and for the Caffrey Cultural Competence in Healthcare Scale. However, no significant change was found for Subscale 3 of the Readiness for Interpersonal Learning Scale. Qualitative findings demonstrated a change in students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward working with other professions and the underserved population. The program had to be flexible enough to meet the educational requirements and

  11. Engendering health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    How is gender implicated in our exploration of health disparities in Canada? Set against the backdrop of federal government policy, this review paper examines the ways in which gender intersects with other health determinants to produce disparate health outcomes. An overview of salient issues including the impact of gender roles, environmental exposures, gender violence, workplace hazards, economic disparities, the costs of poverty, social marginalization and racism, aging, health conditions, interactions with health services, and health behaviours are considered. This review suggests health is detrimentally affected by gender roles and statuses as they intersect with economic disparities, cultural, sexual, physical and historical marginalization as well as the strains of domestic and paid labour. These conditions result in an unfair health burden borne in particular by women whose access to health determinants is--in various degrees--limited. While progress has certainly been made on some fronts, the persistence of health disparities among diverse populations of women and men suggests a postponement of the vision of a just society with health for all that was articulated in the Federal Plan on Gender Equality. Commitment, creativity and collaboration from stakeholders ranging from various levels of government, communities, academics, non-governmental agencies and health professionals will be required to reduce and eliminate health disparities between and among all members of our society.

  12. Surmounting the unique challenges in health disparities education: a multi-institution qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Bereknyei, Sylvia; Lie, Desiree; Braddock, Clarence H

    2010-05-01

    The National Consortium for Multicultural Education for Health Professionals (Consortium) comprises educators representing 18 US medical schools, funded by the National Institutes of Health. Collective lessons learned from curriculum implementation by principal investigators (PIs) have the potential to guide similar educational endeavors. Describe Consortium PI's self-reported challenges with curricular development, solutions and their new curricular products. Information was collected from PIs over 2 months using a 53-question structured three-part questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed PI demographics, curriculum implementation challenges and solutions, and newly created curricular products. Study participants were 18 Consortium PIs. Descriptive analysis was used for quantitative data. Narrative responses were analyzed and interpreted using qualitative thematic coding. Response rate was 100%. Common barriers and challenges identified by PIs were: finding administrative and leadership support, sustaining the momentum, continued funding, finding curricular space, accessing and engaging communities, and lack of education research methodology skills. Solutions identified included engaging stakeholders, project-sharing across schools, advocacy and active participation in committees and community, and seeking sustainable funding. All Consortium PIs reported new curricular products and extensive dissemination efforts outside their own institutions. The Consortium model has added benefits for curricular innovation and dissemination for cultural competence education to address health disparities. Lessons learned may be applicable to other educational innovation efforts.

  13. The moral problem of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia M

    2010-04-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.

  14. Educational Health Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Findings from Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor S. Ferguson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesSocioeconomic disparities in health have emerged as an important area in public health, but studies from Afro-Caribbean populations are uncommon. In this study, we report on educational health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity, among Jamaican adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007–2008. Trained research staff administered questionnaires and obtained measurements of blood pressure, anthropometrics, glucose and cholesterol. CVD risk factors were defined by internationally accepted cut-points. Educational level was classified as primary or lower, junior secondary, full secondary, and post-secondary. Educational disparities were assessed using age-adjusted or age-specific prevalence ratios and prevalence differences obtained from Poisson regression models. Post-secondary education was used as the reference category for all comparisons. Analyses were weighted for complex survey design to yield nationally representative estimates.ResultsThe sample included 678 men and 1,553 women with mean age of 39.4 years. The effect of education on CVD risk factors differed between men and women and by age group among women. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher among men with less education, with prevalence differences ranging from 6.9 to 7.4 percentage points (p < 0.05 for each group. Prevalence ratios for diabetes among men ranged from 3.3 to 3.5 but were not statistically significant. Age-specific prevalence of hypertension was generally higher among the less educated women, with statistically significant prevalence differences ranging from 6.0 to 45.6 percentage points and prevalence ratios ranging from 2.5 to 4.3. Similarly, estimates for obesity and hypercholesterolemia suggested that prevalence was higher among the less educated younger women (25–39 years and among more educated older

  15. Children's school readiness: implications for eliminating future disparities in health and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    School-entry characteristics predict adult educational attainment, which forecasts dispositions toward disease prevention. Health and education risks can also be transmitted from one generation to the next. As such, school readiness forecasts a set of intertwined biopsychosocial trajectories that can influence the developmental antecedents to health and disease prevalence in society. To predict children's health behaviors and academic adjustment at the end of fourth grade from their kindergarten entry math, vocabulary, and attention skills. We use a subsample of 614 girls and 541 boys from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (Canada). Children were individually assessed for cognitive skills and teachers rated their classroom attention skills at 65 months. Outcome measures include health behaviors, psychosocial, and academic outcomes at 122 months. Multiple regression analyses were used. Receptive vocabulary in kindergarten exclusively predicted fourth-grade dietary habits. Unstandardized coefficients predicted decreases in sweet snack intake (β = -.009, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -.011 to -.006) and dairy product intake (β = .009, 95% CI = .005 to .013). Conversely, higher kindergarten math skills predicted increases in activities requiring physical effort (β = .030, 95% CI = .011 to .056). Although vocabulary and attention skills were found important, kindergarten math skills were stronger and more consistent predictors of later academic outcomes. From a population-health perspective, the skills children bring to the kindergarten classroom might reduce a host of lifestyle risks from childhood through adulthood. Early promotion of such skills also offers possibilities for ultimately reducing later disparities in health and education.

  16. Rural Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Delta Region for specific data. U.S. – Mexico Border While life expectancy in many counties of ... documents the successes, challenges, and relevant information for planning. ... on rural/urban disparities see What sources cover health behaviors and ...

  17. Integrating Education on Addressing Health Disparities into the Graduate Social Work Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jamie Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an elective social work course as a means of better preparing social workers entering practice in healthcare to meet the challenges of promoting health and reducing health disparities in minority and underserved communities. Course offerings specifically targeting health or medical social work training…

  18. The Health Sciences and Technology Academy: an educational pipeline to address health care disparities in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendall, Sherron Benson; Kasten, Kasandra; Hanks, Sara; Chester, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Health and educational disparities are national issues in the United States. Research has shown that health care professionals from underserved backgrounds are more likely than others to work in underserved areas. The Association of American Medical Colleges' Project 3000 by 2000, to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in medical schools, spurred the West Virginia School of Medicine to start the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) in 1994 with the goal of supporting interested underrepresented high school students in pursuing college and health professions careers. The program was based on three beliefs: (1) if underrepresented high school students have potential and the desire to pursue a health professions career and are given the support, they can reach their goals, including obtaining a health professions degree; (2) underserved high school students are able to predict their own success if given the right resources; and (3) community engagement would be key to the program's success.In this Perspective, the authors describe the HSTA and its framework and philosophy, including the underlying theories and pedagogy from research in the fields of education and the behavioral/social sciences. They then offer evidence of the program's success, specifically for African American students, including graduates' high college-going rate and overwhelming intention to choose a health professions major. Finally, the authors describe the benefits of the HSTA's community partnerships, including providing mentors to students, adding legislative language providing tuition waivers and a budgetary line item devoted to the program, and securing program funding from outside sources.

  19. RACIAL DISPARITIES IN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that racial differences in stress exist and that stress is a key mediator linking racial status to poor health, relatively few studies have explicitly examined this premise. We examine the distribution of stress across racial groups and the role of stress vulnerability and exposure in explaining racial differences in health in a community sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adults, employing a modeling strategy that accounts for the correlation between types of stressors and the accumulation of stressors in the prediction of health outcomes. We find significant racial differences in overall and cumulative exposure to eight stress domains. Blacks exhibit a higher prevalence and greater clustering of high stress scores than Whites. American-born Hispanics show prevalence rates and patterns of accumulation of stressors comparable to Blacks, while foreign-born Hispanics have stress profiles similar to Whites. Multiple stressors correlate with poor physical and mental health, with financial and relationship stressors exhibiting the largest and most consistent effects. Though we find no support for the stress-vulnerability hypothesis, the stress-exposure hypothesis does account for some racial health disparities. We discuss implications for future research and policy.

  20. Is college education an equalizer for social disparities in health literacy? A case study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anning; Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to illustrate the immediate effect of the college education process (across college grades) on the strength of association between parental education and college attendees' health literacy. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted based on data from a random sample of students in one university in Shanghai, China ( N = 574). Exploratory factor analysis was used to generate factors of different dimensions of health literacy. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to investigate how college education process alters the family-based disparity in health literacy. The link between parental education and health-related skills did not vary significantly across grades of participants, but participants in their third ( p equalizer effect, nevertheless, is contingent on the particular dimensions of health literacy.

  1. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  2. Educational disparities in quality of diabetes care in a universal health insurance system: evidence from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Eggleston, Karen N

    2011-08-01

    To investigate educational disparities in the care process and health outcomes among patients with diabetes in the context of South Korea's universal health insurance system. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses of data from a cross-sectional health survey. A nationally representative and population-based survey, the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Respondents aged 40 or older who self-reported prior diagnosis with diabetes (n= 1418). Seven measures of the care process and health outcomes, namely (i) receiving medical treatment for diabetes, (ii) ever received diabetes education, (iii) received dilated eye examination in the past year, (iv) received microalbuminuria test in the past year, (v) having activity limitation due to diabetes, (vi) poor self-rated health and (vii) self-rated health on a visual analog scale. Except for receiving medical care for diabetes, overall process quality was low, with only 25% having ever received diabetes education, 39% having received a dilated eye examination in the past year and 51% having received a microalbuminuria test in the past year. Lower education level was associated with both poorer care processes and poorer health outcomes, whereas lower income level was only associated with poorer health outcomes. While South Korea's universal health insurance system may have succeeded in substantially reducing financial barriers related to diabetes care, the quality of diabetes care is low overall and varies by education level. System-level quality improvement efforts are required to address the weaknesses of the health system, thereby mitigating educational disparities in diabetes care quality.

  3. Health Psychology special series on health disparities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and

  4. Racial disparities in the health benefits of educational attainment: a study of inflammatory trajectories among African American and white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Curtis, David S; Doan, Stacey N; Coe, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the prospective effects of educational attainment on proinflammatory physiology among African American and white adults. Participants were 1192 African Americans and 1487 whites who participated in Year 5 (mean [standard deviation] age = 30 [3.5] years), and Year 20 (mean [standard deviation] age = 45 [3.5]) of an ongoing longitudinal study. Initial analyses focused on age-related changes in fibrinogen across racial groups, and parallel analyses for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 assessed at Year 20. Models then estimated the effects of educational attainment on changes in inflammation for African Americans and whites before and after controlling for four blocks of covariates: a) early life adversity, b) health and health behaviors at baseline, c) employment and financial measures at baseline and follow-up, and d) psychosocial stresses in adulthood. African Americans had larger increases in fibrinogen over time than whites (B = 24.93, standard error = 3.24, p educational attainment were weaker for African Americans than for whites (B = 10.11, standard error = 3.29, p = .002), and only 8% of this difference was explained by covariates. Analyses for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 yielded consistent results. The effects of educational attainment on inflammation levels were stronger for white than for African American participants. Why African Americans do not show the same health benefits with educational attainment is an important question for health disparities research.

  5. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  6. Addressing Breast Cancer Health Disparities in the Mississippi Delta Through an Innovative Partnership for Education, Detection, and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan; Fastring, Danielle; Fortune, Melody; White-Johnson, Freddie

    2016-06-01

    Projects to reduce disparities in cancer treatment and research include collaborative partnerships and multiple strategies to promote community awareness, education, and engagement. This is especially needed in underserved areas such as the Mississippi Delta where more women are diagnosed at regional and distant stages of breast cancer. The purpose for this project was to increase the relatively low screening rate for African American women in the Mississippi Delta through a partnership between the Mississippi Network for Cancer Control and Prevention at The University of Southern Mississippi, The Fannie Lou Hamer Cancer Foundation and the Mississippi State Department of Health to decrease health disparities in breast cancer through increased awareness on self-early detection methods, leveraging resources to provide mammography screenings, and adequate follow-up with services and treatment for abnormal findings. Through this collaborative effort, over 500 women in three rural Mississippi Delta counties were identified, provided community education on early self-detection, and given appointments for mammography screenings within one fiscal year.

  7. Does the psychosocial quality of unpaid family work contribute to educational disparities in mental health among employed partnered mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Bonnie; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M

    2018-04-24

    The contribution of unpaid family work quality to understanding social inequalities in women's mental health has been understudied and further limited by a scarcity of psychometrically sound instruments available to measure family work. Therefore, using a multi-item scale of family work quality with evidence of validity and reliability, the overall aim of the present study was to determine whether psychosocial qualities of unpaid family work contribute to educational inequities in women's mental health. Study participants in this cross-sectional study were 512 employed partnered mothers living in a Canadian province and recruited from an online research panel. The dependent variable was psychological distress. In addition to a 28-item measure assessing five dimensions of unpaid family work quality, independent variables included material deprivation, job decision latitude, job demands and several measures of the work-family interface. Multiple linear regression was the primary analysis. Compared to women with high school or less, university educated women reported lower psychological distress [b = - 2.23 (SE = 0.50) p = 0.001]. The introduction of material deprivation into the model resulted in the largest reduction to the education disparity (51%), followed by equity in responsibility for unpaid family work (25%), family-to-work facilitation (22%), and decision latitude in paid work (21%). When entered simultaneously into the final model, the association between education and psychological distress was reduced by 70% and became statistically non-significant [b = - 0.68 (SE = 0.47) p = 0.10]. In addition to the more established mechanisms of material conditions and decision latitude to explain mental health disparities, inequity in responsibility for unpaid family work may also play a role.

  8. Education-based disparities in knowledge of novel health risks: The case of knowledge gaps in HIV risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Orom, Heather; Waters, Erika A; McKillip, Megan; Hay, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    Risk perception is a key determinant of preventive health behaviour, but when asked, some individuals indicate they do not know their health risk. Low education is associated with both lack of knowledge about health risk and with the persistence and exacerbation of gaps in knowledge about health issues. This study uses the context of an emerging infectious disease threat to explore the hypothesis that the education-don't know risk relation results from differences in knowledge about the health issue of interest. Specifically, we examine whether patterns of change over time follow theoretical predictions that disparities in risk knowledge would increase over time in less educated sectors of the population (knowledge gap hypothesis). Secondary analysis of population-representative behavioural surveillance survey. We analysed data from the 1993 to 2000 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys, which measured education and perceived HIV/AIDS risk in a population sample collected separately in each survey year; don't know responses were coded. In each year, individuals with higher education were less likely to respond don't know. The absolute prevalence of don't know responding dropped over time; nonetheless, there was an increase over time in the magnitude of the pattern of lower education being associated with greater don't know responding. We found support for the knowledge gap hypothesis. Over time, populations with greater education gained more knowledge about their HIV risk than populations with lower education. Results highlight the need to carefully consider health communication strategies to reach and address those individuals with low education and health knowledge. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? A meaningful potion of the population answers 'don't know' when asked to report their risk for health problems, indicating a lack of risk perception in the domain. Previous studies have shown that level of education is

  9. Gender disparities in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jennifer A; Patel, Vinisha; Varela, Natalie A

    2012-01-01

    The existence of disparities in delivery of health care has been the subject of increased empirical study in recent years. Some studies have suggested that disparities between men and women exist in the diagnoses and treatment of health conditions, and as a result measures have been taken to identify these differences. This article uses several examples to illustrate health care gender bias in medicine. These examples include surgery, peripheral artery disease, cardiovascular disease, critical care, and cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, we discuss reasons why these issues still occur, trends in health care that may address these issues, and the need for acknowledgement of the current system's inequities in order to provide unbiased care for women in the future. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  10. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  11. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.

  12. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-02-04

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.  Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/20/2008.

  13. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Raymond L.

    2004-01-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora. PMID:15101675

  14. Gender Disparity in Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Leyla Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has been concerned about gender inequality in education for many years and has implemented various policy instruments. However, gender disparity still seems to prevail today. This study seeks to provide an insight to the gender differences in terms of enrollment rates, level of education, fields of education and number of graduates in…

  15. Examples of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the bacterium H. pylori (stomach cancer) in immigrant countries of origin contributes to these disparities. ( ACS ) ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  16. Gender-specific modifying effect on the educational disparities in the impact of smoking on health expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Jeune, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking reduces life years in good health but it is unclear how education modifies the impact of smoking. We hypothesize that the vulnerability of the effect of smoking on health expectancy decreases with educational level in both genders and examine the contributions of mortality...... by exposure to smoking but the effect of health status increased by educational level for men and decreased for women. CONCLUSION: The social differential vulnerability to the effect of smoking differed between genders. Thus, whereas smoking had a substantial effect on health among women with a low...... and health effects. METHODS: Life tables by educational level and smoking category were constructed from registers and survey data. For each educational level, difference in expected lifetime in self-rated good and poor health between 30-year-old never smokers and smokers were estimated and decomposed...

  17. The Biology of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

  18. Health disparities among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawn, Barbara; Siqueira, Eduardo; Koren, Ainat; Slatin, Craig; Devereaux Melillo, Karen; Pearce, Carole; Hoff, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe the process of an interdisciplinary case study that examined the social contexts of occupational and general health disparities among health care workers in two sets of New England hospitals and nursing homes. A political economy of the work environment framework guided the study, which incorporated dimensions related to market dynamics, technology, and political and economic power. The purpose of this article is to relate the challenges encountered in occupational health care settings and how these could have impacted the study results. An innovative data collection matrix that guided small-group analysis provided a firm foundation from which to make design modifications to address these challenges. Implications for policy and research include the use of a political and economic framework from which to frame future studies, and the need to maintain rigor while allowing flexibility in design to adapt to challenges in the field.

  19. Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung

    2013-03-01

    To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth). Data from Wave 1 of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2008) involving six Indian states were used. Seven health system responsiveness domains were considered for a respondent's last visit to an outpatient service in 12 months: prompt attention, dignity, clarity of information, autonomy, confidentiality, choice and quality of basic amenities. Hierarchical ordered probit models (correcting for reporting heterogeneity through anchoring vignettes) were used to assess the association of socio-economic characteristics with the seven responsiveness domains, controlling for age, gender and area of residence. Stratified analysis was also conducted among users of public and private health facilities. Our statistical models accounting for reporting heterogeneity revealed socio-economic disparities in all health system responsiveness domains. Estimates suggested that individuals from the lowest wealth group, for example, were less likely than individuals from the highest wealth group to report 'very good' on the dignity domain by 8% points (10% vs 18%). Stratified analysis showed that such disparities existed among users of both public and private health facilities. Socio-economic disparities exist in health system responsiveness in India, irrespective of the type of health facility used. Policy efforts to monitor and improve these disparities are required at the health system level.

  20. Health disparities through a psychological lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E

    2009-11-01

    There is growing concern in the United States about avoidable, unjust differences in health associated with sociodemographic characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. This concern has sparked research to identify how disparities develop and how they can be reduced. Studies showing that disparities occur at all levels of socioeconomic status, not simply at the very bottom, suggest that psychosocial factors play an important role. The author discusses both content and process issues in psychological research on disparities. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association

  1. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Health Literacy Health Equity CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report (CHDIR) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2011 Report More Information CDC Releases Second Health Disparities & Inequalities Report - United States, 2013 CDC and its ...

  2. TERRITORIAL DISPARITIES REGARDING THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH SERVICE PROVIDERS IN ROMANIA AFTER JOINING THE EUROPEAN UNION STUDY CASE: MEDICAL STAFF WITH TERTIARY LEVEL OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babucea Ana-Gabriela

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Romania 90ˈs, there was a relatively low level of regional disparities compared with western economies in all fields, but inequalities have emerged and widened rapidly because only certain areas, especially urban areas have benefited from inflows of capital and specialized human resources. Currently, Romania has a low level of development between EU countries, five of the eight NUTS 2 regions being the most underdeveloped in Europe. The aim of this research is a comparative analysis of developments and trends manifested in the public health system in terms of distribution of health services providers at the regional level in Romania. For the analysis of regional disparities, the research seeks to highlight a comprehensive image of the level and dynamics of the Romania territorial inequalities regarding the personnel with tertiary education, which includes physicians, dentists, and pharmaceutical chemists, as professional providers of the health services. Were took into account statistical indicators that describe the distribution of such as healthcare providers, at level of the eight Romanian NUTS2 regions, highlighting inequalities in access to health services for the population. We used available data, accessed from National Institute of Statistics of Romania, regarding Romania, and itˊs eight regions. We appeal also to statistical publications at the national and European level, other data analysis, and experts' opinions expressed in recent articles in the field. In order to identify the factors that can reduce the disparities, and ensure the equity for disadvantaged population, in terms of ensuring the health system of medical services in parallel with a homogeneous distribution of resources and services in this area, we apply specific statistics for territorial analysis and comparisons.

  3. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  4. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  5. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A

    2013-05-01

    Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25-64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, were used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both data sets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). The results add to the literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups.

  6. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  7. Health Literacy, Health Disparities, and Sources of Health Information in U.S. Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Simko, Lynn C; Colbert, Alison M; Bennett, Ian M

    Low health literacy in older adults has been associated with poor health outcomes (i.e., mortality, decreased physical and cognitive functioning, and less preventive care utilization). Many factors associated with low health literacy are also associated with health disparities. Interaction with healthcare providers and sources of health information are influenced by an individual's health literacy and can impact health outcomes. This study examined the relationships between health literacy, sources of health information, and demographic/background characteristics in older adults (aged 65 years and older) related to health literacy and disparities. This descriptive, correlational study is a secondary analysis of the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, a large-scale national assessment. Older adults with lower health literacy have less income and education, rate their health as poor or fair, have visual or auditory difficulties, need help filling out forms, reading newspaper, or writing notes, and use each source of health information less (print and nonprint). Many of these characteristics and skills are predictive of health literacy and associated with health disparities. The results expand our knowledge of characteristics associated with health literacy and sources of health information used by older adults. Interventions to improve health outcomes including health disparities can focus on recognizing and meeting the health literacy demands of older adults.

  8. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  9. Socioeconomic Disparities and Health: Impacts and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997–98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society. PMID:22156290

  10. Socioeconomic disparities and health: impacts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.

  11. The human face of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph.

  12. The role of health-related behaviors in the socioeconomic disparities in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic disparities in health-related behaviors and to assess if behaviors eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health in a nationally representative sample of adult Americans. Data are from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Behaviors were indicated by smoking, dental visits, frequency of eating fresh fruits and vegetables and extent of calculus, used as a marker for oral hygiene. Oral health outcomes were gingival bleeding, loss of periodontal attachment, tooth loss and perceived oral health. Education and income indicated socioeconomic position. Sex, age, ethnicity, dental insurance and diabetes were adjusted for in the regression analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess socioeconomic disparities in behaviors. Regression models adjusting and not adjusting for behaviors were compared to assess the change in socioeconomic disparities in oral health. The results showed clear socioeconomic disparities in all behaviors. After adjusting for behaviors, the association between oral health and socioeconomic indicators attenuated but did not disappear. These findings imply that improvement in health-related behaviors may lessen, but not eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health, and suggest the presence of more complex determinants of these disparities which should be addressed by oral health preventive policies.

  13. [Health disparities: local realities and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, P; Green, A R

    2012-11-28

    Since 1887, the Policlinique Médicale Universitaire (PMU) has brought care to vulnerable populations who are at risk of poor physical, mental and social health. These include marginalised Swiss natives and immigrant communities (asylum seekers, undocumented immigrants). These patients are at risk of health disparities given their poor access to the health care system and lack of adapted quality care. Clinical approach must address these potential disparities, reinforced by a research describing them in order to explain their cause, and propose possible solutions, and a medical training addressing these topics from the undergraduate to the attending level. Through those holistic clinical approach, robust research and improved medical training, health providers will contribute to give quality care to all citizens, without exception!

  14. Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) - SEER Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical software that generates summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities. Users can import SEER data or other population-based health data to calculate 11 disparity measurements.

  15. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  16. 78 FR 35837 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Research Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... disparities research to close the disparity gap in the burden of illness and death experienced by racial and... Number NIH-2007-0931] RIN 0925-AA61 National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Research... disparities research and other health disparities research. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  17. 77 FR 43850 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR... Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Healthand Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  18. 75 FR 66114 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NCMHD Health Disparities Research on Minority and... Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  19. 75 FR 12766 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research... Review, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800...

  20. 75 FR 9421 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research..., National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  1. Special Issue on Global Health Disparities Focus on Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok

    2016-01-01

    Haeok Lee, PhD, RN, FAAN who is a Korean-American nurse scientist, received her doctor al degree from the Nursing Physiology Department, College of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), in 1993, and her post doctor al training from College of Medicine, UCSF. Dr. Lee worked at Case Western Reserve University and University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. She has worked at the UMass Boston since 2008. Dr. Lee has established a long-term commitment to minority health, especially Asian American Pacific Islanders, as a community leader, community health educator, and community researcher, and all these services have become a foundation for her community-based participatory research. Dr. Lee's research addresses current health problems framed in the context of social, political, and economic settings, and her studies have improved racial and ethnic data and developed national health policies to address health disparities in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and liver cancer among minorities. Dr. Lee's research, which is noteworthy for its theoretical base, is clearly filling the gap. Especially, Dr. Lee's research is beginning to have a favorable impact on national and international health policies and continuing education programs directed toward the global elimination of cervical and liver cancer-related health disparities in underserved and understudied populations.

  2. Strategies to reduce disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality: Patient and provider education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Joses; Moroz, Leslie

    2017-08-01

    A reduction in racial disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality requires effective education of both patients and providers. Although providers seem to recognize that disparities exist, there is a widespread need for improving our understanding differences in health care and outcomes and the factors that contribute to them. There are increasingly more educational materials available for the purpose of augmenting disparities education among patients and providers. However, it is important to incorporate contemporary learning methodologies and technologies to address our current knowledge deficit. Collaborative educational models with a multi-disciplinary approach to patient education will be essential. Ultimately, the comprehensive education of providers and patients will require efforts on the part of numerous stakeholders within patient care delivery models. Further investigation will be necessary to determine how best to disseminate this information to maximize the impact of patient and provider educations with the goal of eliminating disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental Health Disparities Among Canadian Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health Disparities in Veterans: A Map of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Karli; Low, Allison; Everson, Teresa; Gordon, Christine D; Veazie, Stephanie; Lozier, Crystal C; Freeman, Michele; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Mendelson, Aaron; Friesen, Mark; Paynter, Robin; Friesen, Caroline; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Saha, Somnath; Quiñones, Ana; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-01

    Goals for improving the quality of care for all Veterans and eliminating health disparities are outlined in the Veterans Health Administration Blueprint for Excellence, but the degree to which disparities in utilization, health outcomes, and quality of care affect Veterans is not well understood. To characterize the research on health care disparities in the Veterans Health Administration by means of a map of the evidence. We conducted a systematic search for research studies published from 2006 to February 2016 in MEDLINE and other data sources. We included studies of Veteran populations that examined disparities in 3 outcome categories: utilization, quality of health care, and patient health. We abstracted data on study design, setting, population, clinical area, outcomes, mediators, and presence of disparity for each outcome category. We grouped the data by population characteristics including race, disability status, mental illness, demographics (age, era of service, rural location, and distance from care), sex identity, socioeconomic status, and homelessness, and created maps illustrating the evidence. We reviewed 4249 citations and abstracted data from 351 studies which met inclusion criteria. Studies examining disparities by race/ethnicity comprised by far the vast majority of the literature, followed by studies examining disparities by sex, and mental health condition. Very few studies examined disparities related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity or homelessness. Disparities findings vary widely by population and outcome. Our evidence maps provide a "lay of the land" and identify important gaps in knowledge about health disparities experienced by different Veteran populations.

  5. Foreword: Big Data and Its Application in Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Duru, O Kenrik; Peprah, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue advance the conversation by describing the current efforts, findings and concerns related to Big Data and health disparities. They offer important recommendations and perspectives to consider when designing systems that can usefully leverage Big Data to reduce health disparities. We hope that ongoing Big Data efforts can build on these contributions to advance the conversation, address our embedded assumptions, and identify levers for action to reduce health care disparities.

  6. Poverty and elimination of urban health disparities: challenge and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen B; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the intersection of race and poverty, two critical factors fueling persistent racial and ethnic health disparities among urban populations. From the morass of social determinants that shape the health of racial and ethnic communities in our urban centers, we will offer promising practices and potential solutions to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.

  7. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2008-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women-non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian-using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have "high labor force attachment" (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading.

  8. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women—non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian—using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have “high labor force attachment” (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading. PMID:26097255

  9. Disparities in Disability by Educational Attainment Across US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna; Hayward, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    To examine how disparities in adult disability by educational attainment vary across US states. We used the nationally representative data of more than 6 million adults aged 45 to 89 years in the 2010-2014 American Community Survey. We defined disability as difficulty with activities of daily living. We categorized education as low (less than high school), mid (high school or some college), or high (bachelor's or higher). We estimated age-standardized disability prevalence by educational attainment and state. We assessed whether the variation in disability across states occurs primarily among low-educated adults and whether it reflects the socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts. Disparities in disability by education vary markedly across states-from a 20 percentage point disparity in Massachusetts to a 12-point disparity in Wyoming. Disparities vary across states mainly because the prevalence of disability among low-educated adults varies across states. Personal and contextual socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults account for 29% of the variation. Efforts to reduce disparities in disability by education should consider state and local strategies that reduce poverty among low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts.

  10. Race-Based Health Disparities and the Digital Divide: Implications for Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Zula

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the sources of race-based health disparities could improve nursing practice and education in minority underserved communities. This purpose of this paper was to consider if Black-nonBlack health disparities were at least in part explained by Black-nonBlack disparities in access to Internet-based health information. With data on the U.S. adult population from the 2012 General Social Survey, the parameters of a health production function in which computer usage as an input was estimated. It was found that while there are Black-nonBlack disparities in health, once computer usage was accounted for, Black-nonBlack health disparities disappeared. This suggests nursing and health interventions that improve Internet access for Black patients in underserved communities could improve the health of Black Americans and close the racial health disparities gap. These findings complement recent nursing researchfindings that suggest closing Black-nonBlack disparities in computer access, the "digital divide," can render nursing practice more effective in providing care to minority and underserved communities.

  11. Challenges for Multilevel Health Disparities Research in a Transdisciplinary Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John H.; Lehman, Amy; Hade, Erinn; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sarah, Gehlert; Rauscher, Garth H.; Abrams, Judith; Bird, Chloe E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous factors play a part in health disparities. Although health disparities are manifested at the level of the individual, other contexts should be considered when investigating the associations of disparities with clinical outcomes. These contexts include families, neighborhoods, social organizations, and healthcare facilities. This paper reports on health disparities research as a multilevel research domain from the perspective of a large national initiative. The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) program was established by the NIH to examine the highly dimensional, complex nature of disparities and their effects on health. Because of its inherently transdisciplinary nature, the CPHHD program provides a unique environment in which to perform multilevel health disparities research. During the course of the program, the CPHHD centers have experienced challenges specific to this type of research. The challenges were categorized along three axes: sources of subjects and data, data characteristics, and multilevel analysis and interpretation. The CPHHDs collectively offer a unique example of how these challenges are met; just as importantly, they reveal a broad range of issues that health disparities researchers should consider as they pursue transdisciplinary investigations in this domain, particularly in the context of a large team science initiative. PMID:18619398

  12. 76 FR 31618 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 14, 2011. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...

  13. 76 FR 6808 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: February 22, 2011. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  14. 77 FR 27784 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 12, 2012. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...

  15. 78 FR 62638 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Technologies for Improving Minority Health and Eliminating Health Disparities (R41/ R42). Date: November 8, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5...

  16. 77 FR 9676 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: February 28, 2012. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  17. 75 FR 28262 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... Advisory Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 8, 2010. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9 a.m...

  18. 76 FR 55075 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 13, 2011. Closed: 8 to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...

  19. 77 FR 36564 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Support for Conference and Scientific meetings... Institutes of Health, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd...

  20. 78 FR 50428 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 10, 2013. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  1. 78 FR 9402 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health; Disparities Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Minority Health and Health; Disparities Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Advisory Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: February 26, 2013. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  2. 78 FR 28233 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 11, 2013. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...

  3. 77 FR 50139 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be closed to the public in... Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 17, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  4. 75 FR 53975 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 14, 2010. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  5. 77 FR 61611 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Social, Behavioral, Health Services, and Policy Research on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01). Date: November 7-9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 3 p.m...

  6. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education. ... AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be ...

  7. Gender Disparity in Education Enrollment in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shakil Quayes; Richard David Ramsey

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of school enrollment in Pakistan. The likelihood of school enrollment is estimated using separate logistic regression models for three different age groups. The empirical results indicate severe gender disparity in school enrollment across all age groups, particularly among the older age groups. Although the rate of school enrollment is positively associated with household income, the gender disparity actually deteriorates with an increase in household inco...

  8. Integrating intersectionality and biomedicine in health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ursula A

    2009-01-01

    Persisting health disparities have lead to calls for an increase in health research to address them. Biomedical scientists call for research that stratifies individual indicators associated with health disparities, for example, ethnicity. Feminist social scientists recommend feminist intersectionality research. Intersectionality is the multiplicative effect of inequalities experienced by nondominant marginalized groups, for example, ethnic minorities, women, and the poor. The elimination of health disparities necessitates integration of both paradigms in health research. This study provides a practical application of the integration of biomedical and feminist intersectionality paradigms in nursing research, using a psychiatric intervention study with battered Latino women as an example.

  9. 78 FR 65345 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Research Center in Minority Institution Program... applications. Place: National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  10. 77 FR 9673 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R01. Date: February 16, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes...

  11. Pharmacogenomics and the challenge of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S S

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines emerging technologies and recent research on population differences in pharmacogenomics and the perspectives of scientists, community advocates, policymakers, and social critics on the use of race as a proxy for genetic variation. The discussion focuses on how recent developments in genomic science impact social understandings of racial difference and the public health goal to eliminate ongoing health disparities among racially identified groups. This paper examines how factors such as governmental policies--requiring the use of racial and ethnic categories in genetic research and increasing interest in identifying untapped racial market niches by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries--and weak governmental oversight of race-based therapeutics converge to create an 'infrastructure of racialization' that may alter the vision of personalized medicine that has been so highly anticipated. This paper argues that significant public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of the emerging discourse that tethers racial justice to notions of racial biology and discusses the social and ethical implications for the pendulum shift towards a geneticization of race in drug development. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The Role of Data in Health Care Disparities in Medicaid...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Role of Data in Health Care Disparities in Medicaid Managed Care, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  13. Racial and ethnic disparities in children's oral health: the National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Thomas; Culler, Corinna; Garcia, Raul I; Henshaw, Michelle M

    2008-11-01

    The authors evaluated racial/ethnic differences and their socioeconomic determinants in the oral health status of U.S. children, as reported by parents. The authors used interview data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, a large representative survey of U.S. children. They calculated weighted, nationally representative prevalence estimates for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, and they used logistic regression to explore the association between parents' reports of fair or poor oral health and various socioeconomic determinants of oral health. The results showed significant racial/ethnic differences in parental reports of fair or poor oral health, with prevalences of 6.5 percent for non-Hispanic whites, 12.0 percent for non-Hispanic blacks and 23.4 percent for Hispanics. Although adjustments for family socioeconomic status (poverty level and education) partially explained these racial/ethnic disparities, Hispanics still were twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to report their children's oral health as fair or poor, independent of socioeconomic status. The authors did find differences in preventive-care attitudes among groups. However, in multivariate models, such differences did not explain the disparities. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in parental reports of their children's oral health, with Hispanics being the most disadvantaged group. Disparities appear to exist independent of preventive-care attitudes and socioeconomic status.

  14. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  15. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper “Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education” reviews a diverse literature on gender and higher education. Gender inequality is more pronounced in some aspects of the educational systems than in others. Explanations of gender inequality in higher education should distinguish between these different ...

  16. 78 FR 13689 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel. Date: March 8, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m..., and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996...

  17. 78 FR 10621 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Conference Grant Review (R13). Date: March 15... Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 594-7784, [email protected

  18. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Green, Alexander R; Carrillo, J Emilio; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu

    2003-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in health in the U.S. have been well described. The field of "cultural competence" has emerged as one strategy to address these disparities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the authors develop a definition of cultural competence, identify key components for intervention, and describe a practical framework for implementation of measures to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. The authors conducted a literature review of academic, foundation, and government publications focusing on sociocultural barriers to care, the level of the health care system at which a given barrier occurs, and cultural competence efforts that address these barriers. Sociocultural barriers to care were identified at the organizational (leadership/workforce), structural (processes of care), and clinical (provider-patient encounter) levels. A framework of cultural competence interventions--including minority recruitment into the health professions, development of interpreter services and language-appropriate health educational materials, and provider education on cross-cultural issues--emerged to categorize strategies to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Demographic changes anticipated over the next decade magnify the importance of addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. A framework of organizational, structural, and clinical cultural competence interventions can facilitate the elimination of these disparities and improve care for all Americans.

  19. Clinical cultural competency and knowledge of health disparities among pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Olihe N; Odedina, Folakemi T; Reams, Romonia R; Smith, W Thomas

    2012-04-10

    To evaluate the level of competency and knowledge about health disparities among third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 2 Florida public colleges of pharmacy and to explore the demographic correlates of these variables. A cross-sectional survey study design was used to collect data from participants. The students had low health-disparities knowledge and moderate skills in dealing with sociocultural issues and cross-cultural encounters. Speaking a language(s) other than English and having exposure to cultural-competency instruction were the demographic variables found to be most significantly associated with clinical cultural competency and/or knowledge of health disparities. Clinical cultural competency and health-disparities instruction may not be adequately incorporated into the pharmacy school curricula in the institutions studied. Relevant education and training are necessary to enhance cultural competency among pharmacy students.

  20. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  1. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.

  2. Reducing health disparities: the social role of medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopelt, Keren; Davidovitch, Nadav; Yahav, Zehava; Urkin, Jacob; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2014-06-01

    Medical education based on the principles of social medicine can contribute toward reducing health disparities through the "creation" of doctors who are more involved in community programs. This study compared the social medicine orientation of graduates from various medical schools in Israel. The authors conducted an online cross-sectional survey in May 2011 among physicians who are graduates of Israeli medical schools. The study included 1050 physicians practicing medicine in Israel: 36% who are graduates from the Hebrew University, 26% from Tel Aviv University, 22% from the Technion and 16% from Ben-Gurion University. A greater percentage of physicians who studied either at the Technion or Ben-Gurion are working or have worked in the periphery (∼50% vs. ∼30% at the Hebrew and Tel Aviv Universities). Among Ben-Gurion graduates, 47% are active in social medicine programs vs. 34-38% from other schools. Among physicians active in social medicine programs, 32% of Ben-Gurion alumni estimated that their medical education greatly influenced their social medicine involvement vs. 8-15% from other schools. Hebrew University alumni described their studies as more research-oriented. In contrast, Ben-Gurion graduates described their studies as more social medicine-oriented and they exhibited more positive attitudes about the role of physicians in reducing health disparities. Social medicine-oriented medical education induces a socialization process reinforcing human values regarding doctor-patient relationships and produces positive attitudes among future doctors about social involvement. Findings emphasize the need to develop educational programs with this orientation and to strengthen medical schools in the periphery.

  3. Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003

  4. A roadmap and best practices for organizations to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Marshall H; Clarke, Amanda R; Nocon, Robert S; Casey, Alicia A; Goddu, Anna P; Keesecker, Nicole M; Cook, Scott C

    2012-08-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have shifted their focus from documenting health care disparities to identifying solutions to close the gap in care. Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is charged with identifying promising interventions to reduce disparities. Based on our work conducting systematic reviews of the literature, evaluating promising practices, and providing technical assistance to health care organizations, we present a roadmap for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in care. The roadmap outlines a dynamic process in which individual interventions are just one part. It highlights that organizations and providers need to take responsibility for reducing disparities, establish a general infrastructure and culture to improve quality, and integrate targeted disparities interventions into quality improvement efforts. Additionally, we summarize the major lessons learned through the Finding Answers program. We share best practices for implementing disparities interventions and synthesize cross-cutting themes from 12 systematic reviews of the literature. Our research shows that promising interventions frequently are culturally tailored to meet patients' needs, employ multidisciplinary teams of care providers, and target multiple leverage points along a patient's pathway of care. Health education that uses interactive techniques to deliver skills training appears to be more effective than traditional didactic approaches. Furthermore, patient navigation and engaging family and community members in the health care process may improve outcomes for minority patients. We anticipate that the roadmap and best practices will be useful for organizations, policymakers, and researchers striving to provide high-quality equitable care.

  5. Identifying Health Consumers' eHealth Literacy to Decrease Disparities in Accessing eHealth Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Cormier, Eileen; Gordon, Glenna; Baeg, Jung Hoon

    2016-02-01

    The increasing amount of health information available on the Internet highlights the importance of eHealth literacy skills for health consumers. Low eHealth literacy results in disparities in health consumers' ability to access and use eHealth information. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived eHealth literacy of a general health consumer population so that healthcare professionals can effectively address skills gaps in health consumers' ability to access and use high-quality online health information. Participants were recruited from three public library branches in a Northeast Florida community. The eHealth Literacy Scale was used. The majority of participants (n = 108) reported they knew how and where to find health information and how to use it to make health decisions; knowledge of what health resources were available and confidence in the ability to distinguish high- from low-quality information were considerably less. The findings suggest the need for eHealth education and support to health consumers from healthcare professionals, in particular, how to access and evaluate the quality of health information.

