This article analyzes a series of health education projects that used the mass media to change behavior. First, the article describes how persuasion theories are used to maximize impact in mass communication campaigns. Second, this paper discusses theories of social psychology used in such campaigns. One such theory, cognitive dissonance, explains changes at the level of attitudes, beliefs and opinion. Another theory, social learning, defines strategies of behavior changes. A third theory, concerning diffusion of innovations, helps understand the network of interpersonal relationships essential for the adoption of any innovation. McGuire's inoculation theory suggests strategies to aid resistance to harmful environmental influences (e.g. smoking, excessive drinking, etc.). Third, this work reviews public health campaigns that have used one or more of these theories of social psychology. The first project, dealing with smoking behavior cessation and prevention, mainly used strategies of interpersonal communication for inoculating and modeling useful behavior in order to resist social pressures favorable to smoking. The second project, designed to prevent alcoholism, used the mass media primarily. The objective of this campaign was to obtain changes in knowledge, attitude and behavior in the public through modeling desirable behaviors over public service announcements. The third campaign, a heart disease prevention program, used a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication to achieve changes in lifestyle of the population. Finally, this article describes limitations in using mass media in behavior change health programs.
Domigan, Juliane; Glassman, Tavis J.; Miller, Jeff; Hug, Heather; Diehr, Aaron J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to assess a health communication campaign designed to reduce distracted driving among college students within the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing central interviewing techniques, participants were asked qualitative and quantitative items soliciting feedback concerning the efficacy of the messages.…
Evans, W Douglas; Uhrig, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; McCormack, Lauren
Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy research and the development of a research agenda. Much of the outcomes research in health communication and marketing, especially mass media, utilizes effectiveness designs conducted in real time, in the media markets or communities in which messages are delivered. Such evaluations may be impractical or impossible, however, imiting opportunities to advance the state of health communication and marketing research and the knowledge base on effective campaign strategies, messages, and channels. Efficacy and effectiveness studies use similar measures of behavior change. Efficacy studies, however, offer greater opportunities for experimental control, message exposure, and testing of health communication and marketing theory. By examining the literature and two in-depth case studies, we identify advantages and limitations to efficacy studies. We also identify considerations for when to adopt efficacy and effectiveness methods, alone or in combination. Finally, we outline a research agenda to investigate issues of internal and external validity, mode of message presentation, differences between marketing and message strategies, and behavioral outcomes.
US Agency for International Development — The Safe Love campaign was a three-year comprehensive HIV prevention behavior change and communication (BCC) initiative implemented between June 2011 and June 2014....
Jeong, Michelle; Bae, Rosie Eungyuhl
This study examined the effect of mass media campaign-generated conversations on campaign-targeted health outcomes, via a systematic meta-analysis of 28 studies (including 124 sub-studies and a total of 138,898 participants). The study also conducted a series of moderation analyses to examine the conditions under which interpersonal communication has larger effects on bringing about the desired outcomes. The findings of this meta-analysis indicate that campaign-generated conversations have a positive effect on inducing campaign-targeted outcomes (OR = 1.28) and show that this effect is moderated by health topic addressed by the campaign, the type of outcome being targeted by the campaign, and with whom people converse, along with several other campaign-relevant and study-relevant variables. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Slater, Michael D
While increasingly widespread use of behavior change theory is an advance for communication campaigns and their evaluation, such theories provide a necessary but not sufficient condition for theory-based communication interventions. Such interventions and their evaluations need to incorporate theoretical thinking about plausible mechanisms of message effect on health-related attitudes and behavior. Otherwise, strategic errors in message design and dissemination, and misspecified campaign logic models, insensitive to campaign effects, are likely to result. Implications of the elaboration likelihood model, attitude accessibility, attitude to the ad theory, exemplification, and framing are explored, and implications for campaign strategy and evaluation designs are briefly discussed. Initial propositions are advanced regarding a theory of campaign affect generalization derived from attitude to ad theory, and regarding a theory of reframing targeted health behaviors in those difficult contexts in which intended audiences are resistant to the advocated behavior or message.
Guilkey, David K; Hutchinson, Paul L
In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the Smiling Sun multimedia health communication campaign in encouraging women to use family health services in rural Bangladesh. We control for endogenous program placement and address the potential endogeneity of self-reported campaign exposure in health-behavior equations by estimating a set of exposure, contraceptive-use, and antenatal-care equations by full information maximum likelihood (FIML). We find that evaluation methods that do not take into account these nonrandom characteristics of communication and program exposure may produce underestimates of program benefits. Relative to the exposure effect of 3.7 percentage points in the simple model of contraceptive use, the exposure effect in the FIML model is a larger 5.5 percentage points, corresponding to as many as 40,000 additional contraceptive users. We conclude that evaluations of health communication campaigns would benefit from methods such as estimation by FIML that address nonrandom exposure and program targeting.
Shi, Jingyuan; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Salmon, Charles T
The past decade has witnessed a rapid increase in the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in health communication campaigns seeking to achieve an ambitious range of health-related impacts. This article provides a review of 40 studies and research protocols, with a focus on two key factors that differentiate SNSs from more traditional health communication approaches of the past. The first is the potential dualism between message sender and receiver, in which receivers become receiver-sources who forward and amplify the content and reach of health messages. The second is the potential dualism between message and message impact, in which the act of forwarding and modifying messages by receiver-sources itself becomes a measure of message impact. Each of these dualisms has implications for the design and evaluation of contemporary health communication campaigns. The review concludes with a series of observations and recommendations for future health communication research.
Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Elder, Randy W; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L; Eroglu, Dogan; Baur, Cynthia; Lyon-Daniel, Katherine; Fridinger, Fred; Sokler, Lynn A; Green, Lawrence W; Miller, Therese; Dearing, James W; Evans, William D; Snyder, Leslie B; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, K; Beistle, Diane M; Chervin, Doryn D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Rimer, Barbara K
Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Using methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980-December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Twenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. Health communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wen, Jing Taylor; Wu, Linwan
Celebrity endorsement has been proved to be a very powerful tool in health campaigns. This study examined how celebrity-issue matchup presented in utilitarian and hedonic appeals influences attitude toward the video, perceived issue severity, and behavioral intentions in the context of ALS communication. The findings showed that celebrity-issue matchup condition outperformed nonmatchup condition in generating positive attitude and behavioral intentions. The results also indicated that utilitarian appeal with matchup condition triggered significantly greater behavioral intention than that with nonmatchup condition. However, no difference was found in hedonic appeal between matchup and nonmatchup conditions. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison
The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more
Nowak, Glen J; Shen, Angela K; Schwartz, Jason L
Vaccines have much relevance and promise for improving adult health in the United States, but to date, overall use and uptake remain far below desired levels. Many adults have not received recommended vaccinations and many healthcare providers do not strongly and actively encourage their use with patients. This has led some public health and medical experts to conclude that adult vaccines are severely undervalued by the U.S. public and healthcare providers and to call for campaigns and communication-based efforts to foster increased appreciation, and in turn, higher adult immunization rates. A narrative integrative review that draws upon the vaccine valuation and health communication literatures is used to develop a framework to guide campaign and communication-based efforts to improve public, provider, and policymakers' assessment of the value of adult vaccination. The review does this by: (1) distinguishing social psychological value from economic value; (2) identifying the implications of social psychological value considerations for adult vaccination-related communication campaigns; and (3) using five core health communication considerations to illustrate how social psychological notions of value can be integrated into campaigns or communication that are intended to improve adult vaccination value perceptions and assessments, and in turn, motivate greater support for and uptake of recommended adult vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Albrecht, T L; Bryant, C
Large-scale communication campaigns for health promotion and disease prevention involve analysis of audience demographic and psychographic factors for effective message targeting. A variety of segmentation modeling techniques, including tree-based methods such as Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection and logistic regression, are used to identify meaningful target groups within a large sample or population (N = 750-1,000+). Such groups are based on statistically significant combinations of factors (e.g., gender, marital status, and personality predispositions). The identification of groups or clusters facilitates message design in order to address the particular needs, attention patterns, and concerns of audience members within each group. We review current segmentation techniques, their contributions to conceptual development, and cost-effective decision making. Examples from a major study in which these strategies were used are provided from the Texas Women, Infants and Children Program's Comprehensive Social Marketing Program.
Yoo, Sun-Wook; Kim, Jarim; Lee, Yeunjae
Social media have recently gained attention as a potential health campaign tool. This study examines this line of expectation concerning the role social media may play in health campaigns by testing an integrated health campaign model that combines insights from research on social media-specific perceptions and communicative behaviors in order to predict health behaviors. Specifically, this study aims to (a) develop a more holistic social media campaign model for predicting health behaviors in the social media context, (b) investigate how social media channel-related perceptions affect preventive health behaviors, and (c) investigate how communicative behaviors mediate perceptions and behavioral intention. The study conducted an online survey of 498 females who followed the Purple Ribbon Twitter campaign (@pprb), a cervical cancer prevention campaign. The results indicated that information acquisition mediated perceived risk's effect on intention. Information acquisition also mediated the relationships between intention and information selection and information transmission. On the other hand, social media-related perceptions indirectly impacted behavioral intention through communicative behaviors. The findings' theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Friedman, Allison L; Kachur, Rachel E; Noar, Seth M; McFarlane, Mary
Despite the ubiquity of sex in the media, a culture of silence surrounds sexual health in the United States, serving as a barrier to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, testing, and treatment. Campaigns can increase STD-related knowledge, communication, and protective behaviors. This review assesses the effectiveness of STD prevention and testing campaigns in the United States to inform the field on their use as a strategy for affecting behavior change. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original research articles, published between 2000 and 2014, which report on US media campaigns promoting community- or population-level STD testing or prevention behaviors and are evaluated for impact on one or more behavioral outcomes. Titles and abstracts were independently reviewed by 2 researchers. The review yielded 26 articles representing 16 unique STD testing and/or prevention campaigns. Most campaigns were developed using formative research and social marketing or behavioral theory. Most campaigns (68.75%) used posttest-only or pretest-posttest designs without comparison groups for evaluation; only 5 campaigns used control groups, and these proved challenging (i.e., achieving necessary exposure and avoiding contamination). Nearly all campaigns found differences between exposed and unexposed individuals on one or more key behavioral outcomes. Several campaigns found dose-response relationships. Among evaluations with uncontaminated control groups whose campaigns achieved sufficient exposure, sustained campaign effects were observed among targeted populations. Current findings suggest that campaigns can impact targeted STD-related behaviors and add to the evidence that greater exposure is associated with greater behavior change.
Case, Kathleen; Crook, Brittani; Lazard, Allison; Mackert, Michael
Objective: This formative study examined perceptions of e-cigarettes in college students with the goal of informing future health communication campaigns. Differences between e-cigarette users and nonusers were also examined. Participants: Thirty undergraduate students were recruited from a large southwestern public university (15 users, 15…
Massett, Holly A; Dilts, David M; Bailey, Robert; Berktold, Jennifer; Ledsky, Rebecca; Atkinson, Nancy L; Mishkin, Grace; Denicoff, Andrea; Padberg, Rose Mary; Allen, Marin P; Silver, Karen; Carrington, Kelli; Johnson, Lenora E
Clinical trials are essential for developing new and effective treatments and improving patient quality of life; however, many trials cannot answer their primary research questions because they fall short of their recruitment goals. This article reports the results of formative research conducted in two populations, the public and primary care physicians, to identify messages that may raise awareness and increase interest in clinical trials and be used in a national communication campaign. Results suggested that participants were primarily motivated to participate in clinical trials out of a self-interest to help themselves first. Messages illustrated that current treatments were tested via clinical trials, helped normalize trials as routine practices, and reduced concerns over trying something new first. Participants wanted messages that portray trials as state-of-the-art choices that offer some hope, show people like themselves, and are described in a clear, concise manner with actionable steps for them to take. The study revealed some differences in message salience, with healthy audiences exhibiting lower levels of interest. Our results suggest that targeted messages are needed, and that communication with primary health-care providers is an important and necessary component in raising patient awareness of the importance of clinical trials.
Tabassum, Reshman; Froeschl, Guenter; Cruz, Jonas P; Colet, Paolo C; Dey, Sukhen; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
In recent years, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become epidemic in Bangladesh. Behaviour changing interventions are key to prevention and management of NCDs. A great majority of people in Bangladesh have low health literacy, are less receptive to health information, and are unlikely to embrace positive health behaviours. Mass media campaigns can play a pivotal role in changing health behaviours of the population. This review pinpoints the role of mass media campaigns for NCDs and the challenges along it, whilst stressing on NCD preventive programmes (with the examples from different countries) to change health behaviours in Bangladesh. Future research should underpin the use of innovative technologies and mobile phones, which might be a prospective option for NCD prevention and management in Bangladesh.
Miller, Ann Neville; McCain, Joan
Although a growing number of universities are mounting concentrations or degrees in health communication, the most common level of training offered in the subject is a single introductory course. Typically, prerequisites for these courses are an introduction to communication course and/or a communication theory course. This makes it challenging to…
Cofie, Patience; De Allegri, Manuela; Kouyaté, Bocar; Sauerborn, Rainer
The study analysed the effect of Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) campaign activities on the adoption of a community-based health insurance (CHI) scheme in Nouna, Burkina Faso. It also identified the factors that enhanced or limited the campaign's effectiveness. Complementary data collection approaches were used. A survey was conducted with 250 randomly selected household heads, followed by in-depth interviews with 22 purposively selected community leaders, group discussions with the project management team, and field observations. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between household exposure to campaign and acquisition of knowledge as well as household exposure to campaign and enrolment. The IEC campaign had a positive effect on households' knowledge about the CHI and to a lesser extent on household enrolment in the scheme. The effectiveness of the IEC strategy was mainly influenced by: (1) frequent and consistent IEC messages from multiple media channels (mass and interpersonal channels), including the radio, a mobile information van, and CHI team, and (2) community heads' participation in the CHI scheme promotion. Education was the only significantly influential socio-demographic determinant of knowledge and enrolment among household heads. The relatively low effects of the IEC campaign on CHI enrolment are indicative of other important IEC mediating factors, which should be taken into account in future CHI campaign evaluation. The study concludes that an IEC campaign is crucial to improving the understanding of the CHI scheme concept, which is an enabler to enrolment, and should be integrated into scheme designs and evaluations.
Full Text Available Objective : The study analysed the effect of Information, Education, and Communication (IEC campaign activities on the adoption of a community-based health insurance (CHI scheme in Nouna, Burkina Faso. It also identified the factors that enhanced or limited the campaign's effectiveness. Design : Complementary data collection approaches were used. A survey was conducted with 250 randomly selected household heads, followed by in-depth interviews with 22 purposively selected community leaders, group discussions with the project management team, and field observations. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between household exposure to campaign and acquisition of knowledge as well as household exposure to campaign and enrolment. Results : The IEC campaign had a positive effect on households’ knowledge about the CHI and to a lesser extent on household enrolment in the scheme. The effectiveness of the IEC strategy was mainly influenced by: 1 frequent and consistent IEC messages from multiple media channels (mass and interpersonal channels, including the radio, a mobile information van, and CHI team, and 2 community heads’ participation in the CHI scheme promotion. Education was the only significantly influential socio-demographic determinant of knowledge and enrolment among household heads. The relatively low effects of the IEC campaign on CHI enrolment are indicative of other important IEC mediating factors, which should be taken into account in future CHI campaign evaluation. Conclusion : The study concludes that an IEC campaign is crucial to improving the understanding of the CHI scheme concept, which is an enabler to enrolment, and should be integrated into scheme designs and evaluations.
L.Chase, Nancy; Dominick, Gregory M.; Trepal, Amy; Bailey, Leanne S.; Friedman, Daniela B.
This paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a pilot recycling campaign. The goal of the campaign was to increase people’s awareness and knowledge about recycling and the link between a healthy environment and the public’s health. A total of 258 individuals attended campaign week events and completed an initial survey. Results identified inconvenience of recycling facility locations as a key barrier to recycling. Post-campaign survey results revealed increased recycling of paper, plastic, glass, and cans (p recycling (88.4%) and their recycling efforts increased (61.6%). PMID:20049239
Kaufman, Michelle R; Harman, Jennifer J; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Orkis, Jennifer; Ainslie, Robert
Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility. An evaluation to determine the impact of the national Wazazi Nipendeni campaign was conducted in five purposively selected regions of Tanzania using exit interviews with pregnant and post-natal women attending ANC clinics. A total of 1708 women were interviewed regarding campaign exposure, ANC attendance, and individual birth planning. Over one third of interviewed women (35.1%) reported exposure to the campaign in the last month. The more sources from which women reported hearing the Wazazi Nipendeni message, the more they planned for the birth of their child (β = 0.08, p = .001). Greater numbers of types of exposure to the Wazazi Nipendeni message was associated with an increase in ANC visits (β = 0.05, p = .004). Intervention exposure did not significantly predict the timing of the first ANC visit or HIV testing in the adjusted model, however, findings showed that exposure did predict whether women delivered at a health care facility (or not) and whether they tested for HIV with a partner in the unadjusted models. The Wazazi Nipendeni campaign shows promise that such a behavior change communication intervention could lead to better pregnancy and childbirth outcomes for women in low resource settings. For outcomes such as HIV testing, message exposure showed some promising effects, but demographic variables such as age and socioeconomic status
Parackal, Mathew; Parackal, Sherly; Eusebius, Shobhit; Mather, Damien
Social media is gaining recognition as a platform for delivering public health messages. One area attracting attention from public health researchers and professionals is Facebook's advertising channel. This channel is reported to have a broad reach and generate high user engagement with the disseminated campaign materials. However, to date, no study has examined the communication process via this channel which this study aimed to address. The specific objectives of the study were to (1) examine user engagement for a public health campaign based on the metadata provided by Facebook, (2) analyze comments generated by the campaign materials using text mining, and (3) investigate the relationship between the themes identified in the comments and the message and the sentiments prevalent in the themes that exhibited significant relationships. This study examined a New Zealand public health pilot campaign called "Don't Know? Don't Drink," which warned against drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The campaign conveyed the warning through a video and three banner ads that were delivered as news feeds to women aged 18-30 years. Thematic analysis using text mining performed on the comments (n=819) identified four themes. Logistic regression was used to identify meaning-making themes that exhibited association with the message. The users' engagement was impressive with the video receiving 203,754 views. The combined likes and shares for the promotional materials (video and banner ads) amounted to 6125 and 300, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed two meaning-making themes, namely, risk of pregnancy (P=.003) and alcohol and culture (PFacebook's advertising channel. ©Mathew Parackal, Sherly Parackal, Shobhit Eusebius, Damien Mather. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 10.08.2017.
Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Awiti, Alphonce; Musuva, Rosemary; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan; Mwinzi, Pauline
Compliance with mass drug administration (MDA) can be affected by rumors and mistrust about the drug. Communication campaigns are an effective way to influence attitudes and health behaviors in diverse public health contexts, but there is very little documentation about experiences using health communications in schistosomiasis control programs. A qualitative study was conducted with community health workers (CHWs) as informants to explore the effect of a health communication campaign on their experiences during subsequent praziquantel MDA for schistosomiasis. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English where applicable, and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti software. According to the CHWs, exposure to mass media messages improved awareness of the MDA, which in turn, led to better treatment compliance. Our findings suggest that communication campaigns influence health behaviors and create awareness of schistosomiasis control interventions, which may ultimately improve praziquantel MDA. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Abraham, Vinod J; John, Jacob
Malaria is endemic in several states of India with high tribal population. Effective use of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLITNs) can reduce the burden of malaria in these settings. This study assessed the knowledge and behaviour regarding malaria in a tribal population and compared two health education strategies for enhancing effective utilisation of bed nets. A community-based intervention study was carried out among 218 households in two villages. One community received household level training on effective utilisation of LLITNs while the others received training in a mass campaign and outcomes were measured after 2 months. The study showed that the proportion utilising LLITNs was significantly higher among those receiving household level training as compared to those who received the mass campaign. Household level training appears to be a more effective form of health education for improving knowledge and promoting use of LLITNs in these isolated community groups. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Case, Kathleen; Crook, Brittani; Lazard, Allison; Mackert, Michael
Objective This formative study examined perceptions of e-cigarettes in college students with the goal of informing future health communication campaigns. Differences between e-cigarette users and nonusers were also examined. Participants: Thirty undergraduate students were recruited from a large southwestern public university (15 users, 15 nonusers). Methods Structured interviews were conducted and transcripts were coded for themes. Results Although users had more favorable attitudes toward e-cigarettes, both users and nonusers believed that e-cigarettes produce water vapor and reported that e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Potential health consequences and addiction concerns were the most common perceived threats for both users and nonusers. Both nonusers and users cited social stigma as a perceived disadvantage of e-cigarette use. Conclusions Ultimately, themes with particular relevance to future health communication campaigns included negative perceptions of e-cigarette users and social stigma, as well as harm perceptions and potential health consequences associated with e-cigarette use. PMID:26979833
Vega, Miriam Y; Roland, Eric L
To describe the social marketing approaches used to increase syphilis awareness in 8 US cities. We reviewed the typical academic approach for developing social marketing campaigns and interviewed health department staff responsible for social marketing campaigns in each city. Using social marketing techniques such as target segmentation, concept testing of materials, and formative evaluation, campaign planners throughout the 8 cities developed a variety of approaches to reach their target audiences. Preliminary results suggest 71% to 80% of men who have sex with men interviewed were aware of the campaigns, and 45% to 53% of them reported they were tested due to the campaigns. Campaigns should address the local epidemic and target audience with culturally appropriate messages.
Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael
Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)
Arguably, the ultimate application of evidenced-based communications is translating the research recommendations into a full-fledged media campaign. This article explains the development and implementation of Watch Your Mouth, a campaign based on FrameWorks Institute's research on children's oral health. To date, this innovative campaign has been…
It is widely agreed that college students do not fully participate in the political process. The most commonly cited reasons are apathy, indifference, and ignorance. This article presents an activity that aims to help students learn about communication dynamics in the context of political campaigns and develop an appreciation and confidence about…
In building public support for social change, activists in communities of color routinely approach broader audiences via news media. Communities of color, however, routinely face disparities that limit their access to media including local news media outlets. This lack of access mirrors inequalities in political, social, and economic arenas and can slow public awareness campaigns to address disparities in health, environmental, and other quality-of-life issues. I describe two community-based collaborative action research studies that documented and challenged how local television newscasts underrepresented and misrepresented three communities of color in Boston. The linkage between communication rights and campaigns to address quality-of-life issues is presented, as well as unresolved challenges in the collaborative research process. The study has implications for environmental health campaigns.
Rosselli, Roberto; Martini, Mariano; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Watad, Abdulla
Seasonal influenza, causing complications, hospitalizations and deaths, generates a serious socio-economic burden, especially among elderly and high-risk subjects, as well as among adult individuals. Despite the availability and active free-of charge offer of influenza vaccines, vaccine coverage rates remain low and far from the target established by the Ministry of Health. Notwithstanding their effectiveness, vaccines are victims of prejudices and false myths, that contribute to the increasing phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy and loss of confidence. Media and, in particular, new media and information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a major role in disseminating health-related information. They are extremely promising devices for delivering health education and promoting disease prevention, including immunization. However, they can also have a negative impact on population's health attitudes and behaviors when channeling wrong, misleading information. During the 2014/2015 influenza vaccination campaign, the report of four deaths allegedly caused by administration of an adjuvanted influenza vaccine, Fluad - the so-called "Fluad case" - received an important media coverage, which contributed to the failure of the vaccination campaign, dramatically reducing the influenza vaccine uptake. In the extant literature, there is a dearth of information concerning the effect of the "Fluad case". The current study aims at quantifying the impact of the "Fluad effect" at the level of the Local Health Unit 3 (LHU3) ASL3 Genovese, Genoa, Italy. Ethical implications for health-care workers and health communication practitioners are also envisaged.
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...
Beaudoin, Christopher E; Thorson, Esther
This article examines the impact of a socially oriented public health media campaign that aims to influence social indicators among adults as a means to advances in youth health outcomes. Hierarchical regression analyses are conducted on telephone survey data from 18 weekly telephone surveys of adults in Kansas. Media campaign exposure was positively associated with two outcome measures: beliefs about youth development and behaviors toward youth development. In addition, these two outcome measures increased significantly over time, with the dissemination of the campaign's television and newspaper advertisements. Furthermore, these over-time increases were present only among respondents who were exposed to the media campaign. These findings offer support for the campaign's influence on the two social indicators, which would, per other research, be expected to influence improvements in youth health. Findings are discussed in reference to previous research in the areas of public health and mass communication, with implications made for practitioners and researchers.
Levine, Elyse; Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Mobley, Amy R; McLaughlin, Grant R; Herzog, Jill
MyPlate, the icon and multimodal communication plan developed for the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), provides an opportunity to consider new approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of communication initiatives. A review of indicators used in assessments for previous DGA communication initiatives finds gaps in accounting for important intermediate and long-term outcomes. This evaluation framework for the MyPlate Communications Initiative builds on well-known and underused models and theories to propose a wide breadth of observations, outputs, and outcomes that can contribute to a fuller assessment of effectiveness. Two areas are suggested to focus evaluation efforts in order to advance understanding of the effectiveness of the MyPlate Communications Initiative: understanding the extent to which messages and products from the initiative are associated with positive changes in social norms toward the desired behaviors, and strategies to increase the effectiveness of communications about DGA in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Godfrey, D. Matthew; Feng, Patrick
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the impacts of a science-based environmental communication campaign at a university dining hall. The impacts are assessed in terms of student attitudes toward sustainability, food consumption choices and perceptions and understanding of the campaign and the information it communicated.…
van Spanje, J.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Elenbaas, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Azrout, R.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.
Do political actors communicate effectively during electoral campaigns? We introduce a novel concept in electoral research, the "perceived effectiveness of political parties' election campaigns." This evaluation concentrates on the extent to which a party is seen as getting its message across to the
O'Keefe, Garrett J.
Critiques and studies have found the traditional two-step flow model of social influence inadequate to describe and explain relationships between interpersonal and mass communications during political campaigns. A study was undertaken to incorporate a wider range of variables pertinent to both kinds of political communication behaviors to redefine…
Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.; Landeau-Constantin, J.
The communication campaign for Rosetta has been the biggest success in the history of European Space Agency outreach, resulting in global awareness for the agency. The mission itself is an extraordinary operational and scientific success, but communicating only the operational and scientific firsts would likely not have brought the Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander to the attention of so many people, and would not have made the mission part of people's lives across the globe. The additional impact brought to the mission through the communication campaign was based on a strategic approach focusing on: real-time release of information with maximum transparency; direct real-time access for media and social media; adding a human dimension to the story; and communicating the risks openly in order to manage expectations. In this article we describe our overall strategy, illustrate its implementation, and provide the framework for subsequent articles in this journal highlighting specific aspects of the campaign in more detail.
Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C.
This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on two quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relationship between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected prior to the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3277 adult Philadelphian smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants three months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors, and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367
Cooper, Andrew; Gray, Jonathon; Willson, Alan; Lines, Chris; McCannon, Joe; McHardy, Karina
Effective communication is critical to successful large-scale change. Yet, in our experience, communications strategies are not formally incorporated into quality improvement (QI) frameworks. The 1000 Lives Campaign ('Campaign') was a large-scale national QI collaborative that aimed to save an additional 1000 lives and prevent 50 000 episodes of harm in Welsh health care over a 2-year period. We use the Campaign as a case study to describe the development, application, and impact of a communications strategy embedded in a large-scale QI initiative. A comprehensive communications strategy guided communications work during the Campaign. The main aims of the communications strategy were to engage the hearts and minds of frontline National Health Service (NHS) staff in the Campaign and promote their awareness and understanding of specific QI interventions and the wider patient safety agenda. We used qualitative and quantitative measures to monitor communications outputs and assess how the communications strategy influenced awareness and knowledge of frontline NHS staff. The communications strategy facilitated clear and consistent framing of Campaign messages and allowed dissemination of information related to the range of QI interventions. It reaffirmed the aim and value of the Campaign to frontline staff, thereby promoting sustained engagement with Campaign activities. The communications strategy also built the profile of the Campaign both internally with NHS organizations across Wales and externally with the media, and played a pivotal role in improving awareness and understanding of the patient safety agenda. Ultimately, outcomes from the communications strategy could not be separated from overall Campaign outcomes. Systematic and structured communications can support and enhance QI initiatives. From our experience, we developed a 'communications bundle' consisting of six core components. We recommend that communications bundles be incorporated into existing QI
This paper proposes a theoretical perspective on road safety communication campaigns, which may help in identifying the conditions under which such campaigns can be effective. The paper proposes that, from a theoretical point of view, it is reasonable to assume that road user behaviour is, by and large, subjectively rational. This means that road users are assumed to behave the way they think is best. If this assumption is accepted, the best theoretical prediction is that road safety campaigns consisting of persuasive messages only will have no effect on road user behaviour and accordingly no effect on accidents. This theoretical prediction is not supported by meta-analyses of studies that have evaluated the effects of road safety communication campaigns. These analyses conclude that, on the average, such campaigns are associated with an accident reduction. The paper discusses whether this finding can be explained theoretically. The discussion relies on the distinction made by many modern theorists between bounded and perfect rationality. Road user behaviour is characterised by bounded rationality. Hence, if road users can gain insight into the bounds of their rationality, so that they see advantages to themselves of changing behaviour, they are likely to do so. It is, however, largely unknown whether such a mechanism explains why some road safety communication campaigns have been found to be more effective than others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This management project looks at four recent social marketing campaigns in the field of health in the UK to determine whether such campaigns work. The project critically analyses the marketing campaigns used, and aims to determine the range of factors that create a successful social marketing campaign in health. There is analysis of four case studies undertaken after secondary research into social marketing campaigns run by a range of different organisations. The case studies are the ...
Full Text Available The election campaign has lately become a real challenge where all the political actors display their skills, the communication ones, but also those related to the electoral marketing and public relations which play a vital role in creating the image of a particular candidate. The interest that the public manifest towards the presidential debates, as well as towards all the means of political communication used by the actors involved represents a reference point in the construction of an election campaign. Our paper aims to achieve a quantitative analysis of the communicational messages sent during the 2014 presidential campaign in the online media. In this respect, we are going to conduct a media monitoring on two central newspapers, namely “Evenimentul Zilei” (“Daily Event” and “Jurnalul Național” (“National Journal”, to track the online media visibility of the political communication starting from several indicators predefined in order to measure the efficiency of the political communication. Thus, our approach considers the influence of political communication in the election campaign as it appears in the online press in Romania.
Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian
Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children's decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) to encourage parent-child communication about sex. Previous experimental studies have found the campaign to be efficacious in increasing parent-child communication. But to date, the actual reach of the campaign and its real-world effectiveness in promoting parent-child communication has not been established. The present study addresses this gap. The authors surveyed 1,804 parents of 10- to14-year-old children from the nationally representative Knowledge Networks online panel. The survey included questions about parents' awareness of PSUNC ads and parent-child communication behaviors. The authors also analyzed market-level data on campaign gross rating points, a measure of market-level intensity of PSUNC advertising in the United States. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the association between PSUNC exposure and a three-item scale for parent-child communication. Overall, 59.4% of parents in the sample reported awareness of PSUNC. The authors found that higher market-level PSUNC gross rating points were associated with increased parent-child communication. Similar relationships were observed between self-reported awareness of PSUNC and increased frequency of communication and recommendations to wait. These associations were particularly strong among mothers. This study provides the first field-based data on the real-world reach and effectiveness of PSUNC among parents. The data support earlier experimental trials of PSUNC, showing that the campaign is associated with greater parent-child communication, primarily among mothers. Further research may be needed to develop additional messages for fathers.
Full Text Available The rapid growth of the numbers of unaffiliated voters and the internet users caused politicians’ interest in these audiences and the start of their activities in these communication channels by establishing more personalized relationships with voters. This paper aims to analyze the communication of main parties and their candidates in social media channel “Facebook” and in popular Lithuanian internet news media portals, such as delfi.lt, lrytas.lt and others before the Parliamentary elections in 2012 and the forthcoming 2016 Parliamentary elections. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects of campaign coverage in the media portals and Facebook are analysed. The paper addresses the following questions: How important are factors such as new party emergence, parallel referendum campaign, and activity of using social media for the final result of elections? How active were the politicians in the Facebook? What content dominated their profiles? How much personalized were their messages? What strategies were used for communication? Did the politicians aim at mobilizing or at persuasion the voters? Involvement of citizens, voters’ turnout and political results are linked with campaign arguments and the value normative environment. We conclude by providing the discussion on the noticed tendencies and possible improvements in the communication of candidates for the future.
Prasetyo, N.D.; Hauff, C.; Nguyen, D.; Broek, T.A. van den; Hiemstra, D.
Health campaigns that aim to raise awareness and subsequently raise funds for research and treatment are commonplace. While many local campaigns exist, very few attract the attention of a global audience. One of those global campaigns is Movember, an annual campaign during the month of November,
Sørensen, Mariann B.
communication changes from information to conversation and negotiation of a chared understanding and challenges the concept of professionalism. The success of conversations depends on the interactions and the capacity to deal with several voices in a complex context. The study discusses the opportunity...
A wide-scale information campaign, using a memorable slogan, reminded health professionals and users that the prescribing of antibiotics is not 'automatic' in the case of a viral infection. The fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria requires the consumption of these medications to be limited in order to preserve their effectiveness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.
Goodman, Jordi; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Springgate, Benjamin F.
Barack Obama’s successful campaign for the presidency has been widely attributed to the use of social networking sites, mobile devices, and interactive websites to engage previously hard-to-reach populations in political activity. Campaign communication strategies may be applicable for youth health promotion efforts, particularly for the highly stigmatized issue of mental health. In this article, we examine elements of the 2008 Obama presidential campaign’s use of social media technologies an...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling obesity has become one of the highest priorities for public health practitioners in developed countries. In the absence of safe, effective and widely accessible high-risk approaches (e.g. drugs and surgery attention has focussed on community-based approaches and social marketing campaigns as the most appropriate form of intervention. However there is limited evidence in support of substantial effectiveness of such interventions. Discussion To date there is little evidence that community-based interventions and social marketing campaigns specifically targeting obesity provide substantial or lasting benefit. Concerns have been raised about potential negative effects created by a focus of these interventions on body shape and size, and of the associated media targeting of obesity. Summary A more appropriate strategy would be to enact high-level policy and legislative changes to alter the obesogenic environments in which we live by providing incentives for healthy eating and increased levels of physical activity. Research is also needed to improve treatments available for individuals already obese.
Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji
Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and…
Goske, Marilyn J; Applegate, Kimberly E; Boylan, Jennifer; Butler, Priscilla F; Callahan, Michael J; Coley, Brian D; Farley, Shawn; Frush, Donald P; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Jaramillo, Diego; Johnson, Neil D; Kaste, Sue C; Morrison, Gregory; Strauss, Keith J
Communication campaigns are an accepted method for altering societal attitudes, increasing knowledge, and achieving social and behavioral change particularly within public health and the social sciences. The Image Gently(SM) campaign is a national education and awareness campaign in radiology designed to promote the need for and opportunities to decrease radiation to children when CT scans are indicated. In this article, the relatively new science of social marketing is reviewed and the theoretical basis for an effective communication campaign in radiology is discussed. Communication strategies are considered and the type of outcomes that should be measured are reviewed. This methodology has demonstrated that simple, straightforward safety messages on radiation protection targeted to medical professionals throughout the radiology community, utilizing multiple media, can affect awareness potentially leading to change in practice.
Chau, Josephine Y; McGill, Bronwyn; Thomas, Margaret M; Carroll, Tom E; Bellew, William; Bauman, Adrian; Grunseit, Anne C
Social marketing (SM) campaigns can be a powerful disease prevention and health promotion strategy but health-related campaigns may simply focus on the "promotions" communication activities and exclude other key characteristics of the SM approach. This paper describes the application of a checklist for identifying which lifestyle-related chronic disease prevention campaigns reported as SM actually represent key SM principles and practice. A checklist of SM criteria was developed, reviewed and refined by SM and mass media campaign experts. Papers identified in searches for "social marketing" and "mass media" for obesity, diet and physical activity campaigns in the health literature were classified using the checklist. Using the checklist, 66.6% of papers identified in the "SM" search and 39% of papers identified from the "mass media" search were classified as SM campaigns. Inter-rater agreement for classification using the abstract only was 92.1%. Health-related campaigns that self-identify as "social marketing" or "mass media" may not include the key characteristics of a SM approach. Published literature can provide useful guidance for developing and evaluating health-related SM campaigns, but health promotion professionals need to be able to identify what actually comprises SM in practice. SO WHAT?: SM could be a valuable strategy in comprehensive health promotion interventions, but it is often difficult for non-experts to identify published campaigns that represent a true SM approach. This paper describes the application of a checklist to assist policy makers and practitioners in appraising evidence from campaigns reflecting actual SM in practice. The checklist could also guide reporting on SM campaigns. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.
Hoogerduijn Strating, Eilard; Seinen, Chiel; Heeringa, Henk; Pestman, Bart
In 2011, after several years without frack activities onshore in the Netherlands, a new conventional frack campaign was planned. In the interim, anti-shalegas sentiments had carried over from the US to Europe and various countries had announced a frack moratorium. The Netherlands was not amongst these yet, but it was recognized that starting a new conventional frack campaign could potentially result in a significant negative public sentiment and affect our License to Operate. A team of subsurface and communication experts drafted a communication strategy that was premised on the "Discuss > Decide > Deliver" philosophy, implying that a decision on the campaign-start would only be taken after the results of the engagements with key stakeholders indicated sufficient support. It was recognized that in order to start communication with stakeholders and the general public through engagements, infographics, websites etc., several minimum requirements had to be in place: 1] An explanation about why fracking is done and what it entails 2] An assessment and description of the risks (eg groundwater contamination, tremors) 3] A description of the REACH compliant chemicals used (composition & quantities). With the basic info in place, a staged engagement process was set up where key stakeholders at the national level were informed first, followed by those at regional level (including waterboards), followed by local stakeholders. Several "Go-No go" decision points were build in. Throughout it was agreed that a target date for the actual frack campaign was only to be set once local engagements were going to start. Several of the technical staff (eg subsurface and well engineers) received media and communication training to prep them for the engagements with external stakeholders and communities. Also several staff were identified that would be involved in the writing of Q&A's, external bulletins etc. Having technical staff involved in such communications helped build credibility
This study explores whether and how campaign-induced changes in local information environments influence citizens' everyday communication activities. The empirical analysis in this study centers on a comparison of two New Jersey media markets that showed idiosyncratic differences in the amount of political advertising during the 2000 presidential…
Bushar, Jessica A; Fishman, Jodie; Garfinkel, Danielle; Pirretti, Amy
Public health practitioners have increasingly leveraged technology-based communication to get health information into the hands of hard-to-reach populations; however, best practices for outreach and enrollment into mobile health (mHealth) programs are lacking. This article describes enrollment results from campaigns focused on enrolling underserved pregnant women and mothers in Text4baby-a free, mHealth service-to inform outreach strategies for mHealth programs. Text4baby participants receive health and safety information, interactive surveys, alerts, and appointment reminders through at least three weekly texts and a free app-timed to users' due date or babies' birth date. Text4baby worked with partners to implement national, state, and community-based enrollment campaigns. Descriptive statistics were used to compare baseline enrollment prior to a campaign with enrollment during a campaign to generate enrollment estimates. Enrollment rates were calculated for campaigns for which the number targeted/reached was available. National television campaigns resulted in more than 10,000 estimated enrollments. Campaigns that were integrated with an existing program and text-based recruitment had the highest enrollment rates, ranging from 7% to 24%. Facebook advertisements and traditional media targeting providers and consumers were least effective. mHealth programs should consider text-based recruitment and outreach via existing programs; additional research is needed on return on investment for different outreach strategies and on the effectiveness of different outreach strategies at reaching and enrolling specific target populations.
Lindsey, Billie J; Hawk, Carol Wetherill
This paper describes a sustained partnership between a university community health program and local and regional community health agencies. As a key component of the Health Communication and Social Marketing course, the partnership involves undergraduate community health students working for and with community agencies and community members to design social marketing campaigns based on community-identified health needs. The goals of the course are to (1) provide students with the opportunity to work within the community to apply their skills in program planning, evaluation, and communication and (2) provide community agencies with a tailored campaign that can be implemented in their communities. Throughout the 10-week quarter, teams of students follow the principles of community participation in planning a social marketing campaign. These include (1) audience segmentation and formative assessment with the intended audience to determine campaign content and strategies and (2) pretesting and revisions of campaign messages and materials based on community feedback. This partnership contributes to the promotion of health in the local community and it builds the skills and competencies of future health educators. It demonstrates a successful and sustainable combination of community-based participatory research and experiential learning. From 2005 to 2011, 35 campaigns have been developed, many which have been implemented.
Hornik, Robert C; Yanovitzky, Itzhak
We present a general theory about how campaigns can have effects and suggest that the evaluation of communication campaigns must be driven by a theory of effects. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign illustrates both the theory of campaign effects and implications that theory has for the evaluation design. Often models of effect assume that individual exposure affects cognitions that continue to affect behavior over a short term. Contrarily, effects may operate through social or institutional paths as well as through individual learning, require substantial levels of exposure achieved through multiple channels over time, take time to accumulate detectable change, and affect some members of the audience but not others. Responsive evaluations will choose appropriate units of analysis and comparison groups, data collection schedules sensitive to lagged effects, samples able to detect subgroup effects, and analytic strategies consistent with the theory of effects that guides the campaign.
Prentice, Diana B.; Carlin, John
Arguing that state and local political issue campaigns warrant increased attention from communication scholars, this paper presents a rationale for analysis of issue campaigns, develops a framework for organizing and analyzing such campaigns, and applies the framework to an analysis of the 1986 campaign for the sale of liquor "by the…
Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E
Literature suggests that 'negative advertising' is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation's "truth" campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy's "truth" campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry's own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of 'vilifying' it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the "truth" campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.
Full Text Available Abstract Health communication consists of interpersonal or mass communication activities focused on improving the health of individuals and populations. Skills in understanding and applying information about health issues are critical to this process and may have a substantial impact on health behaviors and health outcomes. These skills have recently been conceptualized in terms of health literacy (HL. This article introduces current concepts and measurements of HL, and discusses the role of HL in health communication, as well as future research directions in this domain. Studies of HL have increased dramatically during the past few years, but a gap between the conceptual definition of HL and its application remains. None of the existing instruments appears to completely measure the concept of HL. In particular, studies on communication/interaction and HL remain limited. Furthermore, HL should be considered not only in terms of the characteristics of individuals, but also in terms of the interactional processes between individuals and their health and social environments. Improved HL may enhance the ability and motivation of individuals to find solutions to both personal and public health problems, and these skills could be used to address various health problems throughout life. The process underpinning HL involves empowerment, one of the major goals of health communication.
Bilgehan Gültekin; Tuba Gültekin
Universities have an important role in social education in many aspects. In terms of creating awareness and convincing public about social issues, universities take a leading position for public. The best way to provide public support for social education is to develop public communication campaigns. The aim of this study is to present a public communication model which will be guided in social education practices. The study titled “Importance of public communication campaigns and art activit...
Craig, C L; Bauman, A; Reger-Nash, B
The hierarchy of effects (HOE) model is often used in planning mass-reach communication campaigns to promote health, but has rarely been empirically tested. This paper examines Canada's 30 year ParticipACTION campaign to promote physical activity (PA). A cohort from the nationally representative 1981 Canada Fitness Survey was followed up in 1988 and 2002-2004. Modelling of these data tested whether the mechanisms of campaign effects followed the theoretical framework proposed in the HOE. Campaign awareness was measured in 1981. Outcome expectancy, attitudes, decision balance and future intention were asked in 1988. PA was assessed at all time points. Logistic regression was used to sequentially test mediating and moderating variables adjusting for age, sex and education. No selection bias was observed; however, relatively fewer respondents than non-respondents smoked or were underweight at baseline. Among those inactive at baseline, campaign awareness predicted outcome expectancy which in turn predicted positive attitude to PA. Positive attitudes predicted high decision balance, which predicted future intention. Future intention mediated the relationship between decision balance and sufficient activity. Among those sufficiently active at baseline, awareness was unrelated to outcome expectancy and inversely related to positive attitude. These results lend support to the HOE model, in that the effects of ParticipACTION's serial mass media campaigns were consistent with the sequential rollout of its messages, which in turn was associated with achieving an active lifestyle among those initially insufficiently active. This provides support to an often-used theoretical framework for designing health promotion media campaigns.
