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  1. Anxiety and depression levels among multidisciplinary health residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Salvagni Rotta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression of professionals of Multidisciplinary Health Residence Programs. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study, performed with fifty professionals, using three instruments: one for socioeconomic and demographic data, and the Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: predominance of females (92.0%, average age 26 years old, single (88.0%, family income from two to five salaries (56.0% satisfied with the work (82.0% and thought about quitting the program (56.0% showed anxiety (50.0% and depression (28.0%. Conclusion: there was an association between anxiety and depression in multidisciplinary residents, which points to the need for rethinking strategies for identifying these symptoms and control of stress factors for the promotion of mental health.

  2. Stress, depression, quality of life and salivary cortisol levels in community health agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.

  3. Mental health of Japanese psychiatrists: the relationship among level of occupational stress, satisfaction and depressive symptoms.

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    Koreki, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Abe, Akiko; Ikeuchi, Hidetsugu; Okubo, Jo; Oguri, Atsushi; Orimo, Keisuke; Katayama, Nariko; Sato, Hiroyo; Shikimoto, Ryo; Nishiyama, Go; Nogami, Waka; Haki, Kazuma; Hayashi, Tetsuro; Fukagawa, Yuko; Funaki, Kei; Matsuzawa, Mia; Matsumoto, Ayako; Mimura, Masaru

    2015-03-26

    Psychiatrists in clinical practice face a number of stressors related to patient care, such as overwork. On the other hand, they gain satisfaction from their work. We quantified and assessed the potential relationship between levels of occupational stress, satisfaction, and depressive symptoms among Japanese clinical psychiatrists. We surveyed 206 psychiatrists with up to 15 years of clinical experience who primarily worked in patient care. Levels of occupational stress and occupational satisfaction were measured using the Visual Analogue Scale and the level of depressive symptoms was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Workplace stressors and satisfiers were also evaluated. Out of 206 psychiatrists, 154 (74.8%) responded to the survey. The respondents' mean (SD) age was 34.3 (5.2) years. The estimated prevalence of significant depressive symptoms was 34.4% (n = 53), and the experienced frequent violence was 14.9% (n = 23). The level of depressive symptoms was inversely correlated with the level of occupational satisfaction. In respondents who reported a moderate level of occupational stress, having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction, but this association was not significant in those who reported a high level of stress. In addition, high occupational satisfaction was associated with interest towards work content, ability to work at one's discretion, opportunities for growth and career development, and ease of communication with supervisors and colleagues. Nearly one-third of the psychiatrists screened positive for significant depressive symptoms. Having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction in those who reported a moderate level of stress. Implications from the present findings may be to enhance occupational satisfaction by discussing work interests with a supervisor, as well as increased opportunities for career development, which may

  4. The relationship of depression with the level of blood pressure in population-based Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

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    Park, Sung Keun; Jung, Ju Young; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Oh, Chang-Mo; Lee, Jae-Hon; Pan, Zihang; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Shekotikhina, Margarita; McIntyre, Roger S; Choi, Joong-Myung

    2018-05-01

    There has been increasing evidence about psychosomatic relationship between mood disorder and blood pressure (BP). However, the degree to which BP categories are associated with depression has been less well described. Thus, this study was to investigate the association of depression with BP categories. A total of 90,643 men and 68,933 women were enrolled in this study. They were stratified into four groups (normal, prehypertension, newly diagnosed hypertension, and recognized hypertension) according to the BP levels and the history of hypertension. Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression was used to evaluate the depressive symptom, and the degree of depression was evaluated by the cutoff of Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (mild: 16-20, moderate: 21-24, severe: ≥25). The multivariate logistic regression was used in calculating odds ratios for depression according to the four BP categories, with adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age. The adjusted odds ratios for depression tended to decrease from normal to newly diagnosed hypertension, but significantly increased in recognized hypertension (normal: reference, prehypertension: 0.85 [0.80-0.91], newly diagnosed hypertension: 0.75 [0.65-0.86], recognized hypertension: 1.11 [1.03-1.20]). Subgroup analysis also indicated the similar pattern of relationship, which was more prominent in male and middle-aged subgroup than any other subgroups. Depression was inversely associated with elevated BP. However, recognized hypertension had the increased likelihood of depression in male and young age group. These findings suggest that the association between depression and BP may be moderated by the chronicity of hypertension in men and young individuals. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the Relationship between Depression and C Reactive Protein Level Moderated by Social Support in Elderly?-Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP).

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    Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Waite, Linda; Youm, Yoosik

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the buffering effects of social support as an effects modifier in the association between depression and inflammation in the elderly. We analyzed the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) for questionnaire, clinical, and laboratory data of 530 older adults living in a rural community. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and C-reactive protein level (CRP), a marker of inflammation, at varying levels of social support. Social support affected the association between depressive symptoms and CRP level in both sexes. However, the direction of effects modification was different for men and women. In men, a higher CRP level was significantly associated with depressive symptoms only among those with lower support from a spouse or family members. By contrast, in women, the association was significant only among subgroups with higher spousal or family support. Social support from neighbors or friends did not affect the depression-inflammation relationship in men but modestly affected the relationship in women. Our findings suggest that social support may have a buffering effect in the relationship between depression and inflammation in elderly Koreans. But the influence of social support may run in different directions for men and women.

  6. Total Blood Mercury Levels and Depression among Adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Hin H.; Mossey, Jana M.; Lee, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005–2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5–27). Results Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36–0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status). However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40) even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50–1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles). Conclusions Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding. PMID:24244482

  7. Lack of association between depression and C-reactive protein level in the baseline of Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

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    de Menezes, Sara Teles; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Nunes, Maria Angélica; M Benseñor, Isabela; Viana, Maria Carmen; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2017-01-15

    Depression has been linked to increased levels of inflammatory markers in clinical studies, but results from general population samples are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate whether depression was associated with serum CRP levels in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort from a middle-income country. We analyzed baseline data from 14,821 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Current depression (last 7 days) was assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Because individuals on antidepressants could be negative on CIS-R due to their therapeutic effect, the explanatory variable had three categories: (1) negative on CIS-R and not using antidepressant (reference); (2) negative on CIS-R but using antidepressant; (3) positive on CIS-R with/without antidepressant use. Associations with CRP were investigated by general linear model (GLM). After adjustments for confounders, neither current depression, nor antidepressant use was statistically associated with elevated CRP levels. Additionally, analyzes stratified by gender, type and severity of depression did not change the results. The reference group in our analysis might include participants with a lifetime history of depression. Additionally, the exclusion of questions on weight fluctuation and appetite from the CIS-R applied in ELSA-Brasil may have slightly underestimated the prevalence of depression, as well as limited our ability to assess the presence of somatic symptoms. This study found no association between current depression, use of antidepressants, and serum CRP levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes of levels of depression and quality of life after short-term cognitive behavioral educational program for adolescent students in health class.

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    Aki, Atsuko; Tomotake, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes of levels of depression and quality of life in adolescent students after receiving short-term cognitive behavioral educational program in health class for stress management. Subjects were 176 middle school students aged 12 to 14 years. They completed the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRS-C) and the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (Kiddo-KINDL(R)) before, after and 6-months after the program. The three-session program consisted of psychoeducation and learning skills of cognitive restructuring and problem solving. The total scores of the DSRS-C and the Kiddo-KINDL(R) in all subjects did not significantly change after the completion of program. However, as for the high risk group (score of the DSRS-C≥16), significant improvement in the two scales was found after the program. Especially, depression level in the high risk group significantly decreased and the improvement was maintained 6-months later. These results suggest that this type of approach may be effective for adolescents with high risk of depression in terms of improving not only depressive symptom but also quality of life.

  9. Prevalence of depression among health workers in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: Determination of the prevalence and distribution of depression among health workers at tertiary level of health care delivery in Enugu South East Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross‑sectional descriptive survey of depression in health workers at tertiary level. Subjects and Methods: By proportional quota sampling, ...

  10. Exploring the relationship between physical health, depressive symptoms, and depression diagnoses in Hispanic dementia caregivers.

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    Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.

  11. Responsiveness of the anxiety/depression dimension of the 3- and 5-level versions of the EQ-5D in assessing mental health.

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    Crick, Katelynn; Al Sayah, Fatima; Ohinmaa, Arto; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2018-06-01

    Anxiety and depression disorders are associated with significantly lower health-related quality of life (HRQL). The EQ-5D is a commonly used generic measure of HRQL; it captures mental health through a single domain-the anxiety/depression dimension. Evidence on the responsiveness of this measure in assessing changes in mental health changes is limited. To examine the performance of the anxiety/depression dimension (A/D) of the 3- and 5-level (3L and 5L) versions of the EQ-5D in assessing changes in mental health. Data from two patient populations were used: 495 adults post-discharge from general internal medicine ward (EQ-5D-3L), and 225 type 2 diabetes patients who screened positive for depressive symptoms (EQ-5D-5L). Anchor-based approach along with effect sizes (ES) and ROC analysis was used. Anchors included patient health questionnaire 9-items "PHQ9" and generalized anxiety disorder 2-item questionnaire "GAD2" for EQ-5D-3L, and PHQ9 and SF-12 mental composite summary scores (MCS) for EQ-5D-5L. A/D change was quantified as the difference between follow-up and baseline levels. The A/D dimension of the EQ-5D-3L showed limited responsiveness to changes in depressive symptoms measured by PHQ9 and for anxiety symptoms measured by GAD2, whereby in those who improved or deteriorated in either symptom, more than half of the patients did not have an A/D change. In the ROC analysis, the A/D dimension of the EQ-5D-3L showed weak performance with C-indices ranging from 0.58 to 0.63 and probability of detection of depressive or anxiety symptoms ranging between 20 and 40%, which are all well below acceptable ranges. Similar results were observed for the A/D dimension of the EQ-5D-5L; although the performance was slightly better, it was still below acceptable range. In patients who improved or deteriorated based on the PHQ9 or MCS, around a third had no changes on the A/D dimension. The performance of the A/D dimension of the EQ-5D-5L was also very limited with C

  12. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

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    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  13. Maternal depression and anxiety among children with mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The investigation sought to examine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with mental health problems. Method: A case control design was employed and self-reports of depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured in a group of women whose children were receiving mental health care, ...

  14. Depressive Disorders in Primary Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorilehto, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study (PC-VDS) is a naturalistic and prospective cohort study concerning primary care patients with depressive disorders. It forms a collaborative research project between the Department of Mental and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute, and the Primary Health Care Organization of the City of Vantaa. The aim is to obtain a comprehensive view on clinically significant depression in primary care, and to compare depressive patients in prima...

  15. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

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    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  16. Clinical Perspective Level of depression among adolescents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or differences between these two groups. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) in Pakistan are inclined to have higher levels of depression than their dominant counterparts (Muslim adolescents). Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health 2012, 24(2): ...

  17. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  18. Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping.

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    Torres, Lucas

    2010-04-01

    Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Describing the population health burden of depression: health-adjusted life expectancy by depression status in Canada

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    C. Steensma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the impact of depression in terms of losses to both premature mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL on the overall population. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE is a summary measure of population health that combines both morbidity and mortality into a single summary statistic that describes the current health status of a population. Methods: We estimated HALE for the Canadian adult population according to depression status. National Population Health Survey (NPHS participants 20 years and older (n = 12 373 were followed for mortality outcomes from 1994 to 2009, based on depression status. Depression was defined as having likely experienced a major depressive episode in the previous year as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Life expectancy was estimated by building period abridged life tables by sex and depression status using the relative risks of mortality from the NPHS and mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2007-2009. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2009/10 provided estimates of depression prevalence and Health Utilities Index as a measure of HRQOL. Using the combined mortality, depression prevalence and HRQOL estimates, HALE was estimated for the adult population according to depression status and by sex. Results: For the population of women with a recent major depressive episode, HALE at 20 years of age was 42.0 years (95% CI: 40.2-43.8 compared to 57.0 years (95% CI: 56.8-57.2 for women without a recent major depressive episode. For the population of Canadian men, HALE at 20 was 39.0 years (95% CI: 36.5-41.5 for those with a recent major depressive episode compared to 53.8 years (95% CI: 53.6-54.0 for those without. For the 15.0-year difference in HALE between women with and without depression, 12.3 years can be attributed to the HRQOL gap and the remaining 2.7 years to the mortality gap. The 14.8 fewer

  20. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  1. College Students' Experiences with, and Willingness to Use, Different Types of Telemental Health Resources: Do Gender, Depression/Anxiety, or Stress Levels Matter?

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    Toscos, Tammy; Carpenter, Maria; Drouin, Michelle; Roebuck, Amelia; Kerrigan, Connie; Mirro, Michael

    2018-04-16

    Telemental health (TMH) resources are plentiful; however, we know little about college students' opinions about such resources. We aimed to examine students' previous use of and willingness to use several types of TMH resources. Students (N = 662) from two U.S. Midwestern colleges participated. Using an online survey in spring 2017, we measured students' depression, anxiety, stress, and suicidal thoughts, preferences for care options during distress, and use and interest in anonymous chats with trained nonprofessionals, online therapy, and self-help resources. Overall, 10.1-13.8% had experience with these TMH resources; however, 24.6-40.1% expressed willingness to try them. At-risk students, especially those higher in depression/anxiety scores, showed greater use of and willingness to use some applications. Counseling centers might consider endorsing TMH resources as potential pathways to care. TMH resources might help broaden reach with minimal cost, reduce mental health help-seeking barriers, and provide support to at-risk populations.

  2. The long-term effects of maternal depression: early childhood physical health as a pathway to offspring depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia; Najman, Jake

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional and retrospective studies have highlighted the long-term negative effects of maternal depression on offspring physical, social, and emotional development, but longitudinal research is needed to clarify the pathways by which maternal depression during pregnancy and early childhood affects offspring outcomes. The current study tested one developmental pathway by which maternal depression during pregnancy might negatively impact offspring mental health in young adulthood, via poor physical health in early childhood. The sample consisted of 815 Australian youth and their mothers who were followed for 20 years. Mothers reported on their own depressive symptoms during pregnancy and offspring early childhood. Youth completed interviews about health-related stress and social functioning at age 20 years, and completed a questionnaire about their own depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Path analysis indicated that prenatal maternal depressive symptoms predicted worse physical health during early childhood for offspring, and this effect was partially explained by ongoing maternal depression in early childhood. Offspring poor physical health during childhood predicted increased health-related stress and poor social functioning at age 20. Finally, increased health-related stress and poor social functioning predicted increased levels of depressive symptoms later in young adulthood. Maternal depression had a significant total indirect effect on youth depression via early childhood health and its psychosocial consequences. Poor physical health in early childhood and its effects on young adults' social functioning and levels of health related stress is one important pathway by which maternal depression has long-term consequences for offspring mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-cultural patterns of the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety: secondary analysis of the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Stefanos; Skapinakis, Petros; Rai, Dheeraj; Zitko, Pedro; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Lionis, Christos; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-12-15

    Alcohol consumption is associated with several complications of both physical and mental health. Light or moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on physical or mental health but this effect is still controversial and research in the mental health field is relatively scarce. Our aim was to investigate the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in a large international primary care sample. The sample consisted of 5438 primary care attenders from 14 countries who participated in the WHO Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care. Alcohol use was assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared to abstinence while excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher prevalence of depression. This non-linear association was not substantially affected after adjustment for a range of possible confounding variables, including the presence of chronic disease and the current physical status of participants and was evident in different drinking cultures. The study confirms that excessive drinking is associated with an increased prevalence of depression, but also raises the possibility that light/moderate drinking may be associated with a reduced prevalence of both depression and anxiety. Any causal interpretation of this association is difficult in the context of this cross-sectional study and further longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metacognition and depressive realism: evidence for the level-of-depression account.

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    Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Davalos, Deana B; Vázquez, Susana M

    2011-09-01

    Introduction. The present study examined the relationship between metacognition (i.e., "thinking about thinking") and depression. More specifically, the depressive realism hypothesis (Alloy & Abramson, 1979), which posits that depressed people have a more accurate view of reality than nondepressed people, was tested. Methods. Nondepressed, mildly depressed, and moderately depressed individuals predicted their memory performance by making judgements of learning after each studied item. These predictions were then compared with actual performance on a free recall task to assess calibration, an index of metacognitive accuracy. Results and conclusions. Consistent with the depressive realism hypothesis, mild depression was associated with better calibration than nondepression. However, this "sadder but wiser" phenomenon appears to only exist to point, as moderate depression and nondepression showed no calibration differences. Thus, the level-of-depression account of depressive realism is supported.

  5. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…

  6. Mental health professionals' attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression.

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    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    To date, mental health professionals' attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. We assessed mental health professionals' attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Mental health professionals' positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions.

  7. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective: We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method: Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226 or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112. Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results: Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions: Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations: The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions.

  8. Macro-level gender equality and depression in men and women in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Sarah; Huijts, Tim; Bracke, Piet; Bambra, Clare

    2013-06-01

    A recurrent finding in international literature is a greater prevalence of depression in women than in men. While explanations for this gender gap have been studied extensively at the individual level, few researchers have studied macro-level determinants of depression in men and women. In the current study we aim to examine the micro-macro linkage of the relationship between gender equality and depression by gender in Europe, using data from the European Social Survey, 2006-2007 (N=39,891). Using a multilevel framework we find that a high degree of macro-level gender equality is related to lower levels of depression in both women and men. It is also related to a smaller gender difference in depression, but only for certain social subgroups and only for specific dimensions of gender equality. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Relationship Between Sexual Dysfunction and Depression Levels in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Parpaee R; Hosseini SA

    2017-01-01

    Proper and healthy sexual function is regarded as a sign of mental and physical health and it is a cause of common sense pleasure, reinforcement of intimacy and reduction of tensions between couples and it will promote the person’s ability to cope with stress and life’s problems and suppress sexual impulses can cause emotional problems and impaired relationships that these issues can create different levels of depression in person. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relati...

  10. Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid identified in acute coronary syndrome patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Heruc, Gabriella A; Hilton, Therese M; Olley, Amanda; Brotchie, Heather; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Friend, Cheryl; Walsh, Warren F; Stocker, Roland

    2006-03-30

    As deficiencies in n-3 PUFAs have been linked separately to depression and to cardiovascular disease, they could act as a higher order variable contributing to the established link between depression and cardiovascular disease. We therefore examine the relationship between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including total n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Plasma phospholipid levels of n-3 PUFA were measured in 100 patients hospitalized with ACS. Current major depressive episode was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Depression severity was assessed by the 18-item Depression in the Medically Ill (DMI-18) measure. Patients clinically diagnosed with current depression had significantly lower mean total n-3 PUFA and DHA levels. Higher DMI-18 depression severity scores were significantly associated with lower DHA levels, with similar but non-significant trends observed for EPA and total n-3 PUFA levels. The finding that low DHA levels were associated with depression variables in ACS patients may explain links demonstrated between cardiovascular health and depression, and may have prophylactic and treatment implications.

  11. Acute coronary syndrome patients with depression have low blood cell membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh A; Menon, Rishi A; Reid, Kimberly J; Harris, William S; Spertus, John A

    2008-10-01

    To determine the extent to which levels of membrane eicosapentaenoic (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) (the omega-3 index) were associated with depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Depression is associated with worse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with ACS. Reduced levels of blood cell membrane omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), an emerging risk factor for both CV disease and depression, may help to explain the link between depression and adverse CV outcomes. We measured membrane FA composition in 759 patients with confirmed ACS. The analysis included not only EPA and DHA but also the n-6 FAs linoleic and arachidonic acids (LA and AA). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ). Multivariable linear regression was used to adjust for demographic and clinical characteristics. There was a significant inverse relationship between the n-3 index and depressive symptoms (PHQ) in the fully adjusted model (p = .034). For every 4.54% point rise in the n-3 index, there was a 1-point decline in depressive symptoms. In contrast to the n-3 FAs, membrane levels of the n-6 FAs LA and AA were not different between depressed and nondepressed ACS patients. We found an inverse relationship between the n-3 index and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in patients with ACS. Therefore, this study supports the hypothesis that reduced n-3 FA tissue levels are a common and potentially modifiable link between depression and adverse CV outcomes.

  12. Prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level among medical students in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, depression among medical students is an important health issue at the global level. There is also a paucity of information on its relation to the stress level. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level and other factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, coastal south India. Beck Depression Inventory Scale was used for screening of depression and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale to assess perceived stress level. Data on associated factors were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 48.4% (215/444. According to the cutoff scores, 229 (51.6% students scored as normal (0–9, 149 (33.6% as mild (10–18, 60 (13.5% as moderate (19–29, 3 (0.7% as severe (30–40, and 3 (0.7% students scored as very severe (>40 depression. Depression was significantly less among those with mild stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.010 and moderate stress level (adjusted OR = 0.099 compared to severe stress level and those without interpersonal problems (adjusted OR = 0.448. Conclusion: Depression is more common among medical students. Stress coping mechanisms and improvement of interpersonal relationship may help to reduce depressive symptoms among medical students.

  13. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens / Depressants Print en español Depresores del sistema nervioso What They Are: Tranquilizers and other depressants ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  14. Marital Satisfaction and Depression as Predictors of Physical Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.

    1978-01-01

    Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…

  15. Decreased Prostaglandin D2 Levels in Major Depressive Disorder Are Associated with Depression-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuilin; Wei, Hui; Zhu, Wanwan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the most abundant prostaglandin in the mammalian brain. The physiological and pharmacological actions of PGD2 in the central nervous system seem to be associated with some of the symptoms exhibited by patients with major depressive disorder. Previous studies have found that PGD2 synthase was decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of major depressive disorder patients. We speculated that there may be a dysregulation of PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with a stable isotopic-labeled internal standard was used to determine PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice. A total of 32 drug-free major depressive disorder patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. An animal model of depression was constructed by exposing mice to 5 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress. To explore the role of PGD2 in major depressive disorder, selenium tetrachloride was administered to simulate the change in PGD2 levels in mice. Mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress exhibited depression-like behaviors, as indicated by reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. PGD2 levels in the plasma of major depressive disorder patients and in the brains of depressive mice were both decreased compared with their corresponding controls. Further inhibiting PGD2 production in mice resulted in an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test that could be reversed by imipramine. Decreased PGD2 levels in major depressive disorder are associated with depression-like behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  16. Mediating Role of Activity Level in the Depressive Realism Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A. Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for...

  17. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  18. The study of self-evaluated health level in inpatients with depression in general hosptial%综合医院住院抑郁障碍患者自测健康状况的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓东; 苏敬华; 农秋葵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the self-evaluated health level and it’s associated factors in inpatients with depression in general hospital. Method A total number of 600 inpatients were enrol ed from three general hosptial in Guangzhou city. Al of these patients were asked to complete a self-designed questionaire about demorgraphic features, and complete self-rating health measurement scale(SRHMS) to evaluate health level. Diagnostic and statistic manual about mental disorder, fourth edition(DSM-IV) was used to diagnose depression. We compared the differences between the depression group and control, and probed the associated factors of self-evaluated health level in depression group. Result The total score of SRHMS in patients with depression in general hosptial was 222.85±65.53, the scores of physical health, mental health and social health were 92.39±31.97, 75.06±24.97 and 55.09±23.10 respectively, which were al significantly lower than that in controls. The scores of physical health and mental health were higher in patients who were below 55 years old compare with those older. The educational level was associated with social health level. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the fol owing factors were associated with higher total score of SRHMS, married, higher family monthly income, first admission and inpatient time range from 8 to 14 days. Conclusion The self-evaluated health levels were low in patients with depression in general hospital. Age, marrital status, educational level, family monthly income, admission frequency and time may be the important factors associated with health level.%目的:探讨综合医院住院患者中抑郁障碍者自测健康状况及其影响因素。方法采用自编一般情况问卷、自测健康状况评定量表(SRHMS)、美国《精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版》DSM-Ⅳ轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查病人版(SCID)对广州市3家综合医院≥16岁的600名住院患者进行调查。以SCID为精

  19. Perceptions of health status, medication side effects and depression after successful renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, F.; Masood, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the perceptions of health status and depression among Renal Transplant Recipients (RTRs). Stydy Design: A longitudinal research design was used. Methods: Recipients’ perceived health status (PHS) was measured by a self-developed questionnaire that reflected the symptom severity and frequency of common immunosuppressant side effects. Depression levels were assessed using Beck Depression Inventory B.D.I II) .The sample population comprised of RTRs with a successful and healthy renal transplant recruited from private and government sector renal units in Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Recipients with poorer perceptions of health status tend to be more depressed as indicated by significant negative correlations between PHS and depression. However, further regression analysis found both constructs as significant predictors of each other, raising a question of causal direction. A cross lagged correlation analysis indicated that PHS appears to be a stronger predictor of depression comparatively. Most recipients tend to have positive perceptions of their health status (M = 30.84, S.D = 3.64) with minimum to moderate level of depression (M = 9.50, S.D = 4.00), It is found that a positive perception of health status is associated with lowered depression. Conclusion: Most recipients’ with a healthy kidney transplant tend to report a positive perception of their health status despite adverse medication side effects. However, the perceived health status is significantly associated with consequent feeling of depression. The study confirms the efficacy and positive health outcomes of renal transplantation in Pakistan. (author)

  20. The influence of caregiver depression on adolescent mental health outcomes: findings from refugee settlements in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah R; Steinhaus, Mara; Bangirana, Clare; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Stark, Lindsay

    2017-12-19

    Family-level predictors, including caregiver depression, are considered important influences on adolescent mental health. Adolescent depression and anxiety in refugee settings is known to be a significant public health concern, yet there is very limited literature from humanitarian settings focusing on the relationship between caregiver mental health and adolescent mental health. In the context of a larger study on child protection outcomes in refugee settings, researchers explored the relationship between caregiver depression and adolescent mental health in two refugee settlements, Kiryandongo and Adjumani, in Uganda. Adolescents between 13 and 17 and their caregivers participated in a household survey, which included measures of adolescent anxiety and depression, and caregiver depression. Analysis was conducted using multiple logistic regression models, and results were reported for the full sample and for each site separately. In Kiryandongo, a one-unit increase in a caregiver's depression score tripled the odds that the adolescent would have high levels of anxiety symptoms (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1), while in Adjumani, caregiver depression did not remain significant in the final model. Caregiver depression, gender and exposure to violence were all associated with higher symptoms of adolescent depression in both sites and the full sample, for example, a one unit increase in caregiver depression more than tripled the odds of higher levels of symptoms of adolescent depression (AOR: 3.6, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.2). Caregiver depression is a consistently significantly associated with adverse mental health outcomes for adolescents in this study. Adolescent well-being is significantly affected by caregiver mental health in this refugee context. Child protection interventions in humanitarian contexts do not adequately address the influence of caregivers' mental health, and there are opportunities to integrate child protection programming with prevention and treatment of

  1. The influence of caregiver depression on adolescent mental health outcomes: findings from refugee settlements in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sarah R; Steinhaus, Mara; Bangirana, Clare; Onyango-Mangen, Patrick; Stark, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background Family-level predictors, including caregiver depression, are considered important influences on adolescent mental health. Adolescent depression and anxiety in refugee settings is known to be a significant public health concern, yet there is very limited literature from humanitarian settings focusing on the relationship between caregiver mental health and adolescent mental health. In the context of a larger study on child protection outcomes in refugee settings, researchers explored...

  2. General health mediates the relationship between loneliness, life satisfaction and depression. A study with Malaysian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Maniam, Thambu; Kannan, Kumaraswami; Stanistreet, Debbi; Furnham, Adrian

    2007-02-01

    To examine the associations between life satisfaction, loneliness, general health and depression among 172 medical students in Malaysia. Participants completed a questionnaire battery, which included the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, Beck's Depression Inventory, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Life satisfaction was negatively and significantly correlated with suicidal attitudes, loneliness and depression; and positively with health, which was negatively and significantly correlated with depression and loneliness. Self-concept was negatively correlated with loneliness and depression, depression was positively and significantly correlated with loneliness. Mediational analyses showed that the effects of loneliness and life dissatisfaction on depression were fully mediated by health. Even though less satisfied, and particularly lonelier, individuals are more likely to report higher levels of depression, this is only the case because both higher loneliness and life dissatisfaction are associated with poorer health. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders in developing nations.

  3. The Level of Depression and Assertiveness among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Fatemeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid

    2014-07-01

    Nursing students are susceptible to a higher risk of depression. Recognition of depression, assertiveness and the relationship between them is important since if a relationship exists, probably enhancing the level of assertiveness can reduce depression in this high risk group. We aimed to investigate depression and assertiveness levels and the relationship between them in nursing students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The target population of this cross-sectional study was bachelor nursing students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, as the largest and one of the most prestigious Iranian universities. For selecting samples, the convenience sampling method was used. Having no previous information about classes, the researcher selected the students from the courses held while the researcher was present for sampling at the faculty and studied all the students willing to participate in the study in selected classes. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information, Gambrill and Richey assertion inventory, and Beck's depression inventory. SPSS software, version 16, was used to analyze the data. ANOVA and independent samples t test were used for as appropriated. 55.6% of students indicated average and low levels of assertiveness and 38.7% were suffering from mild to severe depression. Pearson correlation test showed a significant inverse relationship (r=0.314 and Passertiveness and depression. There were significant relationships between depression and interest in the field of study (P=0.001) and between assertiveness and gender (P=0.035). There was an inverse significant relationship between depression and assertiveness among nursing students. We suggest a cohort study design that can determine the effect of these variables on each other completely.

  4. Obesity and Depression : An Intertwined Public Health Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigatu, Yeshambel Tesfa

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and depression are widespread public health problems. Both problems often coexist, and can affect an individual’s health and productivity. We examine in this thesis the prospective association between obesity and depression, and their separate and combined effects on work and health

  5. Hijab and Depression: Does the Islamic Practice of Veiling Predict Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Husain, Altaf; Zidan, Tarek

    2017-07-01

    Hijab or veiling is commonly practiced by Muslim women but remains controversial in the broader secular society. Some Western feminists argue that veiling is an oppressive behavior that negatively affects women by, for example, engendering depression. This article tests this hypothesis with a national sample of American Muslim women (N = 194). The results of the regression analysis did not support the hypothesis. Indeed, women who veiled more frequently reported lower, rather than higher, levels of depressive symptoms. In other words, wearing the hijab appears to be a protective factor in the area of depression. Given the prevalence of depression among women, the results have important implications for practice with Muslim women at both the micro and the macro levels. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  6. Women's Use of Multi sector Mental Health Services in a Community-Based Perinatal Depression Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2010-01-01

    Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…

  7. Problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ummugulsum; Adana, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    To determine problem solving, loneliness, depression levels and associated factors in high school adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city west of Turkey (Bursa) in a public high school and the population was 774 and the sampling was 394 students. Students to be included in the study were selected using the multiple sampling method. A personal Information Form with 23 questions, Problem Solving Inventory (PSI), Loneliness Scale (UCLA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used as data collection tools in the study. Basic statistical analyses, t-test, Kruskall Wallis-H, One Way Anova and Pearson Correlation test were used to evaluate the data. Necessary permissions were obtained from the relevant institution, students, parents and the ethical committee. The study found significant differences between "problem solving level" and family type, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers' siblings' closeness level; between "loneliness level" and gender, family income, health assessment, life quality and mothers', fathers', siblings' closeness level; between "depression level" and life quality, family income, fathers' closeness level. Unfavorable socio-economic and cultural conditions can have an effect on the problem solving, loneliness and depression levels of adolescents. Providing structured education to adolescents at risk under school mental health nursing practices is recommended.

  8. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  9. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Blanco

    Full Text Available Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R, was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  10. Mediating Role of Activity Level in the Depressive Realism Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A. Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants’ perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants’ judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding. PMID:23029435

  11. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE LEVELS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS UPON THEIR DEPRESSION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan ISIK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was planned to evaluate the effects of the quality of life levels of university students upon their depression levels. The students of School of Physical Education and Sports who took physical activity courses (n=148 and students of other academ ic branches who did not take physical activity courses (n=180 participated in the study voluntarily. To the participant individuals; SF - 36 quality of life scale (8 subscales, 2 summary scores, Beck Depression Inventory (Total scores and a personal infor mation form (about age, height, weight, sportive age, marital status and income status were administered. When intergroup quality of life subscale differences were examined; it was found out that there was a statistically significant difference in physic al functioning (t=6.810; p0.05. As for the quality of life summary scores; a statistically significant difference exist ed in physical health summary scores (t=3.580; p0.05. Again; intergroup depression scores were investigated; it was found out that students who stud ied at other academic departments had higher depression scores than those who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports (t= - 6.855; p<0.001. It was concluded that physical activities had positive effects upon both quality of life and depression le vels and that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression levels.

  12. Depression (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression, secondary to stress and emotional upset, can occur in adults and children with cancer. Get comprehensive information about assessing depression in patients, interventions, and more in this summary for clinicians.

  13. Caring for Depression in Older Home Health Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Martha L

    2015-11-01

    Depression is common in older home health patients and increases their risk of adverse outcomes. Depression screening is required by Medicare's Outcome and Assessment Information Set. The Depression Care for Patients at Home (CAREPATH) was developed as a feasible strategy for home health nurses to manage depression in their patients. The protocol builds on nurses' existing clinical skills and is designed to fit within routine home visits. Major components include ongoing clinical assessment, care coordination, medication management, education, and goal setting. In a randomized trial, Depression CAREPATH patients had greater improvement in depressive symptoms compared to usual care. The difference between groups was significant at 3 months, growing larger and more clinically meaningful over 1 year. The intervention had no impact on patient length of stay, number of home visits, or duration of visits. Thus, nurses can play a pivotal role in the long-term course and outcomes of patients with depression. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Environmental and individual characteristics associated with depressive disorders and mental health care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Weill, Alain; Thomas, Frédérique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-08-01

    Few studies examined the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and both depressive disorders and the corresponding mental health care use. The aim of our study was to investigate neighborhood effects on depressive symptomatology, antidepressant consumption, and the consultation of psychiatrists. Data from the French Residential Environment and Coronary heart Disease Study (n = 7290, 2007-2008, 30-79 years of age) were analyzed. Depressive symptomatology was cross-sectionally assessed. Health care reimbursement data allowed us to assess antidepressant consumption and psychiatric consultation prospectively more than 18 months. Multilevel logistic regression models were estimated. The risk of depressive symptoms increased with decreasing personal educational level and unemployment and slightly with decreasing neighborhood income. In a sample comprising participants with and without depressive symptoms, high individual and parental educational levels were both associated with the consultation of psychiatrists. In this sample, a low personal educational level increased the odds of consumption of antidepressants. No heterogeneity between neighborhoods was found for antidepressant consumption. However, the odds of consulting psychiatrists increased with median neighborhood income and with the density of psychiatrists, after adjustment for individual characteristics. Among depressive participants only, a particularly strong gradient in the consultation of psychiatrists was documented according to individual socioeconomic status. Future research on the relationships between the environments and depression should take into account health care use related to depression and consider the spatial accessibility to mental health services among other environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ajit

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Examination of consultation data in a variety of primary care settings in Tanzania shows that, while psychoses are routinely diagnosed and treated at primary care level, depression is rarely recorded as a reason for consultation. Since, epidemiological studies elswhere show that depression is a much more common disorder than psychosis, a series of studies were undertaken to elucidate this apparent paradox in Tanzania and inform mental health policy; firstly, a household prevalence study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders at community level in Tanzania; secondly, a study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders in primary care attenders; and thirdly, a study to ascertain the current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers. This paper reports the findings of the latter study. Methods All the primary health care workers (N = 14 in four primary health care centres in Tanzania were asked to complete the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, which assesses the health worker's knowledge and attitude towards the causes, consequences and treatment of depression. Results The majority of respondents felt that rates of depression had increased in recent years, believed that life events were important in the aetiology of depression, and generally held positive views about pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression, prognosis and their own involvement in the treatment of depressed patients. However, the majority of respondents felt that becoming depressed is a way that people with poor stamina deal with life difficulties. Conclusion The findings suggest a need to strengthen the training of primary health care workers in Tanzania about the detection of depression, pharmacological and psychological treatments, and psychosocial interventions.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatia, Joseph; Shah, Ajit; Jenkins, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background Examination of consultation data in a variety of primary care settings in Tanzania shows that, while psychoses are routinely diagnosed and treated at primary care level, depression is rarely recorded as a reason for consultation. Since, epidemiological studies elswhere show that depression is a much more common disorder than psychosis, a series of studies were undertaken to elucidate this apparent paradox in Tanzania and inform mental health policy; firstly, a household prevalence study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders at community level in Tanzania; secondly, a study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders in primary care attenders; and thirdly, a study to ascertain the current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers. This paper reports the findings of the latter study. Methods All the primary health care workers (N = 14) in four primary health care centres in Tanzania were asked to complete the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, which assesses the health worker's knowledge and attitude towards the causes, consequences and treatment of depression. Results The majority of respondents felt that rates of depression had increased in recent years, believed that life events were important in the aetiology of depression, and generally held positive views about pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression, prognosis and their own involvement in the treatment of depressed patients. However, the majority of respondents felt that becoming depressed is a way that people with poor stamina deal with life difficulties. Conclusion The findings suggest a need to strengthen the training of primary health care workers in Tanzania about the detection of depression, pharmacological and psychological treatments, and psychosocial interventions. PMID:19243596

  17. Relationships among depression during pregnancy, social support and health locus of control among Iranian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshki, Mahdi; Cheravi, Khadijeh

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal depression is a significant predictor of postpartum depression and is detrimental to fetal development. To examine whether depression during pregnancy is associated with social support and health locus of control (HLC). Data were collected from a sample of 208 Iranian pregnant women using a demographic questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the multidimensional HLC Scale and the social support appraisals. Depression was experienced by 37% of participants. Overall, women reported higher level of family support (6.88 ± 1.15) than other supports (6.87 ± 1.29). Protective supports from other resources (6.87 ± 1.29) were higher than those from friends (5.94 ± 1.5). Internal, powerful others and chance beliefs had the highest mean scores. Social support and chance HLC significantly influenced the proposed mediator (depressive mood) in the linear regression model. Bivariate analysis showed significant associations between social support (friend, family and others) and depressive mood. Internal HLC had a significant association with social support and powerful others HLC. However, Pearson correlation coefficient was not significant between depressive mood and all dimensions of HLC. Clinicians could assess social support and chance HLC to identify and treat women at risk of prenatal depression. By providing support during pregnancy, depression levels in women and its effects on the fetus may be decreased, which could prevent postpartum depression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Low serum BDNF levels in depressed patients cannot be attributed to individual depressive symptoms or symptom cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Molendijk, M. L.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B. M.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    OBJECTIVES: Low serum BDNF levels have been found in depressed patients. No study has systematically investigated whether individual symptoms or symptom profiles within a depressed population contribute to low BDNF levels found in depressed subjects. METHODS: All 1070 patients with a past 6-month

  19. The relationship between geriatric depression and health-promoting behaviors among community-dwelling seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chyong-Fang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang; Wang, Jeng; Fan, Jun-Yu; Chou, Li-Na; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-06-01

    People older than 65 years old account for about 10.9% of Taiwan's total population; it is also known that the older adults experience a higher incidence of depression. Public health nurses play an important role in promoting community health. Policymaking for community healthcare should reflect the relationship between health-promoting behavior and depression in community-dwelling seniors. Therefore, the encouragement of healthy aging requires strategic planning by those who provide health promotion services. This study was designed to elicit the health-promoting behaviors of community seniors and investigate the relationship between geriatric depression and health-promoting behaviors among seniors who live in rural communities. We used a cross-sectional, descriptive design and collected data using a demographic information datasheet, the Health Promotion for Seniors and Geriatric Depression Scale short forms. The study included 427 participants. Most were women; mean age was 75.8 years. Most were illiterate; roughly half engaged in a limited number of health-promoting activities. The Geriatric Depression Scale score was negatively associated with health-promoting behavior. Social participation, health responsibility, self-protection, active lifestyle, and total Health Promotion for Seniors score all reached statistical significance. Multivariate analysis indicated that geriatric depression and physical discomfort were independent predictors of health-promoting behavior after controlling the confounding factors. Participants practiced less than the recommended level of health-promoting behaviors. We found a negative correlation between the geriatric depression score and health-promoting behavior. Results can be referenced to develop strategies to promote healthy aging in the community, especially with regard to promoting greater social participation and increased activity for community-dwelling older adults experiencing depression.

  20. Depression and health behaviors in Brazilian adults – PNS 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of health-related behaviors according to presence and type of depression in Brazilian adults. METHODS Based on a sample of 49,025 adults (18 to 59 years from the National Survey on Health 2013 (PNS 2013, we estimated the prevalence of health-related behaviors (smoking; passive smoking; frequent or risky alcohol consumption; leisure time physical activity; time watching TV; and eating pattern indicators, according to the presence of depression (minor and major, evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 (PHQ-9, and the report of depressive mood (in up to seven days or more than seven days over a two-week period. Prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS Evaluated by the PHQ-9 scale, 9.7% of the Brazilian adults had depression and 3.9% presented major depression. About 21.0% reported depressive mood and, in 34.9% of them, that feeling has been present for more than seven days. In individuals with major depression (PHQ-9, higher prevalence was found in almost all unhealthy behaviors analyzed, in particular, smoking (PR = 1.65, passive smoking (PR = 1.55, risk alcohol consumption (PR = 1.72, TV for ≥ 5 hours/day (PR = 2.13, consumption of fat meat (PR = 1.43 and soft drink (PR = 1.42. The prevalence ratios tended to be lower in those with minor depression. Similar results were observed in adults with depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS This study detected relevant association between depression and health behaviors, in particular for smoking and physical activity. The associations found with the PHQ were similar to those observed with the application of a single question about depressive mood. Our results indicate the importance of assessing the presence of depression and the frequency and severity of symptoms when implementing actions for the promotion of healthy behaviors.

  1. Stress underestimation and mental health literacy of depression in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Izawa, Shuhei; Yamada, Kosuke Chris

    2018-04-01

    Appropriately estimating stress levels in daily life is important for motivating people to undertake stress-management behaviors or seek out information on stress management and mental health. People who exhibit high stress underestimation might not be interested in information on mental health, and would therefore have less knowledge of it. We investigated the association between stress underestimation tendency and mental health literacy of depression (i.e., knowledge of the recognition, prognosis, and usefulness of resources of depression) in Japanese workers. We cross-sectionally surveyed 3718 Japanese workers using a web-based questionnaire on stress underestimation, mental health literacy of depression (vignettes on people with depression), and covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, income, and worksite size). After adjusting for covariates, high stress underestimation was associated with greater odds of not recognizing depression (i.e., choosing anything other than depression). Furthermore, these individuals had greater odds of expecting the case to improve without treatment and not selecting useful sources of support (e.g. talk over with friends/family, see a psychiatrist, take medication, see a counselor) compared to those with moderate stress underestimation. These relationships were all stronger among males than among females. Stress underestimation was related to poorer mental health literacy of depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma cortisol and oxytocin levels predict help-seeking intentions for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan; Larkin, Theresa

    2018-01-01

    Depressed individuals often refuse or withdraw from help, a phenomenon termed help-negation, which is a risk factor for poor outcomes. Most previous research has investigated psychosocial factors including stigma as causes of low help-seeking intentions for depression, however these do not adequately explain the problem. We hypothesised that because help-negation worsens with symptom severity, it might be linked to important biological changes associated with depression itself. We investigated the relative contributions of cortisol, a stress hormone linked to depression, and oxytocin, a hormone which mediates social behaviours, alongside psychosocial factors, to help-seeking intentions among depressed and non-depressed individuals. Morning plasma cortisol and oxytocin levels, psychopathology, suicidal ideation, help-seeking intentions from informal sources including family and friends, and formal sources including health professionals, and perceived social support were quantified in 63 adults meeting DSM-5 criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) who were not receiving any treatment, and 60 healthy controls. Between-group analyses of variance, correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed. Help-seeking intentions were lower in depressed than healthy participants, negatively correlated to cortisol and positively correlated to oxytocin. Cortisol negatively, and oxytocin positively, predicted help-seeking intentions from informal but not formal sources, after controlling for psychopathology and psychosocial factors. Neuroendocrine changes associated with depression may contribute to low help-seeking from friends and family, which may have implications for interpersonal support and outcomes. Research and clinical approaches which incorporate biological as well as psychosocial factors may allow for more targeted and effective early interventions to address lack of help-seeking and depression progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. The Association of School Climate, Depression Literacy, and Mental Health Stigma Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lisa; Musci, Rashelle; Stuart, Elizabeth; Ruble, Anne; Beaudry, Mary B; Schweizer, Barbara; Owen, Megan; Goode, Carly; Johnson, Sarah L; Bradshaw, Catherine; Wilcox, Holly; Swartz, Karen

    2017-08-01

    Although school climate is linked with youth educational, socioemotional, behavioral, and health outcomes, there has been limited research on the association between school climate and mental health education efforts. We explored whether school climate was associated with students' depression literacy and mental health stigma beliefs. Data were combined from 2 studies: the Maryland Safe Supportive Schools Project and a randomized controlled trial of the Adolescent Depression Awareness Program. Five high schools participated in both studies, allowing examination of depression literacy and stigma measures from 500 9th and 10th graders. Multilevel models examined the relationship between school-level school climate characteristics and student-level depression literacy and mental health stigma scores. Overall school climate was positively associated with depression literacy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.78, p stigma (Est. = -3.822, p = .001). Subscales of engagement (OR = 5.30, p stigma (Est. = -6.610, p < .001), (Est. = -2.742, p < .001). Positive school climate was associated with greater odds of depression literacy and endorsement of fewer stigmatizing beliefs among students. Our findings raise awareness regarding aspects of the school environment that may facilitate or inhibit students' recognition of depression and subsequent treatment-seeking. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  4. Depressive symptoms in adolescence: the association with multiple health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Wayne; Richardson, Laura; Russo, Joan; McCarty, Carolyn A; Rockhill, Carol; McCauley, Elizabeth; Richards, Julie; Grossman, David C

    2010-01-01

    Although multiple studies of adolescents have examined the association of depression with individual health risk behaviors such as obesity or smoking, this is one of the few studies that examined the association between depression and multiple risk behaviors. A brief mail questionnaire, which screened for age, gender, weight, height, sedentary behaviors, physical activity, perception of general health, functional impairment and depressive symptoms, was completed by a sample of 2291 youth (60.7% response rate) aged 13-17 enrolled in a health care plan. A subset of youth who screened positive on the two-item depression screen and a random sample of those screening negative were approached to participate in a telephone interview with more in-depth information obtained on smoking and at-risk behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Youth screening positive for high levels of depressive symptoms compared to those with few or no depressive symptoms were significantly more likely to meet criteria for obesity, had a poorer perception of health, spent more time on the computer, got along less well with parents and friends, had more problems completing school work and were more likely to have experimented with smoking and a wide array of behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Because many adverse health behaviors that develop in adolescence continue into adulthood, the association of depressive symptoms with multiple risk behaviors and poor functioning suggest that early interventions are needed at an individual, school, community and primary care level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PERFECTIONISM TENDENCIES AND DEPRESSION LEVELS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atılgan ERÖZKAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that interpersonal relations are an important aspect of human life and that any problemconcerning this aspect has a direct effect on people’s psychological well-being. From this fact, there arises the need of moreexplanation and research on perfectionism and depression which are accepted to have important effects on interpersonalrelations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between university students’ perfectionismtendencies and depression levels in relation to gender, socio-economic status, mother’s education level, father’s educationlevel, and parenting styles. In order to collect data, 340 students (170 females; 170 males were randomly recruited fromMugla University, Faculty of Education's various departments. The instruments held to collect data were the InformationForm, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. SPSS for Windows was used to analyze thedata gathered. The group differences were tested by t-test and F statistics. Correlational statistics was employed to search forrelationships between all variables. The findings showed that there is a difference between the gender and SES according tothe scores of the university students that they got from the subdimensions of perfectionism “concern over mistakes” and“personal standarts”; mother’s education level, father’s education level and parenting styles according to the scores that theygot from “parental criticism” and “parental expectations”; the gender, socio-economic status and parenting styles accordingto the scores that they got from depression. The results are discussed in the light of previous findings and in the context ofperfectionism and depression, conducting future research for implications as well.