  6. Defining and targeting health disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleasants RA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roy A Pleasants,1–3 Isaretta L Riley,1–3 David M Mannino4 1Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airways Center, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, 3Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, 4Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to grow in part due to better outcomes in other major diseases and in part because a substantial portion of the worldwide population continues to be exposed to inhalant toxins. However, a disproportionate burden of COPD occurs in people of low socioeconomic status (SES due to differences in health behaviors, sociopolitical factors, and social and structural environmental exposures. Tobacco use, occupations with exposure to inhalant toxins, and indoor biomass fuel (BF exposure are more common in low SES populations. Not only does SES affect the risk of developing COPD and etiologies, it is also associated with worsened COPD health outcomes. Effective interventions in these people are needed to decrease these disparities. Efforts that may help lessen these health inequities in low SES include 1 better surveillance targeting diagnosed and undiagnosed COPD in disadvantaged people, 2 educating the public and those involved in health care provision about the disease, 3 improving access to cost-effective and affordable health care, and 4 markedly increasing the efforts to prevent disease through smoking cessation, minimizing use and exposure to BF, and decreasing occupational exposures. COPD is considered to be one the most preventable major causes of death from a chronic disease in the world; therefore, effective interventions could have a major impact on reducing the global burden of the disease, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Keywords: health disparities

  7. Asthma and Health Disparities | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Asthma and Health Disparities Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table ... under 18 years of age, who currently have asthma, 2010 Non-Hispanic Black Non-Hispanic White Non- ...

  8. 75 FR 29357 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special NCMHD Health Disparities Research on Minority and Underserved... Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892. (301) 594-8696...

  9. Increasing educational disparities in premature adult mortality, Wisconsin, 1990-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reither, Eric N; Peppard, Paul E; Remington, Patrick L; Kindig, David A

    2006-10-01

    Public health agencies have identified the elimination of health disparities as a major policy objective. The primary objective of this study is to assess changes in the association between education and premature adult mortality in Wisconsin, 1990-2000. Wisconsin death records (numerators) and US Census data (denominators) were compiled to estimate mortality rates among adults (25-64 years) in 1990 and 2000. Information on the educational status, sex, racial identification, and age of subjects was gathered from these sources. The effect of education on mortality rate ratios in 1990 and 2000 was assessed while adjusting for age, sex, and racial identification. Education exhibited a graded effect on mortality rates, which declined most among college graduates from 1990 to 2000. The relative rate of mortality among persons with less than a high school education compared to persons with a college degree increased from 2.4 to 3.1 from 1990-2000-an increase of 29%. Mortality disparities also increased, although to a lesser extent, among other educational groups. Despite renewed calls for the elimination of health disparities, evidence suggests that educational disparities in mortality increased from 1990 to 2000.

  10. Feminist intersectionality: bringing social justice to health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jamie; Kelly, Ursula A

    2011-05-01

    The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice are well established ethical principles in health research. Of these principles, justice has received less attention by health researchers. The purpose of this article is to broaden the discussion of health research ethics, particularly the ethical principle of justice, to include societal considerations--who and what are studied and why?--and to critique current applications of ethical principles within this broader view. We will use a feminist intersectional approach in the context of health disparities research to firmly establish inseparable links between health research ethics, social action, and social justice. The aim is to provide an ethical approach to health disparities research that simultaneously describes and seeks to eliminate health disparities. © The Author(s) 2011

  11. 76 FR 63310 - National Center On Minority and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Health Disparities Research (R01). Date: November... Disparities, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Blvd., MSC. 5465, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  12. Let's not contribute to disparities: the best methods for teaching clinicians how to overcome language barriers to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa C; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-01

    Clinicians should be educated about how language barriers contribute to disparities for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). However, educators must avoid developing educational interventions that increase health disparities for LEP patients. For example, studies suggest that teaching "Medical Spanish" or related courses may actually contribute to health care disparities if clinicians begin using these non-English language skills inappropriately with patients. We discuss the risks and benefits of teaching specific cultural competence skills and make evidence-based recommendations for the teaching content and methods for educational interventions focused on overcoming language barriers in health care. At minimum, we suggest such interventions include: (1) the role of language barriers in health disparities, (2) means of overcoming language barriers, (3) how to work with interpreters, (4) identifying and fixing problems in interpreted encounters, and (5) appropriate and safe use of one's own limited non-English language skills.

  13. Disparities in health-related Internet use among African American men, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jamie A; Thompson, Hayley S; Watkins, Daphne C; Shires, Deirdre; Modlin, Charles S

    2014-03-20

    Given the benefits of health-related Internet use, we examined whether sociodemographic, medical, and access-related factors predicted this outcome among African American men, a population burdened with health disparities. African American men (n = 329) completed an anonymous survey at a community health fair in 2010; logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Only education (having attended some college or more) predicted health-related Internet use (P Internet use.

  14. Organizational Change Management For Health Equity: Perspectives From The Disparities Leadership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; Kenst, Karey S; Phan, Thuy Hoai; Lopez, Lenny

    2017-06-01

    Leaders of health care organizations need to be prepared to improve quality and achieve equity in today's health care environment characterized by a focus on achieving value and addressing disparities in a diverse population. To help address this need, the Disparities Solutions Center at Massachusetts General Hospital launched the Disparities Leadership Program in 2007. The leadership program is an ongoing, year-long, executive education initiative that trains leaders from hospitals, health plans, and health centers to improve quality and eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Feedback from participating organizations demonstrates that health care leaders seem to possess knowledge about what disparities are and about what should be done to eliminate them. Data collection, performance measurement, and multifaceted interventions remain the tools of the trade. However, the barriers to success are lack of leadership buy-in, organizational prioritization, energy, and execution, which can be addressed through organizational change management strategies. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Does female education explain the disparity in the use of antenatal and natal services in Nigeria? Evidence from demographic and health survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Abubakar Sadiq

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria is among the countries with a high number of annual maternal deaths partly due to low utilization of maternal health services (MHS). This study aimed to explore whether there is an association between women's level of education and the appropriate use of antenatal and delivery services. A quantitative cross-sectional study was used to analyze the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data. Information from 33,385 women aged 15 - 49 years was analyzed using Bivariate Pearson Chi square test and multiple logistic regressions. Education is statistically associated with the number of antenatal clinic visits made (AOR = 3.208; CI 2.875 - 3.578; p education will improve income, interaction with health care providers, level of autonomy to seek and pay for appropriate MHS and ultimately use of MHS and positive pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Partnering health disparities research with quality improvement science in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, K Casey; Raphael, Jean L

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in pediatric health care quality are well described in the literature, yet practical approaches to decreasing them remain elusive. Quality improvement (QI) approaches are appealing for addressing disparities because they offer a set of strategies by which to target modifiable aspects of care delivery and a method for tailoring or changing an intervention over time based on data monitoring. However, few examples in the literature exist of QI interventions successfully decreasing disparities, particularly in pediatrics, due to well-described challenges in developing, implementing, and studying QI with vulnerable populations or in underresourced settings. In addition, QI interventions aimed at improving quality overall may not improve disparities, and in some cases, may worsen them if there is greater uptake or effectiveness of the intervention among the population with better outcomes at baseline. In this article, the authors review some of the challenges faced by researchers and frontline clinicians seeking to use QI to address health disparities and propose an agenda for moving the field forward. Specifically, they propose that those designing and implementing disparities-focused QI interventions reconsider comparator groups, use more rigorous evaluation methods, carefully consider the evidence for particular interventions and the context in which they were developed, directly engage the social determinants of health, and leverage community resources to build collaborative networks and engage community members. Ultimately, new partnerships between communities, providers serving vulnerable populations, and QI researchers will be required for QI interventions to achieve their potential related to health care disparity reduction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Geetha Rani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings—the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and method confirm that returns to education increase with the level of education across location, caste-religion and English language ability. Returns to lower levels of education are low across different groups, indicating the low quality of basic schooling in the country. Returns to higher education vary at a great deal ranging between 4.9% among the rural workers and 38.2% among fluent English ability group. This is in contrast to Duraisamy reporting the highest returns to secondary education in India, between the period 1983 and 1993–1994. In a decade’s time, with changes in the economy and in the labour market, higher education especially the English language ability along with higher education brings in the highest wage premium.

  19. A Scoping Review of Health Disparities in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Kind, Amy J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased morbidity and decreased life expectancy compared to the general population, and these disparities are likely exacerbated for those individuals who are otherwise disadvantaged. We conducted a review to ascertain what is known about health and health system quality (e.g., high…

  20. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S

    2012-10-16

    Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.

  1. Exploring socioeconomic disparities in self-reported oral health among adolescents in california.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Claire; Coulter, Ian; Murray, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors are associated with disparities in oral health among adolescents; however, the underlying reasons are not clear. The authors conducted a study to determine if known indicators of oral health can explain such disparities. The authors examined data from a 2007 California Health Interview Survey of adolescents. The outcome of interest was self-reported condition of the teeth; covariates were socioeconomic status (SES) (that is, family poverty level and parental education) and a range of other variables representing health-influencing behaviors, dental care and other social factors. The authors conducted analyses by using logistic regression to explain disparities in self-reported condition of the teeth associated with SES. The authors found that socioeconomic disparities decreased substantially after they added all potential explanatory variables to the model, leaving poverty level as the only variable associated with differences in the self-reported condition of the teeth. Adolescents living below the federal poverty guidelines were more likely to report that the condition of their teeth was fair or poor than were adolescents who were least poor (odds ratio = 1.58; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04-2.41). In multivariate analyses, further oral health disparities existed in relation to behaviors that influence health, social environment and dental care. The results of this study showed that a number of factors decreased, but did not eliminate, the observed relationship between SES and oral health in Californian adolescents. Most of these explanatory factors are modifiable, indicating that socioeconomic differences associated with oral health among adolescents may be amenable to change. Practice Implications. By promoting a healthy lifestyle (including healthy diet, exercise and regular dental attendance) and conveying to patients in languages other than English how to maintain oral health, dentists may be able to ameliorate the effects of

  2. Do men need empowering too? A systematic review of entrepreneurial education and microenterprise development on health disparities among inner-city black male youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa

    2014-10-01

    Economic strengthening through entrepreneurial and microenterprise development has been shown to mitigate poverty-based health disparities in developing countries. Yet, little is known regarding the impact of similar approaches on disadvantaged U.S. populations, particularly inner-city African-American male youth disproportionately affected by poverty, unemployment, and adverse health outcomes. A systematic literature review was conducted to guide programming and research in this area. Eligible studies were those published in English from 2003 to 2014 which evaluated an entrepreneurial and microenterprise initiative targeting inner-city youth, aged 15 to 24, and which did not exclude male participants. Peer-reviewed publications were identified from two electronic bibliographic databases. A manual search was conducted among web-based gray literature and registered trials not yet published. Among the 26 papers retrieved for review, six met the inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis. None of the 16 registered microenterprise trials were being conducted among disadvantaged populations in the U.S. The available literature suggests that entrepreneurial and microenterprise programs can positively impact youth's economic and psychosocial functioning and result in healthier decision-making. Young black men specifically benefited from increased autonomy, engagement, and risk avoidance. However, such programs are vastly underutilized among U.S. minority youth, and the current evidence is insufficiently descriptive or rigorous to draw definitive conclusions. Many programs described challenges in securing adequate resources, recruiting minority male youth, and sustaining community buy-in. There is an urgent need to increase implementation and evaluation efforts, using innovative and rigorous designs, to improve the low status of greater numbers of African-American male youth.

  3. Urban and rural educational system disparities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Roberta STANEF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex multidimensional and multidisciplinary issue of the educational system in more details and to deal with conceptions, methodological approaches and the acquired knowledge, focused particularly on Romanian educational system.The mean of the paper is to present the complex issue of regional and territorial disparities in Romania. The educational system in Romania is at a crossroad. Initiated important reforms in the sector after the last 21 years – including changing the curriculum, student assessment, teacher training, funding and management module – will be continued to improve outcomes in education.

  4. Gender Disparity at Elementary Education Level in Jammu and Kashmir: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a study to explore gender disparity at elementary education level in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender disparity in education refers to differences in outcomes observed between two sexes. Education disparities can be seen in different enrolment rates, dropout rates, and survival rates among the sexes. The central government and…

  5. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health to Reduce Tobacco-Related Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bridgette E; Dube, Shanta R; Babb, Stephen; McAfee, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive tobacco prevention and control efforts that include implementing smoke-free air laws, increasing tobacco prices, conducting hard-hitting mass media campaigns, and making evidence-based cessation treatments available are effective in reducing tobacco use in the general population. However, if these interventions are not implemented in an equitable manner, certain population groups may be left out causing or exacerbating disparities in tobacco use. Disparities in tobacco use have, in part, stemmed from inequities in the way tobacco control policies and programs have been adopted and implemented to reach and impact the most vulnerable segments of the population that have the highest rates of smokings (e.g., those with lower education and incomes). Education and income are the 2 main social determinants of health that negatively impact health. However, there are other social determinants of health that must be considered for tobacco control policies to be effective in reducing tobacco-related disparities. This article will provide an overview of how tobacco control policies and programs can address key social determinants of health in order to achieve equity and eliminate disparities in tobacco prevention and control. Tobacco control policy interventions can be effective in addressing the social determinants of health in tobacco prevention and control to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities when they are implemented consistently and equitably across all population groups. Taking a social determinants of health approach in tobacco prevention and control will be necessary to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Role in Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaza, Jorge N.; Contreras, Sandra; Garcia, Leah A.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Gibbons, Gary; Shohet, Ralph; Martins, David; Norris, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities. PMID:22102304

  7. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, P. Geetha

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings-the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and met...

  8. Child Health Disparities: What Can a Clinician Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Emmanuel, Mickey A; Levy, Daniel J; Jenkins, Renee R

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric primary and specialty practice has changed, with more to do, more regulation, and more family needs than in the past. Similarly, the needs of patients have changed, with more demographic diversity, family stress, and continued health disparities by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. How can clinicians continue their dedicated service to children and ensure health equity in the face of these changes? This article outlines specific, practical, actionable, and evidence-based activities to help clinicians assess and address health disparities in practice. These tools may also support patient-centered medical home recognition, national and state cultural and linguistic competency standards, and quality benchmarks that are increasingly tied to payment. Clinicians can play a critical role in (1) diagnosing disparities in one's community and practice, (2) innovating new models to address social determinants of health, (3) addressing health literacy of families, (4) ensuring cultural competence and a culture of workplace equity, and (5) advocating for issues that address the root causes of health disparities. Culturally competent care that is sensitive to the needs, health literacy, and health beliefs of families can increase satisfaction, improve quality of care, and increase patient safety. Clinical care approaches to address social determinants of health and interrupting the intergenerational cycle of disadvantage include (1) screening for new health "vital signs" and connecting families to resources, (2) enhancing the comprehensiveness of services, (3) addressing family health in pediatric encounters, and (4) moving care outside the office into the community. Health system investment is required to support clinicians and practice innovation to ensure equity. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio Maria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Methods Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Results Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. Conclusion To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status.

  10. Implicit bias and its relation to health disparities: a teaching program and survey of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cristina M; Kim, Mimi Y; Marantz, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    The varying treatment of different patients by the same physician are referred to as within provider disparities. These differences can contribute to health disparities and are thought to be the result of implicit bias due to unintentional, unconscious assumptions. The purpose is to describe an educational intervention addressing both health disparities and physician implicit bias and the results of a subsequent survey exploring medical students' attitudes and beliefs toward subconscious bias and health disparities. A single session within a larger required course was devoted to health disparities and the physician's potential to contribute to health disparities through implicit bias. Following the session the students were anonymously surveyed on their Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, their attitudes and experiences regarding the fairness of the health care system, and the potential impact of their own implicit bias. The students were categorized based on whether they disagreed ("deniers") or agreed ("accepters") with the statement "Unconscious bias might affect some of my clinical decisions or behaviors." Data analysis focused specifically on factors associated with this perspective. The survey response rate was at least 69%. Of the responders, 22% were "deniers" and 77% were "accepters." Demographics between the two groups were not significantly different. Deniers were significantly more likely than accepters to report IAT results with implicit preferences toward self, to believe the IAT is invalid, and to believe that doctors and the health system provide equal care to all and were less likely to report having directly observed inequitable care. The recognition of bias cannot be taught in a single session. Our experience supports the value of teaching medical students to recognize their own implicit biases and develop skills to overcome them in each patient encounter, and in making this instruction part of the compulsory, longitudinal undergraduate

  11. Designing a community-based lay health advisor training curriculum to address cancer health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Ashley, Atalie A; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B Lee

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. APPROACH AND STRATEGIES: Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic-community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research.

  12. The Contribution of Specific Diseases to Educational Disparities in Disability-Free Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusselder, Wilma J.; Looman, Caspar W.N.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Huisman, Martijn; van Oyen, Herman; Deboosere, Patrick; Gadeyne, Sylvie; Kunst, Anton E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution that specific diseases, as causes of both death and disability, make to educational disparities in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). Methods. We used disability data from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (1997) and mortality data from the National Mortality Follow-Up Study (1991–1996) to assess education-related disparities in DFLE and to partition these differences into additive contributions of specific diseases. Results. The DFLE advantage of higher-educated compared with lower-educated persons was 8.0 years for men and 5.9 years for women. Arthritis (men, 1.3 years; women, 2.2 years), back complaints (men, 2.1 years), heart disease/stroke (men, 1.5 years; women, 1.6 years), asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (men, 1.2 years; women, 1.5 years), and “other diseases” (men, 2.4 years) contributed the most to this difference. Conclusions. Disabling diseases, such as arthritis, back complaints, and asthma/COPD, contribute substantially to differences in DFLE by education. Public health policy aiming to reduce existing disparities in the DFLE and to improve population health should not only focus on fatal diseases but also on these nonfatal diseases. PMID:16195519

  13. How Resource Dynamics Explain Accumulating Developmental and Health Disparities for Teen Parents’ Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Fomby, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the puzzle of disparities experienced by U.S. teen parents’ young children, whose health and development increasingly lag behind those of peers while their parents are simultaneously experiencing socioeconomic improvements. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; N ≈ 8,600), we assess four dynamic patterns in socioeconomic resources that might account for these growing developmental and health disparities throughout early childhood and then test them in multilevel growth curve models. Persistently low socioeconomic resources constituted the strongest explanation, given that consistently low income, maternal education, and assets fully or partially account for growth in cognitive, behavioral, and health disparities experienced by teen parents’ children from infancy through kindergarten. That is, although teen parents gained socioeconomic resources over time, those resources remained relatively low, and the duration of exposure to limited resources explains observed growing disparities. Results suggest that policy interventions addressing the time dynamics of low socioeconomic resources in a household, in terms of both duration and developmental timing, are promising for reducing disparities experienced by teen parents’ children. PMID:24802282

  14. Undiagnosed Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Health Disparities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P Fisher-Hoch

    Full Text Available Globally half of all diabetes mellitus is undiagnosed. We sought to determine the extent and characteristics of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes in Mexican Americans residing in the United States. This disadvantaged population with 50% lifetime risk of diabetes is a microcosm of the current pandemic. We accessed baseline data between 2004 and 2014 from 2,838 adults recruited to our Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC; a two-stage randomly selected 'Framingham-like' cohort of Mexican Americans on the US Mexico border with severe health disparities. We examined prevalence, risk factors and metabolic health in diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes. Two thirds of this Mexican American population has diabetes or pre-diabetes. Diabetes prevalence was 28.0%, nearly half undiagnosed, and pre-diabetes 31.6%. Mean BMI among those with diabetes was 33.5 kg/m2 compared with 29.0 kg/m2 for those without diabetes. Significant risk factors were low income and educational levels. Most with diabetes had increased waist/hip ratio. Lack of insurance and access to health services played a decisive role in failure to have diabetes diagnosed. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes had similar measures of poor metabolic health similar but generally not as severe as those with diagnosed diabetes. More than 50% of a minority Mexican American population in South Texas has diabetes or pre-diabetes and is metabolically unhealthy. Only a third of diabetes cases were diagnosed. Sustained efforts are imperative to identify, diagnose and treat individuals in underserved communities.

  15. Reducing Health Disparities and Improving Health Equity in Saint Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisha Holden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available St. Lucia is an island nation in the Eastern Caribbean, with a population of 179,000 people, where chronic health conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are significant. The purpose of this pilot study is to create a model for community health education, tracking, and monitoring of these health conditions, research training, and policy interventions in St. Lucia, which may apply to other Caribbean populations, including those in the U.S. This paper reports on phase one of the study, which utilized a mixed method analytic approach. Adult clients at risk for, or diagnosed with, diabetes (n = 157, and health care providers/clinic administrators (n = 42, were recruited from five healthcare facilities in St. Lucia to assess their views on health status, health services, and improving health equity. Preliminary content analyses indicated that patients and providers acknowledge the relatively high prevalence of diabetes and other chronic illnesses, recognize the impact that socioeconomic status has on health outcomes, and desire improved access to healthcare and improvements to healthcare infrastructures. These findings could inform strategies, such as community education and workforce development, which may help improve health outcomes among St. Lucians with chronic health conditions, and inform similar efforts among other selected populations.

  16. Reducing Health Disparities and Improving Health Equity in Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kisha; Charles, Lisa; King, Stephen; McGregor, Brian; Satcher, David; Belton, Allyson

    2015-12-22

    St. Lucia is an island nation in the Eastern Caribbean, with a population of 179,000 people, where chronic health conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are significant. The purpose of this pilot study is to create a model for community health education, tracking, and monitoring of these health conditions, research training, and policy interventions in St. Lucia, which may apply to other Caribbean populations, including those in the U.S. This paper reports on phase one of the study, which utilized a mixed method analytic approach. Adult clients at risk for, or diagnosed with, diabetes (n = 157), and health care providers/clinic administrators (n = 42), were recruited from five healthcare facilities in St. Lucia to assess their views on health status, health services, and improving health equity. Preliminary content analyses indicated that patients and providers acknowledge the relatively high prevalence of diabetes and other chronic illnesses, recognize the impact that socioeconomic status has on health outcomes, and desire improved access to healthcare and improvements to healthcare infrastructures. These findings could inform strategies, such as community education and workforce development, which may help improve health outcomes among St. Lucians with chronic health conditions, and inform similar efforts among other selected populations.

  17. 76 FR 40384 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special, Emphasis Panel, U24 Grant Review. Date: July 11-12, 2011. Time: 8 a.m..., National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  18. 76 FR 11500 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R01 grant review (03). Date: March 7, 2011. Time: 8 a.m... Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD...

  19. 76 FR 28795 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R25 Grant Review. Date: May 23-24, 2011. Time: 8 a.m..., National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  20. 75 FR 71449 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel (R01). Date: December 15-16, 2010. Time: 7:45 a.m. to 3..., National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  1. 76 FR 18566 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, NIMHD Conference Grant Application (R13) Review. Date... Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-9536...

  2. 75 FR 25273 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, Faith Based R21. Date: June 29-July 1, 2010. Time: 5 p..., Chief, Office of Scientific Review, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707...

  3. Population disparities in mental health: insights from cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2013-10-01

    By 2050, nearly 1 in 5 Americans (19%) will be an immigrant, including Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, compared to the 1 in 8 (12%) in 2005. They will vary in the extent to which they are at risk for mental health disorders. Given this increase in cultural diversity within the United States and costly population health disparities across cultural groups, it is essential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how culture affects basic psychological and biological mechanisms. We examine these basic mechanisms that underlie population disparities in mental health through cultural neuroscience. We discuss the challenges to and opportunities for cultural neuroscience research to determine sociocultural and biological factors that confer risk for and resilience to mental health disorders across the globe.

  4. Student Enrolment in Malaysian Higher Education: Is There Gender Disparity and What Can We Learn from the Disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chang-Da

    2018-01-01

    Access into higher education has traditionally been dominated by males. However, the current situation in Malaysia as well as in many developed and developing nations is that females have outnumbered males in higher education. By comparing gender enrolment, this paper illustrates the extent of gender disparity in Malaysian higher education across…

  5. Health disparities between immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2011-01-01

    hundred and fifty-one cleaners, consisting of 166 Danes (88% women) and 179 immigrants (74% women) (6 with unknown ethnicity), from 9 workplaces in Denmark participated in the study. Health and work ability were obtained by objective (e.g., BMI and blood pressure) and self-reported measures (e.g., work......PURPOSE: It is unknown whether immigrants working in the cleaning industry have a poorer health and work ability than cleaners from the native population. The main aim was to investigate differences in objective and self-reported health measures between immigrant and Danish cleaners. METHODS: Three...... ability, self-rated health, and musculoskeletal symptoms). In order to investigate differences between Danish and immigrant cleaners, logistic regression analyses and General Linear Models were performed. RESULTS: When controlling for age, sex, workplace, job seniority, and smoking, more Danish compared...

  6. Basic Information about Health Disparities in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... income, social class, disability, geographic location, or sexual orientation. 1 According to CDC’s Office of Minority Health ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  7. Child Health Disparities: What Can a Clinician Do?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tina L.; Emmanuel, Mickey; Levy, Daniel J.; Jenkins, Renee R.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric primary and specialty practice has changed with more to do, more regulation and more family needs. Similarly, the needs of patients have changed with more demographic diversity, family stress and continued health disparities by race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. How can clinicians continue their dedicated service to children and ensure health equity in the face of these changes? This paper outlines specific, practical, actionable and evidence-based activities for clinicians t...

  8. Rural-Nonrural Disparities in Postsecondary Educational Attainment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873

  9. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust

    2015-01-01

    data. METHODS: The study included data from 12 European cohorts from Denmark, England, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. The cohorts included between 2434 and 99 655 pregnancies. The association between maternal education and preterm delivery (22-36 completed weeks...... characteristics. Nevertheless, there were similar educational differences in risk of preterm delivery in 8 of the 12 cohorts with slope index of inequality varying between 2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3] and 4.0 [95% CI 1.4, 6.6] excess preterm deliveries per 100 singleton deliveries among the educationally most......BACKGROUND: An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort...

  10. Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity among US-born and foreign-born adults by sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Debbie S; Baquero, Maria C; Borrell, Luisa N; Crawford, Natalie D

    2010-02-01

    This study examines sex and education variations in obesity among US- and foreign-born whites, blacks, and Hispanics utilizing 1997-2005 data from the National Health Interview Survey on 267,585 adults aged > or =18 years. After adjusting for various demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors via logistic regression, foreign-born black men had the lowest odds for obesity relative to US-born white men. The largest racial/ethnic disparity in obesity was between US-born black and white women. High educational attainment diminished the US-born black-white and Hispanic-white disparities among women, increased these disparities among men, and had minimal effect on foreign-born Hispanic-white disparities among women and men. Comprehension of these relationships is vital for conducting effective obesity research and interventions within an increasingly diverse United States.

  11. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gniesha Y. Dinwiddie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs. Socioeconomic status (SES is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP, an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years and post high school (i.e., associates degree educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001 compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001 and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001. These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond

  12. Can universal coverage eliminate health disparities? Reversal of disparate injury outcomes in elderly insured minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Michelle; Chang, David C; Rogers, Selwyn O; Yu, Peter T; Easterlin, Molly; Coimbra, Raul; Kobayashi, Leslie

    2013-06-15

    Health outcome disparities in racial minorities are well documented. However, it is unknown whether such disparities exist among elderly injured patients. We hypothesized that such disparities might be reduced in the elderly owing to insurance coverage under Medicare. We investigated this issue by comparing the trauma outcomes in young and elderly patients in California. A retrospective analysis of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development hospital discharge database was performed for all publicly available years from 1995 to 2008. Trauma admissions were identified by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, primary diagnosis codes from 800 to 959, with certain exclusions. Multivariate analysis examined the adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality in young (<65 y) and elderly (≥65 y) patients, controlling for age, gender, injury severity as measured by the survival risk ratio, Charlson comorbidity index, insurance status, calendar year, and teaching hospital status. A total of 1,577,323 trauma patients were identified. Among the young patients, the adjusted odds ratio of death relative to non-Hispanic whites for blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans/others was 1.2, 1.2, 0.90, and 0.78, respectively. The corresponding adjusted odds ratios of death for elderly patients were 0.78, 0.87, 0.92, and 0.61. Young black and Hispanic trauma patients had greater mortality risks relative to non-Hispanic white patients. Interestingly, elderly black and Hispanic patients had lower mortality risks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Residential rurality and oral health disparities: influences of contextual and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, SangNam; Burdine, James N; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G; Phillips, Charles D

    2011-02-01

    The purposes of the study were (a) to identify disparities between urban and rural adults in oral health and (b) to examine contextual (i.e., external environment and access to dental care) and individual (i.e., predisposing, enabling, and lifestyle behavioral) factors associated with oral health problems in a community population. Study data were derived from a two-stage, telephone-mailed survey conducted in 2006. The subjects were 2,591 adults aged 18 years and older. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics for categorical variables were applied to explore conditional independence between both health access and individual factors and oral health problems after controlling for the urban or rural residence. Logistic regression was used to investigate the simultaneous associations of contextual and individual factors in both rural and urban areas. Approximately one quarter (24.1%) of the study population reported oral health problems. Participants residing in rural areas reported more oral health disparities. Oral health problems were significantly associated with delaying dental care. These problems also were more common among those who were less educated, were African American, skipped breakfast every day, and currently smoked. The study findings suggest that oral health disparities persist for people in rural areas, and improving oral health status is strongly related to better access to oral health care and improved lifestyles in both rural and urban areas.

  14. 76 FR 52959 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Revision Applications to Support Environmental Health Disparities Research P20. Date: August 29, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  15. 76 FR 21748 - Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS), Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Disparities Subcommittee (HDS), Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... through the ACD on strategic and other health disparities and health equity issues and provide guidance on... update including the CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report, U.S. 2011; the National Prevention...

  16. 75 FR 42100 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, NCMHD Social Determinants of Health (R01) Panel. Date... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 594-8696, [email protected

  17. A Study of National Physician Organizations’ Efforts to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Monica E.; Wilson, Shannon C.; Bussey-Jones, Jada; Lypson, Monica; Cordasco, Kristina; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Bright, Cedric; Brown, Arleen F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To characterize national physician organizations’ efforts to reduce health disparities and identify organizational characteristics associated with such efforts. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2009 and June 2010. The authors used two-sample t tests and chi-square tests to compare the proportion of organizations with disparity-reducing activities between different organizational types (e.g., primary care versus subspecialty organizations, small [5,000 members]). Inclusion criteria required physician organizations to be (1) focused on physicians, (2) national in scope, and (3) membership based. Results The number of activities per organization ranged from 0 to 22. Approximately half (53%) of organizations had 0 or 1 disparity-reducing activities. Organiza-tional characteristics associated with having at least 1 disparity-reducing effort included membership size (88% of large groups versus 58% of small groups had at least 1 activity; P = .004) and the presence of a health disparities committee (95% versus 59%; P organizations and racial/ethnic minority physician organizations were more likely to have disparity-reducing efforts, although findings were not statistically significant. Common themes addressed by activities were health care access, health care disparities, workforce diversity, and language barriers. Common strategies included education of physicians/trainees and patients/general public, position statements, and advocacy. Conclusions Despite the national priority to eliminate health disparities, more than half of national physician organizations are doing little to address this problem. Primary care and minority physician organizations, and those with disparities committees, may provide leadership to extend the scope of disparity-reduction efforts. PMID:22534593

  18. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  19. Health disparities among highly vulnerable populations in the United States: a call to action for medical and oral health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A. Vanderbilt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in the United States (US is burdened with enormous healthcare disparities associated with a variety of factors including insurance status, income, and race. Highly vulnerable populations, classified as those with complex medical problems and/or social needs, are one of the fastest growing segments within the US. Over a decade ago, the US Surgeon General publically challenged the nation to realize the importance of oral health and its relationship to general health and well-being, yet oral health disparities continue to plague the US healthcare system. Interprofessional education and teamwork has been demonstrated to improve patient outcomes and provide benefits to participating health professionals. We propose the implementation of interprofessional education and teamwork as a solution to meet the increasing oral and systemic healthcare demands of highly vulnerable US populations.

  20. Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Wang, Peng; Qin, Xuezheng; Zhang, Shufang

    2013-01-01

    The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE) is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.

  1. Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Pan

    Full Text Available The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.

  2. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  3. Health and Health Care Disparities: The Effect of Social and Environmental Factors on Individual and Population Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently the existence and prevalence of health and health care disparities has increased with accompanying research showing that minorities (African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders are disproportionately affected resulting in poorer health outcomes compared to non-minority populations (whites. This is due to multiple factors including and most importantly the social determinants of health which includes lower levels of education, overall lower socioeconomic status, inadequate and unsafe housing, and living in close proximity to environmental hazards; all contributing to poor health. Given the ever widening gap in health and health care disparities, the growing number of individuals living at or below the poverty level, the low number of college graduates and the growing shortage of health care professionals (especially minority the goals of this paper are to: (1 Define diversity and inclusion as interdependent entities. (2 Review the health care system as it relates to barriers/problems within the system resulting in the unequal distribution of quality health care. (3 Examine institutional and global benefits of increasing diversity in research. (4 Provide recommendations on institutional culture change and developing a diverse culturally competent healthcare workforce.

  4. 76 FR 55078 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, ZMD1 RN (02) NIMHD Comprehensive Center of Excellence... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996, [email protected

  5. 76 FR 11499 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; 2011 LRP Panel 1. Date: March 18, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-9536, [email protected

  6. 76 FR 57068 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; ZMD1 RN 01 NIMHD Exploratory Centers of Excellence (P20... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996, [email protected

  7. 76 FR 14673 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; 2011 LRP Panel 3. Date: April 13, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-9536, [email protected

  8. Disparities in Diabetes Care Quality by English Language Preference in Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lucinda B; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Martinez, Ana E; Chen, Xiao; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a parallel analysis of disparities in diabetes care quality among Latino and Asian community health center (CHC) patients by English language preference. Clinical outcomes (2011) and patient survey data (2012) for Type 2 diabetes adults from 14 CHCs (n = 1,053). We estimated separate regression models for Latino and Asian patients by English language preference for Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System, Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care, hemoglobin A1c, and self-reported hypoglycemic events. We used the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method to parse out observed and unobserved differences in outcomes between English versus non-English language groups. After adjusting for socioeconomic and health characteristics, disparities in patient experiences by English language preference were found only among Asian patients. Unobserved factors largely accounted for linguistic disparities for most patient experience measures. There were no significant differences in glycemic control by language for either Latino or Asian patients. Given the importance of patient retention in CHCs, our findings indicate opportunities to improve CHC patients' experiences of care and to reduce disparities in patient experience by English preference for Asian diabetes patients. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  10. Message design strategies to raise public awareness of social determinants of health and population health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.

  11. Choropleth map legend design for visualizing community health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cromley Ellen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health outcomes across communities are a central concern in public health and epidemiology. Health disparities research often links differences in health outcomes to other social factors like income. Choropleth maps of health outcome rates show the geographical distribution of health outcomes. This paper illustrates the use of cumulative frequency map legends for visualizing how the health events are distributed in relation to social characteristics of community populations. The approach uses two graphs in the cumulative frequency legend to highlight the difference between the raw count of the health events and the raw count of the social characteristic like low income in the geographical areas of the map. The approach is applied to mapping publicly available data on low birth weight by town in Connecticut and Lyme disease incidence by town in Connecticut in relation to income. The steps involved in creating these legends are described in detail so that health analysts can adopt this approach. Results The different health problems, low birth weight and Lyme disease, have different cumulative frequency signatures. Graphing poverty population on the cumulative frequency legends revealed that the poverty population is distributed differently with respect to the two different health problems mapped here. Conclusion Cumulative frequency legends can be useful supplements for choropleth maps. These legends can be constructed using readily available software. They contain all of the information found in standard choropleth map legends, and they can be used with any choropleth map classification scheme. Cumulative frequency legends effectively communicate the proportion of areas, the proportion of health events, and/or the proportion of the denominator population in which the health events occurred that falls within each class interval. They illuminate the context of disease through graphing associations with other

  12. Missed Opportunity? Leveraging Mobile Technology to Reduce Racial Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rashawn; Sewell, Abigail A; Gilbert, Keon L; Roberts, Jennifer D

    2017-10-01

    Blacks and Latinos are less likely than whites to access health insurance and utilize health care. One way to overcome some of these racial barriers to health equity may be through advances in technology that allow people to access and utilize health care in innovative ways. Yet, little research has focused on whether the racial gap that exists for health care utilization also exists for accessing health information online and through mobile technologies. Using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), we examine racial differences in obtaining health information online via mobile devices. We find that blacks and Latinos are more likely to trust online newspapers to get health information than whites. Minorities who have access to a mobile device are more likely to rely on the Internet for health information in a time of strong need. Federally insured individuals who are connected to mobile devices have the highest probability of reliance on the Internet as a go-to source of health information. We conclude by discussing the importance of mobile technologies for health policy, particularly related to developing health literacy, improving health outcomes, and contributing to reducing health disparities by race and health insurance status. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  13. Integrating the 3Ds—Social Determinants, Health Disparities, and Health-Care Workforce Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce. PMID:24385659

  14. Integrating the 3Ds--social determinants, health disparities, and health-care workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVeist, Thomas A; Pierre, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce.

  15. Tracking Biocultural Pathways to Health Disparities: The Value of Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M.; Costello, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Cultural factors and biomarkers are emerging emphases in social epidemiology that readily ally with human biology and anthropology. Persistent health challenges and disparities have established biocultural roots, and environment plays an integral role in physical development and function that form the bases of population health. Biomarkers have proven to be valuable tools for investigating biocultural bases of health disparities. Aims We apply recent insights from biology to consider how culture gets under the skin and evaluate the construct of embodiment. We analyze contrasting biomarker models and applications, and propose an integrated model for biomarkers. Three examples from the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS) illustrate these points. Subjects and methods The longitudinal developmental epidemiological GSMS comprises a population-based sample of 1420 children with repeated measures including mental and physical health, life events, household conditions, and biomarkers for pubertal development and allostatic load. Results Analyses using biomarkers resolved competing explanations for links between puberty and depression, identified gender differences in stress at puberty, and revealed interactive effects of birthweight and postnatal adversity on risk for depression at puberty in girls. Conclusion An integrated biomarker model can both enrich epidemiology and illuminate biocultural pathways in population health. PMID:19381986

  16. Personal vis-a-vis social responsibility for disparities in health status: An issue of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ayan; Dobe, Madhumita

    2016-01-01

    Health inequities are disparities which can be avoided through rational actions on the part of policymakers. Such inequalities are unnecessary and unjust and may exist between and within nations, societies, and population groups. Social determinants such as wealth, income, occupation, education, gender, and racial/ethnic groups are the principal drivers of this inequality since they determine the health risks and preventive behaviors, access to, and affordability of health care. Within this framework, there is a debate on assigning a personal responsibility factor over and above societal responsibility to issues of ill health. One school of philosophy argues that when individuals are worse-off than others for no fault of their own, it is unjust, as opposed to health disparities that arise due to avoidable personal choices such as smoking and drug addiction for which there should (can) be a personal responsibility. Opposing thoughts have pointed out that the relative socioeconomic position of an individual dictates how his/her life may progress from education to working conditions and aging, susceptibility to diseases and infirmity, and the consequences thereof. The existence of a social gradient in health outcomes across populations throughout the world is a testimony to this truth. It has been emphasized that assuming personal responsibility for health in public policy-making can only have a peripheral place. Instead, the concept of individual responsibility should be promoted as a positive concept of enabling people to gain control over the determinants of health through conscious, informed, and healthy choices.

  17. Solving Disparities Through Payment And Delivery System Reform: A Program To Achieve Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Xu, Lucy J; Nocon, Robert S; Cook, Scott C; Ducas, Andrea M; Chin, Marshall H

    2017-06-01

    Payment systems generally do not directly encourage or support the reduction of health disparities. In 2013 the Finding Answers: Solving Disparities through Payment and Delivery System Reform program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sought to understand how alternative payment models might intentionally incorporate a disparities-reduction component to promote health equity. A qualitative analysis of forty proposals to the program revealed that applicants generally did not link payment reform tightly to disparities reduction. Most proposed general pay-for-performance, global payment, or shared savings plans, combined with multicomponent system interventions. None of the applicants proposed making any financial payments contingent on having successfully reduced disparities. Most applicants did not address how they would optimize providers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to reduce disparities. A better understanding of how payment and care delivery models might be designed and implemented to reduce health disparities is essential. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care Utilization among U.S. College Students: Applying the Institution of Medicine Definition of Health Care Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Justin B; Eisenberg, Daniel; Lu, Liya; Gathright, Molly

    2015-10-01

    The authors apply the Institute of Medicine's definition of health care disparities to college students. The analysis pools data from the first two waves of the Healthy Minds Study, a multicampus survey of students' mental health (N = 13,028). A probit model was used for any past-year service utilization, and group differences in health status were adjusted by transforming the entire distribution for each minority population to approximate the white distribution. Disparities existed between whites and all minority groups. Compared to other approaches, the predicted service disparities were greater because this method included the effects of mediating SES variables. Health care disparities persist in the college setting despite improved access and nearly universal insurance coverage. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating potential sources of disparities beyond geography and coverage.

  19. Health Disparities in Pediatric Asthma: Comprehensive Tertiary Care Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laurens; Kalle, Fanta; Grinstead, Laura; Jimenez, Maritza; Murphy, Meghan; Oceanic, Pat; Fitzgerald, Diane; Dabney, Kirk

    2015-03-01

    Study conducted at Nemours /Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803 BACKGROUND: Although the treatment and management of asthma hasimproved over time, incidence and prevalence among children continues to rise in the United States. Asthma prevalence, health services utilization, and mortality rate demonstrate remarkable disparities. The underlying causes of these disparities are not fully understood. We aimed to examine racial/ethnic variances in pediatric asthma prevalence/admission. We retrospectively reviewed data on 1070 patients and applied a cross-sectional design to assess asthma admission between 2010 and 2011. Information was available on race/ethnicity, sex, insurance status, severity of illness (SOI), and length of stay/hospitalization (LOS).Chi-square statistic was used for the association between race and other variables in an attempt to explain the racial/ethnic variance. The proportionate morbidity of asthma was highest amongCaucasians (40.92%) and African Americans (40.54%), intermediate among others (16.57%), and lowest among Asian (0.56%), American Indian/Alaska Native (0.28%), and Hawaiian Native/Pacific Islander (0.28%). Overall there were disparities by sex, with more boys (61.80%) diagnosed with asthma than girls (38.20%), χ2(7)=20.1, p=0.005. Insurance status, and SOI varied by race/ethnicity, but not LOS. Caucasian children were more likely to have private insurance, while African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have public insurance (p<0.005). Asthma was more severe among non-Hispanic children, χ2(14)=154.6, p<0.001. While the overall readmission proportion was 2.8%, readmission significantly varied by race/ethnicity. Racial/ethnic disparities in asthma admission exist among children in the Delaware Valley. There were racial/ethnic disparities in insurance status, asthma severity, and sex differed by race/ethnicity, but not in length of hospitalization. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by

  20. Distance decay and persistent health care disparities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Zoë M; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2014-11-04

    Access to health care is a particular concern given the important role of poor access in perpetuating poverty and inequality. South Africa's apartheid history leaves large racial disparities in access despite post-apartheid health policy to increase the number of health facilities, even in remote rural areas. However, even when health services are provided free of charge, monetary and time costs of travel to a local clinic may pose a significant barrier for vulnerable segments of the population, leading to overall poorer health. Using newly available health care utilization data from the first nationally representative panel survey in South Africa, together with administrative geographic data from the Department of Health, we use graphical and multivariate regression analysis to investigate the role of distance to the nearest facility on the likelihood of having a health consultation or an attended birth. Ninety percent of South Africans live within 7 km of the nearest public clinic, and two-thirds live less than 2 km away. However, 14% of Black African adults live more than 5 km from the nearest facility, compared to only 4% of Whites, and they are 16 percentage points less likely to report a recent health consultation (p apartheid but progress is still needed to achieve equity in health care access.