Asbury, Lori D; Wong, Faye L; Price, Simani M; Nolin, Mary Jo
A branding strategy was an integral component of the VERB Youth Media Campaign. Branding has a long history in commercial marketing, and recently it has also been applied to public health campaigns. This article describes the process that the CDC undertook to develop a physical activity brand that would resonate with children aged 9-13 years (tweens), to launch an unknown brand nationally, to build the brand's equity, and to protect and maintain the brand's integrity. Considerations for branding other public health campaigns are also discussed.
Full Text Available Article focused on advertising as one of the most important parts of marketing communication in one of the online shop, TokoBagus. Advertising communicated a message from a certain brand to the target audience through a particular medium. The aim of this research was making advertising with a powerful message, so it was able to become a captain of consciousness that could play an important role in economic and social systems of modern society. Because of its potential power, the creative advertising workers had a big responsibility in their hands. It was not only to explore the creativity visually or verbally to a creative worker, but also, they should understand the purpose of communication, the communication strategy, and the creative strategy. In this case, TokoBagus run this in making advertisement campaign to promote its brand. The method used in this research was the qualitative method and inductive model. Data were collected through an interview, literature, and visual data. Those collected data were analyzed using a qualitative-verificative strategy and case study method. The case study was Toko Bagus advertising campaign from the year 2011 to the year 2014 when finally its name changes into OLX. It finds that the advertisements only become beautiful works of art, but it does not solve the problem of the brand. Therefore, this research is important to document the communication strategy and the creative strategy of an advertising campaign so it can be a reference for a young designers or students.
Goodman, Jordi; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Springgate, Benjamin F
Barack Obama's successful campaign for the presidency has been widely attributed to the use of social networking sites, mobile devices, and interactive websites to engage previously hard-to-reach populations in political activity. Campaign communication strategies may be applicable for youth health promotion efforts, particularly for the highly stigmatized issue of mental health. In this article, we examine elements of the 2008 Obama presidential campaign's use of social media technologies and content designed to foster effective political participation among youth. We outline how the same social media technologies may be applied to public health efforts focused on reaching and providing services to the 20% of young people who have a diagnosable mental disorder. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the application of these media to date, and raise questions about the future use of these media for engaging hard-to-reach populations in addressing stigmatized public health issues.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication can be used to generate demand for vaccination or address vaccine hesitancy, and is crucial to successful childhood vaccination programmes. Research efforts have primarily focused on communication for routine vaccination. However, vaccination campaigns, particularly in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs, also use communication in diverse ways. Without a comprehensive framework integrating communication interventions from routine and campaign contexts, it is not possible to conceptualise the full range of possible vaccination communication interventions. Therefore, vaccine programme managers may be unaware of potential communication options and researchers may not focus on building evidence for interventions used in practice. In this paper, we broaden the scope of our existing taxonomy of communication interventions for routine vaccination to include communication used in campaigns, and integrate these into a comprehensive taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions. Methods Building on our taxonomy of communication for routine vaccination, we identified communication interventions used in vaccination campaigns through a targeted literature search; observation of vaccination activities in Cameroon, Mozambique and Nigeria; and stakeholder consultations. We added these interventions to descriptions of routine vaccination communication and categorised the interventions according to their intended purposes, building from an earlier taxonomy of communication related to routine vaccination. Results The comprehensive taxonomy groups communication used in campaigns and routine childhood vaccination into seven purpose categories: ‘Inform or Educate’; ‘Remind or Recall’; ‘Enhance Community Ownership’; ‘Teach Skills’; ‘Provide Support’; ‘Facilitate Decision Making’ and ‘Enable Communication’. Consultations with LMIC stakeholders and experts informed the taxonomy’s definitions and
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notices, bulletins, customer satisfaction... General § 579.5 Notices, bulletins, customer satisfaction campaigns, consumer advisories, and other... to NHTSA a copy of each communication relating to a customer satisfaction campaign, consumer advisory...
Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; de Souza, Rebecca
In contemporary society, health issues have gained increasing urgency in both political and academic spheres. Looking back at the failure of the modernist development initiatives, there is the need to realize that we live in a time of increasing sociopolitical complexity. The present moment is perhaps best understood in terms of a complex tension and linkage between the past and present, global and local, modern and postmodern. The critical-cultural approach to health campaigns is an approach that, through the reflexive interrogation of modernist assumptions underlying health communication campaigns, attempts to foreground the tensions inherent in the practice of health campaigns. This essay discusses the manner in which the critical-cultural approach interrogates modernist assumptions and provides an alternative paradigm for approaching the theory and practice of health campaigns by suggesting the necessity for reflexivity. Specifically, we discuss how the perspective interrogates the role of the media in development, the significance of culture, the locus of health responsibility, the impact of structural conditions, and the politics of knowledge, providing examples of campaigns that illustrate this reflexivity.
Clift, Elayne; Freimuth, Vicki
Health communication helps change behaviors in a large audience regarding a specific problem in a predefined time period. This article illustrates linkages between diffusion theory, social marketing, and health communication, articulating examples of health communication campaigns and discussing three models of health communication programs…
Full Text Available Within a company’s activities, an important role is granted to the performance and implementation of information campaigns for the final consumers. The paper has the general objective to identify specific issues that constitute the premises for the preparation and conduct of such activities, and especially the expected results. The analysis is performed and based on a direct research among several companies, which operate in various fields, for the identification of a method of performance and implementation of information campaigns that are necessary for ensuring visibility on the reference market. The aim of the study was to identify the importance that the firms from Resita give to information campaigns addressed to a target audience. The study was carried from April to May 2013 on a sample of small, medium and large firms, which operate in trade, manufacturing and services. The questions and the discussions addressed to the public were meant to outline the specific aspects of the exact way in which the information campaigns were done for their clients, but also to underline the results obtained with the help of these campaigns.
Karan, Abraar; Hartford, Emily; Coates, Thomas J
The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a point of important political concern for governments especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical and public health interventions to curb the epidemic can be greatly enhanced with the strategic support of political leaders. We analyzed the role of national political leadership in large-scale HIV/AIDS communications campaigns in 14 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. We primarily reviewed grey and white literature published from 2005-2014. We further triangulated data from in-person and phone interviews with key public health figures. A number of themes emerged supporting political leaders' efforts toward HIV/AIDS program improvement, including direct involvement of public officials in campaign spearheading, the acknowledgment of personal relationship to the HIV epidemic, and public testing and disclosure of HIV status. Areas for future improvement were also identified, including the need for more directed messaging, increased transparency both nationally and internationally and the reduction of stigmatizing messaging from leaders. The political system has a large role to play within the healthcare system, particularly for HIV/AIDS. This partnership between politics and the health must continue to strengthen and be leveraged to effect major change in behaviors and attitudes across Sub-Saharan Africa.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was a part of a contestable rapid response initiative launched by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Health in response to the 2009 influenza A pandemic. The aim was to provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective health messages for H1N1 and other health campaigns. This study contributed to the initiative by providing qualitative data about community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behavioural change and the differential impact on vulnerable groups in New Zealand. Methods Qualitative data were collected on community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 Ministry of Health H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behaviour and the differential impact on vulnerable groups. Eight focus groups were held in the winter of 2010 with 80 participants from groups identified by the Ministry of Health as vulnerable to the H1N1 virus, such as people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, children, Pacific Peoples and Māori. Because this study was part of a rapid response initiative, focus groups were selected as the most efficient means of data collection in the time available. For Māori, focus group discussion (hui is a culturally appropriate methodology. Results Thematic analysis of data identified four major themes: personal and community risk, building community strategies, responsibility and information sources. People wanted messages about specific actions that they could take to protect themselves and their families and to mitigate any consequences. They wanted transparent and factual communication where both good and bad news is conveyed by people who they could trust. Conclusions The responses from all groups endorsed the need for community based risk management including information dissemination. Engaging
Raluca Dania TODOR
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to try to emphasize the e-mail marketing campaigns importance and efficiency and the way they increase the interaction between a company and potential customers and to increase their interest in a company’s products and services and finally trigger the buying decision. Also the present paper’s aim is to exemplify how business can gain benefits by using marketing automation tools like e-mail marketing campaigns which is considered nowadays a form of direct marketing which is less expensive than the traditional direct marketing alternatives.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; JA Perez-Cueto, Federico; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara
Background: Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public...... sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods: In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food...... in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through...
In recent years health and comfort problems associated with the indoor climate have come to constitute a problem in Sweden. To come to grips with this a nationwide educational campaign on Buildings and Health is being run. It is directed to those involved in planning, project design, construction and management of buildings. The objective is to convey a body of knowledge to the many occupational and professional groups in the construction sector on how to avoid indoor climate problems in homes, schools, offices and other workplaces. The campaign is being run by the Swedish National Board of Housing and Planning and the Swedish Council for Building Research, in co-operation with various organizations and companies in the construction industry, and with municipalities and authorities. The knowledge which is being disseminated through the campaign is summarized in this compendium. figs., tabs.
Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Record, Rachael A; Van Stee, Stephanie K
This study examines direct and indirect effects of interactive communication in an antismoking social media campaign. To that end, we pose a multitheoretical framework that integrates communication mediation models and the Theory of Planned Behavior. To test the theorized model, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. Participants (N = 201) were randomly assigned into two experimental conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and social interaction" as a treatment group, in which the participants contributed to the antismoking campaign by posting their own campaign ideas and information they found through mediated and interpersonal communication. The findings show that interactive communication catalyzes the participants' information searching behaviors through diverse communication channels. In turn, increased media use plays a crucial role in changing their attitudes and perceived social norms about smoking behaviors, and eventually reducing smoking intention. This study affirms that the theory of planned behavior is effective in predicting behavioral intention and demonstrates the usefulness of a multitheoretical approach in interactive campaign research on social media.
Iyengar, S; Simon, A F
We review recent empirical evidence that shows political campaigns are more potent than widely believed, focusing on the conceptual and methodological advances that have produced these findings. Conceptually, a broader definition of effects--that includes learning and agenda-control, as well as vote choice--characterizes contemporary research. This research also features two kinds of interactive models that are more complex than the traditional hypodermic (message-based) approach. The resonance model considers the relationship between message content and receivers' predispositions, while the strategic model highlights the interactions between competing messages. Finally, we attribute the emergence of stronger evidence in favor of campaign effects to the use of new methodologies including experimentation and content analysis, as well as the more sophisticated use of sample surveys.
Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C
Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Typhina, Eli; Yan, Changmin
Aiming to help municipalities develop effective education and outreach campaigns to reduce stormwater pollutants, such as pet waste, this study applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify perceptions of dog waste and corresponding collection behaviors from dog owners living in a small U.S. city. Results of 455 online survey responses…
New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010. In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by ...
Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Gauvin, Lise; Lagarde, François; Laferté, Marilie
This study examined factors associated with children's and parents' recall of a communication campaign aimed at promoting children's physical activity. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted among 1001 children and their parents. Respondents were recruited through a random digit dialing procedure. Respondents' recall of the campaign, beliefs, sociodemographics as well as levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for tweens and their parents separately. Girls (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95%confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 3.5) were more likely to have unaided recall when compared to boys. Tweens in primary school (OR = 1.9; 95%CI: 1.0, 3.4 and OR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.4, 3.0) and those speaking French (OR = 3.3; 95%CI: 1.4, 8.1 and OR = 2.9; 95%CI: 1.8, 4.7) were more likely to have unaided and aided recall, respectively. Among parents, tweens' unaided (OR = 12.0; 95%CI: 5.2, 28.1) and aided (OR = 3.3; 95%CI: 1.5, 7.3) recall, obesity status (OR = 2.6; 95%CI: 1.3, 5.3), and low income (OR = 5.2; 95%CI: 1.9, 14.3) were positively associated with recall. Additional beliefs were associated with tweens' and parents' recall of the campaign. The association between sex, language, and recall is in line with the branding strategy adopted and no clear evidence for communication inequalities was observed.
Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Sevelsted, Astrid; Bisgaard, Hans
During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic the Danish National board of Health carried out massive public hygiene campaigns to limit spread of disease. We aimed to investigate whether this resulted in lower incidences of communicable diseases in the paediatric population.......During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic the Danish National board of Health carried out massive public hygiene campaigns to limit spread of disease. We aimed to investigate whether this resulted in lower incidences of communicable diseases in the paediatric population....
María del Carmen Hidalgo Villodres
Full Text Available Research on climate change highlights the need to develop more effective campaigns to increase citizens’ awareness of this issue, increase their willingness to accept the measures necessary to halt this phenomenon and change their behaviour. This paper describes a study which analyzed the effectiveness of an advertising message that combined informative and motivational variables on pro-environmental attitudes and intended behaviour. The study sample consisted of 180 university students, divided into two equivalent groups. The results supported the initial hypothesis,the participants in the group that received specific behaviour guidelines (to increase perceived control together with information on economic savings (motivational variable displayed more changes in self-efficacy, pro-environmental attitudes and intention of behaviour than the group that did not receive this information.
Dwi Prasetyo, N.; Hauff, C.; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; van den Broek, T.; Hiemstra, Djoerd
Health campaigns that aim to raise awareness and subsequently raise funds for research and treatment are commonplace. While many local campaigns exist, very few attract the attention of a global audience. One of those global campaigns is Movember, an annual campaign during the month of November,
Aegerter, I.; Bucher, P.
Utility and industry representatives took part in numerous discussions and gave many talks seeking a direct dialogue with the consumers and voters. The strategy was and still is to play the role of the consultant and energy specialist. This implies to avoid imposing an opinion and is particularly important, because the Swiss power sector is often not allowed to take part in political debates due to its structure. Many utilities are under the auspices of cantonal and community Authorities, and because people expect that the utilities have expert knowledge in this field. In order to reach a maximum number of people regular, forum-like advertisement in the print media addressed some of the main concerns. In order to show opening for dialogue platforms are needed, either the mass media or any other public information channel. In order to be heard by a public which often complains that the message is not there, a professional approach and a snappy presentation, hence a certain budget, is needed. This is also one of the lessons learned-not only from the utilities experiences but also from a critical analysis of the anti-nuclear group's campaign
Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin
An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters’ likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters’ party ambivalence.
Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin
An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters' likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters' party ambivalence.
Health educators should be able to use mass comunications media and should be knowledgeable about the most recent media theories, methods, and technologies. Suggestions for making effective use of television, newspapers, and other media for disseminating health information and for conducting media campaigns are given. (PP)
Lim, Megan S C; Gold, Judy; Bowring, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E
In 2009, the Australian Government's National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16-29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline's The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared to 52% recognising The Facts and 27% recognising Drama Downunder. Of 134 who recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign, 27% correctly recalled the campaign messages compared to 61% of those recognising the Facts campaign, and 25% of those recognising the Drama Downunder campaign. There was no difference in National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign recognition by gender or age. Campaign recognition and message recall of the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign was comparatively low. Future mass media sexual health campaigns targeting young people can aim for higher recognition and recall rates than that achieved by the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. Alternative distribution channels and message styles should be considered to increase these rates. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Bobocea, L; Spiridon, St; Petrescu, L; Gheorghe, C M; Purcarea, V L
In order to become known and attract consumers, a health care organization has to develop suitable external communication campaigns. Consequently, management instruments are employed to effectively evaluate the success of a campaign. The BCG Matrix, SWOT analysis and the Gantt Diagram were used in this paper to ensure the consistency and accuracy of the external communication process at an empirical level.
Full Text Available Marketing strategies used by large corporations are rapidly evolving, through the development of novel technologies and multiple marketing channels favoured by young consumers. Formerly small-scale marketing approaches, such as providing free samples at local events, may now have a global reach when paired with live streaming on popular social media sites. The regulation of these live streaming platforms is hugely challenging and likely to remain so in the foreseeable future. To ensure that ‘unhealthy’ messages are not the only content seen by social media users, public health campaigns should invest in similar technologies in disseminating health promoting messages.
Bélanger-Gravel, A; Lottinville, S; Beaurivage, D; Laferté, M; Therrien, F; Gauvin, L
To favour the dissemination and the implementation of the WIXX multimedia communication campaign, the aim of this study was to examine practitioners' beliefs towards the integration of the WIXX campaign activities into daily practice. An exploratory qualitative study. Overall, 58 community-based practitioners completed an online questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour guidelines pertaining to perceived advantages/disadvantages and perceived barriers/facilitators toward the campaign. A content analysis was performed by two independent coders to extract modal beliefs. Results were validated by a third coder. Local partners had a positive attitude toward the WIXX campaign, but significant barriers remained and needed to be addressed to ensure full implementation of this campaign (e.g. lack of time or resources, additional workload, complexity of the registration process and so forth). Beliefs were fragmented and diversified, indicating that they were highly context dependent. To conclude, some remaining challenges regarding the full implementation of the WIXX communication campaign were identified, suggesting that additional efforts might be needed to ensure the full adoption of the campaign by local practitioners. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
La Torre, Giuseppe; Guastamacchia, Sergio; Barbagallo, Alfio; Mannocci, Alice
Smoking prevalence among health care workers is higher in comparison with general population and the prevalence of women who smoke is higher than among men. In the prevention strategies the multimedia campaign may be a positive impact on the fight against tobacco. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the last Italian campaign against smoking (Il fumo fammale) in the health care women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Latium and Sicily (Italy) in 2015, through an interview on memories and impressions about the spots and after a new vision of the spot and eventually other comments. 357 individuals entered the study, 204 female health care workers and 153 from the general population. The female health care workers were more skeptical than the general population. The impressions aroused in the healthcare workers versus the general population were: sadness (OR=2.96;IC95%:1.17-7.49), indifference (OR=5.57;IC95%:2.43-12.77); while a cue to reflect was more considered from general population than health care workers (OR=0.13;IC95%:0.07-0.23). The female professionals health referred the main characteristics of the spot as no original, no impactful, no persuasive and boring too. In conclusion the multimedia campaign to fight against the smoking should be useful, but the psico-behavioural factors have applied and considered when it is implemented; to reduce the tobacco consumption in the healthcare workers can make them an example for the people of healthy life styles and they are a start up of prevention mechanism too. Furthermore it is important to consider the healthcare professional's opinions for future healthy communications and multimedia campaign on tobacco harm. Copyright© by Aracne Editrice, Roma, Italy.
Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular
Basu, Ambar; Dutta, Mohan J.
An emerging trend in health communication research advocates the need to foreground articulations of health by participants who are at the core of any health campaign. Scholarly work suggests that the culture-centered approach to health communication can provide a theoretical and practical framework to achieve this objective. The culture-centered…
Full Text Available In South Africa social and behavioural communication interventions are a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and numerous communication campaigns have been implemented intensively across the country through government initiatives and nongovernmental organisations over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to assess the reach of HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in conjunction with contributions to knowledge, attitudes, and HIV risk behaviours in the general population in South Africa. The sample included in this nationally representative cross-sectional survey was 13234 people aged 15–55 years. Overall, the study found that there was high exposure to 18 different HIV communication programmes (median 6 programmes and 14 programmes more than 30% across different age groups. Most programmes were more often seen or heard by young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In multivariate analysis, greater exposure to HIV mass communication programmes was associated with greater HIV knowledge, condom use at last sex, having tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and less stigmatizing attitude toward PLWHA.
Guidotti, Tee L
Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action.
As health marketers seek new models to design campaigns, the advertising discipline of account planning offers an approach that can improve campaign development. The underlying principle of account planning is to bring the consumer perspective to all phases of campaign development, primarily through qualitative formative research. Account planners design the overall communication strategy and contribute to creative development of individual executions. The creative brief, a primary tool of account planning, is especially useful in conceptualizing campaigns. This report discusses the history and approach of account planning, followed by an example of account planning in the design of a social marketing campaign.
In Egypt the current use of family planning methods nearly doubled from 1980 to 1992. The toughest obstacles to the promotion of family planning are the deeply rooted pronatalism, the high rate of illiteracy, and low use of print media. The early efforts of the 1960s through the 1970s helped raise people's awareness of the problem, but traditional attitudes to family planning persisted. The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center established in 1979 in the State Information Service (SIS) of the Ministry of Information spearheaded the IEC efforts for family planning throughout the country. The Egyptian Contraceptives Prevalence Survey conducted in 1984 showed that the current use of family planning methods had increased 6.1% from the 1980 level, and that 56% of married women wished to stop having children, but were afraid of side effects of contraceptive use. The SIS/IEC Center launched a creative mass media campaign using TV spots and dramas. It also pioneered community-based public communication activities on population and family planning by organizing population communication forums. The local communication work is implemented by each of the 60 regional offices of SIS. Other government agencies, such as Health Insurance Organization, also launched IEC campaigns promoting their own services. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Family of the Future and the Clinical Service Improvement Project also engaged in social marketing of contraceptives. The use of family planning methods mounted between 1980 and 1992 from 24% to nearly 48%, and the method of choice shifted from the pill to the IUD. The country's crude birth rate declined steadily from 40 per 1000 population in 1985 down to 29/1000 in 1992. The six major factors for success included an innovative communication program, religious support, political commitment, an improved service delivery system, involvement of NGOs, and the economic influence. The Egyptian experience in family
Shanmugam, A V
In discussing the lessons learned from research in the area of health communication, focus is on basic strategic issues; the scope of health communications in terms of audience, information, education and motivation approaces and India's satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE). Health communication is the process by which a health idea is transferred from a source, such as a primary health center, to a receiver, community, with the intention of changing the community's behavior. This involves the formulation of specific strategies for the conduct of health and family welfare communication. In the processs of health communication, it has been a common practice in India as well as in other developing countries to depend upon a plethora of communication media. Yet, despite maximum utilization of the mass media and interpersonal channels of communication, questions remain about the efficacy of the system in bringing about change. Thus, the need to draw upon lessons from research becomes obvious. Communication effectiveness researches have concentrated on 3 basic strategic issues: the question of physical reception of messages by the audience; interpretation or understanding of messages on the part of the audience in accordance with the intention of the communicator; and effectiveness of communication on the cognitive, affective and behavioral dimensions of the audience. Innumberable researches in communication have provided several lessons which have expanded the scope of health communication. This expansion can be observed in terms of audiences reached, information disseminated, education undertaken, and motivation provided. Research has identified several distinct groups to whom specific health messages have to be addressed. These include government and political elites, health and family welfare program administrators, and the medical profession and clinical staff. Information on health needs to include both the concept of health and the pertinent ideas
Universal health coverage (UHC) has emerged as the leading and recommended overarching health goal on the post-2015 development agenda, and is promoted with fervour. UHC has the backing of major medical and health institutions, and is designed to provide patients with universal access to needed health services without financial hardship, but is also projected to have 'a transformative effect on poverty, hunger, and disease'. Multiple reports and resolutions support UHC and few offer critical analyses; but among these are concerns with imprecise definitions and the ability to implement UHC at the country level. A medicalization lens enriches these early critiques and identifies concerns that the UHC campaign contributes to the medicalization of global health. UHC conflates health with health care, thus assigning undue importance to (biomedical) health services and downgrading the social and structural determinants of health. There is poor evidence that UHC or health care alone improves population health outcomes, and in fact health care may worsen inequities. UHC is reductionistic because it focuses on preventative and curative actions delivered at the individual level, and ignores the social and political determinants of health and right to health that have been supported by decades of international work and commitments. UHC risks commodifying health care, which threatens the underlying principles of UHC of equity in access and of health care as a collective good.
Leyk, Dieter; Rohde, Ulrich; Hartmann, Nadine D; Preuß, Philipp A; Sievert, Alexander; Witzki, Alexander
Effective health promotion in the workplace is now essential because of the rising health-related costs for businesses, the increasing pressure arising from international competition, prolonged working lives, and the aging of the work force. The basic problem of prevention campaigns is that the target groups are too rarely reached and sustainable benefits too rarely achieved. In 2011, we carried out a broad-based health and fitness campaign to assess how many personnel could be motivated to participate in a model study under nearly ideal conditions. 1010 personnel were given the opportunity to participate in various kinds of sports, undergo sports-medicine examinations, attend monthly expert lectures, and benefit from nutritional offerings and Intranet information during work hours. Pseudonymized questionnaires were used to classify the participants according to their exercise behavior as non-active, not very active, and very active. The participants' subjective responses (regarding, e.g., health, exercise, nutrition, and the factors that motivated them to participate in sports or discouraged them from doing so) were recorded, as were their objective data (measures of body size and strength). The duration of the study was one year. 490 of the 1010 personnel (48.5%, among whom 27.2% were nonactive, 44.1% not very active, and 28.7% very active) participated in the initial questionnaire and testing. By the end of the study, this figure had dropped to 17.8%; diminished participation affected all three groups to a comparable extent. A comparison of dropouts and non-dropouts revealed that older age was a stable predictor for drop-out (bivariate odds ratio [OR] 1.028, p = 0.006; multivariate OR 1.049, p = 0.009). The study participants reported beneficial effects on their health and health awareness, performance ability, psychological balance, stress perception, exercise and dietary behavior. Even under optimal conditions and with high use of staff resources, this model
O'Neil, Glenn; Bauer, Martin W
This article presents a study on the pathways and processes regarding the use of evaluation findings of communication campaigns from two international organizations, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Several years after the completion of the campaigns and their evaluations, our research identified 28 instances of use and six instances of non-use of the evaluation results, of which the large majority being surprising in nature. Results showed that evaluation use facilitated formal and informal changes at the individual and the organizational level; and, this pattern occurred in a predominantly non-linear fashion, interconnected and overlapping, while gradually decreasing in time and space. Evaluation use was mostly unpredictable, which reflected how meanings are constructed by staff members, as they adjusted and interpreted the findings in opportunistic ways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In 2008, the Vermont Workers' Center launched the "Healthcare Is a Human Right Campaign," a grassroots campaign to secure the creation of a universal health care system in Vermont. Campaign organizers used a human rights framework to mobilize thousands of voters in support of universal health care. In response to this extraordinary grassroots effort, the state legislature passed health care legislation that incorporates human rights principles into Vermont law and provides a framework for universal health care. The United States has often lagged behind other nations in recognizing economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights, including the right to health. Nonetheless, activists have begun to incorporate ESC rights into domestic advocacy campaigns, and state and local governments are beginning to respond where the federal government has not. Vermont serves as a powerful example of how a human rights framework can inform health care policy and inspire grassroots campaigns in the United States. This three-part article documents the Vermont Workers' Center campaign and discusses the impact that human rights activity at the grassroots level may have on attitudes towards ESC rights in the United States. The first part describes the Vermont health care crisis and explains why the center adopted international human rights principles for their campaign. The article then goes on to discuss the three-year campaign and analyze the health care reform bill that the Vermont legislature passed. Finally, the article discusses the campaign's local and national impact. Copyright © 2012 McGill.
Fahy, Declan; Trench, Brian; Clancy, Luke
The Irish workplace smoking ban has been described as possibly a tipping point for public health worldwide. This article presents the first analysis of the newspaper coverage of the ban over the duration of the policy formation process. It adds to previous studies by analyzing how health communication strategists engaged, over time, with a newsworthy topic, viewed as being culturally controversial. It analyzes a sample of media content (n = 1,154) and firsthand accounts from pro-ban campaigners and journalists (n = 10). The analysis shows that the ban was covered not primarily as a health issue: Economic, political, social, democratic, and technical aspects also received significant attention. It shows how coverage followed controversy and examines how pro-ban campaigners countered effectively the anti-ban communication efforts of influential social actors in the economic and political spheres. The analysis demonstrates that medical-political sources successfully defined the ban's issues as centrally concerned with public health.
Bazzo, Stefania; Battistella, Giuseppe; Riscica, Patrizia; Moino, Giuliana; Marini, Francesco; Geromel, Mariasole; Czerwinsky, Loredana
To assess the impact of the advertising image used in the health communication campaign 'Mummy Drinks Baby Drinks', aimed to raise awareness about the effects of drinking alcohol during pregnancy in the childbearing-aged population of the Local Health Authority of Treviso (Italy). The image depicted a foetus inside a glass of a local alcoholic drink. A survey using a semi-structured self-reported questionnaire was carried out. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive series of 690 parents or caregivers who accompanied children aged 0-2 years in the vaccination clinics of the Local Health Unit, during a 30-day period 1 year after the start of the campaign. The questionnaire measured the level of exposure to the image, emotional reactions and awareness of the health messages conveyed by the image. Overall, 84% of the respondents said that they remembered the image. Almost all (93%) recalled the warning message and 53% recalled the health behaviours suggested by the campaign. The image generally seemed to arouse a high emotive impact: 38% indicated distress and 40% liking as a general opinion, while ∼50% expressed distress emotions and 13% were pleasantly affected when reflecting on the feelings evoked. We did not find unequivocal relationships between the level and kind of emotional reactions and the recalling of the health behaviours. The image obtained a high level of visibility. It was effective in spreading the health message conveyed by the campaign, regardless of the level and kind of emotive impact evoked.
Evans, William Douglas; Johnson, Michael; Jagoe, Kirstie; Charron, Dana; Young, Bonnie N; Rahman, A S M Mashiur; Omolloh, Daniel; Ipe, Julie
Nearly three billion people worldwide burn solid fuels and kerosene in open fires and inefficient stoves to cook, light, and heat their homes. Cleaner-burning stoves reduce emissions and can have positive health, climate, and women's empowerment benefits. This article reports on the protocol and baseline data from the evaluation of four behavior change communication (BCC) campaigns carried out in lower to middle income countries aimed at promoting the sale and use of cleaner-burning stoves. Interventions implemented in Bangladesh, Kenya, and Nigeria are using a range of BCC methods including mass media, digital media, outdoor advertising, and inter-personal communication. The mixed methods evaluation comprises three large-scale surveys: one pre-BCC and two follow-ups, along with smaller scale assessments of stove uptake and patterns of use. Baseline results revealed varying levels of awareness of previous promotions and positive attitudes and beliefs about modern (i.e., relatively clean-burning) cookstoves. Differences in cookstove preferences and behaviors by gender, socio-demographics, media use, and country/region were observed that may affect outcomes. Across all three countries, cost (lack of funds) a key perceived barrier to buying a cleaner-burning stove. Future multivariate analyses will examine potential dose-response effects of BCC on cookstove uptake and patterns of use. BCC campaigns have the potential to promote modern cookstoves at scale. More research on campaign effectiveness is needed, and on how to optimize messages and channels. This evaluation builds on a limited evidence base in the field.
Full Text Available Background: The Department of Health (DoH at the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality in South Africa develops various health awareness campaigns aimed at creating awareness of general health risks within the Johannesburg area. According to staff members of the DoH, the resources utilised in the current campaigns fail to reach a sufficiently broad audience and the campaigns struggle to deliver the intended messages. Furthermore, the development and implementation of campaigns are time consuming and costly. Objectives: This research focused on how online social networking (OSN can support health awareness campaigns for the DoH in the Johannesburg region. OSN may be regarded as a tool that will assist the DoH to reach a wider audience, send health-related messages and provide a two-way communication channel. Method: The research used an exploratory research design with a purposive non-probability sample. A survey was used as the data collection instrument. Statistical analysis was performed on the data obtained from the surveys. Results: The results indicate that the DoH can benefit from the use of OSN in health promotion campaigns. The benefits include, but are not limited to, an increase in engagement with the target market, ease of use and reach within the specified audience. Conclusion: Although there are numerous advantages associated with the integration of OSN by the DoH, the DoH needs to develop training and development programmes for OSN to encourage its use by DoH staff members. The main aim of the programmes is to create internal OSN capabilities to support the OSN strategy.
Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...
Adriana Priscila Vallejo
Full Text Available This paper aims to make available to the scientific community, a communication campaign designed based on the factors involved in choosing a technical undergraduate degree at the Salesian Polytechnic University in Cuenca. Given the momentum that currently provided by the Ecuadorean government to technical and technological country institutes, must take measures to encourage the academic preparation of students opting not only for technical training but by engineering which ensures professionals that guarantee the rights stipulated in the Constitution of Ecuador and help boost the economy with innovation, research and entrepreneurship. The research is qualitative. It is based on focus groups and semi-structured interviews; its conceptual basis is defined by marketing approaches and public relations services; which means that the above factors constitute the main element for the development of a creative communicational approach to provide a more valuable study fields of the institution.
Kjær, Peter; Reff Pedersen, Anne; Svejgaard Pors, Anja
With the increased interest in communication in the fields of healthcare and healthcare management research, it is important to begin to explore and consider the consequences of this engagement with new ideas in communication. In this chapter we describe the expansion of organisational health...... communication, identifying three distinct types of communication ideas and tools: clinical communication, extra-clinical communication and corporate communication. In order to assess the wider implications of health communication, we elaborate a discursive perspective, illustrated by presenting exemplary...
This paper describes the evaluation of a Dental Health Mass-Media Campaign directed at 5-7-yr-old children and their mothers. It aimed at increasing knowledge and awareness of dental health by making use of three different components: inserts in women's magazines; television commercial; material...... that future national health education campaigns combine the mass-media approach to increase health awareness with active involvement activities to stimulate behavioural changes....
Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; King, Andy J
According to published scholarship on health services usage, an increasing number of Americans do not have health insurance coverage. The strong relationship between insurance coverage and health services utilization highlights the importance of reaching out to the uninsured via prevention campaigns and communication messages. This article examines the communication choices of the uninsured, documenting that the uninsured are more likely to consume entertainment-based television and are less likely to read, watch, and listen to information-based media. It further documents the positive relationship between interpersonal communication, community participation, and health insurance coverage. The entertainment-heavy media consumption patterns of the uninsured suggests the relevance of developing health marketing strategies that consider entertainment programming as an avenue for reaching out to this underserved segment of the population.
Dukakis, Michael S
Former Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis knows about the damage that disability can cause--even its mere mention. In this keynote address given to the symposium on Presidential Disability and Succession held at Northeastern University in Boston last spring, Dukakis reflected on his famous 1988 presidential campaign that, largely at his expense, redefined negativity in presidential politics, in particular the fictitious allegation that he had a history of mental illness. A distinguish professor of Political Science and Public Policy at Northeastern University, Dukakis also spends each winter quarter at UCLA as a visiting professor in the Luskin School of Public Affairs. He remains active in both politics and public policy, canvassing for Democratic candidates such as Elizabeth Warren during her 2012 Senate campaign and promoting policy initiatives through the Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy at Northeastern, which he affectionately calls a "think and do tank." The three-term governor (1975-1979 and 1983-1991) was voted Most Effective Governor by the National Governor's Association in 1986. After his first term in the late 1970s he lost a nasty primary election to Ed King, whom he would later defeat to reclaim office. Though it wasn't apparent at the time, for Dukakis, that 1978 campaign would serve as a precursor for the attack politics that were unloosed during the 1988 presidential campaign. In the remarks that follow, he offers a candid assessment of how not going negative may have cost him the presidency, and how an offhand remark by President Reagan (quickly retracted) caused the press to obsess over Dukakis' health record for the better part of a week--enough to slow his momentum during a crucial stage of campaigning.
Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki
Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally.
Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; van den Broek, Tijs Adriaan; Hauff, C.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Ehrenhard, Michel Léon
We consider the task of automatically identifying participants’ motivations in the public health campaign Movember and investigate the impact of the different motivations on the amount of campaign donations raised. Our classification scheme is based on the Social Identity Model of Collective Action
Briggs, Charles L
This article approaches care from a different angle by looking ethnographically at how it is shaped by structural differences in the power to control the circulation of knowledge. I focus on an investigation conducted by people classified as "indigenous", of an epidemic that killed 38 children and young adults in a Venezuelan rainforest. I trace how health/communicative inequities structured clinical interactions, documents, epidemiological investigations, news stories, and dialogues with healers, thwarting the identification of the epidemic, clinically identified as rabies. Although the Bolivarian socialist government provided access to care, professionals denigrated parents' contributions to care and communication and reduced complex, unequal relations between languages to practical problems of translation. Pointing to parallels with US social movements, I suggest that responding to demands for communicative justice in health requires seeing how health inequities are entangled with health/communicative inequities. The typographical slash points to importance of challenging the subdisciplinary boundary-work that relegates their study to non-overlapping conversations in medical and linguistic anthropology.
Livingston, James D; Tugwell, Andrew; Korf-Uzan, Kimberly; Cianfrone, Michelle; Coniglio, Connie
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the In One Voice campaign for raising mental health awareness and improving attitudes of youth and young adults towards mental health issues. The campaign featured a prominent male sports figure talking about mental health issues and used online social media. A successive independent samples design assessed market penetration and attitudinal changes among the young people. Two samples completed an online questionnaire either immediately before (T1: n = 403) or 2 months after (T2: n = 403) the campaign launch. Website analytics determined changes in activity levels of a youth-focused mental health website (mindcheck.ca). One-quarter (24.8 %, n = 100) of the respondents remembered the campaign. The proportion of respondents who were aware of the website increased significantly from 6.0 % at T1 to 15.6 % at T2. Average overall scores on standardized measures of personal stigma and social distance were not significantly different between T1 and T2 respondents. Attitudes towards mental health issues were statistically similar between respondents who were or were not exposed to the campaign. Those who were exposed to the campaign were significantly more likely to talk about and seek information relating to mental health issues. The proximal outcomes of the campaign to increase awareness and use of the website were achieved. The distal outcome of the campaign to improve attitudes towards mental health issues was not successfully achieved. The brief social media campaign improved mental health literacy outcomes, but had limited effect on personal stigma and social distance.
Loss, J; Nagel, E
Health communication, e.g., mass media campaigns, patient information leaflets or websites, plays an important role in public health. It contributes to citizen empowerment and helps them make informed decisions in health matters. However, public health communication can lead to adverse effects on both individual and societal level, e.g., by inaccurate or partial information, discriminatory messages, scandalizing coverage or inadequate tailoring to relevant target groups. It seems important to suggest ethical criteria for health information, e.g., (1) accuracy, completeness and balance, (2) transparency, (3) participation of the target group, (4) respect for human dignity, (5) social justice and equity, (6) appropriateness. Thoughtfulness is important in order not to stigmatize population subgroups. In addition, it is laborious to comprehensively and correctly present benefits and risks of a certain health behavior. Marketing principles guide how to 'sell' a certain health behavior, but health campaigns should not manipulate target persons for the sake of a population health aim. It remains unclear, however, how the different providers of health information can be held ethically responsible.
Davis, Kevin C; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian
Prior research supports the notion that parents have the ability to influence their children's decisions regarding sexual behavior. Yet parent-based approaches to curbing teen pregnancy and STDs have been relatively unexplored. The Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) is a multimedia campaign that attempts to fill this void by targeting parents of teens to encourage parent-child communication about waiting to have sex. The campaign follows a theoretical framework that identifies cognitions that are targeted in campaign messages and theorized to influence parent-child communication. While a previous experimental study showed PSUNC messages to be effective in increasing parent-child communication, it did not address how these effects manifest through the PSUNC theoretical framework. The current study examines the PSUNC theoretical framework by 1) estimating the impact of PSUNC on specific cognitions identified in the theoretical framework and 2) examining whether those cognitions are indeed associated with parent-child communication Our study consists of a randomized efficacy trial of PSUNC messages under controlled conditions. A sample of 1,969 parents was randomly assigned to treatment (PSUNC exposure) and control (no exposure) conditions. Parents were surveyed at baseline, 4 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post-baseline. Linear regression procedures were used in our analyses. Outcome variables included self-efficacy to communicate with child, long-term outcome expectations that communication would be successful, and norms on appropriate age for sexual initiation. We first estimated multivariable models to test whether these cognitive variables predict parent-child communication longitudinally. Longitudinal change in each cognitive variable was then estimated as a function of treatment condition, controlling for baseline individual characteristics. Norms related to appropriate age for sexual initiation and outcome expectations that communication
Evans W Douglas
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research supports the notion that parents have the ability to influence their children's decisions regarding sexual behavior. Yet parent-based approaches to curbing teen pregnancy and STDs have been relatively unexplored. The Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC is a multimedia campaign that attempts to fill this void by targeting parents of teens to encourage parent-child communication about waiting to have sex. The campaign follows a theoretical framework that identifies cognitions that are targeted in campaign messages and theorized to influence parent-child communication. While a previous experimental study showed PSUNC messages to be effective in increasing parent-child communication, it did not address how these effects manifest through the PSUNC theoretical framework. The current study examines the PSUNC theoretical framework by 1 estimating the impact of PSUNC on specific cognitions identified in the theoretical framework and 2 examining whether those cognitions are indeed associated with parent-child communication Methods Our study consists of a randomized efficacy trial of PSUNC messages under controlled conditions. A sample of 1,969 parents was randomly assigned to treatment (PSUNC exposure and control (no exposure conditions. Parents were surveyed at baseline, 4 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post-baseline. Linear regression procedures were used in our analyses. Outcome variables included self-efficacy to communicate with child, long-term outcome expectations that communication would be successful, and norms on appropriate age for sexual initiation. We first estimated multivariable models to test whether these cognitive variables predict parent-child communication longitudinally. Longitudinal change in each cognitive variable was then estimated as a function of treatment condition, controlling for baseline individual characteristics. Results Norms related to appropriate age for sexual
Nicole Roque Matias
Full Text Available Background: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD failure and kidney diseases are increasing at an alarming rate all over the world. However, despite the remarkable advance in health technology, where it has become possible to successfully screen patients and predict kidney progression, a large portion of the world population is still unaware of their disease and risk exposure. Mobile Health (mHealth solutions associated with health campaigns and programs proved to be an effective mean to enhance awareness and behaviour change at individual and social level. Objective: The aim of this survey was to present the results of an environmental scan of what has been happening in the field of kidney disease prevention campaigns in recent years, with a focus on the use of mobile health as a tool to enhance the campaign's effects on targeting people and change their behaviour. Methodology: It was conducted a systematic and comprehensive review, combining experimental studies with theoretical perspectives, to look for evidence regarding the evaluation of kidney disease prevention campaigns. The databases consulted for the present survey were: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, SAGE Journals Online, and Web of Science among other sources, for an analysis period from January 2000 to June 2016. Results: Concerning the 14 analyzed examples with impact on kidney disease prevention campaign evaluation, two main campaigns were referred: The World Kidney Day (WKD campaign, and the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP. The indicators used in this analisys were in most cases comparable regarding the campaign messages, objectives and interventions tools, although em both cases the use of mHealth or other technologies is residually comparing to other diseases prevention campaigns or programs. Conclusions: This review pointed to the inexistence of behavioural change evidence as a target of the kidney disease prevention campaigns and their evaluation. General
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico JA; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaig...
Oscario, Angela; Kuntjara, Hagung; Adhityatama, Agus
Article focused on advertising as one of the most important parts of marketing communication in one of the online shop, TokoBagus. Advertising communicated a message from a certain brand to the target audience through a particular medium. The aim of this research was making advertising with a powerful message, so it was able to become a captain of consciousness that could play an important role in economic and social systems of modern society. Because of its potential power, the creative adve...
Dunlop, K; Barlow-Stewart, K
Evidence that family health history (FHH) informs recommendations for appropriate early detection strategies used for the prevention of many health conditions underscores the importance of optimizing a patient's knowledge of his/her personal FHH. For some conditions, FHH also underpins identifying those at potentially high risk for whom genetic testing may be possible and suitable to further inform the advice. The Family Health History Campaign 'Start the Conversation' was conducted in New South Wales (Australia) in August 2006 as a small state-wide media campaign with the aim of encouraging individuals to discuss and gather their FHH information about several conditions and report it to their doctor. Campaign development included consultations with consumers and primary care practitioners (general practitioners - GPs), development of campaign resources, and establishment of partnerships. Evaluation methodologies included community poll surveys pre- and post-campaign, a GP mail survey, and website usage analysis. While only 112/403 of the polled community reported hearing about the campaign in the media, 48% of those men and women were encouraged to start the conversation with their families. Limited findings from the GP survey respondents suggested they were engaged, made aware of the potential lack of patient knowledge about FHH and generated referral for several high-risk patients. Campaigns that use the media to encourage the community to take action and also engage the GPs can create a supportive environment that has the potential to increase the accuracy with reporting of FHH to maximize benefit for early detection and prevention.
Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...