  6. Health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression related to mammography screening in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen

    2012-11-01

    To measure health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression ahead of mammography screening and to assess any differences in health-related quality of life compared to reference population. The study of health-related quality of life among attendees prior to mammography screening has received little attention, and increased knowledge is needed to better understand the overall health benefits of participation. A two-group cross-sectional comparative study was performed. The samples comprised 4,249 attendees to mammography screening and a comparison group of 943 women. We used the SF-36 Health Survey to assess health-related quality of life. Linear regression was used to study any differences between the groups with adjustment for age, level of education, occupation, having children and smoking status. Other normative data were also used. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Attendees scored statistically significant higher on the SF-36 than the comparison group but were in line with normative data. Attendees had anxiety mean 4·1 and depression mean 2·6. The majority of the attendees have a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression ahead of screening. Anxiety and depression were less than shown in normative data from Norway. Despite a high health-related quality of life, low anxiety and depression among the majority, healthcare workers should pay special attention to the few women who are anxious and depressed, and have a lower health-related quality of life. Omitted from mammography screening may be women who are unemployed, have lower socioeconomic status, are anxious and are depressed. Further research should be performed with non-attendees and subgroups to improve the screening programme. It is important to identify which patients have the greatest need for support and caring in an organised mammography screening and who may be overlooked. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of depression among health workers in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-11

    Nov 11, 2014 ... A structured self‑administered questionnaire including the Zung self‑rating depression scale was used to ... A feeling of sadness over family, living and working conditions was ... effects of depression in the Nigerian health work force are necessary. ... conflicts especially related to welfare of staff, conditions.

  8. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  9. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ratanasiripong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  10. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.

  11. Levels of depression and anxiety among parents of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunay Firat

    2016-09-01

    Results: Participants in the study were parents of 26 male (65% and 14 female (35% autistic children. The average age of the children was 62.9+/-16.6 months. .Mothers had higher levels of depression and anxiety scores. Mothers of autistic children who participated in the study received higher scores on depression, state anxiety and trait anxiety compared to fathers. Among mothers, a significant relationship was found between level of education and level of state anxiety. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that mothers have higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to fathers. This finding might be explained with reference to customs and traditions of the Turkish society in which the study was conducted, which require women to take more responsiblity for family matters. It is recommended that special education and rehabilitation centers provide counseling to parents about the effects of having an autistic children on their lives, and advise them on seeking psychological help if necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 539-547

  12. Elevated alanine aminotransferase independently predicts new onset of depression in employees undergoing health screening examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, S; Toker, S; Armon, G; Melamed, S; Berliner, S; Shapira, I; Halpern, Z; Santo, E; Shibolet, O

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation. Similarly, patients with depression exhibit insulin resistance and increased inflammatory markers. However, no study has shown a clear association between elevated ALT and the development of depression. The aim of the study was to test whether elevated ALT, a surrogate marker for NAFLD, predicts the development of depression. The present prospective cohort study investigated 12 180 employed adults referred for health examinations that included fasting blood tests and anthropometric measurements between 2003 and 2010. Exclusion criteria were: baseline minor/major depression, excessive alcohol consumption and other causes for ALT elevation. Depression was evaluated by the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) score. The final cohort included 5984 subjects [69.4% men, aged 45.0 (s.d. = 10.24) years]. The incidence rate of minor and major depression was 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Elevated ALT was a significant independent predictor for the occurrence of minor [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.92] and major (OR 3.132, 95% CI 1.81-5.40) depression after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education level, serum levels of lipids, glucose, smoking and physical activity. Adding subjective health and affective state parameters (sleep disturbances, self-rated health, anxiety and burnout) as potential mediators only slightly ameliorated the association. Persistently elevated ALT was associated with the greatest risk for minor or major depression as compared with elevation only at baseline or follow-up (p for trend depressive symptoms, thus suggesting that NAFLD may represent an independent modifiable risk factor for depression.

  13. Antenatal and postnatal depression: A public health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh R Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is widely prevalent among women in the child-bearing age, especially during the antenatal and postnatal period. Globally, post-partum depression has been reported in almost 10% to 20% of mothers, and it can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. The presence of depression among women has gained a lot of attention not only because of the rising incidence or worldwide distribution, but also because of the serious negative impact on personal, family and child developmental outcomes. Realizing the importance of maternal depression on different aspects-personal, child, and familial life, there is a crucial need to design a comprehensive public health policy (including a mental health strategy, to ensure that universal psychosocial assessment in perinatal women is undertaken within the primary health care system. To conclude, depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a serious public health issue, which essentially requires continuous health sector support to eventually benefit not only the woman, but also the family, the community, and health care professionals.

  14. Pesticide exposure and self-reported incident depression among wives in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John D; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya

    2013-10-01

    Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers' wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and drop out, wives' incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands' ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' incident depression. Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels

  15. Impact of health literacy on depressive symptoms and mental health-related: quality of life among adults with addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alisa; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Caruso, Christine; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2006-08-01

    Health literacy has been linked to health status in a variety of chronic diseases. However, evidence for a relationship between health literacy and mental health outcomes is sparse. We hypothesized that low literacy would be associated with higher addiction severity, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and worse mental health functioning compared with those with higher literacy in adults with alcohol and drug dependence. The association of literacy with multiple mental health outcomes was assessed using multivariable analyses. Measurement instruments included the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, the Mental Component Summary scale of the Short Form Health Survey, and the Addiction Severity Index for drug and alcohol addiction. Subjects included 380 adults recruited during detoxification treatment and followed prospectively at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Based on the REALM, subjects were classified as having either low ( or = 9th grade) literacy levels. In longitudinal analyses, low literacy was associated with more depressive symptoms. The adjusted mean difference in CES-D scores between low and high literacy levels was 4 (Pmental health-related quality of life or addiction severity. In people with alcohol and drug dependence, low literacy is associated with worse depressive symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between literacy and mental health outcomes should be explored to inform future intervention efforts.

  16. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  17. Depression and diabetes: Treatment and health-care delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrak, Frank; Baumeister, Harald; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Despite research efforts in the past 20 years, scientific evidence about screening and treatment for depression in diabetes remains incomplete and is mostly focused on North American and European health-care systems. Validated instruments to detect depression in diabetes......, which are often implemented through collaborative care and stepped-care approaches. The evidence for improved glycaemic control in the treatment of depression by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or psychological approaches is conflicting; only some analyses show small to moderate...... improvements in glycaemic control. More research is needed to evaluate treatment of different depression subtypes in people with diabetes, the cost-effectiveness of treatments, the use of health-care resources, the need to account for cultural differences and different health-care systems, and new treatment...

  18. Health Care Engagement Among LGBT Older Adults: The Role of Depression Diagnosis and Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Chengshi; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Optimal engagement in health care plays a critical role in the success of disease prevention and treatment, particularly for older adults who are often in greater need of health care services. However, to date, there is still limited knowledge about the relationship between depression and health care engagement among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. This study utilized data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, Sexuality/Gender Study, from the 2014 survey with 2,450 LGBT adults 50 years old and older. Multiple-variable regression was utilized to evaluate relationships between three indicators of health care engagement and four depression groups after controlling for background characteristics and discrimination in health care. Health care engagement indicators were "not using preventive care," "not seeking care when needed," and "difficulty in adhering to treatments." Depression groups were defined by depression diagnosis and symptomatology, including Diagnosed-Symptomatic group (Diag-Sympt), Diagnosed-Nonsymptomatic group (Diag-NoSympt), Nondiagnosed-Symptomatic group (NoDiag-Sympt), and Nondiagnosed-Nonsymptomatic group (NoDiag-NoSympt). Depression groups displayed different patterns and levels of health care engagement. The Diag-Sympt group displayed the highest "difficulty in adhering to treatments." Diag-NoSympt group displayed the lowest "not using preventive care." The NoDiag-Sympt group reported the highest "not using preventive care" and "not seeking care when needed." The NoDiag-NoSympt group had the lowest "not seeking care when needed" and "difficulty in adhering to treatments." Depression diagnosis and symptomatology are jointly associated with health care engagement among LGBT older adults. Interventions aiming to promote health care engagement among this population should simultaneously consider both depression diagnosis and symptomatology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The

  19. Stress levels and depressive symptoms in NICU mothers in the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; McMahon, Erin; Lahav, Amir

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether particular maternal and infant factors can identify mothers at risk for increased stress upon admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Eighty-five mothers of preterm infants (25-34 weeks gestation) were assessed using the Parental Stressor Scale (PSS:NICU) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) within 3.24 ± 1.58 d postpartum. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to determine the extent to which maternal stress is influenced by individual factors. Fifty-two percent of mothers experienced increased stress (PSS:NICU score ≥3) and 38% had significant depressive symptoms (EPDS score ≥10). Stress related to alterations in parental role was the most significant source of stress among NICU mothers. Distance from the hospital and married marital status were significant predictors for stress related to alterations in parental role (p = 0.003) and NICU sights and sounds (p = 0.01), respectively. Higher stress levels were associated with higher depressive scores (p = 0.001). Maternal mental health factors, demographic factors, pregnancy factors and infant characteristics were not associated with increased stress. Elevated stress levels and depressive symptoms are already present in mothers of preterm infants upon NICU admission. Being married or living long distance from the hospital is associated with higher stress. Future work is needed to develop effective interventions for alleviating stress in NICU mothers and preventing its potential development into postnatal depression.

  20. Recession depression: mental health effects of the 2008 stock market crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-12-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recession Depression: Mental Health Effects of the 2008 Stock Market Crash*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M.; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-01-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  2. Correlation between oral health in disabled children and depressive symptoms in their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, G; Cremonesi, I; Alkhamis, N; Piana, G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and degree of depressive symptoms in mothers of disabled children and to assess the correlation between maternal major depression risk and son/daughter oral health. A prospective study was conducted in 51 disabled children and their 51 mothers. In children dmft/DMFT values, food and/or sugar- sweetened consumption levels and daily tooth brushing frequency were evaluated. Depressive maternal symptoms were measured by EDPS questionnaire: the questionnaire scores were converted into positive predictive values (PPV) that represented the risk of falling into major depression. A regression analysis was performed on the variables (statical significance was set at p value ≤ 0.05). Children (8.68 ± 3.98 years old) average dmft/DMFT was 2.7. Fifty three percent of the mothers (38.37 ± 6.04 years) were at risk for depression (PPV > 60%), while depressive symptoms were already present in 25% of the subjects (PPV=100%). Mothers of disabled children are more likely to fall into major depression compared to mothers of healthy children. For each mother-child couple the correlation between different variables was evaluated: there was a statistically significant correlation between children's dmft/DMFT values and mothers' depression risk. The risk of maternal depression was statistically correlated to prevalence of caries and sugar consumption in children.

  3. Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The genetic...... marker rs10434 was significantly associated with depression after correction for multiple testing, but not with the serum VEGF level. Our final model included depression and BMI as predictors of serum VEGF levels. Our study suggests a role for circulating serum VEGF in depression. Furthermore, our data...

  4. Acculturation, depression and oral health of immigrants in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huabin; Hybels, Celia F; Wu, Bei

    2017-12-21

    The objectives were to describe the oral health status of immigrants in the USA, describe the association between acculturation and oral health by accounting for the effects of depression and to explore the effects of interaction between acculturation and depression on the oral health of immigrants. Data were from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Oral health status was assessed by both self-rated oral health and clinically diagnosed periodontitis, each coded as a binary outcome. Acculturation was operationalised as length of stay in the USA and speaking English at home. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of acculturation and depression status with oral health. In 2011-2012, 36.6% immigrants reported poor oral health and 53.0% were diagnosed with periodontitis. A length of stay in the USA of 30+ years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.43, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.21-0.89) reduced the odds of having periodontitis in comparison with a length of stay in the USA of fewer than 5 years. Speaking English at home (AOR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.96) reduced the odds of having periodontitis compared with speaking other languages. Depression was negatively associated with self-reported good oral health (AOR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.92) and positively associated with clinically diagnosed periodontitis (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.18-3.04). The effects of acculturation did not differ according to depression status. A longer stay in the USA and speaking English at home were associated with less periodontitis among the immigrants. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Impact of depression on health care utilization and costs among multimorbid patients--from the MultiCare Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens-Oliver Bock

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the effects of depression on health care utilization and costs in a sample of multimorbid elderly patients. METHOD: This cross-sectional analysis used data of a prospective cohort study, consisting of 1,050 randomly selected multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85 years. Depression was defined as a score of six points or more on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15. Subjects passed a geriatric assessment, including a questionnaire for health care utilization. The impact of depression on health care costs was analyzed using multiple linear regression models. A societal perspective was adopted. RESULTS: Prevalence of depression was 10.7%. Mean total costs per six-month period were €8,144 (95% CI: €6,199-€10,090 in patients with depression as compared to €3,137 (95% CI: €2,735-€3,538; p<0.001 in patients without depression. The positive association between depression and total costs persisted after controlling for socio-economic variables, functional status and level of multimorbidity. In particular, multiple regression analyses showed a significant positive association between depression and pharmaceutical costs. CONCLUSION: Among multimorbid elderly patients, depression was associated with significantly higher health care utilization and costs. The effect of depression on costs was even greater than reported by previous studies conducted in less morbid patients.

  6. Post-Partum Depression Effect on Child Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rezai Abhari, Farideh; Zarghami, Mehran

    2017-02-01

    While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD) on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009), 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204) and control (N=467) groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively). PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.

  7. Post-Partum Depression Effect on Child Health and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abdollahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009, 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204 and control (N=467 groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively. PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.

  8. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression....... This study aims to investigate whether delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood and whether it interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom-levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 149...... participants from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3) between 30 and 46 years of age in 2006. The outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS scale. Variables measuring educational attainment were obtained from the National Educational Database in Norway. We used...

  9. Evaluation of a depression health management program to improve outcomes in first or recurrent episode depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Ronald E; Fulop, George; Xia, Fang; Thiel, Melinda; Maldonato, Debra; Woo, Cindy

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of telephone counseling and educational materials on medication adherence and persistency among members with newly diagnosed depression enrolled in a pharmacy benefit management-sponsored disease management program. Longitudinal cohort observation. The study population comprised 505 members with a new or recurrent episode of depression who consented and enrolled in a depression disease management program. After written consent was obtained, program participants received up to 4 telephone-counseling calls and 5 educational mailings focused on the importance of medication compliance, barriers to medication compliance, quality of life, symptoms, and satisfaction with the program. A control group of 3744 members was selected from client companies that opted not to offer the depression program. Measures of medication adherence, persistency with prescription drug therapy, and patient refill timeliness were computed for both groups and compared. Patients enrolled in the depression disease management program were significantly more likely to adhere to their medication regimen during acute (89.0% vs 67.7%, P management-sponsored health management depression program succeeded in encouraging patients with new or recurrent depression to stay on antidepressant medication and to reach treatment goals outlined by best practice guidelines.

  10. The influence of social capital on self-rated health and depression – The Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Sund

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and two health outcomes: selfrated health and depression. A total of 42,571 individuals aged 30–67 years participated in a cross-sectional total population health study in Nord-Trøndelag in 1995–1997 (HUNT II and were investigated using multilevel modelling. Aims were, first, to investigate potential area effects after accounting for the characteristics of individuals in the neighbourhoods (N = 155, and, second, to explore the relationships between contextual social capital (the level of trust at the neighbourhood level and the level of local organizational activity and the two health measures. Models with stepwise inclusion of individual level factors attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health (PCV: 41% and depression (PCV: 43%. The inclusion of the two contextual social capital items attenuated the ward level variance for both self-rated health and depression, however to varying degrees. At the individual level, contextual social capital was associated with both self-rated health and depression. Individuals living in wards with a low level of trust experienced an increased risk of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.13-1.63 for poor self-rated health compared to individuals in wards with a high level of trust. For depression, this effect was even stronger (OR 1.52, 1.23-1.87. The associations with the level of organizational activity were inconsistent and weaker for both health outcomes. It was concluded that geographical variations in self-rated health and depression are largely due to the socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. Nevertheless, contextual social capital, expressed as the level of trust, was found to be associated with depression and self-rated health at individual level.

  11. Depressed mood, usual activity level, and continued employment after starting dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2010-11-01

    When patients start dialysis, their employment rate declines and disability benefits are an option. With patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics including disability income status controlled, we investigated the significance of depressed mood and usual activity level as predictors of patients' continued employment after dialysis start. Incident patients from 296 randomly selected dialysis clinics were surveyed in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS). Participants provided information about employment status, disability income status, education, depressive symptoms measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and usual activity level/energy expenditure measured by the Human Activity Profile. Age, gender, race, insurance, diabetes, inability to ambulate or transfer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular conditions, and hemoglobin and serum albumin values at treatment start were obtained from US Renal Data System files. Dialysis modality was defined at time of interview. Among 585 CDS participants who worked in the previous year, 191 (32.6%) continued working after dialysis start. On the basis of the PHQ-2 cutoff score ≥3, 12.1% of patients who remained employed had possible or probable depression, compared with 32.8% of patients who were no longer employed. In adjusted analyses, higher Human Activity Profile scores were associated with increased likelihood of continued employment, and there was a borderline association between lower PHQ-2 scores and continued employment. Screening and management of depressive symptoms and support for increased activity level may facilitate patients' opportunity for continued employment after dialysis start, along with generally improving their overall quality of life.

  12. Depressive symptoms and health problems among Chinese immigrant elders in the US and Chinese elders in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Chi, Iris; Plassman, Brenda L; Guo, Man

    2010-08-01

    Researchers speculate that depression tends to be more prevalent among immigrant elders due to their lack of resources, acculturation stress, language problems, and social isolation. However, other characteristics of elderly immigrants, such as the healthy immigrant effect, may counteract these potential risk factors. This study examined whether depressive symptoms differed between Chinese immigrant elders and their counterparts in China and whether health conditions were similarly associated with depressive symptoms in these two samples. Depression and health information was collected from 177 Chinese immigrant elders in Boston, the US in 2000 and from 428 education and gender-matched elders in Shanghai, China in 2003. Chinese immigrants had a significantly lower score on the modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and its subscales: somatic symptoms and depressive affect. The association remained for the subscale depressive affect in multivariate analyses. Arthritis and back or neck problems were associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms among Chinese immigrants, while problems in walking were associated with depression among their counterparts in China. Pain was an underlying contributor to the association between depression and these health problems in both the groups. This study suggests that Chinese immigrant elders might be more resilient than their counterparts despite many challenges they face after moving abroad. With the growing number of older Chinese immigrants in the US, a better understanding of depressive symptoms is essential to provide culturally competent services to better serve this population.

  13. Mental health treatment associated with community-based depression screening: considerations for planning multidisciplinary collaborative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Bruce R; Watkins, Sarah C; Brahm, Nancy C; Harrison, Donald L; Miller, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Depression places a large economic burden on the US health care system. Routine screening has been recognized as a fundamental step in the effective treatment of depression, but should be undertaken only when support systems are available to ensure proper diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. To estimate differences in prescribing new antidepressants and referral to stress management, psychotherapy, and other mental health (OMH) counseling at physician visits when documented depression screening was and was not performed. Cross-sectional physician visit data for adults from the 2005-2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used. The final analytical sample included 55,143 visits, representing a national population estimate of 1,741,080,686 physician visits. Four dependent variables were considered: (1) order for new antidepressant(s), and referral to (2) stress management, (3) psycho therapy, or (4) OMH counseling. Bivariable and multivariable associations between depression screening and each measure of depression follow-up care were evaluated using the design-based F statistic and multivariable logistic regression models. New antidepressant prescribing increased significantly (2.12% of visits without depression screening vs 10.61% with depression screening resulted in a new prescription of an antidepressant). Referral to stress management was the behavioral treatment with the greatest absolute change (3.31% of visits without depression screening vs 33.10% of visits with depression screening resulted in a referral to stress management). After controlling for background sociodemographic characteristics, the adjusted odds ratio of a new antidepressant order remained significantly higher at visits involving depression screening (AOR 5.36; 99.9% CI 2.92-9.82), as did referrals for all behavioral health care services (ie, stress management, psychotherapy, and OMH counseling). At the national level, depression screening was associated with increased new

  14. Likelihood of Suicidality at Varying Levels of Depression Severity: A Re-Analysis of NESARC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Strong, David; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is clear that increasing depression severity is associated with more risk for suicidality, less is known about at what levels of depression severity the risk for different suicide symptoms increases. We used item response theory to estimate the likelihood of endorsing suicide symptoms across levels of depression severity in an…

  15. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  16. Adjunctive yoga v. health education for persistent major depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, L A; Tremont, G; Gillette, L T; Epstein-Lubow, G; Strong, D R; Abrantes, A M; Tyrka, A R; Tran, T; Gaudiano, B A; Miller, I W

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether hatha yoga is an efficacious adjunctive intervention for individuals with continued depressive symptoms despite antidepressant treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of weekly yoga classes (n = 63) v. health education classes (Healthy Living Workshop; HLW; n = 59) in individuals with elevated depression symptoms and antidepressant medication use. HLW served as an attention-control group. The intervention period was 10 weeks, with follow-up assessments 3 and 6 months afterwards. The primary outcome was depression symptom severity assessed by blind rater at 10 weeks. Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms over the entire intervention and follow-up periods, social and role functioning, general health perceptions, pain, and physical functioning. At 10 weeks, we did not find a statistically significant difference between groups in depression symptoms (b = -0.82, s.e. = 0.88, p = 0.36). However, over the entire intervention and follow-up period, when controlling for baseline, yoga participants showed lower levels of depression than HLW participants (b = -1.38, s.e. = 0.57, p = 0.02). At 6-month follow-up, 51% of yoga participants demonstrated a response (⩾50% reduction in depression symptoms) compared with 31% of HLW participants (odds ratio = 2.31; p = 0.04). Yoga participants showed significantly better social and role functioning and general health perceptions over time. Although we did not see a difference in depression symptoms at the end of the intervention period, yoga participants showed fewer depression symptoms over the entire follow-up period. Benefits of yoga may accumulate over time.

  17. Association of different levels of depressive symptoms with symptomatology, overall disease severity, and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Amris, Kirstine; Ortega, Francisco B

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examined the associations of different levels of depression with pain, sleep quality, fatigue, functional exercise capacity, overall fibromyalgia (FM) severity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with FM. METHODS: A total of 451 women with FM participated.......4-23.7), as well as poorer sleep quality (3.2-units; 95 % CI 1.7-4.7) and mental component of HRQoL (-17.0-units; 95 % CI -21.0 to -12.9) than participants with minimal signs of depression. There was no association of signs of depression with pain sensitivity, exercise capacity, or the physical component of HRQo...... in this cross-sectional study. Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II), pain intensity (numerical rating scale; NRS), pain sensitivity (algometry), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), functional exercise capacity (6-min walk test), FM...

  18. Mental health literacy towards depression among non-medical students at a Malaysian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2010-03-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia.Method Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire among students at USM.Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority.Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence-based mental health care.

  19. Ethical issues in using Twitter for population-level depression monitoring: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikal, Jude; Hurst, Samantha; Conway, Mike

    2016-04-14

    Recently, significant research effort has focused on using Twitter (and other social media) to investigate mental health at the population-level. While there has been influential work in developing ethical guidelines for Internet discussion forum-based research in public health, there is currently limited work focused on addressing ethical problems in Twitter-based public health research, and less still that considers these issues from users' own perspectives. In this work, we aim to investigate public attitudes towards utilizing public domain Twitter data for population-level mental health monitoring using a qualitative methodology. The study explores user perspectives in a series of five, 2-h focus group interviews. Following a semi-structured protocol, 26 Twitter users with and without a diagnosed history of depression discussed general Twitter use, along with privacy expectations, and ethical issues in using social media for health monitoring, with a particular focus on mental health monitoring. Transcripts were then transcribed, redacted, and coded using a constant comparative approach. While participants expressed a wide range of opinions, there was an overall trend towards a relatively positive view of using public domain Twitter data as a resource for population level mental health monitoring, provided that results are appropriately aggregated. Results are divided into five sections: (1) a profile of respondents' Twitter use patterns and use variability; (2) users' privacy expectations, including expectations regarding data reach and permanence; (3) attitudes towards social media based population-level health monitoring in general, and attitudes towards mental health monitoring in particular; (4) attitudes towards individual versus population-level health monitoring; and (5) users' own recommendations for the appropriate regulation of population-level mental health monitoring. Focus group data reveal a wide range of attitudes towards the use of public

  20. Inlfuence of Depressive State on Levels of Homocysteine and Thyroid Hormone in Patients with Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-wei; WANG Yan-ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the inlfuence of depressive state on the levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and thyroid hormone in patients with hypertension. Methods:Totally 179 patients with primary hypertension were selected and divided into depression group (n=97) and non-depression group (n=82) according to whether to be complicated with depressive disorder. The venous blood was drawn for detecting the level of Hcy in 2 groups by enzymatic cycling assay, and serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropic hormone (TSH) by chemiluminiscence. The correlation between Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) scores and levels of plasma Hcy and serum FT3, FT4 and TSH was analyzed. Results: Compared with non-depression group, the level of plasma Hcy increased and the levels of FT3 and FT4 decreased in depression group (P0.05). HAMD scores in depression group had a positive correlation with the level of plasma Hcy (r=0.593,P=0.024), a negative correlation with the level of serum FT3 (r=-0.421,P=0.011), and no relationships with the levels of serum FT4 and TSH (r=-0.137,P=0.334;r=0.058, P=0.576). Conclusion: Hypertensive patients complicated with depression have abnormal level of Hcy and thyroid hormones. Moreover, the depressive degree of patients is positively correlated with the level of Hcy and negatively with the level of FT3.

  1. The Association between Depression and Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müsemma Karabel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression, a challenging disorder, affects 1–6% of adolescents and early onset often predicts more serious manifestations in later life. Elevated Parathyroid hormone (PTH, parathormone levels have reported among adults with depression. In this study, the roles of 25(OH D (vitamin D and parathormone during adolescence, in which the frequency of depression is high, were studied. Materials and Methods Patients who were followed-up jointly at both clinics and whose 25(OH D and PTH levels were evaluated and questioned "Depression Scale for Children" for depression at the same time, were included in the study. Cases’ socio-demographic data, 25(OH D and PTH levels and Depression Scale’ scores were recorded. Results Depression was diagnosed in 35 (25.3% of the 138 patients. No differences were found between vitamin D and parathormone in terms of age and gender in groups either with or without depression. Negative correlation was found between the vitamin D levels and depression score in the group with depression   (r=-0.368; P=0.03. A significant and positive correlation was found between the PTH levels and depression score (r=0.399; P=0.018. A significant and negative correlation was found between 25(OH D and PTH levels. Conclusion Even if clinical depression is absent, the frequency of depressive symptoms is increased with decreased vitamin D levels and increased PTH levels, independent of other factors.  The prevention of depression, specifically in adolescents, is important to decrease possible suicidal and homicidal thoughts that might arise during adulthood, and substance abuse. Maintaining vitamin D support during adolescence, as with the first year of life, is necessary for both the prevention and treatment of depression.

  2. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10-12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose-response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18-36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace.

  3. Place and health in diabetes: the neighbourhood environment and risk of depression in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, G; Kaufman, J S; Blair, A; Kestens, Y; Schmitz, N

    2015-07-01

    Depression is a common co-illness in people with diabetes. Evidence suggests that the neighbourhood environment impacts the risk of depression, but few studies have investigated this effect in those with diabetes. We examined the effect of a range of neighbourhood characteristics on depression in people with Type 2 diabetes. This cohort study used five waves of data from 1298 participants with Type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Health Study (2008-2013). We assessed depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire. We measured neighbourhood deprivation using census data; density of services using geospatial data; level of greenness using satellite imagery; and perceived neighbourhood characteristics using survey data. The effect of neighbourhood factors on risk of depression was estimated using survival analysis, adjusting for sociodemographic variables. We tested effect modification by age, sex and socio-economic characteristics using interaction terms. More physical activity facilities, cultural services and a greater level of greenness in the neighbourhood were associated with a lower risk of depression in our sample, even after adjusting for confounders. Material deprivation was associated with increased risk of depression, particularly in participants who were older or retired. Characteristics of neighbourhoods were associated with the risk of depression in people with Type 2 diabetes and there were vulnerable subgroups within this association. Clinicians are encouraged to consider the neighbourhood environment of their patients when assessing the risk of depression. Future intervention research is need for health policy recommendations. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  4. Distress and depression in men who have sex with men: the Urban Men's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Thomas C; Paul, Jay; Stall, Ron; Pollack, Lance; Canchola, Jesse; Chang, Y Jason; Moskowitz, Judith T; Catania, Joseph A

    2004-02-01

    This study estimates the prevalence of depression and describes the correlates and independent associations of distress and depression among U.S. men who have sex with men. A household-based probability sample of men who have sex with men (N=2,881) was interviewed between 1996 and 1998 in four large American cities. With cutoff points of 15 and 22 for the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, individual correlates and predictors of distress and depression were examined, and multinomial logistic regression was performed. The 7-day prevalence of depression in men who have sex with men was 17.2%, higher than in adult U.S. men in general. Both distress and depression were associated with lack of a domestic partner; not identifying as gay, queer, or homosexual; experiencing multiple episodes of antigay violence in the previous 5 years; and very high levels of community alienation. Distress was also associated with being of other than Asian/Pacific Islander ethnicity and experiencing early antigay harassment. Depression was also associated with histories of attempted suicide, child abuse, and recent sexual dysfunction. Being HIV positive was correlated with distress and depression but not significantly when demographic characteristics, developmental history, substance use, sexual behavior, and current social context were controlled by logistic regression. Rates of distress and depression are high in men who have sex with men. These high rates have important public health ramifications. The predictors of distress and depression suggest prevention efforts that might be effective when aimed at men who have sex with men.

  5. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (Preligion with general health and depression.

  6. Comparative Performance of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for Screening Antepartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiuyue; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta; Sánchez, Sixto E; García, Pedro J; Sánchez, Elena; Barrios, Yasmin V; Simon, Gregory E.; Henderson, David C.; Cripe, Swee May; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of two widely used screening scales: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among pregnant Peruvian women. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,517 women receiving prenatal care from February 2012 to March 2013. A structured interview was used to collect data using PHQ-9 and EPDS. We examined reliability, construct and concurrent validity between two scales using internal consistency indices, factor structures, correlations, and Cohen’s kappa. Results Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.8). Correlation between PHQ-9 and EPDS scores was fair (rho=0.52). Based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), both scales yielded a two-factor structure. EFA including all items from PHQ-9 and EPDS yielded four factors, namely, “somatization”, “depression and suicidal ideation”, “anxiety and depression”, and “anhedonia”. The agreement between the two scales was generally fair at different cutoff scores with the highest Cohen’s kappa being 0.46. Conclusions Both the PHQ-9 and EPDS are reliable and valid scales for antepartum depression assessment. The PHQ-9 captures somatic symptoms, while EPDS detects depressive symptoms comorbid with anxiety during early pregnancy. Our findings suggest simultaneous administration of both scales may improve identification of antepartum depressive disorders in clinical settings. PMID:24766996

  7. Analysis of Depression and Anxiety Levels in Patients with Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of anxiety and depression in a sample of elderly patients with chronic respiratory failure and the relationships between these comorbidities and the severity of dyspnea. Material and Method: Sixty-four consecutive inpatients with asthma and chronic obstructive disease were evaluated in a chest disease hospital. A questionnaire including sociodemographic features was applied to patients and healthy control group. Anxiety was assessed by Spielberg state and trait anxiety scale, and depression by Beck depression inventory. Spirometric tests, respiratory symptoms and severity of dyspnea were evaluated in the study group. Results: The mean age of study group was 67.28±9.13 (range between 50-88 years. Of those 22 (34.4% were females and 42 (65.6% were males. The mean Beck depression inventory scores of the group was 18.42±10.00 (range between 5-47, the mean Spielberg’s state anxiety score was 40.20±8.13 and the mean Spielberg’s trait score was 44.70±7.94 these results were close to control group. Depression with Beck depression inventory scores was diagnosed in 24 (37.5%, absent or mild depression in 40 (62.5%, moderate depression in 13 (20.3% and severe depression in 11 (17.2% patients. There was a relation between age and depression scores (p=0.022. Depression scores, Spielberg’s state and trait inventory scores were found statistically related with each other. Discussion: The results of the present study support that anxiety and depressive disorders are found with a high incidence in patients with respiratory impairments but the severity of dyspnea measures does not affect the scores of depression and anxiety.

  8. Assessment level of anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnetsova D.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In patients with multiple sclerosis observed polymorphism of the emergency psychiatric disorders with a wide range of psychopathological phenomena — from neurotic and personality disorders to psychotic states and epileptiform syndrome. However, the problems of mental health problems in people with MS for a long time little attention was paid. The aim of our study was to analyze the level of anxiety and depression severity in patients with multiple sclerosis. According to this objective have been identifed objectives of the study: to determine the level of depression and anxiety in MS patients according to sex, age, course, duration of disease. For our work was selected group of patients with documented diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, Charles Poser criteria, consisting of 79 persons, with a disease duration of more than 2 years. We used a specially designed questionnaire, which included a table to assess complaints, anamnesis, the neurological status of the patient, and standard questionnaires (test anxiety, Taylor Depression Scale Research psychoneurology them. Spondylitis, the index of overall psychological well-being. The study found that mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, often occurs in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, they are expressed in groups of patients receiving and not receiving DMD, in many ways. Thus, it should be recommended  Vat practical neurologists in the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients to pay attention to whether or not they have a certain range of mental disorders, and above all, anxious-depressive syndrome, which is in need of medical and non-pharmacological correction.

  9. Levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients Self-correlation factor analysis and comparison with healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanxin Wang; Bin Wang; Aihua Yin; Yang Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data indicate that the levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients are higher than those in normal subjects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of serum homocysteine in patients with major depressive disorder, to determine whether serum homocysteine levels differ with sex, family history, or drug treatment, and to compare depressive patients with normal subjects. DESIGN: Non-randomized concurrent control trial.SETTING: Mental Heath Center of Shandong Province.PARTICIPANTS: Forty in-patients (23 males and 17 females, 18-63 years old) with major depressive disorder were selected from the Mental Health Center of Shandong Province from January to October 2006. All selected patients met the depressive diagnostic standard of Chinese Classification of Mental Disorder (3rd Edition, CCMD-3), and total scores evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) were ≥ 20. Meanwhile, 36 healthy subjects (20 males and 16 females, 18-60 years old) were enrolled as controls; their total 17-item HRSD scores were ≤ 7. All selected subjects provided consent, and the study was approved by the local ethics committee. METHODS: Fasting venous blood (3 mL) was drawn in both groups at 8:00 in the morning. The levels of serum homocysteine were determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The 17-item HRSD was also compiled from the patients when entering groups. The higher the scores were, the more severe the depression was. Enumeration data for both groups were compared by Chi-square test, measurement data were compared by t-test, and correlations were detected using Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Levels of serum homocysteine; ② incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy); ③ correlation between HRSD17 scores and levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients.RESULTS: Forty depressive patients and 36 control subjects were included in the final analysis without any loss of participants.

  10. Depression and health behaviors in Brazilian adults - PNS 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares de; Medina, Lhais Barbosa de Paula; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of health-related behaviors according to presence and type of depression in Brazilian adults. Based on a sample of 49,025 adults (18 to 59 years) from the National Survey on Health 2013 (PNS 2013), we estimated the prevalence of health-related behaviors (smoking; passive smoking; frequent or risky alcohol consumption; leisure time physical activity; time watching TV; and eating pattern indicators), according to the presence of depression (minor and major), evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9), and the report of depressive mood (in up to seven days or more than seven days) over a two-week period. Prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. Evaluated by the PHQ-9 scale, 9.7% of the Brazilian adults had depression and 3.9% presented major depression. About 21.0% reported depressive mood and, in 34.9% of them, that feeling has been present for more than seven days. In individuals with major depression (PHQ-9), higher prevalence was found in almost all unhealthy behaviors analyzed, in particular, smoking (PR = 1.65), passive smoking (PR = 1.55), risk alcohol consumption (PR = 1.72), TV for ≥ 5 hours/day (PR = 2.13), consumption of fat meat (PR = 1.43) and soft drink (PR = 1.42). The prevalence ratios tended to be lower in those with minor depression. Similar results were observed in adults with depressive mood. This study detected relevant association between depression and health behaviors, in particular for smoking and physical activity. The associations found with the PHQ were similar to those observed with the application of a single question about depressive mood. Our results indicate the importance of assessing the presence of depression and the frequency and severity of symptoms when implementing actions for the promotion of healthy behaviors. Avaliar a prevalência de comportamentos relacionados à saúde segundo a presença e tipo de depressão em adultos brasileiros. Com base em amostra de 49

  11. Depression in Europe: does migrant integration have mental health payoffs? A cross-national comparison of 20 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Depression is a leading cause of ill health and disability. As migrants form an increasing group in Europe, already making up about 8.7% of the population in 2010, knowledge on migrant-related inequalities in depression is of main public health interest. In this study, we first assess whether migrants in Europe are at higher risk for depression compared to the native population. Second, we assess whether the association between migration and depression is dependent on different forms of migrant integration. Migrant integration is looked at both from the individual and from the national level. Design. Hierarchical linear regression analyses based on data for 20 countries in the European Social Survey 2006/2007 (N = 37,076 individuals aged 15 or more). Depression is measured using the center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale. We consider migrant integration over time (first- and second-generation migrants, differentiated according to European Union (EU) or non-EU origin), barriers to integration (low educational level, financial difficulties, being out of the labor market, ethnic minority status, discrimination), and the host country environment (national migrant integration policy). Controls are gender, age, partner relationship, social support, and welfare state regime. Results. Natives and second-generation migrants do not differ significantly in their risk profile for depression. First-generation migrants show higher levels of depression, with those born outside of Europe to be the worst off. This higher risk for depression is not attributable to ethnic minority status but is mainly due to experienced barriers to socioeconomic integration and processes of discrimination. A country's national policy on migrant integration shows not to soften the depressing effect of being a first-generation migrant nor does it have indirect beneficial health effects by reducing barriers to integration. Conclusion. In Europe, first-generation EU and non-EU migrants

  12. Anxiety, Depression, and Health-Related QOL in Patients Diagnosed with PAH or CTEPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Elena; Krannich, Holger; Halank, Michael; Wilkens, Heinrike; Kolb, Philipp; Jany, Berthold; Held, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are life-threatening diseases with a high burden of symptoms. Although depression, anxiety, and reduced health related quality of life (HRQOL) have also been reported, a comparative analysis which explores these traits and their underlying factors was lacking. A retrospective analysis of depression, anxiety, and health related QOL was conducted using a Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) as well as the SF-36 HRQOL questionnaire. Results from these tools were compared with haemodynamic and functional parameters in 70 PAH and 23 CTEPH outpatients from a German tertiary care center specializing in pulmonary hypertension. Although HRQOL was reduced in both cohorts of patients, individuals diagnosed with CTEPH scored lower in nearly all SF-36 parameters. Significance was noted in both "mental health" (p = 0.01) and "mental component summary score" (MCS) (p = 0.02). Depression was also more frequent in patients with CTEPH (56%) than in patients with PAH (30%), (p = 0.03). Overall, depression and anxiety correlated with most SF-36 scales in both PAH and CTEPH. In CTEPH, depression also correlated with the Borg Dyspnea Scale (r = 0.44, p = 0.01). These patients also had significantly lower pCO 2 levels than the PAH cohort reflecting more severe ventilation/perfusion mismatch. All other haemodynamic and functional parameters did not differ across the groups. While both cohorts of patients suffer from a reduced HRQOL as well as depression and anxiety, decreases in mental health parameters are more pronounced in the CTEPH cohort. This suggests a strong effort to improve early detection, especially in dyspneic patients with classical risk factors for CTEPH and PAH and argues for mental illness interventions alongside routine clinical care provided to patients diagnosed with PAH or CTEPH.

  13. Stability and change in levels of depression and personality: a follow-up study of postpartum depressed mothers that were hospitalized in a mother-infant unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick; Besser, Avi; Casalin, Sara; Kempke, Stefan; Tang, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the role of the personality dimensions of dependency and self-criticism in the course of depressive symptoms in a sample of inpatient severely postpartum depressed mothers (n = 55). Depressive symptoms and personality were measured during hospitalization and on average 3 1/2 years later. In line with previous research, a considerable subgroup of mothers (39%) reported moderate to severe symptoms of depression at time 2. In addition, although these mothers did not exhibit more depressive episodes during follow-up period compared with mothers with a less chronic course of depression, their depressive episodes were considerably longer, and they had higher levels of severity of depression as well as of dependency and self-criticism at Time 1. Finally, self-criticism, but not dependency, assessed at Time 1, predicted both depression diagnosis and levels of depression at follow-up, supporting a vulnerability model positing that self-criticism confers vulnerability for depression over time.

  14. [Anxiety, depression, health-related control beliefs, and their association with health behavior in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, Beatrix; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Kovács, Péter; Balog, Piroska

    2015-05-17

    Psychological and lifestyle factors affect the development and outcome of heart disease considerably. The aims of the authors were to examine health control, level of anxiety and depression and to analyse their relationship with health behaviour in patients with ischemic heart disease. The present cross-sectional study involved 116 patients who took part in residential cardiac rehabilitation (56.9% men, mean age: 57.65±8.22 years). 30.9% of the patients reported elevated anxiety and 21.9% increased depressive symptomatology. Social-external control belief was the strongest among respondents. Further, anxiety and depression were negatively associated with healthy diet and the frequency of exercise. Patients with stronger social-external control beliefs were more likely to seek medical attention if they suspected a disease. It is important to assess psychological risk factors linked to cardiovascular diseases in cardiac rehabilitation departments and to initiate psychological interventions if indicated.

  15. Depression Screening Using Daily Mental-Health Ratings from a Smartphone Application for Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junetae; Lim, Sanghee; Min, Yul Ha; Shin, Yong-Wook; Lee, Byungtae; Sohn, Guiyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Lee, Jae-Ho; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jong Won

    2016-08-04

    Mobile mental-health trackers are mobile phone apps that gather self-reported mental-health ratings from users. They have received great attention from clinicians as tools to screen for depression in individual patients. While several apps that ask simple questions using face emoticons have been developed, there has been no study examining the validity of their screening performance. In this study, we (1) evaluate the potential of a mobile mental-health tracker that uses three daily mental-health ratings (sleep satisfaction, mood, and anxiety) as indicators for depression, (2) discuss three approaches to data processing (ratio, average, and frequency) for generating indicator variables, and (3) examine the impact of adherence on reporting using a mobile mental-health tracker and accuracy in depression screening. We analyzed 5792 sets of daily mental-health ratings collected from 78 breast cancer patients over a 48-week period. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as the measure of true depression status, we conducted a random-effect logistic panel regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate the screening performance of the mobile mental-health tracker. In addition, we classified patients into two subgroups based on their adherence level (higher adherence and lower adherence) using a k-means clustering algorithm and compared the screening accuracy between the two groups. With the ratio approach, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.8012, indicating that the performance of depression screening using daily mental-health ratings gathered via mobile mental-health trackers is comparable to the results of PHQ-9 tests. Also, the AUC is significantly higher (P=.002) for the higher adherence group (AUC=0.8524) than for the lower adherence group (AUC=0.7234). This result shows that adherence to self-reporting is associated with a higher accuracy of depression screening. Our results support the potential of a mobile mental-health

  16. Development of health and depressive symptoms among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ) deteriorated slightly in adolescents (-0.24; 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19) across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups and depressive symptoms increased (0.64; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.75). High household income was protective for decrease in SRH (0.62; 0.43 - 0.91). Negative life-style changes were associated...... relationship between lifestyle changes and health and the possible positive effect of maintaining and enhancing positive lifestyle factors.......While the existence of social inequality in health in childhood as well as among adults is well established, research of mechanisms underlying this inequality is still sparse. The study aim was to report on the development of self-rated health and depressive symptoms from age 15 to18 years...

  17. Optimism, well-being, depressive symptoms, and perceived physical health: a study among Stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifren, Kim; Anzaldi, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    The investigation of the relation of positive personality characteristics to mental and physical health among Stroke survivors has been a neglected area of research. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between optimism, well-being, depressive symptoms, and perceived physical health among Stroke survivors. It was hypothesized that Stroke survivors' optimism would explain variance in their physical health above and beyond the variance explained by demographic variables, diagnostic variables, and mental health. One hundred seventy-six Stroke survivors (97 females, 79 males) completed the Revised Life Orientation Test, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, two items on perceived physical health from the 36-item Short Form of the Medical Outcomes study, and the Identity scale of the Illness Perception Questionnaire. Pearson correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, and the PROCESS approach to determining mediators were used to assess hypothesized relations between variables. Stroke survivors' level of optimism explained additional variance in overall health in regression models controlling for demographic and diagnostic variables, and mental health. Analyses revealed that optimism played a partial mediator role between mental health (well-being, depressive symptoms and total score on CES-D) variables and overall health.

  18. Evaluation of the level of depression among medical students from Poland, Portugal and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seweryn, Mariusz; Tyrała, Kinga; Kolarczyk-Haczyk, Aleksandra; Bonk, Magdalena; Bulska, Weronika; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a serious illness affecting health, family and professional life of many people of all sectors of society. It also concerns students, regardless of their geographical location. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a proper tool to brief check of the level of depression because it has high correlation with depression. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the level of depression among medical students from Poland, Portugal and Germany. Students from different countries were asked to fill in an electronic form containing the BDI. The form was created separately for each country, using official translation of the BDI, approved by the competent psychiatric association. Google Drive software was used for the electronic form, and Stat soft Statistica v10 software for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in terms of average score of the BDI and of the proportion of the scores more than 10 points of medical and technology students among kinds of studies and countries. The average score of the BDI of medical students: Poland: 13.76±9.99 points; Germany: 8.49±7.64 points; Portugal: 7.37±7.67 points. The average score of the BDI of technology students: Poland: 12.42±9.66 points; Germany: 10.51±8.49 points; Portugal: 9.25±8.97 points. The proportion of the scores more than 10 points of medical students: Poland 56.32% (285/506) Germany 34.92% (154/441) Portugal 26.03% (82/315). The proportion of the scores more than 10 points of technology students: Poland 55.01% (368/669) Germany 43.82% (156/356) Portugal 37.57% (136/362). The highest depression score among medical and technology students according the BDI was found in Poland. A proper monitoring of depression is required, as well as rapid and appropriate help for those who suffer from it.