  1. Health disparities in liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, C Wendy; Sonderup, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    Disparities in health reflect the differences in the incidence, prevalence, burden of disease and access to care determined by socio-economic and environmental factors. With liver disease, these disparities are exacerbated by a combination of limited awareness and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in addition to the diagnostic and management costs. Sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 11% of the world's population, disproportionately has 24% of the global disease burden, yet allocates health. It has 3% of the global healthcare workforce with a mean of 0.8 healthcare workers per 1000 population. Barriers to healthcare access are many and compounded by limited civil registration data, socio-economic inequalities, discrepancies in private and public healthcare services and geopolitical strife. The UN 2014 report on the Millennium Development Goals suggest that sub-Saharan Africa will probably not meet several goals, however with HIV/AIDS and Malaria (goal 6), many successes have been achieved. A 2010 Global Burden of Disease study demonstrated that cirrhosis mortality in sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 1980 and 2010. Aetiologies included hepatitis B (34%), hepatitis C (17%), alcohol (18%) and unknown in 31%. Hepatitis B, C and alcohol accounted for 47, 23 and 20% of hepatocellular carcinoma respectively. In 10%, the underlying aetiology was not known. Liver disease reflects the broader disparities in healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many of these challenges are not insurmountable as vaccines and new therapies could comprehensively deal with the burden of viral hepatitis. Access to and affordability of therapeutics remains the major barrier. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health.

  3. Te Kotahitanga: Addressing Educational Disparities Facing Maori Students in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere; Cavanagh, Tom; Teddy, Lani

    2009-01-01

    The major challenges facing education in New Zealand today are the continuing social, economic and political disparities within our nation, primarily between the descendants of the European colonisers and the Indigenous Maori people. These disparities are also reflected in educational outcomes. In this paper, an Indigenous Maori Peoples' solution…

  4. Urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes in China: The role of hukou policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai

    2015-11-23

    Hukou is the household registration system in China that determines eligibility for various welfare benefits, such as health care, education, housing, and employment. The hukou system may lead to nutritional and health disparities in China. We aim at examining the role of the hukou system in affecting urban-rural disparities in child nutrition, and disentangling the institutional effect of hukou from the effect of urban/rural residence on child nutrition-related health outcomes. This study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1993-2009 with a sample of 9616 children under the age of 18. We compute height-for-age z-score and weight-for-age z-score for children. We use both descriptive statistics and multiple regression techniques to study the levels and significance of the association between child nutrition-related health outcomes and hukou type. Children with urban hukou have 0.25 (P system exacerbates urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes independent of the well-known disparity stemming from urban-rural residence. Fortunately, however, child health disparities due to hukou have been declining since 2000.

  5. Health disparities, social injustice, and the culture of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Lynne S

    2005-01-01

    Nurses are well positioned to challenge institutionalized social injustices that lead to health disparities. The aim of this cross-cultural study was to collect stories of difference and fairness within nursing. The study used a life history methodology informed by feminist theory and critical social theory. Life story interviews were conducted with 26 women nurses of varying racial, cultural, sexual identity, and specialty backgrounds in the United States (n = 13) and Aotearoa New Zealand (n = 13). Participants reported having some understanding of social justice issues. They were asked to reflect on their experience of difference and fairness in their lives and specifically within nursing. Their stories were analyzed using a life history immersion method. Nursing remains attached to the ideological construction of the "White good nurse." Taken-for-granted ideals privilege those who fit in and marginalize those who do not. The nurses experienced discrimination and unfairness, survived by living in two worlds, learned to live in contradiction, and worked surreptitiously for social justice. For nurses to contribute to changing the systems and structures that maintain health disparities, the privilege of not seeing difference and the processes of mainstream violence that support the construction of the "White good nurse" must be challenged. Nurses need skills to deconstruct the marginalizing social processes that sustain inequalities in nursing and healthcare. These hidden realities--racism, sexism, heterosexism, and other forms of discrimination--will then be made visible and open to challenge.

  6. Decreasing health disparities for people with disabilities through improved communication strategies and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharby, Nancy; Martire, Katharine; Iversen, Maura D

    2015-03-19

    Factors influencing access to health care among people with disabilities (PWD) include: attitudes of health care providers and the public, physical barriers, miscommunication, income level, ethnic/minority status, insurance coverage, and lack of information tailored to PWD. Reducing health care disparities in a population with complex needs requires implementation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. This review article discusses common barriers to health care access from the patient and provider perspective, particularly focusing on communication barriers and how to address and ameliorate them. Articles utilized in this review were published from 2005 to present in MEDLINE and CINAHL and written in English that focused on people with disabilities. Topics searched for in the literature include: disparities and health outcomes, health care dissatisfaction, patient-provider communication and access issues. Ineffective communication has significant impacts for PWD. They frequently believe that providers are not interested in, or sensitive to their particular needs and are less likely to seek care or to follow up with recommendations. Various strategies for successful improvement of health outcomes for PWD were identified including changing the way health care professionals are educated regarding disabilities, improving access to health care services, and enhancing the capacity for patient centered care.

  7. Self-Rated Health Trajectories among Married Americans: Do Disparities Persist over 20 Years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terceira A. Berdahl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand self-rated health (SRH trajectories by social location (race/ethnicity by gender by social class among married individuals in the United States. We estimate multilevel models of SRH using six observations from 1980 to 2000 from a nationally representative panel of married individuals initially aged 25–55 (Marital Instability Over the Life Course Study. Results indicate that gender, race/ethnicity, and social class are associated with initial SRH disparities. Women are less healthy than men; people of color are less healthy than whites; lower educated individuals are less healthy than higher educated individuals. Women’s health declined slower than men’s but did not differ by race/ethnicity or education. Results from complex intersectional models show that white men with any college had the highest initial SRH. Only women with any college had significantly slower declines in SRH compared to white men with any college. For married individuals of all ages, most initial SRH disparities persist over twenty years. Intersecting statuses show that education provides uneven health benefits across racial/ethnic and gender subgroups.

  8. Educational health disparities in hypertension and diabetes mellitus among African descent populations in the Caribbean and the USA: a comparative analysis from the Spanish town cohort (Jamaica) and the Jackson heart study (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Ferguson, Trevor S; Hambleton, Ian; Younger-Coleman, Novie; Francis, Damian; Bennett, Nadia; Griswold, Michael; Fox, Ervin; MacLeish, Marlene; Wilks, Rainford; Harris, E Nigel; Sullivan, Louis W

    2017-02-14

    Studies have suggested that social inequalities in chronic disease outcomes differ between industrialized and developing countries, but few have directly compared these effects. We explored inequalities in hypertension and diabetes prevalence between African-descent populations with different levels of educational attainment in Jamaica and in the United States of America (USA), comparing disparities within each location, and between countries. We analyzed baseline data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) in the USA and Spanish Town Cohort (STC) in Jamaica. Participants reported their highest level of educational attainment, which was categorized as 'less than high school' (HS). Educational disparities in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were examined using prevalence ratios (PR), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Analyses included 7248 participants, 2382 from STC and 4866 from JHS, with mean age of 47 and 54 years, respectively (p hypertension and diabetes was significantly higher in the JHS compared to STC, 62% vs. 25% (p hypertension and diabetes in both studies; however, after accounting for confounding or interaction by age, sex and BMI these effects were attenuated. For hypertension, after adjusting for age and BMI, a significant education disparity was found only for women in JHS, with PR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.04-1.16) for  HS and 1.07 (95% CI 1.01-1.13) for HS vs > HS. For diabetes; when considering age-group and sex specific estimates adjusted for BMI, among men: significant associations were seen only in the 45-59 years age-group in JHS with PR 1.84 (95% CI 1.16-2.91) for  HS. Among women, significant PR comparing  HS was seen for all three age-groups for JHS, but not in STC; PR were 3.95 (95% CI 1.94-8.05), 1.53 (95% CI 1.10-2.11) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.64) for 25-44, 45-59 and 60-74 age-groups, respectively. In Jamaica, educational disparities were largely explained by age, sex and BMI, while in the USA these

  9. Applying anthropology to eliminate tobacco-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldade, Kate; Burgess, Diana; Olayinka, Abimbola; Whembolua, Guy Lucien S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2012-06-01

    Disparities in tobacco's harm persist. Declines in smoking among the general population have not been experienced to the same extent by vulnerable populations. Innovative strategies are required to diminish disparities in tobacco's harm. As novel tools, anthropological concepts and methods may be applied to improve the design and outcomes of tobacco cessation interventions. We reviewed over 60 articles published in peer-reviewed journals since 1995 for content on anthropology and smoking cessation. The specific questions framing the review were: (a) "How can lessons learned from anthropological studies of smoking improve the design and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions?" (b) How can anthropology be applied to diminish disparities in smoking cessation? and (c) How can qualitative methods be used most effectively in smoking cessation intervention research? Three specific disciplinary tools were identified and examined: (a) culture, (b) reflexivity, and (c) qualitative methods. Examining culture as a dynamic influence and understanding the utilities of smoking in a particular group is a precursor to promoting cessation. Reflexivity enables a deeper understanding of how smokers perceive quitting and smoking beyond addiction and individual health consequences. Qualitative methods may be used to elicit in-depth perspectives on quitting, insights to inform existing community-based strategies for making behavior changes, and detailed preferences for cessation treatment or programs. Anthropological tools can be used to improve the effectiveness of intervention research studies targeting individuals from vulnerable groups. Synthesized applications of anthropological concepts can be used to facilitate translation of findings into clinical practice for providers addressing tobacco cessation in vulnerable populations.

  10. Health behavior disparities: a universal trend or a peculiarity for the developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. It is generally recognized that those poorer and less educated are more likely to have unhealthy behaviors. These disparities by socio-economic status (SES are observed with regards to different behaviors known to influence health outcomes in terms of diseases and deaths. However, this consistent pattern was found in population-wide studies in developed countries, while in certain demographic groups it was not seen. So the objective was to check if the SES-behavior association pattern was present in available data collected in Ukraine.METHODS. For current study, all available datasets were considered if they included data on SES, education, and gender. Outcomes were measurements of health behaviors including use of psychoactive substances, food consumption, and physical activity.RESULTS. Prevalence of many health behaviors differs in men and women in Ukraine. More men than women use legal and illegal drugs. With regard to education and SES, Ukrainian data reveals either absence of association found in developed countries or its inverted pattern: till recently, women with university education were more likely to smoke than those less educated; teenagers from more affluent families use alcohol more likely than those from poorer ones.CONCLUSION. Inconsistency of SES-behavior association patterns in Ukraine with those seen in the West may be due to a different perception of health behaviors in people who grew up in the former Soviet Union. Behaviors pertinent to men were considered rather masculine and risky than those health-related. We theorize that the revealed absence of SES-behavior association may be because the behaviors are not perceived as those related to health which is an important resource for life. If a behavior is not known as a ‘health behavior’, the society is less likely to stratify with regard to its practicing. So, if the hypothesis is correct, there may be more disparities in younger cohorts than in older ones

  11. Racializing drug design: implications of pharmacogenomics for health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2005-12-01

    Current practices of using "race" in pharmacogenomics research demands consideration of the ethical and social implications for understandings of group difference and for efforts to eliminate health disparities. This discussion focuses on an "infrastructure of racialization" created by current trajectories of research on genetic differences among racially identified groups, the use of race as a proxy for risk in clinical practice, and increasing interest in new market niches by the pharmaceutical industry. The confluence of these factors has resulted in the conflation of genes, disease, and race. I argue that public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of current inequities in health status and social and ethical concerns over reifying race and issues of distributive justice.

  12. Implementing the Institute of Medicine definition of disparities: an application to mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Thomas G; Alegria, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin L; Wells, Kenneth B; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2006-10-01

    In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines a health service disparity between population groups to be the difference in treatment or access not justified by the differences in health status or preferences of the groups. This paper proposes an implementation of this definition, and applies it to disparities in outpatient mental health care. Health Care for Communities (HCC) reinterviewed 9,585 respondents from the Community Tracking Study in 1997-1998, oversampling individuals with psychological distress, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, or mental health treatment. The HCC is designed to make national estimates of service use. Expenditures are modeled using generalized linear models with a log link for quantity and a probit model for any utilization. We adjust for group differences in health status by transforming the entire distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white distribution. We compare disparities according to the IOM definition to other methods commonly used to assess health services disparities. Our method finds significant service disparities between whites and both blacks and Latinos. Estimated disparities from this method exceed those for competing approaches, because of the inclusion of effects of mediating factors (such as income) in the IOM approach. A rigorous definition of disparities is needed to monitor progress against disparities and to compare their magnitude across studies. With such a definition, disparities can be estimated by adjusting for group differences in models for expenditures and access to mental health services.

  13. Disparities in the use of preventive health care among children with disabilities in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Wang, Jong-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Children with disabilities face more barriers accessing preventive health services. Prior research has documented disparities in the receipt of these services. However, most are limited to specific types of disability or care. This study investigates disparities in the use of preventive health care among children with disabilities in Taiwan. Three nationwide databases from the Ministry of the Interior, Bureau of Health Promotion, and National Health Research Institutes were linked to gather related information between 2006 and 2008. A total of 8572 children with disabilities aged 1-7 years were included in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for covariates. Nationally, only 37.58% of children with disabilities received preventive health care in 2008. Children with severe and very severe disabilities were less likely to use preventive care than those with mild severity. Children with disabilities from the lowest income family were less likely to have preventive care than other income groups. Urbanization was strongly associated with the receipt of preventive health care. However, surprisingly, urban children with disabilities were less likely to receive preventive care than all others. Under universal health insurance coverage, the overall usage of preventive health care is still low among children with disabilities. The study also identified several disparities in their usage. Potential factors affecting the lack of use deserve additional research. Policymakers should target low socioeconomic brackets and foster education about the importance of preventive care. Mobile health services should be continually provided in those areas in need. Capitation reimbursement and other incentives should be considered in improving the utilization among children with disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health-related disparities: influence of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; White, Sandra L

    2005-07-01

    Racial disparities in health cannot be explained solely on the basis of poverty, access to health care, behavior, or environmental factors. Their complex etiology is dependent on interactions between all these factors plus genetics. Scientists have been slow to consider genetics as a risk factor because genetic polymorphisms tend to be more variable within a race than between races. Now that studies are demonstrating the existence of racial differences in allelic frequencies for multiple genes affecting a single biologic mechanism, the present argument for a significant genetic role in contributing to health disparities is gaining support. Individuals vary, often significantly, in their response to environmental agents. This variability provides a high "background noise" when scientists examine human populations to identify environmental links to disease. This variability often masks important environmental contributors to disease risk and is a major impediment to efforts to investigate the causes of diseases.Fortunately, investments in the various genome projects have led to the development of tools and databases that can be used to help identify the genetic variations in environmental response genes that can lead to such wide differences in disease susceptibility. NIEHS developed the environ-mental genome project to catalog these genetic variants (polymorphisms)and to identify the ones that play a major role in human susceptibility to environmental agents. This information is being used in epidemiologic studies to pinpoint environmental contributors to disease better. The research summarized in this article is critically important for tying genetics and the environment to health disparities, and for the development of a rational approach to gauge environmental threats. Common variants in genes play pivotal roles in determining if or when illness or death result from exposure to drugs or environmental xenobiotics. Most common variants exist in all human

  15. Understanding health literacy for strategic health marketing: eHealth literacy, health disparities, and the digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D; Dutta, Mohan Jyoti

    2008-01-01

    Even despite policy efforts aimed at reducing health-related disparities, evidence mounts that population-level gaps in literacy and healthcare quality are increasing. This widening of disparities in American culture is likely to worsen over the coming years due, in part, to our increasing reliance on Internet-based technologies to disseminate health information and services. The purpose of the current article is to incorporate health literacy into an Integrative Model of eHealth Use. We argue for this theoretical understanding of eHealth literacy and propose that macro-level disparities in social structures are connected to health disparities through the micro-level conduits of eHealth literacy, motivation, and ability. In other words, structural inequities reinforce themselves and continue to contribute to healthcare disparities through the differential distribution of technologies that simultaneously enhance and impede literacy, motivation, and ability of different groups (and individuals) in the population. We conclude the article by suggesting pragmatic implications of our analysis.

  16. Gender disparities in completing school education in India: Analyzing regional variations

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Zakir

    2010-01-01

    Is gender disparity greater in North India? This paper seeks to answer this question by examining gender differences in probability of completing school education across regions in India. A Gender Disparity Index is calculated using National Sample Survey Organization unit level data from the 61st Round and regional variations in this index analyzed to examine the hypothesis that gender disparity is greater in the North, comparative to the rest of India. This is followed by an econometric exe...

  17. Theorizing Educational Leadership Studies, Curriculum, and "Didaktik": Nonaffirmative Education Theory in Bridging Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylimaki, Rose M.; Uljens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Recent neoliberal policies and societal trends point toward new and perennial tensions for nation-state education, including curriculum/Didaktik and leadership thereof. These challenges affect governance/leadership and curriculum with changes in aims and values together in ways that demand coherence, yet the traditionally disparate fields of…

  18. Racial/ethnic disparities and culturally competent health care among youth and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Dzung X; Park, M Jane

    2008-06-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care are receiving increasing national attention from the fields of public health and medicine. Efforts to reduce disparities should adopt a life-span approach and recognize the role of gender. During adolescence, young people make increasingly independent decisions about health-related behavior and health care, while developing gender identity. Little is known about how cultural context shapes gender identity and gender identity's influence on health-related behavior and health care utilization. The authors review disparities in health status and health care among adolescents, especially young men, by reviewing health care access, clinical services, and issues related to culture, identity, and acculturation. Significant differences in health status by gender exist in adolescence, with young men faring worse on many health markers. This article discusses gaps in research and offers recommendations for improving health care quality and strengthening the research base on gender and disparities during adolescence.

  19. Improving Service Coordination and Reducing Mental Health Disparities Through Adoption of Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Brian; Mack, Dominic; Wrenn, Glenda; Shim, Ruth S; Holden, Kisha; Satcher, David

    2015-09-01

    Despite widespread support for removing barriers to the use of electronic health records (EHRs) in behavioral health care, adoption of EHRs in behavioral health settings lags behind adoption in other areas of health care. The authors discuss barriers to use of EHRs among behavioral health care practitioners, suggest solutions to overcome these barriers, and describe the potential benefits of EHRs to reduce behavioral health care disparities. Thoughtful and comprehensive strategies will be needed to design EHR systems that address concerns about policy, practice, costs, and stigma and that protect patients' privacy and confidentiality. However, these goals must not detract from continuing to challenge the notion that behavioral health and general medical health should be treated as separate and distinct. Ultimately, utilization of EHRs among behavioral health care providers will improve the coordination of services and overall patient care, which is essential to reducing mental health disparities.

  20. Infant mortality: a call to action overcoming health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A. Vanderbilt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among all of the industrialized countries, the United States has the highest infant mortality rate. Racial and ethnic disparities continue to plague the United States with a disproportionally high rate of infant death. Furthermore, racial disparities among infant and neonatal mortality rates remain a chronic health problem in the United States. These risks are based on the geographical variations in mortality and disparities among differences in maternal risk characteristics, low birth weights, and lack of access to health care.

  1. Male/Female Salary Disparity for Professors of Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Diana G.

    The earnings gap between male and female workers across all occupational groups has been well documented; full-time women workers earn, on average, approximately 65 percent of men's salaries. Although male/female salary disparity is largest across occupational groups, salary disparity within occupational groups still prevails. For example, the…

  2. Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural Competence, Lay-beliefs in Narratives of Diabetes among the Rural Poor in the Eastern Cape ... to exist in the utilization of cardiac diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, prescription of analgesia for pains, treatment of diabetes (e.g. gym exercise).

  3. 77 FR 66623 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR... Marriott Suites, 6711 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20817. Contact Person: Robert Nettey, M.D., Chief... of Health, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996, [email protected

  4. Funding a Health Disparities Research Agenda: The Case of Medicare Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, Joan K.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare home health care provides critical skilled nursing and therapy services to patients in their homes, generally after a period in an inpatient facility or nursing home. Disparities in access to, or outcomes of, home health care can result in patient deterioration and increased cost to the Medicare program if patient care needs intensify.…

  5. Disparities in children's oral health and access to dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradian, W E; Wehr, E; Crall, J J

    Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral health and access to care. Only 1 in 5 children covered by Medicaid received preventive oral care for which they are eligible. Children from low income and minority families have poorer oral health outcomes, fewer dental visits, and fewer protective sealants. Water fluoridation is the most effective measure in preventing caries, but only 62% of water supplies are fluoridated, and lack of fluoridation may disproportionately affect poor and minority children. Childhood oral disease has significant medical and financial consequences that may not be appreciated because of the separation of medicine and dentistry. The infectious nature of dental caries, its early onset, and the potential of early interventions require an emphasis on preventive oral care in primary pediatric care to complement existing dental services. However, many pediatricians lack critical knowledge to promote oral health. We recommend financial incentives for prioritizing Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment dental services; managed care accountability; integration of medical and dental professional training, clinical care, and research; and national leadership. JAMA. 2000;284:2625-2631.

  6. Gender disparities in health: attending to the particulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Barbara Burns; Puzan, Elayne

    2004-03-01

    As we get a feel for this new century, collective creativity is called for while we confront the challenges presented. Globalization, with its flow of ideas, people, and materials is no longer a theoretical concept and its advantages and disadvantages are becoming clear. While the axiom that "all politics are local" remains relevant, world events touch all corners of the globe. In the world of science, there are exciting advances being made,but many of these are accompanied by concerns about unequal access to biomedicine and technology, and misplaced health care priorities. One of the effects of transnationalism is that multiculturalism becomes the norm so that the label "minority" begins to lose its meaning. In the field of women's health, the issues have not changed as much as the conceptualization of them. The fact that biology and society contribute to sex differences is well known, but understanding how these interact at all levels (from the molecular to the community level) requires innovative research strategies. Efforts to describe gender disparities in health status are inadequate unless they are linked with actions that will improve the well being of diverse populations. An approach suggested in this article is to direct research and policy attention to the lifestyles and needs of particular women living in a particular time and place in society. This is the first step before meaningful interventions can be implemented and the women's health paradigm expanded.

  7. Social justice, health disparities, and culture in the care of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Pierre, Geraldine; Hilliard, Tandrea S

    2012-01-01

    Older minority Americans experience worse health outcomes than their white counterparts, exhibiting the need for social justice in all areas of their health care. Justice, fairness, and equity are crucial to minimizing conditions that adversely affect the health of individuals and communities. In this paper, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is used as an example of a health care disparity among elderly Americans that requires social justice interventions. Cultural factors play a crucial role in AD screening, diagnosis, and access to care, and are often a barrier to support and equality for minority communities. The "conundrum of health disparities" refers to the interplay between disparity, social justice, and cultural interpretation, and encourages researchers to understand both (1) disparity caused by economic and structural barriers to access, treatment, and diagnosis, and (2) disparity due to cultural interpretation of disease, in order to effectively address health care issues and concerns among elderly Americans. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Sex and Race Disparities in Health: Cohort Variations in Life Course Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Lee, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses changes in sex and race disparities in health over the life course and across cohorts by conducting growth curve analyses of nationally representative longitudinal data that spans 15 years. It finds that changes in disparities in depressive symptoms, disability and self-assessments of health across the life course are…

  9. Disparities in the Use of Preventive Health Care among Children with Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Wang, Jong-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Children with disabilities face more barriers accessing preventive health services. Prior research has documented disparities in the receipt of these services. However, most are limited to specific types of disability or care. This study investigates disparities in the use of preventive health care among children with disabilities in Taiwan. Three…

  10. Health disparities in the immunoprevention of human papillomavirus infection and associated malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira eBakir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV causes about 1.6% of the roughly 1.6 million new cancer cases that are diagnosed in the United States each year. Despite the proven safety and efficacy of currently available vaccines, HPV remains the most common sexually transmitted infection. Underlying the high prevalence of HPV infection is the poor adherence to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC recommendation that all 11-12 year old males and females be vaccinated. In fact, only about 38% and 14% of eligible females and males respectively, receive the complete, three-dose immunization.Many factors are associated with missed HPV vaccination opportunities, including race, age, family income and patient education, resulting in widespread disparities in vaccination rates and related health outcomes. Beyond patient circumstance, however, research indicates that the rigor and consistency of recommendation by primary care providers also plays a significant role in uptake of HPV immunization. Health disparities data are of vital importance to HPV vaccination campaigns because they can provide insight into how to address current problems and allocate limited resources where they are most needed. Furthermore, even modest gains in populations with low vaccination rates may yield great benefits because HPV immunization has been shown to provide herd immunity, indirect protection for non-immunized individuals achieved by limiting the spread of an infectious agent through a population. HPV vaccination campaigns face the challenge of stagnant HPV immunization rates, which are increasing slowly overall but remain far below target levels. Furthermore, gains in immunization are not equal across all groups and vaccination rates are strikingly disparate across the federal poverty level. To achieve the greatest impact, public health campaigns should focus on improving vaccination coverage where it is weakest. In addition to demographics, socioeconomic factors and attitudes of

  11. Cultural competence and perceptions of community health workers' effectiveness for reducing health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobula, Linda M; Okoye, Mekam T; Boulware, L Ebony; Carson, Kathryn A; Marsteller, Jill A; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Community health worker (CHW) interventions improve health outcomes of patients from underserved communities, but health professionals' perceptions of their effectiveness may impede integration of CHWs into health care delivery systems. Whether health professionals' attitudes and skills, such as those related to cultural competence, influence perceptions of CHWs, is unknown. A questionnaire was administered to providers and clinical staff from 6 primary care practices in Maryland from April to December 2011. We quantified the associations of self-reported cultural competence and preparedness with attitudes toward the effectiveness of CHWs using logistic regression adjusting for respondent age, race, gender, provider/staff status, and years at the practice. We contacted 200 providers and staff, and 119 (60%) participated. Those reporting more cultural motivation had higher odds of perceiving CHWs as helpful for reducing health care disparities (odds ratio [OR] = 9.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.48-28.80). Those reporting more frequent culturally competent behaviors also had higher odds of believing CHWs would help reduce health disparities (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.61-7.92). Attitudes toward power and assimilation were not associated with perceptions of CHWs. Cultural preparedness was associated with perceived utility of CHWs in reducing health care disparities (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.21-4.51). Providers and staff with greater cultural competence and preparedness have more positive expectations of CHW interventions to reduce healthcare disparities. Cultural competency training may complement the use of CHWs and support their effective integration into primary care clinics that are seeking to reduce disparities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. What makes African American health disparities newsworthy? An experiment among journalists about story framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C et al. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 2946–52). They found that black adults are more interested in cancer screening after reading about the progress African Americans have made in fighting cancer than after reading stories emphasizing disparities between blacks and whites. This study builds on past findings by (i) examining how health journalists judge the newsworthiness of stories that report race-specific health information by emphasizing disparities versus progress and (ii) determining whether these judgments can be changed by informing journalists of audience reactions to disparity versus progress framing. In a double-blind-randomized experiment, 175 health journalists read either a disparity- or progress-framed story on colon cancer, preceded by either an inoculation about audience effects of such framing or an unrelated (i.e. control) information stimuli. Journalists rated the disparity-frame story more favorably than the progress-frame story in every category of news values. However, the inoculation significantly increased positive reactions to the progress-frame story. Informing journalists of audience reactions to race-specific health information could influence how health news stories are framed. PMID:21911844

  13. Health Disparities in Adolescent Bariatric Surgery: Nationwide Outcomes and Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Lopez, Omar; Jupiter, Daniel C; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Bowen-Jallow, Kanika A

    2017-11-01

    Bariatric surgery represents an appropriate treatment for adolescent severe obesity, but its utilization remains low in this patient population. We studied the impact of race and sex on preoperative characteristics, outcomes, and utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery. Retrospective analysis (2007-2014) of adolescent bariatric surgery using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database, a national database that collects bariatric surgical care data. We assessed the relationships between baseline characteristics and outcomes (weight loss and remission of obesity-related conditions [ORCs]). Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and U.S. census data, we calculated the ratio of severe obesity and bariatric procedures among races and determined the ratio of ratios to assess for disparities. About 1,539 adolescents underwent bariatric surgery. Males had higher preoperative body mass index (BMI; 51.8 ± 10.5 vs. 47.1 ± 8.7, p adolescents underwent bariatric surgery at a higher proportion than blacks and Hispanics (2.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively). Preoperative characteristics vary according to race and sex. Race and sex do not impact 12-month weight loss or ORC's remission rates. Minority adolescents undergo bariatric surgery at lower-than-expected rates. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Closing the quality gap: revisiting the state of the science (vol. 3: quality improvement interventions to address health disparities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPheeters, Melissa L; Kripalani, Sunil; Peterson, Neeraja B; Idowu, Rachel T; Jerome, Rebecca N; Potter, Shannon A; Andrews, Jeffrey C

    2012-08-01

    This review evaluates the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) strategies in reducing disparities in health and health care. We identified papers published in English between 1983 and 2011 from the MEDLINE® database, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science Social Science Index, and PsycINFO. All abstracts and full-text articles were dually reviewed. Studies were eligible if they reported data on effectiveness of QI interventions on processes or health outcomes in the United States such that the impact on a health disparity could be measured. The review focused on the following clinical conditions: breast cancer, colorectal cancer, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, coronary artery disease, asthma, major depressive disorder, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, pregnancy, and end-stage renal disease. It assessed health disparities associated with race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, insurance status, sexual orientation, health literacy/numeracy, and language barrier. We evaluated the risk of bias of individual studies and the overall strength of the body of evidence based on risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Nineteen papers, representing 14 primary research studies, met criteria for inclusion. All but one of the studies incorporated multiple components into their QI approach. Patient education was part of most interventions (12 of 14), although the specific approach differed substantially across the studies. Ten of the studies incorporated self-management; this would include, for example, teaching individuals with diabetes to check their blood sugar regularly. Most (8 of 14) included some sort of provider education, which may have focused on the clinical issue or on raising awareness about disparities affecting the target population. Studies evaluated the effect of these strategies on disparities in the prevention or treatment of breast or colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, depression, or

  15. Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical health care system, rural-urban disparities would seem obvious. .... have led to the development and onset of the illness and cure/controllability, what the ..... and then went back for the result but the nurse that I saw said that I should ...

  16. The Framing of Women and Health Disparities: A Critical Look at Race, Gender, and Class from the Perspectives of Grassroots Health Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeman-Winter, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    As women's health has received significant political and media attention recently, I proposed an expanded structural theory of women's communication about health. Women's health communication and critical race and systemic racism research framed this study. I interviewed 15 communicators and community health workers from grass-roots organizations focused on women's health to learn of their challenges of communicating with women from communities experiencing health disparities. Findings suggest that communicators face difficulties in developing meaningful messaging for publics because of disjunctures between medical and community frames, issues in searching for health among women's many priorities, Whiteness discourses imposed on publics' experiences, and practices of correcting for power differentials. A structural theory of women's health communication, then, consists of tenets around geographic, research/funding, academic/industry, and social hierarchies. Six frames suggesting racial biases about women and health disparities are also defined. This study also includes practical solutions in education, publishing, and policy change for addressing structural challenges.

  17. Editorial: 3rd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 3rd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behaviors such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related behavior change needs to be a key component of health care research and policy. There is also broad recognition that while these problems extend throughout the population, they disproportionately impact economically disadvantaged populations and other vulnerable populations and represent a major contributor to health disparities. Thus, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing health disparities, which receives special attention in this 3rd Special Issue. We also devote considerable space to the longstanding challenges of reducing cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco and nicotine delivery products in vulnerable populations, obesity, and for the first time food insecurity. Across each of these topics we include contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychiatrists' attitudes toward and awareness about racial disparities in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Julie B; Lamberti, J Steven

    2010-02-01

    Psychiatrists may perpetuate racial-ethnic disparities in health care through racially biased, albeit unconscious, behaviors. Changing these behaviors requires that physicians accept that racial-ethnic disparities exist and accept their own contributions to disparities. The purposes of this study were to assess psychiatrists' awareness of racial disparities in mental health care, to evaluate the extent to which psychiatrists believe they contribute to disparities, and to determine psychiatrists' interest in participating in disparities-reduction programs. A random sample of psychiatrists, identified through the American Psychiatric Association's member directory, was invited to complete the online survey. The survey was also distributed to psychiatrists at a national professional conference. Of the 374 respondents, most said they were not familiar or only a little familiar with the literature on racial disparities. Respondents tended to believe that race has a moderate influence on quality of psychiatric care but that race is more influential in others' practices than in their own practices. One-fourth had participated in any type of disparities-reduction program within the past year, and approximately one-half were interested in participating in such a program. Psychiatrists may not recognize the pervasiveness of racial inequality in psychiatric care, and they may attribute racially biased thinking to others but not to themselves. Interventions to eliminate racial-ethnic disparities should focus on revealing and modifying unconscious biases. Lack of physician interest may be one barrier to such interventions.

  19. What Makes African American Health Disparities Newsworthy? An Experiment among Journalists about Story Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C "et al." Unintended…

  20. Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Rachel Ann; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-10-01

    Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.

  1. Effect of Medicaid Managed Care on racial disparities in health care access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin Lê

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of Medicaid Managed Care (MMC) on racial disparities in access to care consistent with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) definition of racial disparity, which excludes differences stemming from health status but includes socioeconomic status (SES)-mediated differences. Secondary data from the Adult Samples of the 1997-2001 National Health Interview Survey, metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level Medicaid Health Maintenance Organization (MHMO) market share from the 1997 to 2001 InterStudy MSA Trend Dataset, and MSA characteristics from the 1997 to 2001 Area Resource File. I estimate multivariate regression models to compare racial disparities in doctor visits, emergency room (ER) use, and having a usual source of care between enrollees in MMC and Medicaid Fee-for-Service (FFS) plans. To contend with potential selection bias, I use a difference-in-difference analytical strategy and assess the impact of greater MHMO market share at the MSA level on Medicaid enrollees' access measures. To implement the IOM definition of racial disparity, I adjust for health status but not SES factors using a novel method to transform the distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white health status distribution. MMC enrollment is associated with lowered disparities in having any doctor visit in the last year for blacks, and in having any usual source of care for both blacks and Hispanics. Increasing Medicaid HMO market share lowered disparities in having any doctor visits in the last year for both blacks and Hispanics. Although disparities in most other measures were not much affected, black-white ER use disparities exist among MMC enrollees and in areas of high MHMO market share. MMC programs' reduction of some disparities suggests that recent shifts in Medicaid policy toward managed care plans have benefited minority enrollees. Future research should investigate whether black-white disparities in ER use within MMC groups

  2. Influence of Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Health Beliefs on Sexual Orientation Disparities in Papanicolaou Test Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosario, Margaret; Kahn, Jessica A.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Reproductive health screenings are a necessary part of quality health care. However, sexual minorities underutilize Papanicolaou (Pap) tests more than heterosexuals do, and the reasons are not known. Our objective was to examine if less hormonal contraceptive use or less positive health beliefs about Pap tests explain sexual orientation disparities in Pap test intention and utilization. Methods. We used multivariable regression with prospective data gathered from 3821 females aged 18 to 25 years in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Results. Among lesbians, less hormonal contraceptive use explained 8.6% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 36.1% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Less positive health beliefs associated with Pap testing explained 19.1% of the disparities in Pap test intention. Together, less hormonal contraceptive use and less positive health beliefs explained 29.3% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 42.2% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Conclusions. Hormonal contraceptive use and health beliefs, to a lesser extent, help to explain sexual orientation disparities in intention and receipt of a Pap test, especially among lesbians. PMID:23763393

  3. Challenges in covering health disparities in local news media: an exploratory analysis assessing views of journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly D; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-10-01

    News coverage of health topics influences knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at the individual level, and agendas and actions at the institutional and policy levels. Because disparities in health often are the result of social inequalities that require community-level or policy-level solutions, news stories employing a health disparities news frame may contribute to agenda-setting among opinion leaders and policymakers and lead to policy efforts aimed at reducing health disparities. This study objective was to conduct an exploratory analysis to qualitatively describe barriers that health journalists face when covering health disparities in local media. Between June and October 2007, 18 journalists from television, print, and radio in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts, were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone, and the crystallization/immersion method was used to conduct a qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Our results revealed that journalists said that they consider several angles when developing health stories, including public impact and personal behavior change. Challenges to employing a health disparities frame included inability to translate how research findings may impact different socioeconomic groups, and difficulty understanding how findings may translate across racial/ethnic groups. Several journalists reported that disparities-focused stories are "less palatable" for some audiences. This exploratory study offers insights into the challenges that local news media face in using health disparities news frames in their routine coverage of health news. Public health practitioners may use these findings to inform communication efforts with local media in order to advance the public dialogue about health disparities.

  4. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Paul D.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Hood, Darryl B.; Im, Wansoo; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Langston, Michael A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Robinson, Paul; Wilson, Sacoby; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training. PMID:25514145

  5. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Juarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.

  6. Addressing health and health-care disparities: the role of a diverse workforce and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chazeman S; Gracia, J Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Despite major advances in medicine and public health during the past few decades, disparities in health and health care persist. Racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States are at disproportionate risk of being uninsured, lacking access to care, and experiencing worse health outcomes from preventable and treatable conditions. As reducing these disparities has become a national priority, insight into the social determinants of health has become increasingly important. This article offers a rationale for increasing the diversity and cultural competency of the health and health-care workforce, and describes key strategies led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Minority Health to promote cultural competency in the health-care system and strengthen community-level approaches to improving health and health care for all.

  7. Fiscal Decentralization and Disparity of Access to Primary Education in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Doriza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In education, one crusial issue of development is the disparity of primary education access. Using 440 regions database from 2005-2009, this study is aim to analize the impact of fiscal decentralization in reducing the enrolement of primary education in Indonesia. Three factors were included, i.e fiscal decentralization, socioeconomic factors and regional characteristics. The result of panel data estimation using fixed-effect approach on this study is that DAK for Education, DAK Non Education, and PAD have significant impact in reducing education acess disparity along with poverty and regional characteristic such as Java-non Java regions. For education level, another variable was also found significant including education of the society and regional characteristic such as proliferated-non proliferated regions. In general there is a facts and proves that fiscal decentralization improve education access equality, but several effort need to done to optimalize the equalization of primary education access in Indonesia.

  8. Time perspective and socioeconomic status: a link to socioeconomic disparities in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Lori C; Butler, Stephen C; Ward, Michael M

    2009-06-01

    Time perspective is a measure of the degree to which one's thinking is motivated by considerations of the future, present, or past. Time perspective has been proposed as a potential mediator of socioeconomic disparities in health because it has been associated with health behaviors and is presumed to vary with socioeconomic status. In this cross-sectional community-based survey of respondents recruited from hair salons and barber shops in a suburb of Washington DC, we examined the association between time perspective and both education level and occupation. We asked participants (N=525) to complete a questionnaire that included three subscales (future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic) of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Participants with more formal education and those with professional occupations had higher scores on the future time perspective subscale, and lower scores on the present-fatalistic subscale, than participants with less formal education or a non-professional occupation. Present-fatalistic scores were also higher among participants whose parents had less formal education. Present-hedonistic scores were not associated with either education level or professional occupation. Time perspective scores were not independently associated with the likelihood of obesity, smoking, or exercise. In this community sample, future time perspective was associated with current socioeconomic status, and past-fatalistic time perspective was associated with both current and childhood socioeconomic status.

  9. Health Consumers eHealth Literacy to Decrease Disparities in Accessing eHealth Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Cormier, Eileen; Glenna, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived eHealth literacy of a general health consumer population so that health care professionals can effectively address skills gaps in health consumers' ability to access and use high quality online health information. Participants were recruited from three public library branches in a Northeast Florida community. The eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS) was used. The majority of participants (n = 108) reported they knew how and where to find health information and how to use it to make health decisions; knowledge of what health resources were available and confidence in the ability to distinguish high from low quality information was considerably less. The findings suggest the need for eHealth education and support to health consumers from health care professionals, in particular, how to access and evaluate the quality of health information.