Freeman, Becky; Potente, Sofia; Rock, Vanessa; McIver, Jacqueline
A great deal of enthusiasm and interest exists in using social media for public health communications, but few research studies have examined its success in promoting and adopting protective health behaviours. To begin to understand how best to develop effective online social marketing campaigns, this paper provides a summary of success factors and key lessons learnt from selected social media campaign case studies. Case study review Methods: A selection of case studies was reviewed for lessons in campaign development, delivery and evaluation from both the corporate and public health sectors. Information about the objective of the campaign, the tactics used and the lessons learnt was extracted from each case study. Lessons learnt from across the case studies were then sorted according to themes. Lessons from the nine case studies selected were categorised into eight themes: planning, use of social media tools, community, content, personal benefits, promotion, costs and challenges. Outcome evaluation data were lacking in the case studies. Overall, the nine case studies show that social media hold promise in changing user behaviours and that social media are highly effective in recruiting participants and motivating them to take small, concrete actions. The case studies also demonstrate that there is room in social media for targeted, inexpensive, small-scale projects, as well as large, well-funded, mass-reach marketing blitzes. Social media campaign process and impact evaluation measures are readily available. Outcome evaluation models and measures are needed to better assess the effectiveness of social media campaigns in changing health behaviours.
Turk, Tahir; Newton, Fiona; Choudhury, Sohel; Islam, Md Shafiqul
Tobacco use contributes to an estimated 14.6% of male and 5.7% of female deaths in Bangladesh. We examine the determinants of tobacco-related quit attempts among Bangladeshis with and without awareness of the synergized "People Behind the Packs" (PBTP) communication campaign used to support the introduction of pack-based graphic warning labels (GWLs) in 2016. Data from 1,796 adults were collected using multistage sampling and a cross-sectional face-to-face survey. Analyses used a normalized design weight to ensure representativeness to the national population of smokers within Bangladesh. For the overall sample, the multivariable logistic regression model revealed quit attempts were associated with having seen the pack-based GWLs, recalling ≥1 PBTP campaign message, higher levels of self-efficacy to quit, and recognizing more potential side-effects associated with using tobacco products. Conversely, the likelihood of quitting attempts were lower among dual tobacco users (relative to smokers) and those using tobacco at least daily (vs. less than daily). The hierarchical multivariable logistic regression model among those aware of ≥1 PBTP campaign message indicated quitting attempts were positively associated with recalling more of the campaign messages and discussing them with others. This national evaluation of pack-based GWLs and accompanying PBTP campaign within Bangladesh supports the efficacy of using synergized communication messages when introducing such labels. That quit attempts are more likely among those discussing PBTP campaign messages with others and recalling more PBTP campaign messages highlights the importance of ensuring message content is both memorable and engaging.
Jansen, J; Renes, R J; Lam, T J G M
Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers' udder health management, tools such as instruction cards, treatment plans, checklists and software were developed following an argument-based comprehensive "central route." These tools were used during on-farm study group meetings for farmers organized by veterinarians and also during individual veterinarian-farmer interactions. The second strategy aimed at adopting a single management practice to increase the use of milking gloves during milking. This approach followed a straightforward "peripheral" route that used implicit persuasion techniques. Results of an online survey of 374 Dutch dairy farmers showed that most farmers were able and willing to use the educational management tools to increase udder health on their farms. They evaluated the tools positively regardless of the mastitis problems on their farms. This seems to indicate that the central route of communication is most effective when farmers are motivated to work on udder health in general. Results of repeated random telephone surveys before, during, and after the campaign on the use of milking gloves showed that the use of gloves increased from 20.9 to 42.0% of the respondents. Respondents' opinions about milking gloves also changed favorably, indicating that a relatively short peripheral campaign on a single action can have a sustained effect on farmers' behavior. Both communication strategies seem to be potentially successful in disseminating knowledge to a specific target group of farmers and in changing that group's behavior. However, to reach as many farmers as possible, the strategies should be combined. When optimizing these strategies, both the farmers' motivation to work on udder health and the aim of the campaign should be considered
Harris Meredith G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults can lead to better health outcomes. Mental health literacy is a key to early recognition and help seeking. Whilst a number of population health initiatives have attempted to improve mental health literacy, none to date have specifically targeted young people nor have they applied the rigorous standards of population health models now accepted as best practice in other health areas. This paper describes the outcomes from the application of a health promotion model to the development, implementation and evaluation of a community awareness campaign designed to improve mental health literacy and early help seeking amongst young people. Method The Compass Strategy was implemented in the western metropolitan Melbourne and Barwon regions of Victoria, Australia. The Precede-Proceed Model guided the population assessment, campaign strategy development and evaluation. The campaign included the use of multimedia, a website, and an information telephone service. Multiple levels of evaluation were conducted. This included a cross-sectional telephone survey of mental health literacy undertaken before and after 14 months of the campaign using a quasi-experimental design. Randomly selected independent samples of 600 young people aged 12–25 years from the experimental region and another 600 from a comparison region were interviewed at each time point. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association between a range of campaign outcome variables and the predictor variables of region and time. Results The program was judged to have an impact on the following variables, as indicated by significant region-by-time interaction effects (p Conclusion We believe this is the first study to apply the rigorous standards of a health promotion model including the use of a control region to a mental health population intervention. The
Kjær, Peter; Reff Pedersen, Anne; Svejgaard Pors, Anja
With the increased interest in communication in the fields of healthcare and healthcare management research, it is important to begin to explore and consider the consequences of this engagement with new ideas in communication. In this chapter we describe the expansion of organisational health...... communication, identifying three distinct types of communication ideas and tools: clinical communication, extra-clinical communication and corporate communication. In order to assess the wider implications of health communication, we elaborate a discursive perspective, illustrated by presenting exemplary...... analyses of a) the institutionalisation of communication ideals, b) the communicative management of meaning and c) communication tools as organising technologies. The discursive perspective highlights that organisations and individual healthcare providers should not only look for the desired outcomes...
Barragan, Noel C; Noller, Ali J; Robles, Brenda; Gase, Lauren N; Leighs, Michael S; Bogert, Suzanne; Simon, Paul A; Kuo, Tony
As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the "Sugar Pack" health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The primary Sugar Pack creative concepts provided consumers with information about the number of sugar packs contained in sugary drinks. Data from formative market research as well as lessons from previous campaigns in other U.S. jurisdictions informed the development of the materials. These materials were disseminated through a multipronged platform that included paid outdoor media on transit and billboards and messaging using social media (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and sendable e-cards). Initial findings from a postcampaign assessment indicate that the Sugar Pack campaign reached broadly into targeted communities, resulting in more than 515 million impressions. Lessons learned from the campaign suggest that employing health marketing to engage the public can lead to increased knowledge, favorable recognition of health messages, and self-reported intention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, potentially complementing other obesity prevention strategies in the field.
This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.
Tatu Cristian Ionut
Full Text Available The electoral campaigns are considered to be among the most delicate challenges for a marketer due to the limited time available, the sensible margin for error, the high impact of each statement and the condensation of a quite large amount of resources in a 30 day period. While the ultimate goal for the campaign staff is to bring the global electoral package closer to the electorate and earn their votes most, of the time various competitors use disappointingly similar tactics that create confusion among the electorate. The campaign related events turned out to be one of the tactics that allows for a pin-point targeting of the electorate and a better control on the receivers of the message. This paper focuses on the types of events used that can be used in an electoral campaign reinforced with their particularities and effects registered in previous campaigns.
Wright, Annemarie; McGorry, Patrick D; Harris, Meredith G; Jorm, Anthony F; Pennell, Kerryn
Background Early detection and treatment of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults can lead to better health outcomes. Mental health literacy is a key to early recognition and help seeking. Whilst a number of population health initiatives have attempted to improve mental health literacy, none to date have specifically targeted young people nor have they applied the rigorous standards of population health models now accepted as best practice in other health areas. This paper describes the outcomes from the application of a health promotion model to the development, implementation and evaluation of a community awareness campaign designed to improve mental health literacy and early help seeking amongst young people. Method The Compass Strategy was implemented in the western metropolitan Melbourne and Barwon regions of Victoria, Australia. The Precede-Proceed Model guided the population assessment, campaign strategy development and evaluation. The campaign included the use of multimedia, a website, and an information telephone service. Multiple levels of evaluation were conducted. This included a cross-sectional telephone survey of mental health literacy undertaken before and after 14 months of the campaign using a quasi-experimental design. Randomly selected independent samples of 600 young people aged 12–25 years from the experimental region and another 600 from a comparison region were interviewed at each time point. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association between a range of campaign outcome variables and the predictor variables of region and time. Results The program was judged to have an impact on the following variables, as indicated by significant region-by-time interaction effects (p awareness of mental health campaigns, self-identified depression, help for depression sought in the previous year, correct estimate of prevalence of mental health problems, increased awareness of suicide risk, and a reduction
Mbabazi, William B; Tabu, Collins W; Chemirmir, Caleb; Kisia, James; Ali, Nasra; Corkum, Melissa G; Bartley, Gene L
Background To achieve a measles free world, effective communication must be part of all elimination plans. The choice of communication approaches must be evidence based, locally appropriate, interactive and community owned. In this article, we document the innovative approach of using house visits supported by a web-enabled mobile phone application to create a real-time platform for adaptive management of supplemental measles immunization days in Kenya. Methods One thousand nine hundred and fifty-two Red Cross volunteers were recruited, trained and deployed to conduct house-to-house canvassing in 11 urban districts of Kenya. Three days before the campaigns, volunteers conducted house visits with a uniform approach and package of messages. All house visits were documented using a web-enabled mobile phone application (episurveyor®) that in real-time relayed information collected to all campaign management levels. During the campaigns, volunteers reported daily immunizations to their co-ordinators. Post-campaign house visits were also conducted within 4 days, to verify immunization of eligible children, assess information sources and detect adverse events following immunization. Results Fifty-six per cent of the 164 643 households visited said that they had heard about the planned 2012 measles vaccination campaign 1–3 days before start dates. Twenty-five per cent of households were likely to miss the measles supplemental dose if they had not been reassured by the house visit. Pre- and post-campaign reasons for refusal showed that targeted communication reduced misconceptions, fear of injections and trust in herbal remedies. Daily reporting of immunizations using mobile phones informed changes in service delivery plans for better immunization coverage. House visits were more remembered (70%) as sources of information compared with traditional mass awareness channels like megaphones (41%) and radio (37%). Conclusions In high-density settlements, house-to-house visits
Zoos potential to facilitate visitor conservation behavior is commonly articulated. Few studies, however, have quantified whether zoos' conservation messages result in visitors implementing the behavior. To test if zoo conservation messages are adopted at home, I implemented a persuasive communication campaign which advocated keeping cats indoor at night, a behavior that is a potential solution to cats depredating native wildlife. Furthermore, I tested if a public commitment (signing a pledge card) strengthened the relationship between on-site intention to engage in the behavior and actual implementation of the behavior at home. The conservation behavior was included in the twice-daily animal presentations in the amphitheater. A sample of 691 visitors completed a survey as they exited the amphitheater that measured their recall of the conservation behavior and intention to engage in the behavior at home. The last 311 visitors to complete the survey were asked to sign a pledge card which was publicly displayed in the amphitheater. Six weeks after their zoo trip, visitors were contacted and asked if they had implemented the behavior. Recall of the conservation behavior was high (91% for control, 100% for pledge group) and the entire pledge group had implemented the behavior whereas just half (51%) of the control group did. Furthermore, signing the pledge card strengthened the relationship between onsite intention and at home behavior (r = 1.0 of for the pledge group and r = 0.21 for the control group). Overall, the zoo's conservation message was recalled and behavior implemented at home. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Quinlan, Michael; Sokas, Rosemary K
The growth of contingent work (also known as precarious employment), the informal sector, and business practices that diffuse employer responsibility for worker health and safety (such as outsourcing and the development of extended national and international contracting networks [supply chains]) pose a serious threat to occupational health and safety that disproportionately affects low-wage, ethnic minority, and immigrant workers. Drawing on cases from the United States and Australia, we examine the role that community-based campaigns can play in meeting these challenges, including several successful campaigns that incorporate supply chain regulation.
Ratzan, S C
This article builds upon a presentation at the Fifth Global Health Conference on Health Promotion (Mexico City, 9 June 2000), seeking to advance the development of health literacy through effective communication. First, it offers a timely reflection for health promotion epistemology in particular, and the potential approach to framing health promotion activities in general, with health literacy as a bridging concept. The concept of health literacy is briefly explained and defined, followed by identification of some promising communication interventions to diffuse health literacy. Four predominant areas within the communication field are described that shed light on approaches for developing health literacy: integrated marketing communication, education, negotiation and social capital. Each component can contribute to strategic science-based communication. Finally, the article elucidates that communication and developing health literacy are not simple solutions. Communication is not simply message repetition, but includes the development of an environment for community involvement to espouse common values of humankind. With effective communication, worldwide health literacy can become a reality in the 21st century, embodying health as a central tenet of human life.
Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
Sexual health text message services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide adolescents with accurate sexual health information, but promotion of such services is often limited. This study uses three quantitative methods (service use data, a text message-based questionnaire, and an in-school online survey) to assess the effectiveness of an in-school social marketing campaign promoting a sexual health text message service that connects teens directly with a health educator. The 3-month campaign was associated with increased service use, but use was still relatively low. Follow-up qualitative work that included focus groups and interviews found a number of barriers to use. Teens indicated they did not have sexual health questions, did not think of the service, or were unsure how to use it. Teens also brought up additional barriers such as concern over parents seeing the messages. Implications for text message service providers and health educators are discussed.
McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire
This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…
During the 2008 South Ossetia war, Georgia and Russia fought what the English-language media called "a public relations war“. This was an interesting example of modern information warfare where governments allied with public relations agencies battled for symbolic power on the media field. This study investigates the information campaign that the Georgian government launched to promote their framing of the conflict in the English-language media. First-hand information about the campaign strat...
Wynia, Matthew K.; Osborn, Chandra Y.
The relationship between limited health literacy and poor health may be due to poor communication quality within health care delivery organizations. We explored the relationship between health literacy status and receiving patient-centered communication in clinics and hospitals serving communication-vulnerable patient populations. Thirteen health care organizations nationwide distributed a survey to 5,929 patients. All patients completed seven items assessing patient-centered communication. One third also completed three items assessing health literacy. The majority of patients had self-reported health literacy challenges, reporting problems learning about their medical condition because of difficulty understanding written information (53%), a lack of confidence in completing medical forms by themselves (61%), and needing someone to help them read hospital/clinic materials (57%). Logistic regression models showed that, after adjustment for patient demographic characteristics and health care organization type, patients with limited health literacy were 28–79% less likely than those with adequate health literacy to report their health care organization “always” provides patient-centered communication across seven communication items. Using a scaled composite of these items, limited health literacy remained associated with lower reported communication quality. These results suggest that improving communication quality in health care organizations might help to address the challenges facing patients with limited health literacy. They also highlight that efforts to address the needs of patients with limited health literacy should be sensitive to the range of communication challenges confronting these patients and their caregivers. PMID:20845197
Platt, Tevah; Platt, Jodyn; Thiel, Daniel B; Kardia, Sharon L R
The interpersonal, dialogic features of social networking sites have untapped potential for public health communication. We ran a Facebook advertising campaign to raise statewide awareness of Michigan's newborn screening and biobanking programs. We ran a Facebook advertising campaign to stimulate public engagement on the complex and sensitive issue of Michigan's newborn screening and biobank programs. We ran an 11-week, US $15,000 Facebook advertising campaign engaging Michigan Facebook users aged 18-64 years about the state's newborn screening and population biobank programs, and we used a novel "engagement spectrum" framework to contextualize and evaluate engagement outcomes ranging from observation to multi-way conversation. The campaign reached 1.88 million Facebook users, yielding a range of engagement outcomes across ad sets that varied by objective, content, budget, duration, and bid type. Ad sets yielded 9009 page likes (US $4125), 15,958 website clicks (US $5578), and 12,909 complete video views to 100% (US $3750). "Boosted posts" yielded 528 comments and 35,966 page post engagements (US $1500). Overall, the campaign led to 452 shares and 642 comments, including 176 discussing newborn screening and biobanking. Facebook advertising campaigns can efficiently reach large populations and achieve a range of engagement outcomes by diversifying ad types, bid types, and content. This campaign provided a population-based approach to communication that also increased transparency on a sensitive and complex topic by creating a forum for multi-way interaction.
Gary Schwitzer argues that - when it comes to reporting on health and medicine - the news media in the United States of America are often out of touch with the public they purport to serve. He talks to Fiona Fleck.
Jawad, Mohammed; Abass, Jooman; Hariri, Ahmad; Akl, Elie A.
Introduction. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. Methods. The “ShishAware” campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) and a website. Nine months after launch we coll...
The measurement of "consumer awareness" in health promotion campaigns is discussed. Seven effectiveness evaluations are reviewed. Problem areas, including interpretation of differently phrased awareness questions and response bias, are discussed. Recommendations for overcoming common problems are made, and an open discussion based on…
This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baxter, Leslie; Egbert, Nichole; Ho, Evelyn
The authors examined college students' day-to-day health communication experiences. A convenience sample of 109 midwestern university students participated in the study. The participants completed health communication diaries for 2 weeks, generating 2,185 records. Frequent health topics included nutrition and diet, minor health concerns, risky health practices, and body fitness. Approximately 27% of health communication experiences involved the proactive seeking of health-related information or advice. Interpersonal venues (face-to-face, telephone, and e-mail) were evident in about 75% of the records, which were dominated by exchanges with friends and family members. The authors found modest interactions of topic, channel, and purpose. Congruent with the uses and gratifications theory, the authors found that satisfaction with and perceived impact of health communication experiences varied by topic, channel, relationship, and purpose.
Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Phil
Background Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet’s reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. Objectives This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence, and behavioral outcomes. Methods Drawing on systematic review methods, a combination of 84 query terms were used in 5 bibliographic databases with additional gray literature searches. This resulted in 1271 abstracts and papers; 31 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 29 papers describing 30 interventions were included in the primary meta-analysis, with the 2 additional studies qualifying for the adherence analysis. Using a random effects model, the first analysis estimated the overall effect size, including groupings by control conditions and time factors. The second analysis assessed the impacts of psychological design features that were coded with taxonomies from evidence-based behavioral medicine, persuasive technology, and other behavioral influence fields. These separate systems were integrated into a coding framework model called the communication-based influence components model. Finally, the third analysis assessed the relationships between intervention adherence
Berry, J M
In 1981 the West Midlands Health services undertook a publicity campaign aimed at helping women to understand more about keeping healthy during pregnancy and encouraging them to seek early ante-natal care. A series of full page advertisements on ante-natal care were placed in local newspapers in the Region. Set out here are the findings of two studies of the impact of the publicity campaign. The first shows how far people's knowledge of what to do during pregnancy was altered by the publicity, and the second shows what people thought of the advertisements themselves and the further information sent to them on request.
In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by promoting the inclusion of right to health in the new constitution.
This paper deals with the use of a communication audit as a tool for evaluating the effectiveness of public relations within health services. The research was conducted within healthcare institutions operating in the Czech Republic. Areas of research questions were focused on these aspects of health services: The approach to the implementation of a communication audit: Is the communication audit tied to the level of public relations effectiveness evaluation? Is the approach influenced by publ...
Andersen, Kim Normann; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Kim, Soonhee
This paper brings forward five propositions on the use of online communication in health care, its potential impacts on efficiency and effectiveness in health care, and which role government should play in moving forward the use of online communication. In the paper, each of the five propositions...
Vedal, Sverre; Han, Bin; Xu, Jia; Szpiro, Adam; Bai, Zhipeng
No cohort studies in China on the health effects of long-term air pollution exposure have employed exposure estimates at the fine spatial scales desirable for cohort studies with individual-level health outcome data. Here we assess an array of modern air pollution exposure estimation approaches for assigning within-city exposure estimates in Beijing for individual pollutants and pollutant sources to individual members of a cohort. Issues considered in selecting specific monitoring data or new monitoring campaigns include: needed spatial resolution, exposure measurement error and its impact on health effect estimates, spatial alignment and compatibility with the cohort, and feasibility and expense. Sources of existing data largely include administrative monitoring data, predictions from air dispersion or chemical transport models and remote sensing (specifically satellite) data. New air monitoring campaigns include additional fixed site monitoring, snapshot monitoring, passive badge or micro-sensor saturation monitoring and mobile monitoring, as well as combinations of these. Each of these has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that a campaign in Beijing that at least includes a mobile monitoring component, when coupled with currently available spatio-temporal modeling methods, should be strongly considered. Such a campaign is economical and capable of providing the desired fine-scale spatial resolution for pollutants and sources.
Full Text Available No cohort studies in China on the health effects of long-term air pollution exposure have employed exposure estimates at the fine spatial scales desirable for cohort studies with individual-level health outcome data. Here we assess an array of modern air pollution exposure estimation approaches for assigning within-city exposure estimates in Beijing for individual pollutants and pollutant sources to individual members of a cohort. Issues considered in selecting specific monitoring data or new monitoring campaigns include: needed spatial resolution, exposure measurement error and its impact on health effect estimates, spatial alignment and compatibility with the cohort, and feasibility and expense. Sources of existing data largely include administrative monitoring data, predictions from air dispersion or chemical transport models and remote sensing (specifically satellite data. New air monitoring campaigns include additional fixed site monitoring, snapshot monitoring, passive badge or micro-sensor saturation monitoring and mobile monitoring, as well as combinations of these. Each of these has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that a campaign in Beijing that at least includes a mobile monitoring component, when coupled with currently available spatio-temporal modeling methods, should be strongly considered. Such a campaign is economical and capable of providing the desired fine-scale spatial resolution for pollutants and sources.
The right to health includes a right of access to good quality palliative care, but inequalities persist. Raising awareness is a key plank of the public health approach to palliative care, but involves consideration of subjects most of us prefer not to address. This review addresses the question: "do public health awareness campaigns effectively improve the awareness and quality of palliative care"? The evidence shows that public awareness campaigns can improve awareness of palliative care and probably improve quality of care, but there is a lack of evidence about the latter. Rapid review and synthesis. A comprehensive public awareness campaign about palliative care (including advance care planning and end-of-life decision making) should be based on clear and shared terminology, use well piloted materials, and the full range of mass media to suit different ages, cultures, and religious/spiritual perspectives. Arts and humanities have a role to play in allowing individuals and communities to express experiences of illness, death, and grief and encourage conversation and thoughtful reflection. There is evidence about key factors for success: targeting, networking, and use of specific, measurable, achievable, realistic time-bound objectives; continuous evaluation; and complementarity to national and international policy. Campaigns should be located within the framework of public health promotion and the synergy between short national mass media campaigns and longer term local community action initiatives carefully considered. National and local projects to raise awareness should identify and address any barriers at the level of individuals, communities, and systems of care, for example, literacy skills and unequal access to resources.
This news brief discusses the first campaign to stop the spread of AIDS in Russia. The government is investing in newspaper advertising in order to prevent the spread of AIDS, because the alternative health care model is too expensive. The country is unable to afford the expensive drugs for treating AIDS and HIV infections, and the health care system, in general, is in decline. The health ministry is relying on the support from Medecins sans Frontieres (Doctors without Borders) to mount a newspaper campaign to urge condom use and other safe sex practices. The campaign will also involve television and radio advertisements, followed by billboards on subway stops and city buses. Since the communist break-up, IV drug use and prostitution have become widespread problems. Borders were opened, and drugs entered the country. Under the former Soviet regime, contact with foreigners was discouraged and travel was restricted. The public was exposed to AIDS information in the campaigns conducted in 1990. The public is generally informed about AIDS. The new campaign focuses on safe sex, which is a new concept for Russians. There is a wide gap between knowledge and adoption of safe sex practices. Official records indicate about 4400 HIV cases, of which 259 are in advanced stages of AIDS. Official figures are considered underestimates. Over 75% of current HIV cases involve IV drug users, but the potential for heterosexual transmission is great. About 50% of the HIV cases were recorded in Kaliningrad, a port city with a growing population of IV drug users. The city provides easy access to the rest of Europe and exposure to HIV/AIDS that is not yet found in most other Russian cities.
Noar, Seth M
Mass media campaigns have long been a tool for promoting public health. How effective are such campaigns in changing health-related attitudes and behaviors, however, and how has the literature in this area progressed over the past decade? The purpose of the current article is threefold. First, I discuss the importance of health mass media campaigns and raise the question of whether they are capable of effectively impacting public health. Second, I review the literature and discuss what we have learned about the effectiveness of campaigns over the past 10 years. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for the health campaign literature over the next 10 years. The overriding conclusion is the following: The literature is beginning to amass evidence that targeted, well-executed health mass media campaigns can have small-to-moderate effects not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well, which can translate into major public health impact given the wide reach of mass media. Such impact can only be achieved, however, if principles of effective campaign design are carefully followed.
This conference paper will explore the difference between communicating changes and changing communication. Based on a case study in which a manager applies two quite different approaches to organizational communication in order to change the organization he is leading. The first and failing...... approach will in be named: organizational campaigning and means (e.g. Kotter, 2012, p. 9 and Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2009) that the manager takes control with communication and communication cannels in order to ensure successful organizational changes. Since the changes were not succeeding the approach...... is replaced with a new approach which will be named organizing communication. During the case analysis we will see that this change in approach not only change the managers perception of communication but also his perception of the organization he is leading....
Chandir, Subhash; Dharma, Vijay Kumar; Siddiqi, Danya Arif; Khan, Aamir Javed
Despite multiple rounds of immunization campaigns, it has not been possible to achieve optimum immunization coverage for poliovirus in Pakistan. Supplementary activities to improve coverage of immunization, such as door-to-door campaigns are constrained by several factors including inaccurate hand-drawn maps and a lack of means to objectively monitor field teams in real time, resulting in suboptimal vaccine coverage during campaigns. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) - based tracking of mobile subscriber identity modules (SIMs) of vaccinators provides a low-cost solution to identify missed areas and ensure effective immunization coverage. We conducted a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of using GSM technology to track vaccinators through observing indicators including acceptability, ease of implementation, costs and scalability as well as the likelihood of ownership by District Health Officials. The real-time location of the field teams was displayed on a GSM tracking web dashboard accessible by supervisors and managers for effective monitoring of workforce attendance including 'time in-time out', and discerning if all target areas - specifically remote and high-risk locations - had been reached. Direct access to this information by supervisors eliminated the possibility of data fudging and inaccurate reporting by workers regarding their mobility. The tracking cost per vaccinator was USD 0.26/month. Our study shows that GSM-based tracking is potentially a cost-efficient approach, results in better monitoring and accountability, is scalable and provides the potential for improved geographic coverage of health services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
George, W; Grimminger, F; Krause, B
The Communications Center's portfolio covers areas such as marketing, contacts, distribution of information, sales activities and collection of bills by telephone (encashment). A special emphasis is Customer Care Management (Customer Relationship Management) to the patient and his caregivers (relatives), the customers, especially the physicians who send their patients to the hospital and the hospital doctor. By providing communication centers, the hospital would be able to improve the communication with the G.P.s, and identify the wishes and requirements more accurately and easily from the beginning. Dealing effectively with information and communication is already also of special importance for hospital doctors today. One can assume that the demands on doctors in this respect will become even more complex in the future. Doctors who are involved in scientific research are of course fully aware of the growing importance of the Internet with its new information and communication channels. Therefore analysing the current situation, the demands on a future information management system can be formulated: A system that will help doctors to avoid dealing with little goal-oriented information and thus setting up effective communication channels; an information system which is multi-media oriented towards the interests and needs of the patients and patient's relatives and which is further developed continually and directly by those involved.
Since the key to effective health communication lies in its ability to communicate well, some of its core problems are those that relate to the sharing of meaning between communicators. In elaborating on these problems, this paper offers two key propositions: one, health communication has to pass through the filter of a particular world view that creates a discrepancy between expected and actual message reception and response. Two, the assumption of a rational human actor made implicitly by most health psychological models is a contestable issue, as many times message recipients do not follow a cognitive judgment process. The phenomenon of resisting health messages by reasonable people asks the question whether we ought to rethink our adherence to a particular vision of human health as many times the adverse reaction to behaviour modification occurs as the result of a particular dialogical or discursive situation. At the same time, most motivational decisions in people's daily routines are automatic and use a concept known as self-identity to give stability to their behaviour patterns. Finally, health communication as part of organised government practices adheres to predominant value perspectives within health promotion practice that affect the manner in which health issues become problematised. This paper proposes a humanistic model that aims to pay attention to the intricacies of human communication by addressing all of the above problems in turn. It interprets the sharing of meaning element in human communication and addresses the question of how the idea of health is created through discourse. As such, it offers a complementary and constructive paradigm and set of approaches to understand health, its meanings and communication.
Brooks, Deems M.
The connections between human communication and mental health were first noted 50 to 60 years ago by such early psychiatrists as Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Karen Horney. They were concerned with understanding those communication processes and skills that make for effective, fully functioning human beings. Adler emphasized faulty…
Hacking, Damian; Lau, Yan Kwan; Haricharan, Hanne Jensen; Heap, Marion
Cell phone-based health information (mobile health or mHealth) campaigns are an emerging technology. This evaluation focused on the aspect of cost of two health information campaigns, one on hypertension and one on pregnancy. Researchers could either contract out the technical components of the campaigns or attempt to run the campaigns themselves, in-house. The in-house campaigns cost an estimated ZAR13 548.72 v. the private provider quotes which ranged from ZAR27 542.97 to ZAR34 227.59. Running the campaigns in-house was more labour intensive and required more technical expertise, but had a reduced delivery failure rate (9.2% in-house v. 30.0% private provider). Running small to medium SMS (text message) campaigns for evaluative purposes proved advantageous over contracting out to private providers. Larger-scale evaluations and full-scale roll-out will require the services of private providers, but it is still essential that researchers actively engage with and monitor the technical aspects of these campaigns.
Shahriar Khandaker; Juwel Rana
Background. Smoking causes ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lung cancer killing 15,000 Australians every year. Despite extensive publicity of the harmful health effects of smoking, one in six Australian aged 15 years and over smoked daily representing 2.7 million active smokers. Objectives. The research aimed to comprehend how active university student smokers respond to different appeals employed in public service antismoking campaigns in Western Australia. M...
.... Lifestyle choices have enormous impact on our health and well being. But, how do we communicate the language of good health so that it is uniformly received-and accepted-by people from different cultures and backgrounds...
Smit-Kroner, Christel; Brumby, Susan
Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.
Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change.
Acquadro Maran, Daniela; Varetto, Antonella; Zedda, Massimo; Franscini, Monica
Stalking is a phenomenon characterized by a set of repetitive behaviors, intrusive surveillance, control, communication, and search of contact with a victim who is afraid and/or worried and/or annoyed by such unwanted attention. Literature analysis shows that Health Care Professionals (HCPs) are at greater risk of being stalked than the general population. As described by Mullen, Pathé, Purcell, and Stuart, stalkers may have different motives: relational rejection, an infatuation, an inability to express their own emotions and recognize those of others, or a desire for revenge. The aim of this study was to explore stalkers' motivation as perceived by their victims, characteristics of stalking campaigns, and consequences. A copy of the Italian modified version of The Network for Surviving Stalking (NSS) Questionnaire on Stalking, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Trait Inventory (STAI) Y1-Y2 scales were distributed in six Italian state hospitals. Participants included 1,842 HCPs, 256 (13.9%) of which had been victims. The majority of victims reported that stalkers were Rejected (96, 37.5%), Intimacy seekers (41, 16%), Incompetent suitors (60, 23.4%), and/or Resentful (43, 16.8%; χ 2 = 163.3, p = .001). Stalking campaigns were characterized by several behaviors, principally contact (by telephone calls, text message) and following. The stalking campaign caused in victims both physical and emotional consequences, the most frequent being weight changes, sleep disorders, weakness, apprehension, anger, and fear. The most used coping strategies were moving away and moving toward, the less used was moving inward. Intervention programs and preventive measures (both individual and organizational) for HCP victims and those who could be considered at risk are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Barbini, R; Colao, F; Fantoni, R; Palucci, A; Ribezzo, S [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipt. Sviluppo Tecnologie di Punta
The second European joint field campaign for the remote sensing of vegetation health was held in Oberpfaffenhofen (D) (30 Jun-9 Jul 1992) within the framework of the EUREKA/LASFLEUR Project. Italian groups, from ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment), CNR (Italian National Research Council) and Viterbo University participated in this campaign together with German, French and Swedish groups from different institutes. On the occasion of this campaign, the lidar (light detection and ranging) fluorosensor system built at ENEA Frascati for the remote sensing of water and territory was improved, on the basis of the former field experience on plant fluorescence remote detection gained during the first LASFLEUR campaign held in Viterbo, and carried out on-site by means of a movable container. The new version of the set-up is presented here, together with the measurements performed on the available targets (spruce, maple, elm and cornel trees, and mais plants). Data analysis is discussed in detail, attempting to correlate the present spectral domain measurements with the plant photosynthetic activity under different weather and (nutrition or water) stress conditions. Several correlations were found between different pigment concentrations in various vegetables and spectrally resolved remote sensed data on the same species. It was demonstrated that the measurements, when performed from an airborne platform, would allow for a remote vegetation recognition across large areas (monitoring cultivations or forests). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the inter-calibration of different lidar systems operating in the spectrally resolved mode: this point is discussed here as well. Some conclusions drawn at the end of the LASFLEUR project Phase 1 are presented at the end of this report, as discussed during the last Project Workshop held in Florence from October 22nd to 26th, 1992.
Han, Hahrie; Nicholas, Alexandra; Aimer, Margaret; Gray, Jonathon
To examine whether being an organizer in a community organizing program improves personal agency and self-reported mental health outcomes among low-income Pacific Island youth in Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau Health initiated a community organizing campaign led and run by Pacific Island youth. We used interviews, focus groups and pre- and post-campaign surveys to examine changes among 30 youths as a result of the campaign. Ten youths completed both pre- and post-campaign surveys. Eleven youths participated in focus groups, and four in interviews. Overall, youths reported an increased sense of agency and improvements to their mental health. Community organizing has potential as a preventive approach to improving mental health and developing agency over health among disempowered populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Hicks, Joel M
Communication is perhaps one of the greatest challenges facing managers and leaders today. Clearly articulating ideas and expectations to employees is vital to the productivity and the longevity of an organization. Furthermore, the style in which the communication is delivered has an influence on the satisfaction levels of employees. Research has discovered that there are many different styles in which a leader may communicate with employees. Research has provided several methods that aid in determining which style is the most appropriate for any given circumstance. Research has demonstrated how appropriate and effective communication is used to promote organizational health. Furthermore, research has demonstrated how inappropriate communication may decrease employee satisfaction. Finally, research has provided methods to aid in improving communication styles and delivery.
Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L
Controversy has swirled over the past three decades about the ethics of fear-based public health campaigns. The HIV/AIDS epidemic provided a context in which advocacy groups were almost uniformly hostile to any use of fear, arguing that it was inherently stigmatising and always backfired. Although this argument was often accepted within public health circles, surprisingly, the bioethicists who first grappled with this issue in terms of autonomy and coercion in the 1980s were not single-minded: fear could be autonomy-enhancing. But by the turn of the 21st century, as opponents of fear-based appeals linked them to stigmatisation, ethicists typically rejected fear as inherently unethical. The evidence has increasingly suggested that fear-based campaigns 'work.' Emotionally charged public health messages have, as a consequence, become more commonplace. We conclude that an ethics of public health, which prioritises population well-being, as contrasted with the contemporary focus of bioethics on autonomy, provides a moral warrant for ensuring that populations understand health risk 'in their guts.' This, we argue, does not relieve public health authorities from considering the burdens their efforts may impose on vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Drope, J; Glantz, S
To describe how the British Columbia Capital Regional District successfully passed, implemented, and enforced a 100% smokefree bylaw in all public places, including restaurants and bars, despite an aggressive campaign by the tobacco industry (acting through the hospitality industry) to stop it. Information was obtained from news reports, internal tobacco industry documents, reports, public documents, and interviews with key players. Tobacco industry documents were accessed between February and April 2002. This project was approved by the University of California San Francisco committee on human research. As in the USA and elsewhere in the world, the tobacco industry in British Columbia, Canada, recruited and created hospitality associations to fight against the district smokefree bylaw. They used the classic industry rhetoric of individual rights and freedoms, economic devastation, and ventilation as a solution. Public health authorities were able to counter industry strategies with a strong education campaign, well written bylaws, and persistent enforcement. It is possible to overcome serious opposition orchestrated by the tobacco industry and develop and implement a 100% smokefree bylaw in Canada. Doing so requires attention to detail in drafting the bylaw, as well as a public education campaign on the health dangers of secondhand smoke and active enforcement to overcome organised resistance to the bylaw. Jurisdictions considering smokefree bylaws should anticipate this opposition when developing and implementing their bylaws.
George, Kimberly S; Roberts, Calpurnyia B; Beasley, Stephen; Fox, Margaretta; Rashied-Henry, Kweli
Design, implement, and evaluate a 6-week social marketing campaign (SMC) to raise awareness of obesity and increase involvement in type 2 diabetes prevention, nutrition, and fitness programs offered by the Brooklyn Partnership to Drive Down Diabetes (BP3D) in two low-income, urban communities. This was a nonexperimental, formative research, mixed-methods study. The study took place in Central Brooklyn and East New York, two of the most impoverished, high-need communities in New York City. Participants were black and Hispanic adults, who were 18+ years of age and residing in the priority communities. Advertisements in English and Spanish encouraging healthier eating habits and advocating for better food options were displayed on New York City bus shelters, buses, and subway cars operating in the priority communities. Social media, Web sites, and print material were used to promote the campaign message. Social media metrics and a street intercept postsurvey informed the campaign's success. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. One hundred advertisements in English and Spanish were posted. After an 18-month followup, there were over 11,000 visits to the Facebook page. Results from the postsurvey (n = 171) suggest the SMC motivated participants who recognized the advertisements to improve their health behaviors. A multifaceted SMC that coincides with prevention programs can effectively raise attention to health issues and activities in a high-risk population at a relatively low cost. © The Author(s) 2016.
Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S.
The first European joint field campaign for the remote sensing of vegetation health was held in Viterbo (October 6 to 18, 1991) within the framework of the EUREKA/LASFLEUR project. Italian groups, from universities, ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) and CNR (Italian National Research Council), participated in this campaign together with several German groups from different institutes. The LIDAR (light detection and ranging) fluorosensor system built at the ENEA Frascati Research Center for the remote sensing of water and land was modified to detect fluorescence from trees in a field experiment. The new version of the set-up is presented in this paper together with the spectral and time resolved measurements that were performed. Results are discussed in view of correlating present data with the plant photosynthesis activity under different weather conditions and water stresses
Chadwick, Amy E
Climate change is one of the most serious and pervasive challenges facing us today. Our changing climate has implications not only for the ecosystems upon which we depend, but also for human health. Health communication scholars are well-positioned to aid in the mitigation of and response to climate change and its health effects. To help theorists, researchers, and practitioners engage in these efforts, this primer explains relevant issues and vocabulary associated with climate change and its impacts on health. First, this primer provides an overview of climate change, its causes and consequences, and its impacts on health. Then, the primer describes ways to decrease impacts and identifies roles for health communication scholars in efforts to address climate change and its health effects.
Riera, Antonio; Ocasio, Agueda; Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Krumeich, Lauren; Ragins, Kyle; Thomas, Anita; Trevino, Sandra; Vaca, Federico E
In this article, we analyze qualitative data from a purposeful sample of limited English proficiency (LEP) asthma health caregivers. We used ethnically concordant, semistructured, in-depth Spanish-language interviews and a follow-up focus group to explore issues related to communication during pediatric asthma encounters in medical settings. Inductive coding of Spanish transcripts by a bilingual research team was performed until thematic saturation was reached. Several key findings emerged. LEP caregivers encountered significant asthma burdens related to emotional stress, observed physical changes, and communication barriers. Language-discordant communication and the use of ad hoc interpreters were common. This finding is complex, and was influenced by perceptions of interpreter availability, delays in care, feelings of mistrust toward others, and individual emotional responses. Language-concordant education and suitable action plans were valued and desired. We discuss a revealing depiction of the LEP caregiver experience with asthma health communication and recommend areas for further inquiry. © The Author(s) 2014.
Schou, L; Wight, C; Wohlgemuth, B
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the overall effect of the 1989 Lothian dental health education campaign on 8-year-old school children's dental health knowledge and behaviour and to examine the relationship between free meals and the children's benefit from the campaign....... Altogether 874 children were randomly selected and included in the study. Sugar-free meals and drinks were provided in all primary schools throughout the campaign week. Dental officers held 30-minute information sessions with each class and encouraged teachers to continue dental health activities. Dental...... knowledge and behaviour were evaluated by interviews immediately before and after the campaign. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge about diet and dental health and a significantly higher proportion of children claimed to choose non-cariogenic foods and drinks as a result of the campaign...
Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian
Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Samokhvalova, Anna G.
Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.
Muraya, Julie Gathoni; Neville Miller, Ann; Mjomba, Leonard
Although it ran on multiple mass media for the better part of a year, end line evaluation of the Nimechill youth abstinence campaign in Kenya indicated that exposure to the campaign had no relationship to youth decisions to defer sexual debut. One possible explanation of this lack of association could be that target audience members derived inconsistent and confusing meanings from visuals as opposed to text in the campaign. Employing Hall's concept of high- and low-context communication, we assessed target population interpretation of four campaign posters via 12 focus-group discussions and four individual in-depth interviews with Nairobi youth. We found that although participants endorsed and recognized campaign objectives, contextual cues in some campaign visuals were interpreted by participants as being contradictory to the abstinence message in the poster texts. In addition noticeable differences arose between the low-income and middle-/high-income groups in interpretation of one of the posters. We conclude with recommendations regarding use of visuals in high-context cultures and involvement of youth from various socioeconomic strata in campaign planning.
Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Routsong, Tracy; Graaf, Lorrie J.; Losch, Mary; Smith, Holly
National health communication campaign developers have ignored rural audiences in campaign development and testing, despite the health disparities that exist for this group. Researchers in a rural Midwestern state tested the appropriateness of CDC's national colorectal cancer screening campaign, Screen for Life. Based on focus groups and a…
Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences.
Mahmud, Amina Jama; Olander, Ewy; Eriksén, Sara; Haglund, Bo Ja
Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health communication channel could facilitate
This article provides an analysis of Dutch election posters in the period from 1946 to 2006. Based on the literature on the professionalization of political communication, several hypotheses are formulated regarding changes in textual and visual elements of those posters. These hypotheses focus on
Public and private organisations across Europe are discovering the importance of using communication strategies to change consumers' attitudes and behaviours related to energy use and conservation. There is a clear need to raise awareness on climate change issues, to spark public debate and to inspire energy innovation. The aim of the conference paper is to describe the variety of communication strategies that are currently used in Europe to communicate on energy issues. We will see how different stake holders choose to communicate on energy issues, who their target audiences are and what media they use to get their messages across. The best practises shown will be in the following fields: convincing residents in old apartment buildings to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings; getting citizens to accept new renewable energy infrastructure in their neighbourhoods ( i.e. wind and solar parks); popularising clean transport amongst teenagers; getting energy-intense industries to reduce their energy consumption; teaching energy innovation in schools; attracting the media to the energy debate; using social media when talking about energy ( You tube, Facebook, blogs, etc).(author).
Hardeman, Keith T.; Jefferson, Kurt W.