  19. Association of different levels of depressive symptoms with symptomatology, overall disease severity, and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Amris, Kirstine; Ortega, Francisco B; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Aparicio, Virginia A; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Henriksen, Marius; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examined the associations of different levels of depression with pain, sleep quality, fatigue, functional exercise capacity, overall fibromyalgia (FM) severity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with FM. METHODS: A total of 451 women with FM participated in this

  20. Association of different levels of depressive symptoms with symptomatology, overall disease severity, and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano-Maldonado, A.; Amris, K.; Ortega, F.B.; Segura-Jimenez, V.; Estevez-Lopez, F.; Alvarez-Gallardo, I.C.; Aparicio, V.A.; Delgado-Fernandez, M.; Henriksen, M.; Ruiz, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the associations of different levels of depression with pain, sleep quality, fatigue, functional exercise capacity, overall fibromyalgia (FM) severity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with FM. Methods: A total of 451 women with FM participated in this

  1. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  2. Development of depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-level life course conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Erica C; Brinkman, Tara M; Baker, Justin N

    2017-06-01

    As therapeutic and supportive care interventions become increasingly effective, growing numbers of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors face a myriad of physical and psychological sequelae secondary to their disease and treatment. Mental health issues, in particular, present a significant problem in this unique patient population, with depression affecting a sizable number of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. Multiple key determinants impact a survivor's risk of developing depression, with variables traversing across biologic, individual, family, community, and global levels, as well as spanning throughout the life course of human development from the preconception and prenatal periods to adulthood. A multi-level life course conceptual model offers a valuable framework to identify and organize the diverse variables that modulate the risk of developing depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. This review describes the first multi-level life course perspective applied to development of depression in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. This conceptual framework may be used to guide the investigation of mental health interventions for SCACs to ensure that key determinants of depression occurrence are adequately addressed across various levels and throughout the life trajectory.

  3. Disturbed eating tendencies, health-related behaviors, and depressive symptoms among university students in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Seo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: There were few studies to investigate the related factors of depression among Korean students. Therefore, this study examined disturbed eating tendencies, health-related behaviors, and depressive symptoms among university students in Korea. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey on a total of 637 students (279 men and 358 women, and the Korean version of the Beck depression rating scale (K-BDI was used to evaluate the students' depression status. Results: Of the 637 students, 419 (65.8% had no depressive symptoms (normal: K-BDI<10, whereas 136 (21.4%: K-BDI 10–16, 69 (10.8%: K-BDI 17–29, and 13 (2.0%: K-BDI≥30 had mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed that depressive symptoms (K-BDI≥10 were associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26 to 2.76; p = .002, high level of life stress (OR = 4.37, 95% CI = 2.23 to 8.55; p < .001, and disturbed eating behaviors (Korean version of Eating Attitude Test-26 ≥ 20; OR = 5.14, 95% CI = 2.52 to 10.5; p < .001. In contrast, depressive symptoms were inversely associated with a high body image satisfaction (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.68; p = .001 and self-esteem (self-esteem score≥30 (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.43; p < .001. Conclusions: This study confirmed that students with depressive symptoms tended to have disturbed eating behaviors, low body image satisfaction, low self-esteem, and high levels of stress. Keywords: Depression, Disturbed eating attitude, Health behavior, Depressive symptoms, Korean students

  4. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Bennike, B

    2012-01-01

    Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness....

  5. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  6. Depression and mental health among older Mexican American spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, J P; Peek, M K; Markides, K S

    2006-07-01

    Although the association between marriage and well-being is well established, few studies have focused on learning more about the context of marriage and mental health. Recent research studying the mechanisms of marriage and health has focused on contagion of well-being among spouses. This study examined the association of depression with self-esteem, social support, life satisfaction, concern for independence, and cognitive function using baseline data for 553 older, Mexican American couples. Overall, we found evidence to suggest an interdependent relationship between husbands' and wives' emotional states, but the association was not equal for couples. Husbands' depression was significantly associated with the well-being of their wife, but the wife's depression was rarely associated with the husband's well-being. The findings from this study add to the increasing literature on spousal contagion by focusing on an under studied minority group, examining how depression affects well-being, and highlighting unequal effects of marriage on spousal well-being.

  7. Depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, H; Erkin, G; Nalbant, L

    2013-12-01

    Studies investigating depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with CP and related factors are limited, and controversial findings are reported in these studies. The study was aimed to determine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to define factors related to depression and anxiety levels. A descriptive study. Outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic of an education and research hospital. The study was composed of two groups: group 1, 116 mothers of children with CP and group 2, 114 mothers of healthy children. Mothers of children with spastic-type CP were included into group 1. Functional levels in children with CP were investigated with The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Depression levels of mothers in both groups were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety levels with Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). BDI and BAI scores were statistically and significantly higher in group 1, compared to group 2. Among mothers in group 1, a positive correlation was determined between GMFCS score, and depression and anxiety levels. However, no correlation was detected between depression and anxiety levels, and body involvement of CP, education status, age and economic level among patients. In logistic regression analysis, the most significant risk factors of depressive symptoms were detected to be GMFCS score and speech defects. Our findings indicate that depression and anxiety levels of mothers with CP children are higher than those with healthy children and associated with speech defects and functional disability levels in children with CP. Healthcare professionals should take into account that depression and anxiety levels may be higher in mothers of children with CP. For an effective rehabilitation program related to children with CP, depression and anxiety levels in mothers of such children should be taken into account, and mothers should closely be followed and if

  8. Depression and physical health in later life : results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, ATF; Penninx, BWJH; Deeg, DJH; Ormel, J; Braam, AW; van Tilburg, W

    1997-01-01

    Background: In later life, declining physical health is often thought to be one of the most important risk factors for depression. Major depressive disorders are relatively rare, while depressive syndromes which do not fulfil diagnostic criteria (minor depression) are common. Methods:

  9. Chronic disease management for depression in US medical practices: results from the Health Tracking Physician Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Waleed; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2011-07-01

    Chronic care model (CCM) envisages a multicomponent systematic remodeling of ambulatory care to improve chronic diseases management. Application of CCM in primary care management of depression has traditionally lagged behind the application of this model in management of other common chronic illnesses. In past research, the use of CCM has been operationalized by measuring the use of evidence-based organized care management processes (CMPs). To compare the use of CMPs in treatment of depression with the use of these processes in treatment of diabetes and asthma and to examine practice-level correlates of this use. Using data from the 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey, a nationally representative sample of physicians in the United States, we compared the use of 5 different CMPs: written guidelines in English and other languages for self-management, availability of staff to educate patients about self-management, availability of nurse care managers for care coordination, and group meetings of patients with staff. We further examined the association of practice-level characteristics with the use of the 5 CMPs for management of depression. CMPs were more commonly used for management of diabetes and asthma than for depression. The use of CMPs for depression was more common in health maintenance organizations [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) ranging from 2.45 to 5.98 for different CMPs], in practices that provided physicians with feedback regarding quality of care to patients (AOR range, 1.42 to 1.69), and in practices with greater use of clinical information technology (AOR range, 1.06 to 1.11). The application of CMPs in management of depression continues to lag behind other common chronic conditions. Feedbacks on quality of care and expanded use of information technology may improve application of CMPs for depression care in general medical settings.

  10. The onset of depression during the great recession: foreclosure and older adult mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagney, Kathleen A; Browning, Christopher R; Iveniuk, James; English, Ned

    2014-03-01

    We examined neighborhood-level foreclosure rates and their association with onset of depressive symptoms in older adults. We linked data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (2005-2006 and 2010-2011 waves), a longitudinal, nationally representative survey, to data on zip code-level foreclosure rates, and predicted the onset of depressive symptoms using logit-linked regression. Multiple stages of the foreclosure process predicted the onset of depressive symptoms, with adjustment for demographic characteristics and changes in household assets, neighborhood poverty, and visible neighborhood disorder. A large increase in the number of notices of default (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14, 2.67) and properties returning to ownership by the bank (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.47) were associated with depressive symptoms. A large increase in properties going to auction was suggestive of such an association (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96, 2.19). Age, fewer years of education, and functional limitations also were predictive. Increases in neighborhood-level foreclosure represent an important risk factor for depression in older adults. These results accord with previous studies suggesting that the effects of economic crises are typically first experienced through deficits in emotional well-being.

  11. Nursing interventions in depressed children with low serum levels of BDNF

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qingrong; Cui, Chuanying; Fu, Yanxia; Ma, Shumei; Li, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and depression in children, and explore the effects of different nursing protocols on patients with low levels of BDNF. We recruited 128 children with depression and 50 healthy subjects. Compared with healthy controls, the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in serum were lower in children with depression (p

  12. The Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yassini

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 10% of Iranian couples wishing to have a child experience some types of infertility which may impose a considerable psychological burden on them. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the level of anxiety and depression among infertile couples undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment cycles in Iran. Methods: Fifty infertile couples that who undergoing IVF (n=25 or ICSI (n=25 cycles were considered for this descriptive cross-sectional study. Also, 25 married couples (18-40 years old with history of fertility served as control subjects. All husbands and wives were examined by means of Beck Depression and Spielberger Anxiety Inventories. Results: Comparing with controls, the highest rates of moderate and severe anxiety, were observed in women undergoing IVF (76% and 12%, respectively; P<0.05. However, the rate of depression among women in IVF group was comparable to women undergoing ICSI. Also, the highest rates of severe depression and anxiety were demonstrated among housewives (23.9% and 11%, respectively. The lowest rates of severe anxiety and depression were observed in husbands participated in either IVF or ICSI cycles. In addition, illiterates, compared with educated couples, undergoing IVF or ICSI program were shown to have the highest rates of both depression and anxiety. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of anxiety and depression were higher in women, especially housewives, undergoing IVF or ICSI cycles than control subjects. Also, men showed lower rates of anxiety and depression than women undergoing IVF or ICSI. Therefore, this can provide useful information and guidance for health professionals working with infertile patients. KeyWords: anxiety, depression, infertility, IVF, ICSI, Iran

  13. Association between shift work and severity of depressive symptoms among female nurses: the Korea Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, OkSoo; Lee, Il-Hyun; Kim, Han-Kyoul

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of depression and the relationship between shift work and depression severity among female nurses in South Korea. Shift work has been associated with higher risks of depressive symptoms, but there is a dearth of research on nurses, particularly investigating the severity of depressive symptoms. Quantitative data including survey response from 9789 participants were analysed. Statistical analysis included descriptive, Spearman's correlation and multivariable ordinal logistic regression. The numbers of nurses according to the severity of depressive symptoms were 35.2% (n = 3445), 38.0% (n = 3716), 16.1% (n = 1578), 7.6% (n = 747) and 3.1% (n = 303) for normal, mild, moderate, severely moderate and severe level of depressive symptoms, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic and health behavioural factors, nurses who worked shifts had 1.519-times greater odds of experiencing a higher severity of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.519, CI = 1.380-1.674, P nurses who worked shifts and suggests that shift work may increase the severity of depressive symptoms among female nurses in South Korea. Nursing professionals, managers and health policy makers need to understand the factors influencing depressive symptoms and to use appropriate interventions based on the severity and not just the onset. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Anxiety, depression and impaired health-related quality of life in patients with occupational hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Dana; Schmid-Ott, Gerhard; Finkeldey, Florence; John, Swen Malte; Dwinger, Christine; Werfel, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas L; Breuer, Kristine

    2012-10-01

    Occupational hand eczema is one of the most frequent occupational diseases. Few data about the prevalence of mental comorbidities are available. Objectives. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms, the impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their correlates in patients with occupational hand eczema. A test battery consisting of the German versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) as a specific instrument and the Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) as a generic instrument for HRQoL was applied in 122 patients. The severity of hand eczema was assessed with the Osnabrueck Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI). Twenty per cent of patients had a positive anxiety score, and 14% had a positive depression score. Higher anxiety levels, a greater impairment in the SF-36 mental component summary score and a higher DLQI category score for symptoms and feelings was detected in females than in males. The OHSI correlated with the impairment in HRQoL, and an association of severe hand eczema with symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in males. We found a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in our study population of patients with occupational hand eczema. Preventive measures should consider the psychosocial implications of occupational hand eczema. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Comparing Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Myocardial Infarction Patients and Depressed Patients in Primary and Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Doornbos, Bennard; Zuidersma, Marij; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Aleman, Andre; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  16. Depression, the Val66Met polymorphism, age, and gender influence the serum BDNF level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Foldager, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    , depression, gender, the Val66Met polymorphism, and the interaction between Val66Met and gender were identified as significant determinants of the serum BDNF level. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that other factors than a diagnosis of depression influence the serum BDNF level and the importance...

  17. Correlation of symptom depression levels with mean platelet volume rate on patients of acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasugian, L.; Hanum, H.; Hanida, W.; Safri, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Patients with Depression and the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is rarely detected, although in some studies say that depression can worsen cardiovascularly and increase mortality. From research, Canan F et al found that increasing levels of Mean platelet volume (MPV) as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and MPV was higher in patients with depression compared with patients without depression. In this study used observational methods of measurement of cross-sectional data. Research began in November 2015 - May 2016 against General Hospital inpatients H. Adam Malik Medan. There are 64 patients with a diagnosis of ACS were given quieter Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), then calculated a score of BDI patients and MPV levels were seen when they first entered the hospital before being given treatment. Patients answered quieter on days 3-7 after diagnosis ACS. ACS Patients were divided into 3 groups: acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation, acute myocardial infarction with non-ST elevation and unstable angina pectoris. The level of depression is grouped into not depression, mild depression, moderate depression and severe depression. Statistically significant with p-value<0.05Based on the linear correlation analysis, it was found a positive correlation with r=0.542. And the relationship is statistically significant with p-value 0.000003.

  18. Mating system and ploidy influence levels of inbreeding depression in Clarkia (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Brian C; Geber, Monica A

    2008-05-01

    Inbreeding depression is the reduction in offspring fitness associated with inbreeding and is thought to be one of the primary forces selecting against the evolution of self-fertilization. Studies suggest that most inbreeding depression is caused by the expression of recessive deleterious alleles in homozygotes whose frequency increases as a result of self-fertilization or mating among relatives. This process leads to the selective elimination of deleterious alleles such that highly selfing species may show remarkably little inbreeding depression. Genome duplication (polyploidy) has also been hypothesized to influence levels of inbreeding depression, with polyploids expected to exhibit less inbreeding depression than diploids. We studied levels of inbreeding depression in allotetraploid and diploid species of Clarkia (Onagraceae) that vary in mating system (each cytotype was represented by an outcrossing and a selfing species). The outcrossing species exhibited more inbreeding depression than the selfing species for most fitness components and for two different measures of cumulative fitness. In contrast, though inbreeding depression was generally lower for the polyploid species than for the diploid species, the difference was statistically significant only for flower number and one of the two measures of cumulative fitness. Further, we detected no significant interaction between mating system and ploidy in determining inbreeding depression. In sum, our results suggest that a taxon's current mating system is more important than ploidy in influencing levels of inbreeding depression in natural populations of these annual plants.

  19. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reasons why a woman may have depression: Family history . Women with a family history of depression may be more at risk. But depression can also happen in women who don’t have a family history of depression. Brain changes. The brains of people ...

  20. Influence of Depressive State on Levels of Homocysteine and Thyroid Hormone in Patients with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-wei WANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To explore the influence of depressive state on the levels of homocysteine (Hcy and thyroid hormone in patients with hypertension.Methods: Totally 179 patients with primary hypertension were selected and divided into depression group (n=97 and non-depression group (n=82 according to whether to be complicated with depressive disorder. The venous blood was drawn for detecting the level of Hcy of 2 groups by enzymatic cycling assay, and serum free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4 and thyrotropic hormone (TSH by chemiluminiscence. The correlation between Hamilton depression scale (HAMD scores and levels of plasma Hcy and serum FT3, FT4 and TSH was analyzed.Results: Compared with non-depression group, the level of plasma Hcy increased and the levels of FT3 and FT4 decreased in depression group (P<0.05, but there was no statistical difference between 2 groups (P>0.05. HAMD scores in depression group had a positive correlation with the level of plasma Hcy (r=0.593, P=0.024, a negative correlation with the level of serum FT3 (r=-0.421,P=0.011, and no relationships with the levels of serum FT4 and TSH (r=-0.137, P=0.334; r=0.058, P=0.576.Conclusion: Hypertensive patients complicated with depression have abnormal level of Hcy and thyroid hormones. Moreover, the depressive degree of patients is positively correlated with the level of Hcy and negatively with the level of FT3.

  1. Frequency of depressive symptoms in health workers’ children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gamze Erten Bucaktepe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the frequency of depressive signs and the sociodemographic features among the children of health workers who work under harsh conditions and immense stress. Methods: The descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in the Province of Batman, Turkey, between June 15 and July 17, 2014. The study included 106 health workers who had children aged 6-17 years and volunteered to complete the questionnaire. The participants filled out the sociodemographic data form alone and completed the depression scale for children (DSC together with their children. Data was evaluated statistically. Results: All but one child had a score of >19 on the DSC (99.1%. No correlation was found between the scores of the children and the department of their parents (r=0.050, p=0.621 and shiftwork (r=0.178, p=0.071, history of depression in their parents (r=0.100, p=0.315, number of siblings in the family (r=0.001, p=0.994, and the presence of chronic diseases in the children (r=0.138, p=0.162. The scores were higher in the children of female health workers compared to those of male health workers (p=0.027. Conclusion: High CDS scores in the children of health workers is a critical issue and the reason for this occurrence may be multifactorial. Further surveys should be conducted to define the measures to be taken.

  2. Maternal Health Factors as Risks for Postnatal Depression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Chojenta

    Full Text Available While previous studies have identified a range of potential risk factors for postnatal depression (PND, none have examined a comprehensive set of risk factors at a population-level using data collected prospectively. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between a range of factors and PND and to construct a model of the predictors of PND.Data came from 5219 women who completed Survey 5 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in 2009 and reported giving birth to a child.Over 15% of women reported experiencing PND with at least one of their children. The strongest positive associations were for postnatal anxiety (OR = 13.79,95%CI = 10.48,18.13 and antenatal depression (OR = 9.23,95%CI = 6.10,13.97. Positive associations were also found for history of depression and PND, low SF-36 Mental Health Index, emotional distress during labour, and breastfeeding for less than six months.Results indicate that understanding a woman's mental health history plays an important role in the detection of those who are most vulnerable to PND. Treatment and management of depression and anxiety earlier in life and during pregnancy may have a positive impact on the incidence of PND.

  3. Comparison of Health Status and Nutrient Intake between Depressed Women and Non-depressed Women: Based on the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Myeong Suk; Kim, Sunghee; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to provide supporting data for the management of dietary habits in depression by comparing health and nutrition in adult Korean women according to depression status. A total of 2,236 women aged between 19 and 64 years who participated in the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into a depression group (n = 315) and a non-depression group (n = 1,921). Among 19-29-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, and suicidal thoughts than the non-depression group. The depression group showed lower intake of cereal, chocolate, meat, and carbonated drinks, as well as a lower index of nutritional quality (INQ) for protein, iron, and niacin. Among 30-49-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, chronic disease, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of rice with mixed grains and higher intake of instant and cup noodles than the non-depression group. Among 50-64-year-old women, the depression group showed higher proportions of individuals with impairment of everyday activities, menopause, stress, and suicidal thoughts. The depression group showed lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweed, lower nutritional intake of fat, saturated fat, and n-3 fatty acids, as well as a lower INQ for niacin and a lower Recommended Food Score. For all age groups, individuals with depression showed poorer health and nutritional intake than healthy individuals, demonstrating a correlation of depression with health and nutritional intake.

  4. Relationship between plasma glutamate levels and post-stroke depression in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱方媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the association between the plasma glutamate levels during acute ischemic stroke andpost-stroke depression(PSD)initially.Methods Seventy-four ischemic stroke patients admitted to the hospital within the first day of stroke onset were evaluated at a follow-up of 2 weeks.The Beck Depression Inventory(BDI,21-item)and DSM-Ⅳcriteria was used to diagnose post-stroke depression(PSD)at 2 weeks after stroke.

  5. A pilot study to assess the level of depression and the coping strategies adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitumoni Konwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer, the second most common cause of death, has become a major health problem. Depression is the most common psychological problem encountered in patients with cancer. The coping skills adopted may affect the mental health of patients. Therefore, this research is undertaken to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by the patients diagnosed with cancer. Materials and methods: A descriptive study to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl was carried out from April to May 2014 with 30 convenient samples. Depression was assessed by using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS developed by Zigmond and Snaith in 1983. Coping strategy adopted by patients were assessed by revised version of the Ways of Coping Checklist developed by Folkman and Lazarus in 1985. Results: Findings of the study showed that depression was universal to all the cancer patients. Majority of cancer patients (66.5% had moderate depression while 13.26% of the cancer patients had severe depression, and only 6.7% of them reported to have low depression. The most effective coping strategy adopted was reappraisal, followed by distancing. There is significant correlation between depression and reappraisal (r=-0.538, p<0.002, and also with depression and acceptance (r=-0.415, p<0.022 strategies. Conclusion: As depression is universal to all cancer patients, use of appropriate coping strategy is very essential to improve their quality of life. The recognition of coping strategies by health team may enable appropriate information and interventions to be provided at optimal times for each individual.

  6. Depression screening and education: an examination of mental health literacy and stigma in a sample of Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Veronica; Sanchez, Katherine; Killian, Michael O; Eghaneyan, Brittany H

    2018-05-22

    Mental health literacy consists of knowledge of a mental disorder and of the associated stigma. Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma which is primarily perpetuated by inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. U.S.-born Hispanics are more likely to have depression compared to Hispanics born in Latin America and are less likely to follow a treatment plan compared to non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic women are more likely to access treatment through a primary care provider, making it an ideal setting for early mental health interventions. Baseline data from 319 female Hispanic patients enrolled in Project DESEO: Depression Screening and Education: Options to Reduce Barriers to Treatment, were examined. The study implemented universal screening with a self-report depression screening tool (the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and took place at one federally qualified health center (FQHC) over a 24-month period. The current analysis examined the relationship between four culturally adapted stigma measures and depression knowledge, and tested whether mental health literacy was comparable across education levels in a sample of Hispanic women diagnosed with depression. Almost two-thirds of the sample had less than a high school education. Depression knowledge scores were significantly, weakly correlated with each the Stigma Concerns About Mental Health Care (ρ = - .165, p = .003), Latino Scale for Antidepressant Stigma (p = .124, p = .028), and Social Distance scores (p = .150, p = .007). Depression knowledge (F[2, 312] = 11.82, p stigma scores (F[2, 312] = 3.33, p = .037, partial η 2  = .015) significantly varied by education category. Participants with at least some college education reported significantly greater depression knowledge and less stigma surrounding depression and medication than participants with lower education levels. Primary care settings are

  7. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros-Gonzalez, Rafael A; Romero-Gonzalez, Borja; Strivens-Vilchez, Helen; Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings.

  8. Antepartum/postpartum depressive symptoms and serum zinc and magnesium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Jacek; Dudek, Dominika; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata; Grabowska, Mariola; Marcinek, Antoni; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Nowak, Rafał J; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Nowak, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and serum zinc and magnesium level in antepartum and postpartum women. All women received standard vitamin, zinc and magnesium supplementation. Sixty-six pregnant women in the Czerwiakowski Hospital in Kraków were assessed for prepartum depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Sixty-two and fifty-eight women were also assessed for postpartum depressive symptoms (using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale, EPDRS) at 3 and 30 days after delivery, respectively. Serum zinc and magnesium levels were also determined at these time points, however, the number of examined subjects were diminished. A significantly higher EPDRS score (by 45%), indicating severity of depressive symptoms, was found on the 3rd day after childbirth compared with the 30th postpartum day. Moreover, the early post-delivery period (3rd day) was characterized by a 24% lower serum zinc concentration than that found on the 30th day after childbirth. BDI scores assessed a month before childbirth revealed mild depressive symptoms, which was accompanied by a serum zinc concentration similar to that found on the 3rd day after delivery. No significant alterations were found in the magnesium levels between these time points. The present results demonstrated a relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and decreased serum zinc (but not magnesium) concentration in a very specific type of affective disorder, the postpartum depression.

  9. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Demontis, Ditte; Ollendorff, Mathias Kaas

    2015-01-01

    measured by immunoassay, and potential determinants of the serum sortilin level were assessed by generalized linear models. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in previous studies. We identified a significant increase of serum...... sortilin levels in depressed individuals compared with controls (P = 0.0002) and significant positive correlation between serum sortilin levels and the corresponding levels of BDNF and VEGF. None of the genotyped SNPs were associated with depression. Additional analyses showed that the serum sortilin level...... was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which may relate...

  10. Association of physical activity level with depression, anxiety, and quality of life in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Mutlu, Caner; Taskiran, Hanifegul; Ozgen, Ilker Tolga

    2015-11-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have low physical activity levels and are at high risk for psychosocial morbidities, including depression, heightened anxiety and low health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to assess the associations of physical activity level with depression, anxiety, and HRQoL in children with T1DM. A cross-sectional study design, including children with T1DM aged between 8 and 12 years and healthy controls, was used. Physical activity (PA) level was assessed with the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Anxiety was screened by The Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Quality of life was assessed with the The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0). Forty-seven T1DM and 55 healthy children were included with mean ages of 9.87±1.63 and 9.56±1.60 years, respectively. The T1DM group had significantly higher depression and anxiety score (pchildren with T1DM. The result of our study suggested that only HRQoL was related to physical activity, anxiety and HbA1c in children with T1DM.

  11. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  12. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  13. Coping, problem solving, depression, and health-related quality of life in patients receiving outpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marieke M; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Spijker, Adriaan Van't; Oostra, Kristine M; Busschbach, Jan J; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether patients with high and low depression scores after stroke use different coping strategies and problem-solving skills and whether these variables are related to psychosocial health-related quality of life (HRQOL) independent of depression. Cross-sectional study. Two rehabilitation centers. Patients participating in outpatient stroke rehabilitation (N=166; mean age, 53.06±10.19y; 53% men; median time poststroke, 7.29mo). Not applicable. Coping strategy was measured using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations; problem-solving skills were measured using the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form; depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; and HRQOL was measured using the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire and the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale. Independent samples t tests and multivariable regression analyses, adjusted for patient characteristics, were performed. Compared with patients with low depression scores, patients with high depression scores used less positive problem orientation (P=.002) and emotion-oriented coping (Pproblem orientation (Pproblem orientation was independently related to psychosocial HRQOL (β=.086; P=.018) and total HRQOL (β=.058; P=.031). Patients with high depression scores use different coping strategies and problem-solving skills than do patients with low depression scores. Independent of depression, positive problem-solving skills appear to be most significantly related to better HRQOL. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  15. Asian Americans and European Americans' stigma levels in response to biological and social explanations of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2015-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.

  16. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  17. Testosterone levels and sexual function disorders in depressive female patients: effects of antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsar, Şükrü; Kumsar, Neslihan Akkişi; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Köse, Osman; Budak, Salih; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2014-02-01

    Women suffer from depression more frequently than men, which indicates that sex hormones might be involved in the etiology of this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between testosterone and depression pathophysiology in depressive women along with sexual function. We also investigated whether antidepressant treatment causes any change in levels of this hormone or in sexual function. Premenopausal female patients aged 25-46 years (n = 52) with diagnosed major depression were included in this study as the patient group, and 25- to 46-year-old premenopausal women without depression (n = 30) were included as the control group. Serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured twice, before and after the antidepressant treatment. Bioavailable testosterone (cBT) levels were calculated using the assay results for total testosterone (TT), SHBG, and albumin according to the formulas of Vermeulen et al. Depression severity was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and sexual function was evaluated with the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale. The mean TT and cBT levels significantly increased in the patient group after the antidepressant treatment (P treatment TT and cBT levels were significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P treatment serum TT and cBT levels in the patient and control groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of SHBG level. The low testosterone levels in depressed women compared with women in the control group and the elevated levels post-pharmacotherapy suggest that testosterone may be involved in depression. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Policy for Promotion of Women's Mental Health: Insight from Analysis of Policy on Postnatal Depression in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Frongillo, Edward A; Blake, Christine E; Mann, Joshua R; deCastro, Filipa

    2016-03-01

    This article critically examines federal, state and facility-level policies, as well as clinical practice guidelines regarding postnatal depression in Mexico. Thirteen documents including national health plans, national action plans, federal and state laws and regulations, clinical practice guidelines, and public-sector healthcare facility policies were collected and evaluated according to whether they included a statement of intent and/or actions related to the care of women at risk for or experiencing postnatal depression. While postnatal depression is included in several policies in Mexico, it is not addressed in ways that guide actions to manage postnatal depression. Specific direction on postnatal depression in policies would bridge a gap in maternal mental healthcare given that medication, treatment, and timing of interventions is unique in the postpartum context.

  19. Anxiety and depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of patients with severe depression. A snapshot from a military mental health care facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.; Ayaz, S.B.; Ullah, A.; Matee, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the frequency and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of severely depressed patients and evaluate the impact of demographic factors. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the out-patient as well as the in-patient setting of Armed Forces institute of Mental Health, Rawalpindi, from September 2009 to May 2012. Through non-probability purposive sampling, primary caregivers of patients diagnosed with severe depression by consultant psychiatrists were included and scored by resident psychiatrists on Revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results: Of 316 caregivers (mean age: 37.75 ± 12.26 years), majority (52.8%) were females, married (70.6%), employed (58.5%), earned < Rs. 5,000 per month (40.5%) and literate from grade 1-5 (21.8%). Most of them were mothers (25.3%) of the patients and were the caregivers for less than one year (43.4%). The mean total BDI-II score was 17.29 ± 13.94.It was significantly high in subjects belonging to age group of < 44 years. The mean total BAI score was 14.44 ± 11.56 and it was not significantly related to any demographic factor. Conclusion: Caregivers of severely depressed patients suffered considerable levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Younger caregivers were at higher risk of developing depressive symptoms but the age did not significantly affect development of anxiety. Gender, marital status, employment status, monthly income, relationship with the patient, ethnicity based on provinces, educational level and duration of care giving did not appear to be significantly related to the development of anxiety or depressive symptoms in our sample. (author)

  20. Association of different levels of depressive symptoms with symptomatology, overall disease severity, and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Amris, Kirstine; Ortega, Francisco B; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Aparicio, Virginia A; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Henriksen, Marius; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the associations of different levels of depression with pain, sleep quality, fatigue, functional exercise capacity, overall fibromyalgia (FM) severity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with FM. A total of 451 women with FM participated in this cross-sectional study. Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II), pain intensity (numerical rating scale; NRS), pain sensitivity (algometry), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), functional exercise capacity (6-min walk test), FM severity (revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), and HRQoL (SF-36) were assessed. Participants with severe depressive symptoms had significantly higher pain intensity (NRS = 1.1; 95 % CI 0.3-1.8), fatigue (12.6-units; 95 % CI 8.2-17.1) and overall FM severity (12.6-units; 95 % CI 11.4-23.7), as well as poorer sleep quality (3.2-units; 95 % CI 1.7-4.7) and mental component of HRQoL (-17.0-units; 95 % CI -21.0 to -12.9) than participants with minimal signs of depression. There was no association of signs of depression with pain sensitivity, exercise capacity, or the physical component of HRQoL (P > 0.05). These results extend current knowledge on the association of signs of depression with FM severity and quality of life in women with FM, and suggest that severity of depressive symptoms could potentially be a prognostic factor to be considered in future prospective intervention studies.

  1. Memory biases in remitted depression: the role of negative cognitions at explicit and automatic processing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive models propose that depression is caused by dysfunctional schemas that endure beyond the depressive episode, representing vulnerability factors for recurrence. However, research testing negative cognitions linked to dysfunctional schemas in formerly depressed individuals is still scarce. Furthermore, negative cognitions are presumed to be linked to biases in recalling negative self-referent information in formerly depressed individuals, but no studies have directly tested this association. In the present study, we evaluated differences between formerly and never-depressed individuals in several experimental indices of negative cognitions and their associations with the recall of emotional self-referent material. Formerly (n = 30) and never depressed individuals (n = 40) completed measures of explicit (i.e., scrambled sentence test) and automatic (i.e., lexical decision task) processing to evaluate negative cognitions. Furthermore participants completed a self-referent incidental recall task to evaluate memory biases. Formerly compared to never depressed individuals showed greater negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing. Results also showed greater recall of negative self-referent information in formerly compared to never-depressed individuals. Finally, individual differences in negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing predicted greater recall of negative self-referent material in formerly depressed individuals. Analyses of the relationship between explicit and automatic processing indices and memory biases were correlational and the majority of participants in both groups were women. Our findings provide evidence of negative cognitions in formerly depressed individuals at both automatic and explicit levels of processing that may confer a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  3. The pain, depression, disability pathway in those with low back pain: a moderation analysis of health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul; Hope, Kate; Dunn, Kate M

    2017-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common, impacts on the individual and society, and is a major health concern. Psychological consequences of LBP, such as depression, are significant barriers to recovery, but mechanisms for the development of depression are less well understood. One potential mechanism is the individual's health locus of control (HLoC), that is, perception of the level of control an individual has over their health. The objective of this study is to investigate the moderation effect of HLoC on the pain-depression-disability pathway in those with LBP. The design is a nested cross-sectional analysis of two existing cohorts of patients (n=637) who had previously consulted their primary care physician about LBP. Measures were taken of HLoC, pain intensity and interference, depression, disability, and bothersomeness. Structural Equation Modeling analysis was applied to two path models that examined the pain to depression to disability pathway moderated by the HLoC constructs of Internality and Externality, respectively. Critical ratio (CR) difference tests were applied to the coefficients using pairwise comparisons. The results show that both models had an acceptable model fit and pathways were significant. CR tests indicated a significant moderation effect, with stronger pathway coefficients for depression for those who report low Internality (β 0.48), compared to those with high Internality (β 0.28). No moderation effects were found within the Externality model. HLoC Internality significantly moderates the pain-depression pathway in those with LBP, meaning that those who have a low perception of control report greater levels of depression. HLoC may signify depression among people with LBP, and could potentially be a target for intervention.

  4. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels, Psychological Distress, and Depression in 73 131 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2013-01-01

    and depression. DESIGN We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses of CRP levels in 4 clinically relevant categories using data from 2 general population studies. SETTING The Copenhagen General Population and the Copenhagen City Heart studies. PARTICIPANTS We examined 73 131 men and women aged 20......CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress...... to 100 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We ascertained psychological distress with 2 single-item self-reports and depression using self-reported antidepressant use, register-based prescription of antidepressants, and register-based hospitalization with depression. RESULTS In cross-sectional analyses...

  5. DISABILITY AND DEPRESSION AMONG HIGH UTILIZERS OF HEALTH-CARE - A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VONKORFF, M; ORMEL, J; KATON, W; LIN, EHB

    We evaluated, among depressed medical patients who are high utilizers of health care, whether improved vs unimproved depression is associated with differences in the course of functional disability. At baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, depression and disability were assessed among a sample of

  6. Practices of depression care in home health care: Home health clinician perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuhua; Eggman, Ashley A.; Richardson, Joshua E.; Sheeran, Thomas; Bruce, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess any gaps between published best practices and real-world practices of treating depression in home health care (HHC), and barriers to closing any gaps. Methods A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with HHC nurses and administrators from five home health agencies in five states (n=20). Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed by a multi-disciplinary team using grounded theory method to identify themes. Results Routine home health nursing care overlapped with all functional areas of depression care. However, there were reported gaps between best practices and real-world practices. Gaps were associated with perceived scope of practice by HHC nurses, knowledge gaps and low self-efficacy in depression treatment, stigma attached to depression, poor quality of antidepressant management in primary care, and poor communication between HHC and primary care. Conclusions Strategies to close gaps between typical and best practices need to enhance HHC clinician knowledge and self-efficacy with depression treatment and improve the quality of antidepressant management and communication with primary care. PMID:26423098

  7. Health anxiety and depression in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Mehmet; Sarp, Ümit; Karaaslan, Özgül; Gül, Ali Irfan; Tanik, Nermin; Arik, Hasan Onur

    2015-10-01

    To investigate health anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Patients with FMS and healthy control subjects were recruited. All participants completed the Health Anxiety Inventory Short Form (HAI-SF) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Pain was assessed in patients with FMS using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). This study involved 95 patients with FMS (15 male) and 95 healthy controls (17 male). Mean ± SD HAI-SF and BDI scores were significantly higher in patients with FMS = than in controls=. HAI-SF scores were 23.50 ± 10.78 and 9.38 ± 4.24 respectively; BDI scores were 18.64 ± 10.11 and 6.21 ± 4.05 respectively. There were highly significant correlations between FIQ and HAI-SF, FIQ and BDI, and HAI-SF and BDI. Patients with FMS had significantly higher HAI-SF and BDI scores than healthy controls. Psychiatric support is essential for patients with FMS. Treatment should include biological, psychological and social approaches. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Depression in elderly primary health care clinic attendees in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression in the elderly presenting at primary care settings is usually under- detected by primary care physicians. This study assessed the prevalence of depression and the utility of the Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form) in detecting depression in elderly patients in primary care populations in Ilorin, Nigeria. This was ...

  9. GABA+ levels in postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensong; Zhang, Aiying; Zhao, Bin; Gan, Jie; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Gong, Tao; Liu, Wen; Edden, Richard A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is increasingly being recognized that alterations of the GABAergic system are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed to explore in vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and posterior-cingulate cortex (PCC) of postmenopausal women with depression using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen postmenopausal women with depression and thirteen healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent 1H-MRS of the ACC/mPFC and PCC using the “MEGA Point Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence” (MEGA-PRESS) technique. The severity of depression was assessed by 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Quantification of MRS data was performed using Gannet program. Differences of GABA+ levels from patients and controls were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the linear associations between GABA+ levels and HAMD scores, as well as estrogen levels. Results: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were detected in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression compared to healthy controls (P = 0.002). No significant correlations were found between 17-HAMD/14-HAMA and GABA+ levels, either in ACC/mPFC (P = 0.486; r = 0.170/P = 0.814; r = −0.058) or PCC (P = 0.887; r = 0.035/ P = 0.987; r = −0.004) in the patients; there is also no significant correlation between GABA+ levels and estrogen levels in patients group (ACC/mPFC: P = 0.629, r = −0.018; PCC: P = 0.861, r = 0.043). Conclusion: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were found in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression, suggesting that the dysfunction of the GABAergic system may also be involved in the pathogenesis of depression in postmenopausal women. PMID:27684829

  10. Depression and physical activity in a sample of nigerian adolescents: levels, relationships and predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is related to many morbidities but the evidence of its link with depression in adolescents needs further investigation in view of the existing conflicting reports. Methods The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 1,100 Nigerian adolescents aged 12-17 years. Depressive symptomatology and physical activity were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Physical Activity Questionnaire-Adolescent version (PAQ-A) respectively. Independent t tests, Pearson's Moment Correlation and Multi-level logistic regression analyses for individual and school area influences were carried out on the data at p < 0.05. Results The mean age of the participants was 15.20 ± 1.435 years. The prevalence of mild to moderate depression was 23.8%, definite depression was 5.7% and low physical activity was 53.8%. More severe depressive symptoms were linked with lower levels of physical activity (r = -0.82, p < 0.001) and moderate physical activity was linked with reduced risk of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.29-0.71). The odds of having depressive symptoms were higher in older adolescents (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.81-3.44) and in females (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.82-3.54). Females had a higher risk of low physical activity than male adolescents (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.51-4.26). Being in Senior Secondary class three was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.55-4.37) and low physical activity. Conclusions A sizable burden of depression and low physical activity existed among the studied adolescents and these were linked to both individual and school factors. Future studies should examine the effects of physical activity among clinical samples of adolescents with depression. PMID:21569581

  11. Higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with low serum cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans; A.W. Hoes (Arno); A.A.A. Bak (Annette); E. van der Does (Emiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Investigators from several studies have reported a positive relationship between low cholesterol levels and death due to violent causes (eg, suicide and accidents), possibly mediated by depressive symptoms, aggression or hostility, or

  12. Post-MI depression and levels of serum IL-6 and CRP in AMI patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tiejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the presence and severity of post-MI depression and the increased inflammatory activity, as marked by the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) after myocardial infarction. Methods: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were measured in 58 AMI patients within 36 hours after onset of event. Depression was evaluated by self-reporting standardized questionnaire, using a validated Chinese version of Hospiatla Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)-Depression Subscale (7 items) within 7 days. Demographic and medical data including LVEF, NYHA cardiac function grading, atherosclerosis severity shown from angiography as well as cardiac risk factors were recorded. Results: Serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were higher in depressive AMI patients than those in non-depressive ones (0.93 ± 0.64 vs 0.48 ± 0.37 ng/L, P<0.05 and 0.96 ± 0.41 vs 0.47 ± 0.26 mg/dL, P<0.05). Neither levels of IL-6 nor HADS-D scores were found to be correlated to the severity of atherosclerosis shown in angiography. Conclusion: Presence and severity of post-MI depression is associated with increased activity of inflammation in patients after myocardial infarction. (authors)

  13. [Neighborhood environment quality, individual-level social capital, and depressive symptoms among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to develop measures to assess features of neighborhood quality and individual social capital, as well as their associations with depressive symptoms among early adolescents. To determine whether relations of depressive symptoms with neighborhood quality might be contingent upon the level of individual cognitive social capital, neighborhood-by-cognitive social capital interaction terms were examined. A qualitative study was conducted to elicit the perceptions of early adolescents about their neighborhood environment. Subsequently, we recruited 2,002 eighth graders and asked for responses to a self-administered questionnaire. The variables analyzed in this study were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (10 items), features of neighborhood quality, cognitive and structural individual social capital, and demographics. We adopted a generalized estimating equation regression model for the multivariate analysis. The analytic sample was 1,786 with no missing variable in the models. Seven subscales were devised to assess quality features of neighborhood environments with an examination of validity and reliability: "availability of services," "good neighborhood relations," "spaces for recreation," "insecurity and danger of accidents," "dirty-looking, squalid, unclean," "civic communities," and "aesthetic look." We also developed a scale of individual cognitive social capital, which consisted of three constructs: "social trust," "reciprocity," and "social norms." Additionally, the number of social activities in which subjects participated was counted as an indicator of the structural aspect of individual social capital. On examination with the generalized estimating equation regression model, "availability of services," "insecurity and danger of accidents," "dirty-looking, squalid, unclean," and cognitive social capital were significantly associated with the CES-D scores controlling for demographics. We also found a significant interplay between

  14. Depression and physical activity in a sample of nigerian adolescents: levels, relationships and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Nkechi C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is related to many morbidities but the evidence of its link with depression in adolescents needs further investigation in view of the existing conflicting reports. Methods The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 1,100 Nigerian adolescents aged 12-17 years. Depressive symptomatology and physical activity were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and the Physical Activity Questionnaire-Adolescent version (PAQ-A respectively. Independent t tests, Pearson's Moment Correlation and Multi-level logistic regression analyses for individual and school area influences were carried out on the data at p Results The mean age of the participants was 15.20 ± 1.435 years. The prevalence of mild to moderate depression was 23.8%, definite depression was 5.7% and low physical activity was 53.8%. More severe depressive symptoms were linked with lower levels of physical activity (r = -0.82, p Conclusions A sizable burden of depression and low physical activity existed among the studied adolescents and these were linked to both individual and school factors. Future studies should examine the effects of physical activity among clinical samples of adolescents with depression.

  15. Deploying eHealth: a new approach to face depression in the basque country

    OpenAIRE

    Txarramendieta Suarez, Jon; Fullaondo Zabala, Ane; de Manuel Keenoy, Esteban; Gabilondo Cuellar, Andrea; González Pinto, Ana; García Alocén, Adriana; Retolaza Berasategui, Ander; Ponte Velón, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/context: Depression is one of the most frequent mental health diseases worldwide, with approximately 350 million of individuals affected. Antidepressants are still the mainstay of treatment for depression in healthcare settings. In the Basque Country, about 400.000 people suffer from depression; 10% of them with mild or moderate symptoms. cCBT has proven to be effective to fight depression, enabling the patient to change destructive patterns. This type of cCBT can be self-adminis...

  16. Effect of BMI on quality of life and depression levels after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierżantowicz, Regina; Lewko, Jolanta; Hady, Hady Razak; Kirpsza, Bożena; Trochimowicz, Lech; Dadan, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Studies conducted in Poland have found that 1% (~300,000) of Polish adults are obese. The degree of weight loss and reduction of discomfort associated with severe obesity are used to evaluate bariatric surgery outcomes. From the patient's point of view, QoL and mental health are the most important determinants of successful surgery, which is why interest in QoL assessment has increased. To assess the effect of BMI on quality of life and depression levels depending on the type of bariatric surgery. The group included 57 women and 43 men aged 20-60 years (mean age 40 years) with BMI from 36 to 40 (31%) and > 40 (69%). Twelve patients (12%) underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric binding (LAGB), 58 (58%) sleeve gastrectomy, and 30 (30%) Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). The Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) was used to assess QoL. The severity of mood disorders was assessed using the Self-Rating Scale of Depression and Anxiety. Six months or 1 year after bariatric surgery, the number of patients with BMI > 40 had decreased from 69 to 14%. We found that the time since bariatric surgery contributed to a significant (p bariatric surgery, including quality of life. Long-term monitoring will be essential in determining psychological changes and the degree of weight loss.

  17. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem levels in obese children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Seda; Orhon, Filiz Şimşek; Tayfun, Meltem; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Demirel, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a global health problem affecting all age groups. Childhood obesity, which may cause chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, etc., deserves more attention. However, few studies highlight the association between childhood obesity and psychological diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the psychological condition in obese children. One hundred and sixty-seven obese (body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile) and 200 normal weight children (BMI between 5th and 85th percentile) aged 9-16 years were enrolled into this case-control study. In order to assess the self-concept, anxiety and depression levels: the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS), state and trait anxiety inventory for children (STAI-C) and the children depression inventory (CDI) were administered both obese and control groups. There were significant differences among obese and control groups in terms of the total score of PHCSCS [55 (22-69) versus 65 (57-74)], STAI-C [37 (20-55) versus 28 (20-42)], and CDI [12 (4-39)] versus [8 (3-19)]; respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001). We also found statistically significant differences among groups in all of the subscales parameters of PHCSCS (p<0.001). Our results indicate that obese children may experience psychiatric disorders more than normal-weight peers.