  10. The Military Health Care System May Have the Potential to Prevent Health Care Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Louis, Bosny J; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B

    2015-09-01

    The existence of health disparities in military populations has become an important topic of research. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to examine health disparities, as related to access to care and health status, among active duty soldiers and their families. Specifically, the purpose of this analysis was to evaluate whether health disparities exist in access to care and health outcomes of patient satisfaction, physical health status, and mental health status according to race, gender, and sponsor rank in the population of active duty soldiers and their family members. In this cross-sectional study, active duty army soldiers and family members were recruited from either one particular army health clinic where they received their health care or from an adjacent shopping center frequented by eligible participants. Data were collected using validated measures to assess concepts of access to care and health status. Statistical analysis, including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate differences in study outcome measures across four key demographic subgroups: race, gender, sponsor rank, and component (active soldier or family member). A total of 200 participants completed the study questionnaires. The sample consisted of 45.5 % soldiers and 54.5 % family members, with 88.5 % reporting a sponsor rank in the category of junior or senior enlisted rank. Mean scores for access to care did not differ significantly for the groups race/ethnicity (p = 0.53), gender (p = 0.14), and sponsor rank (p = 0.10). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed whether respondents were active soldiers or their family members (p = 0.36). Similarly, there were no statistically significant subgroup (race/ethnicity, gender, sponsor rank, or component) differences in mean patient satisfaction, physical health, and mental health scores. In a health equity system of care such as the military health care system, active duty

  11. Building Sustainable Health and Education Partnerships: Stories from Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high…

  12. Cancer Health Disparities Research: Where have we been and where should we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett Lin Gomez, PhD, MPH, is Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and a member of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of California, San Francisco. She is also Director of the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, a part of the California Cancer Registry and the NCI Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) Program. Her research focuses primarily on cancer health disparities and aims to understand the multilevel drivers of those disparities. She has contributed surveillance data regarding cancer incidence and outcome patterns and trends for distinct Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander and Hispanic ethnic groups, as well as cancer patterns by nativity status and neighborhood characteristics. She developed the California Neighborhoods Data System, a compilation of small-area level data on social and built environment characteristics, and has used these data in more than a dozen funded studies to evaluate the impact of social and built neighborhood environment factors on disease outcomes. Since 1996, Dr. Lin Gomez has received many honors and awards, including being named Author of the Year in 2010 by the American Journal of Public Health, the Above and Beyond Excellence Award in 2012 and the Mentoring Award in 2014, both by the Cancer Prevention Institute of California. She completed her education in epidemiology with an MPH at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and her PhD at Stanford.

  13. Health journalism internships: a social marketing strategy to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy H; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Stafford, Helen Shi; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-09-01

    The USA seeks to eliminate health disparities by stimulating the rapid uptake of health-promoting behaviors within disadvantaged communities. A health journalism internship incorporates social marketing strategies to increase communities' access to cancer information, while helping the interns who are recruited from underrepresented communities gain admission to top graduate schools. Interns are taught basic health journalism skills that enable them to create immediate streams of cancer-related press releases for submission to community newspapers. Interns are charged with the social responsibility of continuing this dissemination process throughout their careers. Intermediate outcomes are measured as mediators of distal behavioral change goals.

  14. Aberrant DNA Methylation: Implications in Racial Health Disparity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Wang

    Full Text Available Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal carcinoma (CRC are higher in African Americans (AAs than in Caucasian Americans (CAs. Deficient micronutrient intake due to dietary restrictions in racial/ethnic populations can alter genetic and molecular profiles leading to dysregulated methylation patterns and the inheritance of somatic to germline mutations.Total DNA and RNA samples of paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues were prepared from AA and CA CRC specimens. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS and RNA sequencing were employed to evaluate total genome methylation of 5'-regulatory regions and dysregulation of gene expression, respectively. Robust analysis was conducted using a trimming-and-retrieving scheme for RRBS library mapping in conjunction with the BStool toolkit.DNA from the tumor of AA CRC patients, compared to adjacent normal tissues, contained 1,588 hypermethylated and 100 hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs. Whereas, 109 hypermethylated and 4 hypomethylated DMRs were observed in DNA from the tumor of CA CRC patients; representing a 14.6-fold and 25-fold change, respectively. Specifically; CHL1, 4 anti-inflammatory genes (i.e., NELL1, GDF1, ARHGEF4, and ITGA4, and 7 miRNAs (of which miR-9-3p and miR-124-3p have been implicated in CRC were hypermethylated in DNA samples from AA patients with CRC. From the same sample set, RNAseq analysis revealed 108 downregulated genes (including 14 ribosomal proteins and 34 upregulated genes (including POLR2B and CYP1B1 [targets of miR-124-3p] in AA patients with CRC versus CA patients.DNA methylation profile and/or products of its downstream targets could serve as biomarker(s addressing racial health disparity.

  15. Approaching Environmental Health Disparities and Green Spaces: An Ecosystem Services Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well-articulated. Green spaces provide ecosystem services that are vital to public health. This paper discusses the link between green spaces and some of the nation’s leading health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular health, heat-related illness, and psychological health. These associations are discussed in terms of key demographic variables—race, ethnicity, and income. The authors also identify research gaps and recommendations for future research.

  16. Understanding ethnic/racial health disparities in youth and families in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Carranza, Miguel A; Martinez, Miriam M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize, ethnic and social class disparities are evident across a spectrum of markers of psychological, behavioral, and physical health. Furthermore, the pattern is often complex such that disparities are sometimes found within ethnic/racial groups as well as across those groups. Indeed, it is likely that the causes of health disparities may be different across specific subgroups. Moreover, theoretical models are needed that examine biological, contextual, and person-level variables (including culture-specific variables) to account for health disparities. The scholars in the present volume provide exemplary research that moves us towards more comprehensive and integrative models of health disparities. A brief glance at the work summarized by these scholars yields some common elements of focus for future researchers regarding risk (e.g., poverty, lack of contextual diversity) and protective (e.g., family support, cultural identity) factors yet they also identify aspects (e.g., genetic vulnerabilities) that may be unique to specific ethnic/racial groups. In addition to employing more integrative and culturally sensitive models of health disparities, future research studies could expand the scope of investigation to include transnational studies of health disparities and the processes contributing to them. They might also consider culture-specific health problems and syndromes such as "nervios" in Latino cultures. Within nations, further attention might be directed to the community contexts in which ethnic minority and low SES families reside, not only urban areas but the much less studied rural areas. Finally, efforts to assess health disparities and the factors contributing to them across cultural and ethnic groups need to attend closely to the issue of measurement equivalence in order to ensure valid cross-group comparisons. We would add that future research on health disparities will need to examine markers of positive health outcomes and well being (e

  17. Gender Disparities in Ghana National Health Insurance Claims: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Antwi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the gender disparities in Ghana national health insurance claims. In this work, data was collected from the policyholders of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. The generalized linear regression (GLR models and the SPSS version 17.0 were used for the analysis. Among men, the younger people prefer attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. In contrast to women, younger women favor attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. Among men, various levels of income impact greatly on their propensity to make an insurance claim, whereas among women only the highest income level did as compared to lowest income level.Men, who completed senior high school education, were less likely to make an insurance claim as compared to their counterparts with basic or no education. However it was women who had basic education that preferred using the hospital as compared to their more educated counterparts. It is suggested that the government should consider building more health centers, clinics and cheap-compounds in at least every community, to help reduce the travel time in accessing health care.  The ministry of health and the Ghana health service should engage older citizens by encouraging them to use hospitals when they are sick instead of other alternative care providers.

  18. Effects of Social, Economic, and Labor Policies on Occupational Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Gaydos, Megan; Monforton, Celeste; Slatin, Craig; Borkowski, Liz; Dooley, Peter; Liebman, Amy; Rosenberg, Erica; Shor, Glenn; Keifer, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Background This article introduces some key labor, economic, and social policies that historically and currently impact occupational health disparities in the United States. Methods We conducted a broad review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the effects of social, economic, and labor policies on occupational health disparities. Results Many populations such as tipped workers, public employees, immigrant workers, and misclassified workers are not protected by current laws and policies, including worker’s compensation or Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement of standards. Local and state initiatives, such as living wage laws and community benefit agreements, as well as multiagency law enforcement contribute to reducing occupational health disparities. Conclusions There is a need to build coalitions and collaborations to command the resources necessary to identify, and then reduce and eliminate occupational disparities by establishing healthy, safe, and just work for all. PMID:23606055

  19. Making sense of housing disparities research: a review of health and economic inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narine, Lutchmie; Shobe, Marcia A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent recession and accompanying housing crisis, important gains have occurred in U.S. homeownership over the past several decades; however, wide inequalities among minority and immigrant populations remain. Understanding the role of several under-studied factors on housing outcomes, including health status and disability, and differences in financial capital, such as savings, investments, and other assets, remains a major policy initiative. Although past research has examined African American-White housing disparities, it is also important to explore disparities among Hispanics, Asians, and immigrants. This article reviews health and financial capital disparities in homeownership and home values between Whites and minority populations and offers suggestions for future policy research.

  20. Can the Medical Home eliminate racial and ethnic disparities for transition services among Youth with Special Health Care Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Nicole E; Tran, Tri; Berry, Susan

    2012-05-01

    The Medical Home (MH) is shown to improve health outcomes for Youth with Special Health Care Needs (YSHCN). Some MH services involve Transition from pediatric to adult providers to ensure YSHCN have continuous care. Studies indicate racial/ethnic disparities for Transition, whereas the MH is shown to reduce health disparities. This study aims to (1) Determine the Transition rate for YSHCN with a MH (MH Transition) nationally, and by race/ethnicity (2) Identify which characteristics are associated with MH Transition (3) Determine if racial/ethnic disparities exist after controlling for associated characteristics, and (4) Identify which characteristics are uniquely associated with each race/ethnic group. National survey data were used. YSCHN with a MH were grouped as receiving Transition or not. Characteristics included race, ethnicity (Non-Hispanic (NH), Hispanic), sex, health condition effect, five special health care need categories, education, poverty, adequate insurance, and urban/rural residence. Frequencies, chi-square, and logistic regression were used to calculate rates and define associations. Alpha was set to 0.05. About 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Rates by race/ethnicity were 59.0, 45.5, 60.2, 41.9, and 44.6% for NH-White, NH-Black, NH-Multiple race, NH-Other, and Hispanic YSHCN, respectively. Disparities remained between NH-White and NH-Black YSHCN. All characteristics except urban/rural status were associated. Adequate insurance was associated for all race/ethnic groups, except NH-Black YSHCN. Almost 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Disparities remained. Rates and associated characteristics differed by race/ethnic group. Culturally tailored interventions incorporating universal factors to improve MH Transition outcomes are warranted.

  1. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  2. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery: a comparative study of 12 European birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust; Barros, Henrique; Cordier, Sylvaine; Correia, Sofia; Danileviciute, Asta; van Eijsden, Manon; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Larrañaga, Isabel; Magnus, Per; Pickett, Kate; Raat, Hein; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rouget, Florence; Rusconi, Franca; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Uphoff, Eleonora P; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Vrijheid, Martine; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    BACKGROUND: An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort

  3. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery: a comparative study of 12 European birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust; Barros, Henrique; Cordier, Sylvaine; Correia, Sofia; Danileviciute, Asta; van Eijsden, Manon; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Larrañaga, Isabel; Magnus, Per; Pickett, Kate; Raat, Hein; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rouget, Florence; Rusconi, Franca; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Uphoff, Eleonora P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Wijga, Alet H.; Vrijheid, Martine; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort data. The

  4. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Story of Stone Soup: A Recipe to Improve Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241

  6. Disparities in Social Health by Sexual Orientation and the Etiologic Role of Self-Reported Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Some past work indicates that sexual minorities may experience impairments in social health, or the perceived and actual availability and quality of one's social relationships, relative to heterosexuals; however, research has been limited in many ways. Furthermore, it is important to investigate etiological factors that may be associated with these disparities, such as self-reported discrimination. The current work tested whether sexual minority adults in the United States reported less positive social health (i.e., loneliness, friendship strain, familial strain, and social capital) relative to heterosexuals and whether self-reported discrimination accounted for these disparities. Participants for the current study (N = 579) were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including 365 self-identified heterosexuals (105 women) and 214 sexual minorities (103 women). Consistent with hypotheses, sexual minorities reported impaired social health relative to heterosexuals, with divergent patterns emerging by sexual orientation subgroup (which were generally consistent across sexes). Additionally, self-reported discrimination accounted for disparities across three of four indicators of social health. These findings suggest that sexual minorities may face obstacles related to prejudice and discrimination that impair the functioning of their relationships and overall social health. Moreover, because social health is closely related to psychological and physical health, remediating disparities in social relationships may be necessary to address other health disparities based upon sexual orientation. Expanding upon these results, implications for efforts to build resilience among sexual minorities are discussed.

  7. Religion and disparities: considering the influences of Islam on the health of American Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Curlin, Farr A

    2013-12-01

    Both theory and data suggest that religions shape the way individuals interpret and seek help for their illnesses. Yet, health disparities research has rarely examined the influence of a shared religion on the health of individuals from distinct minority communities. In this paper, we focus on Islam and American Muslims to outline the ways in which a shared religion may impact the health of a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse minority community. We use Kleinman's "cultural construction of clinical reality" as a theoretical framework to interpret the extant literature on American Muslim health. We then propose a research agenda that would extend current disparities research to include measures of religiosity, particularly among populations that share a minority religious affiliation. The research we propose would provide a fuller understanding of the relationships between religion and health among Muslim Americans and other minority communities and would thereby undergird efforts to reduce unwarranted health disparities.

  8. Applying Organizational Change to Promote Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Inclusion and Reduce Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Lunn, Mitchell R; Yehia, Baligh R

    2017-06-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations face numerous barriers when accessing and receiving healthcare, which amplify specific LGBT health disparities. An effective strategic approach is necessary for academic health centers to meet the growing needs of LGBT populations. Although effective organizational change models have been proposed for other minority populations, the authors are not aware of any organizational change models that specifically promote LGBT inclusion and mitigate access barriers to reduce LGBT health disparities. With decades of combined experience, we identify elements and processes necessary to accelerate LGBT organizational change and reduce LGBT health disparities. This framework may assist health organizations in initiating and sustaining meaningful organizational change to improve the health and healthcare of the LGBT communities.

  9. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  10. Regional Disparities in Poverty and Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Vijay, M

    2012-01-01

    India is a witness of regional disparities in many sphere of socio- economic development. On one side, world’s majority of new billionaires are in India and on the another side, India has majority of poor people. Like that, in development, the States like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, and Gujrat are in the forefront and BIMURAO (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Orissa) States are far behind in many aspects. The main objective of the Eleventh Plan was faster and inclusive grow...

  11. The increasing value of education to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana; Smith, James P

    2011-05-01

    This paper assesses how the relationship between health and educational attainment has changed over the last three decades. We examine trends in disease prevalence and self-reported health using the US National Health Interview Survey for five chronic conditions-arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and lung diseases. The sample is limited to non-Hispanic Whites ages 40-64 to focus on the value of education and not changing representation of minority populations. We find that health benefits associated with additional schooling rose over time by more than ten percentage points as measured by self-reported health status. This can be attributed to both a growing disparity by education in the probability of having major chronic diseases during middle age, and better health outcomes for those with each disease. The value of education in achieving better health has increased over the last 25 years; both in protecting against onset of disease and promoting better health outcomes amongst those with a disease. Besides better access to health insurance, the more educated increasingly adapted better health behaviors, particularly not smoking and engaging in vigorous exercise, and reaped the benefits of improving medical technology. Rising health disparities by education are an important social concern which may require targeted interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The contribution of differences in adiposity to educational disparities in mortality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Vierboom

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are large differences in life expectancy by educational attainment in the United States. Previous research has found obesity's contribution to these differences to be small. Those findings may be sensitive to how obesity is estimated. Methods: This analysis uses discrete-time logistic regressions with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, pooled from 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2010, to estimate the contribution of differences in adiposity, or body fat, to educational differences in mortality. I show that results depend upon the measure of adiposity used: body mass index (BMI at the time of survey or lifetime maximum BMI. Results: College graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese at the time of survey (25Š vs. 34.6Š, respectively and were also less likely to have ever been obese (35.7Š vs. 49.4Š, respectively. Lifetime maximum BMI performed better than BMI at the time of survey in predicting mortality using criteria for model selection. Differences in maximum BMI were associated with between 10.3Š and 12Š of mortality differences between college graduates and all others, compared to between 3.3Š and 4.6Š for BMI at the time of survey. Among nonsmokers, between 18.4Š and 27.6Š of mortality differences between college graduates and all others were associated with differences in maximum BMI. Contribution: Adiposity is an overlooked contributor to educational differences in mortality. Previous findings that obesity does not contribute to educational disparities were based on BMI at the time of survey, which is less informative than maximum BMI. The contribution of adiposity to educational mortality differences will likely grow as smoking prevalence declines. Health surveys should collect information on weight history.

  13. Disparities in Private Health Insurance Coverage of Skilled Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Tovino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares and contrasts public and private health insurance coverage of skilled medical rehabilitation, including cognitive rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and skilled nursing services (collectively, skilled care. As background, prior scholars writing in this area have focused on Medicare coverage of skilled care and have challenged coverage determinations limiting Medicare coverage to beneficiaries who are able to demonstrate improvement in their conditions within a specific period of time (the Improvement Standard. By and large, these scholars have applauded the settlement agreement approved on 24 January 2013, by the U.S. District Court for the District of Vermont in Jimmo v. Sebelius (Jimmo, as well as related motions, rulings, orders, government fact sheets, and Medicare program manual statements clarifying that Medicare covers skilled care that is necessary to prevent or slow a beneficiary’s deterioration or to maintain a beneficiary at his or her maximum practicable level of function even though no further improvement in the beneficiary’s condition is expected. Scholars who have focused on beneficiaries who have suffered severe brain injuries, in particular, have framed public insurance coverage of skilled brain rehabilitation as an important civil, disability, and educational right. Given that approximately two-thirds of Americans with health insurance are covered by private health insurance and that many private health plans continue to require their insureds to demonstrate improvement within a short period of time to obtain coverage of skilled care, scholarship assessing private health insurance coverage of skilled care is important but noticeably absent from the literature. This article responds to this gap by highlighting state benchmark plans’ and other private health plans’ continued use of the Improvement Standard in skilled care coverage decisions and

  14. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  15. Education and Health Care Policies in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziblim Abukari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Education and health care policies in Ghana since independence have been universalist in approach providing free universal health care and free basic and tertiary education until the early 1980s. Precipitated primarily by a severe drought, stagnant economic growth, mismanagement, and political instability, Ghana undertook major economic reforms with prodding from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund in a bid to salvage the economy. These economic measures included cost recovery and cutback spending in education and health sectors. However, in recent years, purposive targeted interventions have been pursued to address inequalities in education and health care. These new programs include the Education Capitation Grant, school feeding program, and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, which are propelling Ghana toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The prospects of these programs in addressing disparities in access to education and health care in the country and recommendations for improved delivery are discussed.

  16. Take Action to Decrease Your Cancer Risk - Obesity and Its Role in Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of this year’s National Minority Health Month theme “Prevention is Power: Taking Action for Health Equity!”, CRCHD is highlighting the role of obesity in cancer health disparities among diverse population groups in the U.S.

  17. Dietary supplement use in the context of health disparities: cultural, ethnic and demographic determinants of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Bentley, Margaret E

    2003-06-01

    Women of African American, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American and Alaskan descent constitute 29% of the female population in the United States but they experience health problems disproportionately. Compared with white women as a group, they are in poorer health and use fewer health services. We know from recent studies that the daily use of multivitamins has been associated with lower risk of coronary disease, colon cancer and breast cancer, particularly for alcohol drinkers. In addition, daily multivitamin and multimineral usage by the elderly can reduce the number of days of illness due to infections by 50%. However, supplement use among women tends to be more prevalent among the middle and older age categories; white, well-educated and higher income women; and those residing in the western part of the United States. This examination of the current health disparities and usage patterns indicates that the women who could benefit most from supplements are not typical users. Qualitative data collected on iron and folic acid supplementation programs in developing countries indicate that diverse cultural practices, attitudes and beliefs among vulnerable populations may influence supplement use. However, data in the U.S literature that describe these factors by culture or ethnicity are sparse. If we are to promote dietary supplements to women who are most vulnerable, more research is warranted in the area of health beliefs, attitudes and sociodemographic determinants of supplement use by culture and or ethnicity, particularly among underprivileged groups.

  18. Unraveling Health Disparities Among Sexual and Gender Minorities: A Commentary on the Persistent Impact of Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiserri, Ronald O; Holtgrave, David R; Poteat, Tonia C; Beyrer, Chris

    2018-01-03

    LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations experience disparities in health outcomes, both physical and mental, compared to their heterosexual and cisgender peers. This commentary confronts the view held by some researchers that the disparate rates of mental health problems reported among LGBT populations are the consequences of pursuing a particular life trajectory, rather than resulting from the corrosive and persistent impact of stigma. Suggesting that mental health disparities among LGBT populations arise internally, de novo, when individuals express non-heterosexual and non-conforming gender identities ignores the vast body of evidence documenting the destructive impact of socially mediated stigma and systemic discrimination on health outcomes for a number of minorities, including sexual and gender minorities. Furthermore, such thinking is antithetical to widely accepted standards of health and wellbeing because it implies that LGBT persons should adopt and live out identities that contradict or deny their innermost feelings of self.

  19. Maternal education and micro-geographic disparities in nutritional status among school-aged children in rural northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

    2013-01-01

    Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ). Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002) and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009). The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005). Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056) in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094) or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055). Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least educated groups in plain and in edge areas would be

  20. The resources that matter: fundamental social causes of health disparities and the challenge of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C; Miech, Richard; Westin, Emily Leckman

    2008-03-01

    A robust and very persistent association between indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) and the onset of life-threatening disease is a prominent concern of medical sociology. The persistence of the association over time and its generality across very different places suggests that no fixed set of intervening risk and protective factors can account for the connection. Instead, fundamental-cause theory views SES-related resources of knowledge, money, power prestige, and beneficial social connections as flexible resources that allow people to avoid risks and adopt protective strategies no matter what the risk and protective factors are in a given place or time. Recently, however, intelligence has been proposed as an alternative flexible resource that could fully account for the association between SES and health and thereby find its place as the epidemiologists' "elusive fundamental cause" (Gottfredson 2004). We examine the direct effects of intelligence test scores and adult SES in two data sets containing measures of intelligence, SES, and health. In analyses of prospective data from both the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study and the Health and Retirement Survey, we find little evidence of a direct effect of intelligence on health once adult education and income are held constant. In contrast, the significant effects of education and income on health change very little when intelligence is controlled. Although data limitations do not allow a definitive resolution of the issue, this evidence is inconsistent with the claim that intelligence is the elusive fundamental cause of health disparities, and instead supports the idea that the flexible resources people actively use to gain a health advantage are the SES-related resources of knowledge, money, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections.

  1. Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Bourne, Philip E.; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O. Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S.; Wong, David W.S.; Denny, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them. PMID:28439179

  2. Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Bourne, Philip E; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S; Wong, David W S; Denny, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them.

  3. Health disparities monitoring in the U.S.: lessons for monitoring efforts in Israel and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Avni, Shlomit; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2018-02-28

    Health disparities are a persistent problem in many high-income countries. Health policymakers recognize the need to develop systematic methods for documenting and tracking these disparities in order to reduce them. The experience of the U.S., which has a well-established health disparities monitoring infrastructure, provides useful insights for other countries. This article provides an in-depth review of health disparities monitoring in the U.S. Lessons of potential relevance for other countries include: 1) the integration of health disparities monitoring in population health surveillance, 2) the role of political commitment, 3) use of monitoring as a feedback loop to inform future directions, 4) use of monitoring to identify data gaps, 5) development of extensive cross-departmental cooperation, and 6) exploitation of digital tools for monitoring and reporting. Using Israel as a case in point, we provide a brief overview of the healthcare and health disparities landscape in Israel, and examine how the lessons from the U.S. experience might be applied in the Israeli context. The U.S. model of health disparities monitoring provides useful lessons for other countries with respect to documentation of health disparities and tracking of progress made towards their elimination. Given the persistence of health disparities both in the U.S. and Israel, there is a need for monitoring systems to expand beyond individual- and healthcare system-level factors, to incorporate social and environmental determinants of health as health indicators/outcomes.

  4. Using social determinants of health to link health workforce diversity, care quality and access, and health disparities to achieve health equity in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shanita D; Hansen, Kristen; Smithey, Marian; Burnley, Josepha; Koplitz, Michelle; Koyama, Kirk; Young, Janice; Bakos, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that diversifying the nation's health-care workforce is a necessary strategy to increase access to quality health care for all populations, reduce health disparities, and achieve health equity. In this article, we present a conceptual model that utilizes the social determinants of health framework to link nursing workforce diversity and care quality and access to two critical population health indicators-health disparities and health equity. Our proposed model suggests that a diverse nursing workforce can provide increased access to quality health care and health resources for all populations, and is a necessary precursor to reduce health disparities and achieve health equity. With this conceptual model as a foundation, we aim to stimulate the conceptual and analytical work-both within and outside the nursing field-that is necessary to answer these important but largely unanswered questions.

  5. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  6. Disparities in health in the United States: An overview of the social determinants of health for otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmark, Regan W; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-08-01

    Social determinants of health include social and demographic factors such as poverty, education status, race and ethnicity, gender, insurance status, and other factors that influence (1) development of illness, (2) ability to obtain and utilize healthcare, and (3) health and healthcare outcomes. In otolaryngology, as in other subspecialty surgical fields, we are constantly confronted by patients' social and demographic circumstances including poverty, language barriers, and lack of health insurance and yet there is limited research on how these factors impact health equity in our field, or how attention to these patient characteristics may improve health equity. This review provides the reader with a framework to understand the social determinants of health including how socioeconomic status, insurance status, race, gender, and other factors impact health. Foundational papers on the social determinants of health are reviewed, as well as otolaryngology publications focused on health and healthcare disparities. The social determinants of health have a major impact on patient health as well as healthcare utilization, but there is a relative lack of data on these factors and how they can be addressed within otolaryngology. Incorporating tools to measure social and demographic characteristics and actually report on these measures is a first simple step to increase the data on the social determinants of health as they pertain to otolaryngology. More research is needed on the social determinants of health, and how they impact otolaryngic disease. Medicare's Accountable Care Organization models will increasingly change the way in which physicians are reimbursed, making the social determinants of health central not only to our moral conscience but also the bottom line. 4.

  7. Factors influencing the effectiveness of interventions to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhys G; Trivedi, Amal N; Ayanian, John Z

    2010-02-01

    Reducing racial and ethnic disparities in health care has become an important policy goal in the United States and other countries, but evidence to inform interventions to address disparities is limited. The objective of this study was to identify important dimensions of interventions to reduce health care disparities. We used qualitative research methods to examine interventions aimed at improving diabetes and/or cardiovascular care for patients from racial and ethnic minority groups within five health care organizations. We interviewed 36 key informants and conducted a thematic analysis to identify important features of these interventions. Key elements of interventions included two contextual factors (external accountability and alignment of incentives to reduce disparities) and four factors related to the organization or intervention itself (organizational commitment, population health focus, use of data to inform solutions, and a comprehensive approach to quality). Consideration of these elements could improve the design, implementation, and evaluation of future interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Health Equity Promotion Model: Reconceptualization of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Simoni, Jane M.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L.; Yang, Joyce; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    National health initiatives emphasize the importance of eliminating health disparities among historically disadvantaged populations. Yet, few studies have examined the range of health outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. To stimulate more inclusive research in the area, we present the Health Equity Promotion Model—a framework oriented toward LGBT people reaching their full mental and physical health potential that considers both positive and adverse health-related circumstances. The model highlights (a) heterogeneity and intersectionality within LGBT communities; (b) the influence of structural and environmental context; and (c) both health-promoting and adverse pathways that encompass behavioral, social, psychological, and biological processes. It also expands upon earlier conceptualizations of sexual minority health by integrating a life course development perspective within the health-promotion model. By explicating the important role of agency and resilience as well as the deleterious effect of social structures on health outcomes, it supports policy and social justice to advance health and well-being in these communities. Important directions for future research as well as implications for health-promotion interventions and policies are offered. PMID:25545433

  9. Effects of Geography on Mental Health Disparities on Sexual Minorities in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Jacob; Adamczyk, Amy

    2018-05-01

    Gay and lesbian individuals have higher rates of psychological distress than do heterosexual individuals. The minority stress hypothesis attributes this disparity to adversity-related stress experienced by sexual minorities. In support of this idea, research in the U.S. has generally found that mental health disparities between sexual minorities and others are narrower in places where tolerance is relatively high. However, few studies have examined disparities between sexual minorities and others in neighborhoods where sexual minorities are most highly concentrated. Likewise, little research attention has been given to disparities for people who move to more tolerant places from less tolerant states and countries. Using data from the New York City Community Health Survey, we found some evidence that disparities between sexual minorities and others were lower in areas with higher concentrations of sexual minorities. However, disparities did not vary by the tolerance level of the state of birth among those born in the U.S. and were actually lower among those born in the least tolerant nations. These results complicate the idea that there is a dose-response relationship between tolerance and psychological distress among sexual minorities.

  10. When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

  11. Race, Racism, and Health Disparities: What Can I Do About It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Disparities based on race that target communities of color are consistently reported in the management of many diseases. Barriers to health care equity include the health care system, the patient, the community, and health care providers. This article focuses on the health care system as well as health care providers and how racism and our implicit biases affect our medical decision making. Health care providers receive little or no training on issues of race and racism. As a result, awareness of racism and its impact on health care delivery is low. I will discuss a training module that helps improve awareness around these issues. Until racial issues are honestly addressed by members of the health care team, it is unlikely that we will see significant improvements in racial health care disparities for Americans.

  12. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Addressing Hearing Health Care Disparities among Older Adults in a US-Mexico Border Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Maia; Marrone, Nicole; Sanchez, Daisey Thalia; Sander, Alicia; Navarro, Cecilia; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Colina, Sonia; Harris, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in daily living activities. Access to hearing health care has broad implications for healthy aging of the U.S. population. This qualitative study investigated factors related to the socio-ecological domains of hearing health in a U.S.–Mexico border community experiencing disparities in access to care. A multidisciplinary research team partnered with community health workers (CHWs) from a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) in designing the study. CHWs conducted interviews with people with hearing loss (n = 20) and focus groups with their family/friends (n = 27) and with members of the community-at-large (n = 47). The research team conducted interviews with FQHC providers and staff (n = 12). Individuals experienced depression, sadness, and social isolation, as well as frustration and even anger regarding communication. Family members experienced negative impacts of deteriorating communication, but expressed few coping strategies. There was general agreement across data sources that hearing loss was not routinely addressed within primary care and assistive hearing technology was generally unaffordable. Community members described stigma related to hearing loss and a need for greater access to hearing health care and broader community education. Findings confirm the causal sequence of hearing impairment on quality of life aggravated by socioeconomic conditions and lack of access to hearing health care. Hearing loss requires a comprehensive and innovative public health response across the socio-ecological framework that includes both individual communication intervention and greater access to hearing health resources. CHWs can be effective in tailoring intervention strategies to community characteristics. PMID:27574602

  14. A matter of disparities: risk groups for unhealthy lifestyle and poor health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droomers, M.; Lindert, H. van; Westert, G.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter addresses the results of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) with regard to differences in health and lifestyle according to age, socio-economic status, and working status in recent years. First, disparities in health and lifestyle will be presented,

  15. Racial Ethnic Health Disparities: A Phenomenological Exploration of African American with Diabetes Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okombo, Florence A.

    2017-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minority groups experience a higher mortality rate, a lower life expectancy, and worse mental health outcomes than non-Hispanic in the United States. There is a scarcity of qualitative studies on racial/ethnic health disparities. The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study was to explore the personal experiences,…

  16. Social Determinants of Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; McKinney, Molly A.; Braun, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Too many racial/ethnic minorities do not reach their full potential for a healthy and rewarding life. This paper addresses the social determinants that impact, either directly or indirectly, child and adolescent health disparities. Understanding the role social determinants play in the life course of health status can help guide educational…

  17. Health Disparities and Relational Well-Being between Multi- and Mono-Ethnic Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…

  18. Health Insurance Disparities among Immigrants: Are Some Legal Immigrants More Vulnerable than Others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shanta; Kagotho, Njeri

    2010-01-01

    This study examined health insurance disparities among recent immigrants. The authors analyzed all working-age adult immigrants between the ages of 18 and 64 using the New Immigrant Survey data collected in 2003. This survey is a cross-sectional interview of recent legal permanent residents on their social, economic, and health status. Respondents…

  19. Stress, Life Events, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Health: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M.; House, James S.; Mero, Richard P.; Williams, David R.

    2005-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to stress and negative life events is related to poor health outcomes, and that differential exposure to stress plays a role in socioeconomic disparities in health. Data from three waves of the Americans' Changing Lives study (n = 3,617) were analyzed to investigate prospectively the relationship among…

  20. Moving beyond the trickle-down approach: addressing the unique disparate health experiences of adolescents of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Barbara J; Low, Lisa Kane

    2006-01-01

    Health disparities in adults have received significant attention and research, yet the healthcare experiences of adolescents of color have been ignored. The purpose of this paper is to identify the shortcomings of our state of knowledge regarding adolescent health disparities and argue for the use of an inter-sectional, contextually embedded understanding of healthcare experiences. To understand health disparities, deficit-based models should be replaced with the framework proposed in this paper. Using the proposed model in practice will aid in identifying and preventing the health disparities experienced by adolescents of color.

  1. Bridging the digital divide in health care: the role of health information technology in addressing racial and ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Lenny; Green, Alexander R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; King, Roderick; Betancourt, Joseph R

    2011-10-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been consistently documented in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of many common clinical conditions. There has been an acceleration of health information technology (HIT) implementation in the United States, with health care reform legislation including multiple provisions for collecting and using health information to improve and monitor quality and efficiency in health care. Despite an uneven and generally low level of implementation, research has demonstrated that HIT has the potential to improve quality of care and patient safety. If carefully designed and implemented, HIT also has the potential to eliminate disparities. Several root causes for disparities are amenable to interventions using HIT, particularly innovations in electronic health records, as well as strategies for chronic disease management. Recommendations regardinghealth care system, provider, and patient factors can help health care organizations address disparities as they adopt, expand, and tailor their HIT systems. In terms of health care system factors, organizations should (1) automate and standardize the collection of race/ethnicity and language data, (2) prioritize the use of the data for identifying disparities and tailoring improvement efforts, (3) focus HIT efforts to address fragmented care delivery for racial/ethnic minorities and limited-English-proficiency patients, (4) develop focused computerized clinical decision support systems for clinical areas with significant disparities, and (5) include input from racial/ethnic minorities and those with limited English proficiency in developing patient HIT tools to address the digital divide. As investments are made in HIT, consideration must be given to the impact that these innovations have on the quality and cost of health care for all patients, including those who experience disparities.

  2. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  3. Development of achievement disparities in Czech primary and secondary education

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 53-71 ISSN 1866-6671 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/08/0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Education al inequalities * Czech Republic * compulsory education Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.j-e-r-o.com/index.php/jero/article/view/82

  4. Gender Disparity in Science Education: The Causes, Consequences, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Tiffany; Hamil, Burnette

    2004-01-01

    Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments prohibits sex discrimination in schools. However, research conducted since this time has consistently revealed that gender discrimination in schools remains, especially in the areas of science and mathematics. Girls are not receiving the same quality, or even quantity, of education as their male…

  5. Socioeconomic disparities in health in the US: an agenda for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, N

    2000-12-01

    Inequality of income and wealth in the US has been growing rapidly since 1972. Evidence of socioeconomic effects on health is documented for many endpoints, and there is evidence that socioeconomic disparities in health are increasing. In Europe, equity in health and health care is a target of the World Health Organization, and has led to a variety of activities to reduce socioeconomic disparities in morbidity and mortality. In the US, activities in the public and private sectors have increased in recent years but attention, especially among the public-at-large in addition to elites, needs to be shifted to socioeconomic disparities. The paper suggests action strategies drawn from the European experience and other US efforts to place public health priorities on the policy agenda. A first step is to create a climate of unacceptability for socioeconomic disparities in health. Recommended activities include improvement and utilization of existing data; dissemination to broad audiences; building on existing initiatives; creating multi-sectoral alliances; formation of state and community task forces; attention to human capital as well as social justice issues; creative use of media; attraction of new funders; and implementation of quantitative targets.

  6. Development and Dissemination of the El Centro Health Disparities Measures Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Victoria Behar; O'Day, Joanne E; Norris, Timothy B; Adebayo, Oluwamuyiwa Winifred

    2017-09-01

    This report describes the development and dissemination of a library of English measures, with Spanish translations, on constructs relevant to social determinants of health and behavioral health outcomes. The El Centro Measures Library is a product of the Center of Excellence for Health Disparities Research: El Centro, a program funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The library is aimed at enhancing capacity for minority health and health disparities research, particularly for Hispanics living in the United States and abroad. The open-access library of measures (available through www.miami.edu/sonhs/measureslibrary) contains brief descriptions of each measure, scoring information (where available), links to related peer-reviewed articles, and measure items in both languages. Links to measure websites where commercially available measures can be purchased are included, as is contact information for measures that require author permission. Links to several other measures libraries are hosted on the library website. Other researchers may contribute to the library. El Centro investigators began the library by electing to use a common set of measures across studies to assess demographic information, culture-related variables, proximal outcomes of interest, and major outcomes. The collection was expanded to include other health disparity research studies. In 2012, a formal process was developed to organize, expand, and centralize the library in preparation for a gradual process of dissemination to the national and international community of researchers. The library currently contains 61 measures encompassing 12 categories of constructs. Thus far, the library has been accessed 8,883 times (unique page views as generated by Google Analytics), and responses from constituencies of users and measure authors have been favorable. With the paucity of availability and accessibility of translated

  7. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2018-01-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer’s premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers’ compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  9. Disparities in Oral Health Behaviour among Young Adults in Mangalore, India: A Psychosocial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, G; Seemanthini, Simi; Naik, Dilip; Pai, Keshava; Rao, Ashwini

    2017-04-01

    Oral health inequalities imply unequal distribution of health and disease across socioeconomic gradients. Oral health related behaviour and its psychosocial antecedents can have a major impact on oral disease pathways in communities. To ascertain disparities in oral health behaviour and its psychosocial antecedents among young adults in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Present study was carried out among 341 degree students at three randomly chosen institutions belonging to government, aided and private colleges in Mangalore. Oral health behaviour was assessed by a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. Information about oral hygiene habits, tobacco use, sugar consumption, dental attendance patterns were collected. Respondent's self-reported gingivitis, perceived general and oral health, perceived need for care and locus of control were assessed. Information about demographic details was collected. Correlation analysis employed Pearson's correlation coefficient and binary logistic regression analysis was employed with snacking as dependent variable. Twice daily brushing was significantly associated with gender (r=0.142, p=0.009), type of college (r=-0.164, p=0.003) and father's occupation (r=0.107, p=0.049), while tobacco use was significantly associated with gender (r=0.284, p=0.000), religion (r=-0.234, p=0.000), type of college (r=0.312, p=0.000), father's education (r=0.130, p=0.017) and occupation (r=0.120, p=0.027). Self-perceived oral health was significantly associated with snacking (r=0.173, p=0.001) and tobacco use (r=-0.261, p=0.000), while locus of control was associated with snacking (r=0.140, p=0.009). Regression analysis revealed that father's education (OR=0.399, p=0.014), self-perceived need for care (OR=0.354, p=0.009), and locus of control (OR=0.166, p=0.003) emerged as significant predictors of snacking behaviour. Psychosocial antecedents were significantly associated with oral health behaviour among the respondents. Policy and

  10. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N. K.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative—the Community Child Health Network—to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. PMID:26173227

  11. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N K; Hillemeier, Marianne M

    2013-11-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative-the Community Child Health Network-to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Understanding health-care access and utilization disparities among Latino children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Implementation of an acute venous thromboembolism clinical pathway reduces healthcare utilization and mitigates health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misky, Gregory J; Carlson, Todd; Thompson, Elaina; Trujillo, Toby; Nordenholz, Kristen

    2014-07-01

    Acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is prevalent, expensive, and deadly. Published data at our institution identified significant VTE care variation based on payer source. We developed a VTE clinical pathway to standardize care, decrease hospital utilization, provide education, and mitigate disparities. Target population for our interdisciplinary pathway was acute medical VTE patients. The intervention included order sets, system-wide education, follow-up phone calls, and coordinated posthospital care. Study data (n = 241) were compared to historical data (n = 234), evaluating outcomes of hospital admission, length of stay (LOS), and reutilization, stratified by payer source. A total of 241 patients entered the VTE clinical care pathway: 107 with deep venous thrombosis (44.4%) and 134 with a pulmonary embolism (55.6%). Within the pathway, uninsured VTE patients were admitted at a lower rate than insured patients (65.9 vs 79.1%; P = 0.032). LOS decreased from 4.4 to 3.1 days (P historical patients (9.4%, P = 0.254). Individual cost of care decreased from $7610 to $5295 (P cost, particularly among uninsured patients. Results of this novel study demonstrate a model for improving transitional care coordination with local community health clinics and delivering care to vulnerable populations. Other disease populations may benefit from the development of a similar model. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  14. Conceptualising paediatric health disparities: a metanarrative systematic review and unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Wang, Zhen; Finney Rutten, Lila J; van Ryn, Michelle; Griffin, Joan M; Murad, M Hassan; Asiedu, Gladys B; Egginton, Jason S; Beebe, Timothy J

    2017-08-04

    There exists a paucity of work in the development and testing of theoretical models specific to childhood health disparities even though they have been linked to the prevalence of adult health disparities including high rates of chronic disease. We conducted a systematic review and thematic analysis of existing models of health disparities specific to children to inform development of a unified conceptual framework. We systematically reviewed articles reporting theoretical or explanatory models of disparities on a range of outcomes related to child health. We searched Ovid Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus (database inception to 9 July 2015). A metanarrative approach guided the analysis process. A total of 48 studies presenting 48 models were included. This systematic review found multiple models but no consensus on one approach. However, we did discover a fair amount of overlap, such that the 48 models reviewed converged into the unified conceptual framework. The majority of models included factors in three domains: individual characteristics and behaviours (88%), healthcare providers and systems (63%), and environment/community (56%), . Only 38% of models included factors in the health and public policies domain. A disease-agnostic unified conceptual framework may inform integration of existing knowledge of child health disparities and guide future research. This multilevel framework can focus attention among clinical, basic and social science research on the relationships between policy, social factors, health systems and the physical environment that impact children's health outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. A simulation model approach to analysis of the business case for eliminating health care disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunceli Kaan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purchasers can play an important role in eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care. A need exists to develop a compelling "business case" from the employer perspective to put, and keep, the issue of racial/ethnic disparities in health care on the quality improvement agenda for health plans and providers. Methods To illustrate a method for calculating an employer business case for disparity reduction and to compare the business case in two clinical areas, we conducted analyses of the direct (medical care costs paid by employers and indirect (absenteeism, productivity effects of eliminating known racial/ethnic disparities in mammography screening and appropriate medication use for patients with asthma. We used Markov simulation models to estimate the consequences, for defined populations of African-American employees or health plan members, of a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rates or a 10% increase in appropriate medication use among either adults or children/adolescents with asthma. Results The savings per employed African-American woman aged 50-65 associated with a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rate, from direct medical expenses and indirect costs (absenteeism, productivity combined, was $50. The findings for asthma were more favorable from an employer point of view at approximately $1,660 per person if raising medication adherence rates in African-American employees or dependents by 10%. Conclusions For the employer business case, both clinical scenarios modeled showed positive results. There is a greater potential financial gain related to eliminating a disparity in asthma medications than there is for eliminating a disparity in mammography rates.