The closeness of the 2000 presidential election clearly demonstrated that the country was divided philosophically and politically. The authors of this paper, a speech communication professor and a political science professor at Westminster College in Missouri, capitalized on that division based upon their diametrically opposed political views by…
Full Text Available Objectives: Health literacy has received attention as an important issue for pharmacists to consider when interacting with patients. Yet, there is little information about methods pharmacists use to communicate with patients and their extent of use of health literacy based interventions during patient interactions. The purpose of this study was to examine methods of communication and types of health literacy based interventions that practicing pharmacists use in Illinois. Methods: A survey instrument addressing the study purpose was designed along with other items that were part of a larger study. Eleven items in the survey referred to pharmacist-patient communication. The instrument was pilot tested before administering to a random sample of 1457 pharmacists from the Illinois Pharmacists Association. Data were primarily collected via a mailed survey using Dillman’s five step total design method (TDM. Two reminder letters were mailed at two week intervals to non-respondents. Results: Usable responses were obtained from 701 respondents (48.1% response rate. Using simple words (96% and asking patients open-ended questions to determine comprehension (85% were the most frequent methods that pharmacists used to communicate with patients. Only 18% of respondents always asked patients to repeat medication instructions to confirm understanding. The various recommended types of health literacy interventions were “always” performed by only 8 to 33% of the respondents. More than 50% of respondents indicated that they rarely or never had access to an interpreter (51%, or employed bilingual pharmacists (59%. Only 11% of pharmacists said that they rarely/never pay attention to nonverbal cues that may suggest low health literacy. Conclusions: Pharmacists infrequently use action oriented health literacy interventions such as using visual aids, having interpreter access, medication calendars, etc. Additional training on health literacy, its scope, and
Cugelman, Brian; Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Phil
Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet's reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence, and behavioral outcomes. Drawing on systematic review methods, a combination of 84 query terms were used in 5 bibliographic databases with additional gray literature searches. This resulted in 1271 abstracts and papers; 31 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 29 papers describing 30 interventions were included in the primary meta-analysis, with the 2 additional studies qualifying for the adherence analysis. Using a random effects model, the first analysis estimated the overall effect size, including groupings by control conditions and time factors. The second analysis assessed the impacts of psychological design features that were coded with taxonomies from evidence-based behavioral medicine, persuasive technology, and other behavioral influence fields. These separate systems were integrated into a coding framework model called the communication-based influence components model. Finally, the third analysis assessed the relationships between intervention adherence and behavioral outcomes. The
Barón Cano, Natalia; Mosquera Gordillo, Miguel Armando; Ballester Añón, Rosa
Malaria was one of the most important public health problems of the Colonial Medicine and, for this reason, the subject was reflected in the Spanish medical journalism. The aim of the paper was to reconstruct the Spanish contributions to international health during the first half of the twentieth century. The primary sources of information on malaria were the medical journals Medicina de los Países Cálidos and Medicina Colonial, between 1929 and 1954. The documents were classified according to the sections of the magazine and its contents were studied, framing them in the history of international public health. In primary sources were found 466 documents. Malaria was one of the major diseases of the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco and Spanish Guinea, favoured by the occupation of the Spanish army. Antimalaria campaigns included strategies such as the use of Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, preventive education and massive quininización. Malariology in the specialized journalism, experienced a growing boom. The most outstanding authors in magazines analyzed were Gustavo Pittaluga, Sadí de Buen, Eliseo de Buen and Juan Gil-Collado. The Spanish specialized journalism provides the importance e interaction in antimalaria campaigns in Spain and Spanish African colonies of scientific, professional, political and military factors. The colonial situation was negative and marked differences between metropolis and colonies in terms of the effort, efficiency and the different temporal sequence of the measures undertaken.
Milat, Andrew J; Carroll, Tom E; Taylor, Jennifer J
This paper describes a review of population health social marketing campaigns targeting culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) communities in Australia in order to identify characteristics of effective CLD campaigns. Literature on CLD population health social marketing was identified from electronic searches of databases in August 2004. At the same time, the grey literature was examined by searching the Internet and talking to Australian experts in the fields of CLD social marketing and CLD research. Eight studies met the search criteria, four from the published literature. Two studies that employed prepost evaluation designs provided tentative support for the potential efficacy of CLD social marketing strategies. The remaining studies did not allow for causal attribution as they used post-campaign only or process evaluations. Studies did, however, show that CLD communities access campaign-related information from both mainstream and ethnic media channels. In addition, Vietnamese respondents were more likely to access campaign messages through ethnic radio and Chinese respondents through ethnic press. There is insufficient evidence to clearly identify the characteristics of effective CLD campaigns. Campaign evaluation designs used to evaluate social marketing strategies targeting CLD communities in Australia are generally weak, but there is tentative evidence supporting the potential efficacy of these strategies in some Australian settings.
Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086
Cho, Hyunyi; Witte, Kim
The HIV/AIDS infection rate of Ethiopia is one of the world's highest. Prevention campaigns should systematically incorporate and respond to at-risk population's existing beliefs, emotions, and perceived barriers in the message design process to effectively promote behavior change. However, guidelines for conducting formative evaluation that are grounded in proven risk communication theory and empirical data analysis techniques are hard to find. This article provides a five-step formative evaluation process that translates theory and research for developing effective messages for behavior change. Guided by the extended parallel process model, the five-step process helps message designers manage public's fear surrounding issues such as HIV/AIDS. An entertainment education project that used the process to design HIV/AIDS prevention messages for Ethiopian urban youth is reported. Data were collected in five urban regions of Ethiopia and analyzed according to the process to develop key messages for a 26-week radio soap opera.
Sutton, S M; Balch, G I; Lefebvre, R C
Using the consumer-oriented approach of social and commercial marketers, this article presents a process for crafting messages designed to improve people's health behaviors. The process, termed consumer-based health communications (CHC), transforms scientific recommendations into message strategies that are relevant to the consumer. The core of CHC is consumer research conducted to understand the consumer's reality, and thereby allowing six strategic questions to be answered. The immediate result of the CHC process is a strategy statement--a few pages that lay out who the target consumer is, what action should be taken, what to promise and how to make the promise credible, how and when to reach him or her, and what image to convey. The strategy statement then guides the execution of all communication efforts, be they public relations, mass media, direct marketing, media advocacy, or interpersonal influence. It identifies the most important "levers" for contact with the consumer. Everyone from creative specialists through management and program personnel can use the strategy statement as a touchstone to guide and judge the effectiveness of their efforts. The article provides a step by step illustration of the CHC process using the 5 A Day campaign as an example.
Full Text Available This paper examines the health insurance industry’s response to the welliness movement between 1960 and 1990. Based primarily on insurance and personnel management trade publications, it argues that the health insurance industry cautiously joined the weliness campaigns of the 70s and 80s despite its on-going reservations regarding the actuarial basis for rate differentials. The industry’s business-like conservatism was overcome by its recognition of wellness promotion as a cost-control measure, public relations tool, and means to stave off the threat of further governmental oversight and regulation.
Davis, Kevin C.; Evans, W. Douglas; Kamyab, Kian
Background: Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children’s decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the "Parents Speak Up…
Hupert, Nathaniel; Wattson, Daniel; Cuomo, Jason; Benson, Samuel
Mass prophylaxis against infectious disease outbreaks carries the risk of medication-related adverse events (MRAEs). The authors sought to define the relationship between the rapidity of mass prophylaxis dispensing and the subsequent demand for emergency health services due to predictable MRAEs. The authors created a spreadsheet-based computer model that calculates scenario-specific predicted daily MRAE rates from user inputs by applying a probability distribution to the reported timing of MRAEs. A hypothetical two- to ten-day prophylaxis campaign for one million people using recent data from both smallpox vaccination and anthrax chemoprophylaxis campaigns was modeled. The length of a mass prophylaxis campaign plays an important role in determining the subsequent intensity in emergency services utilization due to real or suspected adverse events. A two-day smallpox vaccination scenario would produce an estimated 32,000 medical encounters and 1,960 hospitalizations, peaking at 5,246 health care encounters six days after the start of the campaign; in contrast, a ten-day campaign would lead to 41% lower peak surge, with a maximum of 3,106 encounters on the busiest day, ten days after initiation of the campaign. MRAEs with longer lead times, such as those associated with anthrax chemoprophylaxis, exhibit less variability based on campaign length (e.g., 124 out of an estimated 1,400 hospitalizations on day 20 after a two-day campaign versus 103 on day 24 after a ten-day campaign). The duration of a mass prophylaxis campaign may have a substantial impact on the timing and peak number of clinically significant MRAEs, with very short campaigns overwhelming existing emergency department (ED) capacity to treat real or suspected medication-related injuries. While better reporting of both incidence and timing of MRAEs in future prophylaxis campaigns should improve the application of this model to community-based emergency preparedness planning, these results highlight the need
Adam, Izzeldin Fadl; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Al Rifai, Rami; Vanching, Urnaa
(1) To examine changes in women's awareness and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services in emergency settings following provision of interpersonal communication (IPC) and mass education campaigns, and (2) to describe factors associated with reproductive healthcare service use in internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Three camps containing 88 984 IDPs in Darfur, Sudan. 640 women aged 15-49 who had experienced pregnancy in the camp during the previous 2 years were enrolled in each of two independent cross-sectional surveys 26 months apart. IPC and mass education campaigns where community health workers disseminated information by home/shelter visits, clinic sessions, public meetings and other means to raise awareness and promote reproductive healthcare service use. Awareness of the existence of antenatal care (ANC) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination services, reception of ANC and TT vaccination, place of delivery and use of postnatal care (PNC). The percentage of women who received home visits, and attended in-clinic sessions and public meetings increased from 61.6% to 86.7%, from 43.0% to 68.8%, and from 3.8% to 39.8%, respectively, between the initial and follow-up surveys. More women were aware of ANC (OR 18.6, 95% CI 13.1 to 26.5) and TT vaccination (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4) in the follow-up than the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. More women received ≥3 ANC visits (OR 8.8, 95% CI 6.4 to 12.0) and ≥3 doses of TT (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.3), delivered at a healthcare facility (OR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.4) and received a PNC visit (OR 5.5, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.7) in the follow-up than in the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. Awareness about and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services were higher in the follow-up survey. An integrated IPC and mass education campaign is effective for improving women's reproductive health in emergency settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use
Zoller, Heather M
Health activists and health social movements have transformed medical treatment, promoted public health policies, and extended civil rights for people with illness and disability. This essay explores health activism that targets corporate-generated illness and risk in order to understand the unique communicative challenges involved in this area of contention. Arguing for greater critical engagement with policy, the article integrates policy research with social movements, subpolitics, and issue management literature. Drawing from activist discourse and multidisciplinary research, the article describes how a wide array of groups groups build visibility for corporate health effects, create the potential for networking and collaboration, and politicize health by attributing illness to corporate behaviors. The discussion articulates the implications of this activism for health communication theory, research, and practice.
Obregón, Rafael; Chitnis, Ketan; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Bates, Jeffrey; Galway, Michael; Ogden, Ellyn
Since 1988, the world has come very close to eradicating polio through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, in which communication interventions have played a consistently central role. Mass media and information dissemination approaches used in immunization efforts worldwide have contributed to this success. However, reaching the hardest-to-reach, the poorest, the most marginalized and those without access to health services has been challenging. In the last push to eradicate polio, Polio Eradication Initiative communication strategies have become increasingly research-driven and innovative, particularly through the introduction of sustained interpersonal communication and social mobilization approaches to reach unreached populations. This review examines polio communication efforts in India and Pakistan between the years 2000 and 2007. It shows how epidemiological, social and behavioural data guide communication strategies that have contributed to increased levels of polio immunity, particularly among underserved and hard-to-reach populations. It illustrates how evidence-based and planned communication strategies - such as sustained media campaigns, intensive community and social mobilization, interpersonal communication and political and national advocacy combined - have contributed to reducing polio incidence in these countries. Findings show that communication strategies have contributed on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders; creating political will; increasing knowledge; ensuring individual and community-level demand; overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination; and reaching out to the poorest and marginalized populations. The review concludes with observations about the added value of communication strategies in polio eradication efforts and implications for global and local public health communication interventions.
Zhang, Qinya; Huhn, Kim J; Tan, Andy; Douglas, Rachel E; Li, Helen Guiyun; Murti, Michelle; Lee, Victoria
The objectives of the study were to 1) describe the implementation of the "Testing is Healthy" campaign in four locations in British Columbia (BC) and 2) report process evaluation indicators for the campaign. Young adults ages 20-29 years, the age group with the highest reported rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea in BC. Movie theatres located in Langley, Burnaby, Coquitlam and Surrey, which are communities served by the Fraser Health Authority (FHA) in BC. The FHA launched the campaign in 2014 and 2015 to bring down the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV in the region. The campaign used the Cineplex TimePlay platform to engage moviegoers in answering STI/HIV-related questions, and to connect them to a clinic finder on the BC Centre for Disease Control Sex Smart Resource (SSR) website. TimePlay includes elements of gaming, is technology-based, and has been a successful advertisement platform for consumer products and services. However, this is the first time it has been used for sexual health promotion. The campaign was evaluated for 1) reach, based on theatre attendance and TimePlay participation, and 2) the effectiveness of connecting people to sexual health information using SSR web analytics. In total, the campaign received 548 410 views and 77 149 plays. SSR web analytics showed a significant increase in unique page views of the Clinic Finder page between the first and the second campaign. The campaign reached a large population at a low cost and was correlated with spikes in the unique page views for the Clinic Finder page.
Gram, Malene; de la Ville, Inès Valérie; Le Roux, André
The aim of this article is to explore how Danone intertwines the health discourse and the entertainment aspects when promoting their products to parents and children across cultures and in communicating to its global markets. In order to examine Danone's communication strategy in the various...... cultural contexts, the following will be analysed: who talks about health; how healthy eating is presented; and finally how playful and entertaining aspects of health are enacted in Danone's commercials. In the analysis, focus is on Danone's 'Danonino' brand, how the global market is approached and how...... it draws on the concept of 'nutri-tainment' (nutrition and entertainment). The sample consists of 175 commercials from six markets (France, Spain, Germany, Russia, Poland, Denmark) aired from 2001 to 2007. The analysis involves a quantitative exploration and clustering analysis of which themes appear...
Carey, R. N.; Sarma, K. M.
BACKGROUND: Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These 'threat appeals' feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. METHODS: To address limitati...
Rachel N. Carey; Kiran M. Sarma
Background Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These ?threat appeals? feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. Methods To address limitations...
Palumbo, Mary Val; Sandoval, Marie; Hart, Vicki; Drill, Clarissa
This pilot study investigated nurse practitioner students' communication skills when utilizing the electronic health record during history taking. The nurse practitioner students (n = 16) were videotaped utilizing the electronic health record while taking health histories with standardized patients. The students were videotaped during two separate sessions during one semester. Two observers recorded the time spent (1) typing and talking, (2) typing only, and (3) looking at the computer without talking. Total history taking time, computer placement, and communication skills were also recorded. During the formative session, mean history taking time was 11.4 minutes, with 3.5 minutes engaged with the computer (30.6% of visit). During the evaluative session, mean history taking time was 12.4 minutes, with 2.95 minutes engaged with the computer (24% of visit). The percentage of time individuals spent changed over the two visits: typing and talking, -3.1% (P = .3); typing only, +12.8% (P = .038); and looking at the computer, -9.6% (P = .039). This study demonstrated that time spent engaged with the computer during a patient encounter does decrease with student practice and education. Therefore, students benefit from instruction on electronic health record-specific communication skills, and use of a simple mnemonic to reinforce this is suggested.
Harris, Jenine K; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Choucair, Bechara; Mansour, Raed; Staub, Mackenzie; Simmons, Kendall
In January 2014, the Chicago City Council scheduled a vote on local regulation of electronic cigarettes as tobacco products. One week prior to the vote, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) released a series of messages about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) through its Twitter account. Shortly after the messages, or tweets, were released, the department's Twitter account became the target of a "Twitter bomb" by Twitter users sending more than 600 tweets in one week against the proposed regulation. The purpose of our study was to examine the messages and tweet patterns in the social media response to the CDPH e-cigarette campaign. We collected all tweets mentioning the CDPH in the week between the e-cigarette campaign and the vote on the new local e-cigarette policy. We conducted a content analysis of the tweets, used descriptive statistics to examine characteristics of involved Twitter users, and used network visualization and descriptive statistics to identify Twitter users prominent in the conversation. Of the 683 tweets mentioning CDPH during the week, 609 (89.2%) were anti-policy. More than half of anti-policy tweets were about use of electronic cigarettes for cessation as a healthier alternative to combustible cigarettes (358/609, 58.8%). Just over one-third of anti-policy tweets asserted that the health department was lying or disseminating propaganda (224/609, 36.8%). Approximately 14% (96/683, 14.1%) of the tweets used an account or included elements consistent with "astroturfing"-a strategy employed to promote a false sense of consensus around an idea. Few Twitter users were from the Chicago area; Twitter users from Chicago were significantly more likely than expected to tweet in support of the policy. Our findings may assist public health organizations to anticipate, recognize, and respond to coordinated social media campaigns.
D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L
This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.
Ayub Suffian Hadi
Full Text Available The paper discusses the importance of social media in today’s society and review how health related campaign could penetrate the youths in Malaysia. In the internet age, the youths are divided into two; the digital natives (born after 1980 and digital immigrants (born before 1980. Further to that, the paper provides an insight on how past efforts by relevant stakeholders were utilised in creating awareness to Malaysian youths through the social media. Upon identifying the efforts through extensive literature review, the usage of social media in propagating behavioural changes in youths’ were also discussed. Several meaningful impacts were discovered and must be carefully considered in terms of its practical implications to suit Malaysian youths.
Rekhy, Reetica; McConchie, Robyn
Daily intake of fruits and vegetables worldwide remains well below the recommended WHO levels, despite the established health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. A diversity of policy interventions designed to increase consumption have been conducted in the developed economies around the globe for over a decade, involving significant monetary outlays. The impact of these initiatives remains at best, modest to low, in effecting a significant increase in daily consumption on a sustained basis. Several factors have been identified in both promoting and impeding the increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, including the effects of consumer behaviour. This paper reviews several of the major promotional campaigns from around the world and provides analysis of their level of success, with a view to developing novel approaches for formulating more effective marketing and promotional interventions that will prompt significant change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Mariann B.
included in various official visions papers and recommendations. The main question is pedagogical: How do practitioners in the health sector i.e. in nursing deal with these perspectives? The materials are the Danish Health Board´s program of rehabilitation and palliative care, data from a focus group study......, and data from published autobiographies. The analysis shows that challenges are centered on communication about existential and spiritual matters. The relationship between being professional, personal and private is focused on in the light of the concepts of empathy and epoché as well as in a discussion...
Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Lange, John H; Fadda, Emanuela; Agostini, Ornella; Agnesi, Roberto; Bardin, Andrea; Cegolon, Luca
The Italian Protective Maternity Legislation allows a woman to apply for early maternity leave from work during pregnancy if she is affected by health problems (option A) or if her working conditions are incompatible with pregnancy (option B). A community based health education program, implemented between 1995 to 1998 in North Eastern Italy, provided counseling (by a team of gynecologists, pediatricians, geneticists, psychologists and occupational physicians), and an information leaflet detailing the risks during pregnancy and the governmental benefits available to expectant mothers. This leaflet was distributed to women who were under occupational medical surveillance and to women attending any healthcare office and outpatient department and was also mailed to women working at home as shoemakers.The effectiveness of this intervention has been evaluated in this investigation using an evidence based approach. A quasi-experimental design was adopted, applying several outcome measurements before (1989 to 1994) and after (1999 to 2005) the intervention. The outcome (ratio B/A) is the number of women receiving approval for B (circumstance where the pregnant woman is employed to undertake activities forbidden under the Article 7 of Law 151/2001, and it is impossible to change her duties) to those receiving approval for A (risky pregnancy due to personal medical conditions, Article 17 of the same Law). A linear regression coefficient (for B/A against years) was obtained separately for time periods "before" (1989-94) and "after" (1999-2005) the intervention program. The two regression coefficients were compared using a t-test. The trend over-time for the ratio B/A was steady before the initial intervention (y = 0.008x - 16.087; t = 2.09; p > 0.05) then increased considerably (y = 0.0426x - 84.89; t = 19.55; p working conditions are incompatible with pregnancy. The increasing number of women availing of option B, as recommended, therefore suggests the suitability of such
Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J
Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (phand hygiene before meals.
Dixon-Gray, Lesa A; Mobley, Allison; McFarlane, Julie M; Rosenberg, Kenneth D
To develop, and implement, a social marketing campaign to increase preconception health knowledge among second-generation Latinas in Oregon. Social marketing demonstration project. Latino communities in five Oregon counties. Target populations included young Latinas (18-29 years old) born in the United States of immigrant parents in five Oregon counties, and their family members. Intervention. A radionovela, Amor y Salud, was developed that featured a Latina and her fiancé preparing for marriage and family. Social media, Web sites, and culturally relevant print materials promoted the radio campaign. Process data, social media metrics, Google analytics, online and intercept surveys were collected. Basic frequencies and descriptive statistics were used. Twelve episodes were produced in English and Spanish and played on nine radio stations a total of 2098 times. The Facebook page was viewed 11,000 times, and radionovela episodes were played a total of 776 times. Amor y Salud used mixed media--radio, social media, print materials--to encourage Latinas to consider their preconception health. Anecdotally, we heard positive comments from community members and local media regarding the radionovela; however, evaluation challenges prevent us from saying conclusively that knowledge on this topic increased.
Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony
To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.
Kowitt, Sarah; Sheeran, Paschal; Jarman, Kristen L; Ranney, Leah M; Schmidt, Allison M; Noar, Seth M; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O
Communication campaigns are incorporating tobacco constituent messaging to reach smokers, yet there is a dearth of research on how such messages should be constructed or will be received by smokers. In a 2x2x2 experiment, we manipulated three cigarette constituent message components: (1) the toxic constituent of tobacco (arsenic vs. lead) with a corresponding health effect, (2) the presence or absence of an evocative image, and (3) the source of the message (FDA vs. no source). We recruited smokers (N = 1,669, 55.4% women) via an online platform and randomized them to 1 of the 8 message conditions. Participants viewed the message and rated its believability and perceived effectiveness, the credibility of the message source, and action expectancies (i.e., likelihood of seeking additional information and help with quitting as a result of seeing the message). We found significant main effects of image, constituent, and source on outcomes. The use of arsenic as the constituent, the presence of an evocative image, and the FDA as the source increased the believability, source credibility, and perceived effectiveness of the tobacco constituent health message. Multiple elements of a constituent message, including type of constituent, imagery, and message source, impact their reception among smokers. Specifically, communication campaigns targeting smokers that utilize arsenic as the tobacco constituent, visual imagery, and the FDA logo may be particularly effective in changing key outcomes that are associated with subsequent attitude and behavioral changes. This paper describes how components of communication campaigns about cigarette constituents are perceived. Multiple elements of a tobacco constituent message, including type of constituent, image, and message source may influence the reception of messages among current smokers. Communication campaigns targeting smokers that utilize arsenic as the tobacco constituent, visual imagery, and the FDA logo may be particularly
... for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the Institute of Medicine. The views presented in this report are those of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Communication for Behavior Change in the 21st Century: Improving the Health of Diverse Populations and are not necessarily those of ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. Methods. The “ShishAware” campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube and a website. Nine months after launch we collected data to assess use of, and reaction to, our media accounts. Results. Requiring limited maintenance resources, Facebook attracted campaign supporters but YouTube attracted opposers. Twitter enabled the most organisation-based contact but Facebook was the most interactive medium. Facebook users were more likely to “like” weekday than weekend statuses and more likely to comment on “shisha fact” than “current affairs” statuses. Follower subscription increased as our posting rate increased. Our YouTube video gained 19,428 views (from all world continents and 218 comments (86% from pro-waterpipe smokers. Conclusions. Social media campaigns can be created and maintained relatively easily. They are innovative and have the potential for wide and rapid diffusion, especially towards target audiences. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of their effects, particularly among the youth.
Jawad, Mohammed; Abass, Jooman; Hariri, Ahmad; Akl, Elie A
Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. The "ShishAware" campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) and a website. Nine months after launch we collected data to assess use of, and reaction to, our media accounts. Requiring limited maintenance resources, Facebook attracted campaign supporters but YouTube attracted opposers. Twitter enabled the most organisation-based contact but Facebook was the most interactive medium. Facebook users were more likely to "like" weekday than weekend statuses and more likely to comment on "shisha fact" than "current affairs" statuses. Follower subscription increased as our posting rate increased. Our YouTube video gained 19,428 views (from all world continents) and 218 comments (86% from pro-waterpipe smokers). Social media campaigns can be created and maintained relatively easily. They are innovative and have the potential for wide and rapid diffusion, especially towards target audiences. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of their effects, particularly among the youth.
Blobel, B; Pharow, P; Engel, K; Spiegel, V; Krohn, R
Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, health care networks providing open systems' interoperability in health care are needed. Such communicating and co-operating health information systems, dealing with sensitive personal medical information across organisational, regional, national or even international boundaries, require appropriate security solutions. Based on the generic security model, within the European MEDSEC project an open approach for secure EDI like HL7, EDIFACT, XDT or XML has been developed. The consideration includes both securing the message in an unsecure network and the transport of the unprotected information via secure channels (SSL, TLS etc.). Regarding EDI, an open and widely usable security solution has been specified and practically implemented for the examples of secure mailing and secure file transfer (FTP) via wrapping the sensitive information expressed by the corresponding protocols. The results are currently prepared for standardisation.
Tsai, Adam G.; Boyle, Tracy F.; Hill, James O.; Lindley, Corina; Weiss, Karl
Background: Due to the high prevalence of obesity, individuals may be desensitized to weight as a personal health concern. Purpose: To evaluate changes in obesity awareness associated with a statewide public education campaign in Colorado. Methods: Cross-sectional random digit dial telephone surveys (n = 1,107 pre, n = 1101 post) were conducted…
Full Text Available Facebook, the most widely used social media platform, has been adopted by public health organisations for health promotion and behaviour change campaigns and activities. However, limited information is available on the most effective and efficient use of Facebook for this purpose. This study sought to identify the features of Facebook posts that are associated with higher user engagement on Australian public health organisations' Facebook pages. We selected 20 eligible pages through a systematic search and coded 360-days of posts for each page. Posts were coded by: post type (e.g., photo, text only etc., communication technique employed (e.g. testimonial, informative etc. and use of marketing elements (e.g., branding, use of mascots. A series of negative binomial regressions were used to assess associations between post characteristics and user engagement as measured by the number of likes, shares and comments. Our results showed that video posts attracted the greatest amount of user engagement, although an analysis of a subset of the data suggested this may be a reflection of the Facebook algorithm, which governs what is and is not shown in user newsfeeds and appear to preference videos over other post types. Posts that featured a positive emotional appeal or provided factual information attracted higher levels of user engagement, while conventional marketing elements, such as sponsorships and the use of persons of authority, generally discouraged user engagement, with the exception of posts that included a celebrity or sportsperson. Our results give insight into post content that maximises user engagement and begins to fill the knowledge gap on effective use of Facebook by public health organisations.
Kite, James; Foley, Bridget C; Grunseit, Anne C; Freeman, Becky
Facebook, the most widely used social media platform, has been adopted by public health organisations for health promotion and behaviour change campaigns and activities. However, limited information is available on the most effective and efficient use of Facebook for this purpose. This study sought to identify the features of Facebook posts that are associated with higher user engagement on Australian public health organisations' Facebook pages. We selected 20 eligible pages through a systematic search and coded 360-days of posts for each page. Posts were coded by: post type (e.g., photo, text only etc.), communication technique employed (e.g. testimonial, informative etc.) and use of marketing elements (e.g., branding, use of mascots). A series of negative binomial regressions were used to assess associations between post characteristics and user engagement as measured by the number of likes, shares and comments. Our results showed that video posts attracted the greatest amount of user engagement, although an analysis of a subset of the data suggested this may be a reflection of the Facebook algorithm, which governs what is and is not shown in user newsfeeds and appear to preference videos over other post types. Posts that featured a positive emotional appeal or provided factual information attracted higher levels of user engagement, while conventional marketing elements, such as sponsorships and the use of persons of authority, generally discouraged user engagement, with the exception of posts that included a celebrity or sportsperson. Our results give insight into post content that maximises user engagement and begins to fill the knowledge gap on effective use of Facebook by public health organisations.
This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.
Young, Rachel; Subramanian, Roma; Hinnant, Amanda
Background Antiobesity campaigns blaming individual behaviors for obesity have sparked concern that an emphasis on individual behavior may lead to stigmatization of overweight or obese people. Past studies have shown that perpetuating stigma is not effective for influencing behavior. Purpose This study examined whether stigmatizing or nonstigmatizing images and text in antiobesity advertisements led to differences in health-related behavioral intentions. Method Participants in this experiment were 161 American adults. Measures included self-reported body mass index, weight satisfaction, antifat attitudes, and intention to increase healthy behaviors. Results Images in particular prompted intention to increase healthy behavior, but only among participants who were not overweight or obese. Conclusion Images and text emphasizing individual responsibility for obesity may influence behavioral intention among those who are not overweight, but they do not seem to be effective at altering behavioral intentions among overweight people, the target audience for many antiobesity messages. Images in antiobesity messages intended to alter behavior are influential and should be selected carefully. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Golomski, Casey; Nyawo, Sonene
Swaziland faces one of the worst HIV epidemics in the world and is a site for the current global health campaign in sub-Saharan Africa to medically circumcise the majority of the male population. Given that Swaziland is also majority Christian, how does the most popular religion influence acceptance, rejection or understandings of medical male circumcision? This article considers interpretive differences by Christians across the Kingdom's three ecumenical organisations, showing how a diverse group people singly glossed as 'Christian' in most public health acceptability studies critically rejected the procedure in unity, but not uniformly. Participants saw medical male circumcision's promotion and messaging as offensive and circumspect, and medical male circumcision as confounding gendered expectations and sexualised ideas of the body in Swazi Culture. Pentecostal-charismatic churches were seen as more likely to accept medical male circumcision, while traditionalist African Independent Churches rejected the operation. The procedure was widely understood to be a personal choice, in line with New Testament-inspired commitments to metaphorical circumcision as a way of receiving God's grace.
To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of media-based primary health care (i.e. Expanded Programme of Immunization, National Polio Day, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, contraceptive practices, modes of spread of hepatitis B, C, and HIV) among mothers with children under five years of age in an urban and a rural area of Karachi and changes in the same after community-based health education The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase 600 mothers with children under five years of age were selected at random (300 urban and 300 rural) for the evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of media-based primary health care i.e. Expanded Programme of Immunization, National Polio Day, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, contraceptive practices and modes of spread of Hepatitis B, C and HIV. In the second phase, health education on the same components of primary health care was given by lady health workers of the area to the same community for one month. Data of 200 mothers (100 urban and 100 rural) was re-evaluated after three months, to find out if there was any change, in the same. All the three areas were given scores and grade. In this study, 58% were Sindhi speaking. The mean age of mothers was 29 years. Majority (91% urban and 45% rural mothers) had access to one or more media channels. The knowledge of media-based primary health care was poor (score=10.09) among all mothers but attitude (score=8.07) and practice (score=11.09) was good for the same in more than 70% mothers in both communities. In the second phase of the study, it was found that the knowledge of primary health care had not improved but attitude and practice was good as observed earlier in both communities. Despite the national media based health education of Primary Health Care for decades, knowledge of primary health care was poor among mothers (urban and rural) but attitude and practice was good. Age and exposure to one or more media channels was found
Burns, Michael I.; Baylor, Carolyn; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Starks, Helene; Yorkston, Kathryn
Health care providers can experience increased diffculty communicating with adult patients during medical interactions when the patients have communication disorders. Meeting the communication needs of these patients can also create unique challenges for providers. The authors explore Communication Accommodation Theory (H. Giles, 1979) as a guide…
Huchko, Megan J; Ibrahim, Saduma; Blat, Cinthia; Cohen, Craig R; Smith, Jennifer S; Hiatt, Robert A; Bukusi, Elizabeth
To determine the effectiveness of community health campaigns (CHCs) as a strategy for human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical cancer screening in rural western Kenya. Between January and November 2016, a cluster-randomized trial was carried out in 12 communities in western Kenya to investigate high-risk HPV testing offered via self-collection to women aged 25-65 years in CHCs versus government health facilities. Outcome measures were the total number of women accessing cervical cancer screening and the proportion of HPV-positive women accessing treatment. In total, 4944 women underwent HPV-based cervical cancer screening in CHCs (n=2898) or health facilities (n=2046). Screening uptake as a proportion of total eligible women in the population was greater in communities assigned to CHCs (60.0% vs 37.0%, P<0.001). Rates of treatment acquisition were low in both arms (CHCs 39.2%; health facilities 31.5%; P=0.408). Cervical cancer screening using HPV testing of self-collected samples reached a larger proportion of women when offered through periodic CHCs compared with health facilities. The community-based model is a promising strategy for cervical cancer prevention. Lessons learned from this trial can be used to identify ways of maximizing the impact of such strategies through greater community participation and improved linkage to treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT02124252. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Villalobos, Víctor; Ramírez, Olivia Ortiz; Thrasher, James F; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Hernández, Rosaura Pérez; Cedillo, Claudia; González, Wendy
"Porque todos respiramos lo mismo" is a mass media campaign to promote smoke-free places (SFP). The development stages were: strategic planning; formative research; message development; media plan; and impact evaluation. Development involved formation of a coalition of key actors in various sectors. The target population was smokers and nonsmokers, with the aim of changing social norms around SFP. Nonsmokers were targeted because they comprised the majority and were most likely to appreciate the benefits of SFPs. Campaign materials were aired on television, radio, print and on billboards. One key limitation was the lack of evidence for previous campaigns, which increased the importance of formative research and of including a rigorous evaluation for this one. The campaign evaluation indicates a significant impact, which suggests that future campaigns use similar strategies in their development.
Agnesi R Roberto
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Italian Protective Maternity Legislation allows a woman to apply for early maternity leave from work during pregnancy if she is affected by health problems (option A or if her working conditions are incompatible with pregnancy (option B. A community based health education program, implemented between 1995 to 1998 in North Eastern Italy, provided counseling (by a team of gynecologists, pediatricians, geneticists, psychologists and occupational physicians, and an information leaflet detailing the risks during pregnancy and the governmental benefits available to expectant mothers. This leaflet was distributed to women who were under occupational medical surveillance and to women attending any healthcare office and outpatient department and was also mailed to women working at home as shoemakers. The effectiveness of this intervention has been evaluated in this investigation using an evidence based approach. Methods A quasi-experimental design was adopted, applying several outcome measurements before (1989 to 1994 and after (1999 to 2005 the intervention. The outcome (ratio B/A is the number of women receiving approval for B (circumstance where the pregnant woman is employed to undertake activities forbidden under the Article 7 of Law 151/2001, and it is impossible to change her duties to those receiving approval for A (risky pregnancy due to personal medical conditions, Article 17 of the same Law. A linear regression coefficient (for B/A against years was obtained separately for time periods "before" (1989-94 and "after" (1999-2005 the intervention program. The two regression coefficients were compared using a t-test. Results The trend over-time for the ratio B/A was steady before the initial intervention (y = 0.008x - 16.087; t = 2.09; p > 0.05 then increased considerably (y = 0.0426x - 84.89; t = 19.55; p Conclusion From a bureaucratic perspective Option B is far more complicated than A. In fact it implies an active
Bull, Sheana S; Posner, Samuel F; Ortiz, Charlene; Beaty, Brenda; Benton, Kathryn; Lin, Lillian; Pals, Sherri L; Evans, Tom
To evaluate effects of a 6-month social marketing campaign on awareness of, attitudes toward and use of female as well as male condoms for 15-25 year-old-women. Using a time-space sampling methodology, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3407 women at pre-campaign in 12 western U.S. neighborhoods on female and male condom awareness, attitudes, and use. Six of the 12 study neighborhoods were randomly selected to receive the POWER social marketing campaign designed to impact condom knowledge, attitudes, and use. The campaign was followed with another cross-sectional survey of 3,003 women in all 12 study neighborhoods on condom knowledge, attitudes, use and awareness of POWER materials. We compared pre-and post-campaign surveys to determine the efficacy of POWER and conducted post hoc analyses on post-campaign data to determine if exposure to POWER was related to higher levels of positive condom attitudes and norms and condom use. We found no differences between neighborhoods with and without the POWER campaign with regard to our primary outcomes. To diagnose reasons for this null effect, we examined outcomes post hoc examining the influence of POWER exposure. Post hoc analyses show some evidence that exposure to POWER was associated with condom use. In the context of the nested trial, this raises concerns that post test only evaluations are limited. Establishing the efficacy of a social marketing campaign is challenging. This group randomized trial showed a null effect. Social marketing campaigns may need to have more media channels and saturation before they can show behavioral effects. Using a nested design with randomization at the community level and probability sampling introduces rigor not commonly seen in evaluations of social marketing campaigns.
Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Amicizia, Daniela; Arata, Lucia; Carozzo, Stefano; Signori, Alessio; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara
Background The recently launched Pneumo Rischio eHealth project, which consists of an app, a website, and social networking activity, is aimed at increasing public awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The launch of this project was prompted by the inadequate awareness of IPD among both laypeople and health care workers, the heavy socioeconomic burden of IPD, and the far from optimal vaccination coverage in Italy, despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. Objective The objectives of our study were to analyze trends in Pneumo Rischio usage before and after a promotional campaign, to characterize its end users, and to assess its user-rated quality. Methods At 7 months after launching Pneumo Rischio, we established a 4-month marketing campaign to promote the project. This intervention used various approaches and channels, including both traditional and digital marketing strategies. To highlight usage trends, we used different techniques of time series analysis and modeling, including a modified Mann-Kendall test, change-point detection, and segmented negative binomial regression of interrupted time series. Users were characterized in terms of demographics and IPD risk categories. Customer-rated quality was evaluated by means of a standardized tool in a sample of app users. Results Over 1 year, the app was accessed by 9295 users and the website was accessed by 143,993 users, while the project’s Facebook page had 1216 fans. The promotional intervention was highly effective in increasing the daily number of users. In particular, the Mann-Kendall trend test revealed a significant (P ≤.01) increasing trend in both app and website users, while change-point detection analysis showed that the first significant change corresponded to the start of the promotional campaign. Regression analysis showed a significant immediate effect of the intervention, with a mean increase in daily numbers of users of 1562% (95% CI 456%-4870%) for the app and 620
Panatto, Donatella; Domnich, Alexander; Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Amicizia, Daniela; Arata, Lucia; Carozzo, Stefano; Signori, Alessio; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara
The recently launched Pneumo Rischio eHealth project, which consists of an app, a website, and social networking activity, is aimed at increasing public awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The launch of this project was prompted by the inadequate awareness of IPD among both laypeople and health care workers, the heavy socioeconomic burden of IPD, and the far from optimal vaccination coverage in Italy, despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The objectives of our study were to analyze trends in Pneumo Rischio usage before and after a promotional campaign, to characterize its end users, and to assess its user-rated quality. At 7 months after launching Pneumo Rischio, we established a 4-month marketing campaign to promote the project. This intervention used various approaches and channels, including both traditional and digital marketing strategies. To highlight usage trends, we used different techniques of time series analysis and modeling, including a modified Mann-Kendall test, change-point detection, and segmented negative binomial regression of interrupted time series. Users were characterized in terms of demographics and IPD risk categories. Customer-rated quality was evaluated by means of a standardized tool in a sample of app users. Over 1 year, the app was accessed by 9295 users and the website was accessed by 143,993 users, while the project's Facebook page had 1216 fans. The promotional intervention was highly effective in increasing the daily number of users. In particular, the Mann-Kendall trend test revealed a significant (P ≤.01) increasing trend in both app and website users, while change-point detection analysis showed that the first significant change corresponded to the start of the promotional campaign. Regression analysis showed a significant immediate effect of the intervention, with a mean increase in daily numbers of users of 1562% (95% CI 456%-4870%) for the app and 620% (95% CI 176%-1777%) for the website
Roper, W L
Actions by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to integrate health communication into overall prevention programs as a means of influencing individual behavior to reduce risks to health are described. These actions include a set of 5-year goals for the Agency; a proposal to establish an Office of Health Communication to provide leadership and support for accomplishing the goals; and establishment of a working group to create the proposed Office of Health Communication and to ...
Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Maaroos, H.I.; Tähepöld, H.
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate doctor-patient communication in consultations of newly qualified general practitioners (GPs) in a newly reorganised health care system and differences in consultation characteristics and communication patterns between new European Union (EU)-countries
Hochman, Gilberto; Mello, Maria Teresa Bandeira de; Santos, Paulo Roberto Elian dos
The article discusses a set of pictures that illustrate public health activities, practices, and campaigns against malaria in Brazil from 1918 through 1956. Exemplary of certain key moments in this history, the illustrations belong to three archives from the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz collection: Arquivo Belisário Penna, Arquivto Fundação Rockefeller ("Serviço de Malária do Nordeste" series), and Arquivo Rostan Soares. The article links these photographic records to their specific historical-public health contexts and to the campaign models and strategies represented by each archive. It also draws relations with the 20th -century history of the photographic medium itself. It is argued that these images of malaria constitute prime sources in constructing a visual history of the disease in 20th -century Brazil and of the country's public health history.
Kahn, James G; Muraguri, Nicholas; Harris, Brian; Lugada, Eric; Clasen, Thomas; Grabowsky, Mark; Mermin, Jonathan; Shariff, Shahnaaz
Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign. We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases) and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease. Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442), at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015). Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20. A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.
James G Kahn
Full Text Available Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign.We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease.Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442, at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015. Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20.A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.