  18. Demographic, maternal, and infant health correlates of post-partum depression in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Reema R; Abushaikha, Lubna A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study examined post-partum depression and its relationship with demographic, maternal, and infant health problems in urban Jordanian women. Participants (n = 315) were selected from five maternal child healthcare centers and one major hospital in Amman, Jordan. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to measure post-partum depression within 12 weeks of birth. A number of socio-demographic and health problems were examined for an association with post-partum depression. Results showed that 25% of post-partum women suffered moderate to severe depression and 50% of the sample had mild depression. None of the socio-demographic variables (age, education, employment, income) were significantly related to post-partum depression; however, two obstetric/infant variables (mode of birth and breastfeeding), were significantly associated with post-partum depression. There was a significant association between post-partum depression and 15 health problems of obstetric, gynecologic (i.e. episiotomy pain, infection), and general health conditions (i.e. fatigue, headache). Nurses and midwives need to emphasize post-partum depression screening, follow-up, and proper management of maternal and infant health factors predisposing to post-partum depression rather than merely focusing on women's inherent demographic factors. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Saffron improved depression and reduced homocysteine level in patients with major depression: A Randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Jelodar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia, and depression has been reported. Saffron (Crocus sativus is recommended for treatment of depression; hence, in this study the effect of co-administration of saffron and fluoxetine on plasma homocysteine and depression was evaluated. Material and methods: This was a 4-week randomized and double-blind clinical trial which was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. In this trial, 40 male and females (20-55 years old diagnosed with severe depression were selected and following filing the Beck form, were randomly divided into two groups.  Experimental group was treated with fluoxetine 20 mg/day and saffron 30 mg /day and the control group received placebo and fluoxetine 20 mg/day for four weeks. Before treatment and at the end of the study, fasting blood samples were collected. For females, blood samples were collected on the third day of their menstrual cycle. Results: A significant reduction of homocysteine levels was observed in both sex in the experimental group compared to before treatment (p

  20. The impact of a depression awareness campaign on mental health literacy and mental morbidity among gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen; Häusermann, Michael; Berrut, Sylvie; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2013-09-05

    High prevalences of depression and suicidality have been found among gay men. This paper assesses the possible impact of Blues-out, a depression awareness campaign based on the European Alliance Against Depression targeting the gay/lesbian community in Geneva, Switzerland. In 2007 and 2011, pre- and post-intervention surveys were conducted among two distinct samples of gay men in Geneva, recruited by probability-based time-space sampling. Effect sizes and net percent changes are reported for mental health literacy and mental health outcomes in 2007 and 2011 as well as among men aware and unaware of Blues-out in 2011. 43% of the respondents correctly recognized depression in 2011 with no change vis-à-vis 2007. Despite small effect sizes, significant net decreases (from -18% to -28%) were seen in lifetime suicide plans, 12-month suicidal ideation, lifetime depression, and 4-week psychological distress between 2007 and 2011. These decreases were not accompanied by changes in any of the numerous items on attitudes/knowledge, found only when comparing men aware and unaware of Blues-out in 2011. More men aware of Blues-out found specialists and psychological therapies helpful than their counterparts and correctly identified depression and gay men's greater risk for depression. Community-level assessment with no control. Although improvement in depression recognition and decrease in suicide attempts could not be replicated unequivocally in this adapted intervention among gay men, there are indications that this evidence-based depression awareness campaign may have lessened suicidality and mental morbidity and improved mental health literacy and help-seeking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  2. Use of the Air Force Post-Deployment Health Reassessment for the identification of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder: public health implications for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael D; Thompson, Sanna J; Knox, Kerry L

    2012-03-01

    Military members are required to complete the Post-Deployment Health Assessment on return from deployment and the Post-Deployment Health Reassessment (PHDRA) 90 to 180 days later, and we assessed the PDHRA's sensitivity and specificity in identifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression after a military deployment among US Air Force personnel. We computed the PDHRA's sensitivity and specificity for depression and PTSD and developed a structural model to suggest possible improvements to it. For depression, sensitivity and specificity were 0.704 and 0.651, respectively; for PTSD, they were 0.774 and 0.650, respectively. Several variables produced significant direct effects on depression and trauma, suggesting that modifications could increase its sensitivity and specificity. The PDHRA was moderately effective in identifying airmen with depression and PTSD. It identified behavioral health concerns in many airmen who did not develop a diagnostic mental health condition. Its low level of specificity may result in reduced barriers to care and increased support services, key components of a public health approach to suicide prevention, for airmen experiencing subacute levels of distress after deployment, which may, in part, account for lower suicide rates among airmen after deployment.

  3. Screening for depressive symptoms in older adults in the Family Health Strategy, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Rubin, Leonardo Librelotto; Giacobbo, Sara de Souza; Gomes, Irenio; Cataldo Neto, Alfredo

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of depression in older adults and associated factors. METHODS Cross-sectional study using a stratified random sample of 621 individuals aged ≥ 60 from 27 family health teams in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, between 2010 and 2012. Community health agents measured depression using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Scores of ≥ 6 were considered as depression and between 11 and 15 as severe depression. Poisson regression was used to search for independent associations of sociodemographic and self-perceived health with both depression and its severity. RESULTS The prevalence of depression was 30.6% and was significantly higher in women (35.9% women versus 20.9% men, p education, especially illiteracy (PR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2;2 6); regular self-rated health (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.6;3.0); and poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 4.0, 95%CI 2.9;5.5). Except for education, the strength of association of these factors increases significantly in severe depression. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depression was observed in the evaluations conducted by community health agents, professionals who are not highly specialized. The findings identified using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in this way are similar to those in the literature, with depression more associated with low education, female gender and worse self-rated health. From a primary health care strategic point of view, the findings become still more relevant, indicating that community health agents could play an important role in identifying depression in older adults.

  4. [Health-related quality of life assessment in depression after low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, R; Boyer, L; Richieri, R; Guedj, E; Auquier, P; Lançon, C

    2014-02-01

    TMS treatment on the SF-36 and the clinical outcome was evaluated for significance with the Wilcoxon two-tailed signed-rank test. The reliable change index (RCI) was calculated to determine clinically significant change in the eight dimension and composite scores of the SF-36 from pre-intervention to post-intervention, at the level of individual patients. Effect size (r) was then calculated, r values from 0.1 to 0.29, 0.3 to 0.49 and from 0.5 were considered as indicating small, medium and large effect sizes, respectively. Correlations between improvement in Health-related Quality of Life and improvement in the other rating scale scores were calculated using Spearman's correlation test. There were significant improvements of 37.6% in the mental health (P=0.018), 130 % in the role-emotional problem (P=0.045), 15.5% in the physical functioning (P=0.008), 110.6% in the role-physical problem (P=0.002), 22.4% in the bodily pain (P=0.013) dimensions, 6.1% in the Physical Component Score (P=0.043), and 22,5 % in the Beck Depression Inventory (P=0.002). Eighteen patients (54%) showed clinically significant improvement in one of the two composite scores after RCI calculation. Seven out of the eight SF-36 dimension scores and the two composite scores showed effect sizes ranging from 0.12 to 0.38, indicating small to moderate effect. Significant correlations were found between improvement in the Beck Depression Inventory and improvement in the Mental Component Score, the social functioning, the mental health, the general health, the vitality and the physical functioning dimensions. Small sample size and non-controlled design. Low-frequency rTMS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves Health-related Quality of Life in unipolar and bipolar patients with medication-resistant depression. Improvement in mental health-related quality of life is significantly correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms. However, further studies with larger samples and controlled designs are

  5. Anxiety, depression, health attitudes and coping strategies in doctors and teachers in a Cape Town setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H van der Bijl

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate two professional groups (doctors and teachers with regard to symptoms of anxiety and depression as a measure of psychological distress, as well as perceptions regarding job satisfaction, workload and adequacy of remuneration. To assess health care behaviour as evidenced by substance use, psychotropic medication use, self-prescribing habits (in doctors, help-seeking behaviour as well as negative coping strategies as indicated by the intention to emigrate and/or leave the profession. Design. Data were collected from randomly distributed questionnaires which included a validated objective screening instrument, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Subjects and setting. Questionnaires were distributed among 260 physicians at Tygerberg Academic Hospital and 200 teachers from five different schools in the northern suburbs of metropolitan Cape Town. Results. We found high levels of job dissatisfaction and symptoms of anxiety and depression in both groups, with teachers more affected than doctors. A large proportion of respondents with clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression remain untreated. Many respondents displayed a passive attitude with regard to seeking help. A significant proportion of doctors self-prescribed antidepressant and benzodiazepine medications. Only a small minority of doctors had a general practitioner whom they would consult when ill. Twenty-nine per cent of doctors indicated their intention to emigrate and 40% of teachers were planning to leave their profession. Conclusion. Our results suggest that doctors and teachers in South Africa are two professional groups at high risk for developing serious mental health problems, with low levels of recognition and intervention at present.

  6. Predictors of depressive symptoms in older rural couples: the impact of work, stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayens, Mary Kay; Reed, Deborah B

    2014-01-01

    Older farmers experience a high rate of suicide, and depression is closely aligned with suicide among agricultural workers. Depressive symptoms may be influenced by work patterns, work satisfaction, stress, and health status. In addition, members of a couple may affect each other's depressive symptoms. The purpose was to determine whether depressive symptoms score is predicted by hours worked on the farm, satisfaction with work, number of health conditions, perceived stress, and demographics in a sample of older farm couples, and to assess the degree of influence on depressive symptoms spouses have on each other. A total of 494 couples participated in the initial interview for a longitudinal study of farmers aged 50 and above. Data from husbands and wives were used together in a multilevel, dyad-based regression model to determine predictors of depressive symptoms. Men's depressive symptoms scores were predicted by their own number of health conditions and stress and by their wives' stress and health conditions. Women's depressive symptoms scores were predicted by their own work satisfaction, stress, and number of health conditions and their husbands' time spent working on the farm and stress. Stress management may be particularly important in older farm couples, since perceived duress of 1 member of the dyad impacts both. Work factors and health conditions also affect depressive symptoms in older rural couples, but these may be less easily modified. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  7. High C-reactive protein levels are associated with depressive symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, M; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Faget-Agius, C; Lançon, C; Cermolacce, M; Richieri, R

    2018-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequently associated with schizophrenia symptoms. C - Reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, had been found elevated in patients with schizophrenia and in patients with depressive symptoms. However, the association between CRP level and depressive symptoms has been poorly investigated in patients with schizophrenia. The only study conducted found an association between high CRP levels and antidepressant consumption, but not with depressive symptoms investigated with the Calgary Depression Rating Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). The aim of this study was to evaluate CRP levels and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, and to determine whether high CRP levels are associated with depressive symptoms and/or antidepressant consumption, independently of potential confounding factors, especially tobacco-smoking and metabolic syndrome. Three hundred and seven patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in this study (mean age = 35.74 years, 69.1% male gender). Depressive symptoms was investigated with the CDSS. Patients were classified in two groups: normal CRP level (≤ 3.0mg/L) and high CRP level (> 3.0mg/L). Current medication was recorded. 124 subjects (40.4%) were classified in the high CRP level group. After adjusting for confounding factors, these patients were found to have higher CDSS scores than those with normal CRP levels in multivariate analyses (p = 0.035, OR = 1.067, 95% CI = 1.004-1.132). No significant association between CRP levels and antidepressants consumption was found. The size sample is relatively small. The cut-off point for high cardiovascular risk was used to define the two groups. CRP was the sole marker of inflammation in this study and was collected at only one time point. The design of this study is cross-sectional and there are no conclusions about the directionality of the association between depression and inflammation in schizophrenia. This study found an association between high

  8. The prevalence of depression and associated factors in Ethiopia: findings from the National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemariam Solomon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating mental health into primarily health care and studying risk for mental health particularly depression needs assessment of different factors including those that impede diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. But so far the numbers of literature for local context to analyze risk factors for depression and its treatment are scare. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors and health service attendance for depression among adults, in Ethiopia. Methods For this analysis, data from the Ethiopian National health survey was used. The Ethiopian national health survey studied 4,925 adults aged 18 years and older to obtain among other things, data on depression episodes, socio-demographic, chronic diseases, life style factors and treatment receiving for depression episodes in the past twelve months using questionnaire from world health organization (WHO. Prevalence of Depression in respondents based on ICD-10 criteria was estimated and logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression and treatment receiving. Results The prevalence of depressive episode was 9.1% (95% CI: 8.39-9.90. In a Univariate analysis, residence, age, marital status, educational status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases (heart diseases, diabetic mellitus and arthritis and alcohol drinking status were associated with depression. After full adjustment for possible confounding, odds ratios for depression were significantly higher only for older age, divorced and widowed, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol drinking status. The proportion of attending health service among those with depression episodes was 22.9%. After full control for all socio-demographic variables the only predictor variable was educational status, being in grade 5–8 had a higher odds (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.23-5.43 and 9–12 grade (OR=1.8 95% CI: 1.45-6.12 of attending service for depressive

  9. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  10. [Association between health related quality of life and severity of depression in patients with major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuping; Li, Wen; Shen, Jingjin; Zhang, Yalin

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the association between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and severity of depression in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) was administered to 103 MDD patients at the baseline and 6-week follow-up. Hamilton Depression Rating for Depression (HAMD) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) were administered at the baseline, 2- and 6-week follow-up, respectively. All SF-36 component scores in the 6-week follow-up were significantly higher than those at the baseline (Pphysical, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotion and mental health were significantly higher in the remission group than those in the non-remission group (Phealth transition was significantly associated with higher scores of HAMD and sleep disturbance at the baseline (Phealth and role-emotion were strongly associated with higher score of anxiety/somatization at the baseline (both Phealth was positively associated with reduction rate of cognitive disturbance at the 2-week endpoint (Phealth transition were positively associated with the reduction rate of sleep disturbance at the 2-week endpoint (both Pdepression was significantly associated with a worse HRQoL in patients with MDD. A 6-week antidepressant treatment may result in comparable HRQoL improvements. The components of HRQoL vary with severity of various symptoms of depression at the baseline and their early improvement after the treatment.

  11. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...

  12. Do Local Social Hierarchies Matter for Mental Health? A Study of Neighborhood Social Status and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagney, Kathleen A.; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Despite a well-established association between relative social position and health, stratification at smaller levels of social organization has received scant attention. Neighborhood is a localized context that has increasing relevance for adults as they age, thus one’s relative position within this type of mesolevel group may have an effect on mental health, independent of absolute level of social and economic resources. We examine the relationship between an older adult’s relative rank within their neighborhoods on two criteria and depressive symptoms. Method. Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, neighborhood relative social position was ascertained for two social domains: income and social reputation (number of neighbors one knows well enough to visit). Using multilevel models, we estimated the effect of relative position within the neighborhood on depressive symptoms, net of absolute level for each domain and average neighborhood level. Results. Higher neighborhood relative rankings on both income and visiting neighbors were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Although both were modest in effect, the gradient in depressive symptoms was three times steeper for the relative rank of visiting neighbors than for income. Men had steeper gradients than women in both domains, but no race differences were observed. Discussion. These findings suggest that an older adult’s relative position in a local social hierarchy is associated with his/her mental health, net of absolute position. PMID:26333821

  13. Do Local Social Hierarchies Matter for Mental Health? A Study of Neighborhood Social Status and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley-Moore, Jessica A; Cagney, Kathleen A; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F

    2016-03-01

    Despite a well-established association between relative social position and health, stratification at smaller levels of social organization has received scant attention. Neighborhood is a localized context that has increasing relevance for adults as they age, thus one's relative position within this type of mesolevel group may have an effect on mental health, independent of absolute level of social and economic resources. We examine the relationship between an older adult's relative rank within their neighborhoods on two criteria and depressive symptoms. Using data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, neighborhood relative social position was ascertained for two social domains: income and social reputation (number of neighbors one knows well enough to visit). Using multilevel models, we estimated the effect of relative position within the neighborhood on depressive symptoms, net of absolute level for each domain and average neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood relative rankings on both income and visiting neighbors were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Although both were modest in effect, the gradient in depressive symptoms was three times steeper for the relative rank of visiting neighbors than for income. Men had steeper gradients than women in both domains, but no race differences were observed. These findings suggest that an older adult's relative position in a local social hierarchy is associated with his/her mental health, net of absolute position. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Use of health services in people with multiple sclerosis with and without depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytterberg, Charlotte; Lundqvist, Sanna; Johansson, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To organize tailored healthcare for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), knowledge about patterns in the use of healthcare among subgroups, such as those with depressive symptoms, is essential. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and compare the use of health services...... in people with MS and depressive symptoms, and without depressive symptoms over a period of 30 months. METHODS: Data on the use of health services by 71 people with MS and depressive symptoms, and 102 with no depressive symptoms were collected from a computerised register and by interview, then categorized....... CONCLUSIONS: The issues underlying the differences in the use of healthcare need to be explored further, as well as the plausible implications for the organization of healthcare services for people with MS and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the life situations of caregivers of people with MS and depressive...

  15. Codependents of Recovering Addicts: Exploring Their Level of Depression and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIMEE ROSE A. ARGUELLES – MANDA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a family disease. It causes members of a family to develop coping methods that help them interact with one another. This descriptive study explored the relationship between level of depression and self-esteem of 30 codependents of recovering addicts. Respondents are mostly in their midlife, married, and college graduate females who were spouses or wives of recovering addicts. Majority of them experience low levels of depression while only minimal are clinically depressed. As for self esteem, half of the respondents had moderately low levels while the other half had either mildly low or severely low levels. Results show there is no significant relationship between the level of depression and self esteem of codependents of recovering addicts and that depression doesn’t really equate into a low level of self esteem. This research recommends that a more in-depth research be done to explore more contributing factors on the level of selfesteem of Codependents including a comparative study on those who have dependents still in active addiction. Aside from this, institutions involved such as schools, counselors and rehabilitation centers educate families and children of codependents at a young age about addiction as a disease and use the findings of this study to come up with more supportive programs for the family

  16. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Antti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of an increasing body of research the associations between vitamin B12 and folate levels and the treatment outcome in depressive disorders are still unsolved. We therefore conducted this naturalistic prospective follow-up study. Our aim was to determine whether there were any associations between the vitamin B12 and folate level and the six-month treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder. Because vitamin B12 and folate deficiency may result in changes in haematological indices, including mean corpuscular volume, red blood cell count and hematocrit, we also examined whether these indices were associated with the treatment outcome. Methods Haematological indices, erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels were determined in 115 outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder at baseline and serum vitamin B12 level again on six-month follow-up. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was also compiled, respectively. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Higher vitamin B12 levels significantly associated with a better outcome. The association between the folate level and treatment outcome was weak and probably not independent. No relationship was found between haematological indices and the six-month outcome. Conclusion The vitamin B12 level and the probability of recovery from major depression may be positively associated. Nevertheless, further studies are suggested to confirm this finding.

  17. Perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in undergraduate women with varying levels of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiades, Maria H; Kapoor, Shweta; Wootten, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A

    2017-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that perceived stress and depression are risk factors for suicidal ideation in young adults, particularly women attending college. Female undergraduate students (N = 928) were administered measures assessing their levels of stress, depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, and mindfulness. A moderated-mediation analysis was conducted to examine the complex associations among these variables. Results indicated that mindfulness moderated the mediated effect of depressive symptoms on perceived stress and suicidal ideation. Specifically, the indirect effect was stronger in college women with lower levels of mindfulness as compared to those students who reported higher mindfulness. Thus, teaching mindfulness techniques on college campuses may be an important strategy for preventing suicide, especially among young adult women experiencing stress and depressive symptoms.

  18. Postpartum depression predicts offspring mental health problems in adolescence independently of parental lifetime psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; van Pampus, Mariëlle G; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L; Hartman, Catharina A; Burger, Huibert

    BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) follows 5-15% of the life births and forms a major threat to the child's mental health and psychosocial development. However, the nature, continuance, and mediators of the association of postpartum depression (PPD) with the child's mental health are not well

  19. Mothers' alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels and their association with the quality of mother-infant relationship: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürümez, Esra; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Uğur, Çağatay; Uslu, Runa Idil; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mothers and their developmentally normal infants in terms of maternal alexithymia, depression and anxiety, and marital satisfaction. Fifty children between 18 and 48 months of age, and their mothers, were referred consecutively to the Infant Mental Health Unit of Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The sociodemographic features of the families and the depressive symptoms, anxiety, marital satisfaction and alexithymia levels of the mothers were assessed. The relationships between children in normal developmental stages and their mothers were evaluated and rated using a structured clinical procedure. There was a negative correlation between the mothers' alexithymia scores and the quality of the mother-infant relationship (p Mothers with high alexithymia showed higher depression and lower relationship qualities than mothers with low alexithymia, according to the correlation analysis. When depression and anxiety were controlled, high alexithymia levels were predictive of a low, impaired mother-infant relationship. Since alexithymia is a trait-like variable which has a negative correlation with impairment in a mother-infant relationship, it must be investigated in the assessment of mothers' interactions with their babies.

  20. Mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms among pregnant women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byatt, Nancy; Xiao, Rui S; Dinh, Kate H; Waring, Molly E

    2016-02-01

    We examined mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) ≥ 10) among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Logistic regression models estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios for mental health care use in the past year in relation to depressive symptoms. While 8.2 % (95 % CI 4.6-11.8) of pregnant women were depressed, only 12 % (95 % CI 1.8-22.1) of these women reported mental health care use in the past year.

  1. Plasma level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the related analysis in depressive patients with suicide attempt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between brainderived neurotrophic factor(BDNF)and suicidal behavior through analyzing and detecting the alteration of plasma BDNF level in depressive patients with suicide attempt.Methods Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis(ELISA)to test the plasma level of BDNF in 27suicidal depressed patients,33 non-suicidal depressed patients and 30 normal controls.Meanwhile,the Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD)and Beck

  2. The relationship between social support networks and depression in the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Afzali, Mohammad H; Chapman, Cath; Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim

    2017-12-01

    Social isolation and low levels of social support are associated with depression. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between depression and social connectivity factors (frequency of contact and quality of social connections) in the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. A national survey of 8841 participants aged 16-85 years was conducted. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between social connectivity factors and 12-month prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder in the whole sample, as well as across three age groups: younger adults (16-34 years), middle-aged adults (35-54 years), and older adults (55+ years). Respondents indicated how often they were in contact with family members and friends (frequency of contact), and how many family and friends they could rely on and confide in (quality of support), and were assessed for Major Depressive Disorder using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostics Interview. Overall, higher social connection quality was more closely and consistently associated with lower odds of the past year depression, relative to frequency of social interaction. The exception to this was for the older group in which fewer than a single friendship interaction each month was associated with a two-fold increased likelihood of the past year depression (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.14-4.25). Friendship networks were important throughout life, although in middle adulthood, family support was also critically important-those who did not have any family support had more than a three-fold increased odds of the past year depression (OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.07-5.85). High-quality social connection with friends and family members is associated with reduced likelihood of the past year depression. Intervention studies that target the quality of social support for depression, particularly support from friends, are warranted.

  3. Higher levels of depression are associated with reduced global bias in visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W; Cooper, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Negative moods have been associated with a tendency to prioritise local details in visual processing. The current study investigated the relation between depression and visual processing using the Navon task, a standard task of local and global processing. In the Navon task, global stimuli are presented that are made up of many local parts, and the participants are instructed to report the identity of either a global or a local target shape. Participants with a low self-reported level of depression showed evidence of the expected global processing bias, and were significantly faster at responding to the global, compared with the local level. By contrast, no such difference was observed in participants with high levels of depression. The reduction of the global bias associated with high levels of depression was only observed in the overall speed of responses to global (versus local) targets, and not in the level of interference produced by the global (versus local) distractors. These results are in line with recent findings of a dissociation between local/global processing bias and interference from local/global distractors, and support the claim that depression is associated with a reduction in the tendency to prioritise global-level processing.

  4. Association of BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Brain BDNF levels with Major Depression and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mariam M; Underwood, Mark D; Huang, Yung-Yu; Hsiung, Shu-Chi; Liu, Yan; Simpson, Norman R; Bakalian, Mihran J; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Arango, Victoria; Mann, J John

    2018-02-08

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide. Both are partly caused by early life adversity (ELA) and ELA reduces BDNF protein levels. This study examines the association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and brain BDNF levels with depression and suicide. We hypothesized that both MDD and ELA would be associated with the Met allele and lower brain BDNF levels. Such an association would be consistent with low BDNF mediating the effect of ELA on adulthood suicide and MDD. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was genotyped in postmortem brains of 37 suicide decedents and 53 non-suicides. Additionally, BDNF protein levels were determined by Western blot in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9; BA9), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA24), caudal brainstem and rostral brainstem. The relationships between these measures and MDD, death by suicide and reported ELA were examined. Subjects with the Met allele had an increased risk for depression. Depressed patients also have lower BDNF levels in ACC and caudal brainstem compared with non-depressed subjects. No effect of history of suicide death or ELA was observed with genotype, but lower BDNF levels in ACC were found in subjects who had been exposed to ELA and/or died by suicide compared to non-suicide decedents and no reported ELA. This study provides further evidence implicating low brain BDNF and the BDNF Met allele in major depression risk. Future studies should seek to determine how altered BDNF expression contributes to depression and suicide. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  5. Quantifying the importance of disease burden on perceived general health and depressive symptoms in patients within the Mayo Clinic Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Euijung; Takahashi, Paul Y; Olson, Janet E; Hathcock, Matthew A; Novotny, Paul J; Pathak, Jyotishman; Bielinski, Suzette J; Cerhan, James R; Sloan, Jeff A

    2015-07-03

    Deficits in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may be associated with worse patient experiences, outcomes and even survival. While there exists evidence to identify risk factors associated with deficits in HRQOL among patients with individual medical conditions such as cancer, it is less well established in more general populations without attention to specific illnesses. This study used patients with a wide range of medical conditions to identify contributors with the greatest influence on HRQOL deficits. Self-perceived general health and depressive symptoms were assessed using data from 21,736 Mayo Clinic Biobank (MCB) participants. Each domain was dichotomized into categories related to poor health: deficit (poor/fair for general health and ≥3 for PHQ-2 depressive symptoms) or non-deficit. Logistic regression models were used to test the association of commonly collected demographic characteristics and disease burden with each HRQOL domain, adjusting for age and gender. Gradient boosting machine (GBM) models were applied to quantify the relative influence of contributors on each HRQOL domain. The prevalence of participants with a deficit was 9.5 % for perception of general health and 4.6 % for depressive symptoms. For both groups, disease burden had the strongest influence for deficit in HRQOL (63 % for general health and 42 % for depressive symptoms). For depressive symptoms, age was equally influential. The prevalence of a deficit in general health increased slightly with age for males, but remained stable across age for females. Deficit in depressive symptoms was inversely associated with age. For both HRQOL domains, risk of a deficit was associated with higher disease burden, lower levels of education, no alcohol consumption, smoking, and obesity. Subjects with deficits were less likely to report that they were currently working for pay than those without a deficit; this association was stronger among males than females. Comorbid health burden has the

  6. Alterations of serum levels of BDNF-related miRNAs in patients with depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Jie Li

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious and potentially life-threatening mental disorder with unknown etiology. Emerging evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and microRNAs (miRNAs play critical roles in the etiology of depression. Here this study was aimed to identify and characterize the roles of BDNF and its putative regulatory miRNAs in depression. First, we identified that miR-182 may be a putative miRNA that regulates BDNF levels by bioinformatic studies, and characterized the effects of miR-182 on the BDNF levels using cell-based studies, side by side with miR-132 (a known miRNA that regulates BDNF expression. We showed that treatment of miR-132 and miR-182 respectively decreased the BDNF protein levels in a human neuronal cell model, supporting the regulatory roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF expression. Furthermore, we explored the roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF levels in depression using human subjects by assessing their serum levels. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with depression showed lower serum BDNF levels (via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and higher serum miR-132 and miR-182 levels (via the real-time PCR. Finally, the Pearson's (or Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to study whether there was a relationship among the Self-Rating Depression Scale score, the serum BDNF levels, and serum BDNF-related miRNA levels. Our results revealed that there was a significant negative correlation between the SDS scores and the serum BDNF levels, and a positive correlation between the SDS scores and miR-132 levels. In addition, we found a reverse relationship between the serum BDNF levels and the miR-132/miR-182 levels in depression. Collectively, we provided evidence supporting that miR-182 is a putative BDNF-regulatory miRNA, and suggested that the serum BDNF and its related miRNAs may be utilized as important biomarkers in the diagnosis or as therapeutic targets of depression.

  7. Depressive symptoms impact health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and quality of life in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Suzanne M; Penckofer, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than 15% of persons with CVD have depressive symptoms, which are twice as likely to occur in women. Depressive symptoms in women being screened for CVD have not been well studied. The relationships between depressive symptoms, health-promoting lifestyle behaviors, heart disease risk awareness, cardiac risk, and quality of life (QOL) in women were investigated. Whether the effect of depressive symptoms on QOL was mediated by cardiac risk and/or health-promoting lifestyle behaviors was also examined. The Wilson-Cleary Health-Related Quality of Life Model guided this descriptive study. A convenience sample of 125 women was recruited from cardiac health screening events. The study measurements were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; the Framingham risk score; the Ferrans-Powers Quality of Life Index Generic Version-III; the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II; and questions related to heart disease risk, awareness of heart disease risk, health history, and demographics. Body mass index, percentage of body fat, and lipid profile were also measured. More than one-third (34%) of the women reported significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not associated with cardiac risk or risk awareness but were inversely associated with health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (r = -0.37, P lifestyle behaviors (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.97; P lifestyle behaviors mediated the association between depressive symptoms and QOL. Depressive symptoms contribute significantly to health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and QOL for women. Early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms are important for participation in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which could result in improved QOL.

  8. Lesbian, gay, & bisexual older adults: linking internal minority stressors, chronic health conditions, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to: (1) test whether the minority stressors disclosure of sexual orientation; and (2) internalized heterosexism are predictive of chronic physical health conditions; and (3) depression; (4) to test direct and indirect relationships between these variables; and (5) whether chronic physical health conditions are further predictive of depression, net of disclosure of sexual orientation and internalized heterosexism. Secondary analysis of national, community-based surveys of 2349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 and older residing in the US utilizing structural equation modeling. Congruent with minority stress theory, disclosure of sexual orientation is indirectly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, mediated by internalized heterosexism with a suppressor effect. Internalized heterosexism is directly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, and further indirectly associated with depression mediated by chronic physical health conditions. Finally, chronic physical health conditions have an additional direct relationship with depression, net of other predictor variables. Minority stressors and chronic physical health conditions independently and collectively predict depression, possibly a synergistic effect. Implications for depression among older sexual minority adults are discussed.

  9. Do employers know the quality of health care benefits they provide? Use of HEDIS depression scores for health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John; Rost, Kathryn; Marshall, Donna

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Dissemination of health quality measures is a necessary ingredient of efforts to harness market-based forces, such as value-based purchasing by employers, to improve health care quality. This study examined reporting of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures for depression to firms interested in improving depression care. METHODS During surveys conducted between 2009 and 2011, a sample of 325 employers that were interested in improving depression treatment were asked whether their primary health plan reports HEDIS scores for depression to the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and if so, whether they knew the scores. Data about HEDIS reporting by the health plans were collected from the NCQA. RESULTS HEDIS depression scores were reported by the primary health plans of 154 (47%) employers, but only 7% of employers knew their plan's HEDIS scores. Because larger employers were more likely to report knowing the scores, 53% of all employees worked for employers who reported knowing the scores. A number of structural, health benefit, and need characteristics predicted knowledge of HEDIS depression scores by employers. CONCLUSIONS The study demonstrated that motivated employers did not know their depression HEDIS scores even when their plan publicly reported them. Measures of health care quality are not reaching the buyers of insurance products; however, larger employers were more likely to know the HEDIS scores for their health plan, suggesting that value-based purchasing may have some ability to affect health care quality.

  10. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.R.; Watkins, J.C.; Motley, F.E.; Stumpf, H.; Chen, Y.S.

    1991-08-01

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Determinants of attitudes towards professional mental health care, informal help and self-reliance in people with subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zoonen, Kim; Kleiboer, Annet; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Penninx, Brenda; Verhaak, Peter; Beekman, Aartjan

    2016-02-01

    Although little is known about which people with subclinical depression should receive care to prevent the onset of depression, it is clear that remediating symptoms of depression is important. However, depending on the beliefs people hold about help, some people will seek professional help, while others seek informal help or solve problems on their own. This study examined associations between attitudes about help and socio-demographic variables, mastery, severity of depressive symptoms, accessibility to care, and health care utilization at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Data were derived from a large cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). A total of 235 respondents with subclinical depression completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Attitude was assessed using a short version of the 'Trust in mental health care' questionnaire. Positive attitude towards professional care was associated with being male, younger age, higher mastery and easy accessibility to care. Positive attitude towards informal help was associated with higher mastery and unemployment. Older age, less accessibility to care and lower mastery were associated with positive attitude towards self-reliance. A change in care utilization was associated with positive attitudes towards professional care at follow-up. People differ in the way they cope with symptoms which may influence their preferred care. Higher levels of mastery were positively associated with professional and informal care, but negatively associated with self-reliance. Both age and mastery showed relatively large effect sizes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Binge eating disorder and depressive symptoms among females of child-bearing age: the Korea Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, O; Kim, M S; Kim, J; Lee, J E; Jung, H

    2018-01-17

    Most studies regarding the relationship between binge eating disorder (BED) and depression have targeted obese populations. However, nurses, particularly female nurses, are one of the vocations that face these issues due to various reasons including high stress and shift work. This study investigated the prevalence of BED and the correlation between BED and severity of self-reported depressive symptoms among female nurses in South Korea. Participants were 7,267 female nurses, of which 502 had symptoms of BED. Using the propensity score matching (PSM) technique, 502 nurses with BED and 502 without BED were included in the analyses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis. The proportion of binge eating disorder was 6.90% among the nurses, and 81.3% of nurses displayed some levels of depressive symptoms. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that age (40 years old and older), alcohol consumption (frequent drinkers), self-rated health, sleep problems, and stress were associated with self-reported depression symptoms. Overall, after adjusting for confounders, nurses with BED had 1.80 times the risk (95% CI = [1.41-2.30]; p-value depression symptoms. Korean female nurse showed a higher prevalence of both binge eating disorder and depressive symptoms, and the association between the two factors was proven in the study. Therefore, hospital management and health policy makers should be alarmed and agreed on both examining nurses on such problems and providing organized and systematic assistance.

  13. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Francesco Lavano,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Domenico Bove,6 Michele Sorrentino,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy; 6Centro per la Diagnosi e Cura dei Disturbi dell’apprendimento e del Comportamento Associazione per la ricerca scientifica Fusis, Alvignano, Italy Introduction: Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in Western and in developing countries and has been accompanied by many serious and severe comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, depression, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, steatohepatitis, and intracranial hypertension, as well as medical concerns unique to youth, such as accelerated pubertal and skeletal development and orthopedic disorders. To date, no specific studies about the psychological assessment in pediatric obesity are present. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the putative relationship between psychological troubles and obesity in a sample of school-aged children. Materials and methods: The study population consists of 148 obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] >95th percentile (69 males, mean age 8.9±1.23 years consecutively referred from clinical pediatricians to the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry department at the Second University of Naples. In all subjects, weight, height, and BMI z-score were evaluated. In order to assess the anxiety levels and the presence of

  14. Forgetting and emotion regulation in mental health, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørby, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Does normal forgetting facilitate mental health and is forgetting impaired in affective disorders? This double-sided question may seem counterintuitive given the fact that forgetting is often associated with troubles in everyday life. However, forgetting does not only have destructive consequences, but also fulfils important functions. I consider the possibility that forgetting may function as a beneficial sorting mechanism which helps healthy people discard information that is undesirable and unpleasant. Thus, selective forgetting of negative memories may be part of emotion regulation, that is, people's attempts to control when and how they experience and express emotions. Such forgetting may allow for a focus on positive memories and thereby help form a mnemonic basis for optimism as well as active and explorative approach behaviour. Also, I consider the possibility that anxiety and depression may in part result from and be maintained by a diminished capacity to forget. A reduced ability to selectively forget negative memories may be one reason that such disorders are characterised by painful emotions such as fear and sadness as well as defensive and withdrawn behaviour. Overall, I review and reflect on evidence for and against functional forgetting in mental health and dysfunctional forgetting in affective disorders.

  15. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  16. The Attentional Blink Paradigm in Individuals with High and Low Levels of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kathleen Skinner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The attentional biases of individuals with high and low levels of depression and anxiety were tested using the Attentional Blink paradigm. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task was used to detect biases in identification of emotionally valenced target images. The independent variables were depression, anxiety, lag of target stimulus, and emotional valence of target images. The dependent variables were accuracy, reaction times, and pupil dilation. As predicted, attentional biases were found for symptoms of both depression and anxiety, independently and co-morbidly, for dependent variables. The data suggest that there are both differences and similarities in the effects of symptoms of anxiety and depression on attentional biases around emotional stimuli.

  17. Comparison of the Levels of Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness of Patients with Epilepsy and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Rabia Koç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by sudden seizures and loss of control in patients; it leads to constantly be under stress. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depressive disorders are more frequent in patients with epilepsy than in the whole of society. In this study; we aimed to compare depression,anxiety and desperation levels between epileptic patients and healthy ones. METHODS: 34 patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Demographic features of all subjects were also recorded. Neurologic examination, Electroencephalography (EEG and cranial magnetic resonance imaging(MRI of patients were also evaluated. State-Trait Anxety Inventory (STAI is for anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDE is for depression, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BUO is for hopelessness were evaluated. RESULTS: Epileptic patients were with mean age of 24.56 ± 8.49, healthy subjects were with the mean age 27.44 ± 5.66 years. 13 of patients were female(38.2% and 21 patients were male(%38.2 in all groups.There was no significant difference about demographic features(p>0.05. When continuous and instant anxiety levels of epileptic and healthy groups were compared, no significant difference was observed between instant anxiety levels(p> 0.05; but there was difference between continuous anxiety levels (p <0.05. Also, hopelessness and depression levels were similar between groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that depression, anxiety and hopelessness levels were higher in epileptic patients when compared to healthy people. In addition, patients with seizure control with less drug use will reduce the level of trait anxiety was concluded.

  18. Relationships of Cerebrospinal Fluid Monoamine Metabolite Levels With Clinical Variables in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Hattori, Kotaro; Ogawa, Shintaro; Sasayama, Daimei; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    Many studies have investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite levels in depressive disorders. However, their clinical significance is still unclear. We tried to determine whether CSF monoamine metabolite levels could be a state-dependent marker for major depressive disorder (MDD) based on analyses stratified by clinical variables in a relatively large sample. Subjects were 75 patients with MDD according to DSM-IV criteria and 87 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese). They were recruited between May 2010 and November 2013. We measured homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG) in CSF samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. We analyzed the relationships of the metabolite levels with age, sex, diagnosis, psychotropic medication use, and depression severity. There was a weak positive correlation between age and 5-HIAA levels in controls (ρ = 0.26, P 12) were significantly lower than those in controls (P .1), were related to depression severity. CSF 5-HIAA and HVA levels could be state-dependent markers in MDD patients. Since 5-HIAA levels greatly decrease with the use of antidepressants, HVA levels might be more useful in the clinical setting. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. The level of depression in lower back pain patient at outpatient of neurology Haji Adam Malik hospital Medan (RS HAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardosi, M. C.; Loebis’, B.; Husada, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of Lower Back Pain (LBP) in Indonesia is unclear. Various data in some developing countries stated that the LBP incidence is approximately 15% - 20% of the population. Because there is the unclear incidence of psychological symptoms such as depression on LBP, the researchers were interested in doing this research. A descriptive study was conducted to know the level of depression of patients with LBP in outpatient of neurology RS HAM Medan. Patients with LBP (n=78) in outpatient were examined BDI-II. The minimum depression was 47.44% (n=37), mild depression was 21.79% (n=17), moderate depression was 21.79% (n=17), severe depression was 8.98% (n=7). In conclusion, the level of depression in lower back pain patient at outpatient of neurology Haji Adam Malik Hospital Medan is higher at minimum depression.

  20. Depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiting; Lopez, Janice M S; Bolge, Susan C; Zhu, Vivienne J; Stang, Paul E

    2016-04-05

    Depression in people with diabetes can result in increased risk for diabetes-related complications. The prevalence of depression has been estimated to be 17.6 % in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), based on studies published between 1980 and 2005. There is a lack of more recent estimates of depression prevalence among the US general T2DM population. The present study used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012 data to provide an updated, population-based estimate for the prevalence of depression in people with T2DM. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Starting from 2005, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was included to measure signs and symptoms of depression. We defined PHQ-9 total scores ≥ 10 as clinically relevant depression (CRD), and ≥ 15 as clinically significant depression (CSD). Self-reported current antidepressant use was also combined to estimate overall burden of depression. Predictors of CRD and CSD were investigated using survey logistic regression models. A total of 2182 participants with T2DM were identified. The overall prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM is 10.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.9-12.2 %), and 4.2 % (95 % CI 3.4-5.1 %), respectively. The combined burden of depressive symptoms and antidepressants may be as high as 25.4 % (95 % CI 23.0-27.9 %). Significant predictors of CRD include age (younger than 65), sex (women), income (lower than 130 % of poverty level), education (below college), smoking (current or former smoker), body mass index (≥30 kg/m(2)), sleep problems, hospitalization in the past year, and total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dl). Significant predictors of CSD also include physical activity (below guideline) and cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of CRD and CSD among people with T2DM in the US may be lower than in earlier studies, however, the burden of

  1. Comorbidity of depression with levels of smoking: an exploration of the shared familial risk hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric O; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Chase, Gary A; Breslau, Naomi

    2004-12-01

    Comorbidity of depression and smoking is well recognized, but results from studies that have assessed alternative explanations have varied by the level of smoking and the study method. We examined all 13 etiology models of comorbidity described by Neale and Kendler (American Journal of Genetics, 57, 935-953, 1995) for depression and each of four levels of smoking to shed light on the role that differing definitions might have played in generating the conflicting findings. Data came from 979 young adults aged 26-35 years who participated in an epidemiological cohort study in southeastern Michigan. Respondent and family history data on parental smoking and depression were analyzed using the biometric modeling method for family data, which Rhee and colleagues (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 44, 612-636, 2003; Behavior Genetics, 34, 251-265, 2004) have shown to be valid more frequently than traditional prevalence analyses. Results of the biometric model fitting suggested that for ever smoking, the comorbidity with depression may be related to chance or a high liability threshold for smoking only. In contrast, a correlated liabilities model fit the data best for the comorbidity of depression with daily, heavy, and nicotine-dependent smoking. The familial correlations accounted for 73%-95% of the total variance shared between depression and these levels of smoking. These results differ from analyses of these data using a traditional prevalence approach, which found no evidence of shared familial liability. The conflicting findings of the studies that have examined the relationship between smoking and depression may be attributable to differences in definition of the disorders and the methods used to analyze them.

  2. A conceptual framework of stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women: potential uses in research on complementary therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia A; Lyon, Debra E

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a chronic mental health condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is well-established that psychological stress plays an integral role in depression and that depression has numerous negative health outcomes. However, a closer look at components of stress vulnerabilities and depression is required to allow for the development and testing of appropriate interventions. This article describes a conceptual framework about the complex and bidirectional relationship between stress vulnerability, depression, and health outcomes in women. The authors elucidate how the framework can be applied in clinical research about cellular aging and on the mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for depression, using yoga as an example of a CAM modality. The proposed conceptual framework may be helpful for adding depth to the body of knowledge about the use of mind-body therapies for individuals at high risk of stress vulnerability and/or depression.

  3. Mental health literacy: knowledge of depression among undergraduate students in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thai, Quynh Chi; Nguyen, Thanh Huong

    2018-01-01

    Mental health literacy (MHL) refers to an individuals' knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, and prevention. This study aims to investigate the MHL of depression among public health and sociology undergraduate students in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to September 2015. Data was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to 350 undergraduate students (213 public health majors; 137 sociology majors). Questions about MHL of depression were adapted from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health Literacy and Stigma. Question topics included recognition of depression, help-seeking intentions, first-aid support, and knowledge about interventions to help people with depression. Chi squared tests were conducted to compare proportional statistics across groups for multiple measures. With regard to recognition of mental disorders, 32.0% of the respondents used the accurate label "depression" for the vignette. Among those who correctly identified depression, 82.1% would seek help. The corresponding statistic was 81.1% from those who did not recognize depression. Both groups would seek help from counselor, psychologist, family members, and close friends. First-aid support suggested by the respondents in both groups were informal sources ( to listen to her problem in an understanding way, to encourage her to be more physically active , etc.). The interventions considered most helpful by the respondents were self-help strategies such as learning how to relax , getting physically active , doing exercise early in the morning , and reading a self - help book . Joining a group of individuals with similar problems was chosen to be a helpful intervention among those who did not recognize depression (p depression believed that people with depression should be admitted to hospital for psychiatric treatment (p depression among undergraduate students in Vietnam. The

  4. [The degree of asthma severity in children and the level of maternal anxiety and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Płusa, Urszula

    2015-02-01

    Care for sick children most often falls to mothers, which may affect their mental state, causing the states of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of asthma in children and the level of anxiety and depression in mothers, taking into account the importance of the material status of the family, the educational level of the mothers, the presence of critical events, as well as the coexistence of allergic diseases in other family members. The study included 60 mothers of children with bronchial asthma. Age of mothers in the investigated families was on average 37.28 +/- 6.24 years, and most had a high school education (55.0%) or higher (28.3%). 16.7% of mothers and 8.3% fathers suffered from asthma. 13.3% of mothers of children with asthma were brought child alone. To assess the level of anxiety the inventory for measuring state and trait anxiety (STAI - State Trait Anxiety Inventory) developed by Spielberger, Gorsuch'a and Lushene'a was applied. To determine the changes in depressive the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI - Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire) was used. The Student's t test was included for two independent populations and a comparison of the results obtained in the questionnaire for diagnosing the level of anxiety and depression. For other parameters the correlation coefficient r-Pearson rank and Kendall's tau were performed. Mothers of children with moderate asthma compared to mothers of children with mild asthma had higher levels of anxiety (both state and properties), and also a slightly higher level of depression. Maternal age was connected positively and moderately strongly with the number held by children (r = 0.380; p = 0.003) and age of a child with asthma (r = 0.613, p = 0.0005). The duration of the child's disease was associated positively and moderately strongly with the level of state anxiety mother (X-1) (r = 0.345; p = 0.007) and a bit less and also positively with the

  5. Health outcomes in acromegaly: depression and anxiety are promising targets for improving reduced quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Jacobus Geraedts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IINTRODUCTION. Remission criteria of acromegaly are based on biochemical variables, i.e. normalization of increased hormone levels. However, the established reduction in Quality of Life (QoL is suggested to be independent of biochemical control. The aim of this study was to test which aspects predict Qol best in acromegaly. METHODS/Design. This is a prospective cohort study in 80 acromegalic patients, with a cross-sectional and longitudinal part. The main outcome measure was health-related quality of life (QoL, measured by a generic and a disease-specific questionnaire (the SF-36 and AcroQol. Main predictors were age, gender, biochemical control, disease characteristics, treatment modalities and psychopathology. RESULTS. Our cohort of 80 acromegalics had a mean age 54.7 ± 12.3 years with an average disease duration of 10.8 ± 10.0 years. Ratio macro-/microadenoma was 54/26. In adjusted mixed method models, we found that psychopathology significantly predicts QoL in acromegaly (in models including the variables age, gender, disease duration, tumor size, basal hormone levels, relevant treatment modalities and relevant comorbidities, with a higher degree of psychopathology indicating a lower QoL (depression vs. AcroQoL: B=-1.175, p<0.001, depression vs. SF36: B=-1.648, p<0.001, anxiety vs. AcroQoL: B=-0.399, p<0.001, anxiety vs. SF36: B=-0.661, p<0.001. The explained variances demonstrate superiority of psychopathology over biochemical control and other variables in predicting QoL in our models. DISCUSSION. Superiority of psychopathology over biochemical control calls for a more extensive approach regarding diagnosing depression and anxiety in pituitary adenomas to improve QoL. Depressive symptoms and anxiety are modifiable factors that might provide valuable targets for possible future treatment interventions.

  6. Does a Mobile Phone Depression-Screening App Motivate Mobile Phone Users With High Depressive Symptoms to Seek a Health Care Professional's Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    BinDhim, Nasser F; Alanazi, Eman M; Aljadhey, Hisham; Basyouni, Mada H; Kowalski, Stefan R; Pont, Lisa G; Shaman, Ahmed M; Trevena, Lyndal; Alhawassi, Tariq M

    2016-06-27

    The objective of disease screening is to encourage high-risk subjects to seek health care diagnosis and treatment. Mobile phone apps can effectively screen mental health conditions, including depression. However, it is not known how effective such screening methods are in motivating users to discuss the obtained results of such apps with health care professionals. Does a mobile phone depression-screening app motivate users with high depressive symptoms to seek health care professional advice? This study aimed to address this question. This was a single-cohort, prospective, observational study of a free mobile phone depression app developed in English and released on Apple's App Store. Apple App Store users (aged 18 or above) in 5 countries, that is, Australia, Canada, New Zealand (NZ), the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US), were recruited directly via the app's download page. The participants then completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and their depression screening score was displayed to them. If their score was 11 or above and they had never been diagnosed with depression before, they were advised to take their results to their health care professional. They were to follow up after 1 month. A group of 2538 participants from the 5 countries completed PHQ-9 depression screening with the app. Of them, 322 participants were found to have high depressive symptoms and had never been diagnosed with depression, and received advice to discuss their results with health care professionals. About 74% of those completed the follow-up; approximately 38% of these self-reported consulting their health care professionals about their depression score. Only positive attitude toward depression as a real disease was associated with increased follow-up response rate (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, CI 1.38-8.29). A mobile phone depression-screening app motivated some users to seek a depression diagnosis. However, further study should investigate how other app users use

  7. An Investigation of the Relationship between Spiritual Health and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobe Safavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heart failure is a life-threatening illness in which panic disorder, anxiety, depression, and death expectation are constantly experienced. This study, thus, determined to examine the relationship between spiritual health and depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with heart failure. Methods: This study was a descriptive-correlational investigation that was performed on 150 patients with heart failure in selected Ardabil teaching hospitals in 2014. Data was collected using Demographic Questionnaire, Ellison-Paloutzian Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21. They were, then, analyzed using SPSS, descriptive statistical method, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and multivariable regression analysis. Results: The results of this study showed that the spiritual wellbeing level of most subjects (75.3% was in the range of medium. Mean scores of religious and existential aspects of spiritual well-being were obtained to be 33.26±1.247 and 45.76±1.328, respectively. In addition, depression, anxiety, and stress levels of most research units were in the medium range. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between depression, anxiety, and stress in all aspects of spiritual wellbeing (r=-0.592, P<0.01. Conclusion:  Results indicated that an increase in spiritual health would be a concomitant of a reduction in depression, anxiety, and stress levels in heart failure patients. Based on the results and importance of spiritual health, an improvement of proficiencies of medical and paramedical communities in offering spiritual healthcares appears to be mandatory.

  8. [The association between plasma neurotransmitters levels and depression in acute hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huai-wu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chun-xue; Shi, Yu-zhi; Qi, Dong; Luo, Ben-yan; Wang, Yong-jun

    2013-08-01

    To explore the relation between plasma neurotransmitters (Glutamic acid, GAA; γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA; 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT; and noradrenaline, NE) and depression in acute hemorrhagic stroke. Objectives were screened from consecutive hospitalized patients with acute stroke. Fasting blood samples were taken on the day next to hospital admission, and neurotransmitters were examined by the liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) was used to diagnose depression at two weeks after onset of stroke. The modified Ranking Scale (mRS) was followed up at 1 year. Pearson test was used to analyse the correlation between serum concentration of neurotransmitters and the Hamilton Depression scale-17-items (HAMD-17) score. Logistic regression was used to analyse the relation of serum concentration of neurotransmitters and depression and outcome of stroke. One hundred and eighty-one patients were included in this study. GABA significantly decreased [6.1(5.0-8.2) µg/L vs 8.1(6.3-14.7) µg/L, P depression in hemorrhagic stroke, and there was no significant difference in GAA, 5-HT, or NE. GABA concentration was negatively correlated with HAMD-17 score (r = -0.131, P depression in acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke was reduced by 5.6% (OR 0.944, 95%CI 0.893-0.997). While concentration of serum GAA rose by 1 µg/L, risk of worse outcome at 1 year was raised by 0.1%, although a statistic level was on marginal status (OR 1.001, 95%CI 1.000-1.002). In patients with depression in the acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke, there was a significant reduction in plasma GABA concentration. GABA may have a protective effect on depression in acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke. Increased concentrations of serum GAA may increase the risk of worse outcomes at 1 year after stroke.

  9. Detecting Postpartum Depression in Referents to Medical and Health Centers in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shobeiri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pregnancy and childbirth are significant developmental excitable for most women. Physical, intrapersonal and relational adaptations are needed to adjust successfully to pregnancy and delivery. Postpartum depression is a serious psychiatric disorder and the adverse impact on infants has been noted. The purpose of this study was to detect postpartum depression in referents to medical and health centers in Hamadan city.Materials & Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study involving 400 women completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI within 2-8 weeks of delivery was conducted in urban health centers in Hamadan city, Iran. Data were collected through interviews with women in the clinics in the health centers. Data processing and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS 10.0.Results: The results revealed that majority of women (68.0% were considered normal. Depression was detected in 32.0% of women. Out of these 19.0, 4.0 and 9.0% were mild, moderate and severe depression, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between postpartum depression and age, number of delivery, education, job and husband's job (P=0.000.Conclusion: Nearly 32.0% of selected women had depression. Therefore, it is important for medical personnel to be well versed in the course and treatment of postpartum depression. Post partum depression should be screened and treated as early as possible for several reasons. It can cause significant suffering for the woman who experiences it, and it can have deleterious consequences for the newborn.

  10. A study of depression and anxiety, general health, and academic performance in three cohorts of veterinary medical students across the first three semesters of veterinary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors.

  11. Depression Screening at a Community Health Fair: Descriptives and Treatment Linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Kiel J; Hanson, Devin M; Toro, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    Health fairs are a cost-efficient platform for dissemination of preventive services to vulnerable populations. Effectiveness of depression screenings and associated treatment linkage via community health fairs warrants investigation. This study offers the first examination of a depression screening at a community health fair in 261 adult men (18-87years). The PHQ-9 was administered via interview by graduate students and on-site psychiatric nurses were available for a brief consultation for those interested. Over a quarter of participants screened positive for at least moderate depressive symptomatology. Of those who screened positive, 35.8% met with an on-site psychiatric nurse for a consultation. At six-month follow-up, none of the participants given a referral made an appointment at the community mental health agency. This suggests the importance of providing on-site clinician consultations at health fairs and the need for a more coordinated system to schedule future appointments while at the event. Community health fairs reach vulnerable populations, such as those who are uninsured and who have not spoken with a professional about mental health concerns. By conducting depression screening and providing onsite access to a mental health consultation at community health fairs, participants are better able to identify their depressive symptoms and are introduced to ways to treat depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment.

  13. General health and well-being in outpatients with depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Bech, Per

    2006-01-01

    -VAS) and well-being (WHO (Five) well-being index) and more depressive and anxiety symptoms compared with bipolar disorder. Similarly, more psychiatric admissions were associated with poorer general health and well-being and more depressive and anxiety symptoms. However, when adjusting for the effect...... of depressive symptoms, the associations between number of admissions and general health, and between numbers of admissions and well-being, lost significance. Thus, depressive symptoms seem to be the strongest predictor of general health and well-being in both disorders. As the response rate......Prior studies have found contradictory results regarding the association between course of illness and quality of life among patients with depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Questionnaires about quality of life and affective symptoms (the EQ-5D, EQ-5D-VAS, WHO (Five) well-being index...

  14. Research of the changes of serum level of estradiol and progesterone in patients with postpartum depression by RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Fu Zheng

    2004-01-01

    The relationship of the changes of hormone in patients with postpartum depressive disorder on 28-32 weeks of pregnancy, 1 week and 4 weeks postpartum was studied. Depress affection and anxious affections were measured in 200 postpartum women by self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale. Serum estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P) levels in postpartum women were measured by RIA with control group. Results showed that the prevalence rate of depress affection was 11% and that of anxious affection was 14%. The serum levels of P on the 1 week postpartum, E 2 in antepartum were showed higher in the depressed group compared with control group. There was a significant difference in the changes of serum E 2 before and after delivery between the depressed group and control group (P 2 and P levels in the patients with postpartum depression after delivery. (authors)

  15. S-adenosylmethionine blood levels in major depression: changes with drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K M; Potkin, S G; Carreon, D; Plon, L

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between plasma levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), an endogenous methyl donor, and clinical response were studied in patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of major depression. A double-blind randomized protocol comparing oral SAMe with oral desipramine, involving a total of 26 patients, was employed. At the end of the 4-week trial, 62% of the patients treated with SAMe and 50% of the patients treated with desipramine had significantly improved. Regardless of the type of treatment, patients with a 50% decrease in their Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) score showed a significant increase in plasma SAMe concentration. The significant correlation between plasma SAMe levels and the degree of clinical improvement in depressed patients regardless of the type of treatment suggests that SAMe may play an important role in regulating mood.

  16. Depression in pregnancy and the puerperium in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Depression is common in pregnancy in high-income-countries but rarely spoken about in Nigerian Tertiary Obstetric Centres. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence and risk factors for major depression in pregnancy and puerperium at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching ...

  17. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jong Chul

    2004-01-01

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 ± 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 ± 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences (ρ < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed

  18. Dissociative symptoms reflect levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with unipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizik G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Bizik,1 Petr Bob,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Josef Pavlat,1 Jana Uhrova,2 Hana Benakova,2 Tomas Zima2 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that the nature of interactions between the nervous system and immune system is important in the pathogenesis of depression. Specifically, alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokines have been related to the development of several psychological and neurobiological manifestations of depressive disorder, as well as to stress exposure. A number of findings point to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α as one of the central factors in these processes. Accordingly, in the present study, we test the hypothesis that specific influences of chronic stressors related to traumatic stress and dissociation are related to alterations in TNF-α levels. We performed psychometric measurement of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II, traumatic stress symptoms (Trauma Symptom Checklist [TSC]-40, and psychological and somatoform dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES] and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire [SDQ]-20, respectively, and immunochemical measure of serum TNF-α in 66 inpatients with unipolar depression (mean age 43.1 ± 7.3 years. The results show that TNF-α is significantly related to DES (Spearman R=−0.42, P<0.01, SDQ-20 (Spearman R=−0.38, P<0.01, and TSC-40 (Spearman R=−0.41, P<0.01, but not to BDI-II. Results of the present study suggest that TNF-α levels are related to dissociative symptoms and stress exposure in depressed patients. Keywords: depression, dissociation, TNF-alpha, traumatic stress

  19. Brain levels of high-energy phosphate metabolites and executive function in geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David G; Joe, Elizabeth B; Jensen, J Eric; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Forester, Brent P

    2016-11-01

    Depression in late life has been associated with difficulties in cognitive processing, particularly in the domains of executive function, processing speed and memory, and increases the risk of developing dementia suggesting a neurodegenerative phenotype. Mitochondrial dysfunction is frequently an early event in neurodegenerative illnesses and may be operative in patients with late life depression. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) allows for the quantification of bioenergetic molecules produced by mitochondria. Ten patients with late life depression and eight normal elderly controls were studied with Stroop color and interference tests, which are widely used measures of processing speed and executive function, respectively, followed by (31P) MRS 3-dimensional chemical-shift imaging measuring levels of adenosine triphosphate, phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate, and pH over the whole brain. In all subjects, gray matter phosphocreatine was positively associated with Stroop interference. Levels of white matter adenosine triphosphate were associated with Stroop interference in subjects with late life depression but not normal elderly. There was also a complementary association between white matter inorganic phosphate and Stroop interference in late life depression patients. These findings suggest two independent sources of executive function dependence on bioenergetic state in the aging brain. The dependence of executive function performance in subjects with late life depression on ATP in white matter may be associated with mitochondrial impairment and is consistent with predictions of the vascular depression hypothesis. Further research with wider neuropsychological testing targeting bioenergetic markers could help clarify the scope of these effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Chul [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 {+-} 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 {+-} 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences ({rho} < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed.

  1. Depression and health related quality of life in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardebil, M. D.; Bouzari, Z.; Shenas, M. H.; Keighobadi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of depression in women with breast cancer and relate it to their health-related quality of life. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Iran between January and December 2009, and comprised 60 women with breast cancer with a mean age of 43.8+-47.12 years. In order to assess the health-related quality of life, the study used the parameters of the Iranian version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast Cancer. To identify expressive symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory was used. General linear model regression and SPSS 14 were used to analyse the data. Results: Significant differences in the prevalence of depression between treatment types was found. The presence of depression was significantly correlated with poorer overall health-related quality of life and the four subscales of the protocol. The patients reported statistically significant effects of depression in the overall category (p= 0.001). Participants with depression were more likely to have a poorer overall health-related quality of life, the exception being the social/family well-being subscale. Conclusions: Depression affects health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients. Although further studies are necessary to confirm our findings, but our results emphasise the necessity for better mental health strategies for such patients. (author)

  2. Depressive symptoms, satisfaction with health care, and 2-year work outcomes in an employed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druss, B G; Schlesinger, M; Allen, H M

    2001-05-01

    The relationship of depressive symptoms, satisfaction with health care, and 2-year work outcomes was examined in a national cohort of employees. A total of 6,239 employees of three corporations completed surveys on health and satisfaction with health care in 1993 and 1995. This study used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine the relationships of depressive symptoms (a score below 43 on the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey mental component summary), satisfaction with a variety of dimensions of health care in 1993, and work outcomes (sick days and decreased effectiveness in the workplace) in 1995. The odds of missed work due to health problems in 1995 were twice as high for employees with depressive symptoms in both 1993 and 1995 as for those without depressive symptoms in either year. The odds of decreased effectiveness at work in 1995 was seven times as high. Among individuals with depressive symptoms in 1993, a report of one or more problems with clinical care in 1993 predicted a 34% increase in the odds of persistent depressive symptoms and a 66% increased odds of decreased effectiveness at work in 1995. There was a weaker association between problems with plan administration and outcomes. Depressive disorders in the workplace persist over time and have a major effect on work performance, most notably on "presenteeism," or reduced effectiveness in the workplace. The study's findings suggest a potentially important link between consumers' perceptions of clinical care and work outcomes in this population.

  3. Primary Care Screening of Depression and Treatment Engagement in a University Health Center: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  5. A High School Depression and Suicide Prevention Program: A Collaboration between Health Education and Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…

  6. Individual Reminiscence Therapy can Decrease Depression Level on Elderly at Social Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in oldest old. The psychosocial development of the elderly to enhance self-integration. Reminiscence therapy is one of psychosocial treatment for elderly using memory recall of one’s life event in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of individual reminiscence therapy on depression among elderly in the social homes. Method: The study design was used Quasy-Eksperiment Pre-Post Test with Control Group. A total of 60 elderly people were recruited in this study and assigned into two groups,  31 participants in the intervention group and 29 participants in the control group. Independent variable was reminiscence therapy five sessions, which given to the intervention group. While, dependent variable was the level of depression on elderly. Data were collected by using GDS, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney statistical test with level of significance α≤0.05. Result: After providing individual reminiscence therapy, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in depression as compared to those in the control group was found (p=0.008. Discussion: The individual reminiscence therapy is useful to overcome depression among elderly. The nurse can know the personality of each elderly so as to improve the quality of nursing care for elderly Keywords: individual reminiscence therapy, depression, elderly

  7. Urinary free cortisol levels among depressed men and women: differential relationships to age and symptom severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, M M; Friedman, E S; Haskett, R F; Riso, L P; Thase, M E

    2007-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical models of depression suggest sex differences may be mediated at least in part, by differences in hormonal modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Unraveling the consequences of moderating influences from the effect of sexual dimorphism will be vital to elaborating models of pathophysiology. The current study investigated urinary free cortisol (UFC) among younger adults with mild to moderate major depressive disorder to clarify the relationship with potential demographic and clinical moderators. Male patients had higher mean UFC levels than female patients. Moreover, significant interactions between age and severity were found among men, but not women. In contrast to prior findings, neither age nor severity effects on UFC levels were found among female patients. Conclusions from the current study are limited by the absence of cortisol data from matched controls. Thus it was not possible to disentangle sex differences in baseline physiology from that of pathophysiological differences tied specifically to depression. Despite several methodological limitations, the interactions between sex and both age and severity in this large sample of depressed patients are suggestive of differential pathophysiology for regulation of UFC excretion, and could reflect a neuroprotective effect for estrogen among younger depressed women.

  8. Depression and Hopelessness Levels of University Students According to Their Opinions on Finding Employment or Falling out of Labor Force in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of the thoughts on university students' depression and hopelessness levels about whether to become employed or unemployed after graduation. The study sampling consists of 980 students from the departments of Selcuk University, such as the Faculties of Health Sciences, Law, Veterinary, Science,…

  9. Levels in neurotransmitter precursor amino acids correlate with mental health in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, K; Oberguggenberger, A; Kohl, C; Geisler, S; Gamper, E; Meraner, V; Egeter, J; Hubalek, M; Beer, B; Fuchs, D; Sperner-Unterweger, B

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females. Approximately 30% of cancer patients develop depression or depressive adaptation disorder within 5 years post diagnosis. Low grade inflammation and subsequent changes in neurotransmitter levels could be the pathophysiological link. In the current study we investigated the association of neurotransmitter precursor amino acids with a diagnosis of depression or state anxiety in 154 subjects suffering from breast cancer (BCA(+)), depression (DPR(+)), both or neither. Sociodemographic parameters, severity of depressive symptoms, and state anxiety (ANX) were recorded. Neopterin, kynurenine/tryptophan and phenylalanine/tyrosine were analysed by HPLC or ELISA. Significantly higher serum neopterin values were found in DPR(+) patients (p = 0.034) and in ANX(+) subjects (p = 0.008), as a marker of Th1-related inflammation. The phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio (index of the catecholamine pathway) was associated with the factors "breast cancer" and "depression" and their interaction (all p depressive symptoms (r = 0.376, p precursor amino acids correlate with mental health, an effect which was much more pronounced in BCA(+) patients than in BCA(-) subjects. Aside from identifying underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, these results could be the basis for future treatment studies: in BCA(+) patients with depression the use of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors might be recommended while in those with predominant anxiety selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors might be the treatment of choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Examination of the Sociodemographic and Health Determinants of Major Depressive Disorder Among Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka N; Doamekpor, Lauren A; Gardner, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Black women disproportionately share the distribution of risk factors for physical and mental illnesses. The goal of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms among black women. Pooled data from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to assess the sociodemographic and health correlates of MDD symptoms among black women (n = 227). Multivariate logistic regression techniques assessed the association between MDD symptoms and age, socioeconomic status, health status, and health behaviors. Poverty income ratio and smoking status were significantly associated with the likelihood of having MDD symptoms. Black women who were smokers were also more likely to have MDD symptoms compared to non-smokers [OR = 8.05, 95% CI = (4.56, 14.23)]. After controlling for all other socioeconomic and health variables, this association remained statistically significant. In addition, after controlling for all other variables, the multivariate analyses showed that black women below 299% federal poverty level (FPL) were nearly three times more likely to have MDD symptoms compared to women above 300% FPL [OR = 2.82, 95% CI = (1.02, 7.96)]. These analyses suggest that poverty and smoking status are associated with MDD symptoms among black women. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms and key factors which influence MDD symptoms are needed in order to develop and create mental health programs targeting women of color.

  11. POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION – THE CENTRAL PROBLEM OF MENTAL HEALTH OF EARLY MOTHERHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kornetov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mental health of the mother occupies a central position in healthcare, the same as caring for a newborn baby. Maternal depression is the lead pathology of postpartum period. Despite the high prevalence and importance to the overall development of children, most cases of depression are unappreciated, unrecognized and untreated. Inattention to issues which are related to physical and mental health of women, leads to severe negative social and economic consequences for society. Statistical comparison of the total number of pregnant women, the number of births in the United States in 2007, excluding cases of fetal loss, including still-births and miscarriages with similar Russian data allowed to calculate the approximate prevalence of postpartum depression in the same period. Presumable probability of postpartum depression is 15% in different regions of the world, and the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV for postpartum depression are representative for comparison. Considering these assumptions, according to 2007 each year about 260,000 out of 1 mln. 600,000 of Russian women in childbirth may suffer from post-natal depression. The results have a probabilistic character. For the mothers the consequences of unrecognized and untreated depression after childbirth are the most frequent. It should be seen as a depressive episode or recurrent depressive disorder which has a singular coloring due to the appearance in the peak period of reproductive age of women. Postpartum depression may increase the possibility of occurrence of relapse of a depressive disorder as well as the transition to a state of chronic depression. Alcoholism or drug use is a common complication of depression; the risk of suicide increases, especially during the time of reducing the severity of the most severe symptoms of depression, though it is below the prevalence of suicide among the population. Particular attention should be paid to such symptoms as instability in mood and

  12. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  13. Review of the Relationship between the College Students' Attitudes towards Love and Depression Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Ahmet; Dashdamirov, Elshad; Ummet, Durmus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to review the relation between college students' love attitudes and depression levels. Subjects selected were 125 male and 275 female bachelor's and master's degree students; a total of 400 students from various universities in Istanbul in academic year 2013-2014. Data for this study were collected employing both the Love Attitudes…

  14. The high price of depression: Family members' health conditions and health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, G Thomas; Weisner, Constance M; Taillac, Cosette J; Campbell, Cynthia I

    2017-05-01

    To compare the health conditions and health care costs of family members of patients diagnosed with a Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to family members of patients without an MDD diagnosis. Using electronic health record data, we identified family members (n=201,914) of adult index patients (n=92,399) diagnosed with MDD between 2009 and 2014 and family members (n=187,011) of matched patients without MDD. Diagnoses, health care utilization and costs were extracted for each family member. Logistic regression and multivariate models were used to compare diagnosed health conditions, health services cost, and utilization of MDD and non-MDD family members. Analyses covered the 5years before and after the index patient's MDD diagnosis. MDD family members were more likely than non-MDD family members to be diagnosed with mood disorders, anxiety, substance use disorder, and numerous other conditions. MDD family members had higher health care costs than non-MDD family members in every period analyzed, with the highest difference being in the year before the index patient's MDD diagnosis. Family members of patients with MDD are more likely to have a number of health conditions compared to non-MDD family members, and to have higher health care cost and utilization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Associations Between Postpartum Depression, Breastfeeding, and Oxytocin Levels in Latina Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; McKenney, Kathryn; Di Florio, Arianna; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD), often comorbid with anxiety, is the leading medical complication among new mothers. Latinas have elevated risk of PPD, which has been associated with early breastfeeding cessation. Lower plasma oxytocin (OT) levels have also been associated with PPD in non-Latinas. This pilot study explores associations between PPD, anxiety, breastfeeding, and OT in Latinas. Thirty-four Latinas were enrolled during their third trimester of pregnancy and followed through 8 weeks postpartum. Demographic data were collected at enrollment. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at each time point (third trimester of pregnancy, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum). The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered postpartum and EPDS anxiety subscale was used to assess anxiety at each time point. Breastfeeding status was assessed at 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. At 8 weeks, OT was collected before, during, and after a 10-minute breast/bottle feeding session from 28 women who completed the procedures. Descriptive statistics are provided and comparisons by mood and breastfeeding status were conducted. Analyses of variance were used to explore associations between PPD, anxiety, breastfeeding status, and OT. Just under one-third of women were depressed at enrollment. Prenatal depression, PPD, and anxiety were significantly associated with early breastfeeding cessation (i.e., stopped breastfeeding before 2 months) (p < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between early breastfeeding cessation and depression status on OT at 8 weeks postpartum (p < 0.05). Lower levels of OT were observed in women who had PPD at 8 weeks and who had stopped breastfeeding their infant by 8 weeks postpartum. Future studies should investigate the short- and long-term effects of lower OT levels and early breastfeeding cessation on maternal and child well-being.

  16. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored. Methods A cross-sectional total geriatric population survey consisting of 254 elderly has been carried out at urban field practice area. A standard geriatric depression scale (Short form has been utilized to assess psychological status. Detailed physical examination and investigations with special reference to Diabetes, Hypertension and Visual defects was carried out. Data was analyzed to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic factors, physical morbidities with depression. Results Out of 254 elderly examined, 32 per cent females and 23 per cent males were found to be suffering from depressive disorders. When assessed for individual health status perception, 25 per cent felt to have good health. Out of 190 geriatric subjects perceiving fair to bad health, 110 were found to be suffering from depression (p<0.001. Depression was also found to be associated with history of hospital admission in the previous year (p<0.05, low vision (p<0.05, diabetes (p<0.01 and hypertension (p<0.01. Conclusion Depression among geriatric age group is associated with physical illness and perception of health.

  17. How life stressors influence modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, and physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte

    2017-06-29

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to life stressors can influence health through a number of pathways. However, knowledge about the patterns of life stressors and their contributions to health in different populations is limited. Vietnamese older women have attracted little research to date in this area. This cross-sectional study used an interview-administered-questionnaire to collect data from 440 Vietnamese older women. Descriptive analysis was used to describe life stressors among Vietnamese older women. Binary analysis and Structural Equation Modelling statistical analysis were used to examine the influences of life stressors on modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women. Vietnamese older women in this study commonly reported the experience of losing a close person, including a baby/child, serious health or money problems, violence and disaster. Among the study participants, (1) exposure to more life stressors increased their depressive symptoms, and decreased their physical and mental health; (2) exposure to more life stressors also increased their physical health by increasing their physical activity levels. Life stressors influenced health among Vietnamese older women through different pathways. Interventions to manage stress and depressive symptoms are required for Vietnamese older women in the future.

  18. Impact of depressive symptoms on prosthetic status--results of the study of health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samietz, Stefanie A; Kindler, Stefan; Schwahn, Christian; Polzer, Ines; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kocher, Thomas; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Mundt, Torsten; Biffar, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    Previous investigations have confirmed that every fifth dental patient suffers from clinically significant depressive symptoms. However, the putative impact of depressive symptoms on the prosthetic status has not been addressed in these studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and prosthetic status based on data from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0). Data from 2,135 participants aged 30 to 59 years were analyzed. A classification (six classes regarding the number and position of missing teeth per jaw) was used to identify the degree of prosthetic status (no/suboptimal/optimal tooth replacement). The presence of depressive symptoms was assessed with a modified version of von Zerssen's complaints scale. Screening for lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders was performed with the Composite International Diagnostic-Screener (CID-S). Multivariable logistic regressions including several confounders were calculated. A significant protective dose-response effect of depressive symptoms on prosthetic status was found only in men for the lower jaw [0-1 depressive symptoms: odds ratio (OR) = 3.84, 95 % confidence interval (CI, 1.65-8.92), p < 0.01; 2-3: OR = 2.87 (CI, 1.22-6.74), p < 0.05; reference, ≥8; adjusted for age, school education, smoking status, household income, marital status, living without a partner, risky alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, and physical activity]. There was no such association in women or for the upper jaw. The analyses using the CID-S confirmed these results. In the lower jaw, men with depressive symptoms had a better prosthetic status than men without depressive symptoms suggesting a higher level of concern regarding their personal health. If dentists might have an opportunity to identify men with depressive symptoms they can provide a wide range of treatment options that may enhance patients' self-esteem and contribute to the patient' well-being. Furthermore, depressive

  19. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Yue Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kai-xin-san (KXS, a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS- induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression.

  20. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

  1. The relationship between modifiable health risks and group-level health care expenditures. Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D R; Whitmer, R W; Goetzel, R Z; Ozminkowski, R J; Dunn, R L; Wasserman, J; Serxner, S

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between modifiable health risks and total health care expenditures for a large employee group. Risk data were collected through voluntary participation in health risk assessment (HRA) and worksite biometric screenings and were linked at the individual level to health care plan enrollment and expenditure data from employers' fee-for-service plans over the 6-year study period. The setting was worksite health promotion programs sponsored by six large private-sector and public-sector employers. Of the 50% of employees who completed the HRA, 46,026 (74.7%) met all inclusion criteria for the analysis. Eleven risk factors (exercise, alcohol use, eating, current and former tobacco use, depression, stress, blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and blood glucose) were dichotomized into high-risk and lower-risk levels. The association between risks and expenditures was estimated using a two-part regression model, controlling for demographics and other confounders. Risk prevalence data were used to estimate group-level impact of risks on expenditures. Risk factors were associated with 25% of total expenditures. Stress was the most costly factor, with tobacco use, overweight, and lack of exercise also being linked to substantial expenditures. Modifiable risk factors contribute substantially to overall health care expenditures. Health promotion programs that reduce these risks may be beneficial for employers in controlling health care costs.

  2. Adequacy of Mental Health Services for HIV-Positive Patients with Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    use and antidepressant use, as well as mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines for HIV-positive patients with depression in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study linking data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study...... income or educational attainment, or as non-native English speakers or immigrants to Canada were less likely to obtain care. Of 493 patients using mental health services, 250 (51%) received mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed......BACKGROUND: Major depression can profoundly impact clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of people living with HIV, and this disease is underdiagnosed and undertreated in many HIV-positive individuals. Here, we describe the prevalence of publicly funded primary and secondary mental health service...

  3. Religiousness, health, and depression in older adults from a brazilian military setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G; Peres, Mario F P; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Koenig, Harold G

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the association between religious attendance, self-reported religiousness, depression, and several health factors in 170 older adults from a Brazilian outpatient setting. A comprehensive assessment was conducted including sociodemographic characteristics, religious attendance, self-reported religiousness, functional status, depression, pain, hospitalization, and mental status. After adjusting for sociodemographics, (a) higher self-reported religiousness was associated with lower prevalence of smoking, less depressive symptoms, and less hospitalization and (b) higher religious attendance was only associated with less depressive symptoms. Religiousness seems to play a role in depression, smoking, and hospitalization in older adults from a Brazilian outpatient setting. Self-reported religiousness was associated with more health characteristics than religious attendance.

  4. Depression and Chronic Health Conditions Among Latinos: The Role of Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra; Arredondo, Elva M; Villodas, Miguel T; Elder, John P; Quintanar, Elena; Madanat, Hala

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the "buffering hypothesis" of social network characteristics in the association between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Cross-sectional self-report data from the San Diego Prevention Research Center's community survey of Latinos were used (n = 393). Separate multiple logistic regression models tested the role of chronic conditions and social network characteristics in the likelihood of moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Having a greater proportion of the network comprised of friends increased the likelihood of depression among those with high cholesterol. Having a greater proportion of women in the social network was directly related to the increased likelihood of depression, regardless of the presence of chronic health conditions. Findings suggest that network characteristics may play a role in the link between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Future research should explore strategies targeting the social networks of Latinos to improve health outcomes.

  5. Reduction in total plasma ghrelin levels following catecholamine depletion: relation to bulimic and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Grob, Simona; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-09-01

    There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence of the important role played by the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin in the pathogenesis of symptoms of depression and eating disorders. To investigate the role of ghrelin and its considered counterpart, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), in the development of bulimic and depressive symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion, we administered the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial to 29 healthy controls and 20 subjects with fully recovered bulimia nervosa (rBN). We found a decrease between preprandial and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels (psymptoms (psymptoms induced by catecholamine depletion. These findings suggest a relationship between catecholamines and ghrelin with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Platelet hyperactivity, neurobehavioral symptoms and depression among Indian women chronically exposed to low level of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Saha, Hirak; Sinha, Dona; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms (NBS) and depression has been investigated in premenopausal rural women of West Bengal, India enrolled from arsenic (As) endemic (groundwater As 11-50 μg/L; n = 342) and control areas (As level ≤ 10 μg/L; n = 312). The subjective symptoms questionnaire and Beck's 21-point depression inventory-II were used for the detection of NBS and depression, respectively. Platelet P-selectin expression was measured by flow cytometry, plasma neurotransmitter activity with high performance liquid chromatography and groundwater As level by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The As level in groundwater was 2.72 ± 1.18 μg/L in control and 28.3 ± 13.51 μg/L in endemic areas (p Women residing in endemic areas demonstrated a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms (39.8 vs. 19.9%, p women had 1.6-times more plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine (p 0.05) from that of controls. Moreover, women from endemic areas had 2.3-times more P-selectin-expressing platelets in their circulation (p Indian women in their child-bearing age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health Service Patterns Indicate Potential Benefit of Supported Self-Management for Depression in Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Bilsker, Dan; Goldner, Elliot; Jones, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine health service delivery in a Canadian province (British Columbia) toconsider how Canadian health care services might be developed to best address the large numberof individuals with mildly to moderately severe depressive illnesses.Method: We used provincial administrative data to describe patterns of medical servicesprovided to individuals suffering from depression during 3 different time periods (1991–1992,1995–1996, and 2000–2001) and to determine the frequency with wh...

  8. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in dysthymia: a comparative study with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Omer; Deveci, Artuner; Taskin, Oryal E; Taneli, Fatma; Esen-Danaci, Aysen

    2007-06-30

    In this present work, it is aimed to demonstrate BDNF serum concentrations in patients with dysthymia and to compare them with BDNF serum concentrations in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy subjects. The study was carried out in Celal Bayar University Hospital, Manisa, Turkey. Seventeen patients with dysthymia, 24 patients with major depressive disorder and 26 subjects without any psychiatric diagnosis and any psychiatric treatment were included in the study. The severity of depression was assessed with 17-item HAM-D. All subjects were asked to give their written consent. Blood samples were collected at baseline. Serum BDNF was kept at -70 degrees C before testing, and assayed with an ELISA Kit (Promega; Madison, WI, USA), after dilution with the Block and Sample solution provided with the kit. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance. The BDNF serum concentrations of the dysthymia group (mean=28.9+/-9.2 ng/ml) were significantly higher than that of the major depressive disorder group (21.2+/-11.3 ng/ml) (p=0.002), and it was not different from the level of the control group (31.4+/-8.8 ng/ml). BDNF serum concentrations and HAM-D score did not have any significant correlation in the dysthymia and major depression groups (r=-0.276, p=0.086). The low level of BDNF in patients with dysthymic disorder seems to point out that BDNF changes in mood disorders are state-dependent and vary according to the severity of depressive episodes.

  9. The association of Socio-demographics characteristics and social support from family and community with depression: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Ayubi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & objectives: Protective effect of social support networks on depressive symptoms has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and social support from family and community using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional population-based study of 10,348 people participating in the NHANES 2005-2006. Participants were interviewed on their level of social support and depressive symptoms. Logistic regression and analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of demographic variables and social support with depression. Results: Bing married and having a high education level is inversely related to depressive symptoms. Also social supports from family had protective effect on depression symptoms and impacts of each family member were different. It also became clear that family support in associated with social support had a protective effect on the emergence of depressive symptoms. In this effect, the interaction between spouse and professional support on depressive symptoms were more prominent. In addition to, interaction between children’s emotional support and religious practices was important. Conclusion: The result of this study adherent with the protective theory of social support on depression.

  10. The association of Socio-demographics characteristics and social support from family and community with depression: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Dinesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims & objectives: Protective effect of social support networks on depressive symptoms has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and social support from family and community using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional population-based study of 10,348 people participating in the NHANES 2005-2006. Participants were interviewed on their level of social support and depressive symptoms. Logistic regression and analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of demographic variables and social support with depression. Results: Bing married and having a high education level is inversely related to depressive symptoms. Also social supports from family had protective effect on depression symptoms and impacts of each family member were different. It also became clear that family support in associated with social support had a protective effect on the emergence of depressive symptoms. In this effect, the interaction between spouse and professional support on depressive symptoms were more prominent. In addition to, interaction between children’s emotional support and religious practices was important. Conclusion: The result of this study adherent with the protective theory of social support on depression.

  11. Reproductive health and access to healthcare facilities: risk factors for depression and anxiety in women with an earthquake experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Jasim; Mpofu, Elias; Matthews, Lynda R; Shadoul, Ahmed Farah; Brock, Kaye E

    2011-06-30

    The reproductive and mental health of women contributes significantly to their overall well-being. Three of the eight Millennium Development Goals are directly related to reproductive and sexual health while mental disorders make up three of the ten leading causes of disease burden in low and middle-income countries. Among mental disorders, depression and anxiety are two of the most prevalent. In the context of slower progress in achieving Millennium Development Goals in developing countries and the ever-increasing man-made and natural disasters in these areas, it is important to understand the association between reproductive health and mental health among women with post-disaster experiences. This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 387 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) randomly selected from the October 2005 earthquake affected areas of Pakistan. Data on reproductive health was collected using the Centers for Disease Control reproductive health assessment toolkit. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, while earthquake experiences were captured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The association of either depression or anxiety with socio-demographic variables, earthquake experiences, reproductive health and access to health facilities was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Post-earthquake reproductive health events together with economic deprivation, lower family support and poorer access to health care facilities explained a significant proportion of differences in the experiencing of clinical levels of depression and anxiety. For instance, women losing resources for subsistence, separation from family and experiencing reproductive health events such as having a stillbirth, having had an abortion, having had abnormal vaginal discharge or having had genital ulcers, were at significant risk of depression and anxiety. The relationship between women's post-earthquake mental health and

  12. Inpatient Volume and Quality of Mental Health Care Among Patients With Unipolar Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Ryberg; Mainz, Jan; Jørgensen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relationship between inpatient volume and the quality of mental health care remains unclear. This study examined the association between inpatient volume in psychiatric hospital wards and quality of mental health care among patients with depression admitted to wards in Denmark...... was assessed by receipt of process performance measures reflecting national clinical guidelines for care of depression. RESULTS: Compared with patients admitted to low-volume psychiatric hospital wards, patients admitted to very-high-volume wards were more likely to receive a high overall quality of mental...... wards was associated with a greater chance of receiving guideline-recommended process performance measures for care of depression....

  13. [Depression among adolescents. A hidden problem for public health and clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forteza, Catalina; Torre, Alicia Edith Hermosillo de la; Vacio-Muro, María de Los Ángeles; Peralta, Robert; Wagner, Fernando A

    Depression is an important public health problem that requires more and better attention. In the present work we review epidemiologic studies of depression among adolescents in Mexico and discuss strategies that may help in earlier identification and referral of potential cases for timely care. In summary, depressive symptoms are prevalent among adolescents and adults in Mexico as in many other countries, with a higher ratio of female cases. Young people experiencing the most challenging socio-urban situations have higher rates of depression. Even though depressive disorders are more prevalent among females, consequences may be even worse for males. The authors posit that, among males, stigma attached to depression might lead to attempts to hide depressive symptoms by masking them through high-risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol, drug use, and violence, among others). Women may have higher rates of suicide attempts, but the case-fatality rate of suicide attempts is higher among males. Despite of barriers and resource scarcity among healthcare and educational institutions, it is necessary to continue to develop alternatives that will lead to better attention of mental health issues among the youth, even when their mental health needs are not expressed directly or their chief complaints are in regard to "other" health issues. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  14. Effect of Mirtazapine Treatment on Serum Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Patients of Major Depressive Disorder with Severe Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rachna; Gupta, Keshav; Tripathi, A K; Bhatia, M S; Gupta, Lalit K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of mirtazapine and its effect on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in patients of major-depressive disorder (MDD) with severe depression. Patients (aged 18-60) with MDD diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score ≥25 were included (n = 30). Mirtazapine was given in the doses of 30 mg/day. All patients were followed up for 12 weeks for the evaluation of clinical efficacy, safety along with serum BDNF and TNF-α levels. HAM-D score at the start of treatment was 30.1 ± 1.92, which significantly (p depressed patients and treatment response is associated with an increase in serum BDNF and a decrease in serum TNF-α levels. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Levels of narrative analysis in health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M

    2000-05-01

    The past 10-15 years have seen a rapid increase in the study of narrative across all the social sciences. It is sometimes assumed that narrative has the same meaning irrespective of the context in which it is expressed. This article considers different levels of narrative analysis within health psychology. Specifically, it considers the character of health and illness narratives as a function of the personal, interpersonal, positional and societal levels of analysis. At the personal level of analysis narratives are portrayed as expressions of the lived experience of the narrator. At the interpersonal level of analysis the narrative is one that is co-created in dialogue. At the positional level of analysis the analysis considers the differences in social position between the narrator and the listener. The societal level of analysis is concerned with the socially shared stories that are characteristic of certain communities or societies. The challenge is to articulate the connections between these different levels of narrative analysis and to develop strategies to promote emancipatory narratives.

  16. The Association of School Climate, Depression Literacy, and Mental Health Stigma among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lisa; Musci, Rashelle; Stuart, Elizabeth; Ruble, Anne; Beaudry, Mary B.; Schweizer, Barbara; Owen, Megan; Goode, Carly; Johnson, Sarah L.; Bradshaw, Catherine; Wilcox, Holly; Swartz, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although school climate is linked with youth educational, socioemotional, behavioral, and health outcomes, there has been limited research on the association between school climate and mental health education efforts. We explored whether school climate was associated with students' depression literacy and mental health stigma beliefs.…

  17. The Coronary Health Improvement Projects Impact on Lowering Eating, Sleep, Stress, and Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M.; Aldana, Stephen G.; Greenlaw, Roger L.; Diehl, Hans A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) is designed to lower cardiovascular risk factors among a group of generally healthy individuals through health education. Purpose: This study will evaluate the efficacy of the CHIP intervention at improving eating, sleep, stress, and depressive disorders. Methods: A health education…

  18. Lower Odds of Poststroke Symptoms of Depression When Physical Activity Guidelines Met: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Stacey E; Gregory, Chris M; Simpson, Annie N

    2016-08-01

    One-third of individuals with stroke report symptoms of depression, which has a negative impact on recovery. Physical activity (PA) is a potentially effective therapy. Our objective was to examine the associations of subjectively assessed PA levels and symptoms of depression in a nationally representative stroke sample. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 175 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 cycle. Moderate, vigorous, and combination equivalent PA metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes per week averages were derived from the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and .the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines/American College of Sports Medicine recommendations of ≥500 MET-minutes per week of moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA were used as cut points. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Meeting moderate PA guidelines resulted in 74% lower odds of having depression symptoms (P depression (P = .0003). Meeting vigorous guidelines showed a 91% lower odds of having mild symptoms of depression (P = .04). Participating in some moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA revealed the odds of depression symptoms 13 times greater compared with meeting guidelines (P = .005); odds of mild symptoms of depression were 9 times greater (P = .01); and odds of major symptoms of depression were 15 times greater (P = .006). There is a lower risk of developing mild symptoms of depression when vigorous guidelines for PA are met and developing major symptoms of depression when moderate guidelines met. Participating in some PA is not enough to reduce the risk of depression symptoms.

  19. Decayed and missing teeth and oral-health-related factors: predicting depression in homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Emma; Chan, Karen; Collins, Jennifer; Humphris, Gerry M; Richards, Derek; Williams, Brian; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of dental health status, dental anxiety and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) upon homeless people's experience of depression. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of homeless people in seven National Health Service Boards in Scotland. All participants completed a questionnaire to assess their depression, dental anxiety and OHRQoL using reliable and valid measures. Participants had an oral examination to assess their experience of tooth decay (decayed and missing teeth). Latent variable path analysis was conducted to determine the effects of dental health status on depression via dental anxiety and OHRQoL using intensive resampling methods. A total of 853 homeless people participated, of which 70% yielded complete data sets. Three latent variables, decayed and missing teeth, dental anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: five items) and depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale: two factors), and a single variable for OHRQoL (Oral Health Impact Profile total scale) were used in a hybrid structural equation model. The variable decayed and missing teeth was associated with depression through indirect pathways (total standardised indirect effects=0.44, Pdental anxiety (χ²=75.90, df=40, comparative fit index=0.985, Tucker-Lewis index=0.977, root mean square error of approximation=0.051 [90% confidence interval: 0.037-0.065]). Depression in Scottish homeless people is related to dental health status and oral-health-related factors. Decayed and missing teeth may influence depression primarily through the psychological constructs of OHRQoL and, to a lesser extent, dental anxiety. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intersectional health-related stigma in persons living with HIV and chronic pain: implications for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; Owens, Michael A; White, Dyan M; Strath, Larissa J; Gonzalez, Cesar; Rainey, Rachael L; Okunbor, Jennifer I; Heath, Sonya L; Turan, Janet M; Merlin, Jessica S

    2018-05-30

    "Intersectional health-related stigma" (IHRS) refers to stigma that arises at the convergence of multiple health conditions. People living with HIV (PLWH) and chronic pain have two highly stigmatized health conditions, and thus may be at especially high risk for internalizing these stigmas and consequently experiencing depression. This study examined the intersectionality of internalized HIV and chronic pain stigma in relation to depressive symptoms in a sample of PLWH and chronic pain. Sixty participants were recruited from an HIV clinic in the Southeastern United States. Chronic pain was defined as pain that has been present for at least three consecutive months, and that has been an ongoing problem for at least half the days in the past six months. All participants completed the HIV Stigma Mechanisms Scale, Internalized Stigma in Chronic Pain Scale, the Short-Form Brief Pain Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale. Clinical data was collected from medical records. An intersectional HIV and chronic pain composite variable was created and participants were categorized as either high (28%), moderate (32%), or low (40%). Results revealed that intersectional HIV and chronic pain stigma was significantly associated with severity of depressive symptoms (p = .023). Pairwise contrasts revealed that participants with high (p = .009) and moderate (p = .033) intersectional stigma reported significantly greater mean depressive symptom severity than those with low intersectional stigma. Participants who reported the highest levels of internalized HIV and chronic pain stigma also reported the greatest severity of depressive symptoms. This suggests that the experience of both HIV and chronic pain stigma (i.e., IHRS) among PLWH and chronic pain may synergistically perpetuate negative mood in a more profound manner than experiencing either one stigma alone.

  1. Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Cancer Survivors and Their Family Members: Korea Community Health Survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Ah

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of perceived stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members compared with subjects without cancer and without family members with cancer. The subjects of this cross-sectional study were adults ≥19 years old who participated in the 2012 Korea Community Health Survey. Stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members were assessed and compared to symptoms in control groups by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the 6783 cancer survivors, 26.9% and 8.7% reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively, and 27.7% and 5.9% of family members of cancer survivors reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively. Cancer survivors showed higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for stress (aOR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-1.37) and depressive symptoms (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.57-2.11) than subjects without cancer history. Family members of cancer survivors showed a higher OR for stress and depressive symptoms than subjects without a family member who survived cancer. Cancer survivors and family members of cancer survivors had more stress and depressive symptoms than controls. Careful management for cancer patients and their family members should include screening for stress and depression to improve mental health associated with cancer survivorship.

  2. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we...... analyzed both univariate and multivariate associations of socioeconomic factors, perceived physical health factors, and social support with self-rated depressive symptoms measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. A nationwide sample (n = 1851) of Finnish women aged 48-50 years was analyzed....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...

  3. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Stress, Anxiety and Depression Levels Among Elderly Referrals to Tehran Elderly Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham Ghafari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stress and anxiety have well–known effects in the pathogenesis of many physical and mental disorders. Aging adults are vulnerable to the effects of a negative stressor factors so, this study aims to investigate the level of stress anxiety and depression among the elderly referred to elderly clubs of Tehran in 2009. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional study carried out on 104 aging adults, selected from elderly clubs of Tehran on 2009. Depression, Anxiety and Stress questionnaires (DASS-21, were filled out for this group. Finally obtained data was statistically analyzed by means of SPSS15 using T- test and One Way ANOVA at the significant level P≤0.05. Results: Of the total subjects under study 24% were male, and 76% female, with a mean age of 63.37±4.32 and 65.08±4.82 years respectively. The proportion of women with high anxiety score was higher than men. There were also higher anxiety levels in illness people (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study on depression, anxiety and stress as an indicator of lifestyle reveals high stress levels in the elderly population, which warrants appropriate planning and community-based interventions, to improve lifestyle and reduce stress level in aging adults.

  5. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  6. Exploring the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures: when does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkir, Nazli; Arens, Elisabeth A; Barnow, Sven

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that the absence of both autonomy and social support (relatedness) are two important etiologic pathways to major depressive disorder (MDD). However, cross-cultural researchers state that the implications of autonomy and relatedness for mental health vary across cultures. To test these assumptions, the current study investigated the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures (Germans and Turkish immigrants in Germany). One hundred and eight (108) women were evaluated for their levels of autonomy/relatedness satisfaction, for overall psychopathological complaints including depression, for affectivity and for perceived loneliness through self-report measures. Among healthy groups, relatedness satisfaction predicted better mental health in Turkish women, whereas in German women, autonomy satisfaction was the better mental health predictor. Within depressed groups however, cultural differences in mental health outcomes regarding autonomy were no longer evident. Autonomy was associated with higher levels of mental health in Turkish as well as in German patients. Our findings indicate that the relationship between autonomy and mental health is culture-specific in healthy women, but disappears in depressed women. These findings are discussed with consideration of clinical implications and an outlook regarding further research.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Depression Depression Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Depression (also known as major depression or major depressive ...

  8. Development and Implementation of Health and Wellness CBT for Individuals with Depression and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, B; Brown, L; Hawkins, L; Risi, A; Radcliffe, J; Emslie, G; Mayes, T; King, J; Foxwell, A; Buyukdura, J; Bethel, J; Naar-King, S; Xu, J; Lee, S; Garvie, P; London, C; Tanney, M; Thornton, S

    2014-05-01

    Rates of depression are reported to be between 22-33% in adults with HIV, which is double that of the general population. Depression negatively affects treatment adherence and health outcomes of those with medical illnesses. Further, it has been shown in adults that reducing depression may improve both adherence and health outcomes. To address the issues of depression and non-adherence, Health and Wellness (H&W) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and medication management (MM) treatment strategies have been developed specifically for youth living with both HIV and depression. H&W CBT is based on other studies with uninfected youth and upon research on adults with HIV. H&W CBT uses problem-solving, motivational interviewing, and cognitive-behavioral strategies to decrease adherence obstacles and increase wellness. The intervention is delivered in 14 planned sessions over a 6-month period, with three different stages of CBT. This paper summarizes the feasibility and acceptability data from an open depression trial with 8 participants, 16-24 years of age, diagnosed with HIV and with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of depression, conducted at two treatment sites in the Adolescent Trials Network (ATN). Both therapists and subjects completed a Session Evaluation Form (SEF) after each session, and results were strongly favorable. Results from The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician (QIDS-C) also showed noteworthy improvement in depression severity. A clinical case vignette illustrates treatment response. Further research will examine the use of H&W CBT in a larger trial of youth diagnosed with both HIV and depression.

  9. Variation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with depression after treatment with bilateral electroconvulsive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fortunato Burgese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than 60 years after the introduction of modern psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT continues to be an essential therapeutic modality in the treatment of mental disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Hormones play an essential role in the development and expression of a series of behavioral changes. One aspect of the influence of hormones on behavior is their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs and ECT.Objective: We measured blood levels of the hormone cortisol in patients with unipolar depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV and compared results with levels found in healthy adults.Method: Blood cortisol levels were measured before the beginning of treatment with ECT, at the seventh session, and at the last session, at treatment completion. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: Cortisol levels remained stable in both men and women between the seventh and the last sessions of ECT; values ranged from 0.686±9.6330 g/dL for women, and there was a mean decrease of 5.825±6.0780 g/dL (p = 0.024. Mean number of ECT sessions was 12. After the seventh and the last ECT sessions, patients with depression and individuals in the control group had similar cortisol levels, whereas BDI scores remained different.Conclusion: Cortisol levels decreased during ECT treatment. ECT seems to act as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis.

  10. Sex differences in depressive, anxious behaviors and hippocampal transcript levels in a genetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, N S; Wang, L; Redei, E E

    2013-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating illness with high prevalence of comorbid anxiety. The incidence of depression and of comorbid anxiety is much higher in women than in men. These gender biases appear after puberty and their etiology is mostly unknown. Selective breeding of the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, an accepted model of adult and adolescent depression, resulted in two fully inbred substrains. Adult WKY more immobile (WMI) rats of both sexes consistently show increased depression-like behavior in the forced swim test when compared with the control WKY less immobile (WLI) strain. In contrast, here we show that while adult female WMIs and WLIs both display high anxiety-like behaviors, only WLI males, but not WMI males, show this behavior. Moreover, the behavioral profile of WMI males is consistent from early adolescence to adulthood, but the high depression- and anxiety-like behaviors of the female WMIs appear only in adulthood. These sex-specific behavioral patterns are paralleled by marked sex differences in hippocampal gene expression differences established by genome-wide transcriptional analyses of 13th generation WMIs and WLIs. Moreover, sex- and age-specific differences in transcript levels of selected genes are present in the hippocampus of the current, fully inbred WMIs and WLIs. Thus, the contribution of specific genes and/or the influence of the gonadal hormonal environment to depression- and anxiety-like behaviors may differ between male and female WMIs, resulting in their distinct behavioral and transcriptomic profiles despite shared sequences of the somatic chromosomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-01-01

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and

  12. A comparison of emotional indicators and depressive symptom levels of school-age children with and without cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durualp, Ender; Altay, Naime

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to compare the emotional indicators and depressive symptom levels of 6- to 12-year-old children with and without cancer. The sample included 20 children with cancer and 20 healthy children of similar ages and gender. Data were collected by using the Child Introduction Form, Children's Depression Inventory, the Human Figure Drawing test, and children's drawings. The results showed that the depressive symptom levels of children with cancer were significantly higher than those of healthy children. Impulsivity, mistrust, and anger were observed significantly more in children with cancer (P .05). The emotional indicators of both groups of children did not have an effect on their depression scores.

  13. Knowledge of and attitudes toward clinical depression among health providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Santiago; Shah, Nirsarg; Vithalani, Suril; Shah, Sandip; Squires, James; Appasani, Raghu; Katz, Craig L

    2014-01-01

    Clinical depression is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality but it is oftentimes overlooked and undertreated. The negative perception and lack of understanding of this condition prevents millions of people from seeking appropriate and on-time medical help, leading to distress and increased burden for affected people and their families. The implementation of public education campaigns and training of non-psychiatric health professionals on mental health and clinical depression has been neglected in several countries, including India, which is the second most populous country in the world with a population of more than 1.2 billion people, almost one-fifth of the world's population. This study sought to explore the knowledge and attitudes toward the diagnosis and treatment of clinical depression in nonpsychiatric health care providers in Vadodara, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted over a 4-week period In Gujarat, India among resident physicians and community health workers about their knowledge and views on clinical depression. We found considerable stigma and misinformation about depression especially among health care workers in India. Most of the community health workers had a great deal of difficulty when defining clinical depression, and a large majority said that they never heard about depression or its definition and although the overwhelming majority of respondents did not believe that clinical depression results from a punishment from God (82% disagreed or strongly disagreed with this belief) or evil spirits (77.5%), a much smaller proportion disagreed with the assertions that depression was either solely due to difficult circumstances (38.2%) or that sufferers only had themselves to blame (47.2%). Meanwhile, only 32.6% disagreed with the position that clinical depression is a sign of weakness and 39.4% disagreed with the statement that suicide was a sign of weakness. Our findings underscore the considerable public health

  14. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms Among Web-Based Health Risk Assessment Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Richard; Hawrilenko, Matt; Cole-Lewis, Heather

    2017-03-31

    Health risk assessments (HRAs), which often screen for depressive symptoms, are administered to millions of employees and health plan members each year. HRA data provide an opportunity to examine longitudinal trends in depressive symptomatology, as researchers have done previously with other populations. The primary research questions were: (1) Can we observe longitudinal trajectories in HRA populations like those observed in other study samples? (2) Do HRA variables, which primarily reflect modifiable health risks, help us to identify predictors associated with these trajectories? (3) Can we make meaningful recommendations for population health management, applicable to HRA participants, based on predictors we identify? This study used growth mixture modeling (GMM) to examine longitudinal trends in depressive symptomatology among 22,963 participants in a Web-based HRA used by US employers and health plans. The HRA assessed modifiable health risks and variables such as stress, sleep, and quality of life. Five classes were identified: A "minimal depression" class (63.91%, 14,676/22,963) whose scores were consistently low across time, a "low risk" class (19.89%, 4568/22,963) whose condition remained subthreshold, a "deteriorating" class (3.15%, 705/22,963) who began at subthreshold but approached severe depression by the end of the study, a "chronic" class (4.71%, 1081/22,963) who remained highly depressed over time, and a "remitting" class (8.42%, 1933/22,963) who had moderate depression to start, but crossed into minimal depression by the end. Among those with subthreshold symptoms, individuals who were male (PInternet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 31.03.2017.

  15. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for recurrent major depression: A 'best buy' for health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawyer, Frances; Enticott, Joanne C; Özmen, Mehmet; Inder, Brett; Meadows, Graham N

    2016-10-01

    While mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is effective in reducing depressive relapse/recurrence, relatively little is known about its health economic properties. We describe the health economic properties of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in relation to its impact on depressive relapse/recurrence over 2 years of follow-up. Non-depressed adults with a history of three or more major depressive episodes were randomised to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy + depressive relapse active monitoring (n = 101) or control (depressive relapse active monitoring alone) (n = 102) and followed up for 2 years. Structured self-report instruments for service use and absenteeism provided cost data items for health economic analyses. Treatment utility, expressed as disability-adjusted life years, was calculated by adjusting the number of days an individual was depressed by the relevant International Classification of Diseases 12-month severity of depression disability weight from the Global Burden of Disease 2010. Intention-to-treat analysis assessed the incremental cost-utility ratios of the interventions across mental health care, all of health-care and whole-of-society perspectives. Per protocol and site of usual care subgroup analyses were also conducted. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis was completed using cost-utility acceptability curves. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy participants had significantly less major depressive episode days compared to controls, as supported by the differential distributions of major depressive episode days (modelled as Poisson, p cognitive therapy group compared to controls, e.g., 31 and 55 days, respectively. From a whole-of-society perspective, analyses of patients receiving usual care from all sectors of the health-care system demonstrated dominance (reduced costs, demonstrable health gains). From a mental health-care perspective, the incremental gain per disability-adjusted life year for mindfulness

  16. Psychosocial stressors and depression at a Swedish primary health care centre. A gender perspective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ranja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial stress may account for the higher prevalence of depression in women and in individuals with a low educational background. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between depression and socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and lifestyle circumstances from a gender perspective in a relatively affluent primary care setting. Methods Patients, aged 18- 75 years, visiting a drop-in clinic at a primary care health centre were screened with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. The physicians used also targeted screening with BDI. A questionnaire on socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and use of alcohol and tobacco was distributed. Among patients, who scored BDI ≥10, DSM-IV-criteria were used to diagnose depression. Of the 404 participants, 48 men and 76 women were diagnosed with depression. The reference group consisted of patients with BDI score Results The same three psychosocial stressors: feeling very stressed, perceived poor physical health and being dissatisfied with one's family situation were associated with depression equally in men and women. The negative predictive values of the main effect models in men and women were 90.7% and 76.5%, respectively. Being dissatisfied with one's work situation had high ORs in both men and women. Unemployment and smoking were associated with depression in men only. Conclusions Three questions, frequently asked by physicians, which involve patient's family and working situation as well as perceived stress and physical health, could be used as depression indicators in early detection of depression in men and women in primary health care.

  17. Mental health literacy of depression: gender differences and attitudinal antecedents in a representative British sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression.In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes.There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes.Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health.

  18. Serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with major depression disorder and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Carolina David; de Mello Ferreira, Sharon; Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Bittencourt, Guilherme; de Oliveira, Jacqueline Flores; Lopez Molina, Mariane; Jansen, Karen; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; Rizzato Lara, Diogo; Portela, Luiz Valmor; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important member of the neurotrophins group and their involvement in the pathophysiology of major depression disorder (MDD) and suicide risk (SR) has been recently suggested. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in NGF serum levels in individuals with MDD and with or without risk of suicide, in subjects from a young population-based sample. This is a paired cross-sectional study nested in a population-based study. Individuals were rated for MDD and SR by a diagnostic interview--Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). The total population of the sample was comprised of 141 subjects distributed in three groups: 47 healthy controls, 47 subjects with current depressive episode without SR (MDD) and 47 subjects with current depressive episode and with SR (MDD + SR). NGF serum levels were significantly reduced in the MDD and MDD + SR groups when compared with controls (p ≤ 0.001). However, there were no differences in NGF levels between the MDD and MDD + SR groups (p = 1.000). These results suggest that reduced NGF serum levels can be a possible biomarker of MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Poor health and loneliness in later life: the role of depressive symptoms, social resources, and rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    We draw on cognitive discrepancy theory to hypothesize and test a pathway from poor health to loneliness in later life. We hypothesize that poor health will have a negative influence on social participation and social resources, and these factors will mediate between health and loneliness. We hypothesize that rural environments will amplify any difficulties associated with social participation or accessing social resources and that depression will moderate how intensely people react to levels of social contact and support. We conceptualize a mediation model and a moderated-mediation model. Nationally representative data on older people living in the Republic of Ireland are used to validate the hypothesized pathways. In the mediation model, health has a significant indirect effect on loneliness through the mediating variables social resources and social participation. In the moderated-mediation model, rurality moderates the pathway between health and social resources but not social participation. Depressive symptoms moderate the effect of social resources on loneliness but not social participation. The results provide further credence to cognitive discrepancy theory, suggesting that depressive symptoms influence cognitive processes, interfering with judgments about the adequacy of social interaction. The theory is extended by demonstrating the impact of the environment on loneliness.

  20. Conceptualizations of postpartum depression by public-sector health care providers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Mann, Joshua R; deCastro, Filipa

    2015-04-01

    In this article we describe the knowledge frameworks that 61 physicians, nurses, social workers, and psychologists from five public-sector health care facilities in Mexico used to conceptualize postpartum depression. We also demonstrate how providers applied social and behavioral antecedents in their conceptualizations of postpartum depression. Using grounded theory, we identify two frameworks that providers used to conceptualize postpartum depression: biochemical and adjustment. We highlight an emerging model of the function of social and behavioral antecedents within the frameworks, as well as the representation of postpartum depression by symptoms of distress and the perception among providers that these symptoms affected responsibilities associated with motherhood. The results provide a foundation for future study of how providers' conceptualizations of postpartum depression might affect detection and treatment practices and might be useful in the development of training materials to enhance the quality of care for women who experience any form of distress in the postpartum period. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Sithu; Parakh, Kapil; Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Gottdiener, John S; Kop, Willem J

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressed older individuals have a higher mortality than older persons without depression. Depression is associated with physical inactivity, and low levels of physical activity have been shown in some cohorts to be a partial mediator of the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods A cohort of 5888 individuals (mean 72.8±5.6 years, 58% female, 16% African-American) from four US communities was followed for an average of 10.3 years. Self-reported depressive symptoms (10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were assessed annually and self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 7 years. To estimate how much of the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with depressive symptoms was due to physical inactivity, Cox regression with time-varying covariates was used to determine the percentage change in the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality after adding physical activity variables. Results At baseline, 20% of participants scored above the cut-off for depressive symptoms. There were 2915 deaths (49.8%), of which 1176 (20.1%) were from cardiovascular causes. Depressive symptoms and physical inactivity each independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality and were strongly associated with each other (all pphysical inactivity had greater cardiovascular mortality than those with either individually (pPhysical inactivity reduced the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality by 26% after adjustment. This was similar for persons with (25%) and without (23%) established coronary heart disease. Conclusions Physical inactivity accounted for a significant proportion of the risk of cardiovascular mortality due to depressive symptoms in older adults, regardless of coronary heart disease status. PMID:21339320

  2. Reported parental characteristics in relation to trait depression and anxiety levels in a non-clinical group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G

    1979-09-01

    Care and overprotection appear to reflect the principal dimensions underlying parental behaviours and attitudes. In previous studies of neurotically depressed patients and of a non-clinical group, subjects who scored their parents as lacking in care and/or overprotective had the greater depressive experience. The present study of another non-clinical group (289 psychology students) replicated those findings in regard to trait depression levels. In addition, associations between those parental dimensions and trait anxiety scores were demonstrated. Multiple regression analyses established that 9-10% of the variance in mood scores was accounted for by scores on those parental dimensions. Low maternal care scores predicted higher levels of both anxiety and depression, while high maternal overprotection scores predicted higher levels of anxiety but not levels of depression. Maternal influences were clearly of greater relevance than paternal influences.

  3. Anxiety, depression, and oral health among US pregnant women: 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka L; Whitcomb, Brian W; Pekow, Penelope; Carbone, Elena T; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Anxiety and depression adversely impact oral health in nonpregnant women; however, this association has not been evaluated during pregnancy, a time characterized by higher rates of anxiety and depression. Therefore, we examined the association between these factors and oral disease and oral healthcare utilization among 402 pregnant respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Self-reported lifetime diagnoses of anxiety, depression, and current depression were assessed. Oral health outcomes included self-reported tooth loss and dental visits in the past year. One-fifth (21.2 percent) of respondents reported a tooth loss and 32.5 percent reported nonuse of oral health services. The prevalence of lifetime diagnosed anxiety and depression was 13.6 percent and 11.3 percent, respectively, whereas 10.6 percent reported current depression. After adjusting for risk factors, pregnant women with diagnosed anxiety had increased odds of one or more tooth loss [odds ratio (OR) = 3.30; 95 percent confidence interval (CI): 1.01-10.77] compared with those without the disorder. Similarly, after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, women with anxiety had increased odds of nonuse of oral health services (OR = 2.67; 95 percent CI: 1.03-6.90); however, this was no longer significant after adjusting for health behaviors and body mass index. We observed no significant association with depression. In this population-based sample, we found a two- to threefold increased odds of tooth loss and nonuse of oral health services among pregnant women with a lifetime diagnosis of anxiety. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine these associations among pregnant women. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Utilization of health care services by depressed patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... all patients attending the general out‑patient department from 16 years of age and above and those who consented to participate. Excluded were patients who abuse alcohol or drugs, patients with past history of psychiatric illness other than depression, patients with altered sensorium and those who failed ...

  5. Postpartum major depression at six weeks in primary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Major depression is a common and disabling complication of the postpartum period in women. It is thought to occur three times more commonly in the developing than in developed countries. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with major ...

  6. The impact of child and family stressors on the self-rated health of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder: Associations with depressed mood over a 12-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R

    2018-05-01

    Employing a cohort sequential design and multilevel modeling, the effects of child and family stressors and maternal depressed mood on the self-rated health of 110 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed over a 12-year period when children in the study were 7-19 years old. Findings indicate a significant decline in self-rated health over time. In addition, child and family stressors, as well as maternal depressed mood, exerted significant between-persons effects on self-rated health such that mothers who reported more stressors and depressed mood across the study period were less likely to rate themselves in better health across that period. In addition, a significant within-person relationship between maternal depressed mood and self-rated health was found, indicating that at times when mothers reported higher levels of depressed mood than usual (their personal average across the study), they were significantly less likely to report better self-rated health. Finally, maternal depressed mood partially mediated the between-persons effects of child and family stressors on self-rated health such that increased stressors led to increased maternal depressed mood which, in turn, led to poorer maternal self-rated health. Findings suggest that chronic stressors erode maternal health over time and that depression may be an important mechanism linking stressors to decreased maternal health.

  7. Plasma IL-17A levels in patients with late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraykar, Smita; Cao, Bo; Barroso, Lucelia S; Pereira, Kelly S; Bertola, Laiss; Nicolau, Mariana; Ferreira, Jessica D; Dias, Natalia S; Vieira, Erica L; Teixeira, Antonio L; Silva, Ana Paula M; Diniz, Breno S

    2018-01-01

    A consistent body of research has confirmed that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, the soluble IL-2 receptor, and C-reactive protein, compared to controls; however, there is limited information on IL-17A in MDD. Moreover, information about IL-17A in older populations, i.e., patients with late-life depression (LLD), is conspicuously missing from the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of IL-17A in LLD. A convenience sample of 129 individuals, 74 with LLD and 55 non-depressed controls, were enrolled in this study. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare plasma IL-17A levels between LLD and controls subjects, and Spearman's rank order correlation was used to investigate correlation of these levels with clinical, neuropsychological, and cognitive assessments. Plasma IL-17A levels were not statistically different between LLD patients and controls (p = 0.94). Among all subjects (LLD + control), plasma IL-17A did not correlate significantly with depressive symptoms (rho = -0.009, p = 0.92) but a significant correlation was observed with cognitive assessments (rho = 0.22, p = 0.01). Our findings do not support an association between plasma IL-17A levels and LLD. Nevertheless, IL-17A may be associated with cognitive impairment in LLD patients. If this finding is confirmed in future longitudinal studies, modulation of the T-helper 17 cell (Th17) immune response may be a treatment target for cognitive impairment in this population.

  8. Longitudinal MRI study of cortical thickness, perfusion, and metabolite levels in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järnum, Hanna; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Steffensen, Elena G

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) display morphologic, functional, and metabolic brain abnormalities in limbic-cortical regions at a baseline magnetic resonance (MR) scan and whether these changes are normalized in MDD patients in remission at a follow......-acetylaspartate, myo-inositol, and glutamate levels in MDD patients compared with healthy controls at baseline. CONCLUSION: Using novel MRI techniques, we have found abnormalities in cerebral regions related to cortical-limbic pathways in MDD patients....

  9. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz, Iran in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a debilitating disease which is caused by social and environmental factors in additionto genetic factors. University students are among the young and vulnerable population to depression and theirpopulation is increasing with increase in universities and higher education institutions. Therefore, any disturbance instudent's mental and physical health is a serious threat for the next generation. In this study, we aimed to estimate theprevalence of depression and its related factors in students of School of Health and Nutrition at Tabriz University ofMedical Sciences, Iran. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey on 175 students selected by stratified random sampling, educating indifferent fields at School of Health and Nutrition in 2009. The data collection tool was the short form of the standardBeck Depression Inventory (BDI which is used for screening depression. The collected data were analyzed by softwareStata Statistical Software, Release 10.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA. RESULTS: The results showed that 62.7% of the students had depression and from these 10.9% suffered from severedepression. Significantly higher depression rates were seen in students with worrisome about the future. Marriedstudents, those interested in their field of study, those performing prayers and regularly reading the Quran hadsignificantly lower rates of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high prevalence of depression, screening strategies should be implemented to identifydepressed students. Counseling services should be available and accessible to students at risk.

  10. Long-term bicycle riding ameliorates the depression of the patients undergoing hemodialysis by affecting the levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao C

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chunhui Zhao, Hui Ma, Lei Yang, Yong Xiao Blood Purification Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Hemodialysis patients with depression have a higher risk of death and hospitalization. Although there is pharmacological management for the depression of hemodialysis patients, the adverse effect of the drug limits the use. The nonpharmacological way, bicycle riding, may be an effective way for the therapy of the depression in hemodialysis patients. However, the underlying mechanism of this relationship is still not fully explained, while interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-18 (IL-18 are associated with depression and exercise. Thus, the effects of bicycle riding on the levels of the interleukin were explored. Participants and methods: One hundred and eighty-nine patients with chronic hemodialysis were selected and randomly assigned to three groups of medicine (MG, received 20-mg escitalopram daily, medicine and aerobic exercise (MAG, received 20-mg escitalopram daily and bicycle riding six times weekly, and only aerobic exercise (AG, received 20-mg placebo daily and bicycle riding six times weekly. The whole experiment lasted for 18 weeks. The quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey and depression severity according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition [DSM-IV] were measured before and at the end of this study. The serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18 were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: The quality of life was improved and depression severity was reduced significantly in the MAG and AG groups when compared with the MG group (P<0.05. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18 were the highest in the MG group, moderate in the MAG group and the lowest in AG group. On the other hand, the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18 were closely associated with depression scores (P<0.05. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise

  11. Screening mixed depression and bipolarity in the postpartum period at a primary health care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sercan Bulut; Bucaktepe, Gamze Erten; Uludağ, Ayşegül; Bulut, İbrahim Umud; Erdem, Özgür; Altınbaş, Kürşat

    2016-11-01

    Mixed depression is a clinical condition accompanied by the symptoms of (hypo)mania and is considered to be a predictor for bipolar disorder. Compared to pure major depression, mixed depression is worse in progress. There are limited data on the prevalence of mixed depression since it is a relatively new entity. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of mixed depression during the postpartum period which is risky for mood disorders. The study included 63 postpartum women. The participants were administered Beck Depression Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ), and Modified Hypomania Symptom Checklist-32 (mHCL-32). The MDQ scores of the women with expected depression according to the EPDS cut-off scores, were significantly higher than the women with lower EPDS scores (t=-4.968; pdepression scores compared to the women under EPDS cut-off scores (t=-4.713; pdepression, respectively. In addition, 3 (4.8%) women require additional clinical examination for bipolar disorder. The scores for the first item of MDQ were above the cut-off value in 11 (17.5%) women. According to the mHCL-32 results, 50 (79.4%) women had at least 1 symptom, 45 (71.4%) women had at least 3 symptoms, and 43 (68.3%) women had at least 5 symptoms of mixed depression. Postpartum mixed depression should be promptly diagnosed by using appropriate diagnostic tools, particularly by primary health care physicians. Patients with mixed depression should be closely monitored to avoid manic switch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  13. Contribution of attachment insecurity to health-related quality of life in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Drannikov, Angela

    2013-06-22

    To examine the individual contributions of insecure attachment styles and depression symptom severity to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder (AJD) with depressed mood. Participants were 67 patients diagnosed with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth edition AJD with depressed mood, who completed standardised self-report questionnaires measuring study variables. Mean scores and SDs were computed for the outcome and predictor measures. Pearson correlations among the measures were computed. The study hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analyses. All analyses were performed using the SPSS-17 software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States). ANOVA showed a significant main effect of the insecure attachment styles on depression symptom severity and life satisfaction scores. The results suggest that depressive symptoms were more severe (F = 4.13, df = 2.67, P insecure groups did not significantly differ by these variables. The anxious/ambivalent attachment style and depression symptom severity significantly contributed to HRQoL, accounting for 21.4% and 29.7% of the total variance, respectively [R(2) = 0.79; Adjusted R(2) = 0.77; F (5, 67) = 33.68, P < 0.0001], even after controlling for gender, marital and employment status confounders. The results show that the anxious/ambivalent attachment style together with depression symptom severity substantially and independently predict the HRQoL outcome in AJD with depressed mood.

  14. Health, Social, and Economic Variables Associated with Depression Among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries: World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinda, Ethel M; Rajkumar, Anto P; Attermann, Jǿrn; Gerdtham, Ulf G; Enemark, Ulrika; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara S

    2016-12-01

    Although depression among older people is an important public health problem worldwide, systematic studies evaluating its prevalence and determinants in low and middle income countries (LMICs) are sparse. The biopsychosocial model of depression and prevailing socioeconomic hardships for older people in LMICs have provided the impetus to determine the prevalence of geriatric depression; to study its associations with health, social, and economic variables; and to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in depression prevalence in LMICs. The authors accessed the World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health Wave 1 data that studied nationally representative samples from six large LMICs (N = 14,877). A computerized algorithm derived depression diagnoses. The authors assessed hypothesized associations using survey multivariate logistic regression models for each LMIC and pooled their risk estimates by meta-analyses and investigated related socioeconomic inequalities using concentration indices. Cross-national prevalence of geriatric depression was 4.7% (95% CI: 1.9%-11.9%). Female gender, illiteracy, poverty, indebtedness, past informal-sector occupation, bereavement, angina, and stroke had significant positive associations, whereas pension support and health insurance showed significant negative associations with geriatric depression. Pro-poor inequality of geriatric depression were documented in five LMICs. Socioeconomic factors and related inequalities may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate depression amongolder people in LMICs. Relative absence of health safety net places socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in LMICs at risk. The need for population-based public health interventions and policies to prevent and to manage geriatric depression effectively in LMICs cannot be overemphasized. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of internet use on health and depression: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessière, Katie; Pressman, Sarah; Kiesler, Sara; Kraut, Robert

    2010-02-28

    The rapid expansion of the Internet has increased the ease with which the public can obtain medical information. Most research on the utility of the Internet for health purposes has evaluated the quality of the information itself or examined its impact on clinical populations. Little is known about the consequences of its use by the general population. Is use of the Internet by the general population for health purposes associated with a subsequent change in psychological well-being and health? Are the effects different for healthy versus ill individuals? Does the impact of using the Internet for health purposes differ from the impact of other types of Internet use? Data come from a national US panel survey of 740 individuals conducted from 2000 to 2002. Across three surveys, respondents described their use of the Internet for different purposes, indicated whether they had any of 13 serious illnesses (or were taking care of someone with a serious illness), and reported their depression. In the initial and final surveys they also reported on their physical health. Lagged dependent variable regression analysis was used to predict changes in depression and general health reported on a later survey from frequency of different types of Internet use at an earlier period, holding constant prior depression and general health, respectively. Statistical interactions tested whether uses of the Internet predicted depression and general health differently for people who initially differed on their general health, chronic illness, and caregiver status. Health-related Internet use was associated with small but reliable increases in depression (ie, increasing use of the Internet for health purposes from 3 to 5 days per week to once a day was associated with .11 standard deviations more symptoms of depression, P = .002). In contrast, using the Internet for communication with friends and family was associated with small but reliable decreases in depression (ie, increasing use of the

  16. Place of origin associated with depressive symptoms in health professionals performing social health service in Ancash, Peru, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos-Segura, Renee; Maticorena-Quevedo, Jesus; Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2018-05-01

    Health professionals performing their social health service (SHS) in rural communities could be at risk of developing depression. Moreover, those who migrate from farther places to perform their SHS could have an increased risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between place of origin and the presence of depressive symptoms, in health professionals performing rural social health service (SHS) in Ancash, Peru. This was a cross-sectional study. During April 2015, a survey was applied to health professionals performing SHS in the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) facilities in Ancash. The main outcome was the presence of depressive symptoms, defined as a score ≥2 points in the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. The main exposure was the place of origin, defined as the place where the subjects completed their undergraduate professional studies (Ancash, Lima city or others). Poisson regressions with robust variance were performed to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and aPR) and their 95% confidence interval (95%CI). From 573 health professionals performing their SHS in MINSA in Ancash, 347 were included in the study. The mean age was 27.2±4.5 years, 78.7% were women, and 14.7% scored positive for depressive symptoms. Those who had completed their undergraduate professional studies in Lima city had a higher prevalence of presence of depressive symptoms compared to those who did in Ancash (aPR=2.59, 95%CI=1.23-5.45). Those who completed their undergraduate professional studies in Lima had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than those who did in Ancash. Possible explanations include the difficulty in visiting family and friends, acculturation, and lack of Quechua language proficiency.

  17. The relationship between frailty, anxiety and depression, and health-related quality of life in elderly patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Gobbens, Robbert J J

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people constitute over 80% of the population of patients with heart failure (HF). Frailty is a distinct biological syndrome that reflects decreased physiologic reserve and resistance to stressors. Moreover, frailty can serve as an independent predictor of visits to the emergency department, hospitalizations, and mortality. The purpose of this paper was to assess the relationship between frailty, anxiety and depression, and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of elderly patients with HF. The study included 100 patients (53 men and 47 women) with a diagnosis of HF. Frailty was measured using the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) scale. HRQoL was measured using the 36-Item Short Form Medical Outcomes Study Survey. To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used. Frailty was found in 89% of the studied population. The study showed significant inverse correlations between the values of the physical component scale (PCS) domain results and TFI score, and a significant inverse correlation between the values of the mental component scale (MCS) domain and TFI score. When participants showed increased levels of frailty as measured by the TFI scale, there was also an increase in the levels of anxiety and depression. With increased anxiety and depression, there was deterioration in the quality of life of patients with HF. Frailty has a negative impact on the HRQoL results of elderly patients with HF. The assessment of frailty syndrome, and anxiety and depression should be taken into account when estimating risk and making therapeutic decisions for cardiovascular disease treatment and care.

  18. Temporary core liquid level depression during cold-leg small-break LOCA effect of break size and power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Mimura, Y.; Kukita, Y.; Tasaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    Cold-leg small break LOCA experiments (0.5-10% break) were conducted at the large scale test facility (LSTF), a volumetrically-scaled (1/48) simulator of a PWR, of the ROSA-IV Program. When a break area was less than 2.5% of the scaled cold-leg flow area, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed to the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing early in the transient only by the manometric pressure balance since no coolant remained in the upper portion of the primary system. When the break size was larger than 5%, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed lower than the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing since coolant remained at the upper portion of the primary system; the steam generator (SG) U-tube upflow side and the SG inlet plenum, due to counter current flow limiting by updrafting steam while the coolant drained. The amount of coolant trapped there was dependent on the vapor velocity (core power); the larger the core power, the lower the minimum core liquid level. The RELAP5/MOD2 code reasonable predicted phenomena observed in the experiments. (orig./DG)

  19. LGBT Identity, Untreated Depression, and Unmet Need for Mental Health Services by Sexual Minority Women and Trans-Identified People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Leah S; Daley, Andrea; Curling, Deone; Gibson, Margaret F; Green, Datejie C; Williams, Charmaine C; Ross, Lori E

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have found that transgender, lesbian, and bisexual people report poorer mental health relative to heterosexuals. However, available research provides little information about mental health service access among the highest need groups within these communities: bisexual women and transgender people. This study compared past year unmet need for mental health care and untreated depression between four groups: heterosexual cisgender (i.e., not transgender) women, cisgender lesbians, cisgender bisexual women, and transgender people. This was a cross-sectional Internet survey. We used targeted sampling to recruit 704 sexual and gender minority people and heterosexual cisgendered adult women across Ontario, Canada. To ensure adequate representation of vulnerable groups, we oversampled racialized and low socioeconomic status (SES) women. Trans participants were 2.4 times (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.6-3.8, p mental healthcare as cisgender heterosexual women. Trans participants were also 1.6 times (95% CI = 1.0-27, p = 0.04) more likely to report untreated depression. These differences were not seen after adjustment for social context factors such as discrimination and social support. We conclude that there are higher rates of unmet need and untreated depression in trans and bisexual participants that are partly explained by differences in social factors, including experiences of discrimination, lower levels of social support, and systemic exclusion from healthcare. Our findings suggest that the mental health system in Ontario is not currently meeting the needs of many sexual and gender minority people.

  20. Depression and Dissociation as Predictors of Physical Health Symptoms Among Female Rape Survivors with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioli-Salter, Erica R.; Johnides, Benjamin D.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Smith, Brian N.; Resick, Patricia A.; Rasmusson, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relative contributions of depression and dissociation, as well as PTSD, to physical health symptoms and to examine the relationships among somatic symptoms, PTSD, depression, and dissociation in relation to childhood and adult trauma exposure. Method Cross-sectional data are from 132 female rape survivors with PTSD assessed prior to engaging in a study of trauma-focused cognitive therapy for PTSD. Measures included the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trauma Symptom Inventory-Dissociation Subscale, Childhood Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire, and Assessing Environments-III-Physical Punishment Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that only dissociative and depression symptoms contributed significantly to physical health symptoms. Similarly, among the subsample of women with either childhood sexual or physical abuse, depression and dissociation were significant predictors of somatic symptoms. However, among women without childhood abuse, only dissociation significantly predicted somatic symptoms. Conclusion Understanding the psychological and biological mechanisms that link childhood versus adult trauma exposure, PTSD, and comorbid depression or dissociation to physical health symptoms may aid development of individualized treatments for the physical and psychological consequences of trauma. PMID:27149157

  1. Psychological health of men with partners who have post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah L; Bushnell, John A; Collings, Sunny C; Purdie, Gordon L

    2006-08-01

    To compare the psychological health of men with partners who have post-partum depression (PPD; index group) with that of men with partners without PPD (comparison group). Using a cross-sectional survey, psychological symptoms and disturbances of index group men (n = 58) and comparison group men (n = 116) were compared. Validated self-report measures were used to assess five key areas of mental health: depression, anxiety, non-specific psychological impairment, aggression and alcohol use. Index group men had more symptoms of depression, aggression and non-specific psychological impairment, and had higher rates of depressive disorder, non-specific psychological problems and problem fatigue than comparison group men. Index group men were also more likely to have three or more comorbid psychological disturbances. There was no difference between the groups on measures of anxiety and alcohol use. Although many men in the postnatal period experience a variety of mental health problems, those who have a partner with PPD are themselves at increased risk for experiencing psychological symptoms and disturbances. Differentiation of psychological syndromes is important; higher rates of depressive disorder, non-specific psychological problems and problem fatigue were found, but rates of anxiety disorder and hazardous alcohol use did not differ between the groups. More attention from health professionals to men's mental health in the postnatal period may be beneficial to the entire family system.

  2. Nivel de actividad física, calidad de vida y niveles de depresión en mujeres mayores con fibromialgia (Physical activity levels, quality of life and incidence of depression in older women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Sañudo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship between levels of depression and perceived quality of life based on the level of physical activity in patients with fibromyalgia in Seville (Spain. A total of 67 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia voluntarily participated in the study. The level of physical activity was assessed using the International Questionnaire of Physical Activity, the incidence of depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and their perceived quality of life using the SF-36. Significant differences between physical function and general health based on the depression categories in those with a moderate level of physical activity were found. In addition, high correlations were found between levels of depression and physical functioning (r = -.409, p < .05, general health (r = -.453, p < .05 and mental health (r = -.539, p < .05 among the participants. In conclusion, given the close relationship between depression and the perceived quality of life and the ability of physical activity to modulate these relationships in fibromyalgia patients, professionals should establish prevention strategies based on the promotion of physical activity to help improve health in this population.

  3. Work stress, occupational burnout and depression levels: a clinical study of paediatric intensive care unit nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Cheng, Su-Fen; Wu, Li-Min; Ou-Yang, Mei-Chen

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between work stress and depression; and investigate the mediating effect of occupational burnout among nurses in paediatric intensive care units. The relationships among work stress, occupational burnout and depression level have been explored, neither regarding occupational burnout as the mediating role that causes work stress to induce depression nor considering the paediatric intensive care unit context. A cross-sectional correlational design was conducted. One hundred and forty-four female paediatric intensive care unit nurses from seven teaching hospitals in southern Taiwan were recruited as the participants. Data were collected by structured questionnaires including individual demographics, the Nurse Stress Checklist, the Occupational Burnout Inventory and the Taiwan Depression Questionnaire. The results indicated that after controlling for individual demographic variables, the correlations of work stress with occupational burnout, as well as work stress and occupational burnout with depression level were all positive. Furthermore, occupational burnout may exert a partial mediating effect on the relationship between work stress and depression level. This study provides information about work stress, occupational burnout and depression level, and their correlations, as well as the mediating role of occupational burnout among paediatric intensive care unit nurses. It suggests government departments and hospital administrators when formulating interventions to prevent work stress and occupational burnout. These interventions can subsequently prevent episodes of depression in paediatric intensive care unit nurses, thereby providing patients with a safe and high-quality nursing environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child…

  5. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  6. The Effect of Postpartum Depression and Current Mental Health Problems of the Mother on Child Behaviour at Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa-Monasterolo, R; Gispert-Llaurado, M; Canals, J; Luque, V; Zaragoza-Jordana, M; Koletzko, B; Grote, V; Weber, M; Gruszfeld, D; Szott, K; Verduci, E; ReDionigi, A; Hoyos, J; Brasselle, G; Escribano Subías, J

    2017-07-01

    Background Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) could affect children's emotional development, increasing later risk of child psychological problems. The aim of our study was to assess the association between child's emotional and behavioural problems and mother's PPD, considering maternal current mental health problems (CMP). Methods This is a secondary analysis from the EU-Childhood Obesity Project (NCT00338689). Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at, 2, 3 and 6 months after delivery and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to assess CMP once the children reached the age of 8 years. EPDS scores > 10 were defined as PPD and GHQ-12 scores > 2 were defined as CMP. The psychological problems of the children at the age of eight were collected by mothers through the Child's Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results 473, 474 and 459 mothers filled in GHQ-12 and CBCL tests at 8 years and EPDS at 2, 3 and 6 months, respectively. Anxiety and depression was significantly increased by maternal EPDS. Children whose mothers had both PPD and CMP exhibited the highest levels of psychological problems, followed by those whose mothers who had only CMP and only PPD. PPD and CMP had a significant effect on child's total psychological problems (p = 0.033, p mothers had PPD did not differ from children whose mothers did not have any depression. Conclusions Maternal postpartum depression and current mental health problems, separately and synergistically, increase children's psychological problems at 8 years.

  7. Effects of depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and health behaviour on neonatal outcomes in a population-based Hungarian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödecs, Tamás; Horváth, Boldizsár; Szilágyi, Eniko; Gonda, Xénia; Rihmer, Zoltán; Sándor, János

    2011-01-01

    To investigate possible associations of maternal antenatal depression, anxiety and self-esteem with negative neonatal outcomes controlling for the effects of demographic covariates and health behaviour in a Hungarian sample. A population-based monitoring system was established in 10 districts of health visitors in Szombathely, Hungary, covering every woman registered as pregnant between February 1, 2008 and February 1 2009. Three hundred and seven expectant women in the early stage of their pregnancy were surveyed using the Short Form of Beck Depression Inventory for the measurement of depression and the Spielberger Trait-Anxiety Inventory for the measurement of anxiety. Self-esteem was evaluated by the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. At the end of the follow-up period, data on 261 mothers and their singleton neonates were available. The relationship between the explanatory and outcome variables (birth weight, length, chest circumference, gestational age, and 1- and 5-min Apgar score) was tested in girls and boys separately by multiple linear regression analysis (Forward method). Categorical variables were used as "dummy variables". Maternal depression, anxiety and health behaviour did not show any association with neonatal outcomes. Higher level of maternal self-esteem was associated with higher birth weight and birth length in boys and higher birth length in girls. Maternal education positively correlated with birth length, gestational age and chest circumference in boys, and with birth length in girls. In girls, maternal socioeconomic status showed a positive association with birth weight and gestational age, while common law marriage had a negative effect on birth weight and chest circumference. Lower level of maternal self-esteem possibly leads to a higher level of maternal stress which may reduce fetal growth via physiologic changes. Gender differences in associations between demographic factors and neonatal outcome measures indicate differences in fetal

  8. Improvements in Depression and Mental Health After Acceptance and Commitment Therapy are Related to Changes in Defusion and Values-Based Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell, Kate; Richardson, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has been found to be effective for various mental health disorders but the processes through which it affects change remain unclear. Much process research in the area is on physical rather than mental health, and focuses on the broad concept of psychological flexibility with little research on specific mechanisms identified in theory such as fusion and values. This study explored whether there was a relationship between two of the main ACT processes (cognitive defusion and values) and levels of depression and distress. Thirty-three participants completed questionnaires at the start and end of their treatment measuring general mental health and distress, depression, levels of cognitive fusion and how much they were living in line with their values and how important their values were to them. Results showed reductions in levels of fusion and increases in values-based action were significantly related to reductions in distress and depression. There was no correlation between changes in values importance and changes in distress or depression. This study therefore suggests decreased defusion and increased values-based action is an important mechanism in the efficacy of ACT in those with depression and mental health problems. The study is however limited by a small sample size and future research with a sample large enough for mediation analysis would be beneficial.

  9. Mediated moderation of the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms: role of adolescent physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    To examine the mediating effect of family functioning on the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms and determine whether the magnitude of the mediating effect is different for adolescents with and without chronic physical health conditions. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. A representative survey of 11,813 adolescents and their mothers was included. Maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms were measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Multilevel multiple-group path analysis was used to examine potential mediating and moderating effects. Family functioning measured when adolescents were 14-15 years mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms (measured at 10-13 years) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured at 16-19 years) for both adolescents with [αβ = 0.02 (0.02, 0.03)] and without chronic health conditions [αβ = 0.01 (0.00, 0.01)]. These findings provided evidence to suggest mediated moderation, Δαβ = 0.02 (0.01, 0.03), that is, the mediating effect of family functioning was significantly larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. The mediating effect of family functioning in the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms is larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. Within the framework of family-centered care, maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning are suitable targets for preventive intervention for adolescents with chronic health conditions.

  10. Combined detection of depression and anxiety in epilepsy patients using the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy and the World Health Organization well-being index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilebæk; Amiri, Moshgan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate the Danish version of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E), and compare it with the World Health Organization index for psychological well-being (WHO-5) as screening tests for depression and anxiety in epilepsy patients. METHODS: Epilepsy...... outpatients filled out NDDI-E and WHO-5. A Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as gold standard for psychiatric diagnoses was carried out with every patient. RESULTS: We included 124 epilepsy patients. According to MINI, 5% had depression without anxiety, 6% anxiety without depression, and 6...... there are 17% false positives. CONCLUSION: NDDI-E in Danish is valid and slightly better than WHO-5 in the detection of depression in epilepsy patients. WHO-5 is valid for the detection of anxiety disorders. Combined use of NDDI-E and WHO-5 is recommended, since 95% of all epilepsy patients with depression and...

  11. Five-year outcome of major depressive disorder in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, K A; Vuorilehto, M S; Melartin, T K; Isometsä, E T

    2014-05-01

    Primary health care provides treatment for most patients with depression. Despite their importance for organizing services, long-term course of depression and risk factors for poor outcome in primary care are not well known. In the Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study, a stratified random sample of 1119 patients representing primary care patients in a Finnish city was screened for depression with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. SCID-I/P and SCID-II interviews were used to diagnose Axis I and II disorders. The 137 patients with DSM-IV depressive disorder were prospectively followed up at 3, 6, 18 and 60 months. Altogether, 82% of patients completed the 5-year follow-up, including 102 patients with a research diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline. Duration of the index episode, recurrences, time spent in major depressive episodes (MDEs) and partial or full remission were examined with a life-chart. Of the MDD patients, 70% reached full remission, in a median time of 20 months. One-third had at least one recurrence. The patients spent 34% of the follow-up time in MDEs, 24% in partial remission and 42% in full remission. Baseline severity of depression and substance use co-morbidity predicted time spent in MDEs. This prospective, naturalistic, long-term study of a representative cohort of primary care patients with depression indicated slow or incomplete recovery and a commonly recurrent course, which need to be taken into account when developing primary care services. Severity of depressive symptoms and substance use co-morbidity should be systematically evaluated in planning treatment.

  12. A new paradigm for depression in new mothers: the central role of inflammation and how breastfeeding and anti-inflammatory treatments protect maternal mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall-Tackett Kathleen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI has revealed that depression is associated with inflammation manifested by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Discussion The old paradigm described inflammation as simply one of many risk factors for depression. The new paradigm is based on more recent research that has indicated that physical and psychological stressors increase inflammation. These recent studies constitute an important shift in the depression paradigm: inflammation is not simply a risk factor; it is the risk factor that underlies all the others. Moreover, inflammation explains why psychosocial, behavioral and physical risk factors increase the risk of depression. This is true for depression in general and for postpartum depression in particular. Puerperal women are especially vulnerable to these effects because their levels of proinflammatory cytokines significantly increase during the last trimester of pregnancy – a time when they are also at high risk for depression. Moreover, common experiences of new motherhood, such as sleep disturbance, postpartum pain, and past or current psychological trauma, act as stressors that cause proinflammatory cytokine levels to rise. Breastfeeding has a protective effect on maternal mental health because it attenuates stress and modulates the inflammatory response. However, breastfeeding difficulties, such as nipple pain, can increase the risk of depression and must be addressed promptly. Conclusion PNI research suggests two goals for the prevention and treatment of postpartum depression: reducing maternal stress and reducing inflammation. Breastfeeding and exercise reduce maternal stress and are protective of maternal mood. In addition, most current treatments for depression are anti-inflammatory. These include long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, cognitive therapy, St. John's wort, and conventional antidepressants.

  13. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  14. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  15. [The role of cognitive emotional self-regulation in adolescence in levels of depression, psychosomatic symptoms and subjective well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriston, Pálma; Pikó, Bettina

    More and more studies suggest that mental health may be determined by processes of emotional self-regulation. Emotion regulation is a complex concept which can be explicit and implicit and includes different cognitive and behavioral processes: evaluation, modifying of emotional reaction to accomplish goals. Our research aim was to explore the use of cognitive emotional self-regulation strategies related to mental health indicators among adolescents. The youth study was performed with a sample size of 1245 participants in Makó, in 2016. Data collection was based on self-administrated questionnaries that contained items on mental health, subjective well-being and background of sociodemographics. The data were compared on the basis of gender differences and tested by multiple linear regression analysis to map associations between the regulation strategies and mental health indicators: depression, psychosomatic symptoms, satisfaction with life. Girls reported higher levels of depression and psychosomatic symptoms and lower satisfaction with life than boys. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls in using rumination, positive refocusing, selfblame, others-blame and putting into perspective regulation strategy. In addition the nonadaptive strategies were proved to be related to higher depression and psychosomatic symptom scores, whereas adaptive strategies to higher level of satisfaction with life in both boys and girls. The study draws attention to the importance of cognitive emotion regulation strategies from the point of view of mental health and to explore the background factors of cognitive processes of emotional self-regulation.

  16. Effects of Relaxation Exercises and Music Therapy on the Psychological Symptoms and Depression Levels of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Funda; Ünal, Süheyla; Yılmaz, Emine

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of relaxation exercises and music therapy on the psychological symptoms and depression levels of patients with chronic schizophrenia. This semi-experimental study was conducted using pre- and post-tests with a control group. The study population consists of patients with schizophrenia who regularly attended community mental health centers in the Malatya and Elazığ provinces of Turkey between May 2015 and September 2015. The study's sample consists of 70 patients with schizophrenia (n=35 in the control group; n=35 in the experimental group) who were selected randomly based on power analysis. The "Patient Information Form," the "Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)" and the "Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)" were used for data collection. Patients in the experimental group participated in relaxation exercises and music therapy 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group of 35 persons was divided into three groups of approximately 10-12 individuals in order to enable all participants to attend the program. No intervention was applied to the patients in the control group. The data were evaluated using percentage distribution, arithmetic means, standard deviations, Chi-square and independent samples t-tests. The study found that patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in total mean scores on the BPRS and CDSS; the difference between the post-test scores of the experimental group and the post-test scores of the control group was statistically significant (ptherapy was proven to be effective in reducing schizophrenic patients' psychological symptoms and levels of depression. Relaxation exercises and music therapy can be used as a complementary therapy in the medical treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Assessment Tools to Examine Mental Health in Workplaces: Job Stress and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2018-06-07

    Despite the fact that the lifetime and yearly prevalence rates of mental illness continue rising, such diseases have only been acknowledged as involved in workplace health issue since the 2000s. Additionally, while the number of recognized cases of mental illnesses is rather low compared to their prevalence, they have a high likelihood of causing significant problems, including fatalities. Many workers are terrified of losing their jobs due to mental illness and therefore attempt to hide their mental health problems. For this reason, clinicians involved in occupational and environmental medicine should focus on interviews or screenings to identify such hidden mental health problems. More specifically, it would be helpful to evaluate job stress and depression in workplaces to ensure appropriate preventive actions and thereby reduce the prevalence of mental illness. Job stress not only causes mental illness and dissatisfaction with work, but also can increase the prevalence and morbidity of medical diseases, as well as other physical health problems. Depression is a major contributor to work loss and absence with effects surpassing almost all of the chronic medical disorder. These facts show why measure of job stress and depression should be highlighted in the occupational settings. This article introduces a variety of assessment tools to examine mental health, particularly stress and depression, in workplaces. These tools can be used by clinicians or professionals involved in the mental health, occupational safety, or health service fields for running diagnostics or screening tests.

  18. How Does Neighborhood Quality Moderate the Association Between Online Video Game Play and Depression? A Population-Level Analysis of Korean Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Sun Joo Grace

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of our study is to assess the relationship between playing online video games and mental wellbeing of adolescents based on a nationally representative sample. Data come from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS), a government-funded multiyear research project. Through a secondary analysis of W2 and W3 of data collected in 2011 and 2012, we examine the extent to which time spent playing online games is related to depression, as measured by a battery of items modeled after the abridged version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R). For proper temporal ordering, the outcome variable is drawn from the latter wave (W3), whereas all time-lagged covariates are taken from the earlier wave (W2). Multilevel regression models show that more game playing is associated with greater depression. Findings also indicate that, net of individual-level variables (e.g., gender, health, family background), living in a community with more divorced families adds to adolescent depression. Finally, a cross-level interaction is observed: the positive association between game playing and depression is more pronounced in an area characterized by a lower aggregate divorce rate.

  19. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): detecting anxiety disorder and depression in employees absent from work because of mental health problems

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; de Boer, A.G.E.M.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Blonk, R.W.B.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems.

  20. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2017-03-20

    Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: "positive emotion," "negative emotion," "anxiety," "anger," "sadness," "first person singular," "negation," "swear words," and "death." Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the emotion-related language usage of depression community members are improving either

  2. Health-Seeking Behaviors of Filipino Migrants in Australia: The Influence of Persisting Acculturative Stress and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneze, Della; Salamonson, Yenna; Poudel, Chandra; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationships among the constructs of acculturative stress, depression, English language use, health literacy, and social support and the influence of these factors on health-seeking behaviors of Filipino Australians. Using a self-administered questionnaire, 552 respondents were recruited from November 2010 to June 2011. Structural equation modelling was used to examine relationships. A direct and negative relationship between health-seeking behaviors and depression, and an indirect relationship with acculturative stress, was observed mediated through depression. Social support had an important moderating influence on these effects. Although there was an inverse relationship between age and English language usage and depression, age was positively related to health-seeking behavior. Despite their long duration of stay, Filipino Australian migrants continue to experience acculturative stress and depression leading to lower health-seeking behaviors. This study highlights the importance of screening for acculturative stress and depression in migrants and fostering social support.

  3. Correlation of binge eating disorder with level of depression and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Selime; Kayar, Yusuf; Önem Akçakaya, Rabia; Türkyılmaz Uyar, Ece; Kalkan, Kübra; Yazısız, Veli; Aydın, Çiğdem; Yücel, Başak

    2015-01-01

    It is reported that eating disorders and depression are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) in T2DM patients and examine the correlation of BED with level of depression and glycemic control. One hundred fifty-two T2DM patients aged between 18 and 75 years (81 females, 71 males) were evaluated via a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder, Clinical Version in terms of eating disorders. Disordered eating attitudes were determined using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and level of depression was determined using the Beck Depression Scale. Patients who have BED and patients who do not were compared in terms of age, gender, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, depression and EAT scores. Eight of the patients included in the study (5.26%) were diagnosed with BED. In patients diagnosed with BED, depression and EAT scores were significantly high (PEAT scores and depression scores (r = +0.196, Pdisordered eating attitudes. Psychiatric treatments should be organized for patients diagnosed with BED by taking into consideration comorbid depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Poor Sleep, Anxiety, Depression and Other Occupational Health Risks in Seafaring Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita AndruŁkienė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: seafaring is an occupation with specific work-related risks, causing increased morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, the research in the area of marine students ‘sleep quality and mental health is lacking in Lithuania, as well as other European countries. The aim was to overview scientific findings, related with occupational health risks in a seafaring population and asses the frequency of poor sleep and the relations among poor sleep, anxiety and depression in the sample of maritime students. Methods and contingent. The scientific literature review, based on PubMed sources analysis, related to occupational health risks in seafaring population, was performed. Questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 at The Lithuanian Maritime Academy, 393 (78.9 % of them males students participated. Sleep quality was evaluated by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Anxiety and depression were assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Sociodemographic questions were used. The Chi-square test r Fisher exact test was used to estimate association between categorical variables. P- Values less than 0.05 were interpreted as statistically significant. Results. Scientific literature review indicate that highly stressful and exhausting working conditions on ships can lead to depression, insomnia, various types of cancer, cardiovascular, communicable, blood-born and sexually transmitted diseases. Poor sleep was found in 45.0 % of the students. Mild depression was established in 6.9 %, moderate in 2.3 %, Severe in 0.8 % of the students. Mild anxiety was found in 19.1 %, moderate in 14.8 % and Severe in 7.9 % of the students. Depression (score ?8 was significantly more frequent among third (fourth year students (22.2 % with poor sleep, as compared to the students demonstrating good sleep (2.7 %. Marine engineering programme students whose sleep was poor more often had depression (22.0 %, as compared to the students whose sleep was good (5

  5. Living with Stigma: Depressed Elderly Persons’ Experiences of Physical Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lise Holm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of depressed elderly persons’ lived experiences of physical health problems. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 depressed elderly persons who suffer from physical health problems. A hermeneutic analysis was performed, yielding one main theme, living with stigma, and three themes: longing to be taken seriously, being uncertain about whether the pain is physical or mental, and a sense of living in a war zone. The second theme comprised two subthemes, feeling like a stranger and feeling dizzy, while the third had one subtheme: afraid of being helpless and dependent on others. Stigma deprives individuals of their dignity and reinforces destructive patterns of isolation and hopelessness. Nurses should provide information in a sensitive way and try to avoid diagnostic overshadowing. Effective training programmes and procedures need to be developed with more focus on how to handle depressive ill health and physical problems in older people.

  6. Self-esteem level and stability, admission functional status, and depressive symptoms in acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Chad D; Sepehri, Arash; Evans, Clea C; Jabeen, Linsa N

    2009-11-01

    Explore the relationship of self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, and admission functional status on discharge depressive symptoms in acute stroke rehabilitation. One hundred twenty stroke survivors serially completed a measure of state self-esteem during inpatient rehabilitation and completed a measure of depressive symptoms at discharge. Functional status was rated at admission using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Regressions explored main effects and interactions of self-esteem level and stability and admission FIM self-care, mobility, and cognitive functioning on discharge depressive symptoms. After controlling for potential moderating variables, self-esteem level interacted with FIM self-care and cognitive functioning to predict discharge depressive symptoms, such that survivors with lower self-rated self-esteem and poorer functional status indicated higher levels of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem stability interacted with FIM mobility functioning, such that self-esteem instability in the presence of lower mobility functioning at admission was related to higher depressive symptoms at discharge. These results suggest that self-esteem variables may moderate the relationship between functional status and depressive symptoms. Self-esteem level and stability may differentially moderate functional domains, although this conclusion requires further empirical support.

  7. Treatment credibility, expectancy, and preference: Prediction of treatment engagement and outcome in a randomized clinical trial of hatha yoga vs. health education as adjunct treatments for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Weinstock, Lauren M; Battle, Cynthia L; Abrantes, Ana M; Miller, Ivan W

    2018-06-02

    Hatha yoga may be helpful for alleviating depression symptoms. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether treatment program preference, credibility, or expectancy predict engagement in depression interventions (yoga or a control class) or depression symptom severity over time. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of hatha yoga vs. a health education control group for treatment of depression. Depressed participants (n = 122) attended up to 20 classes over a period of 10 weeks, and then completed additional assessments after 3 and 6 months. We assessed treatment preference prior to randomization, and treatment credibility and expectancy after participants attended their first class. Treatment "concordance" indicated that treatment preference matched assigned treatment. Treatment credibility, expectancy, and concordance were not associated with treatment engagement. Treatment expectancy moderated the association between treatment group and depression. Depression severity over time differed by expectancy level for the yoga group but not for the health education group. Controlling for baseline depression, participants in the yoga group with an average or high expectancy for improvement showed lower depression symptoms across the acute intervention and follow-up period than those with a low expectancy for improvement. There was a trend for a similar pattern for credibility. Concordance was not associated with treatment outcome. This is a secondary, post-hoc analysis and should be considered hypothesis-generating. Results suggest that expectancy improves the likelihood of success only for a intervention thought to actively target depression (yoga) and not a control intervention. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Depression in Hemodialysis Patients

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    Badema Čengić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is the most frequent psychological complication of haemodialysis (HD patients (pts and has been associated with impaired Quality of Life (QoL. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of depression in HD pts in relation to sociodemographic factors and the relationship between depression and QoL.200 pts from Clinic for haemodialysis in Sarajevo, B&H were participating in the study. Mean age was S7,26±13,78 years and mean HD duration was 64’26±58,18 months. From the test material we applied BDI and SF-36.51% of our pts have shown depression (BDI>11 in various degrees (30%-mild depression, 8,5%-moderate depression and 12,5%-severe depression. As we could expect, the most emphasized symptoms of depression were somatic symptoms. 55,5% of pts have shown QoL lower then average. Sociodemographic data such as gender, marital status and HD duration did not influence significantly on pt’s QoL and occurrence of depression (p>0,05. As the age of the pts increased, level of depression increased too and QoL significantly decreased (p<0,05. Employed pts have shown significantly better QoL and lower level of depression in relation to unemployed pts (p<0,05. As the educational level of pts increased, QoL increased too and level of depression significantly decreased (p<0,05. Pts in 1st HD shift were significantly more depressed and have significantly worse mental health in compare to pts in 3rd HD shift (p<0,05. Our results showed a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among the study group that was linked to trend of poor QoL.

  9. Depressive symptoms among older adults with long-term spinal cord injury: Associations with secondary health conditions, sense of coherence, coping strategies and physical activity

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    Sophie Jörgensen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the presence of depressive symptoms among older adults with long-term spinal cord injury and investigate the association with sociodemographic and injury characteristics; and to determine how potentially modifiable factors, i.e. secondary health conditions, sense of coherence, coping strategies and leisure-time physical activity, are associated with depressive symptoms. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 122 individuals (70% men, injury levels C1–L5, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A–D, mean age 63 years, mean time since injury 24 years. Methods: Data from the Swedish Aging with Spinal Cord Injury Study, collected using the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, the 13-item Sense of Coherence Scale, the Spinal Cord Lesion-related Coping Strategies Questionnaire and the Physical Activity Recall Assessment for people with Spinal Cord Injury. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Results: A total of 29% reported clinically relevant depressive symptoms and 5% reported probable depression. Sense of coherence, the coping strategy Acceptance, neuropathic pain and leisure-time physical activity explained 53% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Older adults with long-term spinal cord injury report a low presence of probable depression. Mental health may be supported through rehabilitation that strengthens the ability to understand and confront life stressors, promotes acceptance of the injury, provides pain management and encourages participation in leisure-time physical activity.

  10. Comparing knowledge and opinions on depression among nurses in the health services.

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    Furegato, Antonia Regina F; Ferreira da Silva Candido, Mariluci C; Lobo da Costa, Moacyr

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to compare nurses' knowledge and opinion about depression. Sample consisted of 101 nurses in the basic health care network in two cities in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). Subjects answered two questionnaires presented by WHO about knowledge and viewpoints regarding depression. Projects were approved by the Ethics Committee. The profile reveals that graduation time of Group A (Ribeirão Preto), with 28 subjects, is longer than Group B (São José do Rio Preto), with 73 subjects, and work mobility is higher for Group A. There were significative differences between the two groups (T= 0.012 and T=0.666) in these questions. Group B showed greater interest in mental health. No significant differences occurred between the two groups, neither in relation to the knowledge nor in their opinion about depression (Med 7.0 and 7.3). Nevertheless, it was observed lack of specific knowledge, need of updating, lack of experience and unawareness of the importance of their therapeutic role for depressed patients. There are differences in the profile of the two groups; however, there are no significant differences in their knowledge and opinion about depression. In both groups deficit of knowledge and unawareness of nurses about importance of their therapeutic role in depression is observed.

  11. Gender and genotype modulation of the association between lipid levels and depressive symptomatology in community-dwelling elderly (the ESPRIT study).

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    Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Carrière, Isabelle; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Malafosse, Alain; Stewart, Robert; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Dupuy, Anne-Marie

    2010-07-15

    Lipids appear to mediate depressive vulnerability in the elderly; however, sex differences and genetic vulnerability have not been taken into account in previous prospective studies. Depression was assessed in a population of 1040 women and 752 men aged 65 years and older at baseline and after 7-year follow-up. Clinical level of depression (DEP) was defined as having either a score of 16 or higher on the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale or a diagnosis of current major depression on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Lipid levels, apolipoprotein E, and serotonin transporter linked promoter region (5-serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region) genotypes were evaluated at baseline. Multivariate analyses adjusted by sociodemographic and behavioral variables, measures of physical health including ischemic pathologies, and genetic vulnerability indicated gender-specific associations between dyslipidemia and DEP, independent of the use of lipid-lowering agents or apolipoprotein E status. Men with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had twice the risk of prevalent and incident DEP, whereas in women low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found to be significantly associated with increased prevalent DEP (odds ratio = 1.5) only. A significant interaction was observed between low low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and 5-serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region genotype, men with s/s or s/l genotype being at increased risk of DEP (odds ratio = 6.0 and 2.7, respectively). No significant gene-environment interaction was observed for women. DEP is associated with higher atherogenic risk in women (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), whereas the reverse is observed in men (low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Late-life depression may have a complex gender-specific etiology involving genetic vulnerability in men. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults

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    Hyo Jeong Song

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We aimed primarily to investigate the level of health-related quality of life (HRQoL, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, and depression in older adults and secondly to identify the impact of LUTS and depression on HRQoL. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to November 2010. Participants were recruited from five community senior centers serving community dwelling older adults in Jeju city. Data analysis was based on 171 respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to guide interviews; the data were collected including demographic characteristics, body mass index, adherence to regular exercise, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis, depression, urinary incontinence, LUTS (measured via the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS], and HRQoL as assessed by use of the EQ-5D Index. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to test predictors of HRQoL. Results Eighteen percent (18.6% of the respondents reported depressive symptoms. The mean LUTS score was 8.9 (IPSS range, 0 to 35. The severity of LUTS, was reported to be mild (score, 0 to 7 by 53% of the respondents, moderate (score, 8 to 19 by 34.5%, and severe (score, 20 to 35 by 12.5%. HRQoL was significantly predicted by depression (Partial R2=0.193, P<0.01 and LUTS (Partial R2=0.048, P=0.0047, and 24% of the variance in HRQoL was explained. Conclusions LUTS and depression were the principal predictors of HRQoL in older adults.

  13. Social isolation after stroke leads to depressive-like behavior and decreased BDNF levels in mice.

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    O'Keefe, Lena M; Doran, Sarah J; Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Laetitia; Conti, Lisa H; Venna, Venugopal R; McCullough, Louise D

    2014-03-01

    Social isolation prior to stroke leads to poorer outcomes after an ischemic injury in both animal and human studies. However, the impact of social isolation following stroke, which may be more clinically relevant as a target for therapeutic intervention, has yet to be examined. In this study, we investigated both the sub-acute (2 weeks) and chronic (7 weeks) effects of social isolation on post-stroke functional and histological outcome. Worsened histological damage from ischemic injury and an increase in depressive-like behavior was observed in isolated mice as compared to pair-housed mice. Mice isolated immediately after stroke showed a decrease in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These changes, both histological and behavioral, suggest an overall negative effect of social isolation on stroke outcome, potentially contributing to post-stroke depression and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who have perceived isolation post-stroke to hopefully prevent this exacerbation of histological damage and subsequent depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Serious diabetes-specific emotional problems in patients with type 2 diabetes who have different levels of comorbid depression: a Polish study from the European Depression in Diabetes (EDID) Research Consortium.

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    Kokoszka, A; Pouwer, F; Jodko, A; Radzio, R; Mućko, P; Bieńkowska, J; Kuligowska, E; Smoczyńska, O; Skłodowska, Z

    2009-10-01

    Depression is a common psychiatric problem in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2). A common view is that the burden of having DM2 contributes to the development of depression in DM2. Aim of the present study was to compare the levels of diabetes-specific emotional problems of DM2 patients with diagnosed depression with those with a subclinical form of depression and those without depression. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 101 DM2 patients (51 men and 50 women, mean age = 63,17; SD = 10,74) who completed a standardized, structured psychiatric diagnostic interview (MINI), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale as well as the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale (a 20-item measure, with an overall scale measuring diabetes-related emotional distress and four subscales [negative emotions, treatment-related problems, food-related problems, lack of social support]). A depression diagnosis was made in 35% (n = 35) of the participants, 24% (n = 24) had a subclinical form of depression, 42% (n = 42) were not diagnosed with any kind of depressive disorder. Diabetes-specific emotional problems were most common in DM2 patients with a depressive disorder (significantly highest PAID score: 39) compared to patients with subclinical depression or no depression. In the group of non-depressed patients, only 14% agreed to have four or more (somewhat) serious diabetes-specific problems. In those with subclinical depression, this percentage was 42% and in those with a depressive disorder 49% (P DM2 patients with comorbid clinical depression and to a lesser extent in patients with subclinical depression, compared to non-depressed DM2 patients. Male diabetes patients with a depressive disorder are particularly vulnerable to develop high levels of diabetes-specific emotional distress. Major differences between the three groups mainly concern the diabetes-specific problems connected with the illness.

  15. Comprehensive eight-month intervention reduces weight and improves depression and anxiety levels in severe and morbid obesity

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    Alfonso Cofre-Lizama

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The comprehensive eight-month intervention had significant benefits for participants in weight loss and improved levels of anxiety and depression. For this reason, the intervention performed may be recommended for the treatment of this condition.

  16. Major depression is associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid levels in patients with recent acute coronary syndromes.

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    Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Julien, Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are intrinsic cell membrane components and closely involved in neurotransmission and receptor function. Lower omega-3 levels are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), increases in cardiac events in CAD patients, and depression. We sought to examine relationships between depression and serum levels of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in patients recovering from acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We carried out a case-control study of serum PUFA levels and current major depression in 54 age- and sex-matched pairs approximately 2 months following ACS. Depressed patients had significantly lower concentrations of total omega-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and higher ratios of arachidonic acid (AA) to DHA, AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and n-3 to n-6 than controls. There were no baseline differences in any potential risk or protective factors for depression. Results are consistent with previous reports in depressed patients without CAD, and with literature concerning omega-3 levels and risk of CAD events. Dietary, genetic, and hormonal factors may all play a role in both depression and CAD. Both prospective studies and randomized trials are needed to help clarify the interrelationships.

  17. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is effective as relapse prevention for patients with recurrent depression in Scandinavian primary health care.

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    Lilja, Josefine L; Zelleroth, Clara; Axberg, Ulf; Norlander, Torsten

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in primary care for patients with recurrent depression (major depressive disorder: MDD). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), MDD is now the leading cause of disease burden in middle- and high-income countries. Patients (N = 45) with three or more previous depressive episodes were recruited to participate in MBCT as a preventative intervention. Using a benchmarking approach, outcome data was compared with data from a recent efficacy study. The methodology is a rigorous approach to assessing effectiveness when evidence-based UK protocols are transferred into the existing Scandinavian service delivery. Additionally, a person-centred methodological approach was used to assess clinical significance on the Reliable Change Index (RCI). The analysis revealed comparable or larger effects from pre-test to post-test in reduced psychiatric symptoms, increased quality of life and level of mindfulness, and the effects were maintained over 14 months. Analysis of the relapse rate in the current study (16%) compared to the TAU in the efficacy study (68%) yielded an h value of 0.78, a moderate effect size. Only 13% dropped out of the treatment. According to the RCI findings, 65% to 67% of participants in the clinical group improved, no individual worsened, and women showed a significantly greater improvement of depression and anxiety than men. Therapeutic alliance and motivation had no impact on the outcome. The overall result suggests that MBCT can be implemented successfully in Scandinavian primary health care as a preventive intervention for patients with recurrent depression. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

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    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W

    2006-12-01

    This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain. The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder. This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive

  19. Neurochemical metabolites in prefrontal cortex in patients with mild/moderate levels in first-episode depression

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    Sozeri-Varma G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gülfizar Sözeri-Varma,1 Nalan Kalkan-Oğuzhanoglu,1 Muharrem Efe,1 Yilmaz Kiroglu,2 Taçlan Duman11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, TurkeyBackground: Previous studies have determined the neurochemical metabolite abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD. The results of studies are inconsistent. Severity of depression may relate to neurochemical metabolic changes. The aim of this study is to investigate neurochemical metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of patients with mild/moderate MDD.Methods: Twenty-one patients with mild MDD, 18 patients with moderate MDD, and 16 matched control subjects participated in the study. Patients had had their first episode. They had not taken treatment. The severity of depression was assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline-containing compounds (Cho, and creatine-containing compounds (Cr were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS at 1.5 T, with an 8-cm3 single voxel placed in the right PFC.Results: The moderate MDD patients had lower NAA/Cr levels than the control group. No differences were found in neurochemical metabolite levels between the mild MDD and control groups. No correlation was found between the patients’ neurochemical metabolite levels and HAM-D scores.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that NAA/Cr levels are low in moderate-level MDD in the PFC. Neurochemical metabolite levels did not change in mild depressive disorder. Our results suggest that the severity of depression may affect neuronal function and viability. Studies are needed to confirm this finding, including studies on severely depressive patients.Keywords: major depressive disorder, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline

  20. Changes in Depression, Health Anxiety, and Pain Catastrophizing Between Enrollment and 1 Month After a Radius Fracture.

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    Golkari, Sina; Teunis, Teun; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    To test the difference in symptoms of (1) depression, (2) health anxiety, and (3) catastrophic thinking between 1 and 6 weeks after injury to the radius. In total, 69 adult patients with a minimally displaced radial head or distal radius fracture were prospectively enrolled. After diagnosis, we recorded demographic variables, 11-point ordinal numerical pain score, and agreement with "no pain, no gain"; Disabilities of the Arms, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; the Whiteley Index; and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. In total, 55 patients (80%) returned after 1 month to reevaluate pain, Disabilities of the Arms, Shoulder, and Hand, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, Whiteley Index, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scores decreased by an average of 5 ± 9 points (p psychologic measures are used as a screening tool to predict outcome after treatment, one should account for a patient's disease phase. Prognostic level I. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Depression in Parkinson’s disease: Health risks, etiology, and treatment options

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    Pasquale G Frisina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasquale G Frisina1,2, Joan C Borod3,4, Nancy S Foldi3,5, Harriet R Tenenbaum61Leir Parkinson’s Disease Program, The Jewish Home and Hospital Lifecare System, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychology, Queens College and The Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY, Flushing, NY, USA; 4Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 5Department of Medicine, Winthrop-University Hospital, State University of New York, Stony Brook School of Medicine; 6Department of Psychology, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, UKAbstract: Depression is found in about 30%–40% of all patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, but only a small percentage (about 20% receive treatment. As a consequence, many PD patients suffer with reduced health-related quality of life. To address quality of life in depressed PD patients, we reviewed the literature on the health correlates of depression in PD (eg, cognitive function, etiology of depression in PD, and treatment options (ie, antidepressants, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy. The current review is unique in its focus on psychosocial aspects, as well as neuropathological factors, of depression in PD. Overall, we conclude that neurochemical (eg, serotonin and psychosocial factors (eg, coping style, self-esteem, and social support contribute to the affective disturbances found in this neuropsychiatric population. Therefore, we recommend that a multidisciplinary (eg, pharmacotherapeutic, psychoeducational, and/or psychotherapeutic approach to treatment be taken with depressed PD patients.Keywords: depression, Parkinson’s disease, health outcomes, treatment options

  2. ErbB3 mRNA leukocyte levels as a biomarker for major depressive disorder

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    Milanesi Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the efficiency of the differential diagnosis process and indicate targets for new antidepressant drugs. Two recent candidate genes, ErbB3 and Fgfr1, are growth factors whose mRNA levels have been found to be altered in the leukocytes of patients that are affected by bipolar disorder in a depressive state. On this basis, the aim of the study was to determine if ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA levels could be a biomarkers of MDD. Methods We measured by Real Time PCR ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes of MDD patients compared with controls. Successively, to assess whether ErbB3 mRNA levels were influenced by previous antidepressant treatment we stratified our patients sample in two cohorts, comparing drug-naive versus drug-free patients. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of the transcript in MDD patients after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment, and in prefrontal cortex of rats stressed and treated with an antidepressant drug of the same class. Results These results showed that ErbB3 but not Fgfr1 mRNA levels were reduced in leukocytes of MDD patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, ErbB3 levels were not affected by antidepressant treatment in either human or animal models Conclusions Our data suggest that ErbB3 might be considered as a biomarker for MDD and that its deficit may underlie the pathopsysiology of the disease and is not a consequence of treatment. Moreover the study supports the usefulness of leukocytes as a peripheral system for identifying biomarkers in psychiatric diseases.

  3. The mental health characteristics of pregnant women with depressive symptoms identified by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

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    Lydsdottir, Linda B; Howard, Louise M; Olafsdottir, Halldora; Thome, Marga; Tyrfingsson, Petur; Sigurdsson, Jon F

    2014-04-01

    Few studies are available on the effectiveness of screening tools such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in pregnancy or the extent to which such tools may identify women with mental disorders other than depression. We therefore aimed to investigate the mental health characteristics of pregnant women who screen positive on the EPDS. Consecutive women receiving antenatal care in primary care clinics (from November 2006 to July 2011) were invited to complete the EPDS in week 16 of pregnancy. All women who scored above 11 (screen positive) on the EPDS and randomly selected women who scored below 12 (screen negative) were invited to participate in a psychiatric diagnostic interview. 2,411 women completed the EPDS. Two hundred thirty-three women (9.7%) were screened positive in week 16, of whom 153 (66%) agreed to a psychiatric diagnostic interview. Forty-eight women (31.4%) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, 20 (13.1%) with bipolar disorder, 93 (60.8%) with anxiety disorders (including 27 [17.6%] with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]), 8 (5.2%) with dysthymia, 18 (11.8%) with somatoform disorder, 3 (2%) with an eating disorder, and 7 (4.6%) with current substance abuse. Women who screened positive were significantly more likely to have psychosocial risk factors, including being unemployed (χ(2)(1) = 23.37, P ≤.001), lower educational status (χ(2)(1)= 31.68, P ≤ .001), and a history of partner violence (χ(2)(1) = 10.30, P ≤ 001), compared with the women who screened negative. Use of the EPDS early in the second trimester of pregnancy identifies a substantial number of women with potentially serious mental disorders other than depression, including bipolar disorder, OCD, and eating disorders. A comprehensive clinical assessment is therefore necessary following use of the EPDS during pregnancy to ensure that women who screen positive receive appropriate mental health management. © Copyright 2014

  4. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming

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    Muriel Anna C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1 estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among Haitian immigrant students; and 2 examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood. Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services

  5. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder.

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    Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Niskanen, Leo; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Viinamäki, Heimo; Hintikka, Jukka; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Harvima, Ilkka T; Lehto, Soili M

    2012-01-09

    Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS) are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th)-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in MDD. We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN)-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58). In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use). The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22) or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23). Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS), could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  6. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a specialist depression service versus usual specialist mental health care to manage persistent depression: a randomised controlled trial.

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    Morriss, Richard; Garland, Anne; Nixon, Neil; Guo, Boliang; James, Marilyn; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; Moore, Richard; Ramana, Rajini; Sampson, Christopher; Sweeney, Timothy; Dalgleish, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Persistent moderate or severe unipolar depression is common and expensive to treat. Clinical guidelines recommend combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Such treatments can take up to 1 year to show an effect, but no trials of suitable duration have been done. We investigated the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of outpatient-based, specialist depression services (SDS) versus treatment as usual (TAU) on depression symptoms and function. We did a multicentre, single-blind, patient-level, parallel, randomised controlled trial (RCT), as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) study, in three mental health outpatient settings in England. Eligible participants were in secondary care, were older than 18 years, had unipolar depression (with a current major depressive episode, a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS17] score of ≥16, and a Global Assessment of Function [GAF] score of ≤60), and had not responded to 6 months or more of treatment for depression. Randomisation was stratified by site with allocation conveyed to a trial administrator, with research assessors masked to outcome. Patients were randomised (1:1) using a computer-generated pseudo-random code with random permuted blocks of varying sizes of two, four, or six to either SDS (collaborative care approach between psychiatrists and cognitive behavioural therapists for 12 months, followed by graduated transfer of care up to 15 months) or to the TAU group. Intention-to-treat primary outcome measures were changes in HDRS17 and GAF scores between baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months' follow-up. We will separately publish follow-up outcomes for months 24 and 36. Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness were examined from health and social care persp ectives at 18 months, as recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01047124) and the

  7. Neurocognitive function, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and IL-6 levels in cancer patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, C F; Becker, B; Flath, B; Nogai, H; Vuong, L; Schmid, P; Lüftner, D

    2015-10-15

    Increased IL-6 and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. The objective was to assess the influence of BDNF and IL-6 on cognitive function and depression in patients with cancer. Serum BDNF and plasma IL-6 were measured in patients with metastatic cancer. Diagnosis of depression was established according to DSM-IV criteria. Cognitive function was assessed by the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT). A total of 59 patients were recruited in this study. Only IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in patients with clinical depression (35.7 vs. 6.9 pg/ml; pBDNF levels (p=0.16). Patients with clinical depression showed significant impairment of short-term memory (STM) (24.4 vs. 37.5; p=0.01), but not of long-term memory (LTM) (3.9 vs. 2.8; p=0.3). STM was dependent on the level of BDNF and younger age (b=0.60; p=0.001; b= -0.63; p=0.003, respectively). IL-6 was not only strongly associated with depression, but was an independent predictor of BDNF level as well (b= -0.50; p=0.01). LTM was associated only with a good KPS (b=0.47; p=0.037). Hemoglobin levels and the prior number of chemotherapy lines were not predictive of memory performance. Low BDNF is associated with cognitive impairment, STM, in patients with cancer, however no influence on depression could be found. IL-6 is strongly associated with depression and an independent predictor of BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Community-based intervention for depression management at the primary care level in Ha Nam Province, Vietnam: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Maria; Kiel, Simone; Allebeck, Peter; Hoan, Le Thi

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention including psychoeducation and yoga for depression management at the primary healthcare level in one district in the Hà Nam province, Vietnam. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used for depression screening and follow-up. Screened patients were further diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Diagnostic Interview, by a trained general doctor. A linear regression model, adjusted for age, gender and baseline PHQ-9 score was used to assess whether the intervention leads to decreased depression severity compared to standard care in the control communes. Both groups had similar PHQ-9 scores at baseline. The intervention group had on average significantly lower PHQ-9 scores after the intervention than the control group. Almost half of the patients in the intervention group recovered from depression, whereas nobody did in the control group. The results indicate that the intervention can be more effective than standard care in treating depression. The mean change of the PHQ-9 score after the intervention is deemed to be of clinical relevance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  10. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  11. Pilates and aerobic training improve levels of depression, anxiety and quality of life in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Rayes, Angeles Bonal Rosell; Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa de; Sarro, Karine Jacon; Andrade, Marilia Santos

    2017-12-01

    To compare the effects of Pilates and walking on quality of life, depression, and anxiety levels. Sixty-three overweight/obese participants were randomly divided into: control (n = 20), walking (n = 21), and Pilates (n = 22) groups. Pilates and walking groups attended eight weeks of 60-minute exercise sessions three times per week. Quality of life, depression, and state- and trait-anxiety levels were evaluated before and after eight weeks of training. Scores of quality of life, depression, and trait-anxiety improved in the Pilates and walking groups. State-anxiety levels improved only in the walking group. Pilates and walking positively impact quality of life, depression and anxiety. The Pilates method could be used as an alternative to improve mood disorders in overweight/obese individuals.

  12. Personal stigma and use of mental health services among people with depression in a general population in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulari Jyrki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A minority of people suffering from depression seek professional help for themselves. Stigmatizing attitudes are assumed to be one of the major barriers to help seeking but there is only limited evidence of this in large general population data sets. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between mental health attitude statements and depression and their links to actual use of mental health services among those with depression. Methods We used a large cross-sectional data set from a Finnish population survey (N = 5160. Attitudes were measured by scales which measured the belief that people with depression are responsible for their illness and their recovery and attitudes towards antidepressants. Desire for social distance was measured by a scale and depression with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF instrument. Use of mental health services was measured by self-report. Results On the social discrimination scale, people with depression showed more social tolerance towards people with mental problems. They also carried more positive views about antidepressants. Among those with depression, users of mental health services, as compared to non-users, carried less desire for social distance to people with mental health problems and more positive views about the effects of antidepressants. More severe depression predicted more active use of services. Conclusions Although stronger discriminative intentions can reduce the use of mental health services, this does not necessarily prevent professional service use if depression is serious and views about antidepressant medication are realistic.

  13. Grief, Depressive Symptoms, and Physical Health among Recently Bereaved Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Rebecca L.; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood is among the most distressing of all life events, resulting in both mental and physical health declines. This paper explores the dynamic relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among recently bereaved spouses. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 328 bereaved persons who participated in the "Living…

  14. Somatic versus cognitive symptoms of depression as predictors of all-cause mortality and health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pelle, Aline J; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a predictor of adverse health outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF), but it is not known whether specific symptoms drive this relationship. We examined the impact of somatic/affective, cognitive/affective, and total depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality and health status in CHF....

  15. The distressed (type D) personality is independently associated with impaired health status and increased depressive symptoms in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, Jos W

    2005-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a serious condition that is associated with impaired health status and a high prevalence of depressive symptoms. To date, little is known about the determinants of health status and depressive symptoms in CHF. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether T...

  16. Type D personality and depressive symptoms are independent predictors of impaired health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, Jos W

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms.......To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms....

  17. Depression among patients attending antiretroviral treatment program in public health facilities in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareke, Minale; Addisu, Fikir; Abate, Andargie

    2018-05-01

    The magnitude of depression is not well investigated among people living with HIV/AIDS. Thus, this research aimed to assess the magnitude of depression and its influencing factors among people living with HIV/AIDS attending government institutions in Bahir Dar City, North West, Ethiopia. institution based-cross-sectional study was done among randomly selected 415 people living with HIV/AIDS attending antiretroviral therapy program in Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. Socio-demographic data and medical histories for all respondents were collected using interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. We assessed the odds of association of patient characteristics with depression was assessed using multiple logistic regression. The relative effect estimates of the respective factors were presented with odds ratio accompanied by their 95% uncertainty intervals. From 407 people living with HIV/AIDS interviewed, 198(48.6%) of them had depression. Social support, HIV clinical staging, total daily pill burden, treatment regimen and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy were significantly associated with depression. The magnitude of depression among people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be high. Early mental health screening should be done for people living with HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Stine Aistrup

    2017-01-01

    function, muscle pain, mobility, and balance) among patients taking antidepressants, and study the effect of vitamin D3 treatment over placebo. The thesis is based on a clinical cross-sectional study and a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of women treated with antidepressants and healthy...... controls. Certain balance measures were poorer among the patients compared to the controls and was associated with the dose of the antidepressant. Patients randomised to vitamin D3 increased more in vitamin D and decreased more in PTH levels compared to vitamin D3 treated controls. Moreover, vitamin D3......Use of antidepressants is associated with an increased risk of fractures, and may be a result of both negative effects on the skeleton as well as increased risk of falling; however, the specific mechanisms are not yet known. Vitamin D play important roles for bone and muscle, and has previously...

  19. Effects of Music Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Community Dwelling Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016, decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03, appetite (p = 0.006, and fatigue (p = 0.011. The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042. The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels.

  20. Effects of Music Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Community Dwelling Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu Kuan; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Tsuei, Feng-Shiou; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Yang, Kuender D.

    2015-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016), decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03), appetite (p = 0.006), and fatigue (p = 0.011). The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042). The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels. PMID:26075212

  1. Self- Perceived Stress in Relation to Anxiety, Depression and Health-related Quality of Life among Health Professions Students: A Cross-sectional Study from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racic, Maja; Todorovic, Radica; Ivkovic, Nedeljka; Masic, Srdjan; Joksimovic, Bojan; Kulic, Milan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine self-perceived stress of health professions students at the Faculty of Medicine Foča, and to explore its association with anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life. The cross-sectional study enrolled 451 students at the Faculty of Medicine (medicine, dentistry, nursing and speech therapy). Survey instruments were distributed at the conclusion of the spring semester during the last required lecture for each year and study programme class. Perceived stress was assessed using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale. The students were evaluated for symptoms of depression and anxiety, using Zung's self-assessment inventory for depression and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). European Quality of Life-5 dimensions were used for describing and evaluating health. Multivariate analyses were carried out using logistic regression to examine the relationship between the outcome variable and selected determinant factors. A high degree of stress was reported by 1.6% of students, while the majority of students had either moderate (70.6%) or low degree (27.5%) of stress. The significant independent factors associated with perceived stress were anxiety score (OR, 0.339; CI 95%, 0.276-0.403) and EQ-5D score (OR, 0.044; CI 95%, 0.033-0.085). A high degree of perceived stress (OR, 0.624; CI 95%, 0.507-0.704), the presence of depression (OR, 0.800; CI 95%, 0.513-1.087), and low quality of life were associated with anxiety (OR, 0.073; CI 95%, 0.018-0.128). Higher levels of perceived stress predispose health professions students for anxiety and lower quality of life. The study programme was not a significant determinant of perceived stress sore.

  2. Depression in working adults: comparing the costs and health outcomes of working when ill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Cocker

    Full Text Available Working through a depressive illness can improve mental health but also carries risks and costs from reduced concentration, fatigue, and poor on-the-job performance. However, evidence-based recommendations for managing work attendance decisions, which benefit individuals and employers, are lacking. Therefore, this study has compared the costs and health outcomes of short-term absenteeism versus working while ill ("presenteeism" amongst employed Australians reporting lifetime major depression.Cohort simulation using state-transition Markov models simulated movement of a hypothetical cohort of workers, reporting lifetime major depression, between health states over one- and five-years according to probabilities derived from a quality epidemiological data source and existing clinical literature. Model outcomes were health service and employment-related costs, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs, captured for absenteeism relative to presenteeism, and stratified by occupation (blue versus white-collar.Per employee with depression, absenteeism produced higher mean costs than presenteeism over one- and five-years ($42,573/5-years for absenteeism, $37,791/5-years for presenteeism. However, overlapping confidence intervals rendered differences non-significant. Employment-related costs (lost productive time, job turnover, and antidepressant medication and service use costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were significantly higher for white-collar workers. Health outcomes differed for absenteeism versus presenteeism amongst white-collar workers only.Costs and health outcomes for absenteeism and presenteeism were not significantly different; service use costs excepted. Significant variation by occupation type was identified. These findings provide the first occupation-specific cost evidence which can be used by clinicians, employees, and employers to review their management of depression-related work attendance, and may suggest encouraging employees to

  3. Depression in working adults: comparing the costs and health outcomes of working when ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Fiona; Nicholson, Jan M; Graves, Nicholas; Oldenburg, Brian; Palmer, Andrew J; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Sanderson, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Working through a depressive illness can improve mental health but also carries risks and costs from reduced concentration, fatigue, and poor on-the-job performance. However, evidence-based recommendations for managing work attendance decisions, which benefit individuals and employers, are lacking. Therefore, this study has compared the costs and health outcomes of short-term absenteeism versus working while ill ("presenteeism") amongst employed Australians reporting lifetime major depression. Cohort simulation using state-transition Markov models simulated movement of a hypothetical cohort of workers, reporting lifetime major depression, between health states over one- and five-years according to probabilities derived from a quality epidemiological data source and existing clinical literature. Model outcomes were health service and employment-related costs, and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), captured for absenteeism relative to presenteeism, and stratified by occupation (blue versus white-collar). Per employee with depression, absenteeism produced higher mean costs than presenteeism over one- and five-years ($42,573/5-years for absenteeism, $37,791/5-years for presenteeism). However, overlapping confidence intervals rendered differences non-significant. Employment-related costs (lost productive time, job turnover), and antidepressant medication and service use costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were significantly higher for white-collar workers. Health outcomes differed for absenteeism versus presenteeism amongst white-collar workers only. Costs and health outcomes for absenteeism and presenteeism were not significantly different; service use costs excepted. Significant variation by occupation type was identified. These findings provide the first occupation-specific cost evidence which can be used by clinicians, employees, and employers to review their management of depression-related work attendance, and may suggest encouraging employees to continue

  4. The Dark Side of Top Level Sport: An Autobiographic Study of Depressive Experiences in Elite Sport Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Hannah J H; Howells, Karen L; Fletcher, David

    2016-01-01

    The general and sport psychology research converge to point to a complex relationship between depressive experiences and human performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the depressive experiences of top level athletes and the relationship of such experiences with sport performance. Twelve autobiographies of elite athletes representing eight sports were analyzed. The autobiographical analysis was informed by narrative tradition, using three types of narrative analysis: categorical content, categorical form, and holistic content. The analysis revealed a temporal aspect to the depressive experiences that the athletes reported. Initially, sport represented a form of escape from the depressive symptoms which had been exacerbated by both external stressors (e.g., experiencing bereavement) and internal stressors (e.g., low self-esteem). However, in time, the athletes typically reached a stage when the demands of their sport shifted from being facilitative to being debilitative in nature with an intensification of their depressive symptoms. This was accompanied by deliberations about continuing their engagement in sport and an acceptance that they could no longer escape from their symptoms, with or without sport. The findings extend the extant literature by suggesting a reciprocal relationship between depressive experiences and sport performance, and they support the general psychology literature relating to the negative impact of depression on performance. The applied implications of these findings are discussed emphasizing the importance of early identification of depressive symptoms and the adoption of a proactive approach in the prevention and management of symptoms.

  5. A Mobile Health Application to Predict Postpartum Depression Based on Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Serrano, Santiago; Tortajada, Salvador; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a disorder that often goes undiagnosed. The development of a screening program requires considerable and careful effort, where evidence-based decisions have to be taken in order to obtain an effective test with a high level of sensitivity and an acceptable specificity that is quick to perform, easy to interpret, culturally sensitive, and cost-effective. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to develop classification models for detecting the risk of PPD during the first week after childbirth, thus enabling early intervention; and second, to develop a mobile health (m-health) application (app) for the Android(®) (Google, Mountain View, CA) platform based on the model with best performance for both mothers who have just given birth and clinicians who want to monitor their patient's test. A set of predictive models for estimating the risk of PPD was trained using machine learning techniques and data about postpartum women collected from seven Spanish hospitals. An internal evaluation was carried out using a hold-out strategy. An easy flowchart and architecture for designing the graphical user interface of the m-health app was followed. Naive Bayes showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity as a predictive model for PPD during the first week after delivery. It was integrated into the clinical decision support system for Android mobile apps. This approach can enable the early prediction and detection of PPD because it fulfills the conditions of an effective screening test with a high level of sensitivity and specificity that is quick to perform, easy to interpret, culturally sensitive, and cost-effective.

  6. Usefulness of EQ-5D in Assessing Health Status in Primary Care Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowicki Marie-Laure

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Major depressive disorder (MDD is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with impaired patient functioning and reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQL. The present study describes the impact of MDD on patients' HRQL and examines preference-based health state differences by patient features and clinical characteristics. Methods 95 French primary care practitioners recruited 250 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD for inclusion in an eight-week follow-up cohort. Patient assessments included the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI, the Short Form-36 Item scale (SF-36, the Quality of Life Depression Scale (QLDS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D utility at baseline was 0.33, and 8% of patients rated their health state as worse than death. There were no statistically significant differences in utilities by demographic features. Significant differences were found in mean utilities by level of disease severity assessed by CGI. The different clinical response profiles, assessed by MADRS, were also revealed by EQ-5D at endpoint: 0.85 for responders remitters, 0.72 for responders non-remitter, and 0.58 for non-responders. Even if HRQL and EQ-5D were moderately correlated, they shared only 40% of variance between baseline and endpoint. Conclusions Self-reported patient valuations for depression are important patient-reported outcomes for cost-effectiveness evaluations of new antidepressant compounds and help in further understanding patient compliance with antidepressant treatment.

  7. Health-related quality of life and productivity losses in patients with depression and anxiety disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, C.A.; Vemer, P.; van Straten, A.; Tan, S.S.; Hakkaart-Van Roijen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the explanatory power of disease severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on absenteeism and presenteeism in a working population suffering from depression and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: We used data of a large, multicenter, randomized trial (n = 644). Pearson

  8. Six-month longitudinal patterns of mental health treatment utilization by older adults with depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gum, Amber M.; Iser, Lindsay; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Petkus, Andrew; DeMuth, Anne; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Aims of the study were to describe behavioral health treatment utilization patterns of community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms over a six-month period and to identify factors associated with treatment use, guided by a theoretical model emphasizing the dynamic nature of treatment use

  9. Undiagnosed cognitive impairment, health status and depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, Paula S.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kooistra, Minke; Janssen, Jolien; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2015-01-01

    Aims Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We examined whether undiagnosed cognitive impairment in T2DM-patients is associated with a reduced health status and depressive symptoms. Methods In an observational study, 225 T2DM-patients aged < 70 years were examined at their

  10. Effects of perceived job insecurity on depression, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health in Korea: a population-based panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Hong, Yun-Chul; Yook, Ji-Hoo; Kang, Mo-Yeol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effects of job security on new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study from 2012 to 2015 were analysed. A total of 2912 waged workers self-assessed their depressive episode, suicide ideation, and health annually by answering the questionnaire. Participants were divided into three groups according to the level of job security: high, intermediate and low. To evaluate the influence of job security, we performed survival analysis after stratification by gender with adjustment for covariates. The result was further stratified by whether the respondent was the head of household. After adjusting for covariates, men in low job security group showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for depression (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60), suicide ideation (HR 3.25, 95% CI 1.72-6.16), and decline in self-rated health (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.16-2.59). Women showed significantly higher HR of depression in the intermediate (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and low (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-1.99) job security group. Male head of household with low job security showed significantly higher HR of depression, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Non-head-of-household women with intermediate and low job security showed higher risk of depression than those with high job security. We found that perceived job insecurity is associated with the new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health.

  11. Dementia and depression: two frequent disorders of the aged in primary health care in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriadou, S; Melissopoulou, H; Krania, E; Karagiannidou, A; Vlachonicolis, I; Lionis, C

    2001-02-01

    Dementia and depression are very common disorders among elderly people and their presence decreases the well-being of the aged. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of dementia and depression among elderly people living in different settings in the catchment area of the Chrisoupolis health centre (HCCh) in northern Greece. A total of 536 patients aged 65 years and over, including 48 subjects living in an old people's home, 75 subjects who were taking part in the activities of the open centre for the elderly and 413 subjects randomly selected from those visiting the HCCh, were interviewed by the primary health care team of the HCCh. Medical and family history data were recorded, while cognitive and mood disorders were assessed by using the Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Screening Scale. At the time of the examination, 37.6% of the men and 41.6% of the women showed various degrees of cognitive impairment, while 29.9% of the women and 19.6% of the men showed mild to moderate depression. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension frequently were found to co-exist with depression and dementia. The results reaffirm that there is a high prevalence of the studied mental disorders in older patients in the out-patient setting in Greece. A set of recommendations to Greek GPs has now been formulated, with specific emphasis on the use of different screening tools and the appropriate treatment of the most frequently co-existing chronic diseases.

  12. Effectiveness of home visits by mental health nurses for Japanese women with post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Atsuko

    2008-12-01

    Post-partum depression affects 10-13% of Japanese women, but many do not receive appropriate treatment or support. This intervention study evaluated the effectiveness of home visits by mental health nurses for Japanese women with post-partum depression. Eighteen post-partum women met the inclusion criteria and were randomly allocated into the intervention (n = 9) or control (n = 9) group at 1-2 months after giving birth. The intervention group received four weekly home visits by a mental health nurse. Control group participants received usual care. Two women in the intervention group did not complete the study. Depressive symptoms and quality of life were measured at 1 and 6 weeks' postintervention. In addition, participants completed an open-ended questionnaire on satisfaction and meaning derived from the home visits. Women in the intervention group had significant amelioration of depressive symptoms over time and reported positive benefits from the home visits, but there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Significant differences (P post-partum depression. A larger trial is warranted to test this approach to care.

  13. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder in the community mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gallop, Robert; Diehl, Caroline K; Yin, Seohyun; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the relation of change in theory-relevant cognitive variables to depressive symptom change over the course of cognitive therapy, as well as the specificity of change mechanisms to cognitive therapy as compared with dynamic therapy. There were 237 adult outpatients who were randomized to either cognitive (n = 119) or dynamic (n = 118) therapy for major depressive disorder in a community mental health setting. Assessments of compensatory skills (Ways of Responding Community Version and Self-Report Version), dysfunctional attitudes (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale), and depressogenic schemas (Psychological Distance Scaling Task) were obtained at baseline and months 1, 2, and 5 following baseline. Primary outcome was measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Across both therapy conditions, change in all 3 cognitive domains was associated with concurrent change in depressive symptoms. After controlling for other cognitive variables, increased interconnectedness of the positive achievement-related schema was significantly associated with concurrent symptom change in cognitive (rp = .26, p therapy (rp = .08, p = .29). Increases in positive compensatory skills were associated with subsequent change in depressive symptoms in cognitive therapy (rp = -.36, p = .003), but not in dynamic therapy (rp = .11, p = .386). Results provide support for the compensatory skills model of cognitive therapy (CT) within a community mental health setting. Additional research is necessary to understand other possible mechanisms of change in CT in the community setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Core discrete event simulation model for the evaluation of health care technologies in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Aballéa, Samuel; Antonanzas, Fernando; Roijen, Leona Hakkaart-van; Lam, Raymond W; McCrone, Paul; Persson, Ulf; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-03-01

    A review of existing economic models in major depressive disorder (MDD) highlighted the need for models with longer time horizons that also account for heterogeneity in treatment pathways between patients. A core discrete event simulation model was developed to estimate health and cost outcomes associated with alternative treatment strategies. This model simulated short- and long-term clinical events (partial response, remission, relapse, recovery, and recurrence), adverse events, and treatment changes (titration, switch, addition, and discontinuation) over up to 5 years. Several treatment pathways were defined on the basis of fictitious antidepressants with three levels of efficacy, tolerability, and price (low, medium, and high) from first line to third line. The model was populated with input data from the literature for the UK setting. Model outputs include time in different health states, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs from National Health Service and societal perspectives. The codes are open source. Predicted costs and QALYs from this model are within the range of results from previous economic evaluations. The largest cost components from the payer perspective were physician visits and hospitalizations. Key parameters driving the predicted costs and QALYs were utility values, effectiveness, and frequency of physician visits. Differences in QALYs and costs between two strategies with different effectiveness increased approximately twofold when the time horizon increased from 1 to 5 years. The discrete event simulation model can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of different therapeutic options in MDD, compared with existing Markov models, and can be used to compare a wide range of health care technologies in various groups of patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and depression symptoms among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women to provide a more accurate understanding of the relationship between physical activity and depression symptoms. We employed a cross-sectional study design. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were used for this study. One-hundred and forty-one pregnant women wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess depression status. More than 19% of the participants experienced some depression symptoms, and compared to their counterparts not having depression symptoms, they were less physically active. An inverse association was found between physical activity and depression symptoms among pregnant women. When feasible, nurses are encouraged to help facilitate physical activity among pregnant women, assuming an uncomplicated pregnancy. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. A pilot study of yogic meditation for family dementia caregivers with depressive symptoms: effects on mental health, cognition, and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavretsky, H; Epel, E S; Siddarth, P; Nazarian, N; Cyr, N St; Khalsa, D S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Irwin, M R

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of brief daily yogic meditation on mental health, cognitive functioning, and immune cell telomerase activity in family dementia caregivers with mild depressive symptoms. Thirty-nine family dementia caregivers (mean age 60.3 years old (SD = 10.2)) were randomized to practicing Kirtan Kriya or listening to relaxation music for 12 min per day for 8 weeks. The severity of depressive symptoms, mental and cognitive functioning were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) was examined in peripheral PBMC pre-intervention and post-intervention. The meditation group showed significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater improvement in mental health and cognitive functioning compared with the relaxation group. In the meditation group, 65.2% showed 50% improvement on the Hamilton Depression Rating scale and 52% of the participants showed 50% improvement on the Mental Health Composite Summary score of the Short Form-36 scale compared with 31.2% and 19%, respectively, in the relaxation group (p dementia caregivers can lead to improved mental and cognitive functioning and lower levels of depressive symptoms. This improvement is accompanied by an increase in telomerase activity suggesting improvement in stress-induced cellular aging. These results need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Common symptoms during pregnancy to predict depression and health status 14 years post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mohsina; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Callaway, Leonie; Alati, Rosa; Najman, Jake M; Williams, Gail; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2009-03-01

    To examine the prospective association between symptoms commonly experienced during pregnancy and the mental and general health status of women 14 years post partum. Data used were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a community-based prospective birth cohort study begun in Brisbane, Australia, in 1981. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Data were available for 5118 women. Women who experienced a higher burden of symptoms during pregnancy were at greater risk of becoming depressed and reporting poorer health status 14 years post partum. Women who experienced major problems during pregnancy were 4 times more likely to be depressed and nearly 8 times more likely to report poorer health status 14 years after the index pregnancy compared with women who experienced few problems. Findings suggest that pregnant women who experience common symptoms during pregnancy are likely to experience poorer mental and self-reported general health 14 years after the pregnancy.

  18. Perceived mental health related stigma, gender, and depressive symptom severity in a psychiatric facility in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Raguram, R; Rao, Deepa

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the topic of gender associated with depression and mental health-related stigma coming out of non-Western countries such as India. We aimed to add to the literature by assessing these relationships among adults seeking psychiatric services in India. Participants were 60 individuals seeking care at a psychiatric clinic in Bangalore, India. The majority of participants were female with a mean age of 36 years (SD=9.75). Contrary to our prediction, there were no significant differences between men (M=28.96; SD=9.85) and women (M=33.03; SD=12.08) on depression severity, t(58)=1.42, p=.16. Yet, women (M=10.09, SD=8.23) reported significantly more perceived stigma than men (M=5.79, SD=5.86), t(58)=2.30, p=.02. While men and women seeking psychiatric services at the psychiatric clinic in India report similar levels of depression severity, women reported more perceived mental illness stigma. Having experienced regular forms of discrimination associated with female status in India, it may be the case that women are more attuned to other forms of stigma, such as mental health stigma investigated in the present study. Given the detrimental impact of stigma on treatment adherence and engagement in care, additional research is needed support this work, including research on interventions to reduce stigma and improve engagement in care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  20. Impact of Personality Traits, Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness Levels on Quality of Life in the Patients with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsanov, Dauren; Erdogan, Zeynep İyigün; İlgün, Ahmet Serkan; Çelebi, Esra; Alço, Gül; Kocaman, Nazmiye; Ordu, Çetin; Öztürk, Alper; Duymaz, Tomris; Pilavcı, Kezban Nur; Elbüken, Filiz; Ağaçayak, Filiz; Aktepe, Fatma; Ünveren, Gizem; Özdem, Gözdem; Eralp, Yeşim; Özmen, Vahit

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of personality traits, anxiety, depression and hopelessness levels on quality of life in the patients with breast cancer. Materials and methods The study was performed on 90 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 90 healthy women. Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Collection Form designed by us, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS), Beck Depression Scale (BDS), Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Quality of Life Scale–Short Form (SF-36) were administered to patients and to control group. Results The patients with breast cancer were found to indicate higher levels of anxiety and depression, lower levels of quality of life, and higher scores of personality inventory subscales as compared to the healthy control group. In the patient group, it was identified that the quality of life subscale scores were found to be negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, hopelessness and neurotic personality scores; there was a positive correlation between neurotic personality scores and depression, anxiety and hopelessness scores. Conclusions It can be concluded that the breast cancer patients with extraversion personality traits have lower levels of anxiety and depression, keeping their quality of life better, whereas the patients with higher neuroticism scores may have more impaired quality of life. Therefore, the psychiatric evaluation of the breast cancer patients during and after the treatment cannot be ruled out. PMID:29774319

  1. Impact of Personality Traits, Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness Levels on Quality of Life in the Patients with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzci, Filiz; Sarsanov, Dauren; Erdogan, Zeynep İyigün; İlgün, Ahmet Serkan; Çelebi, Esra; Alço, Gül; Kocaman, Nazmiye; Ordu, Çetin; Öztürk, Alper; Duymaz, Tomris; Pilavcı, Kezban Nur; Elbüken, Filiz; Ağaçayak, Filiz; Aktepe, Fatma; Ünveren, Gizem; Özdem, Gözdem; Eralp, Yeşim; Özmen, Vahit

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of personality traits, anxiety, depression and hopelessness levels on quality of life in the patients with breast cancer. The study was performed on 90 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 90 healthy women. Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Collection Form designed by us, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS), Beck Depression Scale (BDS), Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Quality of Life Scale-Short Form (SF-36) were administered to patients and to control group. The patients with breast cancer were found to indicate higher levels of anxiety and depression, lower levels of quality of life, and higher scores of personality inventory subscales as compared to the healthy control group. In the patient group, it was identified that the quality of life subscale scores were found to be negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, hopelessness and neurotic personality scores; there was a positive correlation between neurotic personality scores and depression, anxiety and hopelessness scores. It can be concluded that the breast cancer patients with extraversion personality traits have lower levels of anxiety and depression, keeping their quality of life better, whereas the patients with higher neuroticism scores may have more impaired quality of life. Therefore, the psychiatric evaluation of the breast cancer patients during and after the treatment cannot be ruled out.

  2. Approaches to health-care provider education and professional development in perinatal depression: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legere, Laura E; Wallace, Katherine; Bowen, Angela; McQueen, Karen; Montgomery, Phyllis; Evans, Marilyn

    2017-07-24

    Perinatal depression is the most common mental illness experienced by pregnant and postpartum women, yet it is often under-detected and under-treated. Some researchers suggest this may be partly influenced by a lack of education and professional development on perinatal depression among health-care providers, which can negatively affect care and contribute to stigmatization of women experiencing altered mood. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of educational and professional development needs and strategies for health-care providers in perinatal depression. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in seven academic health databases using selected keywords. The search was limited to primary studies and reviews published in English between January 2006 and May/June 2015, with a focus on perinatal depression education and professional development for health-care providers. Studies were screened for inclusion by two reviewers and tie-broken by a third. Studies that met inclusion criteria were quality appraised and data extracted. Results from the studies are reported through narrative synthesis. Two thousand one hundred five studies were returned from the search, with 1790 remaining after duplicate removal. Ultimately, 12 studies of moderate and weak quality met inclusion criteria. The studies encompassed quantitative (n = 11) and qualitative (n = 1) designs, none of which were reviews, and addressed educational needs identified by health-care providers (n = 5) and strategies for professional development in perinatal mental health (n = 7). Consistently, providers identified a lack of formal education in perinatal mental health and the need for further professional development. Although the professional development interventions were diverse, the majority focused on promoting identification of perinatal depression and demonstrated modest effectiveness in improving various outcomes. This systematic review reveals a

  3. Health-related quality of life and symptom severity in Chinese patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuping; Li, Wen; Shen, Jingjin; Malison, Robert T; Zhang, Yalin; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-12-01

    Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) have been reported to have substantial long-lasting limitations in multiple domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The thoughtful assessment of HRQoL and the impact of treatment response on HRQoL are emerging as important issues in the care of patients with major depressive disorder. One hundred and three patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for MDD took fluoxetine (20 mg/d) for 6 weeks and were assessed by the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating (HAMD-17) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales. Relationships between SF-36 scores and depressive symptom severity and early change of these symptoms were tested. SF-36 component scores at week 6 were higher than those at baseline (all P ≤ 0.0058). Scores for general health were significantly higher in responders than non-responders (P = 0.0009). The overall HAMD-17 and CGI scores at 2- and 6-week follow-up were significantly lower than those at baseline (P ≤ 0.0001). Higher scores for anxiety/somatization were significantly associated with poorer SF-36 scores at baseline (P = 0.0001); role-physical scores at week 6 were positively correlated with reduction rate of anxiety/somatization in 2-week follow-up (P = 0.0002). Depressive symptom severity was associated with HRQoL in patients with MDD. HRQoL may vary with severity of depression and/or anxiety-somatization at baseline. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Increment of fatigue, depression, and stage fright during the first year of high-level education in music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Horst; Nübling, Matthias; Candia, Victor

    2012-03-01

    Public opinion associates music performance with pleasure, relaxation, and entertainment. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that professional musicians and music students are often affected by work-related burdens. These are closely related to stress and anxiety. Scrutinizing specific health strains and work attitudes of music students during their freshman year of high-level education. One hundred five students in three Swiss music universities were part of a longitudinal study using standardized assessment questionnaires. Before and after their first study year, some custom-made questionnaires designed to fit the particular work environment of musicians were used together with the already validated inquiry instruments. Fatigue, depression, and stage fright increased significantly. Our results indicate more study is needed and attempts should be made to minimize the stress level, improve the students' ability to cope with stress, and otherwise reduce their risk for injury. This appears particularly important considering the long-term negative effects of stressors on individuals' health as revealed by modern research.

  5. Evaluation of Achievement, Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety Levels in Children who Preparing for College Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemaliye DIREKTOR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement, self-esteem, depression and state-trial anxiety of children who were preparing for college examination. 285 students who were preparing for college examination were recruited in Northern Cyprus. All data were obtained by using Sociodemographical Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory for Children, Childhood Depression Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, during 15-23 October 2016. It has been found that male students have a higher academic achievement and self-esteem levels than female students’. There was a significant negative correlation between students’ self-esteem and depression levels. Results showed that self-esteem and depression predicted academic achievement. Also on the area of child education, extensive studies should be carried out on examination, how the national examinations affect psychological problems. Obtained results were discussed in the light of literature

  6. Improving the cost-effectiveness of a healthcare system for depressive disorders by implementing telemedicine: a health economic modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokkerbol, Joran; Adema, Dirk; Cuijpers, Pim; Reynolds, Charles F; Schulz, Richard; Weehuizen, Rifka; Smit, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Depressive disorders are significant causes of disease burden and are associated with substantial economic costs. It is therefore important to design a healthcare system that can effectively manage depression at sustainable costs. This article computes the benefit-to-cost ratio of the current Dutch healthcare system for depression, and investigates whether offering more online preventive interventions improves the cost-effectiveness overall. A health economic (Markov) model was used to synthesize clinical and economic evidence and to compute population-level costs and effects of interventions. The model compared a base case scenario without preventive telemedicine and alternative scenarios with preventive telemedicine. The central outcome was the benefit-to-cost ratio, also known as return-on-investment (ROI). In terms of ROI, a healthcare system with preventive telemedicine for depressive disorders offers better value for money than a healthcare system without Internet-based prevention. Overall, the ROI increases from €1.45 ($1.72) in the base case scenario to €1.76 ($2.09) in the alternative scenario in which preventive telemedicine is offered. In a scenario in which the costs of offering preventive telemedicine are balanced by reducing the expenditures for curative interventions, ROI increases to €1.77 ($2.10), while keeping the healthcare budget constant. For a healthcare system for depressive disorders to remain economically sustainable, its cost-benefit ratio needs to be improved. Offering preventive telemedicine at a large scale is likely to introduce such an improvement. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Depressive symptomatology at age 75 and subsequent use of health and social services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Käte; Schroll, Marianne; Avlund, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    It is well documented that elderly persons are the largest consumers of many health and social services. Consequently it is of interest to identify characteristics of users of those services. The purpose of this study is to examine whether depressive symptoms among men and women at age 75.......5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-5.0) and marginally associated with subsequent hospitalization (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.96-3.5). None of these results were seen in men. Preventive services should take into account depressive symptoms among elderly women....

  8. Effect of Health Comparisons on Functional Health and Depressive Symptoms - Results of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hajek

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of health comparisons on functional health and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal approach. Gender differences were examined.The German Ageing Survey (DEAS is a nationwide, representative longitudinal study of community dwelling individuals living in Germany aged 40 and older. The surveys in 2008 and 2011 were used, with n = 3,983 respondents taking part in both waves. Health comparisons were quantified by the question "How would you rate your health compared with other people your age" (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse. Functional health was assessed by the subscale "physical functioning" of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D.Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-assessed health, social network, self-efficacy and optimism, and morbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that functional health decreased significantly and considerably with negative health comparisons in the total sample (transitions from 'the same' to 'much worse': β = -11.8, predominantly in men. The effects of negative health comparisons (transitions from 'the same' to 'much worse': β = 4.8 on depressive symptoms were comparable (in terms of significance to the effects on functional health, with stronger effects in women. Positive comparisons did not affect functional health and depressive symptoms.Our findings underline the relevance of negative health comparisons on functional health (men and depressive symptoms (women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and mostly upwards.

  9. Screening for depression among indigenous Mexican migrant farmworkers using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlan, William; Lee, Junghee

    2010-04-01

    U.S. farmworkers include growing numbers of individuals from indigenous, pre-Columbian communities in southern Mexico with distinctive languages and cultures. Given the high stress these farmworkers experience in their challenging work environments, they are very susceptible to depression and other mental and emotional health disorders. The present study explores the Spanish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as a screen for the presence and severity of depression among 123 indigenous Mexican-origin, migrant farmworkers in Oregon. Factor structure and inter-item correlations of the PHQ-9 are examined, along with associations between depression and culture-bound syndromes, self-esteem, self-efficacy, acculturation stress, and other sample psychosocial characteristics. The PHQ-9 exhibited strong factor loadings and internal consistency, and its severity score significantly correlated with other indicators of health status that were observed in previous studies to be significantly associated with depression. The PHQ-9 appears to be culturally relevant for use with Mexicans coming from a variety of indigenous cultures and having very low education and literacy.

  10. Integrating Depression Care Management into Medicare Home Health Reduces Risk of 30- and 60-Day Hospitalization: The Depression Care for Patients at Home Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Martha L; Lohman, Matthew C; Greenberg, Rebecca L; Bao, Yuhua; Raue, Patrick J

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether a depression care management intervention in Medicare home health recipients decreases risk of hospitalization. Cluster-randomized trial. Nurse teams were randomized to intervention (12 teams) or enhanced usual care (EUC; 9 teams). Six home health agencies from distinct geographic regions. Home health recipients were interviewed at home and over the telephone. Individuals aged 65 and older who screened positive for depression on nurse assessments (N = 755) and a subset who consented to interviews (n = 306). The Depression CARE for PATients at Home (CAREPATH) guides nurses in managing depression during routine home visits. Clinical functions include weekly symptom assessment, medication management, care coordination, patient education, and goal setting. Researchers conducted telephone conferences with team supervisors every 2 weeks. Hospitalization while receiving home health services was assessed using data from the home health record. Hospitalization within 30 days of starting home health, regardless of how long recipients received home health services, was assessed using data from the home care record and research assessments. The relative hazard of being admitted to the hospital directly from home health was 35% lower within 30 days of starting home health care (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65, P = .01) and 28% lower within 60 days (HR = 0.72, P = .03) for CAREPATH participants than for participants receiving EUC. In participants referred to home health directly from the hospital, the relative hazard of being rehospitalized was approximately 55% lower (HR = 0.45, P = .001) for CAREPATH participants. Integrating CAREPATH depression care management into routine nursing practice reduces hospitalization and rehospitalization risk in older adults receiving Medicare home health nursing services. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Robust symptom networks in recurrent major depression across different levels of genetic and environmental risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, H.M.; Van Borkulo, C.D.; Peterson, R.E.; Fried, E.I.; Aggen, S.H.; Borsboom, D.; Kendler, K.S.

    BACKGROUND: Genetic risk and environmental adversity-both important risk factors for major depression (MD)-are thought to differentially impact on depressive symptom types and associations. Does heterogeneity in these risk factors result in different depressive symptom networks in patients with MD?

  12. Physical activity and calorie intake mediate the relationship from depression to body fat mass among female Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Amado D; Macías-Waldman, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge; Swigart, Tessa; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia

    2017-11-17

    Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011). We explored the interrelation between body fat, diet, leisure time, physical activity, and depression using a cross-lagged effects model fitted to longitudinal data. We also fitted a structural equations model to cross-sectional data with body fat as the main outcome, and dietary intake and physical activity from leisure time as mediators between depression and body fat. Baseline depression was significantly related to higher depression, higher calorie intake, and lower leisure time physical activity at follow-up. From our cross-sectional model, each standard deviation increase in the depression score was associated with an average increase of 751 ± 259 g (± standard error) in body fat through the mediating effects of calorie intake and physical activity. The results of this study show how depression may influence energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, resulting in higher body fat among those with a greater depression score. Evaluating the role of mental conditions like depression in dietary and physical activity behaviors should be positioned as a key research goal for better designed and targeted public health interventions. The HealthWorkers Cohort Study (HWCS) has been approved by the Institutional IRB. Number: 2005-785-012.

  13. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  14. Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda C. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1 screening and referral, (2 facilitators to referral, (3 barriers to referral, (4 culture and language, (5 life events, and (6 support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services.

  15. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in depressed patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) are neurotrophins-proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons. Their role in the development of schizophrenia and mood disorders is widely studied. This study was aimed to determine whether depression affects levels of BDNF and NT-3 in patients with schizophrenia. Data for 53 Caucasian adult hospitalized patients with chronic paranoid schizophrenia was compared with 27 healthy subjects. Clinical symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and positive, negative and general sub-scores, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and the Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI). Patients were defined as depressed (SHZ-DEP) with scores CDSS > 6 and HDRS > 7, otherwise they were included into the non-depressed group (SHZ-nonDEP). In total, 17 patients (32.1%) with schizophrenia met criteria for depression. SHZ-DEP patients had higher scores in HDRS, CDSS, PANSS total, PANSS negative, PANSS general and CGI (p BDNF or NT-3 levels between patients with schizophrenia and controls. BDNF levels were lower in SHZ-DEP compared to SHZ-nonDEP: 18.82 ± 5.95 versus 22.10 ± 5.31 ng/mL, p = 0.045. NT-3 levels were higher in SHZ-DEP compared to SHZ-nonDEP: 133.31 ± 222.19 versus 56.04 ± 201.28 pg/mL, p = 0.033. There were no differences in neurotrophin levels between patients with schizophrenia and controls. We found lower BDNF and higher NT-3 serum levels in depressed patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elomaa Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 in MDD. Methods We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58. Results In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use. The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22 or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23. Conclusions Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS, could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  17. Predicting the impact of the 2011 conflict in Libya on population mental health: PTSD and depression prevalence and mental health service requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Charlson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are likely to be elevated in the Libyan population during the post-conflict period. We estimated cases of severe PTSD and depression and related health service requirements using modelling from existing epidemiological data and current recommended mental health service targets in low and middle income countries (LMIC's. METHODS: Post-conflict prevalence estimates were derived from models based on a previously conducted systematic review and meta-regression analysis of mental health among populations living in conflict. Political terror ratings and intensity of exposure to traumatic events were used in predictive models. Prevalence of severe cases was applied to chosen populations along with uncertainty ranges. Six populations deemed to be affected by the conflict were chosen for modelling: Misrata (population of 444,812, Benghazi (pop. 674,094, Zintan (pop. 40,000, displaced people within Tripoli/Zlitan (pop. 49,000, displaced people within Misrata (pop. 25,000 and Ras Jdir camps (pop. 3,700. Proposed targets for service coverage, resource utilisation and full-time equivalent staffing for management of severe cases of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD are based on a published model for LMIC's. FINDINGS: Severe PTSD prevalence in populations exposed to a high level of political terror and traumatic events was estimated at 12.4% (95%CI 8.5-16.7 and was 19.8% (95%CI 14.0-26.3 for severe depression. Across all six populations (total population 1,236,600, the conflict could be associated with 123,200 (71,600-182,400 cases of severe PTSD and 228,100 (134,000-344,200 cases of severe depression; 50% of PTSD cases were estimated to co-occur with severe depression. Based upon service coverage targets, approximately 154 full-time equivalent staff would be required to respond to these cases sufficiently which is substantially below the current level of resource estimates for these regions. DISCUSSION

  18. Impact of terrorism on health and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale screening in medical students, Karachi, Pakistan.

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    Nasim, Sara; Khan, Mahjabeen; Aziz, Sina

    2014-03-01

    To determine the association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity by Hospital Anxiety Depression scale among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2011 and comprised students of the Institute of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation and the Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. The study tool was a validated Hospital Anxiety Depression scale questionnaire. The data was analysed on SPSS 16. Factor analysis was performed to check which factors had the most influence. Overall there were 1036 respondents. The impact of terrorism on physical, social and mental health was 40 (3.9%), 178 (17.2%) and 818 (79%) respectively. There was an association of terrorism in 980 (84.6%) respondents with psychiatric morbidity. There was an association of terrorism with psychiatric morbidity in majority of respondents. The significant risk factors were age, gender, physical, mental and social health and the desire to live in Pakistan.

  19. [Influences of Oral Health Behaviors, Depression and Stress on Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Jin; Lee, Hae Jung; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influences of oral health behaviors, depression, and stress on periodontal disease in pregnant women. The participants in this study were 129 pregnant women. Data were collected using questionnaires which included individual characteristics, oral health care behaviors, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D), a global measure of perceived stress, and pregnancy stress. A dentist measured periodontal probing depth and classified stages of periodontal disease according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression. Periodontal disease had significant correlations with oral health care behaviors (r=-.56, pstress (r=.44 pstress (r=.37 phealth behaviors (β=-.30, pstress (β=.17, p=.028). The explanation power of this regression model was 61.6% (F=15.52, phealth care behaviors and reducing perceived stress are indicated as effective strategies to reduce periodontal disease in pregnant women.

  20. Private prayer associations with depression, anxiety and other health conditions: an analytical review of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W; Nunnelley, Paige A

    2016-09-01

    To critically analyze appropriate clinical studies to assess the relationship between health conditions and the frequency of private prayer. Private prayer is defined as individuals praying for themselves. Using PubMed and other search engines, we identified over 300 articles reporting relationships between prayer and health conditions. We identified 41 observational clinical studies that evaluated the relationship between private prayer and health conditions. Prayer scores of 5 to 1 were assigned to studies, with 5 being private prayer for health and 1 being prayer in combination with meditation or Bible study. Frequency scores ranged from 3 to 1 with 3 being twice daily or more and 0 when frequency was not assessed. Studies were ranked from 8 to 1 based on the sum of Prayer and Frequency Scores. Twenty-one studies had Prayer-Frequency scores of 5 to 8, indicating that they evaluated private prayer (praying for one's own health) of suitable frequency in association with health conditions. Nine of 11 studies indicated that private prayer was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of depression (P value, prayer in four studies (P value, P prayer (P prayer did not have a significant effect on physical health or blood pressure. The reported observational studies suggest that frequent private prayer is associated with a significant benefit for depression, optimism, coping, and other mental health conditions such as anxiety. Controlled clinical trials are required to critically assess the associations of private prayer and health conditions.

  1. Inpatient Profile of Patients with Major Depression in Portuguese National Health System Hospitals, in 2008 and 2013: Variation in a Time of Economic Crisis.

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    Rodrigues, Daniel Francisco Santos; Nunes, Carla

    2018-02-01

    The economic crisis has placed Portugal in a situation of budgetary constraints with repercussions on mental health, since 2009. This study analyses the association between economic crisis and the inpatient profile of major depression in the working-age population in Portuguese National Health System hospitals. This was an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. An individual analysis of hospitalisation and an ecological analysis at district level, were performed before 2008 and during the crisis (2013). Data on the hospitalisation episodes, working-age population and psychiatric inpatient beds were analysed. An increase in hospitalisation rates for major depression were observed, and across country, high spatial variations were perceived: districts with lower rates of urbanisation and population density had higher hospitalisation rates for major depression. Hospitalisation rates were positively influenced by the available inpatient beds. The results for 2013 were more critical (higher hospitalisation rates, less beds). Further research is needed to understand all patterns, considering other individual and contextual information.

  2. Perceived Financial Satisfaction, Health Related Quality of Life and depressive Symptoms in Early Pregnancy.

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    Sahrakorpi, Niina; Koivusalo, Saila B; Eriksson, Johan G; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Roine, Risto P

    2017-07-01

    Objectives To assess the associations of perceived financial satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms in an unselected pregnant population in early pregnancy. Methods 750 consecutive pregnant women attending the first communal ultrasound examination before gestational week 14 were invited to participate. Questionnaires assessing HRQoL (15D), depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale, EPDS), medical, obstetric, and socioeconomic status were handed out. The participants were divided into three groups according to their satisfaction with their financial status, (unsatisfied, somewhat satisfied, and satisfied). Main outcome measures were 15D and EPDS-scores and dimensions of HRQoL. Results 325 (43,3%) questionnaires were returned. The mean 15D-score for HRQoL was 0,926 (SD 0,056). The financially unsatisfied women had lower HRQoL than women in more satisfied groups (0.906, 0.923 and 0.931, p = 0.012). The result remained significant, even after adjusting for age and education(p = 0.032). The unsatisfied women had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (25.4, 24.4 and 23.2 kg/m 2 , p for linearity = 0.002), were more often smokers, (13 vs. 4 and 3%, p = 0.029), and had experienced at least one abortion (18, 14 and 7%, p = 0.017). Dimensions of depression, distress and sleep explained the differences between the groups. 27% of unsatisfied women scored EPDS ≥10 points suggesting increased risk of depression. Conclusions Financial satisfaction in early pregnancy associates with HRQoL and risk of perinatal depressive symptoms. Unsatisfied women more often have risk factors for unfavourable pregnancy outcomes which may influence the later health and wellbeing of the mother and child.

  3. Organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

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    Siegel, Miriam; Starks, Sarah E; Sanderson, Wayne T; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A; Gerr, Fred

    2017-11-01

    Although organic solvents are often used in agricultural operations, neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure have not been extensively studied among farmers. The current analysis examined associations between questionnaire-based metrics of organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among farmers. Results from 692 male Agricultural Health Study participants were analyzed. Solvent type and exposure duration were assessed by questionnaire. An "ever-use" variable and years of use categories were constructed for exposure to gasoline, paint/lacquer thinner, petroleum distillates, and any solvent. Depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); scores were analyzed separately as continuous (0-60) and dichotomous (distillates, and short duration of petroleum distillate exposure and continuous CES-D score (p < 0.05). Although nearly all associations were positive, fewer statistically significant associations were observed between metrics of solvent exposure and the dichotomized CES-D variable. Solvent exposures were associated with depressive symptoms among farmers. Efforts to limit exposure to organic solvents may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms among farmers.

  4. Associations between Depressive State and Impaired Higher-Level Functional Capacity in the Elderly with Long-Term Care Requirements.

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    Ogata, Soshiro; Hayashi, Chisato; Sugiura, Keiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Depressive state has been reported to be significantly associated with higher-level functional capacity among community-dwelling elderly. However, few studies have investigated the associations among people with long-term care requirements. We aimed to investigate the associations between depressive state and higher-level functional capacity and obtain marginal odds ratios using propensity score analyses in people with long-term care requirements. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on participants aged ≥ 65 years (n = 545) who were community dwelling and used outpatient care services for long-term preventive care. We measured higher-level functional capacity, depressive state, and possible confounders. Then, we estimated the marginal odds ratios (i.e., the change in odds of impaired higher-level functional capacity if all versus no participants were exposed to depressive state) by logistic models using generalized linear models with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for propensity score and design-based standard errors. Depressive state was used as the exposure variable and higher-level functional capacity as the outcome variable. The all absolute standardized differences after the IPTW using the propensity scores were functional capacity.

  5. The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Depression, Social Anxiety, Aggression, and Salivary Cortisol Levels of Elementary School Children in South Korea.

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    Yoo, Yang-Gyeong; Lee, Duck-Joo; Lee, In-Soo; Shin, Namin; Park, Ju-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Ra; Yu, Boas

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of a school-based mind subtraction meditation program on depression, social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels of 42 elementary school children in South Korea. The research design was a nonequivalent group comparison with pretest and post-test. The experimental group was given 8weeks of the meditation program. The results showed social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels were significantly lowered in the experimental group. This demonstrated that the school-based mind subtraction meditation program could be effective in improving psychosocial and behavioral aspects of mental health in elementary school children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of life and use of health care resources among patients with chronic depression

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    Villoro, Renata; Merino, María; Hidalgo-Vega, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study estimates the health-related quality of life and the health care resource utilization of patients diagnosed with chronic depression (CD) in Spain. Patients and methods We used the Spanish National Health Survey 2011–2012, a cross-sectional survey representative at the national level, that selects people aged between 18 and 64 years (n=14,691). We estimated utility indices through the EuroQol five-dimensional descriptive system questionnaire included in the survey. We calculated percentage use of health care resources (medical visits, hospitalizations, emergency services, and drug consumption) and average number of resources used when available. A systematic comparison was made between people diagnosed with CD and other chronic conditions (OCCs). The chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Kruskal–Wallis test were used to determine the statistical significance of differences between comparison groups. Multivariate analyses (Poisson regression, logistic regression, and linear regression) were also carried out to assess the relationship between quality of life and consumption of health care resources. Results Approximately, 6.1% of the subjects aged between 18 and 64 years were diagnosed with CD (average age 48.3±11 years, 71.7% females). After controlling for age, sex, and total number of comorbidities, a diagnosis of CD reduced utility scores by 0.09 (P<0.05) vs OCCs, and increased the average number of hospitalizations by 15%, the average number of days at hospital by 51%, and the average number of visits to emergency services by 15% (P<0.05). CD also increased the average number of visits to secondary care by 14% and visits to general practitioners by 4%. People with CD had a higher probability of consuming drugs than people with OCCs (odds ratio [OR]: 1.24, P<0.05), but only 38.6% took antidepressants. Conclusion People with CD had significantly lower health-related quality of life than people with OCCs. CD was associated with

  7. Low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with lipid profile in depressive patients with long symptom duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the association between serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with lipid profile in depressive disorder. A total of 370 depressive individuals aged 18 years and above were recruited in this cross-section study. All participants underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and recorded the duration of their symptoms. The serum levels of total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein A (Lp(a)), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels were determined and the ratios of TCH/HDL-C were assessed. Depressed subjects with a symptom duration ≥3 years had higher TG levels, increased TCH/HDL-C ratios and lower levels of HDL-C, FT4 and TSH compared with depressive patients with a symptom duration <3 years. Correlation analysis displayed that TSH is positively and significantly associated with TCH and LDL-C (p<0.05); the above FT4 and FT3 are negatively, significantly and respectively associated with TCH/HDL-C (p<0.05) and TCH, HDL-C, LDL-C (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that serum TG and TSH levels are associated with depressive symptom duration. According to our results,These findings indicate that low serum TSH levels are associated with lipid profile, TG and TSH levels have significant association with symptom duration in depressive patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Cultural/ethnic differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among middle-aged women in Israel: the Women's Health at Midlife Study.

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    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Hourvitz, Ariel; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among Israeli midlife women from different cultural origins and to identify sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial, health, and menopause status characteristics that could explain cultural differences in depressive symptoms. Data were collected for the Women's Health in Midlife National Study in Israel, in which women aged 45 to 64 years were randomly selected according to age and ethnic/origin group strata: long-term Jewish residents (n = 540), immigrants from the former Soviet Union (n = 151), and Arab women (n = 123). The survey instrument included a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale dichotomized according to a differed across cultural groups when analysis was stratified by study group. Our findings demonstrate that the high level of depressive symptoms among Israeli women is related to cultural/minority status. The high risk for depressive symptoms in these minority groups calls for intervention policy to improve their mental health.

  9. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (S) levels in medicated patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-04-05

    There is accumulating evidence regarding gender differences in clinical symptoms or response to antidepressants in patients with depression. However, less attention has been given to sex differences in the underlying biological mechanisms of depression. The adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S), play a critical role in controlling affect, mood, and anxiety. Changes in serum adrenal androgen levels have been reported in conditions pertaining to stress as well as in psychiatric disorders. The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in serum levels of adrenal androgens in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 90 inpatients with MDD at the psychiatric ward of Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital who were receiving antidepressants. Serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S were assessed at the time of admission. Matched controls (based on sex and age) included 128 healthy individuals. First, data from male and female MDD patients and controls were compared. Second, correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients with MDD were assessed by gender. In addition, effects of various factors on adrenal androgens were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Serum DHEA levels were significantly increased in both male and female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum levels of DHEA-S in male patients were significantly decreased compared with male controls, whereas no significant differences were seen in female patients and controls. No significant correlations among adrenal androgens were observed in male patients with MDD, whereas significant positive correlations were found in both male and female controls. No significant correlations were seen between adrenal androgens and HAM-D scores in male or female patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that both hormones were affected by the age

  10. Depression literacy and health-seeking attitudes in the Western Pacific region: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Grace W K; Bressington, D; Leung, S F; Lam, K K C; Leung, A Y M; Molassiotis, A; Ligot, J; Ranoco, C; Sophal, C; Valimaki, M

    2018-06-02

    Depression literacy refers to the ability to recognize depression and make informed decisions about its treatment. To date, relatively little research has been done to examine depression literacy in the Western Pacific region. Given the pervasiveness of depression and the need to enhance mental health care in this region, it is important to gain a better understanding of depression literacy and health-seeking behaviors in this part of the world. This mixed-methods study utilized a convergent parallel design to examine depression literacy and the associated health-seeking attitudes among urban adults from three countries-Cambodia, Philippines, and Fiji. A total of 455 adults completed a quantitative survey on depression knowledge, attitudes, and professional help seeking. Separately, 56 interviewees from 6 focus groups provided qualitative data on their impression and knowledge of depression and mental illness within the context of their local communities. Overall, results showed that depression knowledge was comparatively lower in this region. Controlling for differences across countries, higher knowledge was significantly associated with more positive attitudes towards mental illness (B = - 0.28, p = 0.025) and professional help seeking (B = 0.20, p < 0.001). Financial stability, such as employment, was also a salient factor for help seeking. This study was the first to provide a baseline understanding on depression literacy and highlights the need to increase public knowledge on depression in the Western Pacific. Culturally congruent recommendations on enhancing depression literacy in this region, such as anti-stigma campaigns, use of financial incentives, and family-based approach in health education, are discussed.

  11. Primary care, depression, and anxiety: exploring somatic and emotional predictors of mental health status in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Ian P; Olson, Ardis L

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research points to regular, comprehensive mental health screening in primary care practices as an effective tool, but a thorough and efficient approach is not yet widely used. The purpose of this report is to describe the pattern of mental health-related concerns, protective and social risk factors reported by adolescents during routine well-child visits in primary care settings, and their occurrence among teens that screen positive for either depression or anxiety with brief validated measures. A personal digital assistant-based questionnaire was administered as part of clinical care to adolescents 11 to 18 years old (N = 2184) attending preventive well-child visits in 13 pediatric and family medicine primary care practices in a northern New England practice-based research network over 18 months (2008 to 2009). Depressive and anxiety-related symptoms were assessed using the 2-question versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. Analyses determined the role that the protective and social risk factors played in determining who screens positive for depression and anxiety. In the fully adjusted model, risk factors that were significant (P stress (AOR, 3.59); anger (AOR, 1.94); and worries about family alcohol and drug use (AOR, 2.69). Among protective factors, that is, those that reduce the risk of depression, age (AOR, 0.87 for younger patients); having parents who listen (AOR, 0.34); and having more assets (AOR, 0.65) were significant. Significant predictors of screening positive for anxiety included substance use (AOR, 1.97); stress (AOR, 6.10); anger (AOR, 2.31); trouble sleeping (AOR, 1.75), and the sex of the adolescent (AOR, 1.87 for girls). Although having parents who listen was still a significant protective factor for anxiety (AOR, 2.26), other assets were not significant. Comprehensive primary care mental health screening that considers both anxiety and depression while including

  12. Depression and its impact on health-related quality of life among Chinese inpatients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Xu, Yan-Min; Zhu, Jun-Hong; Zhong, Bao-Liang

    2017-12-01

    Depression is of great concern for patients with cancer. A detailed epidemiological profile of depression in Chinese patients with lung cancer and whether depression impacts patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) remain unknown. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic and clinical correlates of depression and its effect on HRQOL in Chinese inpatients with lung cancer of two large general hospitals. A total of 148 inpatients were consecutively recruited, and administered with a standardized questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and clinical data. Depression and HRQOL were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and World Health Organization QOL Scale Brief Version, respectively. As high as 43.2% Chinese inpatients with lung cancer had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Multiple logistic regression found that depression was significantly associated with moderate-to-severe pain (OR: 4.43), metastatic cancer (OR: 3.63), a short duration after cancer diagnosis (OR: 1.04), poor performance status (OR: 3.41), and small-cell cancer (OR: 4.52). Depressed patients had significantly poorer HRQOL than not depressed patients in terms of all four domains of HRQOL. After controlling for the potential confounding effects of socio-demographic and clinical factors with analysis of covariance, these group-differences in physical (F = 29.074, P environmental (F = 27.685, P assessment and treatment, should be routinely provided in oncology departments of Chinese general hospitals.

  13. Association of depression & health related quality of life with body composition in children and youth with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Katherine M; Shin, Sabina; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Taylor, Valerie H

    2015-02-01

    There is an increasing recognition of the relationship between mental illness and obesity in the pediatric population. Our objective was to explore the individual, biological and family determinants of depressive symptoms and HRQOL in youth with obesity in a clinical setting. We studied 244 youth aged 8-17 years at the time of entry to a weight management program. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children questionnaire, with a score of ≥15 or antidepressant use indicating depression. HRQOL was examined using the PedsQL4.0. We considered the influence of age, sex, health history, anthropometry, body fat, family health and socioeconomic status (SES) on depression and HRQOL. Depression was common in this population (36.4%). In multivariate analysis, the extent of obesity (body fat) predicted both depression (OR 1.1 (1.0-1.2); p=0.05) and low HRQOL scores (β -0.63 (pobesity treatment, results may not be generalizable to the general population of obese youth. Depression and low HRQOL are common in youth entering weight management programs. Extent of obesity predicted depressive symptoms and low HRQOL. Predictors of depression in this population differ from non-obese populations studied. It is important to consider these characteristics to assist clinicians in identifying these children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercises on the Level of Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Happiness of Non-Athlete Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Kianian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives Exercises bring about health. Therefore, knowing what kind of exercise is more effective in individuals’ spirituals health indices is important. Thus, the present study aims at comparing the impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on the level of depression, anxiety, stress, and happiness of nonathletic male students. Methods In this clinical trial study, sample included the nonathletic male students of Zahedan Azad University in 2014. 90 students were selected through convenience sampling and they were divided randomly into two experimental groups (aerobic and anaerobic and one control group. The aerobic group must do aerobic exercises and the anaerobic group must do anaerobic exercises for a period of 10 weeks (3 sessions a week, each lasted for 60 minutes. The data were collected using DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring the level of depression, anxiety and stress, and Oxford OHI questionnaire for measuring the amount of happiness before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using statistical tests of MANCOVA in SPSS-13. Results The results showed that in both aerobic and anaerobic groups the mean score of depression, anxiety, stress and happiness improved after treatment. However, the improve in the mean score of anxiety, stress and happiness was more apparent in the anaerobic group. The results also showed that only stress and happiness resulted in a significant difference in different groups. Conclusions Both aerobic and anaerobic exercises result in reduction of stress and Anxiety. So it seems necessary to include such exercises in students’ daily schedule.

  15. Innovation in health economic modelling of service improvements for longer-term depression: demonstration in a local health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Jonathan; Kearns, Ben; Brennan, Alan; Parry, Glenys; Ricketts, Thomas; Saxon, David; Kilgarriff-Foster,