  16. A simulation model approach to analysis of the business case for eliminating health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerenz, David R; Liu, Yung-wen; Williams, Keoki L; Tunceli, Kaan; Zeng, Huiwen

    2011-03-19

    Purchasers can play an important role in eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care. A need exists to develop a compelling "business case" from the employer perspective to put, and keep, the issue of racial/ethnic disparities in health care on the quality improvement agenda for health plans and providers. To illustrate a method for calculating an employer business case for disparity reduction and to compare the business case in two clinical areas, we conducted analyses of the direct (medical care costs paid by employers) and indirect (absenteeism, productivity) effects of eliminating known racial/ethnic disparities in mammography screening and appropriate medication use for patients with asthma. We used Markov simulation models to estimate the consequences, for defined populations of African-American employees or health plan members, of a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rates or a 10% increase in appropriate medication use among either adults or children/adolescents with asthma. The savings per employed African-American woman aged 50-65 associated with a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rate, from direct medical expenses and indirect costs (absenteeism, productivity) combined, was $50. The findings for asthma were more favorable from an employer point of view at approximately $1,660 per person if raising medication adherence rates in African-American employees or dependents by 10%. For the employer business case, both clinical scenarios modeled showed positive results. There is a greater potential financial gain related to eliminating a disparity in asthma medications than there is for eliminating a disparity in mammography rates. © 2011 Nerenz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  17. Commentary: getting real on addressing health care disparities and other systems problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madara, James L

    2012-06-01

    Physician membership organizations vary in the extent of their engagement in activities to address health disparities. Increasing engagement of those organizations not already highly active in this critical area is, thus, an opportunity. Studies that provide definitional contours of key issues, like disparities, are necessary and must be iteratively refined. However, parallel activities of intervention with measured outcomes to assess the effects of these interventions are necessary to truly address major problems in the health care system. To date, work in the problem definition category exceeds work toward intervention in and mitigation of these problems with measured outcomes. Many problems in health care, including disparities, are now sufficiently understood that it is time to shift focus toward bold intervention with measured outcomes. Optimal approaches that yield superior outcomes generally require collaboration across the provider-payer spectrum and the private sectors, including physicians, hospitals, insurers, etc. Stakeholders are now free to act in such coordinated fashion; it only requires social capital that permits cooperation and compromise. Interventions for problems such as health care disparities can be developed in the private sector and mirrored by government payers if physicians and organizations can get real about collaborating to implement outcomes-based initiatives to improve the health of all patients.

  18. Scaling up Education Reform: Addressing the Politics of Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Berryman, Mere

    2010-01-01

    What is school reform? What makes it sustainable? Who needs to be involved? How is scaling up achieved? This book is about the need for educational reforms that have built into them, from the outset, those elements that will see them sustained in the original sites and spread to others. Using the Te Kotahitanga Project as a model the authors…

  19. Gender Disparity in Enrolment into Basic Formal Education in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    In the African traditional education, high values and conscious efforts were given to the instruction ... Every adult is a teacher although the more specialized forms of training are ... formation of character and development of wisdom. No wonder ... such as Brazil, the Philippines and Argentina which implemented universal free.

  20. Measuring Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Efforts to Improve Data Collection.

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Collins Higgins; Erin Fries Taylor

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in the quality of health care contribute to higher rates of disease, disability, and mortality in racial and ethnic minority groups. A new policy brief examines recent federal and state activities aimed at strengthening the collection of health-related data on race, ethnicity, and primary language. It highlights three states—California, Massachusetts, and New Jersey—that implemented laws or regulations guiding data collection activities by hospitals, health plans, and governme...

  1. Does Integrated Behavioral Health Care Reduce Mental Health Disparities for Latinos? Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J.; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Gomez, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) is a model of mental health care service delivery that seeks to reduce stigma and service utilization barriers by embedding mental health professionals into the primary care team. This study explored whether IBHC service referrals, utilization, and outcomes were comparable for Latinos and non-Latino White primary care patients. Data for the current study were collected from 793 consecutive patients (63.8% Latino; M age = 29.02 years [SD = 17.96]; 35.1% under 18 years; 65.3% women; 54.3% uninsured) seen for behavioral health services in 2 primary care clinics during a 10.5 month period. The most common presenting concerns were depression (21.6%), anxiety (18.5%), adjustment disorder (13.0%), and externalizing behavior problems (9.8%). Results revealed that while Latino patients had significantly lower self-reported psychiatric distress, significantly higher clinician-assigned global assessment of functioning scores, and fewer received a psychiatric diagnosis at their initial visit compared to non-Latino White patients, both groups had comparable utilization rates, comparable and clinically significant improvements in symptoms (Cohen’s d values > .50), and expressed high satisfaction with integrated behavioral services. These data provide preliminary evidence suggesting integration of behavioral health services into primary care clinics may help reduce mental health disparities for Latinos. PMID:25309845

  2. Eliminating Health Care Disparities With Mandatory Clinical Decision Support: The Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brandyn D; Haider, Adil H; Streiff, Michael B; Lehmann, Christoph U; Kraus, Peggy S; Hobson, Deborah B; Kraenzlin, Franca S; Zeidan, Amer M; Pronovost, Peter J; Haut, Elliott R

    2015-01-01

    All hospitalized patients should be assessed for venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors and prescribed appropriate prophylaxis. To improve best-practice VTE prophylaxis prescription for all hospitalized patients, we implemented a mandatory computerized clinical decision support (CCDS) tool. The tool requires completion of checklists to evaluate VTE risk factors and contraindications to pharmacological prophylaxis, and then recommends the risk-appropriate VTE prophylaxis regimen. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of a quality improvement intervention on race-based and sex-based health care disparities across 2 distinct clinical services. This was a retrospective cohort study of a quality improvement intervention. The study included 1942 hospitalized medical patients and 1599 hospitalized adult trauma patients. In this study, the proportion of patients prescribed risk-appropriate, best-practice VTE prophylaxis was evaluated. Racial disparities existed in prescription of best-practice VTE prophylaxis in the preimplementation period between black and white patients on both the trauma (70.1% vs. 56.6%, P=0.025) and medicine (69.5% vs. 61.7%, P=0.015) services. After implementation of the CCDS tool, compliance improved for all patients, and disparities in best-practice prophylaxis prescription between black and white patients were eliminated on both services: trauma (84.5% vs. 85.5%, P=0.99) and medicine (91.8% vs. 88.0%, P=0.082). Similar findings were noted for sex disparities in the trauma cohort. Despite the fact that risk-appropriate prophylaxis should be prescribed equally to all hospitalized patients regardless of race and sex, practice varied widely before our quality improvement intervention. Our CCDS tool eliminated racial disparities in VTE prophylaxis prescription across 2 distinct clinical services. Health information technology approaches to care standardization are effective to eliminate health care disparities.

  3. Physicians and implicit bias: how doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elizabeth N; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Although the medical profession strives for equal treatment of all patients, disparities in health care are prevalent. Cultural stereotypes may not be consciously endorsed, but their mere existence influences how information about an individual is processed and leads to unintended biases in decision-making, so called "implicit bias". All of society is susceptible to these biases, including physicians. Research suggests that implicit bias may contribute to health care disparities by shaping physician behavior and producing differences in medical treatment along the lines of race, ethnicity, gender or other characteristics. We review the origins of implicit bias, cite research documenting the existence of implicit bias among physicians, and describe studies that demonstrate implicit bias in clinical decision-making. We then present the bias-reducing strategies of consciously taking patients' perspectives and intentionally focusing on individual patients' information apart from their social group. We conclude that the contribution of implicit bias to health care disparities could decrease if all physicians acknowledged their susceptibility to it, and deliberately practiced perspective-taking and individuation when providing patient care. We further conclude that increasing the number of African American/Black physicians could reduce the impact of implicit bias on health care disparities because they exhibit significantly less implicit race bias.

  4. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  5. Emerging health disparities in Botswana: examining the situation of orphans during the AIDS epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Candace Marie; Gruskin, Sofia; Subramanian, S V; Heymann, Jody

    2007-06-01

    Botswana has the second highest HIV prevalence rate and highest rate of orphanhood in the world. Although child mortality rates have doubled in 15 years, the extent to which health disparities are connected to orphan status remains unclear. We conducted an analysis of the 2000 Botswana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey to examine whether orphan-based health disparities exist. We measured health inequalities using anthropometric data among 2723 under-five year olds, nested in 1854 households, and 208 communities. We calculated multilevel logistic regression models to estimate the child, household, and regional determinants of growth failure. We found that orphaned children aged 0-4 are 49% more likely to be underweight than nonorphans (ppoverty and other factors; and orphans disproportionately live in the poorest households. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Botswana is a leader in responding to the AIDS epidemic, in particular as one of the first countries to offer universal antiretroviral treatment. However, orphan-based health disparities confirm that the orphan response is still insufficient. Better data are needed to fully understand the mechanisms that lead to these disparities, and the public sector needs an increased capacity to fully implement the policies and programs designed to meet the needs of orphans. Findings from this study have important implications for countries throughout SSA, and Southern Africa in particular, where the number of orphans has doubled to tripled over the past 15 years.

  6. Advancing Social Workers' Responsiveness to Health Disparities: The Case of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Mary; Mitchell, James F.; Pennell, Joan

    2005-01-01

    This study provides the basis for customizing culturally responsive social work health promotion programs aimed at eliminating breast cancer screening and mortality disparities between white and African American women. Survey data collected from a random sample of 853 women in rural North Carolina were used to explore the impact of psychosocial…

  7. Health insurance coverage and racial disparities in breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Rowan, Kathleen; Virnig, Beth A

    2014-01-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy offers clinical, cosmetic, and psychological benefits compared with mastectomy alone. Although reconstruction rates have increased, racial/ethnic disparities in breast reconstruction persist. Insurance coverage facilitates access to care, but few studies have examined whether health insurance ameliorates disparities. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2002 through 2006 to examine the relationships between health insurance coverage, race/ethnicity, and breast reconstruction rates among women who underwent mastectomy for breast cancer. We examined reconstruction rates as a function of the interaction of race and the primary payer (self-pay, private health insurance, government) while controlling for patient comorbidity, and we used generalized estimating equations to account for clustering and hospital characteristics. Minority women had lower breast reconstruction rates than White women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.57 for African American; AOR, 0.70 for Hispanic; AOR, 0.45 for Asian; p women (AOR, 0.33) and those with public coverage were less likely to undergo reconstruction (AOR, 0.35; p women. Racial/ethnic disparities were less prominent within insurance types. Minority women, whether privately or publicly insured, had lower odds of undergoing reconstruction than White women. Among those without insurance, reconstruction rates did not differ by race/ethnicity. Insurance facilitates access to care, but does not eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in reconstruction rates. Our findings-which reveal persistent health care disparities not explained by patient health status-should prompt efforts to promote both access to and use of beneficial covered services for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Disparities among LGBT Older Adults and the Role of Nonconscious Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Mary Beth; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the significance of key empirical findings from the recent and landmark study Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging and Sexuality Study (with Karen I. Fredriksen-Goldsen as the principal investigator), on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender aging and health disparities. We will illustrate these findings with select quotations from study participants and show how nonconscious bias (i.e., activation of negative stereotypes outside conscious awareness) in the clinical encounter and health care setting can threaten shared decision-making and perpetuate health disparities among LGBT older adults. We recognize that clinical ethicists are not immune from nonconscious bias but maintain that they are well situated to recognize bias and resulting injustice by virtue of their training. Further, we discuss how clinical ethicists can influence the organization's ethical culture and environment to improve the quality and acceptability of health care for LGBT older adults. © 2014 by The Hastings Center.

  9. Discrimination, Harassment, Abuse and Bullying in the Workplace: Contribution of Workplace Injustice to Occupational Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Souza, Kerry; Davis, Kelly D.; de Castro, A. Butch

    2013-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research on the contribution of workplace injustices – discrimination, harassment, abuse and bullying – to occupational health disparities. A conceptual framework is presented to illustrate the pathways through which injustices at the interpersonal and institutional level lead to differential risk of vulnerable workers to adverse occupational health outcomes. Members of demographic minority groups are more likely to be victims of workplace injustice and suffer more adverse outcomes when exposed to workplace injustice compared to demographic majority groups. A growing body of research links workplace injustice to poor psychological and physical health, and a smaller body of evidence links workplace injustice to unhealthy behaviors. Although not as well studied, studies also show that workplace injustice can influence workers’ health through effects on workers’ family life and job-related outcomes. Lastly, this paper discusses methodological limitations in research linking injustices and occupational health disparities and makes recommendations to improve the state of research. PMID:23813664

  10. The black cloud over the Sunshine State: health disparities in south Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Janyce G

    2003-01-01

    Florida, the "Sunshine State", is paradise for international tourists and has been adopted as seasonal or permanent home by many wealthy individuals and celebrities. However, Florida is not paradise for the growing number of residents who suffer from poverty, health problems, and a lack of access to health care and social services. The purpose of this paper is to present data on health care problems and disparities throughout the state of Florida and in select south Florida counties. Flaskerud and Winslow (1998) have provided a framework which can be used to analyze disparities in resource availability, relative risk, and health status indicators and suggests areas in which nursing and other health professionals can ethically intervene through research, practice, and political action.

  11. Disparity of out of pocket expenditure on reproductive health related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    Results: The mean expenditure for laboratory tests and treatment by women with RTI ... policy relevant questions on equity pertaining to poverty, ... was employed to collect household level data on ..... educational enrollments in states of India.

  12. Leveraging Cloud Computing to Address Public Health Disparities: An Analysis of the SPHPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Arash; Olabode, Olusegun A; Bell, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    As the use of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) has continued to gain prominence in hospitals and physician practices, public health agencies and health professionals have the ability to access health data through health information exchanges (HIE). With such knowledge health providers are well positioned to positively affect population health, and enhance health status or quality-of-life outcomes in at-risk populations. Through big data analytics, predictive analytics and cloud computing, public health agencies have the opportunity to observe emerging public health threats in real-time and provide more effective interventions addressing health disparities in our communities. The Smarter Public Health Prevention System (SPHPS) provides real-time reporting of potential public health threats to public health leaders through the use of a simple and efficient dashboard and links people with needed personal health services through mobile platforms for smartphones and tablets to promote and encourage healthy behaviors in our communities. The purpose of this working paper is to evaluate how a secure virtual private cloud (VPC) solution could facilitate the implementation of the SPHPS in order to address public health disparities.

  13. Preventing Filipino Mental Health Disparities: Perspectives from Adolescents, Caregivers, Providers, and Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Supan, Jocelyn; Lansang, Anjelica; Beyer, William; Kubicek, Katrina; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2014-12-01

    Filipino Americans are the second largest immigrant population and second largest Asian ethnic group in the U.S. Disparities in youth behavioral health problems and the receipt of mental health services among Filipino youth have been documented previously. However, few studies have elicited perspectives from community stakeholders regarding how to prevent mental health disparities among Filipino youth. The purpose of the current study is to identify intervention strategies for implementing mental health prevention programs among Filipino youth. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n=33) with adolescents, caregivers, advocates, and providers and focus groups (n=18) with adolescents and caregivers. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a methodology of "coding consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison" and was rooted in grounded theory. Four recommendations were identified when developing mental health prevention strategies among Filipino populations: address the intergenerational gap between Filipino parents and children, provide evidence-based parenting programs, collaborate with churches in order to overcome stigma associated with mental health, and address mental health needs of parents. Findings highlight the implementation of evidence-based preventive parenting programs in faith settings as a community-identified and culturally appropriate strategy to prevent Filipino youth behavioral health disparities.

  14. Racial Health Disparities in a Military County: A Research Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Aghajanian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1972 CDC has sponsored the annual National Health Interview Survey (NHIS. The survey collects data from a large sample of US households, a sample of adults in each household, and a sample of children in each household. But unfortunately county level data on health status are not available as readily and consistently as compared to the national level. This paper describes a telephone-based survey of health on one county to overcome the gaps in the national samples. It is concluded that phone surveys are a cost-effective way to provide for local information on the health status the population. Sample questions are included in the article.

  15. The Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI): Developing workforce capacity for health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Ward, Earlise; Westaby, Katelyn; Adams, Alexandra; Esmond, Sarah L; Garza, Mary A; Hogle, Janice A; Scholl, Linda M; Quinn, Sandra C; Thomas, Stephen B; Sorkness, Christine A

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to address health disparities and achieve health equity are critically dependent on the development of a diverse research workforce. However, many researchers from underrepresented backgrounds face challenges in advancing their careers, securing independent funding, and finding the mentorship needed to expand their research. Faculty from the University of Maryland at College Park and the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed and evaluated an intensive week-long research and career-development institute-the Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI)-with the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented scholars who can sustain their ongoing commitment to health equity research. In 2010-2016, HELI brought 145 diverse scholars (78% from an underrepresented background; 81% female) together to engage with each other and learn from supportive faculty. Overall, scholar feedback was highly positive on all survey items, with average agreement ratings of 4.45-4.84 based on a 5-point Likert scale. Eighty-five percent of scholars remain in academic positions. In the first three cohorts, 73% of HELI participants have been promoted and 23% have secured independent federal funding. HELI includes an evidence-based curriculum to develop a diverse workforce for health equity research. For those institutions interested in implementing such an institute to develop and support underrepresented early stage investigators, a resource toolbox is provided.

  16. Applying the concept of culture to reduce health disparities through health behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa Singer, Marjorie

    2012-11-01

    Culture is often cited as an underlying cause of the undue burden of disease borne by communities of color along the entire life cycle. However, culture is rarely defined or appropriately measured. Scientifically, culture is a complex, integrated, and dynamic conceptual framework that is incongruent with the way it is operationalized in health behavior theories: as a unidimensional, static, and immutable character element of a homogeneous population group. This paper lays out this contradiction and proposes a more scientifically grounded approach to the use of culture. The premise is that if the concept of culture were better operationalized, results from studies of diverse population groups would produce findings that are more scientifically valid and relevant to the community. Practitioners could then use these findings to develop more effective strategies to reduce health disparities and improve the health of all population groups. Six steps are proposed to increase our ability to achieve greater clarity on what culture is and to identify how it impacts health behavior and ultimately health outcomes, enabling researchers to build a stronger science of cultural diversity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Limited english proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children's health and health care. Individual parental LEP

  18. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are concei......The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...

  19. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Needs and Assets for Building a Regional Network Infrastructure to Reduce Cancer Related Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J.; Lima, Diana S.; Meade, Cathy D.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K.; Pledger, W. Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E.; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S.; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W.; Price-Haywood, Eboni G.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O.; Green, B. Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nationwide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  1. Addressing Health Care Disparities and Increasing Workforce Diversity: The Next Step for the Dental, Medical, and Public Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dennis A.; Lassiter, Shana L.

    2006-01-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of our nation is projected to change drastically in the coming decades. It is therefore important that the health professions improve their efforts to provide culturally competent care to all patients. We reviewed literature concerning health care disparities and workforce diversity issues—particularly within the oral health field—and provide a synthesis of recommendations to address these issues. This review is highly relevant to both the medical and public health professions, because they are facing similar disparity and workforce issues. In addition, the recent establishment of relationships between oral health and certain systemic health conditions will elevate oral health promotion and disease prevention as important points of intervention in the quest to improve our nation’s public health. PMID:17077406

  2. Rural-urban disparity in oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Amal; Galarneau, Chantal; Feine, Jocelyne S; Emami, Elham

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this population-based cross-sectional study was to estimate rural-urban disparity in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the Quebec adult population. A 2-stage sampling design was used to collect data from the 1788 parents/caregivers of schoolchildren living in the 8 regions of the province of Quebec in Canada. Andersen's behavioural model for health services utilization was used as a conceptual framework. Place of residency was defined according to the Statistics Canada Census Metropolitan Area and Census Agglomeration Influenced Zone classification. The outcome of interest was OHRQoL measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 validated questionnaire. Data weighting was applied, and the prevalence, extent and severity of negative oral health impacts were calculated. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. The prevalence of poor oral health-related quality life (OHRQoL) was statistically higher in rural areas than in urban zones (P = .02). Rural residents reported a significantly higher prevalence of negative daily-life impacts in pain, psychological discomfort and social disability OHIP domains (P < .05). Additionally, the rural population showed a greater number of negative oral health impacts (P = .03). There was no significant rural-urban difference in the severity of poor oral health. Logistic regression indicated that the prevalence of poor OHRQoL was significantly related to place of residency (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.5; P = .022), perceived oral health (OR = 9.4; 95% CI = 5.7-15.5; P < .001), dental treatment needs factors (perceived need for dental treatment, pain, dental care seeking) (OR = 8.7; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6; P < .001) and education (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.8-3.9; P < .001). The results of this study suggest a potential difference in OHRQoL of Quebec rural and urban populations, and a need to develop strategies to promote oral health outcomes

  3. Regional Disparities in Education Attainment Level in the European Union: A Spatial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chocholatá Michaela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the analysis of education attainment level across the 252 NUTS 2 regions of the European Union (EU with consideration of the spatial aspect. Since the individual EU regions cannot be seen as isolated, the main aim of this article is to assess the impact of location on the education attainment level (percentage of population aged 25–64 with at least upper secondary education during the period 2007–2015, as well as to investigate the impact of regional growth 2014/2007 on the education attainment level in 2015. The spatial analysis proved the existence of positive spatial autocorrelation and persistence of disparities in education attainment level across EU regions during the analysed period. The results of econometric analysis confirmed the expected positive impact of economic growth on education attainment level as well as the necessity to incorporate the spatial dimension into the model.

  4. Increasing Community Research Capacity to Address Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaie, Goldie; Ekenga, Christine C; Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Goodman, Melody S

    2017-02-01

    The Community Research Fellows Training program is designed to enhance capacity for community-based participatory research; program participants completed a 15-week, Master of Public Health curriculum. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 81 participants from two cohorts to evaluate the learning environment and how the program improved participants' knowledge of public health research. Key areas that provided a conducive learning environment included the once-a-week schedule, faculty and participant diversity, and community-focused homework assignments. Participants discussed how the program enhanced their understanding of the research process and raised awareness of public health-related issues for application in their personal lives, professional occupations, and in their communities. These findings highlight key programmatic elements of a successful public health training program for community residents.

  5. Awareness of Racial Disparities in Kidney Transplantation among Health Care Providers in Dialysis Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joyce J; Basu, Mohua; Plantinga, Laura; Pastan, Stephen O; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla; Melanson, Taylor; Escoffery, Cam; Patzer, Rachel E

    2018-05-07

    Despite the important role that health care providers at dialysis facilities have in reducing racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation in the United States, little is known about provider awareness of these disparities. We aimed to evaluate health care providers' awareness of racial disparities in kidney transplant waitlisting and identify factors associated with awareness. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers from low-waitlisting dialysis facilities ( n =655) across all 18 ESRD networks administered in 2016 in the United States merged with 2014 US Renal Data System and 2014 US Census data. Awareness of national racial disparity in waitlisting was defined as responding "yes" to the question: "Nationally, do you think that African Americans currently have lower waitlisting rates than white patients on average?" The secondary outcome was providers' perceptions of racial difference in waitlisting at their own facilities. Among 655 providers surveyed, 19% were aware of the national racial disparity in waitlisting: 50% (57 of 113) of medical directors, 11% (35 of 327) of nurse managers, and 16% (35 of 215) of other providers. In analyses adjusted for provider and facility characteristics, nurse managers (versus medical directors; odds ratio, 7.33; 95% confidence interval, 3.35 to 16.0) and white providers (versus black providers; odds ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.39 to 5.02) were more likely to be unaware of a national racial disparity in waitlisting. Facilities in the South (versus the Northeast; odds ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 8.94) and facilities with a low percentage of blacks (versus a high percentage of blacks; odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 3.39) were more likely to be unaware. One quarter of facilities had >5% racial difference in waitlisting within their own facilities, but only 5% were aware of the disparity. Among a limited sample of dialysis facilities with low

  6. Health Disparities Score Composite of Youth and Parent Dyads from an Obesity Prevention Intervention: iCook 4-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D. Olfert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available iCook 4-H is a lifestyle intervention to improve diet, physical activity and mealtime behavior. Control and treatment dyads (adult primary meal preparer and a 9–10-year-old youth completed surveys at baseline and 4, 12, and 24 months. A Health Disparity (HD score composite was developed utilizing a series of 12 questions (maximum score = 12 with a higher score indicating a more severe health disparity. Questions came from the USDA short form U.S. Household Food Security Survey (5, participation in food assistance programs (1, food behavior (2, level of adult education completed (1, marital status (1, and race (1 adult and 1 child. There were 228 dyads (control n = 77; treatment n = 151 enrolled in the iCook 4-H study. Baseline HD scores were 3.00 ± 2.56 among control dyads and 2.97 ± 2.91 among treatment dyads, p = 0.6632. There was a significant decline in the HD score of the treatment group from baseline to 12 months (p = 0.0047 and baseline to 24 months (p = 0.0354. A treatment by 12-month time interaction was found (baseline mean 2.97 ± 2.91 vs. 12-month mean 1.78 ± 2.31; p = 0.0406. This study shows that behavioral change interventions for youth and adults can help improve factors that impact health equity; although, further research is needed to validate this HD score as a measure of health disparities across time.

  7. Integrating Multiple Social Statuses in Health Disparities Research: The Case of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K; Haas, Jennifer S; Lathan, Christopher S; MacConaill, Laura E; Chen, Jarvis; Ayanian, John Z

    2012-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the complex patterns that emerge when race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender are considered simultaneously in health care disparities research and to outline the needed research to understand them by using disparities in lung cancer risks, treatment, and outcomes as an example. Principal Findings SES, gender, and race/ethnicity are social categories that are robust predictors of variations in health and health services utilization. These are usually considered separately, but intersectionality theory indicates that the impact of each depends on the others. Each reflects historically and culturally contingent variations in social, economic, and political status. Distinct patterns of risk and resilience emerge at the intersections of multiple social categories and shape the experience of health, health care access, utilization, quality, and outcomes where these categories intersect. Intersectional approaches call for greater attention to understand social processes at multiple levels of society and require the collection of relevant data and utilization of appropriate analytic approaches to understand how multiple risk factors and resources combine to affect the distribution of disease and its management. Conclusions Understanding how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES are interactive, interdependent, and social identities can provide new knowledge to enhance our efforts to effectively address health disparities. PMID:22568674

  8. Disparities in chronic conditions and health status by type of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M

    2013-10-01

    Prior research has established health disparities between people with and without disabilities. However, disparities within the disability population, such as those related to type of disability, have been much less studied. To examine differences in chronic conditions and health status between subgroups of people with different types of disability. We analyzed Medical Expenditure Panel Survey annual data files from 2002 to 2008. Logistic regression analyses considered disparity from three perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors; 2) controlling for key demographic and health covariates; and 3) controlling for a larger set of demographic variables and socioeconomic status as well as health and access to healthcare. Individuals with vision, physical, cognitive, or multiple disability types fared worse than people with hearing impairment on most health outcomes. This was most consistently true for people with multiple disabilities. Even when all covariates were accounted for, people with multiple types of disability were significantly more likely (p disability types were reduced when controlling for other factors, some differences remained significant. This argues for a more individualized approach to understanding and preventing chronic conditions and poor health in specific disability groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Technology-Based Interventions for Asthma-Can They Help Decrease Health Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Alan P; Islam, Nishat; Joseph, Christine L M

    Asthma is a condition that has consistently demonstrated significant health outcome inequalities for minority populations. One approach used for care of patients with asthma is the incorporation of technology for behavioral modification, symptom monitoring, education, and/or treatment decision making. Whether such technological interventions can improve the care of black and inner-city patients is unknown. We reviewed all randomized controlled trial technological interventions from 2000 to 2015 performed in minority populations. A total of 16 articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria; all but 1 was performed in a childhood or adolescent age group. The interventions used MPEG audio layer-3 players, text messaging, computer/Web-based systems, video games, and interactive voice response. Many used tailored content and/or a specific behavior theory. Although the interventions were based on technology, most required additional special staffing. Subject user satisfaction was positive, and improvements were noted in asthma knowledge, medication adherence, asthma symptoms, and quality of life. Unfortunately, health care utilization (emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations) was typically not improved by the interventions. Although no single intervention modality was vastly superior, the computer-based interventions appeared to have the most positive results. In summary, technology-based interventions have a high level of user satisfaction among minority and urban/low-income individuals with asthma, and can improve asthma outcomes. Further large-scale studies are needed to assess whether such interventions can decrease health disparities in asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of education on racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander S; Sandhu, Gurprataap S; Baird, Bradley; Barenbaum, Anna; Yoon, Joo Heung; Dimitri, Noelle; Koford, James K; Shihab, Fuad

    2012-01-01

    Higher education level might result in reduced disparities in access to renal transplantation. We analyzed two outcomes: (i) being placed on the waiting list or transplanted without listing and (ii) transplantation in patients who were placed on the waiting list. We identified 3224 adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in United States Renal Data System with education information available (mean age of ESRD onset of 57.1 ± 16.2 yr old, 54.3% men, 64.2% white, and 50.4% diabetics). Compared to whites, fewer African Americans graduated from college (10% vs. 16.7%) and a higher percentage never graduated from the high school (38.6% vs. 30.8%). African American race was associated with reduced access to transplantation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70, p educated groups: HR 0.67 (p = 0.005) for those never completed high school, HR 0.76 (p = 0.02) for high school graduates, and HR 0.65 (p = 0.003) for those with partial college education. However, the difference lost statistical significance in those who completed college education (HR 0.75, p = 0.1). In conclusion, in comparing white and African American candidates, racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation do exist. However, they might be alleviated in highly educated individuals. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. A Descriptive Assessment of Higher Education Access, Participation, Equity, and Disparity in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Atuahene

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since independence, Ghana has comparatively distinguished itself among many Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries in its educational developments. Tertiary education in Ghana over the past decade has witnessed tremendous growth in various frontages—increased access and participation, relative expansion of academic facilities, a growing private sector, and most importantly, a transformative policy environment. Despite these overwhelming developments, there remain inequalities in the higher education system in Ghana: access has not been broadened to include all social groups. Available data suggest unequal participation among women, minorities, individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and spatial-based disparities. Using enrollment data from universities, policy document from the Ministry of Education, and the National Council for Tertiary Education in Ghana, and academic research reports, the authors provide descriptive and critical analyses of the structures of inequalities and disparities in higher education in Ghana. The authors argue that in spite of the massive developments over the years, there exist accessibility and participation gap with respect to students’ socioeconomic status, gender, regions of origin, and the type and location of secondary schools attended.

  12. National and state-specific health insurance disparities for adults in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A

    2014-02-01

    We examined national and state-specific disparities in health insurance coverage, specifically employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage, for adults in same-sex relationships. We used data from the American Community Survey to identify adults (aged 25-64 years) in same-sex relationships (n = 31,947), married opposite-sex relationships (n = 3,060,711), and unmarried opposite-sex relationships (n = 259,147). We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and state-specific relative differences in ESI coverage with predictive margins. Men and women in same-sex relationships were less likely to have ESI than were their married counterparts in opposite-sex relationships. We found ESI disparities among adults in same-sex relationships in every region, but we found the largest ESI gaps for men in the South and for women in the Midwest. ESI disparities were narrower in states that had extended legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, and broad domestic partnerships. Men and women in same-sex relationships experience disparities in health insurance coverage across the country, but residing in a state that recognizes legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, or broad domestic partnerships may improve access to ESI for same-sex spouses and domestic partners.

  13. Area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health service use among children involved in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseop; Garcia, Antonio R; Yang, Shuyan; Jung, Nahri

    2018-06-01

    Relying on data from a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system (CWS) in 1999-2000 (the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, Cohort 1) and 2008-2009 (Cohort 2), this study implemented a diverse set of disparity indicators to estimate area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health (MH) services use and changes in area-socioeconomic disparities between the two cohorts. Our study found that there are area-socioeconomic disparities in MH service use, indicating that the rates of MH service use among youth referred to the CWS differ by area-socioeconomic positions defined by county-level poverty rates. We also found that area-socioeconomic disparities increased over time. However, the magnitude of the increase varied widely across disparity measures, suggesting that there are different conclusions about the trend and magnitude of area-socioeconomic disparities, depending upon which disparity measures are implemented. A greater understanding of the methodological differences among disparity measures is warranted, which will in turn impact how interventions are designed to reduce socioeconomic disparities among children in the CWS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  15. Literacy disparities in patient access and health-related use of Internet and mobile technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stacy C; O'Conor, Rachel; Bojarski, Elizabeth A; Mullen, Rebecca; Patzer, Rachel E; Vicencio, Daniel; Jacobson, Kara L; Parker, Ruth M; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Age and race-related disparities in technology use have been well documented, but less is known about how health literacy influences technology access and use. To assess the association between patients' literacy skills and mobile phone ownership, use of text messaging, Internet access, and use of the Internet for health-related purposes. A secondary analysis utilizing data from 1077 primary care patients enrolled in two, multisite studies from 2011-2013. Patients were administered an in-person, structured interview. Patients with adequate health literacy were more likely to own a mobile phone or smartphone in comparison with patients having marginal or low literacy (mobile phone ownership: 96.8 vs. 95.2 vs. 90.1%, respectively, P Internet from their home (92.1 vs. 74.7 vs. 44.9%, P Internet for email (93.0 vs. 75.7 vs. 38.5%, P technology access and use are widespread, with lower literate patients being less likely to own smartphones or to access and use the Internet, particularly for health reasons. Future interventions should consider these disparities and ensure that health promotion activities do not further exacerbate disparities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Socioeconomic disparities in home health care service access and utilization: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Donna; Hawranik, Pamela; Duncan, Vicky; Turner, Hollie

    2012-10-01

    Home health care services are expanding at a rapid pace in order to meet the needs of the growing population of older adults and those with chronic illnesses. Because of current restrictions on home health care as an insured service in some countries, individuals may be required to pay for some or all of their home care services out of pocket. These payments may potentially limit access to needed home care services for persons in the lowest socioeconomic strata. Previous research demonstrates a clear socioeconomic gradient in access to acute and primary care services, where those most in need of services are the most disadvantaged and under-serviced. There has been little attention paid thus far, however, to the way in which socioeconomic status may affect the receipt of home health care services. To determine what is known from existing literature about socioeconomic disparities in home health care access and utilization. A scoping review was used to map the extent and nature of the literature in this area. A search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, SocIndex and Sociological Abstracts as well as Dissertations International. A total of 206 potentially relevant articles were published between 2000 and April 2011. Two reviewers independently reviewed the articles, leaving 15 research articles to be included in the scoping review. The majority of articles reported secondary analyses of administrative datasets related to utilization of home health care. Several studies examined access and utilization using qualitative approaches. The distinction between professional and supportive home care services was not always clear in the articles. Individual and composite measures of socioeconomic status were reported, with the most frequently used indicator being income. Several studies used more complex composite ecological indicators of socieconomic status. There was general agreement that utilization of home health services favored persons with greater economic disadvantage

  17. Disparities in Health Supervision for Children With Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katie; Wargowski, David; Eickhoff, Jens; Wald, Ellen

    2017-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests children with Down syndrome do not receive recommended health care services. We retrospectively assessed adherence to the 2001 American Academy of Pediatrics health supervision guidelines for 124 children with Down syndrome. Cervical spine radiographs were completed for 94% of children, often preoperatively. Adherence to complete blood count recommendations was 55% (95% CI 44% to 66%); lower for males ( P = .01) and children with private medical insurance ( P = .04). Adherence to thyroid function recommendations was 61% (95% CI 54% to 67%); higher for children seen by a pediatrician ( P = .002) and with known thyroid disease ( P < .0001). Adherence to audiology and ophthalmology recommendations was 33% (95% CI 27% to 40%) and 43% (95% CI 37% to 50%), respectively. Adherence rates were higher for children referred to an otolaryngologist ( P = .0002) and with known eye disease ( P < .0001). Future efforts should identify barriers to care and improve adherence to recommended screening.

  18. Mining and Environmental Health Disparities in Native American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Johnnye; Hoover, Joseph; MacKenzie, Debra

    2017-06-01

    More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste. Biomonitoring confirms higher than expected exposure to uranium and associated metals in the waste in adults, neonates, and children in these communities. These sites will not be cleaned up for many generations making it critical to understand and prioritize exposure-toxicity relationships in Native populations to appropriately allocate limited resources to protect health. Recent initiatives, in partnership with Native communities, recognize these needs and support development of tribal research capacity to ensure that research respectful of tribal culture and policies can address concerns in the future. In addition, recognition of the risks posed by these abandoned sites should inform policy change to protect community health in the future.

  19. Education is associated with reduction in racial disparities in kidney transplant outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander S; Sandhu, Gurprataap S; Barenbaum, Anna; Baird, Bradley C; Patibandla, Bhanu K; Narra, Akshita; Koford, James K; Barenbaum, Lev

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that higher level of education might be associated with reduced racial disparities in renal transplantation outcomes. We used data from the United States Renal Data System (September 1, 1990-September 1, 2007) (n=79,223) and analyzed two outcomes, graft loss and recipient mortality, using Cox models. Compared with whites, African Americans had increased risk of graft failure (HR, 1.48; peducation groups had inferior graft survival. Specifically, compared with college-graduated individuals, African Americans who never finished high school had the highest risk of graft failure (HR, 1.45; peducation (HR, 1.18; peducation (HR, 1.45; peducation was associated with reduced racial disparities in graft and recipient survival. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Gender and Family Disparities in Suicide Attempt and Role of Socioeconomic, School, and Health-Related Difficulties in Early Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kénora Chau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt (SA is common in early adolescence and the risk may differ between boys and girls in nonintact families partly because of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. This study explored the gender and family disparities and the role of these covariates. Questionnaires were completed by 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including sex, age, socioeconomic factors (family structure, nationality, parents’ education, father’s occupation, family income, and social support, grade repetition, depressive symptoms, sustained violence, sexual abuse, unhealthy behaviors (tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drug use, SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent’s life course. Data were analyzed using Cox regression models. SA affected 12.5% of girls and 7.2% of boys (P<0.001. The girls living with parents divorced/separated, in reconstructed families, and with single parents had a 3-fold higher SA risk than those living in intact families. Over 63% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. No family disparities were observed among boys. Girls had a 1.74-time higher SA risk than boys, and 45% of the risk was explained by socioeconomic, school, and mental difficulties and violence. SA prevention should be performed in early adolescence and consider gender and family differences and the role of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties.

  1. ETHNIC DISPARITIES IN HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG OLDER RURAL ADULTS WITH DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Graham, Christopher N.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Golden, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus disproportionately affects ethnic minorities and has serious economic, social, and personal implications. This study examines the effect of diabetes disease burden and social resources on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older rural adults with diabetes. Data come from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 701 adults (age ≥65 years) with diabetes in North Carolina from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. HRQOL was assessed using the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12). Mean scores were 35.1 ± 11.4 and 50.5 ± 10.8 for the physical and mental components of the SF-12, respectively. In bivariate analyses, scores were significantly lower for Native Americans than Whites for both components. In multivariate analyses, higher physical HRQOL was associated with male sex, greater mobility ability, fewer chronic conditions, exercising vs not exercising, fewer depressive symptoms, and not receiving process assistance. Higher mental HRQOL was associated with greater mobility ability, fewer chronic conditions, and a high school education or more. Diabetes appears to have a substantial effect on physical HRQOL. Physical disability associated with diabetes may have a greater impact in the rural environment than in other areas. Aspects of rural social milieu may help to keep mental HRQOL high, even in the face of severe chronic disease. Ethnic differences in HRQOL are largely accounted for by diabetes disease burden and, to a lesser extent, social resources. Strategies to reduce diabetes-related complications (long term) and assist mobility (short term) may reduce ethnic disparities in HRQOL. (Ethn Dis. 2007;17:471–476) PMID:17985500

  2. Nutrition and Health Disparities: The Role of Dairy in Improving Minority Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Brown-Riggs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Consuming a balanced diet, such as the food groups represented on MyPlate, is key to improving health disparities. Despite the best of intentions, however, the dietary guidelines can be culturally challenging, particularly when it comes to dairy consumption. Many African and Hispanic Americans avoid milk and dairy products—key contributors of three shortfall nutrients (calcium, potassium and vitamin D—because many people in these populations believe they are lactose intolerant. However, avoiding dairy can have significant health effects. An emerging body of evidence suggests that yogurt and other dairy products may help support reduced risk of heart disease, hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes—conditions that disproportionately impact people of color. For this reason, the National Medical Association and the National Hispanic Medical Association issued a joint consensus statement recommending African Americans consume three to four servings of low-fat dairy every day. Cultured dairy products could play an important role in addressing these recommendations. Because of the presence of lactase-producing cultures, yogurt is often a more easily digestible alternative to milk, and thus more palatable to people who experience symptoms of lactose intolerance. This was a key factor cited in the final rule to include yogurt in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

  3. Responding to rural health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Jones

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the need to address territorial inequalities in American healthcare services. It shows how much the situation has become critical in the United States. It discusses to what extent telemedicine is a sustainable option to reduce the negative consequences of the economic, professional and physical barriers to care in rural areas. As far as healthcare is concerned, rural and urban environments in the United States do not have to face the same barriers and challenges. The article first details what specific health issues have to be dealt with in rural areas. The case of emergency care in Vermont is then developed to illustrate what could be the benefits of using ICTs to improve access to care.

  4. Looking beyond "affordable" health care: cultural understanding and sensitivity-necessities in addressing the health care disparities of the U.S. Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askim-Lovseth, Mary K; Aldana, Adriana

    2010-10-01

    Health disparities are pervasive in the United States; but among Hispanics, access to health care is encumbered by poverty, lack of insurance, legal status, and racial or minority status. Research has identified certain aspects of Hispanic culture, values, and traditions contributing to the nature of the Hispanic patient-doctor relationship and the quality of the health care service. Current educational efforts by nonprofit organizations, government, health professionals, and pharmaceutical manufacturers fail to address the needs for accessible and appropriately culture-sensitive information when approaching the diverse Hispanic community. Understanding Hispanics' consumptive practices and expectations surrounding medications is critical to the success of many treatment regimens. Recommendations are presented to address this health care issue.