Chitnis, Ketan; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Bates, Jeffrey; Galway, Michael; Ogden, Ellyn
Abstract Since 1988, the world has come very close to eradicating polio through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, in which communication interventions have played a consistently central role. Mass media and information dissemination approaches used in immunization efforts worldwide have contributed to this success. However, reaching the hardest-to-reach, the poorest, the most marginalized and those without access to health services has been challenging. In the last push to eradicate polio, Polio Eradication Initiative communication strategies have become increasingly research-driven and innovative, particularly through the introduction of sustained interpersonal communication and social mobilization approaches to reach unreached populations. This review examines polio communication efforts in India and Pakistan between the years 2000 and 2007. It shows how epidemiological, social and behavioural data guide communication strategies that have contributed to increased levels of polio immunity, particularly among underserved and hard-to-reach populations. It illustrates how evidence-based and planned communication strategies – such as sustained media campaigns, intensive community and social mobilization, interpersonal communication and political and national advocacy combined – have contributed to reducing polio incidence in these countries. Findings show that communication strategies have contributed on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders; creating political will; increasing knowledge; ensuring individual and community-level demand; overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination; and reaching out to the poorest and marginalized populations. The review concludes with observations about the added value of communication strategies in polio eradication efforts and implications for global and local public health communication interventions. PMID:19705014
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts outreach for public preparedness for natural and manmade incidents. In 2011, OPHPR conducted a nationwide mobile public health (m-Health campaign that pushed brief videos on preparing for severe winter weather onto cell phones, with the objective of evaluating the interoperability of multimedia m-Health outreach with diverse cell phones (including handsets without Internet capability, carriers, and user preferences. Methods Existing OPHPR outreach material on winter weather preparedness was converted into mobile-ready multimedia using mobile marketing best practices to improve audiovisual quality and relevance. Middleware complying with opt-in requirements was developed to push nine bi-weekly multimedia broadcasts onto subscribers’ cell phones, and OPHPR promoted the campaign on its web site and to subscribers on its govdelivery.com notification platform. Multimedia, text, and voice messaging activity to/from the middleware was logged and analyzed. Results Adapting existing media into mobile video was straightforward using open source and commercial software, including web pages, PDF documents, and public service announcements. The middleware successfully delivered all outreach videos to all participants (a total of 504 videos regardless of the participant’s device. 54 % of videos were viewed on cell phones, 32 % on computers, and 14 % were retrieved by search engine web crawlers. 21 % of participating cell phones did not have Internet access, yet still received and displayed all videos. The time from media push to media viewing on cell phones was half that of push to viewing on computers. Conclusions Video delivered through multimedia messaging can be as interoperable as text messages, while providing much richer information. This may be the only multimedia mechanism available to outreach campaigns
The Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR) in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts outreach for public preparedness for natural and manmade incidents. In 2011, OPHPR conducted a nationwide mobile public health (m-Health) campaign that pushed brief videos on preparing for severe winter weather onto cell phones, with the objective of evaluating the interoperability of multimedia m-Health outreach with diverse cell phones (including handsets without Internet capability), carriers, and user preferences. Existing OPHPR outreach material on winter weather preparedness was converted into mobile-ready multimedia using mobile marketing best practices to improve audiovisual quality and relevance. Middleware complying with opt-in requirements was developed to push nine bi-weekly multimedia broadcasts onto subscribers' cell phones, and OPHPR promoted the campaign on its web site and to subscribers on its govdelivery.com notification platform. Multimedia, text, and voice messaging activity to/from the middleware was logged and analyzed. Adapting existing media into mobile video was straightforward using open source and commercial software, including web pages, PDF documents, and public service announcements. The middleware successfully delivered all outreach videos to all participants (a total of 504 videos) regardless of the participant's device. 54 % of videos were viewed on cell phones, 32 % on computers, and 14 % were retrieved by search engine web crawlers. 21 % of participating cell phones did not have Internet access, yet still received and displayed all videos. The time from media push to media viewing on cell phones was half that of push to viewing on computers. Video delivered through multimedia messaging can be as interoperable as text messages, while providing much richer information. This may be the only multimedia mechanism available to outreach campaigns targeting vulnerable populations impacted by the digital divide
McNeil, Amy; Arena, Ross
In the last fifteen years, research on the link between health literacy (HL) and poor health outcomes has resulted in mixed results. Since 2004, concerted effort has been made to improve not only practitioner training, but also the HL of the United States population. And yet, to this day, only 12% of adults are considered health literate. Along with increased awareness of HL, creation of strategies and initiatives, such as shared decision, plain language, and decision aides, have improved patient-centered approaches to facilitating a person's ability to obtain and understand health information to the extent that they are able to affect a level of health autonomy; efforts have clearly fallen short given that during the same amount of time, the unhealthy living phenotype and chronic disease burden persists globally. In an effort to expand and leverage the work of shared decision making and communication models that include all forms of literacy (e.g., food, physical, emotional, financial, etc.) that make up the broad term of HL, we introduce the concept of harmonics as a framework to explore the bi-directional transaction between a patient and a practitioner with the goal of constructing meaning to assist in maintaining or improving one's health. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pighin, Stefania; Bonnefon, Jean-François
Health care professionals often need to convey good and bad prospects to patients, and these news can be qualified by various uncertainty terms. Based on a sociolinguistic analysis of the way these uncertainty terms are used, we predicted that they would be interpreted differently by patients as a function of whether they qualified good news or bad news. Two studies investigating causal inferences were conducted among a sample of French university students (Study 1, N=50), and among a sample of Italian pregnant women (Study 2, N=532). Participants felt greater confidence in the conclusions they derived when the news were bad, as compared to the conclusions they derived when the news were good. The findings have implications for health care professionals who communicate good and bad prospects to patients, and who need to qualify the certainty of these prospects. Professionals should be aware that when the news are bad, any hedging term such as "possible" can be misunderstood as an attempt to sugar-coat the pill, and that this misinterpretation can lead patient to inferences that are not shared by the professional. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gray, Dorinne; Nussle, Richard; Cruz, Abner; Kane, Gail; Toomey, Michael; Bay, Curtis; Ostovar, Gholamabbas Amin
Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections is in the forefront of health care quality. However, nurse and physician engagement is a common barrier in infection prevention efforts. After implementation of a multidisciplinary catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention campaign, we studied the impact of our campaign and showed its association with reducing the CAUTI rate and catheter utilization and the positive effect on health care workers' engagement and perspectives. CAUTI prevention campaigns can lead to lower infection rates and change health care workers' perspective. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Opinion leaders play an important role in mitigating health issues and are able to influence attitudes and health behaviors to a certain extent. However, in the world we are living today, individual health decision making no longer rely fully on doctor’s advice, but often persuaded by people or organisations deemed reliable and trustworthy. Interestingly, one does not have to have a medical degree to be seen as “reliable” or “trustworthy” in giving out medical advices. Computer-mediated-communication changes the way opinion leaders emerge in virtual communities, specifically in the context of health. Through increased access to both traditional and online media, people have a fair access to communication technology and therefore, our definition of opinion leaders have shifted from how we used to understand it through Lazarsfeld’s two-steps flow theory. In fact, the way opinion leaders operate via social media platform is very different from how it used to be through the traditional mass media. This paper will discuss on the characteristics of new media opinion leaders, particularly in the context of health, in hopes to learn new ways to promote health in future communication campaigns.
Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Bloo, Hans K.C.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.
This report describes the possibilities of information and communication technology in healthcare. Attention is paid of how ICT can support the communication between health care professional mutually as well as the communication between professionals and patients. Besides this some barriers that
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.
Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication among…
Eadie, William F.; And Others
An adaptation of "communication audit" procedures was used to evaluate the communication patterns at a mental health center (MHC). The evaluation included initial interviews with 28 MHC workers/administrators, a survey of 215 staff members for a communication network analysis, and followup interviews with another 28 persons. The data produced four…
Full Text Available Diverse elements of anti-littering campaigns may be effective at addressing different causes of littering. Therefore, a complementary approach combining various elements is needed to ensure the behavioral effectiveness of corresponding campaigns. The present study investigates personal, problem-centered face-to-face conversations compared to three different types of anti-littering posters (witty, authoritarian, environmentally oriented. In total, N = 147 persons participated in the questionnaire-based survey. Pictures of the three anti-littering posters were presented to all respondents, but only 82 of them additionally took part in problem-centered face-to-face conversations. Participants of the latter condition liked the conversations significantly more and judged them more effective for reducing littering than each of the three posters. Intentions for future behavior also improved more in the condition with face-to-face communications than in the reference condition in which only the anti-littering posters were presented. Regarding the posters, it was found that the witty and the environmentally-oriented poster were liked more and judged to be more effective by the respondents than the authoritarian poster. Findings are discussed in relation to the design of campaigns, which combine elements with reference to an integrative behavior model covering a broad range of factors, including processes of justifications, habit formation and reactance.
Full Text Available Undertaking a content analysis and analyzing the literature corresponding both to the role of the Internet in modern election campaigns (cyber campaigning, as well as that which assesses the crisis of public communication and the democratic potential of the Internet, this article explores: a how and to what extent did Croatian political parties utilize the marketing potential of the Internet during the 2007 parliamentary elections; and b how and to what extent did they use the Internet to encourage citizens(on or offline to participate in the political sphere. The results indicate that during the 2007 Croatian Parliamentary elections, political parties only partially utilized the potential advantages of Internet marketing. An analysis of the elements of interactivity revealed that campaigning parties generally did not use the Internet as a means to engage voters. The results in this study, however, confirm a number of trends found in other countries. The use of the Internet as an instrument to engage citizens online and increase political participation has not confirmed the optimistic predictions surrounding this issue.
Your readers may be interested in knowing that VSO will be holding a publicity campaign in Scotland in November and December. The campaign is a chance for people to come and talk to us about the opportunities available to them to work in Third World countries. We have a wide range of interesting and challenging jobs in long-term development in health work.
Full Text Available The high burden of undiagnosed HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is a major obstacle for HIV prevention and treatment. Multi-disease, community health campaigns (CHCs offering HIV testing are a successful approach to rapidly increase HIV testing rates and identify undiagnosed HIV. However, a greater understanding of population-level uptake is needed to maximize effectiveness of this approach.After community sensitization and a census, a five-day campaign was performed in May 2012 in a rural Ugandan community. The census enumerated all residents, capturing demographics, household location, and fingerprint biometrics. The CHC included point-of-care screening for HIV, malaria, TB, hypertension and diabetes. Residents who attended vs. did not attend the CHC were compared to determine predictors of participation.Over 12 days, 18 census workers enumerated 6,343 residents. 501 additional residents were identified at the campaign, for a total community population of 6,844. 4,323 (63% residents and 556 non-residents attended the campaign. HIV tests were performed in 4,795/4,879 (98.3% participants; 1,836 (38% reported no prior HIV testing. Of 2674 adults tested, 257 (10% were HIV-infected; 125/257 (49% reported newly diagnosed HIV. In unadjusted analyses, adult resident campaign non-participation was associated with male sex (62% male vs. 67% female participation, p = 0.003, younger median age (27 years in non-participants vs. 32 in participants; p<0.001, and marital status (48% single vs. 71% married/widowed/divorced participation; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, single adults were significantly less likely to attend the campaign than non-single adults (relative risk [RR]: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.53-0.74]; p<0.001, and adults at home vs. not home during census activities were significantly more likely to attend the campaign (RR: 1.20 [95% CI: 1.13-1.28]; p<0.001.CHCs provide a rapid approach to testing a majority of residents for HIV in rural African settings
Lazard, Allison J; Bamgbade, Benita A; Sontag, Jennah M; Brown, Carolyn
Depression is highly prevalent among college students. Although treatment is often available on university campuses, many stigma-based barriers prevent students from seeking help. Communication strategies, such as the use of metaphors, are needed to reduce barriers. Specially, the use of visual metaphors, as a strategic message design tactic, may be an effective communication strategy to increase message appeal and engagement. Using a 2-phase approach, this study first identified common metaphors students use to conceptualize mental illness. Messages incorporating conceptual and visual metaphors were then designed and tested to determine their potential in reducing stigma. Participants (n = 256) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions in a between-subjects experiment: messages with visual and textual metaphors, messages with straightforward visuals and textual metaphors, text-based metaphor messages, or a control group. Overall, metaphorical messages are appealing, the use of visual metaphors leads to greater message engagement, and messages based on conceptual metaphors have the potential to reduce stigma. The use of conceptual and visual metaphors in campaign design is an effective strategy to communicate about a complex health topic, such as mental illness, and should be considered for use in campaigns to reduce barriers for help-seeking behavior.
Mobile Health Approaches to Non-Communicable Diseases in Rwanda ... child health, it would be cost-effective to leverage this infrastructure and adapt it for the NCD domain. .... gram currently exists in Rwanda that simultaneously ad-.
Ahmad Mohd Khairie
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the attributes (basis and values of faith-based communication strategy on health communication. Eight series of focus group studies on Muslim community were conducted to gather the data. The finding makes abundantly clear that the tawhidic (the belief in Oneness of God conception significantly determine the effectiveness of Islamic communication message. In addition, there were another six themes that contributes to Islamic health communication attributes which may influence the receiver’s attitudes and behaviours. The insights of this paper may contribute to the further development of health promotion strategies for Muslims community.
Wressell, Adrian; Twaites, Heidi; Taylor, Stephen; Hartland, Dan; Gove-Humphries, Theo
Saving Lives is a public health awareness charity that aims to educate the UK public about HIV and encourage testing for the virus. In May 2011 Saving Lives contacted the Medical Illustration department at Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust to discuss the idea of working together to develop a national HIV awareness campaign. A number of local sporting celebrities were invited to a studio photography session. All the sports stars and celebrities were photographed on a Mamiya 645 AFDII camera, with PhaseOne P30 + digital back, using prime 35 mm, 55 mm and 80 mm lenses. During the photography sessions, the team's film maker captured video footage of the subjects being photographed. Once the final avengers' graphical composition had been created, it was applied to the posters, billboards and public transport signs for the campaign. In the three-month period following the campaign launch, survey research was carried out, the initial data being recorded by a questionnaire which was provided to each of the 1800 patients attending the Heartlands Hospital sexual health clinic for HIV testing. Following the launch of the initial campaign, the Saving Lives team continues to produce material to assist in the promotion of the charity and its message. Its success has led to it becoming an on-going long-term project, and to date the team have photographed and filmed 33 sporting stars and visited numerous sporting institutes.
Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah
This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested.
Current policy and practice directed towards people with learning disabilities originates in the deinstitutionalisation processes, civil rights concerns and integrationist philosophies of the 1970s and 1980s. However, historians know little about the specific contexts within which these were mobilised. Although it is rarely acknowledged in the secondary literature, MIND was prominent in campaigning for rights-based services for learning disabled people during this time. This article sets MIND's campaign within the wider historical context of the organisation's origins as a main institution of the inter-war mental hygiene movement. The article begins by outlining the mental hygiene movement's original conceptualisation of 'mental deficiency' as the antithesis of the self-sustaining and responsible individuals that it considered the basis of citizenship and mental health. It then traces how this equation became unravelled, in part by the altered conditions under the post-war Welfare State, in part by the mental hygiene movement's own theorising. The final section describes the reconceptualisation of citizenship that eventually emerged with the collapse of the mental hygiene movement and the emergence of MIND. It shows that representations of MIND's rights-based campaigning (which have, in any case, focused on mental illness) as individualist, and fundamentally opposed to medicine and psychiatry, are inaccurate. In fact, MIND sought a comprehensive community-based service, integrated with the general health and welfare services and oriented around a reconstruction of learning disabled people's citizenship rights.
In an attempt to strengthen the obstetric referral system, the Safe Motherhood Project installed a repeater-based VHF radio communication system in three pilot districts. The overall goal of the new network was to enable the health centers to communicate directly to their district health offices (DHOs) for an ambulance when ...
Jansen, J.; Renes, R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.
Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers’ udder health management, tools such as
Kumkale, G. Tarcan; AlbarracÍn, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J.
Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed. PMID:21625405
Kumkale, G Tarcan; Albarracín, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J
Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed.
Manojlovich, Milisa; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Harrod, Molly; Sales, Anne; Hofer, Timothy P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L
Communication failures between physicians and nurses are one of the most common causes of adverse events for hospitalized patients, as well as a major root cause of all sentinel events. Communication technology (ie, the electronic medical record, computerized provider order entry, email, and pagers), which is a component of health information technology (HIT), may help reduce some communication failures but increase others because of an inadequate understanding of how communication technology is used. Increasing use of health information and communication technologies is likely to affect communication between nurses and physicians. The purpose of this study is to describe, in detail, how health information and communication technologies facilitate or hinder communication between nurses and physicians with the ultimate goal of identifying how we can optimize the use of these technologies to support effective communication. Effective communication is the process of developing shared understanding between communicators by establishing, testing, and maintaining relationships. Our theoretical model, based in communication and sociology theories, describes how health information and communication technologies affect communication through communication practices (ie, use of rich media; the location and availability of computers) and work relationships (ie, hierarchies and team stability). Therefore we seek to (1) identify the range of health information and communication technologies used in a national sample of medical-surgical acute care units, (2) describe communication practices and work relationships that may be influenced by health information and communication technologies in these same settings, and (3) explore how differences in health information and communication technologies, communication practices, and work relationships between physicians and nurses influence communication. This 4-year study uses a sequential mixed-methods design, beginning with a
This study examines how often national media reported key aspects of Senator Bill Bradley's and Vice President Al Gore's proposals for health insurance reform during the 2000 Democratic primary campaign. The results show that news media reported on Bradley's plan and major features of his plan significantly more often than Gore's. Additionally, few reports contained explicit comparisons that explained which plan would have covered more people or cost more. Public health and media professionals need to work together to improve the quality of information the public depends on to develop views about and support for the uninsured.
Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F
This review describes the use of social networking sites (SNS) in the context of primary prevention of HIV. A review was conducted to assess the published literature for HIV interventions using SNS. Sixteen articles describing twelve interventions were included. SNS were instrumental in recruiting hard-to-reach populations within a short amount of time; were able to reach wide audiences beyond the targeted population for HIV prevention campaigns; and helped to significantly reduce sexual risk behaviors and increase HIV testing. SNS are a viable option to recruit hidden populations, engage the target audience, and disseminate HIV prevention messages. Researchers should use SNS to generate sampling frames that can be used to select participants. Practitioners should use SNS to post images of preventive behavior within health promotion campaigns. Researchers should use multiple SNS platforms to engage participants. As more studies are published using SNS for HIV prevention, meta-analyses will be needed.
Green, Sarah H.; Mallya, Giridhar; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Glanz, Karen
Background: Schools can reduce student access to competitive foods and influence healthy food choices by improving the school nutrition environment. This study describes changes in competitive nutrition environments in 100 K-8 schools participating in the Philadelphia Campaign for Healthier Schools. Methods: Interviews with school staff were used…
Young, Rachel; Subramanian, Roma; Hinnant, Amanda
Background: Antiobesity campaigns blaming individual behaviors for obesity have sparked concern that an emphasis on individual behavior may lead to stigmatization of overweight or obese people. Past studies have shown that perpetuating stigma is not effective for influencing behavior. Purpose: This study examined whether stigmatizing or…
Robles, Brenda; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Lieberman, Alicea J; Barragan, Noel C; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony
To examine behavioural intention to reduce soda consumption after exposure to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' campaign in Los Angeles County, California, USA. A cross-sectional street-intercept survey was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes, health behaviours and behavioural intentions after exposure to the 'Sugar Pack' campaign. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between the amount of soda consumed and self-reported intention to reduce consumption of non-diet soda among adults who saw the campaign. Three pre-selected Los Angeles County Metro bus shelters and/or rail stops with the highest number of 'Sugar Pack' campaign advertisement placements. Riders of the region's Metro buses and railways who were the intended audience of the campaign advertisements. The overall survey response rate was 56 % (resulting n 1041). Almost 60 % of respondents were exposed to the advertisements (619/1041). The multivariable logistic regression analysis suggested that the odds of reporting intention to reduce soda consumption among moderate consumers (1-6 sodas/week) were 1·95 times greater than among heavy consumers (≥1 soda/d), after controlling for clustering and covariates. Respondents with less than a high-school education and who perceived sugary beverage consumption as harmful also had higher odds; in contrast, respondents aged ≥65 years had lower odds. Results suggest that future campaigns should be tailored differently for moderate v. heavy consumers of soda. Similar tailoring strategies are likely needed for younger groups, for those with less educational attainment and for those who do not perceive consumption of soda as harmful.
Laestadius, Linnea I; Wahl, Megan M
With the growing popularity of social media, corporate marketers are increasingly launching hashtag campaigns to encourage consumers to create branded user-generated content on their behalves. If successful, these campaigns may expand the reach of harmful marketing messages and capitalize on peer-effects among adolescents. To shed light on these novel corporate campaigns, we performed a case study of the user-generated Instagram content created in response to a hashtag campaign promoting the quick-service restaurant Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC). We performed a content analysis of one week's worth of user-generated Instagram posts created with the hashtag #HowDoYouKFC between 24 April 2015-1 May 2015. Posts were coded to discern: (a) relevance to KFC as a brand and/or food; (b) themes in the post, (c) the content of images/videos, and (d) overall sentiment toward KFC. Posts that were deleted or made private during the study period were removed. Descriptive statistics were calculated to discern trends in post content. Instagram users created 196 posts with #HowDoYouKFC during the study period. After removing irrelevant and deleted/private posts, analysis of the 128 remaining user-generated posts revealed that 45% of posts were explicitly positive toward KFC and 39% lacked a specific stance or emotion related to KFC. Of the posts, 55% depicted KFC chicken and 65% included depictions of the brand hashtag on food packaging. Findings indicate that corporations are successfully converting individual social media users into positive advertisers for harmful products. Novel efforts are needed to counter corporate user-generated content campaigns.
Cyrino, Antonio Pithon; Lima, Elizabeth Araújo; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Teixeira, Ricardo Rodrigues; Foresti, Miriam Celí Pimentel Porto; Schraiber, Lilia Blima
This is a reflection upon 17 years of experience in the production of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, the publication "Interface: Communication, Health, Education," whose scope is in the fields of Collective (Public) Health, Education and Communication. It also examines retrospectively the themes published by the journal, seeking to identify them in different sections of this publication. Finally, the evolution of the journal is analyzed.
Edmunds, Margo; Fulwood, Charles
In the spring of 2000, US Surgeon General Dr. David Satcher convened a meeting of national experts to recommend strategies to promote equity in children's oral health status and access to dental care. The meeting was planned by a diverse group of health professionals, researchers, educators, and national organizations and by several federal agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Center on Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health. This paper was commissioned by the meeting planners to introduce basic principles of social marketing and strategic communications. Many participants were academic researchers, practicing pediatric dentists and pediatricians, dental educators, policy analysts, and industry representatives, and most had no previous experience with public education or communications campaigns. Other participants were communications professionals, journalists, and community organizers without previous experience in oral health care or financing issues. Thus, the paper also served to introduce and illustrate basic ideas about oral health and general health, racial and ethnic disparities in health, and access to care. Through their interactions, the participants developed a series of recommendations to increase public awareness, build public support, improve media coverage, improve care coordination, expand the workforce, and focus the attention of national, state, and local policymakers on legislative and financing initiatives to expand access to dental care. Future coalitions of health professionals working with the policy, research, advocacy, and business communities may find this paper useful in implementing the action steps identified by the Surgeon General's report, "Oral Health in America."
Booth, Richard G; Allen, Britney N; Bray Jenkyn, Krista M; Li, Lihua; Shariff, Salimah Z
Despite the uptake of mass media campaigns, their overall impact remains unclear. Since 2011, a Canadian telecommunications company has operated an annual, large-scale mental health advocacy campaign (Bell Let's Talk) focused on mental health awareness and stigma reduction. In February 2012, the campaign began to explicitly leverage the social media platform Twitter and incented participation from the public by promising donations of Can $0.05 for each interaction with a campaign-specific username (@Bell_LetsTalk). The intent of the study was to examine the impact of this 2012 campaign on youth outpatient mental health services in the province of Ontario, Canada. Monthly outpatient mental health visits (primary health care and psychiatric services) were obtained for the Ontario youth aged 10 to 24 years (approximately 5.66 million visits) from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. Interrupted time series, autoregressive integrated moving average modeling was implemented to evaluate the impact of the campaign on rates of monthly outpatient mental health visits. A lagged intervention date of April 1, 2012 was selected to account for the delay required for a patient to schedule and attend a mental health-related physician visit. The inclusion of Twitter into the 2012 Bell Let's Talk campaign was temporally associated with an increase in outpatient mental health utilization for both males and females. Within primary health care environments, female adolescents aged 10 to 17 years experienced a monthly increase in the mental health visit rate from 10.2/1000 in April 2006 to 14.1/1000 in April 2015 (slope change of 0.094 following campaign, Pcampaign, Pcampaign (slope change of 0.005, P=.02; slope change of 0.003, P=.005, respectively). For young adults aged 18 to 24 years, females who used primary health care experienced the most significant increases in mental health visit rates from 26.5/1000 in April 2006 to 29.2/1000 in April 2015 (slope change of 0.17 following
Bravo, Caroline A; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie
The Movember Foundation raises awareness and funds for men's health issues such as prostate and testicular cancers in conjunction with a moustache contest. The 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom shared the same goal of creating conversations about men's health that lead to increased awareness and understanding of the health risks men face. Our objective was to explore Twitter conversations to identify whether the 2013 Movember campaigns sparked global conversations about prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and other men's health issues. We conducted a content analysis of 12,666 tweets posted during the 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom (4,222 tweets from each country) to investigate whether tweets were health-related or non-health-related and to determine what topics dominated conversations. Few tweets ( n = 84, 0.7% of 12,666 tweets) provided content-rich or actionable health information that would lead to awareness and understanding of men's health risks. While moustache growing and grooming was the most popular topic in U.S. tweets, conversations about community engagement were most common in Canadian and U.K. tweets. Significantly more tweets co-opted the Movember campaign to market products or contests in the United States than Canada and the United Kingdom ( p campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom sparked few conversations about prostate and testicular cancers that could potentially lead to greater awareness and understanding of important men's health issues.
Ayers, John W; Westmaas, J Lee; Leas, Eric C; Benton, Adrian; Chen, Yunqi; Dredze, Mark; Althouse, Benjamin M
Awareness campaigns are ubiquitous, but little is known about their potential effectiveness because traditional evaluations are often unfeasible. For 40 years, the "Great American Smokeout" (GASO) has encouraged media coverage and popular engagement with smoking cessation on the third Thursday of November as the nation's longest running awareness campaign. We proposed a novel evaluation framework for assessing awareness campaigns using the GASO as a case study by observing cessation-related news reports and Twitter postings, and cessation-related help seeking via Google, Wikipedia, and government-sponsored quitlines. Time trends (2009-2014) were analyzed using a quasi-experimental design to isolate spikes during the GASO by comparing observed outcomes on the GASO day with the simulated counterfactual had the GASO not occurred. Cessation-related news typically increased by 61% (95% CI 35-87) and tweets by 13% (95% CI -21 to 48) during the GASO compared with what was expected had the GASO not occurred. Cessation-related Google searches increased by 25% (95% CI 10-40), Wikipedia page visits by 22% (95% CI -26 to 67), and quitline calls by 42% (95% CI 19-64). Cessation-related news media positively coincided with cessation tweets, Internet searches, and Wikipedia visits; for example, a 50% increase in news for any year predicted a 28% (95% CI -2 to 59) increase in tweets for the same year. Increases on the day of the GASO rivaled about two-thirds of a typical New Year's Day-the day that is assumed to see the greatest increases in cessation-related activity. In practical terms, there were about 61,000 more instances of help seeking on Google, Wikipedia, or quitlines on GASO each year than would normally be expected. These findings provide actionable intelligence to improve the GASO and model how to rapidly, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate hundreds of awareness campaigns, nearly all for the first time.
Ko, Gary T C; Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Amy W Y; Wong, Patrick T S; Hui, Stanley S C; Tong, Spencer D Y; Chow, Ferrie; Chan, Cecilia L W
The incidences of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and diabetes are rising in many Asian populations. In April 2000, a 5-year territory-wide health promotion campaign supported by Li Ka Shing Foundation was launched in Hong Kong by the Health InfoWorld of Hospital Authority. From the general working class, 4,832 Chinese people were randomly recruited into this campaign. There were 2,370 men (49.0%) and 2,462 women (51.0%; median age = 43.0 years, range = 17-83 years). Of these, 37.5% were obese (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2 or waist circumference > or = 80 cm in women and > or = 90 cm in men), 22.3% had hypertension, 11.6% were smokers, 31.0% had hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol > or = 5.2 mmol/l), 2.2% had diabetes, and 0.7% had a past history of cardiovascular disease. There were 1,338 participants (27.7%) who had 2 or more risk factors (more men than women: 36.9% vs. 18.9%, p Hong Kong people. Massive public education is an important and essential, although it may not be self-sufficient, factor to reduce the socioeconomic impacts of this epidemic.
Petriček, G; Cerovečki, V; Adžić, Z Ožvačić
Although survey results indicate clear connection between the physician-patient communication and health outcomes, mechanisms of their action are still insufficiently clear. The aim was to investigate the specificity of communication with patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases and the impact of good communication on measurable outcomes. We performed PubMed (Medline) search using the following key words: communication, health outcomes, and gastrointestinal diseases. Seven pathways through which communication can lead to better health include increased access to care, greater patient knowledge and shared understanding, higher quality medical decisions, enhanced therapeutic alliances, increased social support, patient agency and empowerment, and better management of emotions. Although these pathways were explored with respect to cancer care, they are certainly applicable to other health conditions as well, including the care of patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. Although proposing a number of pathways through which communication can lead to improved health, it should be emphasized that the relative importance of a particular pathway will depend on the outcome of interest, the health condition, where the patient is in the illness trajectory, and the patient’s life circumstances. Besides, research increasingly points to the importance of placebo effect, and it is recommended that health professionals encourage placebo effect by applying precisely targeted communication skills, as the unquestionable and successful part of many treatments. It is important that the clinician knows the possible positive and negative effects of communication on health outcomes, and in daily work consciously maximizes therapeutic effects of communication, reaching its proximal (understanding, satisfaction, clinician-patient agreement, trust, feeling known, rapport, motivation) and intermediate outcomes (access to care, quality medical decision, commitment to
King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E
In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease.
. This is to a degree, I argue, that calls for a fundamental rethinking of global health communication today and for an inclusion of these subject areas and scientific disciplines. My basic point here is that a much stronger interdisciplinary approach is needed in health communication in order to grasp the complexity......). Today it is a well established discipline, mostly in schools of public health, and to a lesser degree in schools of media and communication. It is also a discipline with very particular characteristics. The Journal of Health Communication conducted a review of the first 10 years of their own journal...... argue in section two of this article, it has as a consequence that some of the overall processes of globalization, development of risk society and the changing social relationships that are having significant implications for the health, well being and everyday life of ordinary citizens...
The purpose of this study was to examine the communication dynamics leading to the adoption of new attitudes and cognitions in health education sessions. We examined the verbal interactions at work in persuasive communication in 16 health education sessions. The study found that the medical expertise of the educator and the initial level of commitment of the participants had a positive effect on adherence to recommendations. However, persuasive communication in health education sessions appears to involve a paradoxical process in which criticism of the message can go hand in hand with the expression of an intention to implement new risk-reducing behaviors.
Teng, Jessica E; Thomson, Dana R; Lascher, Jonathan S; Raymond, Max; Ivers, Louise C
In mass vaccination campaigns, large volumes of data must be managed efficiently and accurately. In a reactive oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in rural Haiti during an ongoing epidemic, we used a mobile health (mHealth) system to manage data on 50,000 participants in two isolated communities. Data were collected using 7-inch tablets. Teams pre-registered and distributed vaccine cards with unique barcodes to vaccine-eligible residents during a census in February 2012. First stored on devices, data were uploaded nightly via Wi-fi to a web-hosted database. During the vaccination campaign between April and June 2012, residents presented their cards at vaccination posts and their barcodes were scanned. Vaccinee data from the census were pre-loaded on tablets to autopopulate the electronic form. Nightly analysis of the day's community coverage informed the following day's vaccination strategy. We generated case-finding reports allowing us to identify those who had not yet been vaccinated. During 40 days of vaccination, we collected approximately 1.9 million pieces of data. A total of 45,417 people received at least one OCV dose; of those, 90.8% were documented to have received 2 doses. Though mHealth required up-front financial investment and training, it reduced the need for paper registries and manual data entry, which would have been costly, time-consuming, and is known to increase error. Using Global Positioning System coordinates, we mapped vaccine posts, population size, and vaccine coverage to understand the reach of the campaign. The hardware and software were usable by high school-educated staff. The use of mHealth technology in an OCV campaign in rural Haiti allowed timely creation of an electronic registry with population-level census data, and a targeted vaccination strategy in a dispersed rural population receiving a two-dose vaccine regimen. The use of mHealth should be strongly considered in mass vaccination campaigns in future initiatives.
Safran, C; Jones, P C; Rind, D; Bush, B; Cytryn, K N; Patel, V L
Using cognitive evaluation techniques, this study examines the effects of an electronic patient record and electronic mail on the interactions of health care providers. We find that the least structured communication methods are also the most heavily used: face-to-face, telephone, and electronic mail. Positive benefits of electronically-mediated interactions include improving communication, collaboration, and access to information to support decision-making. Negative factors include the potential for overloading clinicians with unwanted or unnecessary communications.
Craven, R; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L
A dental health promotion campaign was developed by Forth Valley Health Board in conjunction with the Scottish Health Education Group and the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde University. The aim was to encourage dental attendance among early school leavers. The emphasis was on the contribut...
Blackstone, Sarah W; Pressman, Harvey
Delivering quality health care requires effective communication between health care providers and their patients. In this article, we call on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) practitioners to offer their knowledge and skills in support of a broader range of patients who confront communication challenges in health care settings. We also provide ideas and examples about ways to prepare people with complex communication needs for the inevitable medical encounters that they will face. We argue that AAC practitioners, educators, and researchers have a unique role to play, important expertise to share, and an extraordinary opportunity to advance the profession, while positively affecting patient outcomes across the health care continuum for a large number of people.
Romain, Sandra J.
Background. Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requ...
Effective communication in cancer care between the health care team, cancer patients, and their family is important. Learn about communication skills that support a patient-centered practice and how to talk with adults and children about their diagnosis, prognosis, and transition to end-of-life care in this expert-reviewed summary.
AJRH Managing Editor
Parent-child communication about sexual health is considered an effective ... This study used a brief survey to examine mother-child communication ... percent of mothers who reported being comfortable discussing HIV/sexual ... media should be considered as methods to reduce .... Examining attitudes and knowledge.
Current policy and practice directed towards people with learning disabilities originates in the deinstitutionalisation processes, civil rights concerns and integrationist philosophies of the 1970s and 1980s. However, historians know little about the specific contexts within which these were mobilised. Although it is rarely acknowledged in the secondary literature, MIND was prominent in campaigning for rights-based services for learning disabled people during this time. This article sets MIND’s campaign within the wider historical context of the organisation’s origins as a main institution of the inter-war mental hygiene movement. The article begins by outlining the mental hygiene movement’s original conceptualisation of ‘mental deficiency’ as the antithesis of the self-sustaining and responsible individuals that it considered the basis of citizenship and mental health. It then traces how this equation became unravelled, in part by the altered conditions under the post-war Welfare State, in part by the mental hygiene movement’s own theorising. The final section describes the reconceptualisation of citizenship that eventually emerged with the collapse of the mental hygiene movement and the emergence of MIND. It shows that representations of MIND’s rights-based campaigning (which have, in any case, focused on mental illness) as individualist, and fundamentally opposed to medicine and psychiatry, are inaccurate. In fact, MIND sought a comprehensive community-based service, integrated with the general health and welfare services and oriented around a reconstruction of learning disabled people’s citizenship rights. PMID:28901871
Allem, Jon-Patrick; Escobedo, Patricia; Chu, Kar-Hai; Soto, Daniel W; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B
Social media present opportunities for public health departments to galvanise interest in health issues. A challenge is creating content that will resonate with target audiences, and determining reactions to educational material. Twitter can be used as a real-time surveillance system to capture individuals' immediate reactions to education campaigns and such information could lead to better campaigns in the future. A case study testing Twitter's potential presented itself when the California Department of Public Health launched its 'Still Blowing Smoke' media campaign about the potential harmful effects of e-cigarettes. Pro-e-cigarette advocacy groups, in response, launched a counter campaign titled 'Not Blowing Smoke'. This study tracked the popularity of the two campaigns on Twitter, analysed the content of the messages and determined who was involved in these discussions. The study period was from 22 March 2015 to 27 June 2015. A stratified sampling procedure supplied 2192 tweets for analysis. Content analysis identified pro, anti and neutral e-cigarette tweets, and five additional themes: Marketing Elements, Money, Regulation/propaganda, Health, and Other. Metadata were analysed to obtain additional information about Twitter accounts. 'Not Blowing Smoke' was referenced more frequently than 'Still Blowing Smoke' on Twitter. Messages commonly objected to government regulation of e-cigarettes, refuted claims that e-cigarette manufactures were aligned with big tobacco, and touted the health benefits of e-cigarette use. E-cigarette companies and vape shops used campaign slogans to communicate with customers on Twitter. Findings showed the time dynamics of Twitter and the possibility for real-time monitoring of education campaigns. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Maksimovic, Lauren; Shen, Damien; Bandick, Mark; Ettridge, Kerry; Eckert, Marion
The prevalence of tobacco smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia is comparatively high. To help combat this, an Aboriginal-specific social marketing campaign, 'Give up smokes for good', was piloted in South Australia in 2011. To evaluate the campaign, a face-to-face survey was conducted with two samples of convenience through Aboriginal Health services in South Australia (city and regional locations; n=190). Surveys assessed the cultural appropriateness of the campaign, campaign awareness and recognition, knowledge of the harms of smoking and smoking/quit smoking behaviours. Campaign awareness was high with 76.3% of participants aware of at least one aspect of the campaign. Participants indicated campaign materials (posters and radio ads) to be culturally appropriate. Knowledge that smoking and passive smoking caused illness was high (85.8% and 86.8%); however, knowledge of specific illnesses was not as high. Large proportions of participants had imposed bans on smoking in homes (73.2%) and in cars (75.9%). Our findings suggest the 'Give up smokes for good' campaign reached the intended audience with high levels of campaign awareness. Results also suggest the pilot campaign made progress in achieving its communication objectives. SO WHAT?: High quality, culturally targeted anti-tobacco poster and radio campaigns can be effective ways to reach Aboriginal Australians. Future research could explore the impact of this type of social marketing campaign, particularly in regards to the impact on quitting intention and behaviour.
... under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identiﬁed as the author of this work. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Communicating health risks to the public : a global perspective 1. Health risk communication I. Hillier, Dawn, 1950- 614.4'4 ISBN-13: 978-0-566-08672-4 ISBN-10: 0 566 08672 7 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publ...
Full Text Available The multicultural nature of a higher academic institution comprising students from different backgrounds can either negatively or positively influence student behaviour. Students might engage in high-risk practices, which in turn can make them vulnerable to HIV infection. Higher academic institutions are then tasked with finding strategies that can help to reduce this risk and vulnerability to HIV and/or AIDS. However, there are many issues and barriers, both from the institution and students, which can impede the success of any communication strategy. The University of the Free State’s main campus was selected for this study. A sample of 402 students from a total of 17 591 undergraduate students participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was randomly distributed to the undergraduate students. The sample was compiled across all faculties, as well as on campus and off campus. A transact walk on campus with an observation checklist was also used for triangulation purposes. The observation checklist helped to collect data on the visibility of male and female condoms in toilet facilities, and HIV and/or AIDS information on noticeboards, bins, stationery, billboards, etc. The main finding indicated that students were not knowledgeable about HIV and/or AIDS campaigns rolled out on campus. To support this, the observational transact walk results indicated that there were no visible campaigns on campus. Also, problems with existing communication and organisational barriers were found not only with the students but also with the implementation office. This study recommends that the university needs to engage with the students by identifying the root cause of their vulnerability. The university should explore and make use of all the available resources for a successful intervention, thereby building students’ resilience in preventing HIV infection.
MacStravic, R S
Word-of-mouth (WOM) advertising can be an important communications tool, since it addresses the right target--the decision maker, contains the needed information, and occurs at the right time. An effective WOM communications program will use a marketing survey to identify decision makers and measure their degree of preference for the provider to determine which decision makers can be influenced. A survey also should be used to discover the most significant information sources. To involve those sources in a WOM communications effort requires that they be satisfied with their provider and that they be convinced the provider is the best choice for the person who has requested the recommendation. To increase the likelihood that sources will be informed about a specific provider, pamphlets or other materials can be distributed to assist them. Other forms of encouragement include patient surveys and employee bonuses. An institution's WOM program should also be consistent with its other communications efforts. Messages must be compatible with the themes of advertising and publicity campaigns.
Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication.
The Nutrition Communication Project has overseen production of a training video interpersonal communication for health workers involved in growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) programs in Latin America entitled Comuniquemonos, Ya] Producers used the following questions as their guidelines: Who is the audience?, Why is the training needed?, and What are the objectives and advantages of using video? Communication specialists, anthropologists, educators, and nutritionists worked together to write the script. Then video camera specialists taped the video in Bolivia and Guatemala. A facilitator's guide complete with an outline of an entire workshop comes with the video. The guide encourages trainees to participate in various situations. Trainees are able to compare their interpersonal skills with those of the health workers on the video. Further they can determine cause and effect. The video has 2 scenes to demonstrate poor and good communication skills using the same health worker in both situations. Other scenes highlight 6 communication skills: developing a warm environment, asking questions, sharing results, listening, observing, and doing demonstration. All types of health workers ranging from physicians to community health workers as well as health workers from various countries (Guatemala, Honduras, Bolivia, and Ecuador) approve of the video. Some trainers have used the video without using the guide and comment that it began a debate on communication 's role in GMP efforts.
Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C
Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed.
cle on sexual health education among engaged couples11. The authors identified ... few hospitals had formal adult hospital-based triage, with staff performing ... tics of HIV opportunistic infections among older adults in Nigeria. Afri Health Sci.
Jorge Iván Martínez Espitia
Full Text Available Research that was conducted was aimed to determine their use of e-mail independent health professionals. Email is one of the tools of information and communication that has shown great versatility and efciency as a means to improve the relationship between those who provide services or sell products users. Good communication is essential to keep current customers and attract new business prospects. To achieve the objective of the research a survey that measured the perception and use of email marketing by independent health professionals was conducted in Colombia. Four variables, including tenure email account, receiving these email accounts marketing of products or services, read marketing emails and use by marketing professionals were measured with email. The result of this study showed that independent health professionals in Colombia are familiar with this type of marketing. Generally interested incorporate it as one of your marketing tools, but do not know how to do this activity, which is described in a simple way how to do a marketing campaign with the use of emails to the users of health services.
Jorge Iván Martínez Espitia
Full Text Available Research that was conducted was aimed to determine their use of e-mail independent health professionals. Email is one of the tools of information and communication that has shown great versatility and efciency as a means to improve the relationship between those who provide services or sell products users. Good communication is essential to keep current customers and attract new business prospects. To achieve the objective of the research a survey that measured the perception and use of email marketing by independent health professionals was conducted in Colombia. Four variables, including tenure email account, receiving these email accounts marketing of products or services, read marketing emails and use by marketing professionals were measured with email. The result of this study showed that independent health professionals in Colombia are familiar with this type of marketing. Generally interested incorporate it as one of your marketing tools, but do not know how to do this activity, which is described in a simple way how to do a marketing campaign with the use of emails to the users of health services.
Background Infodemiology can offer practical and feasible health research applications through the practice of studying information available on the Web. Google Trends provides publicly accessible information regarding search behaviors in a population, which may be studied and used for health campaign evaluation and disease monitoring. Additional studies examining the use and effectiveness of Google Trends for these purposes remain warranted. Objective The objective of our study was to explore the use of infodemiology in the context of health campaign evaluation and chronic disease monitoring. It was hypothesized that following a launch of a campaign, there would be an increase in information seeking behavior on the Web. Second, increasing and decreasing disease patterns in a population would be associated with search activity patterns. This study examined 4 different diseases: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, stroke, colorectal cancer, and marijuana use. Methods Using Google Trends, relative search volume data were collected throughout the period of February 2004 to January 2015. Campaign information and disease statistics were obtained from governmental publications. Search activity trends were graphed and assessed with disease trends and the campaign interval. Pearson product correlation statistics and joinpoint methodology analyses were used to determine significance. Results Disease patterns and online activity across all 4 diseases were significantly correlated: HIV infection (r=.36, Pcampaigns on colorectal cancer and marijuana use in stimulating search activity. No significant correlations were observed for the campaigns on stroke and HIV regarding search activity. Conclusions The use of infoveillance shows promise as an alternative and inexpensive solution to disease surveillance and health campaign evaluation. Further research is needed to understand Google Trends as a valid and reliable tool for health research. PMID:27733330
Valdez, Rupa S; Guterbock, Thomas M; Fitzgibbon, Kara; Williams, Ishan C; Wellbeloved-Stone, Claire A; Bears, Jaime E; Menefee, Hannah K
It is increasingly recognized that some patients self-manage in the context of social networks rather than alone. Consumer health information technology (IT) designed to support socially embedded self-management must be responsive to patients' everyday communication practices. There is an opportunity to improve consumer health IT design by explicating how patients currently leverage social media to support health information communication. The objective of this study was to determine types of health information communication patterns that typify Facebook users with chronic health conditions to guide consumer health IT design. Seven hundred participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited through a commercial survey access panel. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct approaches to health information communication both on and off Facebook. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used to identify demographic and behavioral differences among profiles. Secondary analysis of qualitative interviews ( n = 25) and analysis of open-ended survey questions were conducted to understand participant rationales for each profile. Our analysis yielded 7 distinct health information communication profiles. Five of 7 profiles had consistent patterns both on and off Facebook, while the remaining 2 demonstrated distinct practices, with no health information communication on Facebook but some off Facebook. One profile was distinct from all others in both health information communication practices and demographic composition. Rationales for following specific health information communication practices were categorized under 6 themes: altruism, instrumental support, social support, privacy and stigma, convenience, and Facebook knowledge. Facebook has been widely adopted for health information communication; This study demonstrates that Facebook has been widely adopted for health information communication. It also shows that the ways in which patients communicate health
Knox, Emily; Biddle, Stuart; Esliger, Dale W; Piggin, Joe; Sherar, Lauren
Mass media campaigns are an important tool for promoting health-related physical activity. The relevance of sedentary behavior to public health has propelled it to feature prominently in health campaigns across the world. This study explored the use of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns within the context of current debates surrounding the association between sedentary behavior and health, and messaging strategies to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A web-based search of major campaigns in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia was performed to identify the main campaign from each country. A directed content analysis was then conducted to analyze the inclusion of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns and to elucidate key themes. Important areas for future research were illustrated. Four key themes from the campaigns emerged: clinging to sedentary behavior guidelines, advocating reducing sedentary behavior as a first step on the activity continuum and the importance of light activity, confusing the promotion of MVPA, and the demonization of sedentary behavior. Strategies for managing sedentary behavior as an additional complicating factor in health promotion are urgently required. Lessons learned from previous health communication campaigns should stimulate research to inform future messaging strategies.