  5. Individual Breast Cancer risk assessment in Underserved Populations: Integrating empirical Bioethics and Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498

  6. Intra-District Disparities in Primary Education: A Case Study of Bankura District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Maji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of education and its response to different educational opportunities vary from one spatial unit to another depending on various factors like social, economic, cultural, and institutional. It is understood that certain regions acquire relative advancements over others in terms of human resource development and human capital formation. The key purpose of this research is to examine the intra-district disparities in primary education in Bankura District one of the districts of West Bengal. It ranks 11thamong the 19 districts of West Bengal (Human Development Report, 2007.  Overall literacy rate of the district stands at 70.26% but the district scores low in terms of female literacy rates, which is 60.05%,whereas the male literacy rate is 80.05%, which is a huge gender literacy gap of 20%. There are also regional inequalities existing at block level. Kotulpur ranks first with a literacy rate of 78.01% while Saltora occupies the bottom position with literacy rate of just 61.45% (Census of India, 2011. The level of educational development is dependent on several factors—enrolment ratio, dropout and repetition rates, pupil-teacher ratio, habitations covered by educational institutions, space-student ratio, drinking water and sanitation facilities in school, etc. In this context, the present study aims at examining the issues of intra-district disparities in educational attainment with regard to various educational amenities of Bankura district, West Bengal. Ten attributes have been selected to examine the level of development in primary education. It is clear from the study that the level of development in eastern part of the district is relatively better in comparison to other regions. Economic backwardness and physical bottlenecks continue to be major issues in western blocks.

  7. Disparities in health care access and receipt of preventive services by disability type: analysis of the medical expenditure panel survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M

    2014-12-01

    To examine differences in access to health care and receipt of clinical preventive services by type of disability among working-age adults with disabilities. Secondary analysis of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 2002 to 2008. We conducted cross-sectional logistic regression analyses comparing people with different types of disabilities on health insurance status and type; presence of a usual source of health care; delayed or forgone care; and receipt of dental checkups and cancer screening. We pooled annualized MEPS data files across years. Our analytic sample consisted of adults (18-64 years) with physical, sensory, or cognitive disabilities and nonmissing data for all variables of interest. Individuals with hearing impairment had better health care access and receipt than people with other disability types. People with multiple types of limitations were especially likely to have health care access problems and unmet health care needs. There are differences in health care access and receipt of preventive care depending on what type of disability people have. More in-depth research is needed to identify specific causes of these disparities and assess interventions to address health care barriers for particular disability groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Gender and family disparities in suicide attempt and role of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Chau, Nearkasen

    2014-01-01

    Suicide attempt (SA) is common in early adolescence and the risk may differ between boys and girls in nonintact families partly because of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties. This study explored the gender and family disparities and the role of these covariates. Questionnaires were completed by 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including sex, age, socioeconomic factors (family structure, nationality, parents' education, father's occupation, family income, and social support), grade repetition, depressive symptoms, sustained violence, sexual abuse, unhealthy behaviors (tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drug use), SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent's life course. Data were analyzed using Cox regression models. SA affected 12.5% of girls and 7.2% of boys (P gender and family differences and the role of socioeconomic, school, and health-related difficulties.

  9. Impact of a Population Health Management Intervention on Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aisha; Berkowitz, Seth A; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Chang, Yuchiao; Horn, Daniel M; O'Keefe, Sandra M; Atlas, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Healthcare systems use population health management programs to improve the quality of cardiovascular disease care. Adding a dedicated population health coordinator (PHC) who identifies and reaches out to patients not meeting cardiovascular care goals to these programs may help reduce disparities in cardiovascular care. To determine whether a program that used PHCs decreased racial/ethnic disparities in LDL cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) control. Retrospective difference-in-difference analysis. Twelve thousdand five hundred fifty-five primary care patients with cardiovascular disease (cohort for LDL analysis) and 41,183 with hypertension (cohort for BP analysis). From July 1, 2014-December 31, 2014, 18 practices used an information technology (IT) system to identify patients not meeting LDL and BP goals; 8 practices also received a PHC. We examined whether having the PHC plus IT system, compared with having the IT system alone, decreased racial/ethnic disparities, using difference-in-difference analysis of data collected before and after program implementation. Meeting guideline concordant LDL and BP goals. At baseline, there were racial/ethnic disparities in meeting LDL (p = 0.007) and BP (p = 0.0003) goals. Comparing practices with and without a PHC, and accounting for pre-intervention LDL control, non-Hispanic white patients in PHC practices had improved odds of LDL control (OR 1.20 95% CI 1.09-1.32) compared with those in non-PHC practices. Non-Hispanic black (OR 1.15 95% CI 0.80-1.65) and Hispanic (OR 1.29 95% CI 0.66-2.53) patients saw similar, but non-significant, improvements in LDL control. For BP control, non-Hispanic white patients in PHC practices (versus non-PHC) improved (OR 1.13 95% CI 1.05-1.22). Non-Hispanic black patients (OR 1.17 95% CI 0.94-1.45) saw similar, but non-statistically significant, improvements in BP control, but Hispanic (OR 0.90 95% CI 0.59-1.36) patients did not. Interaction testing confirmed that disparities did not

  10. Soil Health Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorman, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…

  11. Developing Dental Students' Awareness of Health Care Disparities and Desire to Serve Vulnerable Populations Through Service-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Feng, Xiaoying; Roberts, Kellie W; Gibbs, Micaela; Catalanotto, Frank A; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse M

    2015-10-01

    Service-learning in dental education helps students integrate knowledge with practice in an underserved community setting. The aim of this study was to explore how a service-learning experience affected a small group of dental students' beliefs about cultural competence, professionalism, career development, desire to practice in a community service setting, and perceptions about access and disparities issues. Prior to beginning their first year of dental school, five first-year dental students at one U.S. dental school participated in a six-week service-learning program in which they interned at one of three at-risk settings in order to experience health care delivery there. After the program, 60 reflective writing assignments completed by the participants were analyzed using grounded theory methods; interviews with the students were used to corroborate the findings from that analysis. Seven themes identified in the journal reflections and interview findings showed enhanced awareness of social health care issues and patient differences, as well as a social justice orientation and desire to address disparities. Building on this study, future research should explore the curricular components of service-learning programs to ensure students receive ample opportunity to reflect upon their experiences in order to integrate previously held assumptions with their newfound knowledge.

  12. Center for Research on Minority Health -- Prostate Cancer and Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Iammarino, Ph.D., C.H.E.S., Professor of Health Education, Department of Kinesiology , Rice University, Houston, TX. (confirmed) September 11...C.H.E.S., F.M.A.L.R.C., Associate Professor, Texas A&M University, Department of Health and Kinesiology , College Station, TX. (confirmed) 2:15...in 1976. She also holds a Master of Science degree in biochemistry . Dr. Elders joined the faculty at UAMS as a professor of pediatrics and

  13. Violence, schools, and dropping out: racial and ethnic disparities in the educational consequence of student victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A

    2011-12-01

    Without a doubt, exposure to violence and victimization can be profoundly detrimental to the overall well-being and development of all youth. Moreover, violence and victimization that occurs within a school context is particularly alarming because a successful educational process is essential toward establishing socioeconomic success later in life. The educational consequence of exposure to violence and victimization at school is uncertain for racial and ethnic minority students. This study utilizes data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 and incorporates multilevel modeling techniques to examine the impact of violence and victimization at school on dropping out. The results indicate Black/African Americans and Latino American students who are victimized at school are at higher risk of dropping out. The implications of the evident racial and ethnic disparities in the relationship between victimization and dropping out within the U.S. school system are discussed.

  14. Sociodemographic disparities in survival for adolescents and young adults with cancer differ by health insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Parsons, Helen M; Kent, Erin E; Pollock, Brad H; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate associations of sociodemographic factors-race/ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and health insurance-with survival for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with invasive cancer. Data on 80,855 AYAs with invasive cancer diagnosed in California 2001-2011 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate overall survival. Associations of public or no insurance with greater risk of death were observed for 11 of 12 AYA cancers examined. Compared to Whites, Blacks experienced greater risk of death, regardless of age or insurance, while greater risk of death among Hispanics and Asians was more apparent for younger AYAs and for those with private/military insurance. More pronounced neighborhood SES disparities in survival were observed among AYAs with private/military insurance, especially among younger AYAs. Lacking or having public insurance was consistently associated with shorter survival, while disparities according to race/ethnicity and neighborhood SES were greater among AYAs with private/military insurance. While health insurance coverage associates with survival, remaining racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities among AYAs with cancer suggest additional social factors also need consideration in intervention and policy development.

  15. Addressing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan: gender, class and exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Zubia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After more than two decades of the Safe Motherhood Initiative and Millennium Development Goals aimed at reducing maternal mortality, women continue to die in childbirth at unacceptably high rates in Pakistan. While an extensive literature describes various programmatic strategies, it neglects the rigorous analysis of the reasons these strategies have been unsuccessful, especially for women living at the economic and social margins of society. A critical gap in current knowledge is a detailed understanding of the root causes of disparities in maternal health care, and in particular, how gender and class influence policy formulation and the design and delivery of maternal health care services. Taking Pakistan as a case study, this research builds upon two distinct yet interlinked conceptual approaches to understanding the phenomenon of inequity in access to maternal health care: social exclusion and health systems as social institutions. Methods/Design This four year project consists of two interrelated modules that focus on two distinct groups of participants: (1 poor, disadvantaged women and men and (2 policy makers, program managers and health service providers. Module one will employ critical ethnography to understand the key axes of social exclusion as related to gender, class and zaat and how they affect women’s experiences of using maternal health care. Through health care setting observations, interviews and document review, Module two will assess policy design and delivery of maternal health services. Discussion This research will provide theoretical advances to enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women’s marginalization from health care systems in Pakistan. It will also provide empirical evidence to support formulation of maternal health care policies and health care system practices aimed at reducing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan. Lastly, it

  16. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)" will be presented by Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, Chair of the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. Date: 2/20/2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove Campus,

  17. Subjective social status, social network and health disparities: empirical evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John

    2017-02-27

    Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.

  18. Selected preconception health indicators and birth weight disparities in a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutz, Kelly L; Richardson, Liana J; Hussey, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    This analysis explored the effect of timing, sequencing, and change in preconception health across adolescence and young adulthood on racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight in a diverse national cohort of young adult women. Data came from Waves I (1994-1995), III (2001-2002), and IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Eligibility was restricted to all singleton live births to female non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-origin Latina, or Asian/Pacific Islander participants (n = 3,014) occurring between the Wave III (ages 18-26 years) and IV (ages 24-32 years) interviews. Birth weight was categorized into low (4,000 g). Preconception health indicators were cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, overweight or obesity, and inadequate physical activity, measured in adolescence (Wave I, ages 11-19 years) and early adulthood (Wave III) and combined into four-category variables to capture the timing and sequencing of exposure. Measures of preconception health did not explain the Black-White disparity in low birth weight, which increased after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.53) and effect modification by overweight/obesity (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.65-7.78). A positive association between adult-onset overweight/obesity and macrosomia was modified by race (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.02-14.36 for Black women). This longitudinal analysis provides new evidence on preconception health and racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight. Specifically, it indicates that interventions focused on prevention of overweight/obesity and maintenance of healthy weight during the transition to adulthood, especially among Black females, may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  20. A school-based public health model to reduce oral health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Valiente, Jonathan E; Espinosa, Gloria; Yepes, Claudia; Padilla, Cesar; Puffer, Maryjane; Slavkin, Harold C; Chung, Paul J

    2018-12-01

    Although dental decay is preventable, it remains the most common pediatric chronic disease. We describe a public health approach to implementing a scalable and sustainable school-based oral health program for low-income urban children. The Los Angeles Trust for Children's Health, a nonprofit affiliated with the Los Angeles Unified School District, applied a public health model and developed a broad-based community-coalition to a) establish a District Oral Health Nurse position to coordinate oral health services, and b) implement a universal school-based oral health screening and fluoride varnishing program, with referral to a dental home. Key informant interviews and focus groups informed program development. Parent surveys assessed preventative oral health behaviors and access to oral health services. Results from screening exams, program costs and rates of reimbursement were recorded. From 2012 to 2015, six elementary schools and three dental provider groups participated. Four hundred ninety-one parents received oral health education and 89 served as community oral health volunteers; 3,399 screenings and fluoride applications were performed on 2,776 children. Sixty-six percent of children had active dental disease, 27 percent had visible tooth decay, and 6 percent required emergent care. Of the 623 students who participated for two consecutive years, 56 percent had fewer or no visible caries at follow-up, while only 17 percent had additional disease. Annual program cost was $69.57 per child. Using a broad based, oral health coalition, a school-based universal screening and fluoride varnishing program can improve the oral health of children with a high burden of untreated dental diseases. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  1. Physical and Mental Health Disparities among Young Children of Asian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine physical and mental health functioning among Asian-American children of US-born and immigrant parents. Study design We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 base-year public data file. The sample was restricted to 7726 Asian and US-born white children. Asian subgroups were created based on parents’ country of birth. Child physical and mental health was assessed based on multiple sources of data and measures. Analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results After adjusting for demographic and contextual differences, disparities were found for physical and mental health indicators. Children of foreign-born Asian families (from east, southeast, and south Asia) were at greater risk for poor physical health, internalizing problems, and inadequate interpersonal relationships compared with children of US-born white families. Conclusion There is little support for the “model minority” myth with regard to physical and mental health. Evidence of physical and mental health disparities among young Asian-American children and differing risk based on region of origin of immigrant parents suggests the need for culturally informed prevention efforts during early childhood. PMID:21907351

  2. Physical and mental health disparities among young children of Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-02-01

    To examine physical and mental health functioning among Asian-American children of US-born and immigrant parents. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 base-year public data file. The sample was restricted to 7726 Asian and US-born white children. Asian subgroups were created based on parents' country of birth. Child physical and mental health was assessed based on multiple sources of data and measures. Analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression. After adjusting for demographic and contextual differences, disparities were found for physical and mental health indicators. Children of foreign-born Asian families (from east, southeast, and south Asia) were at greater risk for poor physical health, internalizing problems, and inadequate interpersonal relationships compared with children of US-born white families. There is little support for the "model minority" myth with regard to physical and mental health. Evidence of physical and mental health disparities among young Asian-American children and differing risk based on region of origin of immigrant parents suggests the need for culturally informed prevention efforts during early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Illuminating cancer health disparities using ethnogenetic layering (EL) and phenotype segregation network analysis (PSNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fatimah L C

    2006-01-01

    Resolving cancer health disparities continues to befuddle simplistic racial models. The racial groups alluded to in biomedicine, public health, and epidemiology are often profoundly substructured. EL and PSNA are computational assisted techniques that focus on microethnic group (MEG) substructure. Geographical variations in cancer may be due to differences in MEG ancestry or similar environmental exposures to a recognized carcinogen. Examples include breast and prostate cancers in the Chesapeake Bay region and Bight of Biafra biological ancestry, hypertension and stroke in the Carolina Coast region and Central African biological ancestry, and pancreatic cancer in the Mississippi Delta region and dietary/medicinal exposure to safrol from Sassafras albidum.

  4. Disparities in HPV and Cervical Cancer Screening between Highly Educated White and Minority Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennefield, Zinobia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has been conducted to determine the impact that education has on health behaviors; specifically, comparisons between highly educated and less educated groups. However, little research has been done on the racial variation among highly educated women. Purpose: This research examined the racial variation in the relationship…

  5. The influence of active coping and perceived stress on health disparities in a multi-ethnic low income sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar Scott L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has shown that ethnic health disparities are prevalent and many psychological and social factors influence health disparities. Understanding what factors influence health disparities and how to eliminate health disparities has become a major research objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of coping style, stress, socioeconomic status (SES, and discrimination on health disparities in a large urban multi-ethnic sample. Methods Data from 894 participants were collected via telephone interviews. Independent variables included: coping style, SES, sex, perceived stress, and perceived discrimination. Dependent variables included self-rated general and oral health status. Data analysis included multiple linear regression modeling. Results Coping style was related to oral health for Blacks (B = .23, p Conclusion Our results indicate that perceived stress is a critical component in understanding health outcomes for all ethnoracial groups. While SES related significantly to general health for Whites and Hispanics, this relationship was mediated by perceived stress. Active coping was associated only with oral health.

  6. Disparities in health insurance among children with same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine disparities in health insurance coverage for children with same-sex parents and to investigate how statewide policies such as same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions affect children's private insurance coverage. We used data from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey to identify children (aged 0-17 years) with same-sex parents (n = 5081), married opposite-sex parents (n = 1369789), and unmarried opposite-sex parents (n = 101678). We conducted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the relationship between family type and type of health insurance coverage for all children and then stratified by each child's state policy environment. Although 77.5% of children with married opposite-sex parents had private health insurance, only 63.3% of children with dual fathers and 67.5% with dual mothers were covered by private health plans. Children with same-sex parents had fewer odds of private insurance after controlling for demographic characteristics but not to the extent of children with unmarried opposite-sex parents. Differences in private insurance diminished for children with dual mothers after stratifying children in states with legal same-sex marriage or civil unions. Living in a state that allowed second-parent adoptions also predicted narrower disparities in private insurance coverage for children with dual fathers or dual mothers. Disparities in private health insurance for children with same-sex parents diminish when they live in states that secure their legal relationship to both parents. This study provides supporting evidence in favor of recent policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatricians endorsing same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions.

  7. Self-esteem and socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, David

    2009-01-01

    To determine if psychosocial factors explain the socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health that persist after controlling for oral status variables. Data came from the participants in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2003 who were residents in the city of Toronto. Oral health variables included self-rated oral health, a 13-item oral health scale, denture wearing, and having a tooth extracted in the previous year. The last two measures were regarded as proxy indicators of tooth loss. Psychosocial variables included a self-esteem scale, a depression scale, and single items measuring life satisfaction, life stress, and sense of cohesion. Socioeconomic status was assessed using total annual household income. Interviews were completed with 2,754 dentate persons aged 20 years and over. Bivariate analyses confirmed that there were income gradients in self-rated oral health and scores on the oral health scale. Linear regression analyses confirmed that these persisted after controlling for age, gender, denture wearing, and having a tooth extracted in the previous year. In the model predicting self-rated oral health self-esteem, life satisfaction, stress, a sense of cohesion, and depression also contributed to the model, increased its explanatory power, and reduced the strength of but did not eliminate the association between income and self-rated oral health. Broadly, similar results were obtained when the oral health scale score was used as the dependent variable. In both analyses and all models, denture wearing had the strongest and most enduring effect. Psychosocial factors partly but do not wholly explain the socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health in this population after controlling for tooth loss and denture wearing. Other variables need to be added to the models to increase their explanatory power.

  8. Racial and ethnic health disparities: evidence of discrimination's effects across the SEP spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Ponce, Ninez A; Siegel, Judith M

    2010-04-01

    Perceived discrimination is a psychosocial stressor that plays a role in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported physical and mental health. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to investigate the association between perceived discrimination in receiving healthcare and racial/ethnic disparities in self-rated health status, physical, and emotional functional limitations among a diverse sample of California adults; (2) to assess whether discrimination effects vary by racial/ethnic group and gender; and (3) to evaluate how the effects of discrimination on health are manifest across the socioeconomic position (SEP) spectrum. Data were drawn from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey adult file (n=55,428). The analytic approach employed multivariate linear and logistic regressions. Discrimination is qualitatively identified into two types: (1) discrimination due to race/ethnicity, language, or accent, and (2) other discrimination. Findings show that both types of discrimination negatively influenced self-rated health, and were associated with a two to three-fold odds of limitations in physical and emotional health. Further, these effects varied by racial/ethnic group and gender, and the effects were mixed. Most notably, for emotional health, racial/ethnic discrimination penalized Latinas more than non-Latina Whites, but for physical health, other discrimination was less detrimental to Latinas than it was to non-Latina Whites. At higher levels of SEP, the effects of racial/ethnic discrimination on self-rated health and other discriminations' effects on physical health were attenuated. Higher SEP may serve as an important mitigator, particularly when comparing the medium to the low SEP categories. It is also possible that SEP effects cannot be extracted from the relationships of interest in that SEP is an expression of social discrimination. In fact, negative health effects associated with discrimination are evident across the SEP spectrum. This study

  9. Confronting inequities: A scoping review of the literature on pharmacist practice and health-related disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Lisa M; Rosenthal, Meagen; Sharpe, Jane Pearson; Waite, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    An expanding body of literature is exploring the presence and impact of health and health care disparities among marginalized populations. This research challenges policy makers, health professionals, and scholars to examine how unjust and avoidable inequities are created at the societal, institutional, and individual level, and explore strategies for mitigating challenges. Recognizing the significance of this broader conversation, this scoping review provides an overview of pharmacy-specific research attentive to health-related disparities. Following Arksey and O'Malley's framework, a rigorous screening process yielded 93 peer-reviewed and 23 grey literature articles, each analyzed for core themes. Lending critical insight to how pharmacy practice researchers are conceptualizing and measuring health inequities, this review highlights three paths of inquiry evident across this literature, including research focused on what pharmacists know about marginalized groups, how pharmacists perceive these groups, and how they provide services. Striving to drive research and practice forward, this review details research gaps and opportunities, including a need to expand the scope of research and integrate knowledge. As pharmacists endeavor to provide equitable and impactful patient care, it is essential to understand challenges, and build strong evidence for meaningful action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Discrimination, harassment, abuse, and bullying in the workplace: contribution of workplace injustice to occupational health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Souza, Kerry; Davis, Kelly D; de Castro, A Butch

    2014-05-01

    This paper synthesizes research on the contribution of workplace injustices to occupational health disparities. We conducted a broad review of research and other reports on the impact of workplace discrimination, harassment, and bullying on workers' health and on family and job outcomes. Members of demographic minority groups are more likely to be victims of workplace injustice and suffer more adverse outcomes when exposed to workplace injustice compared to demographic majority groups. A growing body of research links workplace injustice to poor psychological and physical health, and a smaller body of evidence links workplace injustice to unhealthy behaviors. Although not as well studied, studies show that workplace injustice can influence workers' health through effects on workers' family life and job-related outcomes. Injustice is a key contributor to occupational health injustice and prospective studies with oversample of disadvantaged workers and refinement of methods for characterizing workplace injustices are needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cancer, culture, and health disparities: time to chart a new course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Dadia, Annalyn Valdez; Yu, Mimi C; Surbone, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    Little progress has been made over the last 40 years to eliminate the racial/ethnic differences in incidence, morbidity, avoidable suffering, and mortality from cancer that result from factors beyond genetic differences. More effective strategies to promote equity in access and quality care are urgently needed because the changing demographics of the United States portend that this disparity will not only persist but significantly increase. Such suffering is avoidable. The authors posit that culture is a prime factor in the persistence of health disparities. However, this concept of culture is still poorly understood, inconsistently defined, and ineffectively used in practice and research. The role of culture in the causal pathway of disparities and the potential impact of culturally competent cancer care on improving cancer outcomes in ethnic minorities has, thus, been underestimated. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive definition of culture and demonstrate how it can be used at each stage of the cancer care continuum to help reduce the unequal burden of cancer. The authors conclude with suggestions for clinical practice to eliminate the disconnection between evidence-based, quality, cancer care and its delivery to diverse population groups.

  12. Growing partners: building a community-academic partnership to address health disparities in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Molly; Kearney, William; Smith, Tosha; Jones, Carson; Kearney-Powell, Arconstar; Ammerman, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) holds tremendous promise for addressing public health disparities. As such, there is a need for academic institutions to build lasting partnerships with community organizations. Herein we have described the process of establishing a relationship between a research university and a Black church in rural North Carolina. We then discuss Harvest of Hope, the church-based pilot garden project that emerged from that partnership. The partnership began with a third-party effort to connect research universities with Black churches to address health disparities. Building this academic-community partnership included collaborating to determine research questions and programming priorities. Other aspects of the partnership included applying for funding together and building consensus on study budget and aims. The academic partners were responsible for administrative details and the community partners led programming and were largely responsible for participant recruitment. The community and academic partners collaborated to design and implement Harvest of Hope, a church-based pilot garden project involving 44 youth and adults. Community and academic partners shared responsibility for study design, recruitment, programming, and reporting of results. The successful operation of the Harvest of Hope project gave rise to a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study, Faith, Farming and the Future (F3) involving 4 churches and 60 youth. Both projects were CBPR efforts to improve healthy food access and reducing chronic disease. This partnership continues to expand as we develop additional CBPR projects targeting physical activity, healthy eating, and environmental justice, among others. Benefits of the partnership include increased community ownership and cultural appropriateness of interventions. Challenges include managing expectations of diverse parties and adequate communication. Lessons learned and strategies for building

  13. Rural–Urban Disparity in Students’ Academic Performance in Visual Arts Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural–urban disparity in economic and social development in Ghana has led to disparities in educational resources and variations in students’ achievement in different parts of the country. Nonetheless, senior high schools (SHSs in rural and urban schools follow the same curriculum, and their students write the same West Africa Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE, which qualifies them to access higher education in Ghana’s public universities. Urban SHSs are also recognized nationwide as good schools where students make it to university. Moreover, performance patterns with regard to admission of SHS graduates into university also vary between rural and urban schools; consequently, some parents do everything to get their children in urban SHSs, even consenting to placement in visual arts, a program deemed appropriate only for academically weak students. This study therefore adopted the qualitative-quantitative research approach with interview, observation, and questionnaire administration to investigate the critical factors that affect academic performance of SHS students, particularly those in visual arts as case study. Findings from six public SHSs in Kumasi—two each in rural, peri-urban, and urban areas—revealed that urban schools perform better than rural and peri-urban schools because they attract and admit junior high school graduates with excellent Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE grades, have better infrastructure, more qualified teachers, prestigious names, and character that motivate their students to do well. This suggests that bridging the rural–urban gap in educational resources could promote quality teaching and learning, and thereby raise academic achievement for SHS students in Ghana.

  14. Health Disparities by Income in Spain Before and After the Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Max; García-Gómez, Pilar; Van Doorslaer, Eddy; Van Ourti, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about how health disparities by income change during times of economic crisis. We apply a decomposition method to unravel the contributions of income growth, income inequality and differential income mobility across socio-demographic groups to changes in health disparities by income in Spain using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Living Conditions for the period 2004-2012. We find a modest rise in health inequality by income in Spain in the 5 years of economic growth prior to the start of the crisis in 2008, but a sharp fall after 2008. The drop mainly derives from the fact that loss of employment and earnings has disproportionately affected the incomes of the younger and healthier groups rather than the (mainly stable pension) incomes of the groups over 65 years. This suggests that unequal distribution of income protection by age may reduce health inequality in the short run after an economic recession. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Psychosocial Effects of Health Disparities of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Andraya; Arms, Tamatha

    2015-07-01

    The 1.5 million older adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) are expected to double in number by 2030. Research suggests that health disparities are closely linked with societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of civil and human rights. More LGBT older adults struggle with depression, substance abuse, social isolation, and acceptance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Despite individual preferences, most health care providers recognize the right of any individual to have access to basic medical services. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requires that all hospitals receiving funds from Medicare and Medicaid respect visitation and medical decision-making rights to all individuals identifying as LGBT. The Joint Commission also requires a non-discrimination statement for accreditation. The current literature review examines LGBT health disparities and the consequential psychosocial impact on LGBT older adults as well as brings awareness to the needs of this underserved and underrepresented population. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Evidence for Policy Making: Health Services Access and Regional Disparities in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Anjomshoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Health indices, regarding to their role in the development of society, are one of the most important indices at national level. Success of national development programs is largely dependent on the establishment of appropriate goals at the health sector, among which access to healthcare facilities is an essential requirement. The aim of this study was to examine the disparities in health services access across the Kerman province. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Study sample included the cities of Kerman province, ranked based on 15 health indices. Data was collected from statistical yearbook. The indices were weighted using Shannon entropy, then using the TOPSIS technique and the result were classified into three categories in terms of the level of development across towns. Results: The findings showed distinct regional disparities in health services across Kerman province and the significant difference was observed between the cities in terms of development. Shannon entropy introduced the number of pharmacologist per 10 thousand people as the most important indicator and the number of rural active health center per 1000 people as the less important indicator. According to TOPSIS, Kerman town (0.719 and Fahraj (0.1151 ranked the first and last in terms of access to health services respectively. Conclusion: There are significant differences between cities of Kerman province in terms of access to health care facilities and services. Therefore, it is recommended that officials and policy-makers determine resource allocation priorities according to the degree of development for a balanced and equitable distribution of health care facilities.

  17. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, is Chair and Associate Professor in the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Dr. McNeill's research is on the elimination of cancer-related health disparities in minority populations. Her research has particular emphasis on understanding the influence of social contextual determinants of cancer in minorities, with a special focus of the role of physical activity as a key preventive behavior and obesity as a major cancer determinant. Her research takes place in minority and underserved communities such as public housing developments, black churches, community-based clinics and low-income neighborhoods-communities with excess cancer death rates. She has been continuously funded, receiving grants from various funding agencies (i.e., National Institutes of Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, etc.), to better understand and design innovative solutions to address obesity in racial/ethnic minority communities. Dr. McNeill is PI of several community-based studies, primarily working with African American churches. One is a called Project CHURCH, an academic-faith-based partnership established to: 1) identify underlying reasons for health disparities in cancer and cancer risk factors (e.g., screening, diet) among AAs using a cohort study (N=2400), 2) engage AAs as partners in the research process, and 3) to ultimately eliminate disparities among AAs. In 2014 Dr. McNeill furthered her partnership through the Faith, Health, and Family (FHF) Collaborative. The goals of FHF are to enhance the Project CHURCH partnership to address family obesity in African Americans, strengthen the partnership by developing a larger coalition of organizations and stakeholders to address the problem, assess church and community interest in family obesity and develop an agenda to address obesity in faith settings. To date we have 50 churches as members. Dr. McNeill is also director of the Center for Community

  18. Model-based analyses to compare health and economic outcomes of cancer control: inclusion of disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Sue J; Daniels, Norman

    2011-09-21

    Disease simulation models of the health and economic consequences of different prevention and treatment strategies can guide policy decisions about cancer control. However, models that also consider health disparities can identify strategies that improve both population health and its equitable distribution. We devised a typology of cancer disparities that considers types of inequalities among black, white, and Hispanic populations across different cancers and characteristics important for near-term policy discussions. We illustrated the typology in the specific example of cervical cancer using an existing disease simulation model calibrated to clinical, epidemiological, and cost data for the United States. We calculated average reduction in cancer incidence overall and for black, white, and Hispanic women under five different prevention strategies (Strategies A1, A2, A3, B, and C) and estimated average costs and life expectancy per woman, and the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy. Strategies that may provide greater aggregate health benefit than existing options may also exacerbate disparities. Combining human papillomavirus vaccination (Strategy A2) with current cervical cancer screening patterns (Strategy A1) resulted in an average reduction of 69% in cancer incidence overall but a 71.6% reduction for white women, 68.3% for black women, and 63.9% for Hispanic women. Other strategies targeting risk-based screening to racial and ethnic minorities reduced disparities among racial subgroups and resulted in more equitable distribution of benefits among subgroups (reduction in cervical cancer incidence, white vs. Hispanic women, 69.7% vs. 70.1%). Strategies that employ targeted risk-based screening and new screening algorithms, with or without vaccination (Strategies B and C), provide excellent value. The most effective strategy (Strategy C) had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $28,200 per year of life saved when compared with the same strategy without

  19. Advocacy and Awareness: Integrating LGBTQ Health Education Into the Prelicensure Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiel, Paula L; Elertson, Kathleen M

    2018-05-01

    An identified gap in the curriculum related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) health needs prompted nursing faculty to implement a collaborative educational offering. LGBTQ individuals experience significant health disparities, compared with heterosexual counterparts. Enhancing established LGBTQ population-specific training to highlight health disparities and awareness of special health care needs was piloted with two clinical groups of senior baccalaureate nursing students (N = 16). Didactic, simulated, and panel discussion related to LGBTQ terminology, current health standards of care, and the importance of advocacy was provided by campus advocates, experienced health care providers, and a student panel identifying as LGBTQ. Health specific learning outcomes were established and evaluated. Posteducation, anonymous surveys, and journaling were completed. Survey respondents (n = 13) reported increased awareness and understanding of health disparities specific to the LGBTQ population. LGBTQ-specific health education has been implemented as a permanent curriculum change. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(5):312-314.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Income Disparities in the Use of Health Screening Services Among University Students in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Soojin; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Public health insurance coverage for preventive care in young adults is incomplete in Korea. Few studies have focused on young adults’ socioeconomic disparities in preventive care utilization. We aimed to explore household income disparities in the use of different types of health screening services among university students in Korea. This cross-sectional study used a web-based self-administered survey of students at a university in Korea from January to February 2013. To examine the associations between household income levels and health screening service use within the past 2 years, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for various covariables. Of 2479 participants, 45.5% reported using health screening services within 2 years (university-provided screening 32.9%, private sector screening 16.7%, and both 4.1%). Household income levels were not significantly associated with overall rates of health screening service use with a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) in the lowest versus highest income group of 1.12 (0.87–1.45, Ptrend = 0.35). However, we found significantly different associations in specific types of utilized screening services by household income levels. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of university-provided health screening service use in the lowest versus highest income level was 1.74 (1.30–2.34; Ptrend income level was 0.45 (0.31–0.66; Ptrend income groups among university students in Korea, although overall rates of health screening service use were similar across income levels. Low-income students were more likely to use university-provided health screening services, and less likely to use private sector screening services. To ensure appropriate preventive care delivery for young adults and to address disparities in disadvantaged groups, the expansion of medical insurance coverage for preventive health care, establishment of a usual source of

  1. Getting Under the Skin: Children's Health Disparities as Embodiment of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Schneider, Eric B; Kane, Jennifer B; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Jones-Smith, Jessica; King, Katherine; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Grzywacz, Joseph G

    2017-10-01

    Social class gradients in children's health and development are ubiquitous across time and geography. The authors develop a conceptual framework relating three actions of class-material allocation, salient group identity, and inter-group conflict-to the reproduction of class-based disparities in child health. A core proposition is that the actions of class stratification create variation in children's mesosystems and microsystems in distinct locations in the ecology of everyday life. Variation in mesosystems (e.g., health care, neighborhoods) and microsystems (e.g., family structure, housing) become manifest in a wide variety of specific experiences and environments that produce the behavioral and biological antecedents to health and disease among children. The framework is explored via a review of theoretical and empirical contributions from multiple disciplines and high-priority areas for future research are highlighted.

  2. Assimilation and emerging health disparities among new generations of U.S. children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hamilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that the prevalence of four common child health conditions increases across generations (from first-generation immigrant children to second-generation U.S.-born children of immigrants to third-and-higher-generation children within each of four major U.S. racial/ethnic groups. In the third-plus generation, black and Hispanic children have higher rates of nearly all conditions. Health care, socioeconomic status, parents' health, social support, and neighborhood conditions influence child health and help explain third-and-higher-generation racial/ethnic disparities. However, these factors do not explain the generational pattern. The generational pattern may reflect cohort changes, selective ethnic attrition, unhealthy assimilation, or changing responses to survey questions among immigrant groups.

  3. Assessing the contribution of the dental care delivery system to oral health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Andersen, Ronald M; Marcus, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies of disparities in access to oral health care for underserved populations often focus on supply measures such as number of dentists. This approach overlooks the importance of other aspects of the dental care delivery system, such as personal and practice characteristics of dentists, that determine the capacity to provide care. This study aims to assess the role of such characteristics in access to care of underserved populations. We merged data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey and a 2003 survey of California dentists in their Medical Study Service Areas (MSSAs). We examined the role of overall supply and other characteristics of dentists in income and racial/ethnic disparities in access, which was measured by annual dental visits and unmet need for dental care due to costs. We found that some characteristics of MSSAs, including higher proportions of dentists who were older, white, busy or overworked, and did not accept public insurance or discounted fees, inhibited access for low-income and minority populations. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring characteristics of dentists in addition to traditional measures of supply such as licensed-dentist-to-population ratios. The findings identify specific aspects of the delivery system such as dentists' participation in Medicaid, provision of discounted care, busyness, age, race/ethnicity, and gender that should be regularly monitored. These data will provide a better understanding of how the dental care delivery system is organized and how this knowledge can be used to develop more narrowly targeted policies to alleviate disparities. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. FROM BIAS TO BISEXUAL HEALTH DISPARITIES: ATTITUDES TOWARD BISEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M Reuel; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Hubach, Randolph; Bowling, Jessamyn; Goncalves, Gabriel; Krier, Sarah; Reece, Michael

    2014-12-01

    A newly emergent literature suggest that bisexual men and women face profound health disparities in comparison to both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Additionally, bisexual individuals often experience prejudice, stigma, and discrimination from both gay/lesbian and straight communities, termed "biphobia." However, only limited research exists that empirically tests the extent and predictors of this double discrimination. The Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Survey (BIAS) was developed to test associations between biphobia and sexual identity. Using standard techniques, we developed and administered a scale to a purposive online sample of adults from a wide range of social networking websites. We conducted exploratory factor analysis to refine scales assessing attitudes toward bisexual men and bisexual women, respectively. Using generalized linear modeling, we assessed relationships between BIAS scores and sexual identity, adjusting for covariates. Two separately gendered scales were developed, administered, and refined: BIAS-m (n=645), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual men; and BIAS-f (n=631), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual women. Across scales, sexual identity significantly predicted response variance. Lesbian/gay respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their heterosexual counterparts (all p-values stereotypes and stigma may lead to dramatic disparities in depression, anxiety, stress, and other health outcomes among bisexual individuals in comparison to their heterosexual and homosexual counterparts. Our results yield valuable data for informing social awareness and intervention efforts that aim to decrease bi-negative attitudes within both straight and gay/lesbian communities, with the ultimate goal of alleviating health disparities among bisexual men and women.

  5. Regional disparities in child mortality within China 1996-2004: epidemiological profile and health care coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing Lin; Guo, Sufang; Yang, Qing; Xu, Ling; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Yan

    2011-07-01

    China was one of the 68 "countdown" countries prioritized to attain Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4). The aim of this study was to analyze data on child survival and health care coverage of proven cost-effective interventions in China, with a focus on national disparities. National maternal and child mortality surveillance data were used to estimate child mortality. Coverage for proven interventions was analyzed based on data from the National Health Services Survey, National Nutrition and Health Survey, and National Immunization Survey. Consultations and qualitative field observations by experts were used to complement the Survey data. Analysis of the data revealed a significant reduction in the overall under-5 (U5) child mortality rate in China from 1996 to 2007, but also great regional disparities, with the risk of child mortality in rural areas II-IV being two- to sixfold higher than that in urban areas. Rural areas II-IV also accounted for approximately 80% of the mortality burden. More than 60% of child mortality occurred during the neonatal period, with 70% of this occurring during the first week of life. The leading causes of neonatal mortality were asphyxia at birth and premature birth; during the post-neonatal period, these were diarrhea and pneumonia, especially in less developed rural areas. Utilization of health care services in terms of both quantity and quality was positively correlated with the region's development level. A large proportion of children were affected by inadequate feeding, and the lack of safe water and essential sanitary facilities are vital indirect factors contributing to the increase in child mortality. The simulation analysis revealed that increasing access to and the quality of the most effective interventions combined with relatively low costs in the context of a comprehensive approach has the potential to reduce U5 deaths by 34%. China is on track to meet MDG 4; however, great disparities in health care do exist within

  6. Using health information technology to engage communities in health, education, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Lisa K; Nelson, David A; Allen, Shauntice; Calhoun, Karen; Eldredge, Christina E; Kimminau, Kim S; Lucero, Robert J; Pineda-Reyes, Fernando; Rumala, Bernice B; Varanasi, Arti P; Wasser, June S; Shannon, Jackilen

    2012-02-01

    The August 2011 Clinical and Translational Science Awards conference "Using IT to Improve Community Health: How Health Care Reform Supports Innovation" convened four "Think Tank" sessions. Thirty individuals, representing various perspectives on community engagement, attended the "Health information technology (HIT) as a resource to improve community health and education" session, which focused on using HIT to improve patient health, education, and research involvement. Participants discussed a range of topics using a semistructured format. This article describes themes and lessons that emerged from that session, with a particular focus on using HIT to engage communities to improve health and reduce health disparities in populations.

  7. Protective Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ganime

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: As a result of wars, starvation, traffic accidents, homicide, infectious diseases, insufficient adult protection, migration, and inadequate legal reforms the mortality rate of children has become a serious problem in the world. Protective health education contributes to a child's physical and social health. In this case, the…

  8. Does mental health history explain gender disparities in insomnia symptoms among young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Lauren; Do, D Phuong; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Heron, Melonie; Finch, Brian K; Dubowitz, Tamara; Lurie, Nicole; Bird, Chloe E

    2009-12-01

    Insomnia is the most commonly reported sleep disorder, characterized by trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early. Previous epidemiological data reveal that women are more likely than men to suffer from insomnia symptoms. We investigate the role that mental health history plays in explaining the gender disparity in insomnia symptoms. Using logistic regression, we analyze National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III interview and laboratory data, merged with data on sociodemographic characteristics of the residential census tract of respondents. Our sample includes 5469 young adults (ages 20-39) from 1429 census tracts. Consistent with previous research, we find that women are more likely to report insomnia symptoms compared to men (16.7% vs. 9.2%). However, in contrast to previous work, we show that the difference between women's and men's odds of insomnia becomes statistically insignificant after adjusting for history of mental health conditions (OR=1.08, p>.05). The gender disparity in insomnia symptoms may be driven by higher prevalence of affective disorders among women. This finding has implications for clinical treatment of both insomnia and depression, especially among women.

  9. Urban poverty and infant-health disparities among African Americans and whites in Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Rainge, Yolanda

    2002-06-01

    This study examined neighborhood and infant health disparities between African-American and white mothers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Census-block data were used for 1990 and Vital Statistics data were used for 1992 through 1994. African-American mothers lived in less desirable, more segregated neighborhoods than white mothers did in 1990. African-American infant and neonatal mortality rates were twice those of whites (2.3 and 2.0, respectively), while African-American postneonatal mortality rates were three times that of whites (3.0). African-American low and very low birth weight rates were more than twice those of whites (2.5 and 2.6, respectively). All African-American mothers were nearly eight times as likely as all white mothers to have inadequate prenatal care, whereas poor African-American mothers were three times as likely to have inadequate prenatal care as were poor white mothers. Public health experts and practitioners may want to consider the communities of minority patients to devise interventions suitable for addressing health disparities.

  10. Impact of rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2007-01-01

    By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  11. Disparities in quality of cancer care: The role of health insurance and population demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh-Patel, Arti; Morris, Cyllene R; Kizer, Kenneth W

    2017-12-01

    Escalating costs and concerns about quality of cancer care have increased calls for quality measurement and performance accountability for providers and health plans. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to assess variability in the quality of cancer care by health insurance type in California.Persons with breast, ovary, endometrium, cervix, colon, lung, or gastric cancer during the period 2004 to 2014 were identified in the California Cancer Registry. Individuals were stratified into 5 health insurance categories: private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, dual Medicare and Medicaid eligible, and uninsured. Quality of care was evaluated using Commission on Cancer quality measures. Logistic regression models were generated to assess the independent effect of health insurance type on stage at diagnosis, quality of care and survival after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES).A total of 763,884 cancer cases were evaluated. Individuals with Medicaid or Medicare-Medicaid dual-eligible coverage and the uninsured had significantly lower odds of receiving recommended radiation and/or chemotherapy after diagnosis or surgery for breast, endometrial, and colon cancer, relative to those with private insurance. Dual eligible patients with gastric cancer had 21% lower odds of having the recommended number of lymph nodes removed and examined compared to privately insured patients.After adjusting for known demographic confounders, substantial and consistent disparities in quality of cancer care exist according to type of health insurance in California. Further study is needed to identify particular factors and mechanisms underlying the identified treatment disparities across sources of health insurance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Are socioeconomic disparities in health behavior mediated by differential media use? Test of the communication inequality theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Naoki; Kawachi, Ichiro; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2016-11-01

    Communication inequality has been offered as one potential mechanism through which social determinants influence multiple health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying mechanisms between communication inequality and health behaviors. Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 18,426 people aged 18 years and above in the United States were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, social participation (structural social capital), health media use (TV, print, and the Internet), and five health behaviors (physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and intake of fruit and vegetable). Path analysis was performed to examine the linkages between social determinants, health media use, social participation, and social gradients in health behaviors. Path analysis revealed that socioeconomic gradients in health behaviors is mediated by: 1) inequalities in health media use; 2) disparities in social participation, which leads to differential media use; and 3) disparities in social participation that are not mediated by media use. Consistent with the theory of communication inequality, socioeconomic disparities in media use partially mediate disparities in multiple health behaviors. To address health inequalities, it is important to utilize health media to target populations with low socioeconomic statuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethnic Disparities in Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Adults in London, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, R; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Gallagher, J E; Bernabé, E

    2017-06-01

    To explore ethnic disparities in oral health related quality of life (OHQoL) among adults, and the role that socioeconomic factors play in that association. Data from 705 adults from a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London (England) were analysed for this study. Ethnicity was self-assigned based on the 2001 UK Census categories. OHQoL was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which provides information on the prevalence, extent and intensity of oral impacts on quality of life in the previous 12 months. Ethnic disparities were assessed in logistic regression models for prevalence of oral impacts and negative binomial regression models for extent and intensity of oral impacts. The prevalence of oral impacts was 12.7% (95% CI: 10.2-15.1) and the mean OHIP-14 extent and severity scores were 0.27 (95% CI: 0.20-0.34) and 4.19 (95% CI: 3.74-4.64), respectively. Black adults showed greater and Asian adults lower prevalence, extent and severity of oral impacts than White adults. However, significant differences were only found for the extent of oral impacts; Black adults reporting more and Asian adults fewer OHIP-14 items affected than their White counterparts. After adjustments for socioeconomic factors, Asian adults had significantly fewer OHIP-14 items affected than White adults (rate ratio: 0.28; 95%CI: 0.08-0.94). This study found disparities in OHQoL between the three main ethnic groups in South East London. Asian adults had better and Black adults had similar OHQoL than White adults after accounting for demographic and social factors. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  14. Racial disparity: substance dependency and psychological health problems among welfare recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hines, Lisa D

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites. Ordinary least squares regression revealed that nicotine dependency is significantly related to the psychological distress of Whites. Alcohol dependency is significantly associated with the psychological distress of three groups. Culturally competent programs are suggested.

  15. The role of early-life educational quality and literacy in explaining racial disparities in cognition in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Shannon; Gross, Alden L; Shih, Regina A; Sachs, Bonnie C; Glymour, M Maria; Bangen, Katherine J; Benitez, Andreana; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2015-07-01

    Racial disparities in late-life cognition persist even after accounting for educational attainment. We examined whether early-life educational quality and literacy in later life help explain these disparities. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Educational quality (percent white students; urban/rural school; combined grades in classroom) was operationalized using canonical correlation analysis. Late-life literacy (reading comprehension and ability, writing) was operationalized using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined whether these factors attenuated race-related differences in late-life cognition. The sample consisted of 1,679 U.S.-born, non-Hispanic, community-living adults aged 65-102 (71% black, 29% white; 70% women). Accounting for educational quality and literacy reduced disparities by 29% for general cognitive functioning, 26% for memory, and 32% for executive functioning but did not predict differences in rate of cognitive change. Early-life educational quality and literacy in late life explain a substantial portion of race-related disparities in late-life cognitive function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Reducing the health disparities of Indigenous Australians: time to change focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-06-10

    Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of 'White', Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers' past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role 'Whiteness' plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised racism was manifest when Indigenous patients incorporated racist

  17. Reducing the health disparities of Indigenous Australians: time to change focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durey Angela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of ‘White’, Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Methods Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers’ past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Results Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role ‘Whiteness’ plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised

  18. Cigarette warning label policy alternatives and smoking-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Carpenter, Matthew J; Andrews, Jeannette O; Gray, Kevin M; Alberg, Anthony J; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-12-01

    Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, pinteractions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementation of Local Wellness Policies in Schools: Role of School Systems, School Health Councils, and Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Rubio, Diana S; Eidel, G Stewart; Penniston, Erin S; Lopes, Megan; Saksvig, Brit I; Fox, Renee E; Black, Maureen M

    2016-10-01

    Written local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated in school systems to enhance opportunities for healthy eating/activity. LWP effectiveness relies on school-level implementation. We examined factors associated with school-level LWP implementation. Hypothesized associations included system support for school-level implementation and having a school-level wellness team/school health council (SHC), with stronger associations among schools without disparity enrollment (majority African-American/Hispanic or low-income students). Online surveys were administered: 24 systems (support), 1349 schools (LWP implementation, perceived system support, SHC). The state provided school demographics. Analyses included multilevel multinomial logistic regression. Response rates were 100% (systems)/55.2% (schools). Among schools, 44.0% had SHCs, 22.6% majority (≥75%) African-American/Hispanic students, and 25.5% majority (≥75%) low-income (receiving free/reduced-price meals). LWP implementation (17-items) categorized as none = 36.3%, low (1-5 items) = 36.3%, high (6+ items) = 27.4%. In adjusted models, greater likelihood of LWP implementation was observed among schools with perceived system support (high versus none relative risk ratio, RRR = 1.63, CI: 1.49, 1.78; low versus none RRR = 1.26, CI: 1.18, 1.36) and SHCs (high versus none RRR = 6.8, CI: 4.07, 11.37; low versus none RRR = 2.24, CI: 1.48, 3.39). Disparity enrollment did not moderate associations (p > .05). Schools with perceived system support and SHCs had greater likelihood of LWP implementation, with no moderating effect of disparity enrollment. SHCs/support may overcome LWP implementation obstacles related to disparities. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  20. A Socio-Ecological Approach in Addressing Hearing Loss and Disparities in Access to Hearing Health Care Among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ingram

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in daily living activities. Access to hearing health care has broad implications for healthy aging of the U.S. population. This qualitative study investigated factors related to the socio-ecological domains of hearing health in a US-Mexico border community experiencing disparities in access to care. A multidisciplinary research team partnered with Community Health Workers (CHWs from a Federally Qualified Health Center in designing the study. CHWs conducted interviews with people with hearing loss (n=20 and focus groups with their family/friends (n=27 and with members of the community-at-large (n=47. The research team conducted interviews with FQHC providers and staff (n=12. Individuals experienced depression, sadness and social isolation, as well as frustration and even anger regarding communication. Family members experienced negative impacts of deteriorating communication, but expressed few coping strategies. There was general agreement across data sources that hearing loss was not routinely addressed within primary care and assistive hearing technology was generally unaffordable. Community members described stigma related to hearing loss and a need for greater access to hearing health care and broader community education. Findings confirm the causal sequence of hearing impairment on quality of life aggravated by socio-economic conditions and lack of access to hearing health care. Hearing loss requires a comprehensive and innovative public health response across the socio-ecological framework that includes both individual communication intervention and greater access to hearing health resources. Community health workers can be effective in tailoring intervention strategies to community characteristics.

  1. Stigmatized biologies: Examining the cumulative effects of oral health disparities for Mexican American farmworker children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C

    2010-06-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children's physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that the ECC of Mexican American farmworker children in the United States sets them up for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call "stigmatized biologies," and that of market-based dental public health insurance systems in cementing their enduring effects. We adapt Margaret Lock's term, local biology, to illustrate the way that biology differs not only because of culture, diet, and environment but also because of disparities in insurance coverage. By showing the long-term effects of ECC and disparate dental treatment on farmworker adults, we show how the interaction of immigrant caregiving practices and underinsurance can having lasting social effects. An examination of the long-term effects of farmworker children's ECC illustrates the ways that market-based health care systems can create embodied differences that in turn reproduce a system of social inequality.

  2. Localization and upregulation of survivin in cancer health disparities: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Salma Khan,1,2 Heather Ferguson Bennit,1,2 Malyn May Asuncion Valenzuela,1,2 David Turay,1,3 Carlos J Diaz Osterman,1,2 Ron B Moyron,1,2 Grace E Esebanmen,1,2 Arjun Ashok,1,2 Nathan R Wall1,2 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, 3Department of Anatomy, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA Abstract: Survivin is one of the most important members of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, as it is expressed in most human cancers but is absent in normal, differentiated tissues. Lending to its importance, survivin has proven associations with apoptosis and cell cycle control, and has more recently been shown to modulate the tumor microenvironment and immune evasion as a result of its extracellular localization. Upregulation of survivin has been found in many cancers including breast, prostate, pancreatic, and hematological malignancies, and it may prove to be associated with the advanced presentation, poorer prognosis, and lower survival rates observed in ethnically diverse populations. Keywords: survivin, cancer, exosomes, health disparity

  3. Determinants of health disparities: The perennial struggle against polio in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polio remains a global public health issue, and even though it has been eradicated from most countries of the world, countries like Nigeria, the largest black nation on earth, threatens the dream of total eradication of polio from the surface of the earth. Transmission of wild polio virus has never been eliminated in Nigeria, but even worse is the number of countries, both in Sub-Saharan Africa and all over the world that has become re-infected by polio virus strains from Northern Nigeria in recent past. Although a lot has been documented about the Nigerian polio struggle, one aspect that has received little attention on this issue is ethnic and geographic disparities between the Southern and the Northern parts of Nigeria. Understanding these disparities involved in polio virus transmission in Nigeria, as well as the social determinants of health prevalent in Northern Nigeria will help government and other stakeholders and policy makers to synergize their efforts in the fight against this perennial scourge.

  4. Human rights and health disparities for migrant workers in the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana

    2011-12-15

    Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. Copyright © 2011 Sonmez, Apostolopoulos, Tran, and Rentrope. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  5. Recruitment and Selection Strategies in Optometric Education towards Addressing Human Resource Disparities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, V. R.; Loughman, James; Naidoo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The dire need for eye care services and a dearth of human resources (HR) in sub-Saharan Africa motivated the setting up of new optometry programmes. However, to make a meaningful impact, geographical, gender, economic and educational disparities must additionally be addressed. A qualitative study utilizing purposive sampling to select academic…

  6. The Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Evidence From a National Survey and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-09-11

    The digital divide persists despite broad accessibility of mobile tools. The relationship between the digital divide and health disparities reflects social status in terms of access to resources and health outcomes; however, data on this relationship are limited from developing countries such as China. The aim of this study was to examine the current rates of access to mobile tools (Internet use and mobile phone ownership) among older Chinese individuals (aged ≥45 years), the predictors of access at individual and community levels, and the relationship between access to mobile tools and health outcomes. We drew cross-sectional data from a national representative survey, the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which focused on the older population (aged ≥45 years). We used two-level mixed logistic regression models, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity at the community and individual levels for data analysis. In addition to individual-level socioeconomic status (SES), we included community-level resources such as neighborhood amenities, health care facilities, and community organizations. Health outcomes were measured by self-reported health and absence of disability based on validated scales. Among the 18,215 participants, 6.51% had used the Internet in the past month, and 83% owned a mobile phone. In the multivariate models, Internet use was strongly associated with SES, rural or urban residence, neighborhood amenities, community resources, and geographic region. Mobile phone ownership was strongly associated with SES and rural/urban residence but not so much with neighborhood amenities and community resources. Internet use was a significant predictor of self-reported health status, and mobile phone ownership was significantly associated with having disability even after controlling for potential confounders at the individual and community levels. This study is one of the first to examine digital divide and its relationship with health

  7. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  8. Health disparities from economic burden of diabetes in middle-income countries: evidence from México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of diabetes in middle-income countries is generating disparities in global health. In this context we conducted a study to quantify the health disparities from the economic burden of diabetes in México. Evaluative research based on a longitudinal design, using cost methodology by instrumentation. For the estimation of epidemiological changes during the 2010-2012 period, several probabilistic models were developed using the Box-Jenkins technique. The financial requirements were obtained from expected case management costs by disease and the application of an econometric adjustment factor to control the effects of inflation. Comparing the economic impact in 2010 versus 2012 (p<0.05, there was a 33% increase in financial requirements. The total amount for diabetes in 2011 (US dollars was $7.7 billion. It includes $3.4 billion in direct costs and $4.3 in indirect costs. The total direct costs were $.4 billion to the Ministry of Health (SSA, serving the uninsured population; $1.2 to the institutions serving the insured population (Mexican Institute for Social Security-IMSS-, and Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers-ISSSTE-; $1.8 to users; and $.1 to Private Health Insurance (PHI. If the risk factors and the different health care models remain as they currently are in the analyzed institutions, health disparities in terms of financial implications will have the greatest impact on users' pockets. In middle-income countries, health disparities generated by the economic burden of diabetes is one of the main reasons for catastrophic health expenditure. Health disparities generated by the economic burden of diabetes suggests the need to design and review the current organization of health systems and the relevance of moving from biomedical models and curative health care to preventive and socio-medical models to meet expected challenges from diseases like diabetes in middle-income countries.

  9. Does female education explain the disparity in the use of antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health workers, parity, income, religion, age and distance. .... unadjusted and adjusted odd ratios from the regression .... preference to educate the male child, mal-distribution of schools .... about 34,000 and the proportionate to probability sam-.

  10. Disparities in Maternal Child and Health Outcomes Attributable to Prenatal Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Mary Katherine; Levy, David T

    2016-03-01

    Previous estimates of smoking-attributable adverse outcomes, such as preterm births (PTBs), low birth weight (LBW) and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDs) generally do not address disparities by maternal age, racial/ethnic group or socioeconomic status (SES). This study develops estimates of smoking-attributable PTB, LBW and SIDS for the US by age, SES and racial/ethnic groupings. Data on the number of births and the prevalence of PTB, LBW and SIDS were used to develop the number of outcomes by age, race/ethnicity, and SES. The prevalence of prenatal smoking by age, race/ethnic and education and the relative risk of outcomes for smokers were used to calculate smoking-attributable fractions of outcomes. Prenatal smoking among ages 15-24 is above 12 %, with 20-24 year olds representing at least 35 % of PTB, LBW SIDS cases. Women with a high school education or less represented more than 50 % of PTB and LBW births, and 44 % of SIDS cases. While non-Hispanic Whites had the majority of smoking-attributable outcomes, non-Hispanic Blacks represented a disproportionately high percentage of PTBs (18 %), LBW births (22 %), and SIDS cases (13 %). Reducing prenatal smoking has the potential to reduce adverse birth outcomes and costs with long-term implications, especially among the young, non-Hispanic Blacks and those of lower SES. Stricter tobacco control policies, especially higher cigarette taxes, higher minimum purchase ages for tobacco and improved cessation interventions can help reduce disparities and the cost to insurers, especially public costs through Medicaid.

  11. Racial/Ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in mental health in Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo Valdez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health issues are a rapidly increasing problem in the United States. Little is known about mental health and healthcare among Arizona’s Hispanic population.Methods: We assess differences in mental health service need, mental health diagnoses and illicit drug use among 7,578 White and Hispanic participants in the 2010 Arizona Health Survey. Results: Prevalence of mild, moderate, or severe psychological distress was negatively associated with SES among both Whites and Hispanics. Overall, Hispanics were less likely than Whites to have been diagnosed with a mental health condition; however, diagnosis rates were negatively associated with SES among both populations. Hispanics had considerably lower levels of lifetime illicit drug use than their White counterparts. Illicit drug use increased with SES among Hispanics but decreased with SES among Whites. After adjustment for relevant socio-demographic characteristics, multivariable linear regression suggested that Hispanics have significantly lower Kessler scores than Whites. These differences were largely explained by lower Kessler scores among non-English proficient Hispanics relative to English-speaking populations. Moreover, logistic regression suggests that Hispanics, the foreign born, and the non-English language proficient have lower odds of lifetime illicit drug use than Whites, the US born, and the English-language proficient, respectively. Conclusions: The unique social and political context in Arizona may have important but understudied effects on the physical and mental health of Hispanics. Our findings suggest mental health disparities between Arizona Whites and Hispanics, which should be addressed via culturally- and linguistically-tailored mental health care. More observational and intervention research is necessary to better understand the relationship between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, healthcare, and mental health in Arizona.

  12. Does place explain racial health disparities? Quantifying the contribution of residential context to the Black/white health gap in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D Phuong; Finch, Brian Karl; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Bird, Chloe; Escarce, Jose; Lurie, Nicole

    2008-10-01

    The persistence of the black health disadvantage has been a puzzling component of health in the United States in spite of general declines in rates of morbidity and mortality over the past century. Studies that have focused on well-established individual-level determinants of health such as socio-economic status and health behaviors have been unable to fully explain these disparities. Recent research has begun to focus on other factors such as racism, discrimination, and segregation. Variation in neighborhood context-socio-demographic composition, social aspects, and built environment-has been postulated as an additional explanation for racial disparities, but few attempts have been made to quantify its overall contribution to the black/white health gap. This analysis is an attempt to generate an estimate of place effects on explaining health disparities by utilizing data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1989-1994), combined with a methodology for identifying residents of the same blocks both within and across NHIS survey cross-sections. Our results indicate that controlling for a single point-in-time measure of residential context results in a roughly 15-76% reduction of the black/white disparities in self-rated health that were previously unaccounted for by individual-level controls. The contribution of residential context toward explaining the black/white self-rated health gap varies by both age and gender such that contextual explanations of disparities decline with age and appear to be smaller among females.

  13. Smoke-free environments: age, sex, and educational disparity in 25 Argentinean cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Veronica; Allemandi, Lorena; Ianovsky, Oscar; Lago, Manuel; Alderete, Mariela

    2012-10-01

    There is scarce evidence of secondhand smoke (SHS) and disparity in developing countries. We evaluated the relationship between socio-demographic variables and secondhand smoke-related factors in Argentina. We conducted a randomized telephone survey (2008/2009) in 25 Argentinean cities. We included a sample of 160 respondents per city stratified by sex and age. We used different generalized multivariate regression models with a confidence interval of 95 % for the five outcome variables. We sampled 4,000 respondents, 52.2 % women, 36 % adolescents and young adults (15-29 years), 58 % ≥12 years of education, and 72.6 % nonsmokers. Support to 100 % smoke-free environment legislation was higher in older than in younger respondents, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-2.0), and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Exposure to SHS was significantly lower in men than in women at home and in public places, IRR = 0.7 (IC: 0.5-0.9) and IRR  = 0.8 (IC: 0.6-0.9), respectively. Older respondents reported lower exposure at home and in public places than adolescents and young adults, IRR = 0.6 (IC: 0.4-0.8) and IRR = 0.4 (IC: 0.3-0.5), respectively. People with higher education levels had a higher level of exposure in indoor public places than less educated people, IRR = 1.1 (IC: 1.1-1.2). Knowledge of respiratory disease in children caused by SHS exposure was lower in men than in women, RRR = 0.3 (IC: 0.1-0.6). Perceived compliance was higher in men than in women, OR = 1.4 (IC: 1.1-1.8) and in people with higher education levels, OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.4). Older and more educated respondents were more empowered than. younger and less educated people, OR = 1.5 (IC: 1.2-1.9) and OR = 1.2 (IC: 1.1-1.3), respectively. Reference groups for each variable were age: 15-29; education: ≤7 years; and sex: men. This is the first study to explore socio-demographic variables regarding secondhand smoke in our country. Women and younger people are more

  14. Translating Life Course Theory to Clinical Practice to Address Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Life Course Theory (LCT) is a framework that explains health and disease across populations and over time and in a powerful way, conceptualizes health and health disparities to guide improvements. It suggests a need to change priorities and paradigms in our healthcare delivery system. In “Rethinking Maternal and Child Health: The Life Course Model as an Organizing Framework,” Fine and Kotelchuck identify three areas of rethinking that have relevance to clinical care: (1) recognition of context and the “whole-person, whole-family, whole-community systems approach;” (2) longitudinal approach with “greater emphasis on early (“upstream”) determinants of health”; and (3) need for integration and “developing integrated, multi-sector service systems that become lifelong “pipelines” for healthy development”. This paper discusses promising clinical practice innovations in these three areas: addressing social influences on health in clinical practice, longitudinal and vertical integration of clinical services and horizontal integration with community services and resources. In addition, barriers and facilitators to implementation are reviewed. PMID:23677685

  15. Health Disparities by Type of Disability: Health Examination Results of Adults (18-64 Years) with Disabilities in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qi; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jun; Yu, Huijiong

    2016-01-01

    There have been few studies on the disparities within the population with disabilities, especially in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in some health conditions among people with different types of disabilities in Shanghai. This study was conducted using data from the Shanghai Disabled Persons' Rehabilitation Comprehensive Information Platform. The records of 31,082 persons with disabilities who had undergone professional health examination were analyzed, and the prevalence and number of five diseases and five risk factors were examined. Logistic regression was used to explore disparities from two perspectives: 1) basic differences, unadjusted for other factors, and 2) differences after adjusting for key demographic covariates. A p-value disability had a high rate of refractive error (60.0%), and averaged 1.75 diseases of interest, which was the highest value among all disability types. The mean number of risk factors we measured was greatest (1.96) in the population with mental disability. There were significant differences (p types of disabilities remained after controlling for key demographic indicators. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between health conditions and disability types.

  16. Examining health literacy disparities in the United States: a third look at the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Rikard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, disparities in health literacy parallel disparities in health outcomes. Our research contributes to how diverse indicators of social inequalities (i.e., objective social class, relational social class, and social resources contribute to understanding disparities in health literacy. Methods We analyze data on respondents 18 years of age and older (N = 14,592 from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL restricted access data set. A series of weighted Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression models estimate the association between respondent’s demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES, relational social class, social resources and an Item Response Theory (IRT based health literacy measure. Results Our findings are consistent with previous research on the social and SES determinants of health literacy. However, our findings reveal the importance of relational social status for understanding health literacy disparities in the United States. Objective indicators of social status are persistent and robust indicators of health literacy. Measures of relational social status such as civic engagement (i.e., voting, volunteering, and library use are associated with higher health literacy levels net of objective resources. Social resources including speaking English and marital status are associated with higher health literacy levels. Conclusions Relational indicators of social class are related to health literacy independent of objective social class indicators. Civic literacy (e.g., voting and volunteering are predictors of health literacy and offer opportunities for health intervention. Our findings support the notion that health literacy is a social construct and suggest the need to develop a theoretically driven conceptual definition of health literacy that includes a civic literacy component.

  17. Disparities in Alcohol, Drug Use, and Mental Health Condition Prevalence and Access to Care in Rural, Isolated, and Reservation Areas: Findings From the South Dakota Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M; Spurlock, Margaret; Dulacki, Kristen; Meath, Thomas; Li, Hsin-Fang Grace; McCarty, Dennis; Warne, Donald; Wright, Bill; McConnell, K John

    2016-06-01

    Research on urban/rural disparities in alcohol, drug use, and mental health (ADM) conditions is inconsistent. This study describes ADM condition prevalence and access to care across diverse geographies in a predominantly rural state. Multimodal cross-sectional survey in South Dakota from November 2013 to October 2014, with oversampling in rural areas and American Indian reservations. Measures assessed demographic characteristics, ADM condition prevalence using clinical screenings and participant self-report, perceived need for treatment, health service usage, and barriers to obtaining care. We tested for differences among urban, rural, isolated, and reservation geographic areas, controlling for participant age and gender. We analyzed 7,675 surveys (48% response rate). Generally, ADM condition prevalence rates were not significantly different across geographies. However, respondents in isolated and reservation areas were significantly less likely to have access to primary care. Knowledge of treatment options was significantly lower in isolated regions and individuals in reservation areas had significantly lower odds of reporting receipt of all needed care. Across the sample there was substantial discordance between ADM clinical screenings and participant self-reported need; 98.1% of respondents who screened positive for alcohol or drug misuse and 63.8% of respondents who screened positive for a mental health condition did not perceive a need for care. In a predominantly rural state, geographic disparities in ADM conditions are related to differences in access as opposed to prevalence, particularly for individuals in isolated and reservation areas. Educational interventions about ADM condition characteristics may be as important as improving access to care. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  18. Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic oral health disparities among US older adults: oral health quality of life and dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Deborah L; Park, Mijung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine if older adults living in poverty and from minority racial/ethnic groups experienced disproportionately high rates of poor oral health outcomes measured by oral health quality of life (OHQOL) and number of permanent teeth. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,745 community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. Oral health outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using the NHANES-Oral Health Impact Profile for OHQOL and standardized examination for dentition. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between oral health outcomes and predictors of interest. All analyses were weighted to account for complex survey sampling methods. Both poverty and minority race/ethnicity were significantly associated with poor oral health outcomes in OHQOL and number of permanent teeth. Distribution of scores for each OHQOL domain varied by minority racial/ethnic group. Oral health disparities persist in older adults living in poverty and among those from minority racial/ethnic groups. The racial/ethnic variation in OHQOL domains should be further examined to develop interventions to improve the oral health of these groups. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care: an Assessment and Analysis of the Awareness and Perceptions of Public Health Workers Implementing a Statewide Community Transformation Grant in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Oladimeji; Ottenbacher, Allison; Martin, Marcus; Harrison, Roderick; James, Thomas; Martin, Eddilisa; Murdoch, James; Linnear, Kim; Cardarelli, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the awareness of public health professionals regarding racial and ethnic disparities in health in the United States of America (USA). Our study objective was to assess the awareness and perceptions of a group of public health workers in Texas regarding racial health disparities and their chief contributing causes. We surveyed public health professionals working on a statewide grant in Texas, who were participants at health disparities' training workshops. Multivariable logistic regression was employed in examining the association between the participants' characteristics and their perceptions of the social determinants of health as principal causes of health disparities. There were 106 respondents, of whom 38 and 35 % worked in health departments and non-profit organizations, respectively. The racial/ethnic groups with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS and hypertension were correctly identified by 63 and 50 % of respondents, respectively, but only 17, and 32 % were knowledgeable regarding diabetes and cancer, respectively. Seventy-one percent of respondents perceived that health disparities are driven by the major axes of the social determinants of health. Exposure to information about racial/ethnic health disparities within the prior year was associated with a higher odds of perceiving that social determinants of health were causes of health disparities (OR 9.62; 95 % CI 2.77, 33.41). Among public health workers, recent exposure to information regarding health disparities may be associated with their perceptions of health disparities. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of such exposure on their long-term perception of disparities, as well as the equity of services and programs they administer.

  20. Development of an attribution of racial/ethnic health disparities scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Braun, Robert E; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Payton, Erica; Bhattacharjee, Prasun

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Attribution of Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities (AREHD) scale. A convenience sample of undergraduate college students (n = 423) at four Midwestern universities was recruited to respond to the survey. A pilot test with undergraduate students (n = 23) found the survey had good acceptability and readability level (SMOG = 11th grade). Using exploratory factor analysis we found the two a priori subscales were confirmed: individual responsibility and social determinants. Internal reliabilities of the subscales were: individual responsibility (alpha = 0.87) and social determinants (alpha = 0.90). Test-retest stability reliabilities were: individual responsibility (r = 0.72) and social determinants (r = 0.69). The AREHD subscales are satisfactory for assessing college student's AREHD.

  1. Seclusion, decision-making power, and gender disparities in adult health: Examining hypertension in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel

    2015-09-01

    Research on the social determinants of health in developing countries is increasingly focusing on the importance of gender. Cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension are a growing concern in developing countries, where they are now the leading cause of death. Researchers have documented differences in hypertension between men and women, but the importance of gendered practices in shaping these differences has been left unexamined. Using national data from the India Human Development Survey 2005 (N=101,593), this study assesses the moderating role of two salient and widespread gendered practices-women's seclusion and decision-making power-on hypertension disparities between women and men. Both seclusion and low decision-making power are associated with increased odds of hypertension for women, but in the case of seclusion reduced hypertension for men. Results also show the gender gap in hypertension is exacerbated with women's seclusion and low decision-making power. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Child health, child education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A R

    1989-06-01

    Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.

  3. Sexual orientation measurement and chronic disease disparities: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M

    2018-02-01

    To examine chronic disease disparities by sexual orientation measurement among sexual minorities. We pooled data from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine differences in chronic disease prevalence between heterosexual and sexual minority people as defined by sexual identity, lifetime sexual behavior, 12-month sexual behavior, and concordance of lifetime sexual behavior and sexual identity. Self-identified lesbian women reported greater odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.37-7.47) and chronic bronchitis (aOR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.21-5.72) than self-identified heterosexual women. Self-identified sexual minority women with a history of same-sex sexual behavior reported greater odds of arthritis (aOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02-2.74). Compared with heterosexual men, gay men reported greater odds of chronic bronchitis when sexual orientation was defined by sexual identity (aOR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.90-11.56) or 12-month sexual behavior (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.27-8.20), as did bisexual men defined by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.14-4.89). Bisexual men reported greater odds of asthma when measured by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.12-3.19), as did self-identified heterosexual men with a history of same-sex sexual behavior (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.10-4.46). How we define sexual orientation influences our understanding of chronic disease prevalence. Capturing subgroups of sexual minority people in health surveillance is essential for identifying groups most at risk and developing targeted interventions to reduce chronic disease disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of non-verbal behaviour in racial disparities in health care: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-09-01

    People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Racial disparities in reported prenatal care advice from health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M D; Kotelchuck, M; Alexander, G R; Johnson, W E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relationship between certain maternal behaviors and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been well documented. One method to alter these behaviors is through the advice of women's health care providers. Advice from providers may be particularly important in minority populations, who have higher rates of infant mortality and prematurity. This study examines racial disparities according to women's self-report of advice received from health care providers during pregnancy in four areas: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, drug use, and breast-feeding. METHODS. Health care providers' advice to 8310 White non-Hispanic and Black women was obtained from the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. RESULTS. After controlling for sociodemographic, utilization, and medical factors, Black women were more likely to report not receiving advice from their prenatal care providers about smoking cessation and alcohol use. The difference between Blacks and Whites also approached significance for breast-feeding. No overall difference was noted in advice regarding cessation of drug use, although there was a significant interaction between race and marital status. CONCLUSIONS. These data suggest that Black women may be at greater risk for not receiving information that could reduce their chances of having an adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:8279618

  6. Ethnic disparities in educational and occupational gradients of estimated cardiovascular disease risk: The Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Wilco; Agyemang, Charles; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Kunst, Anton E

    2018-03-01

    European societies are becoming increasingly ethnically diverse. This may have important implications for socio-economic inequalities in health due to the often disadvantaged position of ethnic minority groups in both socio-economic status (SES) and disease, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the socio-economic gradient of estimated CVD risk differs between ethnic groups. Using the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study, we obtained data on SES and CVD risk factors among participants from six ethnic backgrounds residing in Amsterdam. SES was measured using educational level and occupational level. CVD risk was estimated based on the occurrence of CVD risk factors using the Dutch version of the systematic coronary risk evaluation algorithm. Ethnic disparities in socio-economic gradients for estimated CVD risk were determined using the relative index of inequality (RII). Among Dutch-origin men, the RII for estimated CVD risk according to educational level was 6.15% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.35-7.96%), indicating that those at the bottom of the educational hierarchy had a 6.15% higher estimated CVD risk relative than those at the top. Among Dutch-origin women, the RII was 4.49% (CI 2.45-6.52%). The RII was lower among ethnic minority groups, ranging from 0.83% to 3.13% among men and -0.29% to 5.12% among women, indicating weaker associations among these groups. Results were similar based on occupational level. Ethnic background needs to be considered in associations between SES and disease. The predictive value of SES varies between ethnic groups and may be quite poor for some groups.

  7. Comparing the Relative Efficacy of Narrative vs Nonnarrative Health Messages in Reducing Health Disparities Using a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila T; Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Moran, Meghan B; Zhao, Nan; Amezola de Herrera, Paula; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes A

    2015-10-01

    We compared the relative efficacy of a fictional narrative film to a more traditional nonnarrative film in conveying the same health information. We used a random digit dial procedure to survey the cervical cancer-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, living in Los Angeles, California, from 2011 to 2012. Participants (n = 704) were randomly assigned to view either a narrative or nonnarrative film containing the same information about how cervical cancer could be prevented or detected, and they were re-contacted 2 weeks and 6 months later. At 2 weeks, both films produced a significant increase in cervical cancer-related knowledge and attitudes, but these effects were significantly higher for the narrative film. At 6 months, viewers of both films retained greater than baseline knowledge and more positive attitudes toward Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, but women who saw the narrative were significantly more likely to have had or scheduled a Pap test. The narrative was particularly effective for Mexican American women, eliminating cervical cancer screening disparities found at baseline. Narratives might prove to be a useful tool for reducing health disparities.

  8. Educative health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, R.J.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    'Full-Text:' There is more to education in radiation protection than curricula, courses and certificates. In a broader sense, education implies the provision of knowledge, the development of competence, and the promotion of understanding. These purposes are served by 'Health Physics', the journal of radiation protection. The leading role of the journal is supported by an Advisory Board composed of members of the IRPA Publications Commission. A review is presented of the diversity of material in Health Physics throughout the last few years and set against the historical background. Expansion in the range of topics is described as well as the increase in didactic content both theoretical and operational. The global range of contributions is noted as is the attempt to provide an international perspective on developments in the discipline. Plans for the future are discussed. (author)

  9. Disparities between online assisted reproduction patient education for same-sex and heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Helen; Dasgupta, Shoumita

    2016-10-01

    Does the prevalence of online education in fertility center websites differ for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) couples compared to online education for heterosexual couples? This review of fertility center websites showed that the majority of websites with patient education for heterosexual couples do not have similar materials for LGBT couples. In order to have biologically related children, LGBT individuals or couples utilize assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Fertility clinic websites provide online education to familiarize patients with the different ART procedures; however, no studies have examined the prevalence of educational information for LGBT couples compared to information for heterosexual couples utilizing ART. This website review evaluated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-reported fertility center websites. Websites were reviewed in 2014 using the latest 2011 CDC report, and reviewed again in 2015 with the latest 2013 CDC report. Patient education information was coded using categories determined after a sample review, and differences were analyzed with χ(2) tests, with P-values calculated with Fisher's exact test. In 2014, 31.1% (121) of 389 websites with information for heterosexual couples also contained information for LGBT couples. In 2015, the number of fertility centers with information for LGBT couples increased by 52.9% to 185 (P online information on fertility center websites may not directly reflect the quality of care LGBT individuals or couples receive in the clinic, and the effect of this absence of online information on the clinical experiences of LGBT patients is unknown. These findings add to the growing body of work showing disparities in the treatment of LGBT persons compared to the overall population. To overcome these discrepancies, healthcare providers should adapt their practice to include this growing and underserved patient population. Funding was provided by the Medical Student Summer

  10. Does rapid urbanization aggravate health disparities? Reflections on the epidemiological transition in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Kroll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries reinforces risk and epidemiological transition in urban societies, which are characterized by high socioeconomic gradients. Limited availability of disaggregated morbidity data in these settings impedes research on epidemiological profiles of different population subgroups. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the epidemiological transition in the emerging megacity of Pune with respect to changing morbidity and mortality patterns, also taking into consideration health disparities among different socioeconomic groups. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used, comprising secondary analysis of mortality data, a survey among 900 households in six neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles, 46 in-depth interviews with laypeople, and expert interviews with 37 health care providers and 22 other health care workers. Results: The mortality data account for an epidemiological transition with an increasing number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Pune. The share of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases remained nearly constant, though the cause of deaths changed considerably within this group. The survey data and expert interviews indicated a slightly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among higher socioeconomic groups, but a higher incidence and more frequent complications and comorbidities in lower socioeconomic groups. Although the self-reported morbidity for malaria, gastroenteritis, and tuberculosis did not show a socioeconomic pattern, experts estimated the prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups to be higher, though all groups in Pune would be affected. Conclusions: The rising burden of NCDs among all socioeconomic groups and the concurrent persistence of communicable diseases pose a major challenge for public health. Improvement of urban health requires a stronger focus on health promotion and disease prevention for all

  11. Violence as Mediating Variable in Mental Health Disparities Associated to Sexual Orientation Among Mexican Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis

    2018-01-05

    In this study, we explored the role of sex as an effect-modifying variable in the association between sexual orientation and mental health in Mexican youth. In addition, we tested if violent experiences in the family and the school and attitudes toward homosexuality could act as mediating variables in such association. Data from three representative surveys performed in 2007, 2009, and 2013 among Mexican high school students were analyzed. Two dimensions of sexual orientation were evaluated: romantic partnership and sexual behavior. The outcomes were negative and positive mood, suicidal ideation and intent, self-concept, and self-esteem. There were differences by gender because in males, there were more disparities in mental health associated with sexual orientation (suicidal ideation and attempt, negative and positive mood, negative self-concept, and family-related self-esteem) than in females (suicidal ideation and negative mood). Experiences of school violence were mediators in the relationship between sexual orientation and most health outcomes in males.

  12. Advancing Research on Structural Stigma and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Mental Health Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Psychological research on stigma has focused largely on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and their interpersonal interactions with the nonstigmatized. This work has been critical in documenting many of the ways in which stigma operates to harm those who are targeted. However, this research has also tended to overlook broader structural forms of stigma, which refer to societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies and practices that constrain the lives of the stigmatized. In this article I describe the emerging field of research on structural stigma and review evidence documenting the harmful consequences of structural stigma for the mental/behavioral health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. This research demonstrates that structural stigma represents an important, but thus far largely underrecognized, mechanism underlying mental health disparities related to sexual orientation among youth. I offer several suggestions to advance research in this area, including (a) adopting a life-course approach to the study of structural stigma; (b) developing novel measures of structural stigma; (c) expanding both the range of methods used for studying structural stigma and the sequelae of structural stigma that are evaluated; (d) identifying potential mediators and moderators of the structural stigma-health relationship; (e) examining intersectionalities; and (f) testing generalizability of structural stigma across other groups, with a particular focus on transgender youth. The implications of this research for preventive interventions and for public policy are also discussed.