Acosta, Joie; Ramchand, Rajeev; Becker, Amariah
Although communication is a key component of US strategies to prevent suicide and there are a number of marketing campaigns promoting messages that suicide is a preventable public health problem, there has been little evaluation of these campaigns. The study describes the development of a checklist of best practices for suicide prevention communication campaigns and the use of the checklist to evaluate California's investment in "Know the Signs" (KTS-M), a suicide prevention mass media campaign. We conducted a literature review and solicited expert feedback to identify best practices and then used the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method to assess whether KTS-M was consistent with the identified best practices. Overall, experts agreed that KTS-M adhered to most of the 46 checklist items and suggested that the campaign was among the best suicide prevention media campaigns they had observed. The checklist was developed through expert input and literature review and focuses only on media campaigns. Given the nascent state of the evidence about what makes an effective suicide prevention message and the growing number of campaigns, the checklist of best practices reflects one way of promoting quality in this evolving field. The consistency between the experts' comments and their ratings of KTS-M suggests that the checklist may provide important guidance to inform the development of future campaigns and the evaluation of ongoing campaigns.
Koops van 't Jagt, Ruth; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hoeks, John C J; Jansen, Carel J M
Successful doctor-patient communication relies on appropriate levels of communicative health literacy, the ability to deal with and communicate about health information. This article aims to describe the development of a narrative- and picture-based health literacy intervention intended to support
Hansen, Kasper Møller; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue
and the external efficacy increase over the course of the campaign, with gains found across different demographic groups, particularly narrowing the gaps in internal efficacy. The news media play a crucial role, as increased knowledge and efficacy are partly driven by media use, although tabloids actually decrease...... external efficacy. The findings suggest that positive campaign effects are universal across various media and party systems.......Election campaigns are more than simple competitions for votes; they also represent an opportunity for voters to become politically knowledgeable and engaged. Using a large-scale web panel (n≈5,000), we track the development of political knowledge, internal efficacy and external efficacy among...
[Risk communication during health crises: results of a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effectiveness of adopted corporate communication strategies during the H1N1 influenza pandemic in Italy and on the training needs of health professionals].
De Giusti, Maria; Mannocci, Alice; Miccoli, Silvia; Palazzo, Caterina; Di Thiene, Domitilla; Scalmato, Valeria; Ursillo, Paolo; Monteduro, Maria Antonietta; Turri, Alberto; Mazzoli, Pier Giovanni; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate communication activities carried out during the A(H1N1) pandemic influenza in Italy and to identify educational needs of health professionals with regards to crisis communication. The study compared two samples representing respectively the general population and health professionals, living in different regions of northern, central and southern Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was used, with questions on knowledge about preventive measures during a pandemic and on satisfaction with the adopted communication campaigns. Study results highlight that both samples had very little knowledge of appropriate preventive behaviors to be adopted during a pandemic. The sample of health professionals received a greater amount of information about the pandemic with respect to the general population and showed a strong interest toward the problem of receiving adequate training in risk communication. The degree of knowledge about preventive measures is directly proportional to the existence of institutional communication activities and to having consulted a health professional.
Competition to advance issues on public policy agendas is constant. Political scientists agree that professional "policy entrepreneurs" (researchers, academics, and bureaucrats) serve as conduits in this process. Grassroots advocacy has always been part of the political landscape as non-professional people also take on the role of policy advocates or activists, to get specific problems and preferred solutions onto public and policy agendas and motivate policymakers to take action. The contribution of grassroots advocacy to significant policy changes is often under-funded because its impacts are hard to isolate and quantify, and are often most evident in retrospect. This paper examines the contribution of the Global Campaign for Microbicides to the movement to expand the range of HIV prevention options for women and describes how it mobilized hundreds of grassroots policy activists around the world to take coordinated action on this issue. It reviews the Campaign's accomplishments and highlights some of its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the paper considers the value of similar efforts on the part of grassroots advocates seeking to influence the post-ICPD and post-2015 development agendas as they are being negotiated. Decisions regarding what kind of advocacy work is carried out during this process, and by whom and how, will inevitably shape the content of these new frameworks. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adina Claudia NEAMŢU
Full Text Available Campaign and especially advertising campaign represents one of the variables of the marketing mix, an important one, being difficult to separate its contribution from the one of the other elements. Irrespective of the specific object that is behind an advertising company, the investment will be retrieved only if the right information is transmitted to the right persons in the right way. This is difficult to accomplish if the advertising responsible in that firm do not understand appropriately: the market nature; the product nature; the distribution channels nature; the communication channels nature – available advertising supports and their features
The role of medical anthropology in tackling the problems and challenges at the intersections of public health, medicine, and technology was addressed during the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference at Yale University in an interdisciplinary panel session entitled Training, Communication, and Competence: The Making of Health Care Professionals. PMID:20027287
Candlin, Christopher N.; Candlin, Sally
Addresses how applied linguists and those concerned with discourse analysis in particular have recently approached the study of health care communication, especially in intercultural contexts, and relates these approaches to studies undertaken by researchers in other academic disciplines, such as the sociology of medicine and by health care…
Quercia, Kelly; Tran, Phuong Lien; Jinoro, Jéromine; Herniainasolo, Joséa Lea; Viviano, Manuela; Vassilakos, Pierre; Benski, Caroline; Petignat, Patrick
Barriers to efficient cervical cancer screening in low- and medium-income countries include the lack of systematic monitoring of the participants' data. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a mobile health (m-Health) data collection system to facilitate monitoring of women participating to cervical cancer screening campaign. Women aged 30-65 years, participating in a cervical cancer screening campaign in Ambanja, Madagascar, were invited to participate in the study. Cervical Cancer Prevention System, an m-Health application, allows the registration of clinical data, while women are undergoing cervical cancer screening. All data registered in the smartphone were transmitted onto a secure, Web-based platform through the use of an Internet connection. Healthcare providers had access to the central database and could use it for the follow-up visits. Quality of data was assessed by computing the percentage of key data missing. A total of 151 women were recruited in the study. Mean age of participants was 41.8 years. The percentage of missing data for the key variables was less than 0.02%, corresponding to one woman's medical history data, which was not sent to the central database. Technical problems, including transmission of photos, human papillomavirus test results, and pelvic examination data, have subsequently been solved through a system update. The quality of the data was satisfactory and allowed monitoring of cervical cancer screening data of participants. Larger studies evaluating the efficacy of the system for the women's follow-up are needed in order to confirm its efficiency on a long-term scale.
Wang, Jen; Häusermann, Michael; Berrut, Sylvie; Weiss, Mitchell G
High prevalences of depression and suicidality have been found among gay men. This paper assesses the possible impact of Blues-out, a depression awareness campaign based on the European Alliance Against Depression targeting the gay/lesbian community in Geneva, Switzerland. In 2007 and 2011, pre- and post-intervention surveys were conducted among two distinct samples of gay men in Geneva, recruited by probability-based time-space sampling. Effect sizes and net percent changes are reported for mental health literacy and mental health outcomes in 2007 and 2011 as well as among men aware and unaware of Blues-out in 2011. 43% of the respondents correctly recognized depression in 2011 with no change vis-à-vis 2007. Despite small effect sizes, significant net decreases (from -18% to -28%) were seen in lifetime suicide plans, 12-month suicidal ideation, lifetime depression, and 4-week psychological distress between 2007 and 2011. These decreases were not accompanied by changes in any of the numerous items on attitudes/knowledge, found only when comparing men aware and unaware of Blues-out in 2011. More men aware of Blues-out found specialists and psychological therapies helpful than their counterparts and correctly identified depression and gay men's greater risk for depression. Community-level assessment with no control. Although improvement in depression recognition and decrease in suicide attempts could not be replicated unequivocally in this adapted intervention among gay men, there are indications that this evidence-based depression awareness campaign may have lessened suicidality and mental morbidity and improved mental health literacy and help-seeking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Borg, Kim; Boulet, Mark; Smith, Liam; Bragge, Peter
Information and communication technologies can be a valuable tool for enhancing health communication. However, not everyone is utilising the wide suite of digital opportunities. This disparity has the potential to exacerbate existing social and health inequalities, particularly among vulnerable groups such as those who are in poor health and the elderly. This review aimed to systematically identify the common barriers to, and facilitators of, digital inclusion. A comprehensive database search yielded 969 citations. Following screening, seven systematic reviews and three non-systematic reviews were identified. Collectively, the reviews found that physical access continues to be a barrier to digital inclusion. However, provision of access alone is insufficient, as digital ability and attitude were also potential barriers. Social support, direct user experience and collaborative learning/design were identified as key strategies to improve inclusion. These review findings provide guidance for health communication practitioners in designing and implementing effective programmes in the digital environment.
Twitter, a microblogging platform, has been increasingly used as a tool for political election campaigns. In an attempt to persuade people to vote for them, candidates and political parties worldwide have begun to incorporate Twitter in their campaigns to disseminate campaign information, promote themselves, and mobilize voters. In the 2016 U.S presidential election, Donald Trump had actively utilized Twitter to promote his campaign and convince voters to support him, which helped him earn a ...
the media subjugate themselves to the political, social, economic, cultural ... owing substantially to wide spread rumors and misconceptions among Muslims over ... these immunization sessions, health stakeholders address women on their ...
Spivey, G H
Health risk communication is discussed in respect to four principles of biomedical ethics: (1) autonomy, the need to protect confidentiality and provide decision-making information; (2) beneficence, an obligation to inform and to develop trust; (3) non-maleficence, not covering up study findings, not over- or underinterpreting data; and (4) justice, helping place risk in proper perspective. The epidemiologist's role in risk communication includes responsible interpretation of data, balanced and non-judgemental risk communication and careful attention to the biologic and population significance of study findings. Potential problem areas for epidemiologists which are discussed include deciding when risk is significant, working for an agency which does not want a communication to take place and the occasional need to violate confidentiality for overriding societal goals. The paper concludes with an example risk communication which illustrates some of the principles covered in the paper.
Spitzberg, Brian H
Despite the central role that communication skills play in contemporary accounts of effective health care delivery in general, and the communication of medical error specifically, there is no common or consensual core in the health professions regarding the nature of such skills. This lack of consensus reflects, in part, the tendency for disciplines to reinvent concepts and measures without first situating such development in disciplines with more cognate specialization in such concepts. In this essay, an integrative model of communication competence is introduced, along with its theoretical background and rationale. Communication competence is defined as an impression of appropriateness and effectiveness, which is functionally related to individual motivation, knowledge, skills, and contextual facilitators and constraints. Within this conceptualization, error disclosure contexts are utilized to illustrate the heuristic value of the theory, and implications for assessment are suggested. Significance for public healthModels matter, as do the presuppositions that underlie their architecture. Research indicates that judgments of competence moderate outcomes such as satisfaction, trust, understanding, and power-sharing in relationships and in individual encounters. If the outcomes of health care encounters depend on the impression of competence that patients or their family members have of health care professionals, then knowing which specific communicative behaviors contribute to such impressions is not merely important - it is essential. To pursue such a research agenda requires that competence assessment and operationalization becomes better aligned with conceptual assumptions that separate behavioral performance from the judgments of the competence of that performance.
Spitzberg, Brian H.
Despite the central role that communication skills play in contemporary accounts of effective health care delivery in general, and the communication of medical error specifically, there is no common or consensual core in the health professions regarding the nature of such skills. This lack of consensus reflects, in part, the tendency for disciplines to reinvent concepts and measures without first situating such development in disciplines with more cognate specialization in such concepts. In this essay, an integrative model of communication competence is introduced, along with its theoretical background and rationale. Communication competence is defined as an impression of appropriateness and effectiveness, which is functionally related to individual motivation, knowledge, skills, and contextual facilitators and constraints. Within this conceptualization, error disclosure contexts are utilized to illustrate the heuristic value of the theory, and implications for assessment are suggested. Significance for public health Models matter, as do the presuppositions that underlie their architecture. Research indicates that judgments of competence moderate outcomes such as satisfaction, trust, understanding, and power-sharing in relationships and in individual encounters. If the outcomes of health care encounters depend on the impression of competence that patients or their family members have of health care professionals, then knowing which specific communicative behaviors contribute to such impressions is not merely important – it is essential. To pursue such a research agenda requires that competence assessment and operationalization becomes better aligned with conceptual assumptions that separate behavioral performance from the judgments of the competence of that performance. PMID:25170494
Morrison, Suzanne DePalma; Sutton, Sonya F; Mebane, Felicia E
News organizations are an important and influential part of the social environment. They identify certain issues by the extent and nature of their coverage. To help explain what public health policy messages may have influenced school policy decisions, this content analysis provides an examination of newspaper coverage of North Carolinas 100% tobacco-free schools campaign. Researchers searched LexisNexis for articles published in North Carolina newspapers between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2004 that included variations of "North Carolina tobacco-free schools." Researchers then conducted a descriptive analysis of 138 stories from nine North Carolina newspapers (approximately 4% of all the states newspapers) and used page placement and story type to examine the level of importance placed on the issue. Finally, frames for and against tobacco-free school policies were tracked, along with the presence of key messages presented by 100% TFS advocates. The volume of news coverage changed throughout the study period, with peaks and valleys closely associated with external "trigger" events. In addition, a majority of the newspaper articles did not include key public health messages. The results suggest an opportunity for public health experts and officials to work more effectively with local journalists to increase the use (and impact) of public health messages in news coverage of tobacco policies affecting youth.
Shen, Chen; Wang, Man Ping; Wan, Alice; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai Hing
Health information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly used but little is known about routine exposure to health information from ICTs and its associations with health behaviors. A territory-wide population-based dual landline and mobile telephone survey was conducted in 2016 in Hong Kong, where smartphone ownership and Internet access are among the most prevalent, easiest and fastest in the world. Health information exposure from traditional sources (television/radio/newspaper/magazine), Internet websites, social media sites and instant messaging (IM); and information on smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity were recorded. Prevalence was weighted by age, sex and education level of the general population. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association of health information exposure with smoking and alcohol consumption, whilst multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association with frequency of moderate and vigorous physical activity (days/week). Of 3063 respondents, most (71.6%) were often or sometimes exposed to health information from traditional sources, followed by Internet websites (40.9%), social media sites (40.7%), and IM (27.0%). Respondents with lower education and household income were less frequently exposed to health information from Internet websites, social media sites and IM (all P < 0.001). Health information exposure from IM was associated with being never smokers, and more frequent moderate and vigorous physical activity (all P for trend <0.05). Health information exposure from IM was least frequent but associated with healthier behaviors. Further public health education campaigns can consider using IM to deliver information, particularly to disadvantaged groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
unsatisfactory and it varied between urban (34%) and rural (5%) health facilities. In general, cervical ... data for planning and monitoring scale-up intervention ... authority, Ethiopia, 2016. Regions. Number of facilities Percentage. Tigray. 42. 8. Afar. 38. 7. Amhara. 61. 11. Oromiya. 99. 18. Somali. 43. 8. Beni. Gumuz. 30. 5.
Milanović, Nataša; Momić, Jelena; Rošić, Mladenka; Sabatti, Lara
Speach is basic simbolic and comunication activity, process of making vocal signs. Many illnesses can partially or totaly unable the speach. For patient who underwent total laryngectomy, speaking is unabled what makes comunication difficult. New state leads to many psychological and social problems. However, with improvement in medicine and continuous education of health providers, today this problem can be solved.
Isaksen, Jytte; Jensen, Lise Randrup
health care, and other communicative exchanges associated with appropriate health care . As a consequence of these challenges in patient-provider communication, implementation of evidence- based methods of communication partner training is becoming increasingly frequent in different health care...... with large groups of trainees, e.g. all staff from a ward. Self-rating questionnaires, however, present another set of issues when used as outcome measures, including the need to examine their content validity, reliability and sensitivity to change . This work appears to be lacking for most...... of the available questionnaires. However, it is important in order to lay the groundwork for future studies, which compare the efficacy and outcome of different methods of implementing conversation partner training in clinical practice. Aims: The overall purpose of this round table is to: 1. provide an overview...
Jung, Minsoo; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, K
During the H1N1 pandemic in 2009-10, the vaccination behavior of parents played a critical role in preventing and containing the spread of the disease and the subsequent health outcomes among children. Several studies have examined the relationship between parents' health communication behaviors and vaccinations for children in general. Little is known, however, about the link between parents' health communication behaviors and the vaccination of their children against the H1N1 virus, and their level of vaccine-related knowledge. We drew on a national survey among parents with at least one child less than 18 years of age (n=639) to investigate Parents' H1N1-related health communication behaviors including sources of information, media exposure, information-seeking behaviors, H1N1-related knowledge, and neighborhood social capital, as well as the H1N1 vaccination rates of their children. Findings showed that there is a significant association between the degree at which parents obtained H1N1 vaccination for their children and health communication variables: watching the national television news and actively seeking H1N1 information. And this association was moderated by the extent of the parents' H1N1-related knowledge. In addition, the parents' degree of neighborhood social capital mediated the association between H1N1 knowledge of the parents and H1N1 vaccination acceptance for their children. We found, compared to those with a low-level of neighborhood social capital, parents who have a high-level of neighborhood social capital are more likely to vaccinate their children. These findings suggest that it is necessary to design a strategic health communication campaign segmented by parent health communication behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L
Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed
Foerster, S B; Kizer, K W; Disogra, L K; Bal, D G; Krieg, B F; Bunch, K L
The annual toll of diet-related diseases in the United States is similar to that taken by tobacco, but less progress has been achieved in reaching the Public Health Service's Healthy People 2000 objectives for improving food consumption than for reducing tobacco use. In 1988, the California Department of Health Services embarked upon an innovative multi-year social marketing program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The 5 a Day--for Better Health! Campaign had several distinctive features, including its simple, positive, behavior-specific message to eat 5 servings of fruits and vegetables every day as part of a low-fat, high fiber diet; its use of mass media; its partnership between the state health department and the produce and supermarket industries; and its extensive use of point-of-purchase messages. Over its nearly three years of operation in California, the 5 a Day Campaign appears to have raised public awareness that fruits and vegetables help reduce cancer risk, increased fruit and vegetable consumption in major population segments, and created an ongoing partnership between public health and agribusiness that has allowed extension of the campaign to other population segments, namely children and Latino adults. In 1991 the campaign was adopted as a national initiative by the National Cancer Institute and the Produce for Better Health Foundation. By 1994, over 700 industry organizations and 48 states, territories, and the District of Columbia were licensed to participate. Preventive medicine practitioners and others involved in health promotion may build upon the 5 a Day Campaign experience in developing and implementing efforts to reach the nation's dietary goals.
Kukanich, Kate Stenske; Kaur, Ramandeep; Freeman, Lisa C; Powell, Douglas A
To improve hand hygiene in two outpatient health care clinics through the introduction of a gel sanitizer and an informational poster. In this interventional study, health care workers at two outpatient clinics were observed for frequency of hand hygiene (attempts versus opportunities). Gel sanitizer and informational posters were introduced together as an intervention. Direct observation of the frequency of hand hygiene was performed during baseline, intervention, and follow-up. A poststudy survey of health care workers was also distributed and collected. In both clinics, the frequency of hand hygiene was poor at baseline (11% and 21%) but improved significantly after intervention (36% and 54%) and was maintained through the follow-up period (32% and 51%). Throughout the study, postcontact hand hygiene was observed significantly more often than precontact hand hygiene. In both clinics, health care workers reported a preference for soap and water; yet observations showed that when the intervention made gel sanitizer available, sanitizer use predominated. Fifty percent of the surveyed health care workers considered the introduction of gel sanitizer to be an effective motivating tool for improving hand hygiene. Hand hygiene performance by health care workers in outpatient clinics may be improved through promoting the use of gel sanitizer and using informational posters. Compared with surveys, direct observation by trained observers may provide more accurate information about worker preferences for hand hygiene tools.
Weiner, Jonathan P
The digital revolution will have a profound impact on how physicians and health care delivery organizations interact with patients and the community at-large. Over the coming decades, face-to-face patient/doctor contacts will become less common and exchanges between consumers and providers will increasingly be mediated by electronic devices.In highly developed health care systems like those in Israel, the United States, and Europe, most aspects of the health care and consumer health experience are becoming supported by a wide array of technology such as electronic and personal health records (EHRs and PHRs), biometric & telemedicine devices, and consumer-focused wireless and wired Internet applications.In an article in this issue, Peleg and Nazarenko report on a survey they fielded within Israel's largest integrated delivery system regarding patient views on the use of electronic communication with their doctors via direct-access mobile phones and e-mail. A previous complementary paper describes the parallel perspectives of the physician staff at the same organization. These two surveys offer useful insights to clinicians, managers, researchers, and policymakers on how best to integrate e-mail and direct-to-doctor mobile phones into their practice settings. These papers, along with several other recent Israeli studies on e-health, also provide an opportunity to step back and take stock of the dramatic impact that information & communication technology (ICT) and health information technology (HIT) will have on clinician/patient communication moving forward.The main goals of this commentary are to describe the scope of this issue and to offer a framework for understanding the potential impact that e-health tools will have on provider/patient communication. It will be essential that clinicians, managers, policymakers, and researchers gain an increased understanding of this trend so that health care systems around the globe can adapt, adopt, and embrace these rapidly
Weiner Jonathan P
Full Text Available Abstract The digital revolution will have a profound impact on how physicians and health care delivery organizations interact with patients and the community at-large. Over the coming decades, face-to-face patient/doctor contacts will become less common and exchanges between consumers and providers will increasingly be mediated by electronic devices. In highly developed health care systems like those in Israel, the United States, and Europe, most aspects of the health care and consumer health experience are becoming supported by a wide array of technology such as electronic and personal health records (EHRs and PHRs, biometric & telemedicine devices, and consumer-focused wireless and wired Internet applications. In an article in this issue, Peleg and Nazarenko report on a survey they fielded within Israel's largest integrated delivery system regarding patient views on the use of electronic communication with their doctors via direct-access mobile phones and e-mail. A previous complementary paper describes the parallel perspectives of the physician staff at the same organization. These two surveys offer useful insights to clinicians, managers, researchers, and policymakers on how best to integrate e-mail and direct-to-doctor mobile phones into their practice settings. These papers, along with several other recent Israeli studies on e-health, also provide an opportunity to step back and take stock of the dramatic impact that information & communication technology (ICT and health information technology (HIT will have on clinician/patient communication moving forward. The main goals of this commentary are to describe the scope of this issue and to offer a framework for understanding the potential impact that e-health tools will have on provider/patient communication. It will be essential that clinicians, managers, policymakers, and researchers gain an increased understanding of this trend so that health care systems around the globe can adapt, adopt
Marcell, Arik V; Ford, Carol A; Pleck, Joseph H; Sonenstein, Freya L
Male adolescents frequently become disconnected from health care, especially as they get older, which limits physicians' abilities to address their health needs and results in missed opportunities to connect them to the health care system as they enter adulthood. In this study we tested the ability of modifiable (beliefs about masculinity, parental communication, sex education, and health insurance) and nonmodifiable (age, race/ethnicity, and region of residence) factors to prospectively predict health care use by male adolescents. We conducted a prospective analysis of data from 1677 male participants aged 15 to 19 years who completed the National Survey of Adolescent Males, a household probability survey conducted throughout the United States in 1988 (wave 1, participation rate: 74%) and in 1990-1991 (wave 2, follow-up rate: 89%). We present percentages and adjusted relative risks of the factors that predict male adolescents' self-report of a physical examination by a regular provider in the past year measured at wave 2. On average, 1067 (66%) of 1677 male adolescents at wave 2 reported having a physical examination within the last year. Factors associated with a lower likelihood of a physical examination included living in the South, Midwest, and West; being older in age; and holding more traditional masculine beliefs. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of a physical examination included communicating about reproductive health with both parents and being insured. Male adolescents who were sexually active or engaged in > or = 2 other risk behaviors had neither a higher nor lower likelihood of a physical examination. Efforts to enhance male adolescents' health through health care should include work to modify masculine stereotypes, improve mothers' and fathers' communication about health with their sons, expand health insurance coverage, and identify interventions to connect male adolescents at increased risk for health problems with health care.
Proper communication within the health care team is especially important in terms of creating safe emotional and professional conditions for the team members and for quality healing. The aim of the study is to explore the factors that hinder appropriate communication between doctors and nurses and thus to make the effective elimination of the communication disturbances possible. Investigation in main medical databases and general search engines were used for analysing the phenomenon. It was revealed that communication between doctors and nurses is restrained by factors that can be observed on individual, professional and system levels as well. Role confusion, lack of trust, communication barriers arising from hierarchical inequalities, leadership problems, differences in qualifications, burnout and organizational problems can equally be found amongst them. The effectiveness of communication between nurses and doctors in Hungary is especially strongly influenced by the fear of losing jobs, the financial problems arising from different degree of gratuity and the phenomenon of burnout. Changes on individual, professional and system levels are equally important for significant improvement in the communication between doctors and nurses. Joint trainings based on strong organizational development skills and joint conferences could promote significantly better flow of information, mutual appreciation and harmonization.
Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros
During the last decade a strong consumer interest has emerged for food products with health protecting or enhancing properties. In this connection, health claims are used as communication tools conveying the health message of a product and further constituting the means of a brand's differentiation...... on stated preference data using a purchase intention scale (i.e. Juster Scale), a set of Brand Performance Measures (BPMs) are empirically estimated to describe the market structure of two dairy product categories and their respective sub-categories that were defined according to health-related attributes...
Crean, Kevin W
Around the world, inventors are creating novel information and communication technology applications and systems that can improve health for people in disparate settings. However, it is very difficult to find investment funding needed to create business models to expand and develop the prototype technologies. A comprehensive, long-term investment strategy for e-health and m-health is needed. The field of social entrepreneurship offers an integrated approach to develop needed investment models, so that innovations can reach more patients, more effectively. Specialized financing techniques and sustained support from investors can spur the expansion of mature technologies to larger markets, accelerating global health impacts.
Povlsen, Lene; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Regber, Susann
Aims: To explore if the term equity was applied and how measures for addressing social inequalities in health and reducing inequity were communicated in selected Nordic documents concerning public health. Methods: Documents from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were collected and analysed...... by Nordic authors. Data included material from websites of ministries and authorities responsible for public health issues, with primary focus on steering documents, action programmes, and reports from 2001 until spring 2013. Results: Most strategies applied in Danish, Finnish, and Swedish documents focused...... on the population in general but paid special attention to vulnerable groups. The latest Danish and Finnish documents communicate a clearer commitment to address social inequalities in health. They emphasise the social gradient and the need to address the social determinants in order to improve the position...
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive (1) both education and mosquito control, (2) education only, and (3)...
Gatobu, Sospeter; Horton, Susan; Kiflie Aleyamehu, Yibeltal; Abraham, Gelila; Birhanu, Negalign; Greig, Alison
The delivery of vitamin A supplements in Ethiopia has been shifting from Child Health Days (campaigns) to routine delivery via the community health services. The objective of this study was to compare the cost and effectiveness of these 2 delivery methods. No previous studies have done this. A mixed method approach was used. Quantitative data on costs were collected from interviews with key staff and coverage data from health facility records. Qualitative data on the 2 modalities were collected from key informants and community members from purposefully sampled communities using the 2 modalities. Communities appreciated the provision of vitamin A supplements to their under 5-year-old children. The small drop in coverage that occurred as a result of the change in modality can be attributed to normal changes that occur with any system change. Advantages of campaigns included greater ease of mobilization and better coverage of older children from more remote communities. Advantages of routine delivery included not omitting children who happened to miss the 1 day per round that supplementation occurred and not disrupting the availability of other health services for the 5 to 6 days each campaign requires. The cost of routine delivery is not easy to measure nor is the cost of disruption to normal services entailed by campaigns. Cost-effectiveness likely depends more on effectiveness than on cost. Overall, the routine approach can achieve good coverage and is sustainable in the long run, as long as the transition is well planned and implemented.
This article analyses the reporting of evidence in Swiss direct-democratic campaigns in the health policy sector, assuming that an informed public helps democracy function successfully. A content analysis of the media's news reporting shows that of 5030 media items retrieved, a reference to evidence is found in 6.8%. The voter receives evidence in…
Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to
Sheean, Andrew J; Foster, James N; Aden, James K; Tubb, Creighton C; Johnson, Anthony E; Stinner, Daniel J
The importance of patient satisfaction as a measure of quality has grown with initiatives intended to enhance demand for services, refocus reimbursement paradigms, encourage health care efficiencies, and ultimately improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of our performance improvement project was to (1) characterize the effect of a two-pronged multimedia initiative on patient perceptions of health care quality and satisfaction as assessed by the Army Provider Level Satisfaction Survey (APLSS) and (2) assess for differences in APLSS scores between the surgeons that did and did not participate in the program. Baseline APLSS data for our Department of Orthopaedic Surgery were collected and subsequently compared to APLSS results 3 months after the implementation of a department-wide multimedia campaign. The multimedia initiative consisted of two concurrently implemented interventions to the orthopaedic surgery outpatient clinics. One intervention involved placing large-framed posters about the orthopaedic clinic waiting areas on which were written, "We helped write the book," and included pictures of various orthopaedic textbooks of which attending surgeons and/or residents had contributed to as authors. The other intervention provided patients with surgeon "face sheets" upon arrival to their clinic appointments. These sheets included a picture of their attending surgeon, contact information for the surgeon's nurse care coordinator, and a brief biographical sketch of the surgeon's training, clinical interests and expertise, and other information at each surgeon's discretion. Among APLSS survey results for the orthopaedic surgery clinic including all surgeons, significant increases were observed between baseline data and 3-month data for Top 1 and Top 2 responses to the questions, "How satisfied do you feel about your visit?" and "Did your surgeon listen to you carefully about your concerns and questions?" (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively). The implementation of a
Cornacchione Ross, Jennifer; Noar, Seth M; Sutfin, Erin L
The Food and Drug Administration, which now has regulatory authority over all tobacco products meeting the statutory definition, is tasked with communicating the risks of these products to the public through health warnings and public education. However, there have been no attempts to summarize what is known about non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) health messaging. We conducted a systematic review to examine the existing literature on health communication for NCTPs and identify key research gaps. A total of 45 unique studies were retrieved and coded, with the majority focused on messaging for smokeless tobacco (SLT, k = 32, 71.1%), followed by waterpipe tobacco (WT, k = 9, 20%), electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, k = 2, 4.4%), cigars (k = 2, 4.4%), and a potentially reduced exposure product (k = 1, 2.2%). Studies most commonly examined tobacco product warnings (k = 26, 57.8%) and public education (k = 19, 42.2%), which included mass media campaigns. Most studies examined knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs as outcomes (k = 27, 60%), while behavior was an outcome in the minority of studies (k = 8, 17.8%). Pictorial warnings and public education about NCTPs demonstrated positive impact in some studies, although the literature is nascent. Given the increasing use of NCTPs such as ENDS, WT, and cigars, particularly among adolescents and young adults, more research is needed on effective ways to communicate product risk to those audiences most at risk.
Virginia Hospital Center embarked on a branding effort in hopes of raising customer awareness of the hospital's state-of-the-art technologies in advanced medical care. The campaign launched a new phase of TV spots that highlight the facility's advanced services, such as the computed tomography angiogram, the argon plasma coagulator, and heart valve replacement surgery.
Martín Padilla, E; Sarmiento Medina, P; Ramírez Jaramillo, A
To Identify aspects of professional communication that affect the quality of long-term care for patients with chronic illness or disabilities and their families, in the experience of health professionals, as input for the development of an assessment tool. Descriptive qualitative.The data was processed by performing an interpretative analysis from grounded theory. The participants included 12 health professionals (three doctors, three nurses, three therapists and three psychologists), who work at the Hospital of the Universidad de La Sabana, Chia, and other institutions in Bogota, Colombia,with more than five years experience in programs treating chronic disease or disability in hospital therapeutic contexts. Semi-structured interviews and a Delphi survey were used. Validation strategies included, theoretical sampling, script evaluation by judges, triangulation of data collection techniques, and interviewers. We defined specific aspects of professional communication that could optimize the quality of health care, in information management as well as in the relationships with patients and families. From these aspects, an explanatory matrix was designed with axes, categories, and codes as a support for the construction of tools. Health communication, in order to become a therapeutic support element, requires professional training in communication skills to give information in an understandable way, with emotional support and coping possibilities. It should include and involve the family in decision making. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Pereira, Patricia Cristina Andrade; Fortes, Paulo Antonio de Carvalho
In Brazil, recent regulations require changes in private and public health systems to make special services available to deaf patients. In the present article, the researchers analyze the perceptions of 25 sign language-using patients regarding this assistance. The researchers found communication difficulties between these patients and health…
issues among high school students with their parents, Bullen ... through targeted family life education activities among students and parents. [Ethiop. J. ... sexual issues and impact of this communication on ..... Males were about five times more likely than females to .... Prevention and Control Office and Regional Health.
Bannor, Richard; Asare, Anthony Kwame; Bawole, Justice Nyigmah
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an in-depth understanding of the effectiveness, evolution and dynamism of the current health communication media used in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a multi-method approach which utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In-depth interviews are…
Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G; Fenger, Morten H. J.
Background: Since 2009, the green Keyhole symbol has been a joint Nordic initiative for signalling healthfulness of specific food products. In 2014, the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries carried out a campaign aimed mainly at men over 35 with a low level of education, encouraging...... labelled products rose by about 20%. In the third chain, there was a slight decrease of sales of Keyhole labelled products. The effect differed considerably between product categories. Analysis of the interview data indicated that by the end of the campaign, shoppers with a short education had a higher...
Wisconsin's largest healthcare system has 41 clinics throughout the state and offers a variety of services, from women's health to oncology. Maintaining a consistent brand message in a large organization with so many product lines requires constant marketing to ensure consumer awareness. To that end, Marshfield Clinic recently launched an effort to revitalize its brand and spread its message, through television spots, print ads, and billboards.
Parrott, Roxanne; Hopfer, Suellen; Ghetian, Christie; Lengerich, Eugene
In the era of evidence-based public health promotion and planning, the use of maps as a form of evidence to communicate about the multiple determinants of cancer is on the rise. Geographic information systems and mapping technologies make future proliferation of this strategy likely. Yet disease maps as a communication form remain largely unexamined. This content analysis considers the presence of multivariate information, credibility cues, and the communication function of publicly accessible maps for cancer control activities. Thirty-six state comprehensive cancer control plans were publicly available in July 2005 and were reviewed for the presence of maps. Fourteen of the 36 state cancer plans (39%) contained map images (N = 59 static maps). A continuum of map inter activity was observed, with 10 states having interactive mapping tools available to query and map cancer information. Four states had both cancer plans with map images and interactive mapping tools available to the public on their Web sites. Of the 14 state cancer plans that depicted map images, two displayed multivariate data in a single map. Nine of the 10 states with interactive mapping capability offered the option to display multivariate health risk messages. The most frequent content category mapped was cancer incidence and mortality, with stage at diagnosis infrequently available. The most frequent communication function served by the maps reviewed was redundancy, as maps repeated information contained in textual forms. The social and ethical implications for communicating about cancer through the use of visual geographic representations are discussed.
Mackenzie, G; Currie, B J
This study described the communication dynamics, identified problems and recommended changes to improve patient follow-up and communication between Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) and isolated Aboriginal community health clinics (CHC) in the Northern Territory (NT). In 1995, staff interviews were conducted and an audit of isolated Aboriginal patients' RDH discharge summaries (DS). Eighteen per cent of RDH DSs never arrived in CHCs. DSs were often prepared late and more likely to be in CHC records if written on time and if the referral source was specified. Interviews revealed discontent between CHCs and RDH regarding: communication, DS documentation, the supply of discharge medication, as well as different hospital and community perceptions of Aboriginies' reliability to carry a DS and CHC desire for patients to be given DSs at discharge. Aboriginal patients should be given a DS at discharge and resident medical officers should be educated as to the function and importance of the DS. In 18 months following this study, RDH appointed unit-based Aboriginal health workers and a policy was produced for written communication between hospital and CHCs, as well as a discharge planning manual for Aboriginal communities. Projects investigating communication between hospitals and isolated Aboriginal clinics and patient follow-up may result in significant policy changes concerning these processes.
Lamster, Ira B; DePaola, Dominick P; Oppermann, Rui V; Papapanou, Panos N; Wilder, Rebecca S
The body of research defining relationships among periodontal disease and certain systemic diseases and disorders has been expanding, and questions have been raised regarding what information should be conveyed to health care professionals and patients. Representatives from dentistry, medicine, the academic community and the insurance industry convened a two-day workshop July 23 and 24, 2007. The workshop participants achieved general consensus on a number of issues, including the need for greater cooperation between the health care professions. This cooperation should translate into improved clinical care as physicians refer patients for dental care, and dentists are proactive in regard to the general health of their patients. Communication to health care professionals requires a multifaceted approach that includes publication of research findings in medical and dental journals, cooperation among professional organizations and initiatives at the local level such as presentations at medical grand rounds. Dental schools should play a role in their health science centers. Communication with patients may improve through the use of targeted informational brochures in the offices of medical specialists, appropriate media campaigns and efforts led by local dental organizations. It is too early to provide specific recommendations regarding the treatment of periodontal disease to improve specific health outcomes, but dentists can become advocates for a general health promotion and disease prevention message. The lifestyles approach includes an improved diet, smoking cessation, appropriate hygiene practices and stress reduction. These strategies can improve oral and general health outcomes.
Megan N. Olesen
Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of utilizing a collegiate mascot as a marketing tool for the promotion of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity among 4th grade students. The program utilized service learning and formative research for the development of a social marketing campaign comprised of nutrition education and brand marketing. A pre-test/post-test design was used to measure fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in participants in intervention and control schools. Awareness and understanding of the campaign was assessed post-intervention. There were no changes in fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity. However, 91% of the intervention students were able to correctly report understanding of the campaign messages, and approximately one-third of the participants were able to recall the campaign without any prompts. Results demonstrated how a social marketing campaign can utilize branding techniques to bring about awareness, which is an essential step in initiating behavior change.
Kaper, Marise S; Sixsmith, Jane; Koot, Jaap A R; Meijering, Louise B; van Twillert, Sacha; Giammarchi, Cinzia; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Barry, Margaret M; Doyle, Priscilla; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F
Objective: Skills to address different health literacy problems are lacking among health professionals. We sought to develop and pilot test a comprehensive health literacy communication training for various health professionals in Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands. Methods: Thirty health
The main objective of this dissertation is to examine attitudes toward shock advertising of western-European and Serbian university students with regard to public health context (anti-smoking and anti-HIV/AIDS campaigns). Although the use of shock advertising is widely adopted in practice, there has not been extensive research with regard to this topic. Public health context is of special interest in this dissertation as there is an urge for social marketing on Serbian market. The results of ...
Ulrey, K L; Amason, P
Cultural diversity is becoming increasingly more important in the workplace. This is particularly true in health care organizations facing demographic shifts in the patients served and their families. This study serves to aid the development of intercultural communication training programs for health care providers by examining how cultural sensitivity and effective intercultural communication, besides helping patients, personally benefit health care providers by reducing their stress. Effective intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity were found to be related. Health care providers' levels of intercultural anxiety also were found to correlate with effective intercultural communication.
Ebina, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Fumiko; Taniguchi, Izumi; Togari, Taisuke; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Sparks, Michael
Japan's 2008 health policy focuses more than ever on health education for behaviour change and outcome measures for physical health status. This is at odds with contemporary health promotion and health education, which frame health as a resource for everyday life and indicate that the evaluation of interventions should measure broader aspects of health rather than just physical aspects. The application of a combination of different health communication models and theories allows for a customized approach, depending on the types of change that are being sought, and can lead to increased relevance as well as a better fit when it comes to evaluating the achievement of broad health promotion goals. This article explores the application of the Outcome Model for Health Promotion to a two-year health education intervention in Kushima, Japan. This model measures program effectiveness from four aspects: physical health outcomes; intermediate health outcomes; health promotion outcomes; and health promotion actions. A quantitative and qualitative longitudinal, mixed model study design and methods were used for the analysis. Data was taken from health exams, structured interviews, and participant observations collected from 67 participants at four times over two years. This intervention relied primarily on health education and communication to achieve mental and social health outcomes more significantly and faster than physical health outcomes. The importance of moving outcome measurement beyond direct health achievements is discussed in light of the relationships between physical, mental, and social health and its determinants, and our results.
This paper examines the effects of retrieving information about a health ailment on judgments of the perceived severity of the disease and self-efficacy regarding prevention and treatment. The literature on metacognition suggests that recall tasks render two types of information accessible: the retrieved content, and the subjective experience of retrieving the content. Both types of information can influence judgments. Content-based thinking models hold that the more instances of an event people can retrieve, the higher they will estimate the frequency of the event to be. In contrast, experience-based thinking models suggest that when people experience difficulty in retrieving information regarding an event, they rate the event as less likely to occur. In the first experiment, ease of retrieval was manipulated by asking participants to list either a high or low number of consequences of an ailment. As expected, retrieval difficulty resulted in lower perceived disease severity. In the second experiment, ease of retrieval was manipulated by varying the number of disease prevention or treatment measures participants attempted to list. As predicted, retrieval difficulty resulted in lower self-efficacy regarding prevention and treatment. In experiment three, when information regarding a health issue was made accessible by exposure to public service announcements (PSAs), ease-of-retrieval effects were attenuated. Finally, in experiment four, exposure to PSAs encouraged content-based judgments when the issue was of great concern.
Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid; Cousens, Simon; Anwar, Saeed; Haque, Najib Ul; Ahmed, Imran; Ali, Noshad; Tahir, Rehman; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Pakistan faces huge challenges in eradicating polio due to widespread poliovirus transmission and security challenges. Innovative interventions are urgently needed to strengthen community buy-in, to increase the coverage of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and other routine immunisations, and to enhance immunity through the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in combination with OPV. We aimed to evaluate the acceptability and effect on immunisation coverage of an integrated strategy for community engagement and maternal and child health immunisation campaigns in insecure and conflict-affected polio-endemic districts of Pakistan. We did a community-based three-arm cluster randomised trial in healthy children aged 1 month to 5 years that resided within the study sites in three districts of Pakistan at high risk of polio. Clusters were randomly assigned by a computer algorithm using restricted randomisation in blocks of 20 by an external statistician (1:1:1) to receive routine polio programme activities (control, arm A), additional interventions with community outreach and mobilisation using an enhanced communication package and provision of short-term preventive maternal and child health services and routine immunisation (health camps), including OPV (arm B), or all interventions of arm B with additional provision of IPV delivered at the maternal and child health camps (arm C). An independent team conducted surveys at baseline, endline, and after each round of supplementary immunisation activity for acceptability and effect. The primary outcome measures for the study were coverage of OPV, IPV, and routine extended programme on immunisation vaccines and changes in the proportion of unvaccinated and fully vaccinated children. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01908114. Between June 4, 2013, and May 31, 2014, 387 clusters were randomised (131 to arm A, 127 to arm B, and 129 to arm C). At baseline, 28 760 children younger than 5 years were
Menefee, Hannah K; Thompson, Morgan J; Guterbock, Thomas M; Williams, Ishan C; Valdez, Rupa S
Consumer health information technology (IT) solutions are designed to support patient health management and have the ability to facilitate patients' health information communication with their social networks. However, there is a need for consumer health IT solutions to align with patients' health management preferences for increased adoption of the technology. It may be possible to gain an understanding of patients' needs for consumer health IT supporting their health information communication with social networks by explicating how they have adopted and adapted social networking sites, such as Facebook, for this purpose. Our aim was to characterize patients' use of all communication mechanisms within Facebook for health information communication to provide insight into how consumer health IT solutions may be better designed to meet patients' communication needs and preferences. This study analyzed data about Facebook communication mechanisms use from a larger, three-phase, sequential, mixed-methods study. We report here on the results of the study's first phase: qualitative interviews (N=25). Participants were over 18, used Facebook, were residents or citizens of the United States, spoke English, and had a diagnosis consistent with type 2 diabetes. Participants were recruited through Facebook groups and pages. Participant interviews were conducted via Skype or telephone between July and September 2014. Data analysis was grounded in qualitative content analysis and the initial coding framework was informed by the findings of a previous study. Participants' rationales for the use or disuse of a particular Facebook mechanism to communicate health information reflected six broad themes: (1) characteristics and circumstances of the person, (2) characteristics and circumstances of the relationship, (3) structure and composition of the social network, (4) content of the information, (5) communication purpose, and (6) attributes of the technology. The results of this
Logan, Robert A; Kreps, Gary L
This article introduces the Journal of Health Communication's special section, Evaluating Health Communication Programs. This special section is based on a public lecture series supported by the National Library of Medicine titled "Better Health: Evaluating Health Communication Programs" designed to share best practices for using evaluation research to develop, implement, refine, and institutionalize the best health communication programs for promoting public health. This introduction provides an overview to the series, summarizes the major presentations in the series, and describe implications from the series for translational health communication research, interventions, and programs that can enhance health outcomes.
Eckert, Stine; Sopory, Pradeep; Day, Ashleigh; Wilkins, Lee; Padgett, Donyale; Novak, Julie; Noyes, Jane; Allen, Tomas; Alexander, Nyka; Vanderford, Marsha; Gamhewage, Gaya
This mixed-method evidence synthesis drew on Cochrane methods and principles to systematically review literature published between 2003 and 2016 on the best social media practices to promote health protection and dispel misinformation during disasters. Seventy-nine studies employing quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods on risk communication during disasters in all UN-languages were reviewed, finding that agencies need to contextualize the use of social media for particular populations and crises. Social media are tools that still have not become routine practices in many governmental agencies regarding public health in the countries studied. Social media, especially Twitter and Facebook (and equivalents in countries such as China), need to be incorporated into daily operations of governmental agencies and implementing partners to build familiarity with them before health-related crises happen. This was especially observed in U.S. agencies, local government, and first responders but also for city governments and school administrations in Europe. For those that do use social media during health-related risk communication, studies find that public relations officers, governmental agencies, and the general public have used social media successfully to spread truthful information and to verify information to dispel rumors during disasters. Few studies focused on the recovery and preparation phases and on countries in the Southern hemisphere, except for Australia. The vast majority of studies did not analyze the demographics of social media users beyond their geographic location, their status of being inside/outside the disaster zone; and their frequency and content of posting. Socioeconomic demographics were not collected and/or analyzed to drill deeper into the implications of using social media to reach vulnerable populations. Who exactly is reached via social media campaigns and who needs to be reached with other means has remained an understudied area.
Full Text Available This work aims to delineate the long journey of health communication, from the beginning to the present, stressing how the concept of health service and human health have been evolving together with the kind of political approach to the problem. First, the approach was mainly repressive and based on the surveillance of territory, so that jurisdiction in health matters was centralized and entrusted to the Ministry of Interior. Consequently, communication had little space and was directed to an elite group of insiders, who were able to cope with any public health emergencies, using a very technical and essential language, confusing for most people. In the course of the years, we understood that the reaching of the objective health could be realized with the involvement of citizens, organized groups, public and private institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure citizens the right to receive a clear and correct information, enabling them to be self responsible and better manage their health, in a more and more personalized way, using an authoritative but confidential language and all the modern media.
Frati, Annarosa; Luzi, Anna Maria; Colucci, Anna
This work aims to delineate the long journey of health communication, from the beginning to the present, stressing how the concept of health service and human health have been evolving together with the kind of political approach to the problem. First, the approach was mainly repressive and based on the surveillance of territory, so that jurisdiction in health matters was centralized and entrusted to the Ministry of Interior. Consequently, communication had little space and was directed to an elite group of insiders, who were able to cope with any public health emergencies, using a very technical and essential language, confusing for most people. In the course of the years, we understood that the reaching of the objective health could be realized with the involvement of citizens, organized groups, public and private institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure citizens the right to receive a clear and correct information, enabling them to be self responsible and better manage their health, in a more and more personalized way, using an authoritative but confidential language and all the modern media.
Street, Richard L.; Cox, Vanessa; Kallen, Michael A.; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E.
Objective This study tested a pathway whereby acupuncturists’ communication of optimism for treatment effectiveness would enhance patients’ satisfaction during treatment, which in turn would contribute to better pain and function outcomes for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Secondary analysis from a 2 arm (real vs. sham acupuncture, high vs. neutral expectations) RCT. 311 patients with knee osteoarthritis received acupuncture over 10–12 sessions. Coders rated the degree to which acupuncturists communicated optimism for the treatment’s effectiveness. Satisfaction with acupuncture was assessed 4 weeks into treatment. Pain and function were assessed 6 weeks following treatment. Results Patients experiencing better outcomes were more satisfied with acupuncture during treatment, were younger, and had better baseline pain and function scores. Satisfaction during treatment was greater when patients interacted with more optimistic clinicians and had higher pretreatment expectations for acupuncture efficacy. Conclusion Acupuncturists’ communication of optimism about treatment effectiveness contributed to pain and function outcomes indirectly through its effect on satisfaction during treatment. Future research should model pathways through which clinician-patient communication affects mediating variables that in turn lead to improved health outcomes. Practical Implications While clinicians should not mislead patients, communicating hope and optimism for treatment effectiveness has therapeutic value for patients. PMID:22857778
Full Text Available Rebekah RogersSchool of Communication, East Carolina University, NC, USAAbstract: The study of leadership in health care is important to examine for many reasons. Health care leaders will inevitably have an impact on the lives of many people, as individuals rely on physicians and nurses during some of the most critical moments in their lives. This paper presents a broad overview of a research study conducted over the past year and highlights its general conclusions. In this study, I examined the leadership styles of health care administrators and those of physicians and nurses who chair departments. Thorough analysis yielded three clear themes: viewpoints on leadership, decision making, and relationships. Physicians' viewpoints on leadership varied; however, it was assumed that they knew they were leaders. Nurses seemed to be in a category of their own, in which it was common for them to use the term “servant leadership.” Results from the hospital administrators suggested that they were always thinking “big picture leadership.” Leadership is a working component of every job and it is important for people to become as educated as possible about their own communication style.Keywords: leadership, communication, health care
Davis, Deborah Winders; Jones, V Faye; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Ryan, Lesa; Wilkerson-McMahon, Mandie
Health literacy has been shown to predict health behaviors and outcomes above the effects of education or socioeconomic status. Much remains unknown about the health literacy of parents and the role it plays in children's health outcomes or in health disparities. The current study explored the health communication needs and health literacy indicators in a diverse sample of parents (n = 75) to identify potential areas for future interventions. The sample consisted of parents of children 18 to 36 months old who were visiting 3 different pediatric medical offices, 2 of which served low-income families and 1 located in an affluent suburb. When comparisons were made between 2 educational attainment groups, there were variations in indicators of health literacy and health communication needs. These data can be used to guide the development of interventions by primary care providers to improve parent education.
Islam, Sheik Mohammed Shariful; Tabassum, Reshman
Bangladesh has yet to develop a fully integrated health information system infrastructure that is critical to guiding policy development and planning. Initial pilot telemedicine and eHealth programmes were not coordinated at national level. However, in 2011, a national eHealth policy was implemented. Bangladesh has made substantial improvements to its health system. However, the country still faces public health challenges with limited and inequitable access to health services and lack of adequate resources to meet the demands of the population. In 2008, eHealth services were introduced, including computerization of health facilities at sub-district levels, internet connections, internet servers and an mHealth service for communicating with health-care providers. Health facilities at sub-district levels were provided with internet connections and servers. In 482 upazila health complexes and district hospitals, an mHealth service was set-up where an on-duty doctor is available for patients at all hours to provide consultations by mobile phone. A government operated telemedicine service was initiated and by 2014, 43 fully equipped centres were in service. These centres provide medical consultations by qualified physicians to patients visiting rural and remote community clinics and union health centres. Despite early pilot interventions and successful implementation, progress in adopting eHealth strategies in Bangladesh has been slow. There is a lack of common standards on information technology for health, which causes difficulties in data management and sharing among different databases. Limited internet bandwidth and the high cost of infrastructure and software development are barriers to adoption of these technologies.
Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Satoh, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Chino, Naohito; Hadano, Kazuo
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationships among communication self-efficacy (SE), communication burden, and the mental health of the families of persons with aphasia using structural equation modeling (SEM). This study examined 110 pairs of persons with aphasia receiving home care and 1 family caregiver per person with aphasia. The survey items for this study consisted of the Communication Self-efficacy Scale, the Communication Burden Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form-Japanese, and the Health-Related Quality of Life: SF-8 Health Survey. The relationships between the constructive concept of "communication self-efficacy" and "communication burden," and "mental-health status" were analyzed using SEM. The results of the SEM analysis revealed that a high communication SE of the families was associated with low burden of communication and good mental-health status. Psychoeducational programs that address the communication SE of family caregivers may have the potential to reduce the burden of communication and to improve the mental health of caregivers. These programs could lead to an enhanced quality of life for both persons with aphasia and their families. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cadaxa, Aedê Gomes; Sousa, Maria Fátima de; Mendonça, Ana Valéria Machado
To identify health promoting contents (information that can be transformed into decision-making resources to improve quality of life and the health of individuals or groups) in Facebook postings by the ministries of health in Brazil and Peru. This case study compared the messages published in Facebook by the ministries of health from Brazil and Peru during World AIDS Day. Content analysis was employed to identify health promoting contents in the messages posted between November 2013 and February 2014. A total of 105 messages were published on the topic of interest (37 from Peru and 68 from Brazil). In both cases, most messages focused on individuals, addressing the change or adoption of personal behaviors relating to the prevention and detection of HIV - 34 messages (50.0%) for Brazil and 17 (45.9%) for Peru. Twenty-one (30.9%) messages with a structural emphasis were published by Brazil and 14 (37.8%) by Peru, addressing the context of health care system organization, including HIV/ AIDS health policies, available services, access to HIV testing and initiatives to promote testing. Hybrid messages, including both emphases, were less frequent: 13 (19.1%) for Brazil and six (16.2%) for Peru. Health promoting contents were identified in hybrid messages, which provided resources to expand the understanding of individuals about the susceptibility to AIDS.
Ovretveit, John; Wu, Albert; Street, Richard; Thimbleby, Harold; Thilo, Friederike; Hannawa, Annegret
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore a non-technical overview for leaders and researchers about how to use a communications perspective to better assess, design and use digital health technologies (DHTs) to improve healthcare performance and to encourage more research into implementation and use of these technologies. Design/methodology/approach Narrative overview, showing through examples the issues and benefits of introducing DHTs for healthcare performance and the insights that communications science brings to their design and use. Findings Communications research has revealed the many ways in which people communicate in non-verbal ways, and how this can be lost or degraded in digitally mediated forms. These losses are often not recognized, can increase risks to patients and reduce staff satisfaction. Yet digital technologies also contribute to improving healthcare performance and staff morale if skillfully designed and implemented. Research limitations/implications Researchers are provided with an introduction to the limitations of the research and to how communications science can contribute to a multidisciplinary research approach to evaluating and assisting the implementation of these technologies to improve healthcare performance. Practical implications Using this overview, managers are more able to ask questions about how the new DHTs will affect healthcare and take a stronger role in implementing these technologies to improve performance. Originality/value New insights into the use and understanding of DHTs from applying the new multidiscipline of communications science. A situated communications perspective helps to assess how a new technology can complement rather than degrade professional relationships and how safer implementation and use of these technologies can be devised.
Romain, Sandra J
Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requiring that all public and private sector essential services offer verbal and written communication in Inuit languages (Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun) by 2012. While the legislation mandates compliance, policy implementation for pharmaceutical services is problematic. Not a single pharmacist in Nunavut is fluent in either of the Inuit languages. Pharmacists have indicated challenges in formally translating written documentation into Inuit languages based on concerns for patient safety. These challenges of negotiating the joint requirements of language legislation and patient safety have resulted in pharmacies using verbal on-site translation as a tenuous solution regardless of its many limitations. The complex issues of pharmaceutical health care and communication among the Inuit of Nunavut are best examined through multimethod research to encompass a wide range of perspectives. This methodology combines the richness of ethnographic data, the targeted depth of interviews with key informants and the breadth of cross-Canada policy and financial analyses. The analysis of this information would provide valuable insights into the current relationships between health care providers, pharmacists and Inuit patients and suggest future directions for policy that will improve the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and health care spending for the Inuit in Canada.
Sandra J. Romain
Full Text Available Background. Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requiring that all public and private sector essential services offer verbal and written communication in Inuit languages (Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun by 2012. Methods. While the legislation mandates compliance, policy implementation for pharmaceutical services is problematic. Not a single pharmacist in Nunavut is fluent in either of the Inuit languages. Pharmacists have indicated challenges in formally translating written documentation into Inuit languages based on concerns for patient safety. These challenges of negotiating the joint requirements of language legislation and patient safety have resulted in pharmacies using verbal on-site translation as a tenuous solution regardless of its many limitations. Results. The complex issues of pharmaceutical health care and communication among the Inuit of Nunavut are best examined through multimethod research to encompass a wide range of perspectives. This methodology combines the richness of ethnographic data, the targeted depth of interviews with key informants and the breadth of cross-Canada policy and financial analyses. Conclusions. The analysis of this information would provide valuable insights into the current relationships between health care providers, pharmacists and Inuit patients and suggest future directions for policy that will improve the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and health care spending for the Inuit in Canada.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical factor shaping parental attitudes to vaccination is the parent’s interactions with health professionals. An effective interaction can address the concerns of vaccine supportive parents and motivate a hesitant parent towards vaccine acceptance. Poor communication can contribute to rejection of vaccinations or dissatisfaction with care. We sought to provide a framework for health professionals when communicating with parents about vaccination. Methods Literature review to identify a spectrum of parent attitudes or ‘positions’ on childhood vaccination with estimates of the proportion of each group based on population studies. Development of a framework related to each parental position with determination of key indicators, goals and strategies based on communication science, motivational interviewing and valid consent principles. Results Five distinct parental groups were identified: the ‘unquestioning acceptor’ (30–40%, the ‘cautious acceptor’ (25–35%; the ‘hesitant’ (20–30%; the ‘late or selective vaccinator’ (2–27%; and the ‘refuser’ of all vaccines ( Conclusions Health professionals have a central role in maintaining public trust in vaccination, including addressing parents’ concerns. These recommendations are tailored to specific parental positions on vaccination and provide a structured approach to assist professionals. They advocate respectful interactions that aim to guide parents towards quality decisions.
Asada, Yukiko; Abel, Hannah; Skedgel, Chris; Warner, Grace
Policy Points: Effective graphs can be a powerful tool in communicating health inequality. The choice of graphs is often based on preferences and familiarity rather than science. According to the literature on graph perception, effective graphs allow human brains to decode visual cues easily. Dot charts are easier to decode than bar charts, and thus they are more effective. Dot charts are a flexible and versatile way to display information about health inequality. Consistent with the health risk communication literature, the captions accompanying health inequality graphs should provide a numerical, explicitly calculated description of health inequality, expressed in absolute and relative terms, from carefully thought-out perspectives. Graphs are an essential tool for communicating health inequality, a key health policy concern. The choice of graphs is often driven by personal preferences and familiarity. Our article is aimed at health policy researchers developing health inequality graphs for policy and scientific audiences and seeks to (1) raise awareness of the effective use of graphs in communicating health inequality; (2) advocate for a particular type of graph (ie, dot charts) to depict health inequality; and (3) suggest key considerations for the captions accompanying health inequality graphs. Using composite review methods, we selected the prevailing recommendations for improving graphs in scientific reporting. To find the origins of these recommendations, we reviewed the literature on graph perception and then applied what we learned to the context of health inequality. In addition, drawing from the numeracy literature in health risk communication, we examined numeric and verbal formats to explain health inequality graphs. Many disciplines offer commonsense recommendations for visually presenting quantitative data. The literature on graph perception, which defines effective graphs as those allowing the easy decoding of visual cues in human brains, shows
Post, Douglas M; Shapiro, Charles L; Cegala, Donald J; David, Prabu; Katz, Mira L; Krok, Jessica L; Phillips, Gary S; McAlearney, Ann Sheck; Lehman, Jennifer S; Hicks, William; Paskett, Electra D
Communication problems impede effective symptom management during chemotherapy. The primary aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to test the effects of a personal digital assistant-delivered communication intervention on pain, depression, and fatigue symptoms among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Secondary aims included assessment of 1) study feasibility, 2) patient and clinician responses to study participation, and 3) intervention effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and communication self-efficacy. Intervention group participants (n = 27) completed symptom inventories at baseline, once per week during treatment, and at posttreatment. Depending on symptom severity, they viewed race-concordant videos on how to communicate about pain, depression and/or fatigue, using the personal digital assistant. Symptom records were tracked and shared with clinicians. Control group participants (n = 23) received usual care. Longitudinal random effects modeling assessed the changes in average symptom scores over time. Descriptive statistics assessed study feasibility and intervention effects on HRQoL and communication self-efficacy. Postintervention focus groups, interviews, and surveys assessed responses to study participation. Mean age of the participants was 51.0 years; 42 participants (84%) were white. In comparison with control, intervention group participants reported lower average pain severity over time (P = .015). Mean pain interference scores over time were marginally different between groups (P = .07); mean depression and fatigue scores over time were statistically nonsignificant. Feasibility outcomes and perspectives about study participation were positive. Mean pre-post decreases in HRQoL were generally higher among intervention group participants; pre-post changes in communication self-efficacy were equivalent. Mixed findings of the study indicate the need for future research.
Bergeron, Caroline D; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Szucs, Leigh E; Reyes, Jovanni V; Wilson, Kelly L; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee
Older women around the globe are generally depicted as asexual beings, which may impact patient-provider discussions about sex. We examined data on 703 aging women in the United States to compare factors associated with women perceiving sex as important and women discussing sex with their physicians since turning 50. While 65.1% of participants perceived sex to be important, only 23.8% discussed sex with their providers since turning 50. Factors related to discussing sex included age, education, having a chronic condition, and consuming alcohol. Provider training and tools about sexual health communication could help launch those discussions about sex and increase advocacy for older women's sexual health.
Razak, A. H. A.; Ibrahim, I. W.; Ayub, A. H.; Amri, M. F.; Hamzi, M. H.; Halim, A. K.; Ahmad, A.; Junid, S. A. M. Al
This paper presents a model of a Body Area Network (BAN) health monitoring system based on Intra-Body Communication. Intra-body Communication (IBC) is a communication technique that uses the human body as a medium for electrical signal communication. One of the visions in the health care industry is to provide autonomous and continuous self and the remote health monitoring system. This can be achieved via BAN, LAN and WAN integration. The BAN technology itself consists of short range data communication modules, sensors, controller and actuators. The information can be transmitted to the LAN and WAN via the RF technology such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and ANT. Although the implementations of RF communication have been successful, there are still limitations in term of power consumption, battery lifetime, interferences and signal attenuations. One of the solutions for Medical Body Area Network (MBANs) to overcome these issues is by using an IBC technique because it can operate at lower frequencies and power consumption compared to the existing techniques. The first objective is to design the IBC's transmitter and receiver modules using the off the shelf components. The specifications of the modules such as frequency, data rate, modulation and demodulation coding system were defined. The individual module were designed and tested separately. The modules was integrated as an IBC system and tested for functionality then was implemented on PCB. Next objective is to model and implement the digital parts of the transmitter and receiver modules on the Altera's FPGA board. The digital blocks were interfaced with the FPGA's on board modules and the discrete components. The signals that have been received from the transmitter were converted into a proper waveform and it can be viewed via external devices such as oscilloscope and Labview. The signals such as heartbeats or pulses can also be displayed on LCD. In conclusion, the IBC project presents medical health monitoring model
McVey, D.; Stapleton, J.
OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the effectiveness of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking television advertising campaign in motivating smokers to give up and preventing relapse in those who had already given up. DESIGN—A prospective, controlled trial was conducted in four TV regions in central and northern England. One region received no intervention (controls), two regions received TV anti-smoking advertising (TV media), and one region received TV anti-smoking advertising plus locally organised anti-tobacco campaigning (TV media + LTCN). The TV advertisements were screened in two phases over 18 months; during the first phase the intensity of the advertising was varied between TV regions. 5468 men and women (2997 smokers, 2471 ex-smokers) were selected by two stage random sampling and interviewed before the intervention, of whom 3610 were re-interviewed six months later, after the first phase of the campaign. Only those interviewed at six months were followed to the main end point at 18 months when 2381 subjects were re-interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Self reports of cigarette smoking at the 18 month follow up were compared between the three levels of intervention. Odds ratios for intervention effects were adjusted for pre-intervention predictors of outcome and pooled for smokers and ex-smokers using meta-analytic methods. RESULTS—After 18 months, 9.8% of successfully re-interviewed smokers had stopped and 4.3% of ex-smokers had relapsed. The pooled adjusted odds ratio for not smoking in the TV media only condition compared to controls was 1.53 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02 to 2.29, p = 0.04), and for TV media + LTCN versus controls, 1.67 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.8, p = 0.05). There was no evidence of an extra effect of the local tobacco control network when combined with TV media (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.78, p = 0.55). The was also no evidence of any intervention effects after the first phase of the
The report by the National Radiological Protection Board in the Medical Research Council's study of some of the UKAEA workers is criticized. It is argued that the cancer risk estimates of the International Commission on Radiological Protection are seriously wrong, and that as they are used as a basis for radiation protection standards in the UK, these standards now need revising. The subject is discussed under the headings: broad-based campaign; all radiation is a hazard; building networks (of scientific and medical expertise). (U.K.)
Sentell, Tetine; Cruz, May Rose Dela; Heo, Hyun Hee; Braun, Kathryn
Native Hawaiians and Filipinos are disproportionately impacted by cancer, and are less likely to participate in cancer screening than whites. Limited information exists about health information pathways and health communication challenges as they relate to cancer screening in these groups. Six focus groups (n=77) of Native Hawaiian and Filipino women age 40+ years were conducted to investigate these research gaps. Participants noted many health information challenges. Challenges were both practical and interpersonal and included both written and oral health communication. Practical challenges included “big” words, complexity of terms, and lack of plain English. Interpersonal issues included doctors rushing, doctors not assessing comprehension, and doctors treating respondents as patients not people. Women noted that they would often not ask questions even when they knew they did not understand because they did not want the provider to think negatively of them. Overarching themes to improve cancer communication gaps included: (1) the importance of family and community in health information dissemination; (2) the key role women play in interpreting health information for others; (3) the importance of personal experience and relationships to the salience of health information; and (4) the desire for local cultural relevance in health communication. Findings are discussed in light of the 2010 National Action Plan for Health Literacy. PMID:23536194
Skvoretz, John; Dyer, Karen; Daley, Ellen; Debate, Rita; Vamos, Cheryl; Kline, Nolan; Thompson, Erika
Objectives We aimed to examine scholarly collaboration between oral health and prenatal providers. Oral disease is a silent epidemic with significant public health implications for pregnant women. Evidence linking poor oral health during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes requires oral health and prenatal providers to communicate on the prevention, treatment and co-management matters pertaining to oral health issues among their pregnant patients. The need for inter-professional collaboration is highlighted by guidelines co-endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Dental Association, stressing the importance of oral health care during pregnancy. Methods To assess if interdisciplinary communication occurs between oral health and prenatal disciplines, we conducted a network analysis of research on pregnancy-related periodontal disease. Results Social Network analysis allowed us to identify communication patterns between communities of oral health and prenatal professionals via scientific journals. Analysis of networks of citations linking journals in different fields reveals a core-periphery pattern dominated by oral health journals with some participation from medicine journals. However, an analysis of dyadic ties of citation reveals statistically significant "inbreeding" tendencies in the citation patterns: both medical and oral health journals tend to cite their own kind at greater-than-chance levels. Conclusions Despite evidence suggesting that professional collaboration benefits patients' overall health, findings from this research imply that little collaboration occurs between these two professional groups. More collaboration may be useful in addressing women's oral-systemic health concerns that result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.
The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is making great efforts to alert the American public to the potential health risks of radon in homes. The news media have widely publicized radon as a problem; state and local governments are responding to public alarms; and hundreds of radon open-quotes expertsclose quotes are now offering radon detection and mitigation services. Apparently, USEPA's communication program is working, and the public is becoming increasingly concerned with radon. But are they concerned with radon as a open-quotes healthclose quotes problem in the way USEPA intended? The answer is yes, partly. More and more, however, the concerns are about home resale values. Many homebuyers are now deciding whether to buy on the basis of a single radon screening measurement, comparing it with USEPA's action guide of 4 pCi L -1 . They often conclude that 3.9 is OK, but 4.1 is not. Here is where the communication problems begin. The public largely misunderstands the significance of USEPA's guidelines and the meaning of screening measurements. Seldom does anyone inquire about the quality of the measurements, or the results of USEPA performance testing? Who asks about the uncertainty of lifetime exposure assessments based on a 1-hour, 1-day, 3-day, or even 30-day measurement? Who asks about the uncertainty of USEPA's risk estimates? Fortunately, an increasing number of radiation protection professions are asking such questions. They find that USEPA's risk projections are based on many assumptions which warrant further evaluation, particularly with regard to the combined risks of radon and cigarette-smoking. This is the next communication problem. What are these radiation professions doing to understand the bases for radon health-risk projections? Who is willing to communicate a balanced perspective to the public? Who is willing to communicate the uncertainty and conservatism in radon measurements and risk estimates?
Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna; Krishnaratne, Shari
Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references.Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such
Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies, participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations, interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof, and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change. Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and
Visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements within alcohol advertisements and public health campaigns: Relationships with drinking intentions and alcohol consumption in the laboratory.
Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt
Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Why do we need to communicate smoke impacts on health? Indicence and severity of large fires are increasing. As emissions from the Wildland fires produce air pollution that adversely impacts people's health, incidence and severity of large fires are increasing. As emissions fr...
Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K
This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.
Dorah U. Ramathuba
Full Text Available Background: The introduction of home-based care in rural communities in the 1980s contributed immensely toward the upliftment of the personal and environmental health of communities. Women’s groups provided health promotion skills and health education to communities and made a difference in health-related behaviour change. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the home-based carers’ perception regarding health promotion concerning sexual health communication in Vhembe district, in the context of HIV, amongst communities still rooted in their culture. Method: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used in order to understand home-based carers’ perceptions regarding health promotion on sexual health communication amongst rural communities which may adversely impact on health promotion practices. The population were home-based organisations in Vhembe. The sample was purposive and randomly selected and data were gathered through semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus groups which determined data saturation. Open coding was used for analysis of data. Results: The results indicated that sexual communication was absent in most relationships and was not seen as necessary amongst married couples. Socioeconomic conditions, power inequity and emotional dependence had a negative impact on decision making and sexual communication. Conclusion: This study, therefore, recommends that educational and outreach efforts should focus on motivating change by improving the knowledge base of home-based carers. Since they are health promoters, they should be able to change the perceptions of the communities toward sexually-transmitted infections and HIV by promoting sexual health communication.
Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J.; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A.
This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making ...
Leask, Julie; Kinnersley, Paul; Jackson, Cath; Cheater, Francine; Bedford, Helen; Rowles, Greg
A critical factor shaping parental attitudes to vaccination is the parent's interactions with health professionals. An effective interaction can address the concerns of vaccine supportive parents and motivate a hesitant parent towards vaccine acceptance. Poor communication can contribute to rejection of vaccinations or dissatisfaction with care. We sought to provide a framework for health professionals when communicating with parents about vaccination. Literature review to identify a spectrum of parent attitudes or 'positions' on childhood vaccination with estimates of the proportion of each group based on population studies. Development of a framework related to each parental position with determination of key indicators, goals and strategies based on communication science, motivational interviewing and valid consent principles. Five distinct parental groups were identified: the 'unquestioning acceptor' (30-40%), the 'cautious acceptor' (25-35%); the 'hesitant' (20-30%); the 'late or selective vaccinator' (2-27%); and the 'refuser' of all vaccines (parents' readiness to vaccinate. In all encounters, health professionals should build rapport, accept questions and concerns, and facilitate valid consent. For the hesitant, late or selective vaccinators, or refusers, strategies should include use of a guiding style and eliciting the parent's own motivations to vaccinate while, avoiding excessive persuasion and adversarial debates. It may be necessary to book another appointment or offer attendance at a specialised adverse events clinic. Good information resources should also be used. Health professionals have a central role in maintaining public trust in vaccination, including addressing parents' concerns. These recommendations are tailored to specific parental positions on vaccination and provide a structured approach to assist professionals. They advocate respectful interactions that aim to guide parents towards quality decisions.
McVey, D; Stapleton, J
To evaluate the effectiveness of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking television advertising campaign in motivating smokers to give up and preventing relapse in those who had already given up. A prospective, controlled trial was conducted in four TV regions in central and northern England. One region received no intervention (controls), two regions received TV anti-smoking advertising (TV media), and one region received TV anti-smoking advertising plus locally organised anti-tobacco campaigning (TV media + LTCN). The TV advertisements were screened in two phases over 18 months; during the first phase the intensity of the advertising was varied between TV regions. 5468 men and women (2997 smokers, 2471 ex-smokers) were selected by two stage random sampling and interviewed before the intervention, of whom 3610 were re-interviewed six months later, after the first phase of the campaign. Only those interviewed at six months were followed to the main end point at 18 months when 2381 subjects were re-interviewed. Self reports of cigarette smoking at the 18 month follow up were compared between the three levels of intervention. Odds ratios for intervention effects were adjusted for pre-intervention predictors of outcome and pooled for smokers and ex-smokers using meta-analytic methods. After 18 months, 9. 8% of successfully re-interviewed smokers had stopped and 4.3% of ex-smokers had relapsed. The pooled adjusted odds ratio for not smoking in the TV media only condition compared to controls was 1.53 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02 to 2.29, p = 0.04), and for TV media + LTCN versus controls, 1.67 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.8, p = 0.05). There was no evidence of an extra effect of the local tobacco control network when combined with TV media (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.78, p = 0.55). The was also no evidence of any intervention effects after the first phase of the TV media campaign, including no effect of varying the intensity of the advertising
Prati, Gabriele; Mazzoni, Davide; Cicognani, Elvira; Albanesi, Cinzia; Zani, Bruna
This research assesses the coverage and impact of "United Against AIDS," the 2012-2013 Italian National HIV/AIDS prevention campaign to promote safer sex behavior and voluntary HIV counseling and testing. The campaign used gain-framed messages and aimed at creating a superordinate identity. We conducted two studies. The first study employed a quasi-experimental design involving three groups of participants: general population (n = 858), men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 109), and migrants (n = 211). In the second study, we carried out a time-series design to analyze the archival data of the Italian National AIDS Help-Line. Exposure to the campaign was reported by 78.3%, 67.5%, and 57.8% of the general population, MSM, and migrant respondents, respectively. The probability of having unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners decreased significantly in the subsample of the general populations that was exposed to the campaign (compared to the nonexposed participants), but the same effect was not found among MSM and migrant participants. The probability of having unprotected sexual intercourse with someone of unknown HIV status decreased after the campaign in the exposed MSM subsample (compared to the nonexposed participants), but the same effect was not found among the general population and migrant participants. In addition, the probability of undertaking HIV testing increased significantly in the exposed participants belonging to the general population but not among MSM and migrant participants. Time-series analysis revealed that the number of calls at the Italian National AIDS Help-Line significantly increased during the campaign. This research provides evidence that the effect of the campaign was complex and varied across participants.
Woo, Eugenia Hc; White, Peter; Lai, Christopher Wk
This article provides a general framework for understanding the use of information and communication technology in education and discusses the impact of computer usage on students' health and development. Potential beneficial and harmful effects of computer use by children are discussed. Early epidemiological and laboratory studies have indicated that children are at least of similar risk of developing musculoskeletal and vision problems as adults, and musculoskeletal and visual health problems developed in childhood are likely to persist into adulthood. This article, therefore, aims to provide a reflection on the deficits of existing policy and recommendations for child-specific guidelines in computer use. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Beck, Kenneth H
The evidence concerning Maryland's anti-drunk driving program, Checkpoint Strikeforce, is reviewed. To date, there is no evidence to indicate that this campaign, which involves a number of sobriety checkpoints and media activities to promote these efforts, has had any impact on public perceptions, driver behaviors, or alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes and injuries. This conclusion is drawn after examining statistics for alcohol-related crashes, police citations for impaired driving, and public perceptions of alcohol-impaired driving risk. Comparisons are also made with other states in the mid-Atlantic region, where similar campaign activities have occurred. Reasons for this failure in Maryland include insufficient levels of enforcement (e.g., too few sobriety checkpoints and vehicle contacts occurred to raise public perceptions of risk pertaining to impaired driving) and inadequate publicity surrounding this campaign. Suggestions for overcoming these problems are offered.
If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/
Doron, Shira I; Kifuji, Kayoko; Hynes, Brooke Tyson; Dunlop, Dan; Lemon, Tricia; Hansjosten, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Curley, Barbara; Snydman, David R; Fairchild, David G
Prevention of health care-associated infections starts with scrupulous hand hygiene (HH). Improving HH compliance is a major target for the World Health Organization Patient Safety Challenge and is one of The Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals. Yet, adherence to HH protocols is generally poor for health care professionals, despite interventions designed to improve compliance. At Tufts Medical Center (Boston), HH compliance rates were consistently low despite the presence of a traditional HH campaign that used communication and education. A comprehensive program incorporated strong commitment by hospital leadership-who were actively involved in responsibilities previously only performed by infection preventionists and quality and patient safety staff-dedication of financial resources, including securing a grant; collaborating with a private advertising firm in a marketing campaign; and employing a multifaceted approach to education, observation, and feedback. This campaign resulted in a rapid and sustained improvement in HH compliance: Compared with the mean HH compliance rate for the six months before the campaign (72%), postcampaign HH compliance (mean = 94%) was significantly greater (p marketing campaign to fit this academic medical center's particular culture, strong support from the medical center leadership, a multifaceted educational approach, and monthly feedback on HH compliance. A comprehensive campaign resulted in rapid and sustained improvement in HH compliance at an academic medical center after traditional communication and education strategies failed to improve HH performance.
Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L; Morrison, Kathleen; Athanasoulis, Marcos; Kirienko, Nikolai; Van Brunt, Deryk
This paper describes how design science theory and methods and use of artificial intelligence (AI) components can improve the effectiveness of health communication. We identified key weaknesses of traditional health communication and features of more successful eHealth/AI communication. We examined characteristics of the design science paradigm and the value of its user-centered methods to develop eHealth/AI communication. We analyzed a case example of the participatory design of AI components in the ChronologyMD project intended to improve management of Crohn's disease. eHealth/AI communication created with user-centered design shows improved relevance to users' needs for personalized, timely and interactive communication and is associated with better health outcomes than traditional approaches. Participatory design was essential to develop ChronologyMD system architecture and software applications that benefitted patients. AI components can greatly improve eHealth/AI communication, if designed with the intended audiences. Design science theory and its iterative, participatory methods linked with traditional health communication theory and methods can create effective AI health communication. eHealth/AI communication researchers, developers and practitioners can benefit from a holistic approach that draws from theory and methods in both design sciences and also human and social sciences to create successful AI health communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tonnac, Alain de
As many other companies involved in the nuclear business, Framatome was initially concentrating on corporate advertisements in business newspapers and magazines. The first goal was to concentrate on our traditional nuclear core business, while selecting the protection of the environment at large, and particularly the greenhouse effect, one of the most sensible issues of the moment. The 1997 campaign was shaped around the need to motivate European decision makers, while maintaining a domestic consensus towards nuclear power for the future resumption of constructions. The brief elaborated for Ad agencies was roughly threefold: elaborate simple messages, unquestionable, and explained with serenity; put emphasis on the benefits of nuclear power for the environment; establish a balanced comparison between nuclear and fossil fuels. A pre-test was conducted with about 100 people, half of which from the energy sector, and politicians, mainly members of the French and European Parliaments, the other half from the general public. Being accustomed to a usually discrete, if not 'ashamed' nuclear communication, people were generally surprised by such an optimistic tone about nuclear power, but agreed, on average. The campaign lasted one month (spread over June-July 97), and the three selected ads appeared successively in the form of a colour double page. Beyond nuclear magazines, the media plan included French daily newspapers le Figaro, le Monde, les Echos, Liberation, and weekly magazines: le Point, le Nouvel Observateur, I'Express, etc. All of them are intended for middle to high social class readers. In addition, some advertisements were inserted in The European Voice, a weekly publication reaching Brussels Commission and European parliament members. As an average, the campaign was perceived as dynamic (69%), and original (61%). But credibility and conviction were poor (resp 33%, 26%), probably because it was coincident with La Hague being on the carpet. On the other hand
Fujieda, Kaori; Okubo, Kosaku
The ongoing development of world wide web technologies has facilitated a change in health communication, which has now become bi-directional and encompasses people with diverse backgrounds. To enable an even greater role for medical illustrations, a data set, BodyParts3D, has been generated and its data set can be used by anyone to create and exchange customised three-dimensional (3D) anatomical images. BP3D comprises more than 3000 3D object files created by segmenting a digital mannequin in accordance with anatomical naming conventions. This paper describes the methodologies and features used to generate an anatomically correct male mannequin.
Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David
Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.
O'Leary, James; Edelson, Vaughn; Gardner, Nicora; Gepp, Alejandra; Kyler, Panelpha; Moore, Penelope; Petruccio, Claudia; Williams, Marc; Terry, Sharon; Bowen, Deborah
There has been little study of whether family health history (FHH) tools used by individuals, families, and communities inspire measurable changes in communication and behavior. The Community-Centered Family Health History (CCFHH) project was a collaborative endeavor among national and community-based organizations with an interest in genetics education and health. Using community- based participatory research principles as a foundation, CCFHH examined whether the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit, a set of two customizable booklets on health and genetics, encourages discussion and collection of FHH information across diverse communities. Five communities across the country measured the utility of customized versions of the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit. Each community partner recruited families, consisting of two or more blood relatives, to use the toolkit for 3 months, discuss it among their family members, and consider the implications of the health information. Pre- and postintervention surveys measured family communication about family history and disease risk and the use of FHH information in health care provider interactions. After aggregate, cross-community analysis of individual responses, from pre- to post-toolkit use family members showed increases in communication about family history of disease risk (p < .05) and in awareness about FHH (p < .05). These findings indicate that diverse communities are receptive to FHH intervention, and tailored health educational materials can lead to increased conversations and awareness about health issues across communities.
Depoux, Anneliese; Hémono, Mathieu; Puig-Malet, Sophie; Pédron, Romain; Flahault, Antoine
The translation of science from research to real-world change is a central goal of public health. Communication has an essential role to play in provoking a response to climate change. It must first raise awareness, make people feel involved and ultimately motivate them to take action. The goal of this research is to understand how the information related to this issue is being addressed and disseminated to different audiences-public citizens, politicians and key climate change stakeholders. Initial results show that the scientific voice struggles to globally highlight this issue to a general audience and that messages that address the topic do not meet the challenges, going from a dramatic framing to a basic adaptation framing. Communication experts can help inform scientists and policy makers on how to best share information about climate change in an engaging and motivating way. This study gives an insight about the key role of the media and communications in addressing themes relating to climate change and transmitting information to the public in order to take action.
White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha
Hand hygiene is a key element in preventing the transmission of cold and flu viruses. The authors conducted an experimental-control design study in 4 campus residence halls to determine whether a message campaign about hand hygiene and the availability of gel hand sanitizer could decrease cold and flu illness and school and work absenteeism. Their…
Christine N. Soon
May 9, 2014 ... MA, is a Social Scientist at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the. Witwatersrand .... study staff and through word-of-mouth, as they were readily ..... social media sources and innovative HIV prevention campaigns in.
Tse, Samson; Tang, Jessica; Kan, Alice
Patient or service user involvement in mental health services (MHS) is a hallmark of the recovery approach. In this viewpoint article, we review Tambuyzer et al. paper 'Patient involvement in mental health care: One size does not fit all' in order to express our opinion of their work. We also suggest specific actions that may enhance the implementation of patient involvement in MHS. We make three main points about Tambuyzer et al. model. First, the cultural dimension of patient involvement seems underemphasized in the model. Second, the model might be improved if the increasing role of communications technology in patient involvement is taken into consideration. Third, it is important to acknowledge that the process of patient involvement is not linear, and participation is not a homogeneous experience. We suggest that the model be expanded and that further work be carried out on the implementation of patient involvement in MHS. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kazbare, L.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Eskildsen, J.K.
Nutrition-oriented public health campaigns – both communication and intervention initiatives – often target particular demographic groups, for example schoolchildren, adults at workplaces, older women, presuming that the members of these groups are homogenous with respect to healthy eating. Although
Norgaard, Birgitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kofoed, Poul-Erik
Introduction: Despite the knowledge of good communication as a precondition for optimal care and treatment in health care, serious communication problems are still experienced by patients as well as by health care professionals. An orthopedic surgery department initiated a 3-day communication skills training course for all staff members expecting…
Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.
As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.
The tragic suicide of Robert C. Goltz prompted associates at the integrated marketing and communications company he founded in Green Bay, Wis., to develop two multimedia campaigns, one focusing on depression awareness and the other on suicide prevention.
Hughes, Anne K; Lewinson, Terri D W
Many women experience changes in sexual health as they age, and discussing these changes with health care providers is an essential component of optimal health management. The purpose of this study was to understand aging women's perspectives about communicating with providers about sexual health. We used the integrative model of behavioral prediction as a theoretical lens to explore women's attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived self-efficacy that promote or inhibit the likelihood of communicating about sexual health. In this theory-based qualitative study, we interviewed 28 community-dwelling older women in the Midwestern United States. Through thematic analysis, we identified both positive and negative attitudes about communicating with providers. Women seemed most inclined to discuss sexual health if they perceived that important patient-provider conditions, such as trust and rapport, were in place. Despite situational obstacles and perceived norms, these women held strong beliefs about their abilities to discuss sexual health topics with providers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Uehara, Ritei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Akiyama, Yuka; Ichikawa, Kaori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsuura, Kencho; Yamazaki, Yoshihisa; Yamagata, Zentaro
Objectives The use of maternal and child health-related information is an issue faced by the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign, a national campaign to improve the health standards of mothers and children in Japan. This study described the current situation and issues faced by municipalities across Japan that use this information.Methods Data across municipalities selected for the current survey of promoting the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign in 2013 were analyzed in this study. First, we chose prefectures where collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information was provided by the municipalities. Then, we divided the municipalities according to those prefectures where the municipalities regularly reported the maternal and child health-related information and those that did not report it regularly. Finally, the characteristics about maternal and child health in those municipalities were investigated.Results Of the 47 prefectures analyzed, 35 prefectures (74.5%) collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information provided by the municipalities. The 35 prefectures included 1,242 municipalities, of which 700 (56.4%) regularly reported maternal and child health-related information, and 542 (43.6%) did not report it regularly. The proportion of municipalities, where information about smoking during pregnancy, immunization, or low birth weight in infants was positively used, was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it (P<0.001). The proportion of municipalities that coordinated projects on prevention of child abuse or low birth weight in infants with the prefectures was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it.Conclusion Among municipalities that did not regularly report
Garnett, Bernice Raveche; Buelow, Robert; Franko, Debra L; Becker, Carolyn; Rodgers, Rachel F; Austin, S Bryn
Fat Talk Free Week (FTFW), a social marketing campaign designed to decrease self-disparaging talk about body and weight, has not yet been evaluated. We conducted a theory-informed pilot evaluation of FTFW with two college samples using a pre- and posttest design. Aligned with the central tenets of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), we investigated the importance of FTFW saliency as a predictor of fat talk behavior change. Our analytic sample consisted of 118 female participants (83% of original sample). Approximately 76% of the sample was non-Hispanic White, 14% Asian, and 8% Hispanic. At baseline, more than 50% of respondents reported engaging in frequent self fat talk; at posttest, this number dropped to 34% of respondents. Multivariable regression models supported campaign saliency as the single strongest predictor of a decrease in self fat talk. Our results support the social diffusion of campaign messages among shared communities, as we found significant decreases in fat talk among campaign attenders and nonattenders. FTFW may be a promising short-term health communication campaign to reduce fat talk, as campaign messages are salient among university women and may encourage interpersonal communication.
Intervene before leaving: clustered lot quality assurance sampling to monitor vaccination coverage at health district level before the end of a yellow fever and measles vaccination campaign in Sierra Leone in 2009
Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2009, Sierra Leone conducted a preventive yellow fever (YF vaccination campaign targeting individuals aged nine months and older in six health districts. The campaign was integrated with a measles follow-up campaign throughout the country targeting children aged 9–59 months. For both campaigns, the operational objective was to reach 95% of the target population. During the campaign, we used clustered lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS to identify areas of low coverage to recommend timely mop-up actions. Methods We divided the country in 20 non-overlapping lots. Twelve lots were targeted by both vaccinations, while eight only by measles. In each lot, five clusters of ten eligible individuals were selected for each vaccine. The upper threshold (UT was set at 90% and the lower threshold (LT at 75%. A lot was rejected for low vaccination coverage if more than 7 unvaccinated individuals (not presenting vaccination card were found. After the campaign, we plotted the C-LQAS results against the post-campaign coverage estimations to assess if early interventions were successful enough to increase coverage in the lots that were at the level of rejection before the end of the campaign. Results During the last two days of campaign, based on card-confirmed vaccination status, five lots out of 20 (25.0% failed for having low measles vaccination coverage and three lots out of 12 (25.0% for low YF coverage. In one district, estimated post-campaign vaccination coverage for both vaccines was still not significantly above the minimum acceptable level (LT = 75% even after vaccination mop-up activities. Conclusion C-LQAS during the vaccination campaign was informative to identify areas requiring mop-up activities to reach the coverage target prior to leaving the region. The only district where mop-up activities seemed to be unsuccessful might have had logistical difficulties that should be further investigated and resolved.
Intervene before leaving: clustered lot quality assurance sampling to monitor vaccination coverage at health district level before the end of a yellow fever and measles vaccination campaign in Sierra Leone in 2009.
Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Conteh, Ishata; Kamara, Wogba; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Ronveaux, Olivier; Perea, William A; Lewis, Rosamund F
In November 2009, Sierra Leone conducted a preventive yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign targeting individuals aged nine months and older in six health districts. The campaign was integrated with a measles follow-up campaign throughout the country targeting children aged 9-59 months. For both campaigns, the operational objective was to reach 95% of the target population. During the campaign, we used clustered lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS) to identify areas of low coverage to recommend timely mop-up actions. We divided the country in 20 non-overlapping lots. Twelve lots were targeted by both vaccinations, while eight only by measles. In each lot, five clusters of ten eligible individuals were selected for each vaccine. The upper threshold (UT) was set at 90% and the lower threshold (LT) at 75%. A lot was rejected for low vaccination coverage if more than 7 unvaccinated individuals (not presenting vaccination card) were found. After the campaign, we plotted the C-LQAS results against the post-campaign coverage estimations to assess if early interventions were successful enough to increase coverage in the lots that were at the level of rejection before the end of the campaign. During the last two days of campaign, based on card-confirmed vaccination status, five lots out of 20 (25.0%) failed for having low measles vaccination coverage and three lots out of 12 (25.0%) for low YF coverage. In one district, estimated post-campaign vaccination coverage for both vaccines was still not significantly above the minimum acceptable level (LT = 75%) even after vaccination mop-up activities. C-LQAS during the vaccination campaign was informative to identify areas requiring mop-up activities to reach the coverage target prior to leaving the region. The only district where mop-up activities seemed to be unsuccessful might have had logistical difficulties that should be further investigated and resolved.
Kruikemeier, S.; van Noort, G.; Vliegenthart, R.
This study investigates the content characteristics of political communication on Twitter during an election campaign and the relationship between candidates’ style of online campaigning (i.e., politically personalized and interactive communication) and electoral support for those candidates.
Nørgaard, Birgitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten
Despite the knowledge of good communication as a precondition for optimal care and treatment in health care, serious communication problems are still experienced by patients as well as by health care professionals. An orthopedic surgery department initiated a 3-day communication skills training...... course for all staff members expecting an increase in patient-centeredness in communication and more respectful intercollegial communication. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of this training course on participants' self-efficacy with a focus on communication with both colleagues...
Ko, G T C; Chan, J C N; Chan, A W Y; Wong, P T S; Hui, S S C; Tong, S D Y; Ng, S-M; Chow, F; Chan, C L W
To study the inter-relationships between sleeping hours, working hours and obesity in subjects from a working population. A cross-sectional observation study under the 'Better Health for Better Hong Kong' Campaign, which is a territory-wide health awareness and promotion program. 4793 subjects (2353 (49.1%) men and 2440 (50.9%) women). Their mean age (+/-s.d.) was 42.4+/-8.9 years (range 17-83 years, median 43.0 years). Subjects were randomly selected using computer-generated codes in accordance to the distribution of occupational groups in Hong Kong. The mean daily sleeping time was 7.06+/-1.03 h (women vs men: 7.14+/-1.08 h vs 6.98+/-0.96 h, Pworking hours reaching significance in the whole group as well as among male subjects. Those with short sleeping hour (6 h or less) and long working hours (>9 h) had the highest BMI and waist in both men and women. Based on multiple regression analysis with age, smoking, alcohol drinking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean daily sleeping hours and working hours as independent variables, BMI was independently associated with age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women, whereas waist was associated with age, smoking and blood pressure. In men, blood pressure, sleeping hours and working hours were independently associated with BMI, whereas waist was independently associated with age, smoking, blood pressure, sleeping hours and working hours in men. Obesity is associated with reduced sleeping hours and long working hours in men among Hong Kong Chinese working population. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship and its potential implication on prevention and management of obesity.
Kite, James; Grunseit, Anne; Bohn-Goldbaum, Erika; Bellew, Bill; Carroll, Tom; Bauman, Adrian
Mass media campaigns are a commonly used strategy in public health. However, no review has assessed whether the design and evaluation of overweight and obesity campaigns meets best practice recommendations. This study aimed to fill this gap. We systematically searched five databases for peer-reviewed articles describing adult-targeted obesity mass media campaigns published between 2000 and 2017, complemented by reference list searches and contact with authors and agencies responsible for the campaigns. We extracted data on campaign design, implementation, and evaluation from eligible publications and conducted a qualitative review of 29 publications reporting on 14 campaigns. We found a need for formative research with target audiences to ensure campaigns focus on the most salient issues. Further, we noted that most campaigns targeted individual behaviors, despite calls for campaigns to also focus upstream and to address social determinants of obesity. Television was the dominant communication channel but, with the rapid advance of digital media, evaluation of other channels, such as social media, is increasingly important. Finally, although evaluation methods varied in quality, the evidence suggests that campaigns can have an impact on intermediate outcomes, such as knowledge and attitudes. However, evidence is still limited as to whether campaigns can influence behavior change.
Araujo, Inesita Soares de; Cabrera, Jesús Arroyave
Editorial Reciis Vol 6, No. 4 -. Communication and Health - themes, issues and Latin American perspectives Editorial Vol Reciis 6, No. 4 -. De Comunicación y Salud - temas, problemas y perspectivas de América Latina A Comunicação e Saúde vem conhecendo nas duas últimas décadas uma grande expansão. Formada na interface de dois campos solidamente constituídos – o da Comunicação e o da Saúde – e frequentemente articulada com os da Ciência &Tecnologia e da Educação, a Comunicação e Saúd...
Biasio, Luigi Roberto; Carducci, Annalaura; Fara, Gaetano Maria; Giammanco, Giuseppe; Lopalco, Pier Luigi
The importance of healthcare providers' communication abilities is still underestimated. Informing the population on the basis of documented evidence is essential but not enough to induce a change in the beliefs of who is doubtful or does not accept preventive interventions, such as vaccination. Lining up the offer of prevention to the knowledge of the citizens, also improving Health Literacy skills, is a critical step toward their empowerment and behavior change. The 2017 Erice Declaration was drafted to propose to the Institutions and the scientific community the main goals to improve communication and counteract Vaccine Hesitancy, at a very critical time, when mandatory vaccination was introduced in Italy.
Babalola, Stella; Figueroa, Maria-Elena; Krenn, Susan
Literature abounds with evidence on the effectiveness of individual mass media interventions on contraceptive use and other health behaviors. There have been, however, very few studies summarizing effect sizes of mass media health communication campaigns in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we used meta-analytic techniques to pool data from 47 demographic and health surveys conducted between 2005 and 2015 in 31 sub-Saharan African countries and estimate the prevalence of exposure to family planning-related mass media communication. We also estimated the average effect size of exposure to mass media communication after adjusting for endogeneity. We performed meta-regression to assess the moderating role of selected variables on effect size. On average, 44% of women in sub-Saharan Africa were exposed to family planning-related mass media interventions in the year preceding the survey. Overall, exposure was associated with an effect size equivalent to an odds ratio of 1.93. More recent surveys demonstrated smaller effect sizes than earlier ones, while the effects were larger in lower contraceptive prevalence settings than in higher prevalence ones. The findings have implications for designing communication programs, setting expectations about communication impact, and guiding decisions about sample size estimation for mass media evaluation studies.
Hills, Rebecca A; Turner, Anne M
State and local health departments are witnessing growth in the area of informatics. As new informatics projects commence, existing methods of communication within the health department may not be sufficient. We gathered information about roles and communication between a development team and a user group working simultaneously on an informatics project in a state public health department in an effort to better define how communication and role definition is best used within an informatics project.
Brown, Gordon D; Bopp, Kenneth D; Boren, Suzanne Austin
Much evaluation of health communications in public health is considered from a program perspective of smoking cessation, weight reduction, education on sexually transmitted diseases, etc. These studies have advanced the knowledge base of communications theory and evaluation and have contributed to program effectiveness. In program-based evaluation the communications process is structured as part of the program itself. This article extends program-based communications evaluation to view communications from the perspective of the consumer and how effectively public health departments respond to consumer expectations. It develops a conceptual model for evaluating elements of communications such as its importance in defining mission and goals within the community, managing strategic constituencies, and enlisting individuals and groups as customers and co-producers of health. It gives a broader perspective on how communications in public heath organizations are managed and a basis for assessing whether they are being managed effectively.
Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)
This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.
Robinson, T N; Patrick, K; Eng, T R; Gustafson, D
To examine the current status of interactive health communication (IHC) and propose evidence-based approaches to improve the quality of such applications. The Science Panel on Interactive Communication and Health, a 14-member, nonfederal panel with expertise in clinical medicine and nursing, public health, media and instructional design, health systems engineering, decision sciences, computer and communication technologies, and health communication, convened by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, US Department of Health and Human Services. Published studies, online resources, expert panel opinions, and opinions from outside experts in fields related to IHC. The panel met 9 times during more than 2 years. Government agencies and private-sector experts provided review and feedback on the panel's work. Interactive health communication applications have great potential to improve health, but they may also cause harm. To date, few applications have been adequately evaluated. Physicians and other health professionals should promote and participate in an evidence-based approach to the development and diffusion of IHC applications and endorse efforts to rigorously evaluate the safety, quality, and utility of these resources. A standardized reporting template is proposed to help developers and evaluators of IHC applications conduct evaluations and disclose their results and to help clinicians, purchasers, and consumers judge the quality of IHC applications.
Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs represent among the most common and debilitating conditions seen in primary care. Patients’ care will often involves multiple providers and follow-up requires persistence by patients and clinicians alike, therefore ideal outcomes are often difficult to achieve. The need for better disease management policies and practice is growing. This is due to the changing demographic profile of the population, the increasing cost of managing people in acute care hospitals and the availability of new technologies and services. All these changes enable a different care paradigm which is more cost effective and provides people with chronic conditions an improved quality of life. Management of the NCDs therefore offers an excellent opportunity to practice chronic disease management - a systems approach designed to ensure excellent care. The NCD team has developed a comprehensive approach to chronic disease care. We would like to describe the NCD Program in Ampangan Health Clinic which represents many typical government health clinics in Malaysia and the processes by which it was developed. Included are specific examples of the tools and how they can be used by individual clinicians incaring for patients. The integration of Chronic Disease Management Services into health care systems is the direction being undertaken to tackle the burden of chronic disease. Disease management supports the shift in healthcare from an emphasis on managing the acute episode to managing the entire disease course, highlighting both prevention and maintenance of wellbeing for patients with chronic diseases. Disease management promotes better integration and coordination of care across all aspects of the health sector.
Adamos, Giannis; Nathanail, Eftihia
A large number of road safety communication campaigns have been designed and implemented in the recent years; however their explicit impact on driving behavior and road accident rates has been estimated in a rather low proportion. Based on the findings of the evaluation of three road safety communication campaigns addressing the issues of drinking and driving, seat belt usage, and driving fatigue, this paper applies different types of research designs (i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs), when estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, implements a cross-design assessment, and conducts a cross-campaign evaluation. An integrated evaluation plan was developed, taking into account the structure of evaluation questions, the definition of measurable variables, the separation of the target audience into intervention (exposed to the campaign) and control (not exposed to the campaign) groups, the selection of alternative research designs, and the appropriate data collection methods and techniques. Evaluating the implementation of different research designs in estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, results showed that the separate pre-post samples design demonstrated better predictability than other designs, especially in data obtained from the intervention group after the realization of the campaign. The more constructs that were added to the independent variables, the higher the values of the predictability were. The construct that most affects behavior is intention, whereas the rest of the constructs have a lower impact on behavior. This is particularly significant in the Health Belief Model (HBM). On the other hand, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and descriptive norms, are significant parameters for predicting intention according to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The theoretical and applied implications of alternative research designs and their applicability in the evaluation of road safety
Heredia, Natalia I; Lee, MinJae; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Reininger, Belinda M
To evaluate a community-wide campaign, Tu Salud ¡Si Cuenta! (TSSC), in improving eating behaviors and anthropometric outcomes in Hispanic border communities. A quasi-experimental study with matched intervention and comparison communities. Cross-sectional assessments with randomly sampled adults, examined by actual exposure and site (unexposed intervention, exposed intervention, and unexposed comparison). Predominately Mexican Americans located in Brownsville, TX (intervention) and Laredo, TX (control). The TSSC campaign included television and radio segments, community health worker discussions, and newsletters delivered in Brownsville from 2005 to 2010. Healthy and unhealthy eating indices and average hip and waist circumferences. Univariable and multivariable regression models. The sample (n = 799; 400 comparison and 399 intervention) was 98% of Mexican origin; 54% had completed grade 9 or higher. Exposure to any TSSC component was associated with a lower rate of unhealthy food consumption. Compared with the unexposed intervention group, the exposed intervention for the newsletter had a higher rate of healthy eating (adjusted rate ratio = 1.18; P < .01). Compared with the unexposed intervention, the exposed intervention for the community health worker discussion had a smaller hip circumference (adjusted mean difference = -5.77 cm; P < .05) and a smaller waist circumference (adjusted mean difference = -5.25 cm; P < .05). This study provides evidence for the use of community-wide campaigns for nutrition and obesity-related outcomes in Hispanic communities. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chaussade, Jean-Pierre; Ansel, Philippe
'Today, some 75 % of France's electricity is generated by nuclear plants'. This was the theme of the advertising campaign launched for the second time in May 1992 by Electricite de France in national daily newspapers and magazines, in regional publications, on cinema and on TV. Compared to 1991 the second campaign was a new step in communication: first, was the wish to inform better the public. A Minitel program '3614 EDF' was created and connected by general public including a lot of information about nuclear energy and the way to visit a nuclear plant; secondly, was the use of TV media to target a larger population. The TV spot, 'the nuclear drill', uses humor to get more impact on the public. The campaign received an encouraging reception from the press, which admired its boldness and originality. As far as the general public is concerned, the campaign achieved its goals, as illustrated by the results of post-campaign surveys carried out to measure its effect. The segment of population targeted by campaign was mainly the so called 'pragmatics'. 'Pragmatics', who account for 25 % of the French population, are young, have a good education and are well informed. This category was selected as it shows a subtle attitude towards nuclear power, with more doubts than certainties. Moreover, this segment of the population has proven to be open to information issued by EDF and also plays a key role in influencing social trends. 63% of the segment targeted by the campaign (pragmatics) and 56% of the whole french population saw the ads
Sharf, Barbara F.; Poirier, Suzanne
Emphasizes the usefulness of integrating communicative and literary analyses to study the symbolic and pragmatic aspects of human relationships. Describes a health care course that teaches practitioner-patient communication through the application of communication theory to literary "case studies." Uses a scene from "The Elephant…
Moorhead, S Anne; Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska
There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a medium to be used by the public, patients, and health
Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K
This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Paige, Samantha R; Krieger, Janice L; Stellefson, Michael L
Disparities in online health information accessibility are partially due to varying levels of eHealth literacy and perceived trust. This study examined the relationship between eHealth literacy and perceived trust in online health communication channels and sources among diverse sociodemographic groups. A stratified sample of Black/African Americans (n = 402) and Caucasians (n = 409) completed a Web-based survey that measured eHealth literacy and perceived trustworthiness of online health communication channels and information sources. eHealth literacy positively predicted perceived trust in online health communication channels and sources, but disparities existed by sociodemographic factors. Segmenting audiences according to eHealth literacy level provides a detailed understanding of how perceived trust in discrete online health communication channels and information sources varies among diverse audiences. Black/African Americans with low eHealth literacy had high perceived trust in YouTube and Twitter, whereas Black/African Americans with high eHealth literacy had high perceived trust in online government and religious organizations. Older adults with low eHealth literacy had high perceived trust in Facebook but low perceived trust in online support groups. Researchers and practitioners should consider the sociodemographics and eHealth literacy level of an intended audience when tailoring information through trustworthy online health communication channels and information sources.
Palanisamy, B; Gopichandran, V; Kosalram, K
Parents' decision about vaccination of children is influenced by social relationships and sources of information. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of social capital and trust in health information on the status of Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccination campaign in Tamil Nadu. This was a case-control study carried out in Kancheepuram district in Tamil Nadu where the MR vaccination campaign offered by Government of Tamil Nadu had poor acceptance. Cases were parents of children who had refused the MR vaccine and controls were parents having children in the same age group who had accepted the vaccine. Data on social capital and trust in health information were collected by using social capital scale developed by the researchers and trust in the source of information was measured by using simple questions on the level of trust in the information source. Nonadministration of MR vaccine was high among young parents and parents of younger children. Vaccine acceptance was higher when it was offered at school (P social media and WhatsApp information. Greater levels of health-related physical social capital led to greater vaccine hesitancy. Multivariate analysis revealed that greater the age of the child, better parental attitudes toward vaccination, poorer health-related physical social capital, and greater trust in health information provided by school teachers led to overall greater acceptance of the MR vaccine. Strong homogeneous bonding social capital had a negative influence on MR vaccine acceptance. Schools and school teachers played a vital role in influencing parental decision to vaccinate.
Di Ciaula, Agostino
The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Carey, Rachel N; Sarma, Kiran M
Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These 'threat appeals' feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. To address limitations of previous research, we first identified a road safety advertisement that objectively and subjectively elicited fear using physiological and subjective measures. Study 1 (n = 62) examined the effect of this advertisement, combined with a manipulation designed to increase perceived efficacy, on speed choice. Study 2 (n = 81) investigated whether a state emotion, anger, impacts on the effectiveness of the advertisement in changing four distinct driving behaviours. Both studies examined short-term effects only. Study 1 findings indicated that a high threat message, when combined with high perceived efficacy, can lead to a decrease in speed choice. Study 2 results suggested that increased levels of state anger may counteract the potential value of combining fear-arousing threats and efficacy-building messages. Findings suggest that threat-based road safety communications that target affective (fear) and cognitive (perceived efficacy) mechanisms can positively affect driving behaviours. State emotions, such as anger, may negatively impact on the effectiveness of the message. Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the use of efficacy-building messages in threat-based communications, but highlight the need for further research into the complex array of affective influences on driving.
Rachel N. Carey
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These ‘threat appeals’ feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. Methods To address limitations of previous research, we first identified a road safety advertisement that objectively and subjectively elicited fear using physiological and subjective measures. Study 1 (n = 62 examined the effect of this advertisement, combined with a manipulation designed to increase perceived efficacy, on speed choice. Study 2 (n = 81 investigated whether a state emotion, anger, impacts on the effectiveness of the advertisement in changing four distinct driving behaviours. Both studies examined short-term effects only. Results Study 1 findings indicated that a high threat message, when combined with high perceived efficacy, can lead to a decrease in speed choice. Study 2 results suggested that increased levels of state anger may counteract the potential value of combining fear-arousing threats and efficacy-building messages. Conclusions Findings suggest that threat-based road safety communications that target affective (fear and cognitive (perceived efficacy mechanisms can positively affect driving behaviours. State emotions, such as anger, may negatively impact on the effectiveness of the message. Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the use of efficacy-building messages in threat-based communications, but highlight the need for further research into the complex array of affective influences on driving.
Mikhailovich, Katja; Morrison, Paul
Childhood obesity has reached alarming levels and the problem has assumed great significance for health care staff who work with overweight children and their families. Anecdotal accounts of the difficulties that may emerge when health care providers communicate that a child's weight is outside of the normal range, were a key stimulus for this review. A local government health department commissioned a review of literature on communicating with parents about childhood overweight and obesity. Literature concerned with communicating a child's overweight to parents was limited and, as a result, this review draws upon a disparate body of literature to examine what is known and what might be helpful for health care providers when discussing a child's weight with the child and parents. This paper identifies a range of factors influencing communication between health care workers and parents and offers a number of practical approaches and strategies for facilitating successful communication between health practitioners and the parents of children.
Bálint, Katalin; Bilandzic, Helena
Understanding of the mechanics underlying the effects of health narratives. Addressing this gap, this Special Section provides a synthesis of knowledge and direction in the field of narrative health communication, bringing together 10 original research articles. The reported studies investigate
Allen, Jane Appleyard; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C
This review synthesizes the published literature on using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use, with particular focus on effects within population subgroups and the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO conducted in March of 2014 yielded 397 studies with 34 suitable for inclusion. Included were quantitative studies that evaluate an antitobacco media campaign intended to influence youth cognitions or behavior or explore the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics among youth. An automated search and assessment of suitability for inclusion was done. Study outcomes were compared and synthesized. Antitobacco media campaigns can be effective across racial/ethnic populations, although the size of the campaign effect may differ by race/ethnicity. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether campaign outcomes differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. Youth are more likely to recall and think about advertising that includes personal testimonials; a surprising narrative; and intense images, sound, and editing. Evidence in support of using a health consequences message theme is mixed; an industry manipulation theme may be effective in combination with a health consequences message. Research is insufficient to determine whether advertising with a secondhand smoke or social norms theme influences youth tobacco use. Our recommendation is to develop antitobacco campaigns designed to reach all at-risk youth, which can be effective across racial/ethnic populations. Research priorities include assessing campaign influence among lower SES and rural youth, disentangling the effects of message characteristics, and assessing the degree to which this body of evidence may have changed as a result of changes in youth culture and communication technology.
Full Text Available In the megacity of Karachi, which has a population of more than 24 million, more than 9.2 million people (approximately 40 per cent live in squatter settlements. Communities here are characterised by low socioeconomic settings, crowded living conditions, inadequate water and sanitation facilities, and poor health-related behaviours. Such conditions create an environment favourable to the spread of communicable diseases like tuberculosis (TB, hepatitis and dengue. Since 1985, the Department of Community Health Sciences at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan has run the Urban Health Program (UHP, a community-campus partnership operating in these disadvantaged squatter settlements. Recent explosive increases in the spread of dengue, hepatitis and TB, however, necessitated special attention and activities on a scale and pace that was greater than could be accommodated as part of UHP’s core work. Thus, having an already well-established collaborative model with social accountability measures in place, a dedicated mass awareness program was initiated over the course of one year, from mid 2015: the AGAHI project. This article describes AGAHI’s innovative, low-cost, collaborative activities conducted in partnership with two squatter communities, Sultanabad and Rehri Goth, to build health awareness, improved care-seeking and compliance to treatment. Activities ranged from school sessions, role plays and awareness walks to laneway meetings, training of health care workers, door-to-door campaigns and collaboration with local religious leaders, public sector groups and NGOs. Building on the collaborative work of the UHP, in just 12 months AGAHI was able to conduct 80 health awareness sessions with 4000 participants. Moreover, high-risk and vulnerable populations were identified and referred for further treatment. A comparative cross-sectional survey afterwards revealed a significant increase in knowledge among Sultanabad residents as compared to
Marsha N. Wittink
Conclusions: With better communication about everyday challenges, patients and PCPs can have more informed discussions about health care options that positively influence patient outcomes. We expect that Customized Care will improve patient-PCP communication about day-to-day challenges, which can lead to better health outcomes.
Smith, David H.
Examines the institution of health from the communication perspective. Discusses the new emphasis on preventing illness through individuals'"proper" behavior. Advocates a communication-based approach to values in health care: a person-centered value base including both reason and emotion, contrary to the principle-based, rational mode of…
Marlin, Benjamin M; Adams, Roy J; Sadasivam, Rajani; Houston, Thomas K
The goal of computer tailored health communications (CTHC) is to promote healthy behaviors by sending messages tailored to individual patients. Current CTHC systems collect baseline patient "profiles" and then use expert-written, rule-based systems to target messages to subsets of patients. Our main interest in this work is the study of collaborative filtering-based CTHC systems that can learn to tailor future message selections to individual patients based explicit feedback about past message selections. This paper reports the results of a study designed to collect explicit feedback (ratings) regarding four aspects of messages from 100 subjects in the smoking cessation support domain. Our results show that most users have positive opinions of most messages and that the ratings for all four aspects of the messages are highly correlated with each other. Finally, we conduct a range of rating prediction experiments comparing several different model variations. Our results show that predicting future ratings based on each user's past ratings contributes the most to predictive accuracy.
Tan, Yee-Yong; Chung, Wan-Young
Promising development in the light emitting diode (LED) technology has spurred the interest to adapt LED for both illumination and data transmission. This has fostered the growth of interest in visible light communication (VLC), with on-going research to utilize VLC in various applications. This paper presents a mobile-health monitoring system, where healthcare information such as biomedical signals and patient information are transmitted via the LED lighting. A small and portable receiver module is designed and developed to be attached to the mobile device, providing a seamless monitoring environment. Three different healthcare information including ECG, PPG signals and HL7 text information is transmitted simultaneously, using a single channel VLC. This allows for a more precise and accurate monitoring and diagnosis. The data packet size is carefully designed, to transmit information in a minimal packet error rate. A comprehensive monitoring application is designed and developed through the use of a tablet computer in our study. Monitoring and evaluation such as heart rate and arterial blood pressure measurement can be performed concurrently. Real-time monitoring is demonstrated through experiment, where non-hazardous transmission method can be implemented alongside a portable device for better and safer healthcare service.
Suggs, L Suzanne; McIntyre, Chris
Increasingly, the Internet is playing an important role in consumer health and patient-provider communication. Seventy-three percent of American adults are now online, and 79% have searched for health information on the Internet. This study provides a baseline understanding of the extent to which health consumers are able to find tailored communication online. It describes the current behavioral focus, the channels being used to deliver the tailored content, and the level of tailoring in online-tailored communication. A content analysis of 497 health Web sites found few examples of personalized, targeted, or tailored health sites freely available online. Tailored content was provided in 13 Web sites, although 15 collected individual data. More health risk assessment (HRA) sites included tailored feedback than other topics. The patterns that emerged from the analysis demonstrate that online health users can access a number of Web sites with communication tailored to their needs.
Sampogna, G; Bakolis, I; Evans-Lacko, S; Robinson, E; Thornicroft, G; Henderson, C
In England, during 2009-2014 the 'Time to Change' anti-stigma programme has included a social marketing campaign (SMC) using mass media channels, social media and social contact events but the efficacy of such approach has not been evaluated yet. The target population included people aged between mid-twenties/mid-forties, from middle-income groups. Participants were recruited through an online market research panel, before and after each burst of the campaign (with a mean number of unique participants per each burst: 956.9±170.2). Participants completed an online questionnaire evaluating knowledge [Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS)]; attitudes [Community Attitudes toward Mental Illness (CAMI)]; and behaviours [Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS)]. Socio-demographic data and level of awareness of the SMC were also collected. A total of 10,526 people were interviewed. An increasing usage of the SMC-media channels as well as of the level of awareness of SMC was found (Psocial media may represent an effective strategy to challenge stigma. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Communication variables that are associated with face-negotiation theory were examined in a sample of operating-room physicians. A survey was administered to anesthesiologists and surgeons at a teaching hospital in the southwestern United States to measure three variables commonly associated with face-negotiation theory: conflict-management style, face concern, and self-construal. The survey instrument that was administered to physicians includes items that measured these three variables in previous face-negotiation research with slight modification of item wording for relevance in the medical setting. The physician data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson's correlations, and t-tests. Results of this initial investigation showed that variables associated with face-negotiation theory were evident in the sample physician population. In addition, the correlations were similar among variables in the medical sample as those found in previous face-negotiation research. Finally, t-tests suggest variance between anesthesiologists and surgeons on specific communication variables. These findings suggest three implications that warrant further investigation with expanded sample size: (1) An intercultural communication theory and instrument can be utilized for health communication research; (2) as applied in a medical context, face-negotiation theory can be expanded beyond traditional intercultural communication boundaries; and (3) theoretically based communication structures applied in a medical context could help explain physician miscommunication in the operating room to assist future design of communication training programs for operating-room physicians.
Trotter, Alanna R; Matt, Susan B; Wojnara, Danuta
Poor communication between health care providers and patients may negatively impact patient outcomes, and enhancing communication is one way to improve outcomes. Effective communication is particularly important for health care providers who have hearing loss. The authors found that a systematic survey of the communication strategies and experiences of health care providers with hearing loss had not yet been conducted. In this pilot study, 32 health care professionals with hearing loss were recruited via the Association of Medical Professionals With Hearing Losses and were asked to complete a 28-question survey. Health care providers with hearing loss already employ strategies that all health care providers are encouraged to use in order to enhance patient–provider communication, and survey participants have found the strategies to be effective. The communication techniques and assistive technologies used by individuals with hearing loss seem to be effective: All participants reported feeling able to communicate effectively with patients at least most of the time. More research is needed to determine if use of these communication techniques has similar results for health care providers without hearing loss.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. Methods 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Results Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05 in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Conclusions Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1 Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2 Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3 Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.
Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Little, Kirsty; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham
In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05) in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1) Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2) Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3) Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.
Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn
Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…
DeBono, Roberto; Vincenti, Karen; Calleja, Neville
Scientific evidence shows that climate change is very likely the product of human behaviour and lifestyle. The effects of climate change on human health are diverse in nature and range from direct effects due to extreme weather events such as heat waves, floods and storms, to indirect effects such as those caused by water and food shortages. A telephone survey was conducted between January and February 2009, on a stratified representative random sample of the Maltese population over the age of 18 years (N = 310,819). Five hundred and forty-three individuals successfully participated in the survey giving a response rate of 92.7%. The respondent sample was very similar to the target population by gender (P = 0.977), age (P = 0.767) and district (P = 0.812). The results of the study demonstrate a very strong relationship between the perception of climate change as a threat to health and well-being, support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to implement measures to address climate change. The findings of this study show that the perception that climate change may claim lives, cause disease, reduce the standard of living and worsen water shortages, may be the strongest driver behind support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to act. It is recommended that, in order to gain more public support, climate change campaigns and risk communication strategies should frame climate change as a threat to human health and general well-being.
Riesch, Susan K; Anderson, Lori S; Krueger, Heather A
Review individual, family, and environmental factors that predict health-risk behavior among children and to propose parent-child communication processes as a mechanism to mediate them. Improving parent-child communication processes may: reduce individual risk factors, such as poor academic achievement or self-esteem; modify parenting practices such as providing regulation and structure and acting as models of health behavior; and facilitate discussion about factors that lead to involvement in health-risk behaviors. Assessment strategies to identify youth at risk for health-risk behavior are recommended and community-based strategies to improve communication among parents and children need development.
The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.
Henderson, Julie K
The practice of public relations has experienced tremendous growth and evolution over the past 25 years, especially in the area of medical public relations. The constant changes in health care delivery have often led to increased need for communication with important publics. At the same time, practitioners in all fields of public relations have explored methods of accurately measuring the effectiveness of public relations programs. One such method of evaluation is the communication audit. This paper includes a brief overview of the communication audit concept followed by a case study based on an audit conducted for a small, multicultural non-profit health-care agency. Steps taken to conduct the audit and the methodology used are discussed. An analysis of the data is used to address two research questions regarding the efficacy of the Center's mission and vision. Suggestions for future audits are provided.
Crawford William CR
Full Text Available Abstract Background Personally controlled health records (PCHRs, a subset of personal health records (PHRs, enable a patient to assemble, maintain and manage a secure copy of his or her medical data. Indivo (formerly PING is an open source, open standards PCHR with an open application programming interface (API. Results We describe how the PCHR platform can provide standard building blocks for networked PHR applications. Indivo allows the ready integration of diverse sources of medical data under a patient's control through the use of standards-based communication protocols and APIs for connecting PCHRs to existing and future health information systems. Conclusion The strict and transparent personal control model is designed to encourage widespread participation by patients, healthcare providers and institutions, thus creating the ecosystem for development of innovative, consumer-focused healthcare applications.
Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily
Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.
Francisca Hanna , Febrianti
Advertising campaign merupakan serangkaian bentuk iklan melalui berbagai media dan berpusat pada satu tema dalam satu waktu. Tujuan utama advertising campaign adalah menyampaikan pesan dalam suatu tema yang diluncurkan kepada masyarakat sehingga tema tersebut menjadi ciri khas produk. Peluncuran tema campaign oleh Coca Cola dan Pepsi yang merupakan rival dalam kategori beverage merupakan obyek dari penelitian ini. Kesuksesan sebuah tema advertising campaign dilihat dengan menggunakan paramet...
Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L
Traditional communication theory and research methods provide valuable guidance about designing and evaluating health communication programs. However, efforts to use health communication programs to educate, motivate, and support people to adopt healthy behaviors often fail to meet the desired goals. One reason for this failure is that health promotion issues are complex, changeable, and highly related to the specific needs and contexts of the intended audiences. It is a daunting challenge to effectively influence health behaviors, particularly culturally learned and reinforced behaviors concerning lifestyle factors related to diet, exercise, and substance (such as alcohol and tobacco) use. Too often, program development and evaluation are not adequately linked to provide rapid feedback to health communication program developers so that important revisions can be made to design the most relevant and personally motivating health communication programs for specific audiences. Design science theory and methods commonly used in engineering, computer science, and other fields can address such program and evaluation weaknesses. Design science researchers study human-created programs using tightly connected build-and-evaluate loops in which they use intensive participatory methods to understand problems and develop solutions concurrently and throughout the duration of the program. Such thinking and strategies are especially relevant to address complex health communication issues. In this article, the authors explore the history, scientific foundation, methods, and applications of design science and its potential to enhance health communication programs and their evaluation.
Anderson, Allison C; Mackey, Tim K; Attaran, Amir; Liang, Bryan A
Illicit online pharmacies are a growing global public health concern. Stakeholders have started to engage in health promotion activities to educate the public, yet their scope and impact has not been examined. We wished to identify health promotion activities focused on consumer awareness regarding the risks of illicit online pharmacies. Organizations engaged on the issue were first identified using a set of engagement criteria. We then reviewed these organizations for health promotion programs, educational components, public service announcements, and social media engagement. Our review identified 13 organizations across a wide spectrum of stakeholders. Of these organizations, 69.2% (n = 9) had at least one type of health promotion activity targeting consumers. Although the vast majority of these organizations were active on Facebook or Twitter, many did not have dedicated content regarding online pharmacies (Facebook: 45.5%, Twitter: 58.3%). An online survey administered to 6 respondents employed by organizations identified in this study found that all organizations had dedicated programs on the issue, but only half had media planning strategies in place to measure the effectiveness of their programs. Overall, our results indicate that though some organizations are actively engaged on the issue, communication and education initiatives have had questionable effectiveness in reaching the public. We note that only a few organizations offered comprehensive and dedicated content to raise awareness on the issue and were effective in social media communications. In response, more robust collaborative efforts between stakeholders are needed to educate and protect the consumer about this public health and patient safety danger.
Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben
Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…
Neubert, T.; Laursen, S.; Rasmussen, I. L.
During the northern hemisphere summer of 2003, from July 18 to September 18, a sprite observation campaign was conducted with measurements from Southern Europe, coordinated with measurements from the magnetically conjugate region in South Africa. The goal of the campaign was to investigate...... emissions. The presentation will give an overview of the campaign, the meteorological conditions, and present some first results....
Espirito Santo, Wanda; Araujo, Inesita Soares de; Amarante, Paulo
The article analyzes two posters that with the same slogan - "Asylums nevermore" - promote National Anti-Asylum Day. The analysis was based on principles of the symptomatology of social discourse, articulating analytical concepts and practices arising from the French School and the pragmatic dimension of discourse analysis. The results revealed affirmation strategies of the movement for the qualification and exacerbation of the issues of the enunciation and other enunciators, namely political actors of the anti-asylum movement and their allies. It also reveals the attempt to disqualify competitive discourse, especially that which discloses the serious problems of its institutional models, but also by juxtaposing the positive presence of the issuers and enunciators of the posters.
Sabi, Stella C; Rieker, Mark
The diagnosis of AIDS in 1982 in South Africa was followed by a rapid rise in the number of people living with the virus and dying from AIDS-related illnesses. The 2016 report by the Statistics South Africa indicated that about 7.03 million South Africans were infected with HIV/AIDS - the highest rate in the world. Despite the emergence of effective drugs in the mid-1990s, medical treatment remained unavailable in South Africa, particularly in public hospitals. This prompted civil society groups to establish platforms to discuss health policy change in South Africa. Prominent among these was the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), formed in 1998, which aimed to advocate for improved HIV/AIDS health service delivery. The efforts succeeded in shaping the current HIV/AIDS policy through various initiatives such as the use of constitutional law in legal action against profiteering drug companies. This paper examines the role of civil society, and particularly the TAC engagement with the state in health policy making, and the subsequent implementation of health policy on HIV/AIDS in post-apartheid South Africa.
Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies
Tomori, Cecilia; Risher, Kathryn; Limaye, Rupali J.; Lith, Lynn Van; Gibbs, Susannah; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Celentano, David D.
Health communication has played a pivotal role in HIV prevention efforts since the beginning of the epidemic. The recent paradigm of combination prevention, which integrates behavioral, biomedical, and structural interventions, offers new opportunities for employing health communication approaches across the entire continuum of care. We describe key areas where health communication can significantly enhance HIV treatment, care, and prevention, presenting evidence from interventions that include health communication components. These interventions rely primarily on interpersonal communication, especially individual and group counseling, both within and beyond clinical settings to enhance the uptake of and continued engagement in care. Many successful interventions mobilize a network of trained community supporters or accompagnateurs, who provide education, counseling, psychosocial support, treatment supervision and other pragmatic assistance across the care continuum. Community treatment supporters reduce the burden on overworked medical providers, engage a wider segment of the community, and offer a more sustainable model for supporting people living with HIV. Additionally, mobile technologies are increasingly seen as promising avenues for ongoing cost-effective communication throughout the treatment cascade. A broader range of communication approaches, traditionally employed in HIV prevention efforts, that address community and sociopolitical levels through mass media, school- or workplace-based education, and entertainment modalities may be useful to interventions seeking to address the full care continuum. Future interventions would benefit from development of a framework that maps appropriate communication theories and approaches onto each step of the care continuum in order to evaluate the efficacy of communication components on treatment outcomes. PMID:25007201
Arvela, H.; Valmari, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Niemelae, H.; Oinas, T.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Laitinen-Sorvari, R.
Radon campaigns aim at activating citizens to make indoor radon measurements and remediation as well as increasing the common awareness of indoor radon questions. Indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. Through radon campaigns Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) also promotes the attainment of those goals that the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has set for municipal authorities in Finland for prevention of the harmful effects of radon. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health supports this campaign. Radon campaigns were started in autumn 2003. By autumn 2008 the campaigns have been organised already in 64 regions altogether in 160 municipalities. In some municipalities they have already arranged two campaigns. Altogether 14 100 houses have been measured and in 2 100 of these the action limit of radon remediation 400 Bq / m 3 has been exceeded. When participating in radon campaigns the house owners receive a special offer on radon detectors with a reduced price. In 2008 a new practice was introduced where the campaign advertisements were distributed by mail to low-rise residential houses in a certain region. The advertisement includes an order / deposit slip with postage paid that the house owner can send directly to STUK to easily make an order for radon measurement. In the previous radon campaigns in 2003 - 2007 the municipal authorities collected the orders from house owners and distributed later the radon detectors. The radon concentrations measured in the campaign regions have exceeded the action limit of 400 Bq / m 3 in 0 - 39% of houses, depending on the region. The total of 15% of all measurements made exceeded this limit. The remediation activities have been followed by sending a special questionnaire on remedies performed to the house owners. In 2006 - 2007 a questionnaire was sent to those households where the radon concentration of 400 Bq / m 3 was exceeded during the two first campaign seasons. Among the households that replied
MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Levett-Jones, Tracy
The objective is to identify and assess the effectiveness of tools and methods of teaching communication skills to health professional students in undergraduate and postgraduate programs, to facilitate communication in hospitals, nursing homes and mental health institutions.For this review, effective communication will be defined as that which enhances patient satisfaction, safety, symptom resolution, psychological status, or reduces the impact/burden of disease and/or improved communication skills within undergraduate or postgraduate studentsThe review question is: What is the best available evidence on strategies to effectively teach communication skills to undergraduate and postgraduate medical, nursing and allied health students (nutrition and dietetics, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, speech pathology etc)? Communication is a two-way interaction where information, meanings and feelings are shared both verbally and non-verbally. Effective communication is when the message being conveyed is understood as intended. Effective communication between the health professional and patient is increasingly being recognised as a core clinical skill. Research has identified the far reaching benefits of effective communication skills including enhanced patient satisfaction, patient safety, symptom resolution and improvements in functional and psychological status. Poor communication can result in omitted or misinterpretation of information resulting in declining health of the patient. Despite the importance of effective communication in ensuring positive outcomes for both the patient and health professional, there is concern that contemporary teaching and learning approaches do not always facilitate the development of a requisite level of communication skills, both verbal and written and a difficulty for the current generation of communication skills teachers is that many have not had the experience of being taught communication skills themselves.Studies have shown that
Alcayaga, Claudia; Pérez, Janet Carola; Bustamante, Claudia; Campos, Solange; Lange, Ilta; Zuñiga, Francisca
mHealth is a practical, useful, and available tool for one-way or two-way communication between health professionals and patients. It is especially promising in countries such as Chile, with widespread and growing mobile telephone coverage that is very well accepted by the public. Our objective is to demonstrate the process for designing a mobile communication and monitoring model, aimed at providing communication between professionals in primary healthcare centers and their patients, to facilitate timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment for type 2 diabetes. This model's characteristics include use of mobile telephones as a communication tool, a one-way method (from health centers to patients), integration into in-person care delivered at health centers, use of different communication strategies (voice and written), and integrated functioning using open-source software. The system includes personalized communication, automated voice communication, and automated written communication using short message service (SMS). We describe the strategies and components of the system. The lessons learned include the contribution from successful implementation of COSMOS (consolidated online modulated operating systems), a technological innovation, to support the health care of people with suspected type 2 diabetes in primary healthcare centers. Working together with teams in the field is essential to this achievement.
Brennan, Rita Allen; Keohane, Carol Ann
In the United States, rates of severe maternal morbidity and mortality have escalated in the past decade. Communication failure among members of the health care team is one associated factor that can be modified. Nurses can promote effective communication. We provide strategies that incorporate team training principles and structured communication processes for use by providers and health care systems to improve the quality and safety of patient care and reduce the incidence of maternal mortality and morbidity. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eduardo Alfredo Duro
Full Text Available Public health communication and, especially during a crisis scenario such as an epidemics, is mediated by ethical conflicts ranging from values to deontology. In an intercommunicated world, the social support during outbreaks and epidemics becomes global and the state presence is a key to social protection. This should also be translated into timely, urgent and effective communication strategies from the public health perspective as well as efforts to prevent and avoid fake news or skewed information from any sources. Scenarios with lack of connection and obstacles in mass communication in public health major threats are described.
Claramita, Mora; Susilo, Astrid Pratidina
The aim of these two PhD thesis are to develop a guideline on doctor-patient communication skills based on cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian context and to develop communication skills training for nurses to enhance their contribution to the informed consent and shared decision making process, in the same context. These studies started with qualitative methods; including grounded theory methodology, by exploring doctors’, patients’, medical students’ and nurses’ perceptions on the c...
Zemits, Birut; Maypilama, Lawurrpa; Wild, Kayli; Mitchell, Alice; Rumbold, Alice
In the process of developing short films with women in Australian Aboriginal (Yolŋu) communities in northeast Arnhem Land, questions arose about how the content and the process of production were defined and adjusted to suit both parties. This research examines how filmmakers take roles as health educators and