  13. A Multidisciplinary Intervention Utilizing Virtual Communication Tools to Reduce Health Disparities: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Emerson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in technology are likely to provide new approaches to address healthcare disparities for high-risk populations. This study explores the feasibility of a new approach to health disparities research using a multidisciplinary intervention and advanced communication technology to improve patient access to care and chronic disease management. A high-risk cohort of uninsured, poorly-controlled diabetic patients was identified then randomized pre-consent with stratification by geographic region to receive either the intervention or usual care. Prior to enrollment, participants were screened for readiness to make a behavioral change. The primary outcome was the feasibility of protocol implementation, and secondary outcomes included the use of patient-centered medical home (PCMH services and markers of chronic disease control. The intervention included a standardized needs assessment, individualized care plan, intensive management by a multidisciplinary team, including health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and the use of a cloud-based glucose monitoring system. One-hundred twenty-seven high-risk, potentially eligible participants were randomized. Sixty-one met eligibility criteria after an in-depth review. Due to limited resources and time for the pilot, we only attempted to contact 36 participants. Of these, we successfully reached 20 (32% by phone and conducted a readiness to change screen. Ten participants screened in as ready to change and were enrolled, while the remaining 10 were not ready to change. Eight enrolled participants completed the final three-month follow-up. Intervention feasibility was demonstrated through successful implementation of 13 out of 14 health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and 100% of participants indicated that they would recommend the intervention to a friend. Protocol feasibility was demonstrated as eight of 10 participants completed the entire study protocol. At the end of the three-month intervention

  14. A National Survey to Evaluate Graduate Medical Education in Disparities and Limited English Proficiency: A Report From the AAIM Diversity and Inclusion Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Lucien J; Maldonado, Maria; Fried, Ethan D

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national survey addressing issues related to patients with limited English proficiency. We disseminated a national confidential survey to 391 program directors of Internal Medicine residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Seventy percent of program directors indicated that their residents cared for a patient population that was composed of more than 10% limited-English-proficiency patients. Nineteen percent of residency programs provided no education on caring for patients with limited English proficiency. Thirty percent of program directors felt that their faculty could not adequately evaluate residents on their ability to practice culturally competent care, and 68% cited lack of faculty expertise as a significant barrier to implementing a curriculum in cultural competency. Yet only 24% indicated that they had faculty development relevant to cultural competency and health care disparities. Internal Medicine residents care for many patients with limited English proficiency. While it seems clear that an effective training curriculum is necessary, such a curriculum was not found to be uniformly present. Additionally, the lack of faculty expertise and faculty development in cultural competency and health care disparities is a significant barrier to the correction of this problem. Copyright © 2016 Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Racial Disparities in Health Behaviors and Conditions Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women: The Role of Internalized Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane

    2013-01-01

    There are documented disparities in physical health behaviors and conditions, such as physical activity and obesity, with regard to both race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. However, physical health disparities for lesbian and bisexual (LB) women who are also racial minorities are relatively unexplored. Minority stressors, such as internalized stigma, may account for disparities in such multiply marginalized populations. We sought to (1) characterize inequalities among non-Hispanic white and African American LB women and (2) examine the roles of internalized sexism and homophobia in disparities. Data on health behaviors (diet, physical activity); physical health (hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity); internalized sexism; and internalized homophobia were collected via a web-based survey. Recruitment ads were sent electronically to over 200 listservs, online groups, and organizations serving the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community in all 50 U.S. states. The analytic sample consisted of 954 white and 75 African American LB women. African American participants were more likely than white participants to report low fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, a higher body mass index, and a history of diabetes and hypertension. There were no racial differences in internalized homophobia, but African American women reported higher levels of internalized sexism. Internalized sexism partially mediated racial disparities in physical activity and diabetes, but not in the other outcomes. Findings suggest that African American LB women may be at greater risk than their white counterparts for poor health and that internalized sexism may be a mediator of racial differences for certain behaviors and conditions. PMID:25364769

  16. Trends in Immunization Completion and Disparities in the Context of Health Reforms: The case study of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semali Innocent A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of global concern is the decline in under five children mortality which has reversed in some countries in sub Saharan Africa (SSA since the early 1990 s which could be due to disparities in access to preventive services including immunization. This paper is aimed at determining the trend in disparities in completion of immunization using Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS. Methods DHS studies randomly selected representative households from all regions in Tanzania since 1980 s, is repeated every five years in the same enumeration areas. The last three data sets (1990, 1996 and 2004 were downloaded and analyzed using STATA 9.0. The analysis included all children of between 12-23 months who would have completed all vaccinations required at 12 months. Results Across the time periods 1990, 1996 to 2004/05 the percentage of children completing vaccination was similar (71.0% in 1990, 72.7% in 1996 and 72.3% in 2005. There was no disparity in completion of immunization with wealth strata in 1990 and 1996 (p > 0.05 but not 2004. In 2004/05 there was marked disparity as most poor experienced significant decline in immunization completion while the least poor had significant increase (p Conclusion Equity that existed in 1990 and more pronounced in 1996 regressed to inequity in 2005, thus though at national level immunization coverage did not change, but at sub-group there was significant disparity associated with the changing contexts and reforms. To address sub-group disparities in immunization it is recommended to adopt strategies focused at governance and health system to reach all population groups and most poor.

  17. Advancing health equity for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people through sexual health education and LGBT-affirming health care environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuroghlian, Alex S; Ard, Kevin L; Makadon, Harvey J

    2017-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people face pervasive health disparities and barriers to high-quality care. Adequate LGBT sexual health education for emerging health professionals is currently lacking. Clinical training programs and healthcare organisations are well poised to start addressing these disparities and affirming LGBT patients through curricula designed to cultivate core competencies in LBGT health as well as health care environments that welcome, include and protect LGBT patients, students and staff. Health education programs can emphasise mastery of basic LGBT concepts and terminology, as well as openness towards and acceptance of LGBT people. Core concepts, language and positive attitudes can be instilled alongside clinical skill in delivering inclusive sexual health care, through novel educational strategies and paradigms for clinical implementation. Caring for the health needs of LGBT patients also involves the creation of health care settings that affirm LGBT communities in a manner that is responsive to culturally specific needs, sensitivities and challenges that vary across the globe.

  18. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms "Alaska Native", "children" and "oral health" were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970-2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising approaches to improve the oral and systemic health of Alaska Native

  19. The rights of the medically uninsured: an analysis of social justice and disparate health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    As technological advances in the United States continue to improve the effectiveness of medical interventions, expectations among Americans of both improved health and extended life expectancy have also increased. At the same time, many of the population continue to lack the insurance necessary to access even the most basic healthcare services (Institute of Medicine, 2004; Tunzi, 2004; Saha & Bindman, 2001). With approximately 18,000 avoidable deaths attributed annually to inadequate medical coverage and 43.6 million individuals currently without insurance benefits, the need to address the disparity in access to treatment and a means of social justice in the distribution of health care is all too clear (Crispen & Whalen, 2004). As a nation relying on market mechanisms to regulate the costs and quality of available health resources (Baldor, 2003; Saha&Bindman, 2001), the welfare of society as a whole may soon be threatened by the provision of marginal services to a select minority as increasing numbers of the uninsured continue to experience less favorable clinical outcomes and higher mortality rates (Tunzi, 2004; Litaker & Cebul, 2003; Jackson, 2001; Sox, Burstin, Edwards, O'Neil et al., 1998). The author will first examine the consequences of being among the growing number of uninsured individuals in the United States. Attention will then be given to exploring the social justice issues inherent in this critical problem and evaluating these issues through the perspective of both libertarian and feminist theory. Using these theories, innovative strategies for attaining distributive justice in the provision of health care will be offered with recommendations for utilizing these alternative approaches to develop and implement future health policy.

  20. A participatory evaluation framework in the establishment and implementation of transdisciplinary collaborative centers for health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Moore, Artisha; Benjamin, Regina; Vickers, Selwyn; Shikany, James; Fouad, Mona

    2017-02-01

    We describe the formulation and implementation of a participatory evaluation plan for three Transdisciplinary Collaborative Centers for Health Disparities Research funded by the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities. Although different in scope of work, all three centers share a common goal of establishing sustainable centers in health disparities science in three priority areas - social determinants of health, men's health research, and health policy research. The logic model guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation. Emphasis is placed on process evaluation in order to establish a "blue print" that can guide other efforts as well as assure that activities are being implemented as planned. We have learned three major lessons in this process: (1) Significant engagement, participation, and commitment of all involved is critical for the evaluation process; (2) Having a "roadmap" (logic model) and "directions" (evaluation worksheets) are instrumental in getting members from different backgrounds to follow the same path; and (3) Participation of the evaluator in the leadership and core meetings facilitates continuous feedback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Association between State Policy Environments and Self-Rated Health Disparities for Sexual Minorities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Gonzales

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has documented disparities in health and access to care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people in the United States. Less research has examined how the level of legal protection afforded to LGB people (the state policy environment affects health disparities for sexual minorities. This study used data on 14,687 sexual minority adults and 490,071 heterosexual adults from the 2014–2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to document differences in health. Unadjusted state-specific prevalence estimates and multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare poor/fair self-rated health by gender, sexual minority status, and state policy environments (comprehensive versus limited protections for LGB people. We found disparities in self-rated health between sexual minority adults and heterosexual adults in most states. On average, sexual minority men in states with limited protections and sexual minority women in states with either comprehensive or limited protections were more likely to report poor/fair self-rated health compared to their heterosexual counterparts. This study adds new findings on the association between state policy environments and self-rated health for sexual minorities and suggests differences in this relationship by gender. The associations and impacts of state-specific policies affecting LGB populations may vary by gender, as well as other intersectional identities.

  2. Patient activation and disparate health care outcomes in a racially diverse sample of chronically ill older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvicker, Miriam; Peng, Timothy R; Feldman, Penny Hollander

    2012-11-01

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) assesses people's ability to self-manage their health. Variations in PAM score have been linked with health behaviors, outcomes, and potential disparities. This study assessed the relative impacts of activation, socio-demographic and clinical factors on health care outcomes in a racially diverse sample of chronically ill, elderly homecare patients. Using survey and administrative data from 249 predominantly non-White patients, logistic regression was conducted to examine the effects of activation level and patient characteristics on the likelihood of subsequent hospitalization and emergency department (ED) use. Activation was not a significant predictor of hospitalization or ED use in adjusted models. Non-Whites were more likely than Whites to have a hospitalization or ED visit. Obesity was a strong predictor of both outcomes. Further research should examine potential sources of disadvantage among chronically ill homecare patients to design effective interventions to reduce health disparities in this population.

  3. Neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting among women: the effect of distance between the place of residence and the place of work/study (an ACTI-Cités study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Salze, Paul; Feuillet, Thierry; Hercberg, Serge; Hess, Franck; Menai, Mehdi; Weber, Christiane; Charreire, Hélène; Enaux, Christophe; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal

    2017-06-12

    Active transportation has been associated with favorable health outcomes. Previous research highlighted the influence of neighborhood educational level on active transportation. However, little is known regarding the effect of commuting distance on social disparities in active commuting. In this regard, women have been poorly studied. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood educational level and active commuting, and to assess whether the commuting distance modifies this relationship in adult women. This cross-sectional study is based on a subsample of women from the Nutrinet-Santé web-cohort (N = 1169). Binomial, log-binomial and negative binomial regressions were used to assess the associations between neighborhood education level and (i) the likelihood of reporting any active commuting time, and (ii) the share of commuting time made by active transportation modes. Potential effect measure modification of distance to work on the previous associations was assessed both on the additive and the multiplicative scales. Neighborhood education level was positively associated with the probability of reporting any active commuting time (relative risk = 1.774; p education was greater at long distances to work for both outcomes. Our results suggest that neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting tend to increase with commuting distance among women. Further research is needed to provide geographically driven guidance for health promotion intervention aiming at reducing disparities in active transportation among socioeconomic groups.

  4. Health Insurance Instability Among Older Immigrants: Region of Origin Disparities in Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We provide a detailed analysis of how the dynamics of health insurance coverage (HIC) at older ages differs among Latino, Asian, and European immigrants in the United States. Method. Using Survey of Income and Program Participation data from the 2004 and 2008 panels, we estimate discrete-time event history models to examine first and second transitions into and out of HIC, highlighting substantial differences in hazard rates among immigrants aged 50–64 from Asia, Latin America, and Europe. Results. We find that the likelihood of having HIC at first observation and the rates of gaining and losing coverage within a relatively short time frame are least favorable for older Latino immigrants, although immigrants from all three regions are at a disadvantage relative to native-born non-Hispanic Whites. This disparity among immigrant groups persists even when lower rates of citizenship, greater difficulty with English, and low-skill job placements are taken into account. Discussion. Factors that have contributed to the lower rates and shorter durations of HIC among older immigrants, particularly those from Latin America, may not be easily resolved by the Affordable Care Act. The importance of region of origin and assimilation characteristics for the risk of being uninsured in later life argues that immigration and health care policy should be jointly addressed. PMID:25637934

  5. Diet-Gene Interactions and PUFA Metabolism: A Potential Contributor to Health Disparities and Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floyd H. Chilton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The “modern western” diet (MWD has increased the onset and progression of chronic human diseases as qualitatively and quantitatively maladaptive dietary components give rise to obesity and destructive gene-diet interactions. There has been a three-fold increase in dietary levels of the omega-6 (n-6 18 carbon (C18, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6, with the addition of cooking oils and processed foods to the MWD. Intense debate has emerged regarding the impact of this increase on human health. Recent studies have uncovered population-related genetic variation in the LCPUFA biosynthetic pathway (especially within the fatty acid desaturase gene (FADS cluster that is associated with levels of circulating and tissue PUFAs and several biomarkers and clinical endpoints of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Importantly, populations of African descent have higher frequencies of variants associated with elevated levels of arachidonic acid (ARA, CVD biomarkers and disease endpoints. Additionally, nutrigenomic interactions between dietary n-6 PUFAs and variants in genes that encode for enzymes that mobilize and metabolize ARA to eicosanoids have been identified. These observations raise important questions of whether gene-PUFA interactions are differentially driving the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases in diverse populations, and contributing to health disparities, especially in African American populations.

  6. Geo-social and health disparities among persons with disabilities living in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon and Dallas, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Silviya P; Small, Eusebius; Campillo, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    In low and high income countries alike, disability exacerbates social, economic, and health disparities, in spite of their differences. This study seeks to identify factors that predict the circumstances people with disabilities face, including poverty. A cross-sectional study design was employed using census track level data for the cities of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, and Dallas, Texas, from Mexico 2010 and USA 2000 census data collections. Two methods, spatial autocorrelation and geographically weighted regression were used to identify spatial patterns of disability and to explore the relation between disability and context-specific socio-demographic factors. Results indicated that people with disabilities living below the poverty line experience high segregation levels in the semi-central zones of Dallas. In Monterrey, people with disabilities clustered in central areas of the city. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) from both data analyses reported high goodness of fit (R ≥ 0.8 for Dallas data and R ≥ 0.7 for Monterrey data, respectively) and predictability of disability prevalence when social disadvantage factors such as unemployment, housing insecurity, household living conditions, and lack of education were present. The divergent and sometimes conflicting trends in practices and policies addressing disability in low and high income environments renders a reexamination of the framework of disability. An understanding of local characteristics joins a grounded socio-cultural understanding of the various contexts that shape location-based social networks and political decisions in providing such an analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. E-health use in african american internet users: can new tools address old disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Deena J; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2015-03-01

    Web-based health information may be of particular value among the African American population due to its potential to reduce communication inequalities and empower minority groups. This study explores predictors of e-health behaviors and activities for African American Internet users. We used the 2010 Pew Internet and American Life Health Tracking Survey to examine sociodemographic and health status predictors of e-health use behaviors among African Americans. E-health use behaviors included searching for e-health information, conducting interactive health-related activities, and tracking health information online. In the African American subsample, 55% (n=395) were at least "occasional" Internet users. Our model suggests that searching for health information online was positively associated with being helped/knowing someone helped by online information (odds ratio [OR]=5.169) and negatively associated with lower income (OR=0.312). Interactive health activities were associated with having a college education (OR=3.264), being 65 years of age or older (OR=0.188), having a family member living with chronic conditions (OR=2.191), having a recent medical crisis (OR=2.863), and being helped/knowing someone helped by online information (OR=8.335). E-tracking behaviors were significantly stronger among African Americans who had health insurance (OR=3.907), were helped/knowing someone helped by online information (OR=4.931), and were social media users (OR=4.799). Findings suggest significant differences in e-health information-seeking behaviors among African American Internet users-these differences are mostly related to personal and family health concerns and experiences. Targeted online e-health resources and interventions can educate and empower a significant subset of the population.

  8. Inequity in access to dental care services explains current socioeconomic disparities in oral health: the Swedish National Surveys of Public Health 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Sarah; Merlo, Juan; Boström, Gunnel

    2006-12-01

    To analyse the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on access to dental care services and on oral health. Design, setting and outcomes: Cross-sectional data from the Swedish National Surveys of Public Health 2004 and 2005. Outcomes were poor oral health (self-rated oral health and symptoms of periodontal disease) and lack of access to dental care services. A socioeconomic disadvantage index (SDI) was developed, consisting of social welfare beneficiary, being unemployed, financial crisis and lack of cash reserves. Swedish population-based sample of 17 362 men and 20 037 women. Every instance of increasing levels of socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with worsened oral health but, simultaneously, with decreased utilisation of dental care services. After adjusting for age, men with a mild SDI compared with those with no SDI had 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5 to 3.0) times the odds for self-rated poor oral health, whereas odds related to severe SDI were 6.8 (95% CI 6.2 to 7.5). The corresponding values among women were 2.3 (95% CI 2.1 to 2.5) and 6.8 (95% CI 6.3 to 7.5). Nevertheless, people with severe socioeconomic disparities were 7-9 times as likely to refrain from seeking the required dental treatment. These associations persisted even after controlling for living alone, education, occupational status and lifestyle factors. Lifestyle factors explained only 29% of the socioeconomic differences in poor oral health among men and women, whereas lack of access to dental care services explained about 60%. The results of the multilevel regression analysis indicated no additional effect of the administrative boundaries of counties or of municipalities in Sweden. Results call for urgent public health interventions to increase equitable access to dental care services.

  9. Increased Mental Health Treatment Financing, Community-Based Organization's Treatment Programs, and Latino-White Children's Financing Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Wallace, Neal; Cordell, Kate; Graaf, Genevieve

    2017-09-01

    Latino child populations are large and growing, and they present considerable unmet need for mental health treatment. Poverty, lack of health insurance, limited English proficiency, stigma, undocumented status, and inhospitable programming are among many factors that contribute to Latino-White mental health treatment disparities. Lower treatment expenditures serve as an important marker of Latino children's low rates of mental health treatment and limited participation once enrolled in services. We investigated whether total Latino-White expenditure disparities declined when autonomous, county-level mental health plans receive funds free of customary cost-sharing charges, especially when they capitalized on cultural and language-sensitive mental health treatment programs as vehicles to receive and spend treatment funds. Using Whites as benchmark, we considered expenditure pattern disparities favoring Whites over Latinos and, in a smaller number of counties, Latinos over Whites. Using segmented regression for interrupted time series on county level treatment systems observed over 64 quarters, we analyzed Medi-Cal paid claims for per-user total expenditures for mental health services delivered to children and youth (under 18 years of age) during a study period covering July 1, 1991 through June 30, 2007. Settlement-mandated Medicaid's Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) expenditure increases began in the third quarter of 1995. Terms were introduced to assess immediate and long term inequality reduction as well as the role of culture and language-sensitive community-based programs. Settlement-mandated increased EPSDT treatment funding was associated with more spending on Whites relative to Latinos unless plans arranged for cultural and language-sensitive mental health treatment programs. However, having programs served more to prevent expenditure disparities from growing than to reduce disparities. EPSDT expanded funding increased proportional

  10. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine W Ruktanonchai

    Full Text Available Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries.We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1 skilled birth attendance, 2 receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3 receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015.Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3, while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89 and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75.Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These

  11. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A; Burgert, Clara R; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew Sek; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75). Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These results

  12. The 21st Century Cures Act Implications for the Reduction of Racial Health Disparities in the US Criminal Justice System: a Public Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donna M; Thomas, Dawna Marie; Field, Kelsi; Wool, Amelia; Lipiner, Taryn; Massenberg, Natalie; Guthrie, Barbara J

    2017-11-09

    Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues. The 21st Century Cures Act is a progressive step in the right direction; however, given the historical context of segregation and the criminalization of drug addiction among African Americans, the goals of health equity are at risk of being compromised. This paper discusses the implications of this landmark legislation and its potential to decrease racial health disparities, highlighting the importance of ensuring that access to treatment and alternatives to incarceration must include communities of color. In this paper, the authors explain the key components of the 21st Century Cures Act that are specific to criminal justice reform, including a key objective, which is treatment over incarceration. We suggest that without proper attention to how, and where, funding mechanisms are distributed, the 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to increase racial health disparities rather than alleviate them.

  13. Disparities in lifestyle habits and health related factors of Montreal immigrants: is immigration an important exposure variable in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshefedjian, Garbis A; Leaune, Viviane; Simoneau, Marie-Ève; Drouin, Mylène

    2014-10-01

    Study disparities in lifestyle habits and health characteristics of Canadian born population and immigrants with different duration of residence. Data are extracted from 2009 to 2010 public use micro-data files of Canadian Community Health Survey representing about 1.5 million people. Sixty-one percent of the study sample was born in Canada; 49 % males and 59 % below age 50. Amongst lifestyle habits, recent immigrants were less likely to be regular smokers, RR (95 % CI) 0.56 (0.36-0.88) and frequent consumers of alcohol 0.49 (0.27-0.89), but more likely to consume less fruits and vegetables 1.26 (1.04-1.53) than those born in Canada. Amongst health related factors, recent immigrants were less likely to be overweight 0.79 (0.62-0.99) and suffer from chronic diseases 0.59 (0.44-0.80), but more likely to have limited access to family medicine 1.24 (1.04-1.47) than Canada-born population. Immigration status is an important population characteristic which influenced distribution of health indicators. Prevention and promotion strategies should consider immigration status as an exposure variable in the development and implementation of public health programs.

  14. Exploring the role of the dental hygienist in reducing oral health disparities in Canada: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J; Peressini, S; Lawrence, H P

    2018-05-01

    Reducing oral health disparities has been an ongoing challenge in Canada with the largest burden of oral disease exhibited in vulnerable populations, including Aboriginal people, the elderly, rural and remote residents, and newcomers. Dental hygienists are a unique set of professionals who work with and within communities, who have the potential to act as key change agents for improving the oral health of these populations. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, from the dental hygiene perspective, the role of dental hygienists in reducing oral health disparities in Canada. Dental hygienists and key informants in dental hygiene were recruited, using purposeful and theoretical sampling, to participate in a non-directed, semi-structured one-on-one in-depth telephone interview using Skype and Call Recorder software. Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory methodology was employed with open, axial, and selective coding analysed on N-Vivo Qualitative software. The resulting theoretical framework outlines strategies proposed by participants to address oral health disparities; these included alternate delivery models, interprofessional collaboration, and increased scope of practice. Participants identified variation in dental care across Canada, public perceptions of oral health and dental hygiene practice, and lack of applied research on effective oral health interventions as challenges to implementing these strategies. The research confirmed the important role played by dental hygienists in reducing oral health disparities in Canada. However, due to the fragmentation of dental hygiene practice across Canada, a unified voice and cohesive action plan is needed in order for the profession to fully embrace their role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Determinants of social quality and their regional disparities: an integrated approach for health equity in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life was originally included in the concept of social quality (SQ), which refers to the possibility of manifesting the life chance possessed by each individual and the consequences resulting from restricting such possibility. Social quality describes how favorable the socioenvironmental components are that impact the possibility of an individual's life. Despite the close relationship between community capacity and SQ, the components and regional disparities of SQ have not yet been examined. This study identified community-based distribution and disparities of SQ in South Korea, including health indicators. Standardized methods of SQ were used to examine the interrelationships among institutional capacity, citizen capacity, and their associations with population-based health indicators. Under the principles of conceptual suitability, reliability, clarity, comparability, and changeability, a total of 18 SQ indicators were collected, then transformed by European Social Survey standardization and Geographical Information System computation. In the results, the hidden structure that determined the distribution of the SQ indicators was the financial independence and average length of residence. Financial independence indicated the size of the budget that each local community controls was out of the total budget. The average length of residence showed a reverse-U-shape relation to the mutual supports of the residents. The regional distribution of the SQ indicators largely differed from the local economic index or health indicators. Disparities in SQ indicators are likely to arise from the degree of urbanization and the degree of citizens' cohesiveness. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze in-depth cases of both local government with high SQ indicators in all fields and those with low SQ indicators in all fields. In addition, there is a need to elucidate the structural causes and backgrounds that produce disparities in SQ, thus lowering disparities among

  16. Does Context Matter? Literacy Disparities in Self-rated Health Using Evidence from 17 Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonjin

    2017-05-01

    The study examines whether adult literacy skills predict self-rated health status beyond educational credentials in 17 developed countries using a cross-national survey, the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The study uses linear regression models with country-level fixed effects to predict self-rated health to account the unobserved country-level heterogeneity. A total of 73,806 respondents aged 25 to 65 were included in the analysis. Although adult literacy is positively associated with better self-rated health in general, the strength of the relationship varies across nations. The literacy-related health inequalities are less severe in countries with the higher public share of health expenditures that may better address the needs of individuals with limited cognitive abilities. Curriculum standardization also contributes to reducing the literacy gradients in health by decreasing variations in skills obtained in school across individuals with different social origins. Overall, this study reveals that promoting equity in adult literacy skills is an important way to improve a population's health. Country-level differences in the strength of the relationship between literacy and self-rated health are systematically related to between-country differences in health financing and educational systems.

  17. Lay Health Worker Involvement in Evidence-Based Treatment Delivery: A Conceptual Model to Address Disparities in Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Miya L; Lau, Anna S; Miranda, Jeanne

    2018-05-07

    Mobilizing lay health workers (LHWs) to deliver evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is a workforce strategy to address mental health disparities in underserved communities. LHWs can be leveraged to support access to EBTs in a variety of ways, from conducting outreach for EBTs delivered by professional providers to serving as the primary treatment providers. This critical review provides an overview of how LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs have been leveraged in low-, middle-, and high-income countries (HICs). We propose a conceptual model for LHWs to address drivers of service disparities, which relate to the overall supply of the EBTs provided and the demand for these treatments. The review provides illustrative case examples that demonstrate how LHWs have been leveraged globally and domestically to increase access to mental health services. It also discusses challenges and recommendations regarding implementing LHW-supported or -delivered EBTs.

  18. The relationship between health, education, and health literacy: results from the Dutch Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Iris; Wang, Jen; Droomers, Mariël; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Rademakers, Jany; Uiters, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Health literacy has been put forward as a potential mechanism explaining the well-documented relationship between education and health. However, little empirical research has been undertaken to explore this hypothesis. The present study aims to study whether health literacy could be a pathway by which level of education affects health status. Health literacy was measured by the Health Activities and Literacy Scale, using data from a subsample of 5,136 adults between the ages of 25 and 65 years, gathered within the context of the 2007 Dutch Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. Linear regression analyses were used in separate models to estimate the extent to which health literacy mediates educational disparities in self-reported general health, physical health status, and mental health status as measured by the Short Form-12. Health literacy was found to partially mediate the association between low education and low self-reported health status. As such, improving health literacy may be a useful strategy for reducing disparities in health related to education, as health literacy appears to play a role in explaining the underlying mechanism driving the relationship between low level of education and poor health.

  19. Health Care Disparity and Pregnancy-Related Mortality in the United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; Dildy, Gary A; Brown, Haywood L; Bateni, Zhoobin H; Belfort, Michael A; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Clark, Steven L

    2018-04-01

    To quantitate the contribution of various demographic factors to the U.S. maternal mortality ratio. This was a retrospective observational study. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics database and the Detailed Mortality Underlying Cause of Death database (CDC WONDER) from 2005 to 2014 that contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. Bivariate correlations between the maternal mortality ratio and all maternal demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical service utilization characteristics were calculated. We performed a maximum likelihood factor analysis with varimax rotation retaining variables that were significant (Pmulticollinearity among the existing variables. The United States has experienced an increase in maternal mortality ratio since 2005 with rates increasing from 15 per 100,00 live births in 2005 to 21-22 per 100,000 live births in 2013 and 2014. (P<.001) This increase in mortality was most pronounced in non-Hispanic black women, with ratios rising from 39 to 49 per 100,000 live births. A significant correlation between state mortality ranking and the percentage of non-Hispanic black women in the delivery population was demonstrated. Cesarean deliveries, unintended births, unmarried status, percentage of deliveries to non-Hispanic black women, and four or fewer prenatal visits were significantly (P<.05) associated with the increased maternal mortality ratio. The current U.S. maternal mortality ratio is heavily influenced by a higher rate of death among non-Hispanic black or unmarried patients with unplanned pregnancies. Racial disparities in health care availability and access or utilization by underserved populations are important issues faced by states seeking to decrease maternal mortality.

  20. Secondhand smoke risk in infants discharged from an NICU: potential for significant health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L; Evans, Patricia W; Green, Charles E; Northrup, Thomas F; Dodrill, Carrie L; Fox, Jeffery M; Tyson, Jon E; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2011-11-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) threatens fragile infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Smoking practices were examined in families with a high respiratory risk infant (born at very low birth weight; ventilated > 12 hr) in a Houston, Texas, NICU. Socioeconomic status, race, and mental health status were hypothesized to be related to SHSe and household smoking bans. Data were collected as part of The Baby's Breath Project, a hospital-based SHSe intervention trial targeting parents with a high-risk infant in the NICU who reported a smoker in the household (N = 99). Measures of sociodemographics, smoking, home and car smoking bans, and depression were collected. Overall, 26% of all families with a high-risk infant in the NICU reported a household smoker. Almost half of the families with a smoker reported an annual income of less than $25,000. 46.2% of families reported having a total smoking ban in place in both their homes and cars. Only 27.8% families earning less than $25,000 reported having a total smoking ban in place relative to almost 60% of families earning more (p < .01). African American and Caucasian families were less likely to have a smoking ban compared with Hispanics (p < .05). Mothers who reported no smoking ban were more depressed than those who had a household smoking ban (p < .02). The most disadvantaged families were least likely to have protective health behaviors in place to reduce SHSe and, consequently, are most at-risk for tobacco exposure and subsequent tobacco-related health disparities. Innovative SHSe interventions for this vulnerable population are sorely needed.

  1. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and…

  2. Neighbourhood food, physical activity, and educational environments and black/white disparities in obesity: a complex systems simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Kaplan, George A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    Multiple approaches that can contribute to reducing obesity have been proposed. These policies may share overlapping pathways, and may have unanticipated consequences, creating considerable complexity. Aiming to illuminate the use of agent-based models to explore the consequences of key policies, this paper simulates the effects of increasing neighbourhood availability of good food stores, physical activity infrastructure and higher school quality on the reduction of black/white disparities in body mass index (BMI) in the USA. We used an agent-based model, with parameters derived from the empirical literature, which included individual and neighbourhood characteristics over the life course as determinants of behaviours thought to impact BMI. We systematically varied the strength of the 3 policy interventions, examining the impact of 125 different policy scenarios on black/white BMI disparities. In the absence of any of these policies, black/white BMI disparities generally increased over time. However, we found that some combinations of these policies resulted in reductions in BMI, yielding decreases in the black/white BMI disparity as large as a 90%. Within the structure of relationships captured in this simulation model, there is support for the further use of agent-based simulation models to explore upstream policies as plausible candidates for the reduction of black/white disparities in BMI. These results highlight the potential insights into important public health problems, such as obesity, that can come from uniting the systems science approach with policy analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Health Educational Potentials of Technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising and analysing health educational potentials of technologies are presented.

  4. Reducing Ex-offender Health Disparities through the Affordable Care Act: Fostering Improved Health Care Access and Linkages to Integrated Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacreisha Ejike-King

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite steadily declining incarceration rates overall, racial and ethnic minorities, namely African Americans, Latinos, and American Indians and Alaska Natives, continue to be disproportionately represented in the justice system. Ex-offenders commonly reenter communities with pressing health conditions but encounter obstacles to accessing care and remaining in care. The lack of health insurance coverage and medical treatment emerge as the some of the most reported reentry health needs and may contribute to observed health disparities. Linking ex-offenders to care and services upon release increases the likelihood that they will remain in care and practice successful disease management. The Affordable Care Act (ACA offers opportunities to address health disparities experienced by the reentry population that places them at risk for negative health outcomes and recidivism. Coordinated efforts to link ex-offenders with these newly available opportunities may result in a trajectory for positive health and overall well-being as they reintegrate into society.

  5. Neighborhood Environment and Disparities in Health Care Access Among Urban Medicare Beneficiaries With Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvicker, Miriam; Sridharan, Sridevi

    2018-01-01

    Older adults' health is sensitive to variations in neighborhood environment, yet few studies have examined how neighborhood factors influence their health care access. This study examined whether neighborhood environmental factors help to explain racial and socioeconomic disparities in health care access and outcomes among urban older adults with diabetes. Data from 123 233 diabetic Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older in New York City were geocoded to measures of neighborhood walkability, public transit access, and primary care supply. In 2008, 6.4% had no office-based "evaluation and management" (E&M) visits. Multilevel logistic regression indicated that this group had greater odds of preventable hospitalization in 2009 (odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-1.40). Nonwhites and low-income individuals had greater odds of a lapse in E&M visits and of preventable hospitalization. Neighborhood factors did not help to explain these disparities. Further research is needed on the mechanisms underlying these disparities and older adults' ability to navigate health care. Even in an insured population living in a provider-dense city, targeted interventions may be needed to overcome barriers to chronic illness care for older adults in the community.

  6. 2016 Survey of State-Level Health Resources for Men and Boys: Identification of an Inadvertent and Remediable Service and Health Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadich, Ana; Llamas, Ramon P; Giorgianni, Salvatore; Stephenson, Colin; Nwaiwu, Chimezie

    2018-03-01

    This survey evaluated resources available to men and boys at the state level including state public health departments (SPHDs), other state agencies, and governor's offices. Most of the resources and programs are found in the SPHDs and these administer state-initiated and federally funded health programs to provide services and protection to a broad range of populations; however, many men's health advocates believe that SPHDs have failed to create equivalent services for men and boys, inadvertently creating a health disparity. Men's Health Network conducts a survey of state resources, including those found in SPHDs, every 2 years to identify resources available for men and women, determine the extent of any disparity, and establish a relationship with SPHD officials. Data were obtained from all 50 states and Washington, D.C. An analysis of the 2016 survey data indicates that there are few resources allocated and a lack of readily available information on health and preventive care created specifically for men and boys. The data observed that most health information intended for men and boys was scarce among states or oftentimes included on websites that primarily focused on women's health. A potential result of this is a loss of engagement with appropriate health-care providers due to a lack of information. This study continues to validate the disparity between health outcomes for women and men. It continues to highlight the need for better resource allocation, outreach, and health programs specifically tailored to men and boys in order to improve overall community well-being.

  7. Disparities by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status in occupational health experiences among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stéphanie; Krause, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    We examined disparities in workers' occupational health experiences. We surveyed 941 unionized Las Vegas hotel room cleaners about their experiences with work-related pain and with employers, physicians, and workers' compensation. Data were analyzed for all workers and by ethnicity, language, and immigrant status. Hispanic and English as second language (ESL) workers were more likely than their counterparts to report work-related pain and, along with immigrant workers, to miss work because of this pain. Hispanic, ESL, and immigrant workers were not consistently at a disadvantage with regard to their own responses to work-related pain but were so with respect to reported responses by workers' compensation, physicians, and employers. There are indications of disparities in occupational health experiences within this job title. The use of different group classifications, while implying different mechanisms, produced similar results. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd

    2008-01-01

    It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

  9. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  10. Up in smoke: vanishing evidence of tobacco disparities in the Institute of Medicine's report on sexual and gender minority health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Blosnich, John R; Melvin, Cathy L

    2012-11-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a groundbreaking report on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health in 2011, finding limited evidence of tobacco disparities. We examined IOM search terms and used 2 systematic reviews to identify 71 articles on LGBT tobacco use. The IOM omitted standard tobacco-related search terms. The report also omitted references to studies on LGBT tobacco use (n = 56), some with rigorous designs. The IOM report may underestimate LGBT tobacco use compared with general population use.

  11. The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple

  12. Health education alone and health education plus advance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was an intervention study to compare the effects of health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraception (EC) pills on the knowledge and attitudes to EC by female students of University of Nigeria in South‑East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Astructured questionnaire was ...

  13. Building sustainable health and education partnerships: stories from local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high school ready for college, technical school, on-the-job training, career, and citizenship. Results from Milwaukie High School, North Clackamas, OR; Oakland Unified School District, Oakland, CA; and Cincinnati Community Learning Centers, Cincinnati, OH were based on a review of local site documents, web-based information, interviews, and e-mail communication with key local actors. The schools and districts with strong health partnerships reflecting community schools strategy have shown improvements in attendance, academic performance, and increased access to mental, dental, vision, and health supports for their students. To build deep health-education partnerships and grow community schools, a working leadership and management infrastructure must be in place that uses quality data, focuses on results, and facilitates professional development across sectors. The leadership infrastructure of community school initiatives offers a prototype on which others can build. Moreover, as leaders build cross-sector relationships, a clear definition of what scaling up means is essential for subsequent long-term systemic change. © 2015 Institute for Educational Leadership. Journal of School Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American School Health Association.

  14. Trends in Disparities in Low-Income Children's Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care by Family Immigration Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Baller, Julia; Borrero, Sonya; Bennett, Wendy L

    2016-03-01

    To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes immigration status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P Immigrant children had significantly lower health insurance coverage than other groups. However, the group had a 14 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P immigration status have lessened over time among children in low-income families, although large disparities still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma

    2016-10-19

    This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents' estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States.

  16. Barriers to Providing Health Education During Primary Care Visits at Community Health Centers: Clinical Staff Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Planas, Jessica; Pose, Alix; Smith, Linda

    2016-04-01

    The rapid increase of diverse patients living in the US has created a different set of needs in healthcare, with the persistence of health disparities continuing to challenge the current system. Chronic disease management has been discussed as a way to improve health outcomes, with quality patient education being a key component. Using a community based participatory research framework, this study utilized a web-based survey and explored clinical staff perceptions of barriers to providing patient education during primary care visits. With a response rate of nearly 42 %, appointment time allotment seemed to be one of the most critical factors related to the delivery of health education and should be considered key. The importance of team-based care and staff training were also significant. Various suggestions were made in order to improve the delivery of quality patient education at community health centers located in underserved areas.

  17. Health Disparities Research Among Small Tribal Populations: Describing Appropriate Criteria for Aggregating Tribal Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Emily R; Blacksher, Erika; Echo-Hawk, Abigail L; Bassett, Deborah; Harris, Raymond M; Buchwald, Dedra S

    2016-07-01

    In response to community concerns, we used the Tribal Participatory Research framework in collaboration with 5 American-Indian communities in Washington, Idaho, and Montana to identify the appropriate criteria for aggregating health data on small tribes. Across tribal sites, 10 key informant interviews and 10 focus groups (n = 39) were conducted between July 2012 and April 2013. Using thematic analysis of focus group content, we identified 5 guiding criteria for aggregating tribal health data: geographic proximity, community type, environmental exposures, access to resources and services, and economic development. Preliminary findings were presented to focus group participants for validation at each site, and a culminating workshop with representatives from all 5 tribes verified our final results. Using this approach requires critical assessment of research questions and study designs by investigators and tribal leaders to determine when aggregation or stratification is appropriate and how to group data to yield robust results relevant to local concerns. At project inception, tribal leaders should be consulted regarding the validity of proposed groupings. After regular project updates, they should be consulted again to confirm that findings are appropriately contextualized for dissemination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Health disparities in Europe's ageing population: the role of social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Jenny; Padyab, Mojgan; Malmberg, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries. The outcome is poor SRH. All analyses are adjusted for age and stratified by gender. Low satisfaction with the social network was associated with poor SRH among women in all country groups, but predicted poor SRH among males in West/Central and Eastern Europe only. The results from the multivariable analysis showed an increased likelihood of poor SRH among those with relatively lower education, as well as among those with low satisfaction with the social network (women from all country groups and men from Western/Central and Eastern Europe). However, the results from interaction analysis show that poor SRH for those with lower relative position in educational level was greater among those with higher satisfaction with the social network among male and female participants from Northern Europe. The health of individuals who are highly satisfied with their social network is more associated with socioeconomic status in Northern Europe. This study highlights the significance of social network and socioeconomic gradients in health among the elderly in Europe.

  19. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health education: concepts and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T

    1996-03-01

    Physicians have a responsibility to educate people about their health as well as to treat them. In fact, achievement of "Health for All" requires that people become educated about immunization, nutrition, family planning, and environmental sanitation. The goal of health education is to change behavior by changing attitudes. Health education encourages self-reliance and motivates people to make their own health-related decisions. In order to reach patients, physicians must bridge the social gap created by the gulf between technical priorities and what is really possible for people to achieve. The process of health education moves from the sender to the message to the channel to the receivers to the effects. Appropriate methods can be used for individual or group communication and methods can focus on information provision and/or behavior change. Participatory methods are effective in changing behavior and include group analysis of a situation, group dialogue, persuasion, and educational games. An effective strategy for individual instruction is woman-to-woman or child-to-child communication, which depends upon the identification of "key" women and children. Development of a community-based health education strategy relies on community participation and the involvement of influential members of the community. After a message has been transmitted, innovators will begin the new practice, early adopters will follow, and slow adopters will wait and watch. The innovators and early adopters can help reduce resistance to the innovation. While it is a slow process, health education can improve attitudes and behavior.

  1. Health Education by Open Broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICIT Report, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radio education program. Kenya's Swahili language radio serial, "Giving Birth and Caring for your…

  2. Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Health care Resources in Relation to Black-White Breast Cancer Survival Disparities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinyemiju, T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer survival has improved significantly in the US in the past 10-15 years. However, disparities exist in breast cancer survival between black and white women. Purpose. To investigate the effect of county health care resources and SES as well as individual SES status on breast cancer survival disparities between black and white women. Methods. Data from 1,796 breast cancer cases were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study dataset. Cox Proportional Hazards models were constructed accounting for clustering within counties. Three sequential Cox models were fit for each outcome including demographic variables; demographic and clinical variables; and finally demographic, clinical, and county-level variables. Results. In unadjusted analysis, black women had a 53% higher likelihood of dying of breast cancer and 32% higher likelihood of dying of any cause ( P < 0.05) compared with white women. Adjusting for demographic variables explained away the effect of race on breast cancer survival (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.99-1.97), but not on all-cause mortality. The racial difference in all-cause survival disappeared only after adjusting for county-level variables (HR, 1.27; CI, 0.95-1.71). Conclusions. Improving equitable access to health care for all women in the US may help eliminate survival disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups.

  3. Ethical considerations for conducting health disparities research in community health centers: a social-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Scott, Ebony; Melendez, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Anna; Ramos, Rosio; Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Michelen, Walid

    2013-12-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) provide optimal research settings. They serve a high-risk, medically underserved population in the greatest need of intervention. Low socioeconomic status renders this population particularly vulnerable to research misconduct. Traditional principles of research ethics are often applied to participants only. The social-ecological model offers a comprehensive framework for applying these principles across multiple levels (participants, providers, organizations, communities, and policy). Our experience with the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect and Self-Affirmation in African-Americans with Hypertension, a randomized trial conducted in CHCs, led us to propose a new platform for discussing research ethics; examine the social, community, and political factors surrounding research conducted in CHCs; and recommend how future research should be conducted in such settings.

  4. Health(y) Education in Health and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    Teachers in the school subject Health and Physical Education (HPE) need to be able both to teach health and to do so in a healthy (equitable) way. The health field has, however, met with difficulties in finding its form within the subject. Research indicates that HPE can be excluding, meaning that it may give more favours to some pupils (bodies)…

  5. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horim Yi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  6. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  7. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  8. Ethnic disparities in children's oral health: findings from a population-based survey of grade 1 and 2 schoolchildren in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Congshi; Faris, Peter; McNeil, Deborah A; Patterson, Steven; Potestio, Melissa L; Thawer, Salima; McLaren, Lindsay

    2018-01-04

    Although oral health has improved remarkably in recent decades, not all populations have benefited equally. Ethnic identity, and in particular visible minority status, has been identified as an important risk factor for poor oral health. Canadian research on ethnic disparities in oral health is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic