WorldWideScience

Sample records for health beliefs involvement

  1. Communicating with Risk Takers: Information Sources and Health Attitudes, Beliefs, and Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M. A.; And Others

    Seven studies explored the relationships between risk-taking predispositions and health attitudes, beliefs, and involvement. Data were gathered from surveys, and from lab and field experiments on 1,323 subjects. Findings indicated five risk-taking factors: adventurousness, rebelliousness, impulsiveness, physical risk taking, and unconventional…

  2. Osteoporosis Health Beliefs among Younger and Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Shanthi; McLeod, William; Kennedy, Laura; McLeod, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare osteoporosis health beliefs among different age and gender groups. This study used a cross-sectional design, involved 300 participants that represent both genders and three age groups (18 to 25, 30 to 50, and 50-plus), and assessed osteoporosis health beliefs using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale…

  3. Beliefs and practices in health care

    OpenAIRE

    MELGUIZO HERRERA, ESTELA; ALZATE POSADA, MARTHA LUCÍA

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to review the concepts of beliefs and practices of health care as cultural expressions in order to highlight to caregivers the necessary aspects for them to provide a culturally consistent care, a more human and effective one. From the conception of culture as a human creation which influences and shapes people's beliefs and practices, some definitions of the concepts as of social psicology, anthropology, sociology and transcultural nursing aspects are revised. We found that ...

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of an Arabic Version of the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale in Jordanian Muslim College Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad S.

    2015-01-01

    A review of the nursing and health-related literature on spirituality revealed that no valid and reliable research tool exists in Arabic for measuring spiritual beliefs and practices for Arab Muslim population. This study translated the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS) into Arabic and examined the psychometric properties of the…

  5. Latino mothers' beliefs about child weight and family health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung E; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2017-04-01

    There is a need to address cultural beliefs and parenting practices regarding childhood obesity to design effective weight-control programmes for overweight/obese US Latino children. The purpose of the current study was to explore cultural beliefs about children's weight, understand parent perceptions on feeding their children, and explore barriers that interfere with a healthy lifestyle. Four focus groups were conducted in Spanish with forty-one Latino mothers of elementary school-age children from San Diego County, California between April and May 2011. Cultural viewpoints about overweight status among children and barriers to leading a healthy lifestyle were explored. Focus group discussions were analysed based on a priori and emergent themes. Three themes were identified: (i) mothers' cultural beliefs about health that are barriers to family health; (ii) mothers as primary caretakers of their family's health; and (iii) attitudes about targeting children's weight. Mothers acknowledged the idea that 'chubby is better' is a misperception, yet having a 'chubby' child was preferred and even accepted. Mothers described fatalistic beliefs that contradicted existing knowledge of chronic disease and daily demands of Western culture as barriers to practising healthy behaviours in the home as the family caretaker. These findings may be used to inform more culturally appropriate research to address US Latino health. Increasing awareness of cultural beliefs and daily circumstance could help to address obesity more directly and thereby overcome some of the potential underlying barriers that might exist when involving the Latino immigrant families in obesity treatment and prevention.

  6. Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L; Surood, Shireen

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods. Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate that the health beliefs of the older Chinese are loaded onto three factors related to beliefs about traditional health practices, beliefs about traditional Chinese medicine, and beliefs about preventive diet. Education, religion, country of origin, length of residency in Canada, and city of residency are the major correlates of the various Chinese health beliefs scales. Discussion. The findings support the previous prescriptive knowledge about Chinese health beliefs and illustrate the intragroup sociocultural diversity that health practitioners should acknowledge in their practice.

  7. Analyzing Sexual Health-Related Beliefs Among Couples in Marriage Based on the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual health is the integrity between mind, emotions, and body, and any disorder leading to discoordination, can be associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward sexual health based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 400 couples referring to marriage counseling centers of Hamadan recruited with a random sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and health belief model constructs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software, by Pearson’s coefficient correlation, independent T-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: Couples had a moderate knowledge of sexual health. In addition, perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of unsafe sexual behavior among couples were not satisfactory however, perceived benefits and barriers were reported in a relatively good level. Internet and friends were the most important sources for sexual health information. Conclusion: Promoting knowledge and beliefs toward sexual health by preparing training packages based on the needs of couples and removing obstacles to have normal sexual behavior are necessary.

  8. Health Beliefs and Breast Cancer Screening in Rural Appalachia: An Evaluation of the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, Santana D; Shell, Madelynn D

    2017-09-01

    This study explored the role of the Health Belief Model in predicting breast cancer screening among women in rural Appalachia. Health beliefs (perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, severity of breast cancer, and benefits and barriers to screening) were used to predict health behavior (mammogram frequency). A total of 170 women aged 18-78 were recruited at a free health clinic in central Appalachia. Women completed surveys that assessed demographic characteristics, mammogram frequency, and perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits and barriers to mammography. Consistent with expectations, women with objectively elevated risks for breast cancer (history of abnormal mammograms or family history of breast cancer) perceived themselves to be at higher risk for breast cancer, and those with a history of abnormal mammograms were more likely to receive mammograms regularly. In addition, older women expected their prognosis to be marginally poorer following a diagnosis, perceived greater benefits and fewer barriers to mammography, and were significantly more likely to receive mammograms regularly. Consistent with the Health Belief Model, fewer perceived barriers to mammography predicted greater mammogram frequency. However, the model was not fully supported because perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits to mammography did not predict mammogram frequency. Results highlight the importance of reducing real and perceived barriers to screening in order to improve mammography rates among rural populations. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  9. Medical student involvement in health policy roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bassit; Ojha, Utkarsh; Khan, Hassan; Begum, Farzana; Khan, Harun; Malik, Qasim

    2017-01-01

    A teaching curriculum in health policy may be well established in medical school; however, an emphasis on applying taught principles via participation in health policy roles is less defined. We undertook a study to explore medical student participation in health policy roles. An anonymous online survey via convenience sampling was conducted in the UK. A total of 112 students from six medical schools participated in the study. The outcome measures were as follows: medical students' beliefs about their current knowledge of health policy and their desire to learn more; their current, past and future involvement in a health policy role, and perceived barriers to involvement. Forty-seven percent of participants reported previous teaching on health policy, with the majority scoring themselves 2 out of 5 for knowledge about the topic (38%). Seventy-seven percent of participants expressed a desire to be taught health policy while 73% agreed with compulsory teaching. Ninety-six percent of participants reported no current or previous activity in a health policy role, with 61% willing to undertake a role in the future. The three main barriers to student involvement were: a lack of knowledge about health policy (57%), an unawareness of opportunities available (56%), and a lack of time (43%). In addition to already established teaching programs within medical school, implementation of community-based experiences could improve knowledge of health policy, while providing an opportunity for students to gain experience in health policy committee roles.

  10. Beliefs about common health problems and work: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Maria Carla; Buck, Rhiannon; Williams, Gareth; Webb, Katie; Aylward, Mansel

    2008-08-01

    Common health problems (CHPs) such as pain, depressed mood and fatigue are often cited as causes of disability and incapacity for work. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate beliefs about CHPs in relation to work. Focus groups (n=16) were undertaken with 79 people aged 17-83 in South Wales, UK, where there is a high prevalence of limiting long-term illnesses in a number of areas. The findings indicated that depression and stress were consistently reported to have a high impact on life and work relative to other CHPs, with work being perceived as a primary cause of these complaints. The social, moral and economic pressures involved in work and sickness absence emerged as a major theme. Differences were identified in beliefs about CHPs and work according to gender, age and socio-economic status. Beliefs were relatively consistent across geographical locations, although changes in forms of work and social structure of communities were more salient issues within the ex-coalfield areas. Care needs to be taken that initiatives aimed at reducing incapacity for work due to CHPs do not simply add to the pressure to 'be well'.

  11. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo; No, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention...

  12. Understanding the health beliefs and practices of East African refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmelink, Jennifer; Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Dube, Amano; Blevins, Jennifer; Lum, Terry

    2013-03-01

    To explore East African refugees' perceptions, ideas, and beliefs about health and health care, as well as the ways in which health information is shared within their communities. This study consisted of 2 focus groups with a total of 15 participants, including East African community leaders and health professionals. East African refugees in the United States have strong cultural, religious, and traditional health practices that shape their health behavior and influence their interactions with Western health care systems. Health care providers who understand refugees' beliefs about health may achieve more compliance with refugee patients.

  13. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  14. Parental Involvement and Developmentally Appropriate Practices: A Comparison of Parent and Teacher Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Özlen; Erden, Feyza Tantekin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) and parental involvement beliefs of preschool teachers and the parents of preschool children. Data were collected from 279 teachers and 589 parents via a demographic information questionnaire, "Teachers' Beliefs Scale"…

  15. A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Parental Involvement and Child-Rearing Beliefs in Asian Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, A. R.; Chew, E.; Carter, M.; Chunn, J.; Jotanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Parental involvement (PI) and child-rearing beliefs were examined amongst parents whose children attended state-run kindergartens across Singapore. A total of 244 parents completed an online survey consisting of a Child-Rearing Beliefs Scale, a PI Scale, and demographic details. Results indicated respondents were generally low-income earners with…

  16. Health Belief Systems and the Psychobiology of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgee, Neil J.

    1984-01-01

    Belief systems overlie powerful biological and psychological forces that are root causes of war. Much as in medicine where an appreciation of health belief systems is necessary in the control of illness and disease, so the paths to the control of war may lie in an understanding of belief systems and ways to circumvent them. Such understanding gives strong theoretical support to many time-honored but underutilized international initiative and educational ventures. The effort of the medical community to educate the public about biomedical aspects of nuclear war should gain more balance and sophistication with an appreciation of belief systems in the psychobiology of war. PMID:6741137

  17. How Experience Shapes Health Beliefs: The Case of Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of past experience with influenza and the influenza vaccine on four categories of the Health Belief Model: beliefs about susceptibility to contracting influenza, severity of illness, perceived benefits of the vaccine in preventing influenza, and perceived barriers to getting vaccinated. The study population comprised…

  18. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  19. Health checkup behavior and individual health beliefs in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Mika; Ogita, Mihoko; Yamamoto, Miki; Nakai, Toshimi; Numata, Tomoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2017-09-07

    Despite Japan being a developed nation, half of its older population does not attend regular health checkups. The aim of the present study was to examine the individual health beliefs and personal recommendations that strongly influence health checkup attendance among community-dwelling older adults. In 2013, questionnaires were sent to 5401 community-dwelling older adults who were not receiving long-term institutionalized care. The response rate was 94.3%. We analyzed response data from 4984 older adults using multiple imputation to manage missing data. Participation in health checkups was defined as having undergone at least one checkup in the past 3 years, and non-participation as having attended no checkups in this period. The participants' mean age was 75.8 years, and 57.9% were women. The adjusted odds ratio of health checkup participation ranged from 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.61) to 1.62 (95% CI 1.34-1.95) for positive individual health beliefs about health checkups, and was 2.21 (95% CI: 1.51-3.24) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.17-2.08) for recommendations to participate from family and neighbors, respectively. All odds ratios were adjusted for age, sex, driving by oneself to daily shopping or clinic, paid work, method of response, internal medical therapy, polypharmacy, serious disease, periodic blood test, frailty and neighborly relationships. The present findings suggest that both individual and community approaches might be effective in promoting participation in health checkups among community-dwelling older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Medical student involvement in health policy roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik B

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bassit Malik,1 Utkarsh Ojha,1 Hassan Khan,1 Farzana Begum,2 Harun Khan,1 Qasim Malik3 1School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK; 3Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK Objectives: A teaching curriculum in health policy may be well established in medical school; however, an emphasis on applying taught principles via participation in health policy roles is less defined. We undertook a study to explore medical student participation in health policy roles.Design and setting: An anonymous online survey via convenience sampling was conducted in the UK.Participants: A total of 112 students from six medical schools participated in the study.Outcome measures: The outcome measures were as follows: medical students’ beliefs about their current knowledge of health policy and their desire to learn more; their current, past and future involvement in a health policy role, and perceived barriers to involvement.Results: Forty-seven percent of participants reported previous teaching on health policy, with the majority scoring themselves 2 out of 5 for knowledge about the topic (38%. Seventy-seven percent of participants expressed a desire to be taught health policy while 73% agreed with compulsory teaching. Ninety-six percent of participants reported no current or previous activity in a health policy role, with 61% willing to undertake a role in the future. The three main barriers to student involvement were: a lack of knowledge about health policy (57%, an unawareness of opportunities available (56%, and a lack of time (43%.Conclusion: In addition to already established teaching programs within medical school, implementation of community-based experiences could improve knowledge of health policy, while providing an opportunity for students to gain experience in health policy committee roles. Keywords: medical curriculum, policy committee, service learning

  1. The effect of education based on health belief model on health beliefs of women with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri Tehrani, Fereshteh; Nikpour, Soqra; Haji Kazemi, Eftekhar Alsadat; Sanaie, Neda; Shariat Panahi, Shabnam Alsadat

    2014-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infection is one of the commonest infections which affect humans. Half of all women have a UTI in their lifetime and one fourth have recurrent infections. Health behaviours can help patients to prevent Urinary Tract Infection recurrence and changing beliefs is necessary for health behaviour change. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of education based on Health Belief Model on health beliefs of women with Urinary Tract Infection. This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design, conducted on 170 married women with Urinary Tract Infection, referred to selected hospital laboratories in Tehran. The laboratories were divided to experience and control groups. The data collection tool was a "self-administrated" questionnaire which was answered by samples of both groups, prior to the intervention and 12 weeks thereafter. The intervention (education based on Health Belief Model) was performed on the experiment group. Based on the study results, after the intervention the average score of the perceived susceptibility (Peducation based on Health Belief Model was effective in promoting the health beliefs (except perceived barriers) and health behaviours of women with Urinary Tract Infection. Therefore, it can be suggested that the mentioned model can be used as one of the strategies for prevention of Urinary Tract Infection in women.

  2. A study of health beliefs and practices of the Yoruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how immigrant populations combine traditional and Western health beliefs and practices has not been given due attention. Hence, this qualitative research study of Yoruba immigrants, an ethnic group from south-western Nigeria, living in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, sheds some light on the question of how best to provide culturally appropriate health care to Yoruba immigrant groups with differences in health beliefs and practices. The study found that there are three types of Yoruba immigrant groups: (1) those who use only Western medicine (though mostly for pragmatic reason); (2) those who combine traditional Yoruba and Western beliefs; and (3) those who combine Western medicine and Christian beliefs.

  3. Breast Self-examination and Health Beliefs in Grenadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Paula Alexander; Haynes-Smith, Glenenna

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality are rising in Grenada, and there is a lack of knowledge about women's beliefs about breast self-examination (BSE). The objective of this study was to quantify and identify patterns of beliefs about health and BSE in Grenadian women to help plan targeted community interventions. In this descriptive cross-sectional study of 110 women in a community parish in Grenada, sociodemographic data and health beliefs were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The Champion revised Health Belief Model Scale was used to measure general health motivation (5 items), perceived susceptibility to breast cancer (4 items), seriousness of breast cancer (7 items), confidence in performing BSE (7 items), benefits of BSE (2 items), and barriers to BSE (6 items). Younger women were motivated to perform BSE (P = .018), and divorced/separated/widowed women felt more susceptible to breast cancer (P = .014) but perceived fewer benefits in performing BSE (P = .032). Women who did not attend church were more motivated (P = .015) and saw greater benefit (P = .033) in BSE. Frequent church attendees perceived that they were more susceptible (P = .01), were less confident (P women in Grenada with belief patterns and sociodemographic characteristics that may benefit from targeted community intervention, perhaps in partnership with other stakeholders such as the church. Beliefs about health and BSE affect BSE uptake and are culture dependent. These data help identify the at-risk population to guide the development of targeted community-based and culturally appropriate breast screening programs.

  4. Negative and positive beliefs related to mood and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-07-01

    To observe whether elderly patients' positive and negative beliefs about efforts improving or maintaining health are related to health and mood. We developed a brief scale to assess these beliefs. Factor analysis was used to evaluate its dimensions; the extent to which the scale's dimensions mediate the relationship between mood and self-reported health was explored. Analyses show that the scale reflects a general factor as well as 2 subscales that evaluate distinct but related positive and negative dimensions. The scale was not related to race, sex, or education, but showed modest relations to age. Scales were significantly related to mood, health status, and health-related quality of life. Both negative and positive beliefs mediated the relation between depression and self-reported health.

  5. Maternal Health Practices, Beliefs and Traditions in Southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Contextualising maternal health in countries with high maternal mortality is vital for designing and implementing effective health ... Few studies have investigated the socio-cultural factors including beliefs and traditions that influence the healthcare practices of this population. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines.

  6. Health Beliefs and Locus of Control as Predictors of Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OR= 0.35, p < 0.05), internal locus of control (OR = 1.43, p < 0.05) and health risks behaviour (OR= 0.42, p < 0.05) all significantly predicted cervical cancer screening behaviour of women. Keywords: Health beliefs, Health locus of control, cancer ...

  7. Beliefs and perception about mental health issues: a meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Fahad Riaz; Mani, Vasudevan; Ming, Long Chiau; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    Mental health literacy is the beliefs and knowledge about mental health issues and their remedies. Attitudes and beliefs of lay individuals about mental illness are shaped by personal knowledge about mental illness, knowing and interacting with someone living with mental illness, and cultural stereotypes. Mental health issues are increasing and are alarming in almost every part of the world, and hence compiling this review provides an opportunity to understand the different views regarding mental disorders and problems as well as to fill the gap in the published literature by focusing only on the belief system and perception of mental health problems among general population. The methodology involved a systematic review and the meta-synthesis method, which includes synthesizing published qualitative studies on mental health perception and beliefs. Fifteen relevant published qualitative and mixed-method studies, regarding the concept of mental health, were identified for meta-synthesis. All the themes of the selected studies were further analyzed to give a broader picture of mental health problems and their perceived causes and management. Only qualitative studies, not older than 2010, focusing on beliefs about, attitudes toward, and perceptions of mental health problems, causes, and treatments were included in this review. The findings are divided into four major categories, namely, 1) symptoms of mental health issues, 2) description of mental health issues, 3) perceived causes, and 4) preferred treatment and help-seeking behavior. Each category contains themes and subthemes based on published studies. The findings reveal multiple causes of, descriptions of, and treatment options for mental health problems, thereby providing insight into different help-seeking behaviors. Clarity is offered by highlighting cultural differences and similarities in mental health beliefs and perceptions about the causes of mental health problems. The implications of the studies and

  8. Effects of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Dietary Behaviors of Iranian Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramabadi, M; Dolatian, M; Hajian, S; Zamanian, M; Taheripanah, R; Sheikhan, Z; Mahmoodi, Z; Seyedi-Moghadam, A

    2015-06-25

    Mothers and children are the most vulnerable members of every society. As a result many deaths occur in these two groups, so caring for these two groups is very important. Today, it is believed that the health of an infant is related to the health of their mother. Maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy, and optimal weight gain during pregnancy by appropriate and sufficient nutrition, are two effective measures for the prevention of low birth weight.To provide successful health interventions, it is essential to design and implement effective health education programs. Successful education also depends on the proper use of theories and models in health education. The Health Belief Model is a model that illustrates the relationship between beliefs and health, and it is based on the hypothesis that preventive health behavior consists of personal beliefs .The aim of this study was to assess the effects of training on the Health Belief Model on dietary behaviors of a sample of pregnant Iranian women. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial, involving 130 pregnant women who attended two health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire in three parts and seven sub-scales (including demographic characteristics, knowledge and dietary behaviors) based on the Health Belief Model. Principles of education were based on the Health Belief Model and performed twice during two-hour sessions in the intervention group. Women in the control group received routine care and did not receive training on the above model. In order to evaluate the intervention, the previously mentioned questionnaire was administered one month after completion of the intervention, and filled by participants in both groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and reported with diagrams and tables. The mean score for each variable before the intervention, except for the performance guide variable, was not significantly

  9. Attending to the construct of beliefs in research on religion/spirituality and health: commentary on 'beyond belief'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2012-10-01

    In this commentary, I concur with Cromby that more attention should be given to beliefs in terms of definition, measurement, and investigation, particularly of their development and their relations with aspects of health and well-being. Within the context of religious beliefs, I argue, however, that beliefs should not be considered affect or emotion but rather should be examined in relation to them, and that their development likely arises through myriad sources. I provide an alternative definition of religious beliefs and conclude with suggestions for future research on religious beliefs and health.

  10. Externalizing religious health beliefs and health and well-being outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2016-10-01

    Certain religious beliefs related to perceptions of internal or external health control (including belief in the existence of miraculous healing, and beliefs deferring responsibility for health outcomes from the self and onto God) may be related to health behaviors and in turn to health outcomes. Using data from a nationally representative US survey of religion and health (N = 2948) this study evaluates a series of two structural equation models of the relationships between religious activity, externalizing religious health beliefs (belief in healing miracles and divine health deferral), health outcomes, and life satisfaction. Believing in healing miracles was related to greater divine health deferral. Greater divine health deferral was associated with poorer symptoms of physical health. Belief in miracles was related to greater life satisfaction. Comparison of coefficients across models indicated that externalizing beliefs had a significant suppressor effect on the relationship between religious activity and physical symptoms, but did not significantly mediate its relationship with life satisfaction. Religious beliefs emphasizing divine control over health outcomes may have negative consequences for health outcomes, although the same beliefs may contribute to a better sense of life satisfaction.

  11. Machismo sustains health and illness beliefs of Mexican American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobralske, Mary

    2006-08-01

    To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the ways in which these are influenced by their masculine identity and how they view themselves as men in their culture. The data sources used were based on a selected review of the literature about Mexican American men's health and illness beliefs and the concept of machismo. Several studies, including the author's study on Mexican American men's healthcare-seeking beliefs and behaviors and experience in providing primary health care to men across cultures, contributed new data. The meaning of manhood in the Mexican American culture is critical in understanding how men perceive health and illness and what they do when they are ill. Machismo enhances men's awareness of their health because they have to be healthy to be good fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, workers, and community members. Pain and disability are motivating factors in finding ways to regain their health. Men's health beliefs across cultures need further investigation by nurse researchers and NPs. How culture influences healthcare delivery to men should be better understood. If NPs are aware of men's views on masculinity, they are better prepared to understand and assist men in becoming more aware of their health status and to seek health care when appropriate.

  12. Maternal Health Practices, Beliefs and Traditions in Southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contextualising maternal health in countries with high maternal mortality is vital for designing and implementing effective health interventions. A research project was therefore conducted to explore practices, beliefs and traditions around pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in southeast Madagascar. Interviews and focus ...

  13. The Effect of Educational Intervention on Selection of Delivery Method Based on Health Belief Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Discussion- In this study educational intervention based on health belief model increased the awareness of pregnant women, However ,it has not been effective on their performance. Because many factors other than knowledge are involved in the choice of delivery method, It is proposed to enhance the efficiency of this model simultaneously different patterns that can be used effectively on other factors.

  14. Knowledge and beliefs regarding oral health among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Urlaub, Diana M; Moos, Merry-K; Polinkovsky, Margaret; El-Khorazaty, Jill; Lorenz, Carol

    2011-11-01

    Racial or ethnic and economic disparities exist in terms of oral diseases among pregnant women and children. The authors hypothesized that women of a racial or ethnic minority have less oral health knowledge than do women not of a racial or ethnic minority. Therefore, the authors conducted a study to assess and compare maternal oral health knowledge and beliefs and to determine if maternal race and ethnicity or other maternal factors contributed to women's knowledge or beliefs. The authors administered a written oral health questionnaire to pregnant women. The authors calculated the participants' knowledge and belief scores on the basis of correct answers or answers supporting positive oral health behaviors. They conducted multivariable analysis of variance to assess associations between oral health knowledge and belief scores and characteristics. The authors enrolled 615 women in the study, and 599 (97.4 percent) completed the questionnaire. Of 599 participants, 573 (95.7 percent) knew that sugar intake is associated with caries. Almost one-half (295 participants [49.2 percent]) did not know that caries and periodontal disease are oral infections. Median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores were 6.0 (5.5-7.0) and 6.0 (5.0-7.0), respectively. Hispanic women had median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores significantly lower than those of white or African American women (6.0 [4.0-7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0-7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0-7.0], respectively [P education level of eighth grade or less was associated significantly with a lower belief score. Pregnant women have some oral health knowledge. Knowledge varied according to maternal race or ethnicity, and beliefs varied according to maternal education. Including oral health education as a part of prenatal care may improve knowledge regarding the importance of oral health among vulnerable pregnant women, thereby improving their oral health and that of their children. Including oral health education as

  15. [Mental health beliefs between culture and subjective illness experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kristina; Chaudhry, Haroon R; Aigner, Martin; Zitterl, Werner; Stompe, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Subjective health beliefs are representations about pathogenesis, course and treatment options of psychic as well as somatic illnesses. They are important for a psychotherapeutic interaction as well as for a stable drug adherence. However, it remains unclear whether these representations are primarily affected by the cultural background or by an individual's specific illness experiences, a question of increasing importance in our era of globalized migration. The study sample consisted of 203 Austrians (125 with schizophrenia, 78 with obsessivecompulsive disorder) and 190 Pakistanis (120 with schizophrenia, 70 with obsessive-compulsive disorder). All patients completed the "Causal Explanations of Mental Disorders" (CEMD), a 41-item self-rating questionnaire. Pakistani patients reported magic-religious oriented mental health beliefs more frequently. In contrast, Austrians' beliefs are more often in line with the bio-psychosocial explanations of Western medicine. Concerning mental health beliefs the cultural background seems to be more important than the subjective experience with a distinctive mental disorder. Although the subjective experience is of importance for the shape of illnessspecific cognitions, mental health beliefs are primarily caused by the patients' socio-cultural origin. It is a challenge for psychiatry to improve the co-operation with culture-anthropology and other social sciences.

  16. Treatment beliefs, health behaviors and their association with treatment outcome in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Lill-Brith Wium; Gydesen, Helge; Skovlund, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is growing, it is increasingly well recognized that treatment outcomes in primary care practice are often suboptimal. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which treatment beliefs and health behaviors predict diabetes health outcome......-reported survey administered to all insulin-treated people in the registry (n=3160). The survey was constructed to operationalize key concepts of diabetes management, diabetes treatment beliefs, and health behaviors. Results: In total, 1033 respondents answered the survey. The majority of treatment beliefs...... as measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, blood pressure, and lipid profile. Research design and methods: This was a large-scale cross-sectional, registry-based study involving a well-defined type 2 diabetes population, in the county of Funen, Denmark. Registry data were combined with a 27-item self...

  17. Kindergarten Teachers' Beliefs about Students' Knowledge of Print Literacy and Parental Involvement in Children's Print Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    This research was an exploratory study in a large city in central Canada that examined kindergarten teachers' beliefs about students' knowledge of print literacy, as well as their beliefs about parental involvement with children in print literacy activities. The role of families' socioeconomic status was examined in relation to teachers' beliefs.…

  18. Marital violence: the beliefs of professionals directly involved in their response and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Cabral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation about the problem of marital violence, whose primary objective was to characterize the beliefs of professionals and future professionals directly involved in their response and prevention. In order to identify the beliefs about the dimension of the phenomenon of conjugal violence and the legal perception regarding it and the beliefs and legitimating attitudes of violence in marital relations, a descriptive quantitative study was developed, applying the Beliefs of Violence Scale Conjugal - ECVC (Machado, Matos & Gonçalves, 2006. The total sum of the scale measures the level of tolerance / adaptation in relation to physical and psychological violence in the context of marital relationships. The sum of each factor allows to understand the specific beliefs / attitudes of this type of violence. In this context, another objective was to evaluate the reliability of the ECVC, using the Kolmogorov-Sminov test, and the results obtained show that the model originally proposed does not have a good fit to the data. We also observe and discuss the gender differential analysisKey Words: Intimate partner violence; beliefs; gender; famile life

  19. Health Beliefs and Practices of African Immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper Brathwaite, Angela; Lemonde, Manon

    2016-12-01

    A purposive sample of 14 immigrants living in Ontario, Canada, participated in two focus groups. The researchers used semi-structured interviews to collect data and five themes emerged from the data: beliefs about diabetes were centered on diverse factors, preserving culture through food preferences and preparation, cultural practices to stay healthy, cultural practices determined number of servings of fruit and vegetables per day, and engaging in physical activity to stay healthy. Findings indicated how health beliefs and cultural practices influenced behavior in preventing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Future research should focus on other high-risk minority groups (South Asian, Caribbean, and Latin American) to examine their health beliefs and cultural practices and use these finding to develop best practice guidelines, which should be incorporated into culturally tailored interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Magical food and health beliefs: a portrait of believers and functions of the beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Kia; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2004-08-01

    The aims of the present two studies were to delineate a portrait of people who are attracted to magical beliefs about food and health and to study the self-reported functions for the beliefs. Participants were Finnish men and women ranging in age from 15 to 66 years (N=3261 in study 1 and N=189 in study 2), and they filled in either an Internet-based or a paper questionnaire. The believers were more often women than men, vegetarians than omnivores, and they relied more on alternative medicine, thought in a more intuitive way, and demonstrated more eating-disordered thinking than the nonbelievers. Additionally, the believers had experienced slightly more negative life events than the nonbelievers in study 1 but contrary to our hypothesis, they did not differ in their desire for control. The believers reported value-expressive function as the most important one served by their beliefs, followed by the control and utilitarian functions. The emotional, intuitive nature of food beliefs and their connection to values and identity are discussed.

  1. Reproductive health knowledge, beliefs and determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In developing countries especially in Africa, reproductive ill health have been a great concern to many stakeholders as maternal mortality and morbidity are very high compared to developed world. Also reproductive health knowledge and access to quality of care maternal health services in Africa are poor with ...

  2. Beliefs and perception about mental health issues: a meta-synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhry FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fahad Riaz Choudhry,1 Vasudevan Mani,2 Long Chiau Ming,3,4 Tahir Mehmood Khan5 1Psychology Department, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway City, Selangor, Malaysia; 2College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraidah, Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Vector-borne Diseases Research Group (VERDI, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences CoRe, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam; 4Brain Degeneration and Therapeutics Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, 5School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway City, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Mental health literacy is the beliefs and knowledge about mental health issues and their remedies. Attitudes and beliefs of lay individuals about mental illness are shaped by personal knowledge about mental illness, knowing and interacting with someone living with mental illness, and cultural stereotypes. Mental health issues are increasing and are alarming in almost every part of the world, and hence compiling this review provides an opportunity to understand the different views regarding mental disorders and problems as well as to fill the gap in the published literature by focusing only on the belief system and perception of mental health problems among general population.Method: The methodology involved a systematic review and the meta-synthesis method, which includes synthesizing published qualitative studies on mental health perception and beliefs.Sample: Fifteen relevant published qualitative and mixed-method studies, regarding the concept of mental health, were identified for meta-synthesis.Analysis: All the themes of the selected studies were further analyzed to give a broader picture of mental health problems and their perceived causes and management. Only qualitative studies, not older than 2010, focusing on beliefs about, attitudes toward, and perceptions of mental health problems, causes, and treatments were included

  3. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure: a critical incident technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure. We investigated this from the perspectives of both health professionals and abused women. The study took place in Scotland during 2011. The study was informed theoretically by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness (CSM). This model is typically used in disease-orientated research. In our innovative use, however, CSM was used to study the social phenomenon, domestic abuse. The study involved semi-structured, individual CIT interviews with health professionals and focus groups with women who had experienced domestic abuse. Twenty-nine health professionals (Midwives, Health Visitors and General Practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 women. Data were analysed using a combination of an inductive classification and framework analysis. Findings highlight the points of convergence and divergence between abused women's and health professionals' beliefs about abuse. Although there was some agreement, they do not always share the same views. For example, women want to be asked about abuse, but many health professionals do not feel confident or comfortable discussing the issue. Overall, the study shows the dynamic interaction between women's and health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and readiness to discuss and respond to it. Understanding these complex dynamics assists in the employment of

  4. Parental Beliefs and Experiences Regarding Involvement in Intervention for Their Child with Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts Pappas, Nicole; McAllister, Lindy; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    Parental beliefs and experiences regarding involvement in speech intervention for their child with mild to moderate speech sound disorder (SSD) were explored using multiple, sequential interviews conducted during a course of treatment. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with seven parents of six children with SSD: (1) after their child's initial…

  5. Relationship of Purchasing, Brand, and Self Involvement with Advertising Interactions and Beliefs among Malaysian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, Jyotika

    A study examined Malaysian students' involvement with purchasing, with branded products, and with themselves as well as their responses to and beliefs about advertising, by ethnic group. Subjects, 387 students at a university in Penang, Malaysia, completed questionnaires measuring their responses to advertising. Results indicated a relatively high…

  6. Electronic health records: eliciting behavioral health providers' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Nancy; Willborn, Elizabeth; Pytlikzillig, Lisa; Noel, Harmonijoie

    2012-04-01

    Interviews with 32 community behavioral health providers elicited perceived benefits and barriers of using electronic health records. Themes identified were (a) quality of care, (b) privacy and security, and (c) delivery of services. Benefits to quality of care were mentioned by 100% of the providers, and barriers by 59% of providers. Barriers involving privacy and security concerns were mentioned by 100% of providers, and benefits by 22%. Barriers to delivery of services were mentioned by 97% of providers, and benefits by 66%. Most providers (81%) expressed overall positive support for electronic behavioral health records.

  7. Setting Overweight adults in motion: the role of health beliefs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Annemieke van Nunen; MD E.J.M. Wouters; PhD Ad Vingerhoets; PhD Rinie Geenen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Health beliefs of overweight adults who did and did not enter an exercise program were compared to identify possible factors that hamper people to increase physical exercise. Method: Participants (n = 116, 78 women and 38 men) were overweight adults without comorbidities. Self-report

  8. Application of Health Belief Model for Promoting Behaviour Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzes the factors influencing conduct of HIV test and risky behavour change using the health belief model. The data were obtained from the Nigeria's 2004 NLSS data and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Probit regression. Results show that 87.79% of the single youths were aware of HIV/AIDS, 3.34% ...

  9. Oral health related behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVES To determine oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among secondary school students in Iringa municipality. DESIGN Cross-sectional descriptive study. RESULTS All participants reported to brush their teeth at least once a day, only 24% brush twice a day. The use of plastic tooth brush ...

  10. Managing Dog Waste: Campaign Insights from the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typhina, Eli; Yan, Changmin

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to help municipalities develop effective education and outreach campaigns to reduce stormwater pollutants, such as pet waste, this study applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify perceptions of dog waste and corresponding collection behaviors from dog owners living in a small U.S. city. Results of 455 online survey responses…

  11. Drench effects of media portrayal of fatal virus disease on health locus of control beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, C M

    2001-01-01

    Drawing on the notion of the drench hypothesis proposed by Greenberg (1988), the author proposes a preliminary theoretical framework to explain "drenching" effects of dramatic media. Three drench variables-perceived realism, role identification, and media involvement-were identified and tested regarding their role in mediating the impact of virus disease portrayals on health locus-of-control belief orientations. Participants in the experimental condition watched the movie Outbreak (a portrayal of an outbreak of a deadly virus disease). Perceived realism, role identification, and media involvement were measured concerning the movie depiction of the virus disease. The findings indicate that the dramatized portrayal significantly weakened the viewers' beliefs in self-controllability over health and strengthened their beliefs in chance outcomes of health. Beliefs in provider control over health were affected by the viewers' perception of realism regarding the movie portrayals. Effects of role identification were different between male and female viewers. The results are discussed in relation to drench analysis as a theoretical approach to media effects.

  12. Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale in Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Young-Sang; Byun, Dong Won; Jang, Seyeon; Jeon, Dong-Su; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2013-01-01

    Background The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) is a 42-item questionnaire designed to assess susceptibility, seriousness, calcium benefits, calcium barriers, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and health motivation related to osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate its psychometric properties to enable the provision of educational tips regarding osteoporosis. Methods All women who had visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and whose bone mineral density was measured...

  13. community health workers' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-11

    May 11, 2006 ... are in a unique position to influence health behaviour in the communities they serve.16 Their potential .... constitute obstacles to appropriate behaviour.20. Understanding patient behaviour during illness ... Sometimes diabetes was termed unjanyana (a small dog) because of the amputations it could entail.

  14. Evaluation of Jamaican Knowledge of Diabetes and Health Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody L. Hartzler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated that over 382 million people worldwide were affected by diabetes in 2013. The Caribbean region consistently is above the global average in regard to diabetes prevalence. Specifically, in Jamaica, researchers have found that the management of diabetes is not consistent with international guidelines, and in Caribbean culture, there are additional health beliefs that may need to be addressed. The purpose of this study is to (1 evaluate patient diabetes-related knowledge and health beliefs and (2 determine the association between diabetes-related knowledge and health beliefs in rural Jamaica. Methods: Rural Jamaican patients with diabetes (N=48, mean age = 55.16±15.08 were asked to complete questionnaires for cross-sectional examination of knowledge and health beliefs during a medical mission trip to the parish of St. Elizabeth in Jamaica. Participants were asked to verbally complete the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy in Diabetes Scale (SKILLD, 10 items and Health Belief Model-11 (HBM-11, 11 items, as well as a demographic instrument. Analyses were performed in SPSS v. 20.0. Descriptive statistics were performed for all items. Spearman or Pearson correlations, as appropriate, were utilized to assess associations. Differences in HBM subscales by demographic characteristics were assessed using paired t-tests. Results: Participants had poor knowledge of diabetes, particularly regarding signs and symptoms of hyper/hypoglycemia, importance of foot and eye exams, fasting blood glucose levels, and long-term diabetes complications. Knowledge deficits were associated with educational attainment, as many participants had only completed primary school. Most participants indicated they were ready to take action regarding their health, but they perceived there were significant barriers to doing so. Also, older adults were more likely to believe that they could control their diabetes

  15. Belief in the paranormal and modern health worries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utinans A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been found, that despite the improvement of the objective health indicators, people's subjective perception of health is that health indicators are getting worse (Barsky A.J., 1988, which is one of the reasons why a new term “modern health worries” is coming into use in medical literature (Petrie K.J., Wessely S., 2002. People are worried and scared of the effect of new high tech innovations (effect of cell phone radiation, environmental pollution, ozone layer depletion, etc., changes in manufacturing of food products (genetically modified food, food concentrates etc.. Nowadays, many people, being worried about their health, turn to new eating habits (veganism, defend themselves against various innovations in the health system (vaccination, etc. It could be defined as fear of consequences of scientific progress. The reason of fear is not only the misunderstanding of scientific innovations. Quite often, it is a belief in pseudoscientific theories (for example, “conspiracy” or belief in the paranormal phenomena (karma violations, disruption of the cosmic plan. In a part of cases protesters against vaccines and genetically modified food belong to new religious movements which are based on belief in the paranormal and magical thinking. Magical thinking predisposes to the negative attitude towards scientific assumptions and innovations, like a genetically modified food (Saher, 2006. Aim of study. To study the correlation between pseudoscientific assumptions, belief in the paranormal and modern health worries. This condition of modern health worries is becoming important for health care system. It causes the increase in the number of symptoms (Koteles et al., 2011, which, in its turn, increases the doctors' visit rate on one hand (Rief W et al., 2012, but, on the other hand, increases evasion to attend traditional medical care activities. Part of supporters of pseudoscientific beliefs experiences anxiety as to the bad food toxins

  16. Parental involvement in homework: relations with parent and student achievement-related motivational beliefs and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonida, Eleftheria N; Cortina, Kai S

    2014-09-01

    Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals. The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework (autonomy support, control, interference, cognitive engagement) (1) are predicted by their mastery and performance goals for their child and their beliefs of the child's academic efficacy, and (2) predict student achievement goal orientations, efficacy beliefs, and achievement. Grade-level differences were also investigated. The sample consisted of 282 elementary school (5th grade) and junior high school students (8th grade) and one of their parents. Surveys were used for data collection. Structural equation modelling was applied for data analysis. (1) Autonomy support during homework was predicted by parent mastery goal, parents' control and interference by their performance goal and perceptions of child efficacy, and cognitive engagement as supplementary to homework by parent perceptions of child efficacy. (2) Parental autonomy support, control, and interference were differentially associated with student mastery and performance goal orientations, whereas parent cognitive engagement was associated with student efficacy beliefs. (3) The structural model was the same for elementary and junior high school students but the latent means for a number of variables were different. Different types of parental involvement in homework were associated with different outcomes with parent autonomy support to be the most beneficial one. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Zimbabwean diabetics' beliefs about health and illness: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Katarina; Mufunda, Esther

    2010-05-12

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care practice and health care seeking behaviour in persons diagnosed with DM, living in Zimbabwe. Exploratory study. Consecutive sample from a diabetes clinic at a central hospital. Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 persons aged 19-65 years. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Health was described as freedom from disease and well-being, and individual factors such as compliance with advice received and drugs were considered important to promote health. A mixture of causes of DM, predominantly individual factors such as heredity, overweight and wrong diet in combination with supernatural factors such as fate, punishment from God and witchcraft were mentioned. Most respondents did not recognize the symptoms of DM when falling ill but related the problems to other diseases, e.g. HIV, malaria etc. Limited knowledge about DM and the body was indicated. Poor economy was mentioned as harmful to health and a consequence of DM because the need to buy expensive drugs, food and attend check-ups. Self-care was used to a limited extent but if used, a combination of individual measures, household remedies or herbs and religious acts such as prayers and holy water were frequently used, and in some cases health care professionals were consulted. Limited knowledge about DM, based on beliefs about health and illness including biomedical and traditional explanations related to the influence of supernatural forces, e.g. fate, God etc., were found, which affected patients' self-care and care-seeking behaviour. Strained economy was stated to be a factor of the

  18. Zimbabwean diabetics' beliefs about health and illness: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufunda Esther

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care practice and health care seeking behaviour in persons diagnosed with DM, living in Zimbabwe. Methods Exploratory study. Consecutive sample from a diabetes clinic at a central hospital. Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 persons aged 19-65 years. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health was described as freedom from disease and well-being, and individual factors such as compliance with advice received and drugs were considered important to promote health. A mixture of causes of DM, predominantly individual factors such as heredity, overweight and wrong diet in combination with supernatural factors such as fate, punishment from God and witchcraft were mentioned. Most respondents did not recognize the symptoms of DM when falling ill but related the problems to other diseases, e.g. HIV, malaria etc. Limited knowledge about DM and the body was indicated. Poor economy was mentioned as harmful to health and a consequence of DM because the need to buy expensive drugs, food and attend check-ups. Self-care was used to a limited extent but if used, a combination of individual measures, household remedies or herbs and religious acts such as prayers and holy water were frequently used, and in some cases health care professionals were consulted. Conclusions Limited knowledge about DM, based on beliefs about health and illness including biomedical and traditional explanations related to the influence of supernatural forces, e.g. fate, God etc., were found, which affected patients' self-care and care

  19. Sexual-Reproductive Health Belief Model of college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Simbar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual- reproductive health of youth is one of the most unknown aspects of our community, while the world, including our country is faced with the risk of AIDS spreading. The aim of this study was to describe Health Belief Model (HBM of the students about sexual-reproductive health behaviors and evaluate the ability of the model in predicting related behaviors. By using quota sampling, 1117 male and female students of Qazvin Medical Science and International universities were included in the study in 1991. A self-completed questionnaire was prepared containing close questions based on HBM components including perceived threats (susceptibility and severity of related diseases, perceived reproductive benefits and barriers and self efficacy of youth about reproductive health. A total of 645 of participants were female and 457 were male (Mean age 21.4±2.4 and 22.7±3.5, respectively. The Health Belief Model of the students showed that they perceived a moderate threat for AIDS and venereal diseases and their health outcomes. Most of them perceived the benefits of reproductive health behaviors. They believed that the ability of youth in considering reproductive health is low or moderate. However, they noted to some barriers for spreading of reproductive health in youth including inadequacy of services. Boys felt a higher level of threat for acquiring the AIDS and venereal diseases in compare to girls, but girls had a higher knowledge about these diseases and their complications. The Health Belief Model of the students with premarital intercourse behavior was not significantly different with the students without this behavior (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Female students and the students without the history of premarital intercourse had significantly more positive attitude towards abstinence, comparing to male students and students with the history of premarital intercourse, respectively (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Seventy five percent of students believed in

  20. Stroke-Related Knowledge, Lifestyle Behaviours and Health Beliefs in Singaporean Chinese: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai Pong; Yeung, Meredith; Loh, Susan; Lee, Mina; Ghazali, F.; Chan, C. J.; Feng, S.; Liew, Y. V.; Seah, P. F.; Wee, J.; Wang, J.; Huang, X.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to describe stroke-related knowledge (risk factors, warning signs and emergency response), lifestyle behaviours and health beliefs among Singaporean Chinese, and to identify any factors associated with such knowledge, behaviours and beliefs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study design employing…

  1. Belief into Action Scale: A Comprehensive and Sensitive Measure of Religious Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Koenig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new measure of religious commitment, the Belief into Action (BIAC scale. This measure was designed to be a comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement that could discriminate individuals across the religious spectrum, and avoid the problem of ceiling effects that have haunted the study of highly-religious populations. Many scales assess religious beliefs, where assent to belief is often widespread, subjective, and a superficial assessment of religious commitment. While people may say they believe, what does that mean in terms of action? This 10-item scale seeks to convert simple belief into action, where action is assessed in terms of what individuals say is most important in their lives, how they spend their time, and where they put their financial resources. We summarize here the psychometric characteristics of the BIAC in two very different populations: stressed female caregivers in Southern California and North Carolina, and college students attending three universities in Mainland China. We conclude that the BIAC is a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of religious commitment in these two samples, and encourage research in other population groups using this scale to determine its psychometric properties more generally.

  2. Mental Health Beliefs Amongst Emirati Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darmaki, Fatima; Thomas, Justin; Yaaqeib, Saad

    2016-02-01

    Recent epidemiological data from Arabian Gulf nations suggest that mental health problems such as depression and anxiety have a relatively high prevalence, particularly amongst women. However, despite the widespread morbidity, treatment seeking for mental health problems is low. Mental health beliefs amongst female Emirati college students were explored. A questionnaire exploring perceptions about the causes, consequences and best forms of intervention for mental health problems was administered to 70 participants. Data revealed that social and environmental factors were given the most weight in terms of etiology. Social stigma was the most frequently identified barrier to help seeking. Religious practices were commonly reported as an approach to cope with mental health problems and to maintain good psychological health. Most participants reported willingness to seek help from a healthcare professional. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for improving the quality and accessibility of mental health services in the gulf region.

  3. Association of health professional leadership behaviors on health promotion practice beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jacqueline D; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Attoh, Prince; D'Abundo, Michelle; Gong, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Leadership is a process by which an individual influences a group or individual to achieve a common goal, in this case health promotion for individuals with disabilities. (1) To examine the association between the transformational leadership behaviors of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) network professionals and their practice beliefs about health promotion activities, specifically cardiovascular fitness and healthy weight, for people with disabilities. (2) To determine if discipline and/or years of practice moderate the association between transformational leadership behaviors and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. There is a positive association between transformational leadership behaviors and health professionals practice beliefs regarding health promotion activities for persons with disabilities. A quantitative cross-sectional web-based survey design was used to determine the association between leadership behaviors and practices beliefs regarding health promotion for people with disabilities. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and an adapted version of the Role of Health Promotion in Physical Therapy Survey were used to measure leadership and practice beliefs, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the association of leadership behaviors with health promotion practice beliefs variables. Transformational leadership behaviors of the AUCD network professionals were positively associated with health promotion practice beliefs about cardiovascular fitness for people with disabilities. Years post licensure and discipline did not moderate the association between transformational leadership and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. Transformational leadership may facilitate health professionals' health promotion practices for people with disabilities. Further research and training in leadership is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hispanic mothers' beliefs and practices regarding selected children's health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, B I

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the Hispanic mothers' initial sources of advice and help with children's illnesses; beliefs about the etiology and seriousness of certain children's illnesses, namely, fever, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, conjunctivitis, skin rash, minor wounds, and burns; practices for the management of these children's health problems, including the use of home remedies, if any. Interviews were conducted with 100 women of Hispanic origin who had at least one child age 5 years or less and who were attending a community clinic in a rural area of central California. Mothers' beliefs about problem etiologies varied widely and revealed several misconceptions, folk beliefs, and lack of knowledge. The findings also revealed that only 32% of the mothers used or would use health professionals as the initial source of advice or help with children's problems. The majority of the subjects (81%) admitted to using home remedies to manage children's problems; 17% sought the help of a folk healer (mainly for the treatment of empacho). The various types of home remedies used by mothers were described and included the ingestion or application of certain foods, fluids, herbal teas, or other materials as well as methods to eliminate the perceived causes of the problems. It is important to note that 11% of the mothers had used azarcon or greta (substances containing lead) for treating empacho and other stomach problems in children. The need for culturally responsive and sensitive health care is discussed.

  5. OSTEOPOROSIS HEALTH BELIEF, KNOWLEDGE LEVEL AND RISK FACTORS IN INDIVIDUALS WHOSE BONE MINERAL DENSITY WAS REQUIRED

    OpenAIRE

    Gulpinar ASLAN; Dilek KILIC

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This descriptive-relational study aims to identify osteoporosıs health belief, knowledge level and risk factors in individuals whose bone mineral density was required. Method: Target population of the study was 110 men and 126 women aged 35 and over, who applied to Atatürk University Aziziye - Yakutiye Research Hospital Nuclear Medicine Center Bone Densitometer Unit between January 2010 and October 2010. No sampling was performed, the whole target population was involved in the study...

  6. Maternal health practices, beliefs and traditions in southeast Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jessica L; Short, Samm; Robson, Laura; Andriatsihosena, Mamy Soafaly

    2014-09-01

    Contextualising maternal health in countries with high maternal mortality is vital for designing and implementing effective health interventions. A research project was therefore conducted to explore practices, beliefs and traditions around pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in southeast Madagascar. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 256 pregnant women, mothers of young children, community members and stakeholders; transcripts were analysed to identify and explore predetermined and emerging themes. A questionnaire was also conducted with 373 women of reproductive age from randomly selected households. Data was analysed using STATA. Results confirmed high local rates of maternal mortality and morbidity and revealed a range of traditional health care practices and beliefs impacting on women's health seeking behaviours. The following socio-cultural barriers to health were identified: 1) lack of knowledge, 2) risky practices, 3) delays seeking biomedical care, and 4) family and community expectations. Recommendations include educational outreach and behaviour change communications targeted for women, their partners and family, increased engagement with traditional midwives and healers, and capacity building of formal health service providers.

  7. Parents’ Health Beliefs Influence Breastfeeding Patterns among Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Parsa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine factors related to breastfeeding and its perceived health benefits among Iranian mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using 240 postpartum women who were selected randomly from eight public health care centers in Hamadan, Iran, in 2012. Mothers who breastfed (BF and mothers who never breastfed (NBF were given a structured questionnaire to collect their demographic data and information regarding their health beliefs and attitude towards child-rearing. Descriptive and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: The mean length of breastfeeding was 11.6 (standard deviation=12.5 weeks. There was no difference in demographic variables, such as age, type of medical insurance, number of living children, employment, education, and household income (p>0.050, between mothers that breastfed and those that did not. Mothers’ perception of the severity of child illness was higher in those who breastfed than those who never breastfed (p=0.050. In contrast, BF mothers had higher perceived confidence of medical care to prevent diseases (p<0.050 and a higher perception of reverse parent-child roles than NBF mothers (p<0.050. Conclusion: Mothers’ health beliefs and attitude to parenting has a significant role in choosing to breastfeed. Physicians and healthcare providers may provide supportive information that influence a mother’s breastfeeding behavior.

  8. Predicting Health Care Utilization among Latinos: Health Locus of Control Beliefs or Access Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria; Xiao, Chenyang

    2014-01-01

    There are two competing research explanations to account for Latinos' underutilization of health services relative to non-Latino Whites in the United States. One hypothesis examines the impact of health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, while the other focuses on the role of access factors on health care use. To date, the relative strength of…

  9. Health beliefs, practice, and priorities for health care of Arab Muslims in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Abdel Raheem Odeh

    2008-07-01

    The Arab Muslim population is one of the dramatically increasing minorities in the United States. In addition to other factors, religion and cultural background influence individuals' beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes toward health and illness. The author describes health beliefs and practices of the Arab Muslim population in the United States. That population is at an increased risk for several diseases and faces many barriers to accessing the American health care system. Some barriers, such as modesty, gender preference in healthcare providers, and illness causation misconceptions, arise out of their cultural beliefs and practices. Other barriers are related to the complexity of the health care system and the lack of culturally competent services within it. Nurses need to be aware of these religious and cultural factors to provide culturally competent health promotion services for this population. Nurses also need to integrate Islamic teachings into their interventions to provide appropriate care and to motivate healthy behaviors.

  10. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  11. Fathers' beliefs about parenting and fathers' clubs to promote child health in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Gebrian, Bette; Astone, Nan Marie

    2012-04-01

    Health care providers are challenged to use culturally appropriate, low-technology approaches to improve child health in resource-poor countries. Village fathers' clubs is one approach used in rural Haiti since 1994. Fathers meet regularly for health education and community-building activities. Our aim was to investigate parenting practices and beliefs among Haitian fathers of young children and to explore their views on fathers' clubs. We conducted semistructured interviews with 18 fathers. Themes identified were fathers' involvement in routine care of their children, the close partnerships of fathers and mothers in child care, fathers' responsibilities to their communities, and fathers' clubs as an important supportive institution for the Haitian fathers and their families. Rural Haitian fathers reported taking a very active role in the lives of their families and children. Increased involvement of fathers should be explored as a strategy to improve child health and survival in other parts of Haiti and throughout the world.

  12. Knowledge, Health Beliefs, and Self-Efficacy regarding Osteoporosis in Perimenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Renée D. Endicott

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this pilot study were to (1) determine if having a family history of osteoporosis impacts knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy regarding osteoporosis among perimenopausal women aged 42?52 and to (2) describe the impact of an osteoporosis-specific educational intervention had on the knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy of this population. Participants completed three surveys measuring knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis before and tw...

  13. Women’s Attitudes and Health Beliefs toward Osteoporosis Screening in a Community Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Deo; Rajesh Nayak; Jigar Rajpura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine women’s attitudes and health beliefs towards osteoporosis screening in a community pharmacy setting, utilizing the theoretical framework of Health Belief Model. A nonexperimental, cross-sectional research design, examining a convenience sample of women aged 18 and over, from several New York City senior care centers, a church, and a university campus in New York, was employed to assess the study objectives. Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale questionnaire wa...

  14. Impact of health belief modification on intention to make smoke free home among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Kazemi; Soheila Ehsanpour; Nafiseh Sadat Nekoei Zahraei; Akbar Hasanzadeh; Nastaran Mohammad Ali Beigi; Zahra Malverdi

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of health education on modification of health belief and intention among pregnant women to have smoke free home. Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 91 pregnant women completed the study in two groups. Intervention group was educated about the harms of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was a framework for analyzing the beliefs. After 10-12 weeks, the HBM constructs and weekly ETS exposure at home...

  15. Nurses' perceptions of health beliefs and impact on teaching and practice: a Q-sort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, R; Stone, T E; Petrini, M A; Turale, S

    2017-08-22

    To understand Chinese nurses' perceptions of health beliefs, their content, origin and the influence of sociocultural factors, as a basis of their evidence-based practice. This study contributes to a larger study to establish the health beliefs of Japanese, Australian, Chinese, South Korean and Thai nurses. Registered nurses teach patients and students about maintaining or attaining health are subject to the same range of influences and their health beliefs may be antithetical to current health evidence. Q-method design using q-sort and interview was used to explore the perspectives on a range of health beliefs of 60 nurses in four cities in China. Three factors arose from the perceptions of the participants about health and accounted for 50.2% of the total variance: (1) social impact, (2) 'the importance of evidence', and (3) beliefs rooted in culture. Influence on nurses' health beliefs was explored in terms of the internalized and frequently unconscious beliefs, values and norms tying them to their communities, reflecting the need for nurses to be aware of their health beliefs and behaviours. Education for nurses in practice needs to acknowledge that individual practitioners' beliefs strongly influence health teaching for patients and families. In order to implement evidenced-based practice and teach in line with current evidence nurses need to critically examine and reflect on the impact of culture, society and the media on their own health beliefs. Education policy needs to consider that culture and societal pressures affect nurses' health beliefs and practice. Critical thinking, reflective and evidence-based practice need to be emphasized in clinical training and nurse education. China also needs to develop policies to allow nurses to be able to assess the reliability of health information on the Internet and to make quality health research more available. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  16. OSTEOPOROSIS HEALTH BELIEF, KNOWLEDGE LEVEL AND RISK FACTORS IN INDIVIDUALS WHOSE BONE MINERAL DENSITY WAS REQUIRED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulpinar ASLAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This descriptive-relational study aims to identify osteoporosıs health belief, knowledge level and risk factors in individuals whose bone mineral density was required. Method: Target population of the study was 110 men and 126 women aged 35 and over, who applied to Atatürk University Aziziye - Yakutiye Research Hospital Nuclear Medicine Center Bone Densitometer Unit between January 2010 and October 2010. No sampling was performed, the whole target population was involved in the study. Data were collected through the Personal Information Form that included socio-demographic features, The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale, the Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale and the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test. Results: The Osteoporosis Health Belief score of the participants was 139.99±14.79, Osteoporosis Knowledge score was 10.06±4.30, and Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy score was 742.00±213.44. Among Osteoporosis health beliefs, women’s Susceptibility, Seriousness, Barriers of Exercise, and Barriers of Calcium mean scores were found to be higher than those of men (p<0.001. Men’s Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy scale and sub-dimensions mean scores were found to be higher in comparison to women (p<0.001. DEXA analysis results show that 57.1% of the women and 27.3% of the men were diagnosed with osteoporosis. Conclusion: According to the Logistic regression analysis that aimed to identify the risk factors having roles in Osteoporosis diagnosis, the affecting risk factors were gender, age, and medicine use. As for women, logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors were education level – being illiterate, medicine use, osteoporosis story in family, and 4 or more deliveries.

  17. Feeling Frugal: Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Cultural Health Beliefs among Women of Mexican Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrayo, Evelinn A.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae

    2003-01-01

    Investigates influences of acculturation, socioeconomic status (SES), and cultural health beliefs on Mexican-descent women's preventive health behaviors. In 5 focus group interviews sampling across levels of acculturation and SES, women expressing more traditional Mexican health beliefs about breast cancer screening were of lower SES and were less…

  18. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  19. Cardiovascular disease in the Amish: an exploratory study of knowledge, beliefs, and health care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Deborah R; Staffileno, Beth A; Schwartz, Karon S; Coke, Lola; Fogg, Louis; Reiling, Denise

    2011-01-01

    The Old Order Amish population is growing, yet little is known about their cardiovascular health care practices. This ethnographic study explored their cardiovascular knowledge, beliefs, and health care practices. This study showed that the Amish have distinct beliefs and practices which affect their cardiovascular health, and that culturally appropriate education is needed. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  20. Patient involvement in Danish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate different types of patient involvement in Denmark, and to discuss the potential implications of pursuing several strategies for patient involvement simultaneously. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper presents a preliminary framework...... implications for the development of patient involvement in health care. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This paper fulfills a need to study different types of patient involvement and to develop a theoretical framework for characterizing and analyzing such involvement strategies....... for analysis of patient involvement in health care. This framework is used to analyze key governance features of patient involvement in Denmark based on previous research papers and reports describing patient involvement in Danish health care. FINDINGS: Patient involvement is important in Denmark...

  1. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  2. Sexuality beliefs among Cambodians: implications for health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, J C

    1994-01-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted among 53 Cambodian women and men to generate information about the sexuality beliefs of this group. Major themes included the relationship between women's sexuality and family honor, the acceptance of pregnancy as inevitable, and the limited discussion of sexuality among intimate friends and family members. During the war, sexuality was controlled by the Khmer Rouge when family life was restructured. Personnel in the refugee camps introduced the concept of family planning to Cambodians, exposing them not only to new information, but also to discussion of an intimate topic with strangers. The resettlement experience continues this trend while rumors about family planning methods continue and premarital pregnancies occur. Health care professionals who work with Cambodians need to do so in collaboration and conjunction with the community.

  3. Evaluation of the osteoporosis health belief scale in korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Young-Sang; Byun, Dong Won; Jang, Seyeon; Jeon, Dong-Su; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2013-05-01

    The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) is a 42-item questionnaire designed to assess susceptibility, seriousness, calcium benefits, calcium barriers, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and health motivation related to osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate its psychometric properties to enable the provision of educational tips regarding osteoporosis. All women who had visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and whose bone mineral density was measured from January 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled by interview using the OHBS. We also evaluated the women's general clinical characteristics. One hundred seventy-seven women were enrolled in the present study. In the present study, the barriers to calcium intake subscale had the lowest mean score (15.03±3.02), and the Benefit of Exercise subscale had the highest (23.02±3.03). The scores for participants in their 20s were significantly higher than scores for those in their 70s on the Benefits of Exercise subscale and Barriers to Exercise subscale (P=0.014 and P=0.022, respectively). Education for health motivation to prevent osteoporosis is important for young women. Additional systematic education programs are needed for the general population.

  4. Folk belief, illness behavior and mental health in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J K

    1998-03-01

    In this paper, an overview of the literature relevant to the issues of illness behavior and help-seeking behavior in relation to mental health and illness, focusing on the Taiwan area is presented. Arguments for the prioritization and appreciation of the folk perspective of mental illness and health are addressed. The traditional medical beliefs in the Chinese culture that emphasize integration and continuity, instead of differentiation, of/between body and mind, person and nature, nature and super-nature, the visible (with form) and the invisible (without form), and yang and yin, have laid the basis for the theoretical framework of somatization as normative illness behavior rather than psychologization, and also dissociation as normative illness behavior rather than repression. A case report on folk psychotherapy is given here to illustrate the argument. The continuum models illustrated in this paper, either the shen-kuei syndrome in its broad sense extending from koro to neurasthenia, frigophobia or the spirit possession syndrome in its broad sense extending from the pathological and peripheral (Hsieh-ping) to the normative and ritual (shamanism), could well remind us of the powerful influence of the folk and popular contexts of culture that underlie illness behavior in relation to mental health in Taiwan.

  5. Health beliefs about lifestyle habits differ between patients and spouses 1 year after a cardiac event - a qualitative analysis based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Anita Kärner; Nilsson, Staffan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Tingström, Pia

    2017-06-01

    Spousal concordance on risk factors and lifestyle habits exists and can partly be explained by patients' and spouses' health beliefs and underuse of cardiac rehabilitation. However, there have been very few qualitative comparisons of health beliefs between patients and spouses after a cardiac event. To examine and qualitatively compare the health beliefs of patients with coronary heart disease and their spouses about lifestyle habits, 1 year after the cardiac event. Explorative and descriptive. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with patients (n = 14) 1 year after a cardiac event, as well as individual interviews with spouses (n = 8). The transcriptions underwent a deductive qualitative content analysis, within the framework of the Health Belief Model. Patients' and spouses' health beliefs about lifestyle habits qualitatively differed in most predetermined main analytical categories of the Health Belief Model. The patients relied more on their own capacity and the healthcare system than on collaboration with their spouses who instead emphasised the importance of mutual activities to establish lifestyle habits. The spouses therefore experienced problems with different family preferences compared to the patients' wishes. Moreover, only patients believed supervised exercise was beneficial for risk reduction of coronary heart disease and they related barriers for medication to a self-healing body and a meaningless life without relatives and old habits. Patients and spouses agreed that despite the severity of illness, life was captured and that normalisation to a life as usual was possible. The patients' and spouses' qualitatively different health beliefs regarding health-related behaviours imply a new approach. Nurses and associated professionals need to follow-up patients' and spouses' in primary health care to support them in a tailored way, for example in problem-based sessions. Recognition and understanding of their different views and otherness

  6. The Impact of Traditional Health Beliefs on the Health Practices of Women From Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Kan-Lin; Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2016-07-28

    This study investigated the health beliefs of Taiwanese women in Anping, an urban district in Taiwan that was introduced to Western medicine in the 1860s. A qualitative design with content analysis was used. Fourteen Anping women aged 44 to 84 years were interviewed. The women integrated both traditional and Western biomedicine without any dissonance. Three themes were found: cultural beliefs about medicine-diet homology or the lack of a distinction between medicine and food, reliance on both doctor and deity, and a pattern of health practice based on situational decision making about which health practice to employ. Understanding health-related viewpoints in Chinese culture and its rationale will help health workers provide culturally competent care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Cultural and health beliefs of pregnant women in Zambia regarding pregnancy and child birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namakau C. M'soka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth exist in various cultures globally. Healthcare practitioners need to be aware of these beliefs so as to contextualise theirpractice in their communities.Objectives: To explore the health beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth of womenattending the antenatal clinic at Chawama Health Center in Lusaka Zambia.Method: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of women attending antenatal care(n = 294 who were selected by systematic sampling. A researcher-administered questionnairewas used for data collection.Results: Results indicated that women attending antenatal care at Chawama Clinic held certain beliefs relating to diet, behaviour and the use of medicinal herbs during pregnancy and post-delivery. The main beliefs on diet related to a balanced diet, eating of eggs, okra, bones, offal, sugar cane, alcohol consumption and salt intake. The main beliefs on behaviour related to commencement of antenatal care, daily activities, quarrels, bad rituals, infidelity and the use of condoms during pregnancy. The main beliefs on the use of medicinal herbs were on their use to expedite the delivery process, to assist in difficult deliveries and for body cleansing following a miscarriage.Conclusion: Women attending antenatal care at the Chawama Clinic hold a number of beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth. Those beliefs that are of benefit to the patients should be encouraged with scientific explanations, whilst those posing a health risk should be discouraged respectfully.

  8. Cultural and health beliefs of pregnant women in Zambia regarding pregnancy and child birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'soka, Namakau C; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Pretorius, Deidre

    2015-04-10

    Health beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth exist in various cultures globally. Healthcare practitioners need to be aware of these beliefs so as to contextualise their practice in their communities. To explore the health beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth of women attending the antenatal clinic at Chawama Health Center in Lusaka Zambia. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of women attending antenatal care(n = 294) who were selected by systematic sampling. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results indicated that women attending antenatal care at Chawama Clinic held certain beliefs relating to diet, behaviour and the use of medicinal herbs during pregnancy and post-delivery. The main beliefs on diet related to a balanced diet, eating of eggs, okra, bones, offal, sugar cane, alcohol consumption and salt intake. The main beliefs on behaviour related to commencement of antenatal care, daily activities, quarrels, bad rituals, infidelity and the use of condoms during pregnancy. The main beliefs on the use of medicinal herbs were on their use to expedite the delivery process, to assist in difficult deliveries and for body cleansing following a miscarriage. Women attending antenatal care at the Chawama Clinic hold a number of beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth. Those beliefs that are of benefit to the patients should be encouraged with scientific explanations, whilst those posing a health risk should be discouraged respectfully.

  9. Advocacy coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate: Exploring coalition structure, policy beliefs, resources, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D; Lewis, LaVonna B; Cousineau, Michael R; Nichol, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Advocacy coalitions often play an important role in the state health policymaking process, yet little is known about their structure, composition, and behavior. In 2008, California became the first state to enact a menu labeling law. Using the advocacy coalition framework, we examine different facets of the coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate. We use a qualitative research approach to identify coalition members and explore their expressed beliefs and policy arguments, resources, and strategies by analyzing legislative documents (n = 87) and newspaper articles (n = 78) produced between 1999 and 2009. Between 2003 and 2008, six menu labeling bills were introduced in the state's legislature. We found the issue received increasing media attention during this period. We identified two advocacy coalitions involved in the debate-a public health (PH) coalition and an industry coalition. State organizations acted as coalition leaders and participated for a longer duration than elected officials. The structure and composition of each coalition varied. PH coalition leadership and membership notably increased compared to the industry coalition. The PH coalition, led by nonprofit PH and health organizations, promoted a clear and consistent message around informed decision making. The industry coalition, led by a state restaurant association, responded with cost and implementation arguments. Each coalition used various resources and strategies to advance desired outcomes. PH coalition leaders were particularly effective at using resources and employing advocacy strategies, which included engaging state legislators as coalition members, using public opinion polls and information, and leveraging media resources to garner support. Policy precedence and a local policy push emerged as important policymaking strategies. Areas for future research on the state health policymaking process are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational risk involving students of health

    OpenAIRE

    Éder Oliveira Rocha; Amanda Mendonça Marques; Luana Kelle Batista Moura; Cristina Maria Miranda de Sousa; Eucário Leite Monteiro Alves; Gerardo Vasconcelos Mesquita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the social representations of occupational risks involving students in the area of health. Method: Exploratory research with 160 students from nursing, medicine and dentistry, through interviews. The data were processed in ALCESTE 4.8 and lexical analysis done by descending hierarchical classification. Results: In four semantic classes, namely: occupational risks involving students in the area of health, the work environment and occupational risks, exposure to accidents ...

  11. Pathways linking health literacy, health beliefs, and cognition to medication adherence in older adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soones, Tacara N; Lin, Jenny L; Wolf, Michael S; O'Conor, Rachel; Martynenko, Melissa; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Federman, Alex D

    2017-03-01

    Limited health literacy is associated with low adherence to asthma controller medications among older adults. We sought to describe the causal pathway linking health literacy to medication adherence by modeling asthma illness and medication beliefs as mediators. We recruited adults aged 60 years and older with asthma from hospital and community practices in New York, New York, and Chicago, Illinois. We measured health literacy and medication adherence using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults and the Medication Adherence Rating Scale, respectively. We used validated instruments to assess asthma illness and medication beliefs. We assessed cognition using a cognitive battery. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled illness and medication beliefs as mediators of the relationship between health literacy and adherence while controlling for cognition. Our study included 433 patients with a mean age of 67 ± 6.8 years. The sample had 84% women, 31% non-Hispanic blacks, and 39% Hispanics. The 36% of patients with limited health literacy were more likely to have misconceptions about asthma (P medications (P adherence mediated by medications concerns (β = 0.033; P = .002). Neither medication necessity (β = 0.044; P = .138) nor illness beliefs (β = 0.007; P = .143) demonstrated a mediational role between health literacy and adherence. Interventions designed to improve asthma controller medication adherence in older adults may be enhanced by addressing concerns about medications in addition to using communication strategies appropriate for populations with limited health literacy and cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Religious beliefs and HIV / AIDS / STD health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S

    1996-01-01

    Most people are raised in an environment that espouses a religion. Religions use different codes to structure people's lives. These codes contribute to the enforcement of societal discipline. Some religious laws bestow privileges to men (e.g., polygamy), which may make women more vulnerable to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). These laws do not reflect the great changes in lifestyles. Communities still condemn people with HIV/AIDS as deserving the infection because they are immoral. Some community members, proclaiming religion as their justification, control the content of health education by limiting health education to sexual abstinence and fidelity. Should not religions also support the promotion of condom use? Everyone needs to learn about HIV/AIDS and to have access to preventive methods. Educators and counselors must avoid moralizing, but should instead offer people different options to protect themselves and others. Health educators should emphasize those religious codes and edicts with positive values relevant to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. No religious law calls for ostracizing individuals. Religious laws prohibit stigmatization, discrimination, prejudice, and ill-treatment. Religions tend to call for tolerance. They are founded on a universal belief of duty to support all suffering persons and to help them receive the best possible care and treatment. Thus, religion can help make HIV infection an acceptable social condition. On the grounds of edict or morality, religion cannot be a non-participant. In many cases, religion has restored respect, dignity, and understanding for persons with HIV/AIDS. Many religious groups provide care for such persons.

  13. Why Bother with Beliefs? Examining Relationships between Race/Ethnicity, Parental Beliefs about Causes of Child Problems, and Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen; Hough, Richard L.; Lau, Anna; Fakhry, Fatme; Garland, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the role of parental beliefs about the causes of child problems in predicting later mental health service use in a large, diverse population of at-risk youths. Study hypotheses were that parental beliefs consistent with biopsychosocial causes would be associated with later mental health service use;…

  14. Relationships between health behavior, knowledge, and beliefs among Swedish blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näslund, G K

    1997-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the health behavior, risk awareness and beliefs concerning the importance of positive health practices among blue-collar workers, and to examine the relationships between behavior, knowledge and beliefs. Data were gathered from 1359 workers aged 18-65 years using a postal questionnaire to 2493 randomly selected members of two labor unions. A high prevalence of negative health practices was noted among the respondents. While no relationship was found between health behaviors and awareness of risks associated with such behaviors, there was a relationship between positive health practices and strong beliefs about the importance of those practices. Awareness of the influence of a positive behavior on disease risk was associated with a stronger belief concerning the importance of that behavior. Women were characterized by having more positive health behavior, a higher level of risk awareness and stronger beliefs concerning the importance of positive health practices. It was concluded that while relationships were found between behavior and beliefs, and between beliefs and risk awareness, further research to establish the direction of the relationships is warranted.

  15. The Relationship of Spiritual Beliefs and Involvement with the Experience of Anger and Stress in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterowd, Carrie; Harrist, Steve; Thomason, Nancy; Worth, Sheri; Carlozzi, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of spiritual beliefs and involvement with anger and stress in college students. The spirituality scales were positively related to perceived stress and most of the anger subscales. When stress was controlled, the spirituality subscales still contributed significantly to anger.

  16. Families living with chronic illness: beliefs about illness, family, and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årestedt, Liselott; Benzein, Eva; Persson, Carina

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs can be described as the lenses through which we view the world. With emerging illness, beliefs about the illness experience become important for nurses to understand to enhance well-being and healing. The aim of this study was to illuminate illness beliefs of families living with chronic illness. A qualitative design was chosen, including repeated narrative research interviews with seven Swedish families living with chronic illness. Hermeneutic analysis was used to interpret the transcribed family interviews. The result described beliefs in families, both within and across families. Both core beliefs and secondary beliefs about illness, family, and health care were revealed. Illness beliefs have importance for how families respond to and manage situations that arise from their encounters with illness. Nurses have to make space for and listen to families' stories of illness to become aware of what beliefs may support and encourage family well-being and healing. The Illness Beliefs Model provides a touchstone whereby nurses can distinguish both individual and shared beliefs within families living with chronic illness and provide ideas for family intervention if needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Effect of Education by Text Messaging Based on Health Belief Model on Food Handling Behaviors in Health Volunteers\\' Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Morowatisharifabad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The text message can be presented as a way to change patterns of behavior-based prevention programs, such as the theory of planned behavior and health belief model to be used., And as an alternative approach to the individual and group training programs should be considered. The present study examined the effectiveness of this new method in promoting food handling behavior of a team of health volunteers on health belief model was based. Methods: This study was an evaluation of an intervention in which 16 health centers, 200 health volunteers who were actively involved Yazd city who were randomly divided into two groups. After the initial test, chi-square test, t test were analyzed. The intervention group received an educational package on the SMS regarding  food handling behavior on health Belief Model was designed for codification; wantonly within a month and a half a day and after 8 weeks of the last SMS sent from any intervention and control groups was performed in a secondary assessment. Tool for data gathering questionnaire consisting of structures of health belief model including demographic variables, respectively. Data were using 18spss and employing applied, statistical tests of non-parametric Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and correlation coefficient the analysis was. Results: The overall food handling behavior, after training significantly increased in the intervention group (p =0/01, while the control group was not significant (p=0/21. Cooling behavior after training in the experimental group and the control group was significantly increased (p =0/00. Cooking behavior, after training in the intervention group (p =0/11 and control group( p =0/17 was not significantly increased. Individual health behavior, after training in the intervention group (p =0/13 and control group (p =0/07 was not significantly increased. Separation behavior after training has not significantly increased in the

  18. HEALTH BELIEFS AND PROMOTION OF HIV-PREVENTIVE INTENTIONS AMONG TEENAGERS : A SCOTTISH PERSPECTIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ABRAHAM, Charles; SHEERAN, P; SPEARS, R; ABRAMS, D

    1992-01-01

    Beliefs concerning the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and preventive behaviors were examined in a sample of 351 sexually active Scottish teenagers. A postal questionnaire, including measures of variables specified by the health belief model (HBM) and preventive intentions, was

  19. Patient involvement in health care decision making: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat, Shaghayegh; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila; Hessam, Somayeh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Patient participation means involvement of the patient in decision making or expressing opinions about different treatment methods, which includes sharing information, feelings and signs and accepting health team instructions. Given the importance of patient participation in healthcare decision making which empowers patients and improves services and health outcomes, this study was performed to review previous studies on patient participation in healthcare decision making. To prepare this narrative review article, researchers used general and specific search engines, as well as textbooks addressing this subject for an in-depth study of patient involvement in healthcare decision-making. As a result, 35 (out of 100 relevant) articles and also two books were selected for writing this review article. BASED ON THE REVIEW OF ARTICLES AND BOOKS, TOPICS WERE DIVIDED INTO SIX GENERAL CATEGORIES: definition of participation, importance of patient participation, factors influencing participation of patients in healthcare decisions, method of patient participation, tools for evaluating participation, and benefits and consequences of patient participation in health care decision-making. IN MOST STUDIES, FACTORS INFLUENCING PATIENT PARTICIPATION CONSISTED OF: factors associated with health care professionals such as doctor-patient relationship, recognition of patient's knowledge, allocation of sufficient time for participation, and also factors related to patients such as having knowledge, physical and cognitive ability, and emotional connections, beliefs, values and their experiences in relation to health services.

  20. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. McLeod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is major public health concern affecting millions of older adults worldwide. A systematic review was carried out to identify the most common osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women from descriptive and intervention studies. The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS and Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale (OSES evaluate osteoporosis health beliefs, including perceived susceptibility and seriousness, benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy of calcium and exercise, and health motivation, and their relationship to preventive health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies that included OHBS and OSES subscale scores as outcomes was performed. Fifty full-text articles for citations were reviewed based on inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Greater perceived seriousness, benefits, self-efficacy, health motivation, and fewer barriers were the most common health-belief subscales in men and women. Few studies were interventions (n=6 and addressed osteoporosis health beliefs in men (n=8. Taking health beliefs into consideration when planning and conducting education interventions may be useful in both research and practice for osteoporosis prevention and management; however, more research in this area is needed.

  1. Health Beliefs Concerning Breast Self-examination of Nurses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinc Tastan, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: It is important to be aware of the health beliefs of nurses regarding BSE so that their own health can be protected and improved. Beneficial attitudes and behaviors of nurses regarding BSE will enable them to provide more effective services to women regarding breast cancer. Understanding the nurses’ health beliefs, attitude and behavior that are influential to make BSE will guide nursing practices towards early diagnosis of breast cancer at the societal level.

  2. Influence of a screening navigation program on social inequalities in health beliefs about colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Fanny; Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Mignon, Astrid; Berchi, Célia; Salinas, Agnès; Launoy, Guy; Christophe, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a screening navigation program leads to more favorable health beliefs and decreases social inequalities in them. The selected 261 noncompliant participants in a screening navigation versus a usual screening program arm had to respond to health belief measures inspired by the Protection Motivation Theory. Regression analyses showed that social inequalities in perceived efficacy of screening, favorable attitude, and perceived facility were reduced in the screening navigation compared to the usual screening program. These results highlight the importance of health beliefs to understand the mechanism of screening navigation programs in reducing social inequalities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Integrating health belief model and technology acceptance model: an investigation of health-related internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadzadeh, Ashraf Sadat; Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Ong, Fon Sim; Khong, Kok Wei

    2015-02-19

    Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Perceived health risk (β=.135, t1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of perceived usefulness of the Internet and

  4. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  5. Sexual Health, Mental Health, and Beliefs About Cancer Treatments Among Women Attending a Gynecologic Oncology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa; Kueck, Angela; Maksut, Jessica; Gordon, Lori; Metersky, Karen; Miga, Ashley; Brewer, Molly; Siembida, Elizabeth; Bradley, Alison

    2017-09-01

    Sexual health is an important, yet overlooked, aspect of quality of life for gynecologic oncologic patients. Although patients with gynecologic cancer frequently report sexual health concerns, there are limited efforts to address these problems. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between mental health and sexual health needs to be prioritized. To examine multiple components of sexual health in patients with gynecologic cancer. For the present study, sexual health concerns (ie, sexual frequency, desire, response, and satisfaction; orgasm; and pain during sex; independent variables), beliefs about cancer treatments affecting sexual health (dependent variable), and mental health (ie, anxiety and depressive symptoms; dependent variables) of patients at a US gynecologic oncology clinic were assessed. Demographics; cancer diagnosis; positive screening results for cancer; sexual health histories including sexual frequency, desire, pain, orgasm, responsiveness, and satisfaction; and mental health including depression and anxiety symptoms. Most women reported experiencing at least one sexual health concern, and half the women screened positive for experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Forty-nine percent of participants reported having no or very little sexual desire or interest in the past 6 months. Further, in mediation analyses, pain during sex was significantly and positively correlated with depressive symptoms (r = 0.42, P women for whether and to what extent they perceive cancer treatments affecting their sexual health could provide a brief, easily administrable, screener for sexual health concerns and the need for further intervention. Intervention development for patients with gynecologic cancer must include mental health components and addressing perceptions of how cancer treatments affect sexual health functioning. Eaton L, Kueck A, Maksut J, et al. Sexual Health, Mental Health, and Beliefs About Cancer Treatments Among Women Attending a

  6. Psychosocial factors of migration: adaptation and application of the health belief model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Bruijn, B.J.; Bilsborrow, R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial factors influencing behaviour play a central role in health research but seem under-explored in migration research. This is unfortunate because these factors, which include knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, intentions and personality traits, provide essential and potentially effective

  7. The Health Belief Model: Can It Help Us to Understand Contraceptive Use among Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Edward S.

    1983-01-01

    Major concepts of the Health Belief Model, perceived susceptibility and perceived severity, can be applied to family planning, including the use or non-use of contraception among sexually active adolescent females. (Author/CJ)

  8. Health beliefs and quality of life in end - stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilou Paraskevi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients’ beliefs regarding their health are important to understand responses to chronicdisease.Objective: The present study aimed (i to determine whether beliefs about health differ betweendifferent renal replacement therapies in End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD patients and (ii to examinewhether these beliefs are associated with health related quality of life (HQoL as well as mental health.Methodology: A sample of 89 ESRD patients, 41 in haemodialysis (HD treatment and 48 inperitoneal dialysis (PD treatment, completed the World Health Organization Quality of Lifeinstrument, the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inνentory, the Center forEpidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control.Results: Regarding differences in health beliefs between the two groups, HD patients focused more onthe dimension of internal health locus of control. This dimension was associated with better QoL (p=<0.01 and general health (p= 0.03 in the total sample. On the contrary, the dimension of importantothers in health locus of control was associated with higher depression (p=0.02.Conclusions: The beliefs that patients hold about their illness appear to be related to the type of renalreplacement therapy being undertaken. These cognitions have associations with HQoL and mentalhealth in dialysis.

  9. Using of health belief model to promote preventive behaviors against iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Baharzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional problems during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education based on health belief model to promote preventive behaviors against iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. The study was performed on 80 pregnant women that were randomized equally into the experimental and control groups. A self-administered questionnaire based on health belief model constructs was applied to gather data. The experimental group received two educational sessions. The mean age of women was 27.96±5.6 years and mean gestational age was 16.6±1 weeks. Before the intervention, no significant differences in terms of demographic characteristics and health belief model constructs were found between the groups, while after the intervention, the scores of health belief model were different significantly between the control and experimental groups . Since the results of the study indicated the applicability of health belief model to promote nutritional behavior in regard to anemia in pregnancy, implementing health belief model based educational sessions in health centers is suggested to reduce complications of this problem.

  10. Exploring Vaccine Hesitancy Through an Artist-Scientist Collaboration : Visualizing Vaccine-Critical Parents' Health Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Kaisu; Holst, Johan

    2017-09-01

    This project explores vaccine hesitancy through an artist-scientist collaboration. It aims to create better understanding of vaccine hesitant parents' health beliefs and how these influence their vaccine-critical decisions. The project interviews vaccine-hesitant parents in the Netherlands and Finland and develops experimental visual-narrative means to analyse the interview data. Vaccine-hesitant parents' health beliefs are, in this study, expressed through stories, and they are paralleled with so-called illness narratives. The study explores the following four main health beliefs originating from the parents' interviews: (1) perceived benefits of illness, (2) belief in the body's intelligence and self-healing capacity, (3) beliefs about the "inside-outside" flow of substances in the body, and (4) view of death as a natural part of life. These beliefs are interpreted through arts-based diagrammatic representations. These diagrams, merging multiple aspects of the parents' narratives, are subsequently used in a collaborative meaning-making dialogue between the artist and the scientist. The resulting dialogue contrasts the health beliefs behind vaccine hesitancy with scientific knowledge, as well as the authors' personal, and differing, attitudes toward these.

  11. Belief and affect: on the mental pre-cursors of health-related cognition and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgas, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the importance of concepts such as belief and affect to the theory and practice of health psychology, and the potential contribution of the revised conceptualisation of belief proposed in the target article will be considered. In the first half of the paper a number of important differences between the new approach and established empirical approaches to the study of beliefs will be highlighted. The second half of the paper will focus on the important relationship between affect and beliefs, one of the key issues addressed in the target paper. A number of recent theories linking affect and belief will be reviewed, and recent empirical research demonstrating the psychological mechanisms linking affect and belief will be discussed. In light of the considerable achievements of this line of inquiry, it is concluded that the proposed new approach and definition of belief does not as yet offer a preferable alternative to understanding the role of belief in health-related cognition and behaviour.

  12. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of caregivers and rehabilitation providers about disabled children's sleep health: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Velez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Gorman, Sara; Barbosa, Clarita; Zafonte, Ross D; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    .... Identifying attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and perceptions of caregivers and health professionals is essential in developing effective intervention programs to improve disabled children's sleep health...

  13. Using of health belief model to promote preventive behaviors against iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Khadije Baharzadeh; Tayebeh Marashi; Amal Saki; Ahmad Zare Javid; Marziyeh Araban

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional problems during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education based on health belief model to promote preventive behaviors against iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. The study was performed on 80 pregnant women that were randomized equally into the experimental and control groups. A self-administered questionnaire based on health belief model constructs was applied to gather data. The experimenta...

  14. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research

  15. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one's beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research

  16. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT, irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin James Turner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957, the original cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3 the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as

  17. The Older Men's Health Program and Screening Inventory: a tool for assessing health practices and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan J

    2003-01-01

    Men experience greater health risks, poorer health, and shorter life expectancy than women.(1) However, a systematic literature review revealed no measure to assess the health practices and beliefs of elderly men. In response, the Older Men's Health Program and Screening Inventory (OMHPSI) was developed. Nursing practice experience and a review of literature informed instrument development. Subsequent to an expert panel survey and pilot-testing, the OMHPSI was completed by 135 community-dwelling older men and found to be an informative baseline assessment tool congruent with the Healthy People 2010 goal of increasing elders' participation in organized health promotion activities.(2) Furthermore, several statistically significant correlations were found between items on the OMHPSI and demographic variables. Of particular note, the younger participants in this study experienced more barriers to health-promoting behaviors (P healthy lifestyles (P older counterparts.

  18. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Involving patients with E-health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Dam

    2015-01-01

    With e-health technologies, patients are invited as co-producers of data and information. The invitation sparks new expectations, yet often results in disappointments. With persistent ambitions to involve patients by means of e-health, it seems crucial to gain a better understanding of the nature......, sources and workings of the expectations that come with being invited. I analyse the use of an e-health system for ICD-patients, focusing on how patients sought to serve as information providers. Continuing STS-research on invisible work in technology use, I show how using the system involved complex work...... of filtering information. I argue that this ‘filtration work’ was inherently dialogic, that is, characterized by receiver-orientation and the anticipation of response and guided by different communicative projects. For the patients, filtration work thus, first of all, required certain skills and knowledge...

  20. Occupational risk involving students of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Oliveira Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social representations of occupational risks involving students in the area of health. Method: Exploratory research with 160 students from nursing, medicine and dentistry, through interviews. The data were processed in ALCESTE 4.8 and lexical analysis done by descending hierarchical classification. Results: In four semantic classes, namely: occupational risks involving students in the area of health, the work environment and occupational risks, exposure to accidents with sharps and adoption of standard precautions as biosecurity measures. Conclusion: Students healthcare represent occupational risks, such as a concern for the prevention of cross infection in the workplace, should both professionals and students of health, adopt standard precautions and biosecurity measures in the environment work.

  1. Influence of Chinese cultural health beliefs among Malaysian Chinese in a suburban population: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, K S; Tan, T W; Ooi, Y T

    2011-04-01

    In a multiethnic nation, it is not uncommon for doctors to encounter patients of different cultural backgrounds. Often, patients' cultural beliefs influence their perception of health and illnesses, and their treatment option. Many Chinese cultural beliefs are influenced by the Taoist concept of yin-yang balance. We interviewed 50 Malaysian Chinese from the general public of a suburban population in order to unravel the impact of Chinese cultural health beliefs on their decision-making, and this was compared with the opinions of 50 Chinese medical students from second to final year. Convenience sampling was then applied. From the survey, 78 percent of the general public believed that 'too much heat' or 'too much coldness' in the body could cause diseases. Compared to the medical students, a significantly higher number of the respondents held such beliefs, including the beliefs that abdominal colic is due to excessive 'wind' in the abdomen, consuming certain food can dispel wind from the body, and the importance of observing taboos during the confinement period after delivery. The majority of respondents from both groups believed that it is acceptable to combine both traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine. There is a discrepancy in the extent to which these beliefs influence the perception of health and illnesses among the general public and among medical students. Healthcare providers need to be aware of such beliefs and practices regarding traditional Chinese medicine among their Chinese patients.

  2. [The logic of a traditional health belief: solar eclipse and pregnancy in Ocuituco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the logic of one of the commonest health beliefs in rural areas of Mexico is made, taking as a starting point testimonies collected in the area of Ocuituco, in the state of Morelos. This belief suggests that a pregnant woman is in danger of having a harelipped baby during a solar eclipse. The importance of the knowledge about the logic of this kind of beliefs is discussed from a public health perspective. These beliefs are associated with specific forms of suffering and give way to particular preventive measures which must be taken into account if the efficacy of health programs is to be increased. The interrelation of these beliefs with other traditional elements (such as the "loss of the shadow" and the "hot-cold theory") is discussed. Also, some of the already existing interpretations of this belief which seek to link the "loss of the shadow" with the solar eclipse belief are reviewed. Finally, an alternative interpretation of this belief is made from a structuralist methodological perspective. This interpretation is grounded in the Nahuatl myth on the creation of the sun and the moon, and in an analysis of the nature of rabbits in the Nahuatl culture, according to historic secondary sources. It is suggested that the belief about the danger of a solar eclipse must be interpreted in connection to the "hot-cold theory", but not to the "loss of the shadow". This paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of this type of research within the public health field, as it enables us both to understand the underlying logic of this type of conceptions, and to reinforce the dialogue between modern and alternative medicine, so that the daily encounter between these two types of medicine can be facilitated.

  3. The health belief model and the contraceptive behavior of college women: implications for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, N R; Macrina, D M

    1985-06-01

    This study applied the "health belief model" in a comparison of the subjective perceptions, attitudes and beliefs between college women who were adequate or inadequate contraceptors. The 171 sexually active subjects were ascertained from clients of the Family Planning Clinic at the University of Illinois. A questionnaire was designed and tested to measure variables of perceived susceptibility to pregnancy, seriousness of unplanned pregnancy, benefits and barriers of contraceptive use. Inadequate contraceptors or risk-takers were defined as women who used no contraception, less effective methods such as rhythm, spermicides only or withdrawal, or effective methods sporadically. 49.5% of the subjects were risk-takers. Among the inadequate contraceptors, 17% were nonusers, 29% relied on ineffective methods, and 52% used effective methods sporadically. There was no difference between the 2 groups in their belief in seriousness of an unplanned pregnancy. The groups differed significantly in their perceived susceptibility to pregnancy (p.001). They also differed significantly in perception of overall costs and benefits of contraception (p.001), a score created by combining 12 questions on topics such as difficulty and embarrassment in obtaining contraceptives and inconvenience and awkwardness in dealing with them. There was a smaller significant difference (p.05) in a score termed "general use cost benefits," but no difference in a score called "method specific perceptions." These results were corroborated by a discriminate analysis which singled out the perceived costs and benefits and the perceived susceptibility variables as accurate predictors of the adequate contraceptor group. The health belief model showed considerable utility in explaining contraceptive behavior.

  4. Factors Influencing Health Beliefs Among People in South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the influence of personal socio demographic characteristics on the people's beliefs about the cause, treatment and prevention of disease and illness. A cross-section of 338 participants were drawn from a population of literate adults in Ile-Ife using purposive sampling technique. Respondents indicated ...

  5. Association among ageing-related stereotypic beliefs, self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviors in elderly Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hyun-E

    2014-05-01

    To examine the impact of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours and to test the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between ageing-related stereotypic beliefs and health-promoting behaviours in older Korean people. Despite the growing attention given to ageing-related beliefs that can lead to better health outcomes in old age, little is known about the associations between ageing-related stereotypic beliefs, self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours. A cross-sectional, descriptive study. A total of 123 community-dwelling older women were recruited from three cities in south-east Korea. Direct and indirect effects of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours were examined using path analyses. Ageing-related stereotypic beliefs significantly predicted self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours. A significant indirect effect of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on health-promoting behaviours through self-efficacy was detected, indicating that self-efficacy mediated the detrimental impact of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on health-promoting behaviours. Ageing-related stereotypic beliefs function as a factor lowering self-efficacy as well as decreasing health-promoting behaviours. Self-efficacy mediates the influence of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on health-promoting behaviours, indicating that ageing-related stereotypic beliefs decrease self-efficacy which, in turn, could lead to fewer health-promoting behaviours. The findings demonstrate the significance of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs and self-efficacy in guiding the health-promoting behaviours of older people. Healthcare providers should play an active role in understanding ageing-related stereotypic beliefs and decreasing the perceptual barriers to health-promoting behaviours of older people. The development of nursing interventions to improve positive attitudes towards old age and self

  6. Discordance between Lifestyle-Related Health Beliefs and Behaviours of Saudi Women in Dammam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bannay, Hana R.; Jarus, Tal; Jongbloed, Lyn; Dean, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Women living in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia including in the Eastern Province have a high prevalence of lifestyle-related conditions for which targeted health education strategies are needed. This study's objective was to explore their self-reported health status and the congruence of their lifestyle-related health beliefs and practices…

  7. Association of vaccine-related attitudes and beliefs between parents and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Michelle J; Omer, Saad B; Pan, William K Y; Navar-Boggan, Ann Marie; Orenstein, Walter; Marcuse, Edgar K; Taylor, James; DeHart, M Patricia; Carter, Terrell C; Damico, Anthony; Halsey, Neal; Salmon, Daniel A

    2013-09-23

    Health care providers influence parental vaccination decisions. Over 90% of parents report receiving vaccine information from their child's health care provider. The majority of parents of vaccinated children and children exempt from school immunization requirements report their child's primary provider is a good source for vaccine information. The role of health care providers in influencing parents who refuse vaccines has not been fully explored. The objective of the study was to determine the association between vaccine-related attitudes and beliefs of health care providers and parents. We surveyed parents and primary care providers of vaccinated and unvaccinated school age children in four states in 2002-2003 and 2005. We measured key immunization beliefs including perceived risks and benefits of vaccination. Odds ratios for associations between parental and provider responses were calculated using logistic regression. Surveys were completed by 1367 parents (56.1% response rate) and 551 providers (84.3% response rate). Parents with high confidence in vaccine safety were more likely to have providers with similar beliefs, however viewpoints regarding disease susceptibility and severity and vaccine efficacy were not associated. Parents whose providers believed that children get more immunizations than are good for them had 4.6 higher odds of holding that same belief compared to parents whose providers did not have that belief. The beliefs of children's health care providers and parents, including those regarding vaccine safety, are similar. Provider beliefs may contribute to parental decisions to accept, delay or forgo vaccinations. Parents may selectively choose providers who have similar beliefs to their own. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The association of health literacy with illness and medication beliefs among older adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Alex D; Wolf, Michael; Sofianou, Anastasia; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Martynenko, Melissa; Halm, Ethan A; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2013-08-01

    Suboptimal health literacy (HL) and asthma beliefs are associated with poor asthma self-management and outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that low HL is associated with inaccurate beliefs. Asthmatics ≥60 were recruited from hospital and community practices in New York, NY and Chicago, IL (n=420). HL was measured with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults; validated instruments derived from the self regulation model were used to assess beliefs. The association of beliefs with HL was evaluated with multivariate models. Thirty-six percent of patients had low HL; 54% believed they only have asthma when symptoms are present, 29% believed they will not always have asthma and 20% believed that their doctor can cure asthma. HL was associated with beliefs of not having asthma all the time and that asthma can be cured (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.2-2.82; OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.29-3.82, respectively). Patients with low HL were also more likely to be concerned about medication use (β=0.92, p=.05), despite recognizing their necessity (β=-1.36, p=.01). Older asthmatics with low HL endorse erroneous asthma beliefs. Health communications for improving self-management behaviors in asthma should employ both health literacy-appropriate strategies and messages to counter illness-related misconceptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Should I and Can I?": A mixed methods study of clinician beliefs and attitudes in the management of lifestyle risk factors in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoroso Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care (PHC clinicians have an important role to play in addressing lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases. However they intervene only rarely, despite the opportunities that arise within their routine clinical practice. Beliefs and attitudes have been shown to be associated with risk factor management practices, but little is known about this for PHC clinicians working outside general practice. The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of PHC clinicians about incorporating lifestyle risk factor management into their routine care and to examine whether these varied according to their self reported level of risk factor management. Methods A cross sectional survey was undertaken with PHC clinicians (n = 59 in three community health teams. Clinicians' beliefs and attitudes were also explored through qualitative interviews with a purposeful sample of 22 clinicians from the teams. Mixed methods analysis was used to compare beliefs and attitudes for those with high and low levels of self reported risk factor management. Results Role congruence, perceived client acceptability, beliefs about capabilities, perceived effectiveness and clinicians' own lifestyle were key themes related to risk factor management practices. Those reporting high levels of risk factor screening and intervention had different beliefs and attitudes to those PHC clinicians who reported lower levels. Conclusion PHC clinicians' level of involvement in risk factor management reflects their beliefs and attitudes about it. This provides insights into ways of intervening to improve the integration of behavioural risk factor management into routine practice.

  10. The Impact of Ethnicity, Nationality, Counseling Orientation, and Mental Health Standards on Stereotypic Beliefs about Women: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belk, Sharyn S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines people's stereotypic beliefs about women. Compares Hispanics to Anglos and Mexico to the U.S. in order to investigate the impact of ethnicity and national culture, respectively, on stereotypic beliefs. Investigates differential mental health standards ascribed to men and women and the influence of counseling orientation on these beliefs.…

  11. Determining the health beliefs and breast cancer fear levels of women regarding mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Gözükara, Fatma; Polat, Perihan; Erçetin, Gözde; Bozkurt, Mehmet Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    Women's fears and health beliefs impact their participation in early breast cancer diagnosis approaches. This study was conducted to determine the health beliefs and fear levels of women older than 50 regarding mammography. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey. The study cohort consisted of 300 women selected by cluster sampling who agreed to participate in the study. A health belief model scale and breast cancer fear scale were used in data collection. Descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test, and correlation analysis were used in the data analysis. Participants had an age average of 59.88 ± 6.49 years, and 86.3% were illiterate. Only 34.7% of women stated that they had had a mammogram in the past. The women's average scores on the lower dimensions of the health belief model scale were determined as follows: 6.52 ± 2.81 for sensitivity perception, 18.49 ± 5.22 for seriousness perception, 16.80 ± 4.31 for health motivation perception, 15.83 ± 3.89 for mammography benefit perception, and 28.74 ± 8.35 for mammography barrier perception. The score average of the breast cancer fear scale was determined as 23.81 ± 9.71. We observed that women's health beliefs and breast cancer fear levels impacted their participation in mammography.

  12. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  13. The relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement: the roles of Taiwanese students' academic beliefs and filial piety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Ho, Hsiu-Zu

    2012-01-01

    The excellent academic performance among East-Asian students has drawn international attention from educators and psychologists. However, the process that underlies student academic achievement for this particular group has rarely been documented. The present study examines how the relation between perceived parental involvement and Taiwanese students' academic achievement is mediated by student academic beliefs (i.e., beliefs about effort, academic self-concept, and perceived control). The study further explores whether this mediating effect varies with types of filial piety. Participants were 468 first-year students from colleges and universities in Taiwan. Multiple-group mediating models were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicated that, for the Taiwanese sample, students' academic beliefs mediated the relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement. Furthermore, the mediational effect was significant for the reciprocal filial type, but not for the authoritarian filial type. The importance of the quality of the parent-child relationship and the internalization process related to children's assumptions of their parents' educational values indicate the need for a contextual view when examining predictors of student academic achievement.

  14. The effect of graphics on environmental health risk beliefs, emotions, behavioral intentions, and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dolores J; Henriques, Jeffrey B

    2009-11-01

    Lay people have difficulty understanding the meaning of environmental health risk information. Visual images can use features that leverage visual perception capabilities and semiotic conventions to promote meaningful comprehension. Such evidence-based features were employed to develop two images of a color-coded visual scale to convey drinking water test results. The effect of these images and a typical alphanumeric (AN) lab report were explored in a repeated measures randomized trial among 261 undergraduates. Outcome measures included risk beliefs, emotions, personal safety threshold, mitigation intentions, the durability of beliefs and intentions over time, and test result recall. The plain image conveyed the strongest risk message overall, likely due to increased visual salience. The more detailed graded image conveyed a stronger message than the AN format only for females. Images only prompted meaningful risk reduction intentions among participants with optimistically biased safety threshold beliefs. Fuzzy trace theory supported some findings as follow. Images appeared to promote the consolidation of beliefs over time from an initial meaning of safety to an integrated meaning of safety and health risk; emotion potentially shaped this process. Although the AN report fostered more accurate recall, images were related to more appropriate beliefs and intentions at both time points. Findings hinted at the potential for images to prompt appropriate beliefs independent of accurate factual knowledge. Overall, results indicate that images facilitated meaningful comprehension of environmental health risk information and suggest foci for further research.

  15. South African consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, Magdalena J.C.; Ellis, Susanna M; Jerling, Johann C.; Badham, Jane; Van der Merwe, Daleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers’ demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolita...

  16. South African consumers opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, Jane Melissa; Bosman, Magdalena Johanna Catharina; Ellis, Susanna Maria; Jerling, Johann Carl; Van der Merwe, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers' demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers' opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolitan and rural...

  17. Can 4-H Involvement Have a Positive Impact on 4-H Youth’s Bullying Beliefs and Behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Duncan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying has negative emotional and physical effects on youth which often continues into adulthood. Bullying can contribute to emotional distress which is often more difficult to detect in victims.  Documented effects of bullying include depression, anxiety, bitterness, elevated levels of stress, as well as negative feelings of self-image and low self-esteem. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that involvement in the state 4-H program has on bullying beliefs and behaviors. This study found that 94% of the participants (senior high students agreed that 4-H helped them to shape their belief towards bullying; 84% either agreed or strongly agreed that 4-H has helped them be more confident around strangers; and 93% indicated that 4-H helped them to gain confidence in situations so they could speak up for themselves.

  18. Health belief structural equation model predicting sleep behavior of employed college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Adequate sleep comprising 7 to 8 hours per day is vital for health and effective functioning for all adults. The purpose of this study was to specify a health belief model to measure and predict the sleep behavior of employed college students. A 52-item instrument was developed with acceptable validity and reliability. A cross-sectional, convenience sample of 188 students was recruited for this study. Structural equation modeling was used to build models. The health belief model explained 34% of the variance in sleep behavior, with perceived severity, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy identified as significant predictors.

  19. Factors influencing healthy eating habits among college students: an application of the health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer; Basil, Michael D; Basil, Debra Z

    2009-01-01

    Poor eating habits are an important public health issue that has large health and economic implications. Many food preferences are established early, but because people make more and more independent eating decisions as they move through adolescence, the transition to independent living during the university days is an important event. To study the phenomenon of food selection, the heath belief model was applied to predict the likelihood of healthy eating among university students. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the validity of the health belief model (HBM) among 194 students, followed by gender-based analyses. The data strongly supported the HBM. Social change campaign implications are discussed.

  20. Health belief model and reasoned action theory in predicting water saving behaviors in yazd, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  1. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  2. Health Promoting Self-Care Behaviors and Its Related Factors in Elderly: Application of Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Azadbakht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health beliefs significantly affect health promoting self-care behaviors. The most important model designed based on health beliefs is the Health Belief Model. This study examined the association between health belief model constructs and demographic factors with behaviors in elderly. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 465 elders referring to Tehran's cultural centers recruited with a multi-stage sampling method. Study instruments were questionnaires regarding demographic information, health beliefs, self-efficacy and health-promoting self-care behaviors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-22 software by Independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and Multiple linear regression. Results: The mean (±SD age of subjects was 68.24±6.12 years and the mean of general self-care score was 1.79±0.36. Gender (P=0.011, economy (P<0.001, education level (P<0.001 and age (P=0.008 were significantly associated with self-care behaviors. Regression analysis showed that perceived barriers, self-efficacy and perceived severity were determinants of behavior (P<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it is essential to pay special attention to self-efficacy, perceived severity and perceived barriers to design health education for elderly.

  3. Health behaviour beliefs and physical health risk factors for cardiovascular disease in an outpatient sample of consumers with a severe mental illness: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunero, Scott; Lamont, Scott

    2010-06-01

    Consumers with a mental illness have a significantly higher risk of physical health problems than the general population. The role of health behaviour beliefs and their part in the health of consumers with a mental illness has been poorly explored in the literature. To understand the relationship between physical health risk factors and health behaviour beliefs in consumers with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional survey study design using the European Health and Behaviour Survey and assessing (n=99) consumer's blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index, smoking history, exercise levels, demographics, family history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease was used. The study was conducted in a 76-bed psychiatric facility located within a 550-bed metropolitan generalist hospital in Sydney, Australia. Patients attending an outpatient clozapine clinic at the mental health service were asked to participate in the survey by a nurse working in the clinic during the study period. Of the 163 consumers asked to be involved in the study, n=99 agreed to participate. Mean waist circumference and body mass index for both males and females were significantly above normal population limits. Overall, consumer's beliefs toward their health on the European Health and Behaviour Survey were positive, having statistically significantly more positive attitudes to the statements 'avoiding too much sugar', 'drinking no alcohol' and 'yearly blood pressure checks' than a previously published non-mental health consumer sample. Whilst having positive attitude toward their healthcare, consumers' physical health risk parameters were higher than general population norms. Consumers with a mental illness have a significantly higher risk for serious physical health problems, yet possess high positive attitudes toward their physical health care. Models of care need to explore this contradiction within mental health services to improve patient outcomes. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  5. Health Belief Model Offers Opportunities for Designing Weight Management Interventions for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H; Riggs, Alysse; Uribe, Franchesca; Spaulding, Trent J

    2017-10-30

    Identify weight-related beliefs of college students and test the predictive power of the Health Belief Model for body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional online survey with beliefs measured on 5-point scales. University in North Carolina. Undergraduates (n = 516; 91.9%), females (n = 399; 71.3%), white non-Hispanic students (n = 507; 86.2%), and 20.3% of overweight or obese status. Perceived severity, susceptibility, barriers, benefits, and internal and external cues to action. One-way ANOVA and regression. Significance was P external cues, barriers, and benefits predicted BMI. Several beliefs were identified that could serve as the basis for weight-related interventions addressing specific concerns, needs, and goals of college students. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The OIE's involvement in aquatic animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernoth, Eva-Maria

    2007-01-01

    The OIE develops normative documents relating to rules that Member Countries can use to protect themselves from diseases without setting up unjustified sanitary barriers. For aquatic animal disease, the Aquatic Animal Health Code and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals are prepared by the Aquatic Animals Commission, with the assistance of internationally renowned experts, the OIE's other Specialist Commissions, and in consultation with OIE Member Countries. These standards are described in detail. There are currently 27 OIE Reference Laboratories and one Collaborating Centre for aquatic animal diseases, providing a network of expertise in aquatic animal health. The OIE is committed to raising awareness about aquatic animal health and assisting Member Countries to fulfill their international obligations. Members of the Aquatic Animals Commission regularly present on the activities of the Aquatic Animals Commission at the Conferences of the OIE Regional Commissions and at scientific venues. Regional initiatives conducted in concert with other organisations complement the OIE's involvement in aquatic animal health. A range of interesting challenges lies ahead.

  7. Relationship Between Medication Adherence and Health Beliefs Among Patients with Hypertension in Oman; Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Al-Noumani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of hypertension (HTN in Oman is alarmingly high and patient adherence to antihypertensive medications is inadequate. This study aimed to assess the relationship between medication adherence and health beliefs among Omani patients with HTN. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in December 2015 and included 45 patients with HTN recruited from four primary health centres in Al Dakhiliyah and Muscat governorates, Oman. Medication adherence and health beliefs were assessed using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS, Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the revised Medication Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale. Results: The mean MMAS score was 5.3 ± 2.0, with 48.9% of patients reporting high adherence. Higher self-efficacy and stronger beliefs regarding medication necessity were significantly related to adherence (P = 0.012 and 0.028, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this pilot study emphasise the role of health beliefs with regards to Omani patients’ adherence to antihypertensive medications.

  8. Health beliefs surrounding leprosy induced foot ulceration; an exploratory qualitative study from South Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deSancha, Maximilian; Jha, Kiran; Williams, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Leprosy is a complex and multi-faceted disease responsible for significant disability in several endemic countries. Physical impairments caused by leprosy are often amplified by local sociocultural phenomena in many parts of the world. In Nepal, sociocultural phenomena such as stigmatisation and health beliefs affecting treatment compliance and health seeking behaviours are known to play an important role in the acquisition of disability. Foot-ulceration is reported to be a common sequelae of leprosy, however, presently little research has been published investigating the potential influence of patient beliefs on management of foot ulceration in leprosy affected persons. In light of this we conducted an exploratory qualitative study to investigate the health beliefs held by patients with foot ulceration at a Leprosy hospital in Nepal. A mixture of open-ended interviews (n = 21), three focus groups and a series of field observations were used to explore the explanatory models of foot ulceration thought to be used by leprosy affected people to understand and explain this specific comorbidity. Our findings indicated that a wide range of health beliefs were present in our sample, many of which lie outside of the biomedical understanding of illness. This included a range of non-biomedical beliefs regarding wounds and widespread application of the traditional 'hot-cold' model of illness used to explain foot ulceration. The findings of this study appear to suggest many beliefs held by leprosy affected persons concerning foot ulceration are highly complex, with some expressed beliefs potentially having a negative impact on self-management of ulceration.

  9. The Influence of Environmental Hazard Maps on Risk Beliefs, Emotion, and Health-related Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N=446) answered questions for a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem’s seriousness mediated attributes’ influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  10. Parent involvement when developing health education programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hassel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The problem of obesity in children and adults has been widely recognised and described in the literature [1]. There are several challenges leading to an augmentation of the problem. Firstly, the aetiology of overweight and obesity is not clear. Secondly, the long term effectiveness of prevention programmes is low. Only in some groups and for a short period of time an effect may be visible [2]. Thirdly, little is known about what children should learn when [3]. A proper concept of educating children in regard to healthy eating or physical activity does not exist. As far as we know an essential pre-requisite for health education programmes is that they are lifestyleoriented and easily transferable into daily family life [4]. For this, working together with the parents would be essential. The main goal of this article will be 1 to get a better understanding of what parents and nurses/ teachers want 2 to strengthen the point that this method is one way to involve the target groups and thus it is likely to increase the acceptance of health education programmes 3 to describe that focus group discussions are a useful tool to identify the opinions of the target group.

    Methods: In the frame of three projects, focus groups with nurses/ teachers and parents have been carried out.

    Results and Conclusions: Results from different focus group discussions with pedagogues and parents will be discussed and conclusions for health education programmes relevant to all key players involved will be identified.

  11. Turkish translation and adaptation of Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for breast cancer mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Meryem; Sayin, Yazile Yazici

    2014-07-01

    To examine the translation and adaptation process from English to Turkish and the validity and reliability of the Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening. Its aim (1) is to provide data about and (2) to assess Turkish women's attitudes and behaviours towards mammography. The proportion of women who have mammography is lower in Turkey. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening-Turkish version can be helpful to determine Turkish women's health beliefs, particularly about mammography. Cross-sectional design was used to collect survey data from Turkish women: classical measurement method. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening was translated from English to Turkish. Again, it was back translated into English. Later, the meaning and clarity of the scale items were evaluated by a bilingual group representing the culture of the target population. Finally, the tool was evaluated by two bilingual professional researchers in terms of content validity, translation validity and psychometric estimates of the validity and reliability. The analysis included a total of 209 Turkish women. The validity of the scale was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity testing. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening aligned to four factors that were coherent and relatively independent of each other. There was a statistically significant relationship among all of the subscale items: the positive and high correlation of the total item test score and high Cronbach's α. The scale has a strong stability over time: the Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening demonstrated acceptable preliminary values of reliability and validity. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening is both a reliable and valid instrument that can be useful in measuring the health beliefs of Turkish women. It can be used to provide data

  12. Validity and reliability assessment of health belief scales for mammography screening in Greek asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Niakas, Dimitris; Tountas, Yannis

    2013-08-01

    The purpose was to assess the validity and reliability of health belief model variables (perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy beliefs) that are often the target of mammography screening interventions. Based on Champion's health belief model scales, questionnaire data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 408 Greek women, 40 years of age or older and with no personal history of cancer. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found all items to load significantly on their respective factors. Standardized factor loadings ranged from 0.55 to 0.88. An analysis of localized areas of respecification of a three-factor model revealed that measurement error correlations between a few items existed. Known-groups and criterion-related validity was supported for all scales, while internal consistency reliability of the scales was satisfactory, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.71 to 0.88. The Greek version of the scales measuring perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy beliefs is a reliable and valid tool when used to assess health beliefs for mammography screening among women. Implications for intervention strategies aimed at increasing the likelihood of mammography utilization are considered. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Manager beliefs regarding worksite health promotion: findings from the Working Healthy Project 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnan, Laura; Weiner, Bryan; Graham, Amanda; Emmons, Karen

    2007-01-01

    To explore differences in manager beliefs about worksite health promotion programs (HPPs). Cross-sectional written survey. Twenty-four manufacturing worksites, with 11,811 employees and 1719 eligible managers. Sixty-six percent (1133/1719) of managers completed the survey; 1047 managers were categorized by level (169 senior, 567 middle, and 311 line supervisors). Results are reported on overall manager beliefs (and by manager level) about importance, efficacy, barriers, and benefits of HPPs. Multilevel analysis modeled the influence of manager level, age, and experience with HPPs on beliefs about HPPs, while accounting for worksite-level effects. Seventy-five percent of managers believed that offering HPPs is highly important. Eighty percent believed that HPPs improved employee health, 68% believed that they reduced health care costs, and 67% believed that they improved employee morale. Few significant differences by manager level were observed on the perceived importance of health promotion, employer responsibilities for health promotion and protection, and efficacy of health promotion strategies or perceived benefits. Senior managers (vs. line supervisors) were significantly less likely to believe that space or cost was a barrier to offering HPPs and were less likely than middle managers or line supervisors to believe that production conflicts were barriers to offering HPPs. Targeted interventions to address manager beliefs, including differences by age, experience, and manager level, are worth consideration when planning worksite HPPs.

  14. Impact of work, health and health beliefs on new episodes of pain-related and general absence-taking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, P.; Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of physical and psychosocial workloads, and self-reported health aspects and health beliefs, on the risk of new episodes of pain-related and general sickness absence. METHODS: This was a cohort study with 2 years of follow-up of 3583 employed participants, 18...... sizes differed. Psychosocial workloads, health anxiety and fear avoidance beliefs were unrelated to any of the absence measures used. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for general absence and for pain-related absence in unselected working populations are similar but of different effect sizes. A potential primary...

  15. Adolescents' beliefs about the fairness of exclusion of peers with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn

    2015-07-01

    Stigma research suggests that exclusion of peers with mental health problems is acceptable, however, no research has explored young people's beliefs about the fairness of exclusion. Group interviews with 148 adolescents explored judgements about the fairness of excluding peers with ADHD or depression from dyads and groups. Young people evaluated exclusion of peers with ADHD or depression from dyads and groups, with the exception of group exclusion of the peer with ADHD, as mostly unfair. Beliefs about the fairness of exclusion were influenced by the attributions that they applied to the target peer's behaviour, social obligations and loyalty within friendships and concerns about the adverse psychological effects of exclusion. Furthermore, their evaluations were influenced by personal beliefs about the social and personal costs of including the target peer. Evaluations of exclusion highlight novel avenues for to develop knowledge on the stigma of mental health problems. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of health belief modification on intention to make smoke free home among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the effects of health education on modification of health belief and intention among pregnant women to have smoke free home. Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 91 pregnant women completed the study in two groups. Intervention group was educated about the harms of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure. The Health Belief Model (HBM was a framework for analyzing the beliefs. After 10-12 weeks, the HBM constructs and weekly ETS exposure at home were compared between the two groups. Results: After performing educational program, the subjects in intervention group perceived more susceptibility and severity and reported lower weekly ETS exposure at home than subjects in control group; but, the self efficacy and perceived barrier were not different. The relationships between HBM constructs and weekly ETS exposure were significant; but, there was no significant difference in point prevalence of having smoke free home. Conclusions: This study indicated that the health education about ETS exposure can modify health belief and reduce EST exposure among pregnant women, but cannot affect the self efficacy and perceived barrier. To have smoke free home, they need to increase their self efficacy.

  17. Impact of health belief modification on intention to make smoke free home among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat Nekoei; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Beigi, Nastaran Mohammad Ali; Malverdi, Zahra

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the effects of health education on modification of health belief and intention among pregnant women to have smoke free home. In this randomized controlled study, 91 pregnant women completed the study in two groups. Intervention group was educated about the harms of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was a framework for analyzing the beliefs. After 10-12 weeks, the HBM constructs and weekly ETS exposure at home were compared between the two groups. After performing educational program, the subjects in intervention group perceived more susceptibility and severity and reported lower weekly ETS exposure at home than subjects in control group; but, the self efficacy and perceived barrier were not different. The relationships between HBM constructs and weekly ETS exposure were significant; but, there was no significant difference in point prevalence of having smoke free home. This study indicated that the health education about ETS exposure can modify health belief and reduce EST exposure among pregnant women, but cannot affect the self efficacy and perceived barrier. To have smoke free home, they need to increase their self efficacy.

  18. Educational Intervention on Breast Self-Examination Behavior in Women Referred to Health Centers: Application of Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiyali, Zahra; Aliyan, Farzaneh; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan; Mansourian, Morteza; Khani Jeihooni, Ali

    2017-10-26

    Introduction and aims: Screening can play a major role in reducing deaths associated with cancer. Breast selfexamination (BSE) is a cheap, non-complicated and non-invasive method for breast cancer screening. This study aimed to examine the effects of an educational intervention based on the health belief model (HBM) on BSE behavior in women referred to health centers in Fasa, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 92 women, divided into an experimental and a control group. Data were collected using a validated questionnaire covering demographic characteristics, knowledge, HBM constructs and breast self-examination performance. An educational program was performed in five sessions through group discussion with questions and answers and training videos for participants in the experimental group. Questionnaires were filled before and three months after the intervention in the two groups. Data were analyzed with SPSS-22 software for descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean scores for knowledge, HBM constructs and self-examination behavior in the experimental group were elevated compared to the control group after the intervention (PEducation based on the HBM is effective in promoting breast self-examination behavior. Thus development and implementation of training programs based on the model are proposed for officers involved in education and health promotion in Iran. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. The Relationship of Nurses' Involvement and Beliefs in Spirituality and Their Attitudes Toward Providing Spiritual Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, Wanda

    2001-01-01

    .... This includes caring for the patient's spiritual needs. It is well documented in the health care literature that a patient's sense of spiritual well-being can have a positive outcome on health care and the quality of life...

  20. The Role of Health Beliefs in the Regimen Adherence and Metabolic Control of Adolescents and Adults with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee-Duffeck, Martha; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the role of health beliefs in diabetic regimen adherence and metabolic control. Health beliefs accounted for a statistically significant portion of the variance in both. For older patients perceived benefits of adhering to the diabetic regimen was most significant. For younger patients costs figured prominently in adherence and perceived…

  1. Determinants of physical activity in middle-aged woman in Isfahan using the health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Habibollah; Moradi, Razieh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Shahshahani, Maryam Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays with respect to the automation of the lifestyle, immobility statistics in middle-aged women has increased and they are at risk for complications of immobility. One of the models used to identify factors associated with physical activity is Health Belief Model utilized in different age and different cultural backgrounds and different results have been obtained from those studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting on physical activity in middle-aged women using Health Belief Model. This descriptive-correlation study was conducted on 224 middle-aged women referring to health centers in Isfahan. Health Belief Model structures including perceived susceptibility and severity, perceived barriers and benefits, and self-efficacy were measured by questionnaire and physical activity was assessed using the international physical activity questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient test and regression analysis. There wasn't significant correlation between perceived susceptibility (P = 0.263, r = 0.075) and perceived severity with physical activity duration (P = 0.127, r = 0.058) but there was positive and weak correlation between physical activity duration with perceived benefits (P = 0.001 and r = 0.26) and perceived self-efficacy (P = 0.001, r = 0.54) and had weak and inverse correlation with perceived barriers (P = 0.001, r = -0.25). Regression analysis also showed that from among all the Health Belief Model structures just self-efficacy structure has influenced on behavior independently and other structures are affected by it. The obtained results implied on a correlation between benefits, barriers and perceived self-efficacy with and moderate physical activity. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate educational programs with emphasis on structures of Health Belief Model that has the maximum impact on physical activity in middle-aged women.

  2. Sexual and reproductive health beliefs and practices of female immigrants in Spain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Pastor-Moreno, Guadalupe; Grande-Gascón, María Luisa; Linares-Abad, Manuel

    2015-09-02

    Sexuality and reproduction are two areas that have been dealt with differently over time and across cultures. Immigrant women resident in Spain, are largely of childbearing age and have some specific needs. Female immigrants have specific beliefs and behaviors which may influence how they approach to the Spanish sexual and reproductive health services. There is less visibility of the health problems presented by women immigrants. This article aims to shed light on the sexual and reproductive health beliefs and experiences of female immigrants in a region of southern Spain. A descriptive study design with qualitative data collection and analysis methods were used. Data were collected through face-to-face in-depth interviews using a semi- structured interview guide that collected information on women's perception and beliefs about their sexual and reproductive health. Thirteen interviews were conducted in 2013 with a multi-ethnic sample of female immigrants, currently all are residing in Andalusia. Interview topics included questions about awareness and beliefs about sexuality and reproduction. Content analysis was used. We have found that female immigrant brings along all of her beliefs, opinions, attitudes and behaviors regarding sexuality, contraceptives, what is "correct" and what is not, etc. The sexual behavior is conditioned by the prevailing social rules of country of origin, and these rules act ambivalently. In general, knowledge of contraceptive methods was big, but there were perceptions that reproductive health was woman's domain, due to gender norms and traditional family planning geared exclusively towards women. Results suggest that women's behavior is influenced by the precepts of their origin societies. Therefore, sexual and reproductive health processes should be adapted and incorporated into our society, with special attention being paid to the immigrant population.

  3. The relationship between husbands' health belief and environment tobacco smoke exposure among their pregnant wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Zohreh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Loripoor Parizi, Marzieh

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between health belief structures of men and environment tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among pregnant women. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 120 smoking men who had pregnant wives. Data were gathered through a questionnaire that measured health belief structures related to pregnant women's exposure to cigarette's smoke including perceived susceptibility/severity, benefits, barriers and self-efficacy. Number of exposures to cigarette's smoke was defined by the number of smoked cigarettes in the presence of the pregnant wife. The number of smoked cigarettes in the presence of pregnant wife had a negative relation with perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits and a positive relation with perceived barriers. The number of smoked cigarettes in men had no relation with health belief constructs. Using multiple regression test showed the perceived barrier for not smoking was the strongest factor in men to anticipate the level of women's ETS exposure. Results of this study showed that the level of ETS exposure among pregnant women was dependent on men's health beliefs about the ETS exposure treats among pregnant women.

  4. Environmentally friendly health care food services: a survey of beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elisa D; Garcia, Alicia C

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing global interest in sustainability and the environment. A hospital/health care food service facility consumes large amounts of resources; therefore, efficiencies in operation can address sustainability. Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours about environmentally friendly practices in hospital/health care food services were explored in this study. Questionnaires addressed environmentally friendly initiatives in building and equipment, waste management, food, and non-food procurement issues. The 68 participants included hospital food service managers, clinical dietitians, dietary aides, food technicians, and senior management. Data analysis included correlation analysis and descriptive statistics. Average scores for beliefs were high in building and equipment (90%), waste management (94%), and non-food procurement (87%), and lower in food-related initiatives (61%) such as buying locally, buying organic foods, buying sustainable fish products, and reducing animal proteins. Average positive scores for behaviours were positively correlated with beliefs (waste management, p=0.001; food, p=0.000; non-food procurement, p=0.002). Average positive scores for attitude in terms of implementing the initiatives in health care were 74% for building and equipment, 81% for waste management, 70% for non-food procurement, and 36% for food. The difference in food-related beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes suggests the need for education on environmental impacts of food choices. Research is recommended to determine facilitators and barriers to the implementation of green strategies in health care. As food experts, dietitians can lead changes in education, practice, and policy development.

  5. Identifying Health Beliefs Influencing Hispanic College Men's Willingness to Vaccinate against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Thomas, Tami L.; Eaton, Asia

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies health beliefs influencing Hispanic college men's human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake decision making processes. Hispanic college men were interviewed about their HPV vaccine knowledge, and information seeking behaviors. Overall, participants did not view HPV infection or vaccination as an immediate concern or priority;…

  6. Toward a Reconceptualization of Communication Cues to Action in the Health Belief Model: HIV Test Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Marifran

    1999-01-01

    Examines the persuasive communication of HIV test counselors as cues to action in clients' decisions to practice safer sex. Indicates hypothesized relationships inherent in the Health Belief Model were not supported for the pre-HIV test survey, but the post-HIV test survey reported compliance with safer-sex recommendations. Finds use of certain…

  7. Diabetes Knowledge, Health Belief, and Diabetes Management Among the Igala, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Ojima Adejoh

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the association and influence of diabetes knowledge and health beliefs on diabetes management among the Igala, Nigeria. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to 152 respondents living with diabetes. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Almost half of the respondents had low diabetes knowledge. Significant relationship existed between level of diabetes knowledge and diabetes ...

  8. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  9. Women’s Attitudes and Health Beliefs toward Osteoporosis Screening in a Community Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Deo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine women’s attitudes and health beliefs towards osteoporosis screening in a community pharmacy setting, utilizing the theoretical framework of Health Belief Model. A nonexperimental, cross-sectional research design, examining a convenience sample of women aged 18 and over, from several New York City senior care centers, a church, and a university campus in New York, was employed to assess the study objectives. Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale questionnaire was used to study the attitudes and health beliefs of participants towards bone mineral density screening in community pharmacy. From the study, it was observed that perceptions of severity and susceptibility towards osteoporosis and subjects’ demographic characteristics did not seem to significantly influence the decision to screen in a community pharmacy setting. The perceptions of benefits of community pharmacy-based osteoporosis screening and the perceived barriers were found to be of greater importance in women’s decisions to engage in osteoporosis-specific preventive behavior.

  10. Health inequalities in European cities: Perceptions and beliefs among local policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Morrison (Jonathan); M. Pons-Vigués (Mariona); L. Bécares (Laia); B. Burström (Bo); A. Gandarillas (Ana); F. Domínguez-Berjón (Felicitas); E. Díez (Èlia); G. Costa (Giuseppe); M. Ruiz (Milagros); H. Pikhart (Hynek); C. Marinacci (Chiara); R. Hoffmann (Rasmus); P. Santana (Paula); C. Borrell (Carme)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe the knowledge and beliefs of public policymakers on social inequalities in health and policies to reduce them in cities from different parts of Europe during 2010 and 2011. Design: Phenomenological qualitative study. Setting: 13 European cities. Participants: 19

  11. Factor structure and internal reliability of an exercise health belief model scale in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Oscar Armando Esparza-Del; Montañez-Alvarado, Priscila; Gutiérrez-Vega, Marisela; Carrillo-Saucedo, Irene Concepción; Gurrola-Peña, Gloria Margarita; Ruvalcaba-Romero, Norma Alicia; García-Sánchez, María Dolores; Ochoa-Alcaraz, Sergio Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Mexico is one of the countries with the highest rates of overweight and obesity around the world, with 68.8% of men and 73% of women reporting both. This is a public health problem since there are several health related consequences of not exercising, like having cardiovascular diseases or some types of cancers. All of these problems can be prevented by promoting exercise, so it is important to evaluate models of health behaviors to achieve this goal. Among several models the Health Belief Model is one of the most studied models to promote health related behaviors. This study validates the first exercise scale based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in Mexicans with the objective of studying and analyzing this model in Mexico. Items for the scale called the Exercise Health Belief Model Scale (EHBMS) were developed by a health research team, then the items were applied to a sample of 746 participants, male and female, from five cities in Mexico. The factor structure of the items was analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis and the internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha. The exploratory factor analysis reported the expected factor structure based in the HBM. The KMO index (0.92) and the Barlett's sphericity test (p exercise based on the HBM in Mexican populations.

  12. Are health science students' beliefs about infant nutrition evidence-based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Bloomfield, Molly; Choi, Myunghan

    2014-01-01

    Globally, breastfeeding is a fundamental health promotion strategy, improving the health of mothers and infants, well beyond childhood. Healthcare professionals have the responsibility of providing breastfeeding education to families. Worldwide, most healthcare professionals do not receive sufficient evidence-based education to adequately support breastfeeding families. (1) What experiences have university health science students had with breastfeeding? (2) What are university health science students' beliefs and attitudes toward breast and formula feeding of infants? (3) What are the perceptions of university health science students about how other important people in their lives regard breastfeeding? (4) What are the relationships between students' personal experiences with breastfeeding and their beliefs and attitudes about infant feeding choices? A descriptive cross-sectional survey conceptualized using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The health science college within a major metropolitan research university in the United States. Health science undergraduate and graduate students (N=514), who were over the age of 18 and who were enrolled during the spring of 2011. Validated survey instruments were used to collect the data on the Theory of Planned Behavior variables. The request for participants was done by emailing all health science students. If students chose to participate, they filled out an anonymous on-line survey. Most participants were not parents; however, the majority of the 95 (21.05%) students who were parents reported their child was breastfed. Significantly more positive attitudes and beliefs were found in graduate students (n=101; 20.10%) when compared to undergraduates (n=403; 89.9%). Health science students' beliefs and attitudes toward infant nutrition often were not evidence-based. However, all students were remarkably consistent in their responses concerning formula feeding. Incorporating adequate education about human lactation is an unmet

  13. Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    of the effects of different actions and interventions on their health, including those implying contact with health care services. We see their research as primarily carried out in order to make better decisions for themselves, but they can offer to contribute the results to the wider population. We see...... to increased user involvement, though somewhat more aligned with the former. METHODS: Our online decision support tools, delivered directly to the person in the community and openly accessible, are to be seen as research resources. They will take the form of interactive decision aids for a variety of specific...

  14. Family Involvement for Children with Disruptive Behaviors: The Role of Parenting Stress and Motivational Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semke, Carrie A.; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.; Woods, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Children with disruptive behaviors are at risk for adverse outcomes. Family involvement is a significant predictor of positive child behavior outcomes; however, little research has investigated parent psychological variables that influence family involvement for children with disruptive behaviors. This study investigated the role of parental…

  15. Differences in beliefs about the causes of health disparities in Black and White nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Dobie, Susan; Joram, Elana; Devlin, Michele; Ambroson, DeAnn; Chen, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether Black and White nurses' beliefs about causes of health disparities differ. Analyses reveal that overall Black nurses perceived external factors to contribute significantly more to health disparities than White nurses. Black nurses considered four specific causes dealing with physician and societal factors, such as "discrimination in society," to be more significant contributors to health disparities than White nurses, whereas White nurses considered genetic factors to be a greater contributor. Different views of the causes of health disparities are discussed, particularly in light of cultural competency training and other efforts to ameliorate health disparities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The association of health literacy with illness perceptions, medication beliefs, and medication adherence among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Unni, Elizabeth; Huang, Yen-Ming; Lanier, Cameron

    2017-12-13

    Beliefs in medications and illness perceptions is associated with medication adherence among individuals with diabetes and several adherence interventions focus on patients' beliefs in medicines and illnesses. Though health literacy is important in medication adherence, the relationship between health literacy and medication adherence remains inconclusive; thus raising the question as to whether health literacy has an amplifying or reducing effect on the relationship between beliefs and adherence. The study examined (1) the association between health literacy, beliefs in medicines, illness perceptions, and medication adherence in individuals with type 2 diabetes and (2) the moderating effects of health literacy (including numeracy and document literacy) on the relationship between illness perceptions, beliefs in medicines, and medication adherence. Adults ≥20 years taking oral diabetes medicines at two family medicine clinics, completed a cross-sectional survey. Participants were assessed on beliefs in medicines, illness perceptions, health literacy, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. Multiple linear regressions examined the effect of health literacy, beliefs and self-efficacy, and the moderator effect of health literacy in the relationship between beliefs and adherence. Of the 174 participants, more than half were women (57.5%) and white (67.8%). There was a significant positive association between self-efficacy and adherence (β = 0.486, p adherence (β = -0.292, p adherence and concerns beliefs (β = -0.156, p = .014) and threatening illness perceptions (β = 0.196, p = .002). The concern beliefs - adherence association was only significant at marginal and adequate literacy levels. When health literacy was separated into numeracy and document literacy, only numeracy moderated the illness perceptions - adherence relationship (β = 0.149, p = .038). Health literacy, especially numeracy, needs to be initially addressed

  17. Health belief dualism in the postnatal practices of rural Swazi women: an ethnographic account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwala, Siphiwe B P; Holroyd, Eleanor; Jones, Linda K

    2012-12-01

    This study explores and describes the values, beliefs, and practices of rural Swazi women regarding childbearing in the postpartum period. A retrospective ethnographic research design was used. A snowballing sampling method was used to recruit fifteen participants. Face-to-face unstructured audio-taped interviews and field notes were utilised to gather data. Results showed that rural Swazi women held a dual health belief system of modern and traditional medicinal use; practiced lengthy periods of postpartum confinement; customarily gave regular enemas and traditional medicines to their babies; undertook the specific cultural practice of taking the baby to enyonini [a tree struck by lightening] to perform specific rituals; used self-prescribed pharmacy medicines; used both traditional and modern contraception; as well as practiced breastfeeding. Rural Swazi women observe modern health practices alongside traditional customary practices that are inherent to their health belief and value systems in the postnatal period. These customary beliefs and values underpin their birth practices postpartum. Recommendations include the need to consider including formal knowledge on cultural aspects of childbirth and postpartum care into midwifery education; a review of maternal care practices and policies to incorporate widely practised traditional elements including redressing the use of self-prescribed pharmacy medicines to ensure a higher level of safety. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

    2011-07-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n = 325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health

  19. Beliefs Effective on Nutritional Practices of Pregnant Women in Health Centers of Saveh, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Karimy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A healthy and balanced diet is quite important in life and during pregnancy in particular for health of the mother and her fetus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of beliefs on nutritional practices of pregnant women in Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical study carried out on 260 pregnant women in health centers of Saveh University of Medical Sciences. A multiplestage sampling protocol was used. Data was collected based on the health belief model (susceptibility, severity, perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy and cues to action as well as the checklist of practices of pregnant women about diet. Independent t-test, oneway ANOVA and Bivariate (Pearson’s correlation were conducted to analyze the data. All the analyses were performed in SPSS version 21. Results: The mean age of participant was 5 ± 27.4 and the mean gestational age was 5.5 ± 2.4. In this study, a significant correlation was observed in perceived barriers, sensitivity, severity, benefits, barriers and perceived self-efficacy with nutritional practices of pregnant women (P < 0.05. In addition, a significant relationship was found in the levels of their education, employment status and number of pregnancies with nutritional practices (P <0.05. Conclusions: The mean score of health belief model construct in pregnant women was moderate. Therefore, to improve the health of mothers and their children, an educational program based on health belief model for enhancing sensitivity and perceived severity of health workers regarding their health and to increase their self-efficacy and benefits perceived as well as to reduce perceived barriers is recommended.

  20. Eating habits, food and health related attitudes and beliefs reported by French students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneuse, M O; Bellisle, F; Koppert, G

    1997-01-01

    To assess eating habits and some food related behaviours, beliefs and knowledge in educated young French adults. A standardized questionnaire administered in university classes. University or 'Grandes Ecoles' of Paris and Dijon. 660 male and female French students. International survey; questionnaire composed of three major sections: (1) Health-related attitudes such as substances used, dieting, health practices; (2) Beliefs concerning behaviour and health, including eating habits; (3) Knowledge, namely relevance of factors to diseases such as cancer or cardiovascular diseases. Gender, self-perception of body size, BMI and attempts to lose weight affected a number of behaviours. Average BMI corresponded to standard values. 'Healthy' behaviours were often reported such as: avoiding fat and cholesterol, efforts to eat fruit and fiber. The French students showed a low frequency of snacking and a high regularity in having breakfast, especially respondents with lower BMI (females performance of the behaviours. Awareness of the role of eating factors in cardiovascular diseases was observed. The meal and snack pattern in French students is very close to the traditional model. More food- and health-related behaviours and attitudes are reported by women than men. Some of them could be due to a genuine motivation for prevention and health in females or else to a greater wish to be thin. 'Desire to lose weight' is often reported although BMI values are normally low in this young population. Beliefs in the importance of a behaviour for health are correlated with the reported performance of the behaviours.

  1. The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main predictors of the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits for all respondents were found to be the belief that meat is neither healthy nor necessary and frequent searching for information on healthy eating. However, there were differences between vegetarians, non-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. In particular, health issues were relatively more important for semi-vegetarians and vegetarians, while knowledge and convenience issues were most important for non-vegetarians. The results have important implications for public health. Many South Australians perceive that health benefits are associated with eating a vegetarian diet, which may also apply to plant-based diets in general. However, if non-vegetarians are to obtain some of the health benefits associated with the consumption of a plant-based diet, they require information on the preparation of quick and easy plant- based meals.

  2. Beliefs about Racism and Health among African American Women with Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110

  3. Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices of Albanian Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhihani, Blerina; Rainchuso, Lori; Smallidge, Dianne; Dominick, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates a high prevalence of oral disease among Albanians. There is a lack of evidence regarding oral health beliefs and practices among Albanian immigrants in the United States and abroad. This research seeks to better understand the oral health beliefs, attitudes, and practices among Albanian immigrants living in the United States. A descriptive study was employed with a purposive sample (n = 211) of Albanian adult immigrants. A cross-sectional validated questionnaire was provided in both English and Albanian, with a response rate of 66 %. Results revealed a high use of dental services among respondents, with 68 % reported as having a dental visit and cleaning within the past year. Although 25 % of participants stated their parents and grandparents have used folk remedies, 88 % of them stated that use of folk remedies did not influence their decision to seek professional dental care. Increasing age was inversely associated with the belief in the importance of retaining natural teeth, as older respondents were less likely to agree with the prior statement; older respondents were more likely to agree with the statement "bleeding gums are normal." Low oral health care access and utilization was not a factor among the majority of the Albanian immigrants studied. Focusing on providing age appropriate oral health education and behavioral strategies could increase oral health knowledge and potentially improve poor oral health status among this population.

  4. RELIGIOUS, SPIRITUAL, AND TRADITIONAL BELIEFS AND PRACTICES AND THE ETHICS OF MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH IN LESS WEALTHY COUNTRIES*

    OpenAIRE

    NOLAN, JENNIFER A.; WHETTEN, KATHRYN; KOENIG, HAROLD G.

    2011-01-01

    This discussion article contributes to ethics reform by introducing the contribution of religious, spiritual, and traditional beliefs and practices to both subject vulnerability and patient improvement. A growing body of evidence suggests that religious, spiritual, and traditional beliefs and practices may provide positive benefits, although in some cases mixed or negative consequences to mental and physical health. These beliefs and practices add a new level of complexity to ethical delibera...

  5. Beliefs and behaviors of breast cancer screening in women referring to health care centers in northwest Iran according to the champion health belief model scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Nasrin; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Mazaheri, Effat; Asl, Hossein Alimohammadi; Rezaie, Minoo; Amani, Fiouz; Nejad, Masumeh Rostam

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. All ages are susceptible and more than 90% of the patients can be cured with early diagnosis. Breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography can be useful for this aim. In this study we examined the components of the Champion health belief model to identify if they could predict the intentions of women to perform such screening. A total of 380 women aged 30 and above who had referred to health-care centers were assessed for use of breast cancer screening over the past year with a modified health belief model questionnaire. Logistic regression was applied to identify leading independent predictors. In this study 27% of the women performed BSE in the last year but only 6.8% of them used mammography as a way of screening. There were significant differences regarding all components of the model except for perceived severity between women that underwent BSE. over the past year and those that did not. Findings were similar for mammography. Regression analysis revealed that intentions to perform BSE were predicted by perceived self-efficacy and perceived barriers to BSE while intentions to perform mammography were predicted by perceived barriers. This study indicated that self-efficacy can support performance of BSE while perceived barriers are important for not performing both BSE and mammography. Thus we must educate women to increase their self-efficacy and decrease their perceived barriers.

  6. Lay beliefs on illness and compliance to health care regimens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction. Compliance is difficult to attain. Traditional explanations of non-compliance rely heavily on a rationalist approach of patients’ health behavior and focus almost exclusively on enhancing patient’s acceptance of doctors’ views by improved patient education. However, as yet these

  7. Application of Health Belief Model Among Rural Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Abstract. Background: Hypertension is a major health problem in developing and developed countries, and its increasing epidemy is a serious warning to take more attention to this silent disease. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the factors of adherence ...

  8. Parent-Teacher-Student Discrepancies in Academic Ability Beliefs: Influences on Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimisha; Stevens, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most studies examining influences on parent involvement focus on common demographic factors, such as social class or gender, and on elementary grades. In the present study, we investigated a more malleable influence, perceptions of ability, in the context of middle school. We examined how perceptions held by parents, teachers, and students…

  9. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer knowledge, health beliefs, and preventative practices in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kymberlee; Bloch, Joan Rosen; Bhattacharya, Anand; Montgomery, Owen

    2010-01-01

    To explore knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, health beliefs, and preventative practices in women 40 to 70 years. Cross-sectional descriptive. Three urban ambulatory Obstetrics and Gynecology offices connected with a teaching hospital's Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the Mid-Atlantic section of the United States. A convenience sample of 149 women age 40 to 70. To assess HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, health beliefs, and preventative practices a self-administered survey, the Awareness of HPV and Cervical Cancer Questionnaire was distributed to women as they waited for their well-woman gynecologic exam. The mean knowledge score was 7.39 (SD=3.42) out of 15. One third of the questions about the relationship of HPV and risks for cervical cancer were answered incorrectly by more than 75% of these women. Although most appreciate the seriousness of cervical cancer, they believed themselves not particularly susceptible. There is a need for HPV and cervical cancer awareness and education for women older than age 40. Women's health care professionals are well positioned to act as a catalyst to improve HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, health beliefs, and preventative practice to ensure optimum health promotion for all women.

  11. Heart health-associated health beliefs and behaviours of adolescents of African and African Caribbean descent in two cities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, G M

    2000-11-01

    The following paper presents the findings of an exploratory ethnography, the purpose of which was to identify and describe heart health associated beliefs and behaviours of year seven (Y7) and year 10 (Y10) secondary school young people of African and African Caribbean descent in two UK cities. Data were collected by the data collection technique of focus groups. However, eight focus groups were conducted involving 47 Y7 young people and 29 Y10 pupils, 76 pupils in total. The data were analysed utilizing ATLAS/ti qualitative data analysis software. This software is informed by grounded theory. Data from the study formed six themes. The findings informed the development of an interactive health promotion website which can be found at http://www.shef.ac.uk/web/uni/projects/mshhp. The paper argues that in order to provide meaningful programmes of health promotion to be developed by health care providers including school nurses and health visitors, it is essential that interventions are informed by an understanding of the health beliefs and behaviours of African and African Caribbean young people.

  12. Jordanian Nurses' involvement in health policy: perceived benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, R F; Foudeh, F N

    2017-03-01

    To examine (1) the level of involvement of Jordanian nurses in health policy development and (2) perceived benefits, barriers and impacts on health outcomes of involvement in health policy process. Lack of nurses' political involvement may result in self-serving policies by policymakers who are in power and passing policies that are less than optimum. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted in this study. A convenience sample of 231 nurses was recruited with a response rate of 77%. The instrument of Registered Nurses' Involvement in Health Policies was used in this study. The results revealed that participants were most frequently involved in the health policy activity 'voting for a candidate or a health policy proposal'. The mean scores for involvement of participants as nurses and as citizens were low. The most perceived frequent barrier to involvement in health policy was lack of time. The low rate of Jordanian nurses' involvement in health policy could be explained by the fact that most participants had family roles in addition to work roles, which might leave little time for health policy activities. Lack of mentoring for nurses by nursing leaders could also negatively affect their involvement in health policy development. Results of this study could be baseline information for Jordanian nurse leaders to enhance the level of nurses' involvement in health policy development. Such findings could also add knowledge to the existing literature about nurses' involvement in health policy. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Nigerian dentists and oral health-care of pregnant women: Knowledge, attitude and belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes O Umoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women seek preventive, interventional and rehabilitative oral health-care for their oral health and protection of their fetus and babies after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the Nigerian Dentist′s knowledge, attitude and belief pertaining to the oral health-care of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional of Nigerian dentist was conducted between June and December, 2011 using Huebner et al., modified dentist′s attitude to the pregnant women questionnaire Results: The overall response rate of 92.5% (149/160. Receipt of continuing medical education (CME was reported among the participants on periodontal disease of pregnant patients (22.1%, oral hygiene of pregnant patients (20.1%, early childhood caries (35.6% and general dental problem (51.0%. The majority (92.6% agreed that Dentists have the skill to counsel pregnant patients, But only 73.8% of them provided oral hygiene instruction frequently to pregnant patients and even fewer (6.0% were involved in educational advice on oral health for young women. Many of the participants agreed that counseling pregnant patients about periodontal disease and its effect on the developing baby is of utmost importance. Participants also dominantly agreed that dental treatment should be part of prenatal care and 97.3% of them opined that physician recommendation will increase the likelihood of pregnant seeking dental care. More than half (56.4% of the participants reported that Dentists should be concerned about being sued if something goes wrong with the pregnancy. The recommended ways to improve oral health-care of pregnant women among the participants were through CME (92.6%, provision of educational materials on oral health-care of pregnant women (93.3% and information on ways to counsel pregnant women (98.0%. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed high preparedness, positive attitude and favorable disposition in dental care provision for

  14. Using the Health Belief Model to Comparatively Examine the Welding Safety Beliefs of Postsecondary Agricultural Education Students and Their Non-Agricultural Education Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan; Velez, Jonathan; Anderson, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive correlational research was to investigate postsecondary agriculture students' perceptions regarding the safe use of agricultural mechanics equipment. Students enrolled in a university metals and welding course were surveyed using an adapted instrument to assess constructs of the Health Beliefs Model, self-efficacy…

  15. Beliefs, attitudes, and behavior of Turkish women about breast cancer and breast self-examination according to a Turkish version of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbil, Nülüfer; Bölükbaş, Nurgül

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Although a great deal of progress has been made in the health sciences, early diagnosis, and increasing community awareness, breast cancer remains a life-threatening illness. In order to reduce this threat, breast cancer screening needs to be implemented in all communities where possible. The purpose of this study was to examine health beliefs, attitudes and behaviors about breast cancer and breast self-examination of Turkish women. Data were collected from a sample of 656 women, using an adapted Turkish version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS), between January and May 2011, in Ordu province of Turkey. The results showed that 67.7% of women had knowledge about and 55.8% performed BSE, however 60.6% of those who indicated they practiced BSE reported they did so at irregular intervals. CHBMS subscales scores of women according to women's age, education level, occupation, family income and education level of the women's mothers, family history of breast cancer, friend and an acquaintance with breast cancer, knowledge about breast cancer, BSE and mammography were significantly different. Knowledge of women about the risks and benefits of early detection of breast cancer positively affect their health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Health care professionals can develop effective breast health programs and can help women to gain good health behavior and to maintain health.

  16. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.

  17. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Z; Verbeke, W; Scholderer, J

    2010-10-01

    Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education contributed, both directly and indirectly through knowledge, to explain fish consumption behaviour. However, the path coefficients in the estimated model were relatively low, which indicates that fish consumption frequency was also determined by factors other than health-related beliefs and consumers' knowledge. The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion and other types of public information campaigns) will be insufficient to achieve higher levels of compliance with fish consumption recommendations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic

  18. Measuring Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Namdar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Cervical cancer is the second prevalent women cancer in the world. This cancer is found preventable because of having the prolong time before the appearance, its complications and the available proper screening program and possibility of the primary lesion treatment. Since the Health Belief Model is one of the applicable praxeology model in health education to prevent and control of diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors in cervical cancer in women. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 213 married 20-65 year-old women selected by a two-stage sampling method. The data was collected by a valid and reliable questionnaire and interview. This questionnaire based on health belief model correlation (components Perceived Susceptibility and Severity, Perceived Barriers and Benefits, Self-efficacy with behavior survey. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whhitney test, Kruskal-wallis test, and Regression by SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the study group was 40.6 ± 12.1. The results show that 32.5% of them had at least one time examined for Pap smear test out of which only 7.9% of them had this test on a regular interval. Only 12% of them had an adequate knowledge about the cervical cancer and its preventive measure. 90% of them had inappropriate behavior. The average score of knowledge was 6.73± 2.97 which considered as moderate. Regression analysis showed the knowledge (P=0.009, job (P=0.005, perceived barriers (P<0.001 and perceived severity (P=0.036 determine as predictors in the final behavior. Conclusion: Perceived barriers and knowledge behind the strongest predictor of behavior. Educational programs are recommended based on the health belief model with emphasis on reducing barriers and increasing awareness to improve behavior.

  19. Common-sense beliefs about cancer and health practices among women completing treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Erin S; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Roeder, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    Following the end of adjuvant treatment, breast cancer survivors must cope with uncertainty related to the possibility of recurrence and the loss of the 'safety net' treatment provides. This study examined breast cancer survivors' efforts to manage uncertainty by making lifestyle changes, such as improvement in diet and exercise. We further investigated the role of women's common-sense beliefs about their cancer, as described by Leventhal's self-regulation theory, in explaining post-treatment changes. At 3 weeks and 3 months post-treatment, 79 women who received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy for stages 0-III breast cancer (mean age=55 years) completed assessments of changes in health practices and other behaviors. Participants also completed measures of beliefs about the causes, course, personal control, and consequences of their cancer. Survivors reported behavior changes directed toward improving physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Results further indicated that women who believed their cancer had more severe consequences and those who attributed the development of cancer or the prevention of recurrence to health behaviors or stress were most likely to report improvement in diet or physical activity and reduction in alcohol use or stress. Findings suggest that breast cancer survivors are poised to make lifestyle changes after treatment ends, creating an opportune time for health promotion interventions. Understanding women's cancer beliefs could help guide the development of tailored, proactive interventions to improve the health and well-being of breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Intention to adopt clinical decision support systems in a developing country: effect of Physician’s perceived professional autonomy, involvement and belief: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivan Murali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS are regarded as a key element to enhance decision-making in a healthcare environment to improve the quality of medical care delivery. The concern of having new CDSS unused is still one of the biggest issues in developing countries for the developers and implementers of clinical IT systems. The main objectives of this study are to determine whether (1 the physician’s perceived professional autonomy, (2 involvement in the decision to implement CDSS and (3 the belief that CDSS will improve job performance increase the intention to adopt CDSS. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. Methods A questionnaire-based survey conducted between July 2010 and December 2010. The study was conducted in seven public and five private hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Before contacting the hospitals, necessary permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the questionnaire was vetted by the ethics committee of the ministry. Physicians working in 12 hospitals from 10 different specialties participated in the study. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling and the physicians were stratified based on the specialty. A total of 450 physicians were selected using a random number generator. Each of these physicians was given a questionnaire and out of 450 questionnaires, 335 (response rate – 74% were returned and 309 (69% were deemed usable. Results The hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Salient results are: (1 Physicians’ perceived threat to professional autonomy lowers the intention to use CDSS (p Conclusion The proposed model with the three main constructs (physician’s professional characteristic, involvement and belief explains 47% of the variance in the intention to use CDSS. This is significantly higher than the models addressed so far. The results will have a major impact in implementing CDSS in developing

  1. [Validation of the integration of health belief model and planned behavior theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-ying; Guo, Yan; Sun, Jing

    2009-04-18

    To establish and validate a new model of health belief model(HBM) combined with theory of planned behavior(TPB). Path analysis was applied to set up a new model predicting iron-fortified soy sauce consumption behavior using baseline survey data among women in rural and urban areas in Beijing, and the model was validated in follow-up survey. It was proved that health values had powerful direct effect on behavior identity and had relatively strong direct effect on attitudes towards behavior; behavior identity had strong effect on behavior barriers, mostly in a direct way, and on behavior intention in a direct or indirect way; control belief was an important external factor influencing behavior intention; behavior intention was the most direct and most important one of factors influencing actual behavior; and convenience to buy was an important external factor influencing actual behavior. The integrated model of TPB and HBM explains behavior better and may be attempted in other similar researches.

  2. Factor structure and internal reliability of an exercise health belief model scale in a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Armando Esparza-Del Villar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico is one of the countries with the highest rates of overweight and obesity around the world, with 68.8% of men and 73% of women reporting both. This is a public health problem since there are several health related consequences of not exercising, like having cardiovascular diseases or some types of cancers. All of these problems can be prevented by promoting exercise, so it is important to evaluate models of health behaviors to achieve this goal. Among several models the Health Belief Model is one of the most studied models to promote health related behaviors. This study validates the first exercise scale based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in Mexicans with the objective of studying and analyzing this model in Mexico. Methods Items for the scale called the Exercise Health Belief Model Scale (EHBMS were developed by a health research team, then the items were applied to a sample of 746 participants, male and female, from five cities in Mexico. The factor structure of the items was analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis and the internal reliability with Cronbach’s alpha. Results The exploratory factor analysis reported the expected factor structure based in the HBM. The KMO index (0.92 and the Barlett’s sphericity test (p < 0.01 indicated an adequate and normally distributed sample. Items had adequate factor loadings, ranging from 0.31 to 0.92, and the internal consistencies of the factors were also acceptable, with alpha values ranging from 0.67 to 0.91. Conclusions The EHBMS is a validated scale that can be used to measure exercise based on the HBM in Mexican populations.

  3. Post-thrombotic syndrome patient education based on the health belief model: self-reported intention to comply with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn, Crumley

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate patient responses to a patient education handout on post-thrombotic syndrome prevention based on the Health Belief Model. This quasi-experimental pilot study involved a patient survey to be completed after reviewing a patient education handout. A convenience sample of 25 patients with deep vein thrombosis confirmed by venous Doppler assessment with a lower extremity deep vein thrombosis admitted to a Midwestern community hospital was identified. Seven patients were excluded and 5 declined participation; 13 completed the survey patients. Subjects were older than 18 years and able to read and understand English. Patients with hospice or palliative care service or life expectancy less than 6 months were excluded. Subjects were provided with the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), patient education handout, and the PTS patient education survey. The PTS patient education handout consisted of a 1-page informational sheet based on PTS and Health Belief Model literature. The 24-item PTS Patient Education Survey required approximately 15 minutes to complete; items included demographic information, questions regarding previous deep vein thrombosis and Likert scale opinion statements regarding PTS based on Health Belief Model components. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were approached by the investigator, invited to participate in the study, and offered the option of having the investigator collect the survey or return in an addressed, stamped envelope. Respondents tended to agree that PTS was a serious condition and that it would negatively affect their life, primarily in relation to comfort and the ability to engage in leisure activities. Ten participants (76.9%) acknowledged that they were susceptible to PTS, and that elastic graduated compression stockings were effective. The most commonly cited barrier to wearing the stockings was difficulty with application. Five patients (38.5%) agreed that they had the ability to prevent PTS and 9

  4. Illness perception in pediatric somatization and asthma: complaints and health locus of control beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundschuh Silke

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health- and illness-related cognitions of pediatric patients with asthma or somatization and of their caregivers are considered relevant for patient education and for cognitive-behavioral interventions. This study investigates the relationship between diagnosis and illness perception by child and parent in two different chronic conditions such as somatization disorder and asthma. Methods 25 patients with somatoform disorders and 25 patients with asthma bronchiale completed the Giessen Complaint List and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Primary caregivers independently answered parallel proxy-report instruments. Analyses of variance were performed to determine the impact of diagnosis and perspective. Correlations were calculated to determine the concordance between patient and caregiver reports. Results No statistically significant differences in illness locus of control beliefs were found between asthma and somatoform disorder children or parents. Parents reported more internal and fatalistic locus of control beliefs compared with their children. Correlations between patient and caregiver reports of symptoms and health locus of control beliefs were low to moderate. Conclusion Clinicians should take into account a sense of insufficient symptom control in both diagnostic groups and different viewpoints of patients and their parents.

  5. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference.

  6. “Knowledge, recommendation, and beliefs of e-cigarettes among physicians involved in tobacco cessation: A qualitative study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are rated the most trustworthy source of information for smokers and thus play an increasing role in disseminating information on e-cigarettes to patients. Therefore, it is important to understand what is currently being communicated about e-cigarettes between physicians and patients. This study explored the knowledge, beliefs, communication, and recommendation of e-cigarettes among physicians of various specialties. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in early 2016 with 35 physicians across five different specialties. Interviews were transcribed and coded for the following deductive themes: (1 tobacco cessation recommendation practices, (2 knowledge of e-cigarettes, (3 communication of e-cigarettes with patients, (4 recommendation of e-cigarettes, and (5 general beliefs about e-cigarettes. Physicians across all specialties reported having conversations with patients about e-cigarettes. Conversations were generally prompted by the patient inquiring about e-cigarettes as a cessation method. Overall, physicians felt there was a lack of information on the efficacy and long term health effects but despite lack of evidence, generally did not discourage patients from trying e-cigarettes as a cessation device. Although physicians did not currently recommend e-cigarettes over traditional cessation methods, they were open to recommending e-cigarettes in the future if adequate data became available suggesting effectiveness. Patients are inquiring about e-cigarettes with physicians across various specialties. Future research should continue to study physicians' perceptions/practices given their potential to impact patient behavior and the possibility that such perceptions may change over time in response to the evidence-base on e-cigarettes.

  7. Health communication, genetic determinism, and perceived control: the roles of beliefs about susceptibility and severity versus disease essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne; Kahl, Mary L; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Traeder, Tara

    2012-08-01

    This research examined the lay public's beliefs about genes and health that might be labeled deterministic. The goals of this research were to sort through the divergent and contested meanings of genetic determinism in an effort to suggest directions for public health genomic communication. A survey conducted in community-based settings of 717 participants included 267 who self-reported race as African American and 450 who self-reported race as Caucasian American. The survey results revealed that the structure of genetic determinism included 2 belief sets. One set aligned with perceived threat, encompassing susceptibility and severity beliefs linked to genes and health. The other set represents beliefs about biological essentialism linked to the role of genes for health. These concepts were found to be modestly positively related. Threat beliefs predicted perceived control over genes. Public health efforts to communicate about genes and health should consider effects of these messages for (a) perceived threat relating to susceptibility and severity and (b) perceptions of disease essentialism. Perceived threat may enhance motivation to act in health protective ways, whereas disease essentialist beliefs may contribute to a loss of motivation associated with control over health.

  8. Reliability and validity of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for breast cancer screening among Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, P; Kandiah, M; Mohd Nasir, M T; Hejar, A R; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2008-11-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Malaysian women, and the use of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography remain low in Malaysia. Therefore, there is a need to develop a valid and reliable tool to measure the beliefs that influence breast cancer screening practices. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) is a valid and reliable tool to measure beliefs about breast cancer and screening methods in the Western culture. The purpose of this study was to translate the use of CHBMS into the Malaysian context and validate the scale among Malaysian women. A random sample of 425 women teachers was taken from 24 secondary schools in Selangor state, Malaysia. The CHBMS was translated into the Malay language, validated by an expert's panel, back translated, and pretested. Analyses included descriptive statistics of all the study variables, reliability estimates, and construct validity using factor analysis. The mean age of the respondents was 37.2 (standard deviation 7.1) years. Factor analysis yielded ten factors for BSE with eigenvalue greater than 1 (four factors more than the original): confidence 1 (ability to differentiate normal and abnormal changes in the breasts), barriers to BSE, susceptibility for breast cancer, benefits of BSE, health motivation 1 (general health), seriousness 1 (fear of breast cancer), confidence 2 (ability to detect size of lumps), seriousness 2 (fear of long-term effects of breast cancer), health motivation 2 (preventive health practice), and confidence 3 (ability to perform BSE correctly). For CBE and mammography scales, seven factors each were identified. Factors for CBE scale include susceptibility, health motivation 1, benefits of CBE, seriousness 1, barriers of CBE, seriousness 2 and health motivation 2. For mammography the scale includes benefits of mammography, susceptibility, health motivation 1, seriousness 1, barriers to mammography seriousness 2 and health

  9. Doing masculinity, not doing health? a qualitative study among dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rijk Angelique

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. Methods In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Conclusions Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men

  10. Doing masculinity, not doing health? A qualitative study among Dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Seesing, Hannes; de Rijk, Angelique

    2010-11-19

    Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men, worksite health promotion programs including workplace physical

  11. User involvement in mental health rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten; Hounsgaard, Lise; Borg, Tove

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The study aimed to explore service user involvement in supported housing schemes as experienced by adults with mental illness in interplay with professionals during rehabilitation. Method: The study was designed as a field study in two supported housing schemes, using an ethnographic...

  12. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education Based on Health Belief Model during Pregnancy on Knowledge and Attitude of Women Referred to Health Centers of Gonbad Kavoos City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamideh Ahmadpoor; Aghbabak Maheri; Davud Shojaizadeh

    2015-01-01

    .... Nutritional education plays an important role in maternal and child health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education based on Health Belief Model during pregnancy on knowledge and attitude of women...

  13. Involvement of external stakeholders in local health policymaking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Winblad Heiberg, Malin

    2017-01-01

    explores the involvement of external stakeholders in local health policymaking and public officials’ perceptions on involving them. Main involvement was through a personal contact or through a regular hearing. The purpose of involvement was mostly tactical or to solve problems. Politicians had substantial...

  14. Development and Psychometrics of Health Belief Model Instrument about HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masod Vakili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: With no effective vaccine for prevention or a definite cure for treatment, health education is considered the most effective intervention against HIV. Using a valid tool to evaluate the effect of health education interventions is an inevitable necessity. The aim of this study was to design a tool and to assess its validity and reliability based on native culture characterization in order to evaluate the health belief model constructs about AIDS. Materials and Methods: 480 women covered by health bases of the city of Zanjan, in the age group of 20-30 years, married, and with at least first middle school education participated in this cross-sectional study. After reviewing the literature, the tool was designed and its validity and reliability was approved based on psychometric processes and feedback from the target group and a panel of experts through calculating the content validity ratio, content validity index, exploratory factor analysis, and determining internal consistency.Results: The validity of 37 items were assessed and selected through calculating the index score of the item effect above 1.5, content validity index ratio greater than 0.49, and content validity index higher than 0.79 and by using exploratory factor analysis with a special value greater than 1; seven factors and 34 items were kept and classified into five categories based on literature review and content items. The reliability of the research tool was calculated with Cronbach’s alpha equal to 0.82.Conclusion: The results of this study provide appropriate evidence about the strength of structural factors and the reliability of the assessment tool for structures of health belief models about AIDS, and the creation of accessibility to a reliable tool for assessing the structures of health belief model.

  15. Health Literacy among Medically Underserved: The Role of Demographic Factors, Social Influence, and Religious Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Gwede, Clement K; Sutton, Steven K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Davis, Stacy N; Abdulla, Rania; Ravindra, Chitra; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard; Meade, Cathy D

    2017-11-10

    The current study examined the sociodemographic and psychosocial variables that predicted being at risk for low health literacy among a population of racially and ethnically diverse patients accessing primary care services at community-based clinics. Participants (N = 416) were aged 50-75 years, currently not up-to-date with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, at average CRC risk, and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at promoting CRC screening. Participants completed a baseline interview that assessed health literacy as measured by Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised, sociodemographic factors, and psychosocial variables (e.g., health beliefs) prior to randomization and receipt of an intervention. Thirty-six percent of the participants were found to be at risk for low health literacy. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were assessed as predictors of being at risk for low health literacy using logistic regression. In the final model, predictors were male gender, being from a racial/ethnic minority group, being unable to work, having higher social influence scores, and having higher religious belief scores. These findings suggest several patient characteristics that may be associated with low health literacy, and highlight the importance of supporting all patients through simplified and clear communications and information to improve understanding of CRC screening information.

  16. Functional Status, Anxiety, Cardiac Self-Efficacy, and Health Beliefs of Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Allahverdipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beliefs and emotions could effect on functional status, quality of life, and mortality amongst patients who are suffering coronary heart disease (CHD. Current study examined the role of anxiety: trait/ state, self-efficacy, health beliefs, and functional status among patient with history of CHD. Method: In this correlational study, 105 hospitalized and outpatients patients suffering CHD in Tehran Heart Center Hospital participated by using convenience sampling method in 2012. Cardiac self-efficacy, Seattle Angina, and research- designed health beliefs questionnaires were used to gather data. Results: The functional status in CHD patients showed significant relationships with gender, job, and type of medical insurance of the participants (All ps<0.05. In addition , perceived vulnerability to face again cardiac attack in the future, perceived severity of next cardiac attack, anxiety, state anxiety and trait anxiety (All ps<0.05 had significant and negative relationships with functional status. Conversely, the cardiac self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship (P<0.001 with functional status. Conclusion: Psychological factors have important role in functional status and quality of life of patients who suffering CHD. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize on supportive and complementary programs to promote Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs.

  17. Health Belief Model Scale for Human Papilloma Virus and its Vaccination: Adaptation and Psychometric Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Seven, Memnun; Akyuz, Aygul

    2016-06-01

    To adapt and psychometrically test the Health Belief Model Scale for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Its Vaccination (HBMS-HPVV) for use in a Turkish population and to assess the Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge score (HPV-KS) among female college students. Instrument adaptation and psychometric testing study. The sample consisted of 302 nursing students at a nursing school in Turkey between April and May 2013. Questionnaire-based data were collected from the participants. Information regarding HBMS-HPVV and HPV knowledge and descriptive characteristic of participants was collected using translated HBMS-HPVV and HPV-KS. Test-retest reliability was evaluated and Cronbach α was used to assess internal consistency reliability, and exploratory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity of the HBMS-HPVV. The scale consists of 4 subscales that measure 4 constructs of the Health Belief Model covering the perceived susceptibility and severity of HPV and the benefits and barriers. The final 14-item scale had satisfactory validity and internal consistency. Cronbach α values for the 4 subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.78. Total HPV-KS ranged from 0 to 8 (scale range, 0-10; 3.80 ± 2.12). The HBMS-HPVV is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring young Turkish women's beliefs and attitudes about HPV and its vaccination. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Depressive symptoms in farm women: effects of health status and farming lifestyle characteristics, behaviors, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Ann K; Logan, Cynthia A

    2002-06-01

    A multitude of responsibilities, environmental and social influences, and stressors place farm women at high risk for depressive symptoms. This cross sectional survey design study examines demographic, health status, and farm lifestyle characteristics, behaviors and beliefs as risk factors contributing to depressive symptoms among farm women in southeast Louisiana. The study was conducted in a stratified, random sample of 657 women 18 years and older. Factors predictive of depressive symptoms in adjusted logistic regression included those who experience poor health, perceive hazards associated with farming, experience recent farm-related injuries and engage in farming over longer periods of time. These findings help target interventions toward women at risk for depressive symptoms.

  19. Effectiveness of peer education for breast cancer screening and health beliefs in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözüm, Sebahat; Karayurt, Ozgul; Kav, Sultan; Platin, Nurgun

    2010-01-01

    The primary site of cancer in Turkish women is breast cancer. The incidence of breast cancer is increasing in Turkey. The aim of the research was to educate women 40 years and older to increase their awareness on early detection and diagnosis, to facilitate the use of the early diagnosis methods, to improve the women's beliefs in relation breast cancer, and to increase the use of Cancer Early Diagnosis and Screening Centers available in the city. The target population of the research was 5000 women. Forty selected women were educated as peer educators. Twenty-five of them were selected as principal peer educator. Each peer educator was expected to educate 200 women. Peer trainers educated their peer and also arranged for the mammography appointment of the women who decided to have theirs taken. Data were obtained before and after the training by Champion's Health Belief Model Scale, questionnaire forms, and Cancer Early Diagnosis and Screening Centers data for mammography practice. Breast cancer was detected in 8 women. Statistical analyses showed positive changes in women's health beliefs and breast self-examination knowledge. There were 20.4% of women (n = 1040) who did get mammograms, and 8% (n = 8) of women were found to have cancer in all of those screened. Peer education was found to be effective for increasing the knowledge, beliefs, and practice of women related to breast cancer. Peers can reinforce learning through ongoing contact. Peer education can be used to improve early diagnosis of breast cancer and breast cancer awareness in asymptomatic women.

  20. Dental visiting behaviours among primary schoolchildren: Application of the health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C-Y; Ting, C-C; Wu, J-H; Lee, K-T; Chen, H-S; Chang, Y-Y

    2017-10-06

    This study aimed to develop and validate a new instrument based on the health belief model and to use the instrument to investigate the determinants of regular dental attendance among primary schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a newly developed measurement scale based on the HBM, 4 health-promoting schools participated in the study and 958 students studying in grades 4-6 completed the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the instrument were analysed, and a path analysis model was used to identify the determinants of regular dental attendance. The instrument had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.826-0.925) and a factor structure identical to HBM. Overall, the schoolchildren's health beliefs on caries treatment were positive. The determinants of regular dental visit were school location (β = -0.13), mother's education level (β = 0.15), susceptibility (β = -0.18) and barriers (β = -0.11). This study provided evidence that HBM is applicable to children's dental visiting behaviour and their health beliefs towards adherence to caries treatment. Although children had a positive attitude towards dental visits, environmental obstacles would interfere with dental visits. The newly developed instrument could be used to identify high-risk children and help design oral health interventions for these children. Moreover, policy makers should increase the accessibility of dental resources to enhance the utilization of dental care among schoolchildren. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Group Counseling Based on Health Belief Model on Cervical Cancer Screening Beliefs and Performance of Rural Women in Kaboudrahang, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Parisa; Sharifi, Fatemeh; Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Karami, Manoocher

    2017-06-25

    Objective: Pap smear test is an appropriate screening method for early diagnosis of cervical cancer and reduction of mortality. This study targeted effects of group counseling based on the Health Belief Model on cervical cancer screening practices of Iranian rural women. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 rural women under coverage of the health care centers in rural areas in the city of Kabudrahang, Iran, in 2015. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire covering demographic information, Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs and screening performance. Data were collected using a multi-stage sampling method. Group counseling was conducted based on the Health Belief Model and the GATHER steps in three sessions for the intervention group. Counseling included an introduction to cervical cancer, disease symptoms, warning signs and prevention approaches. Pap smear testing in both intervention and control groups was evaluated two months after the group counseling. Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between both groups in the HBM constructs and performance. After the intervention, a significant difference was seen in the perceived susceptibility (Pbeliefs of rural women regarding cervical cancer screening and increase their performance. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. Longitudinal effects of religious involvement on religious coping and health behaviors in a national sample of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Roth, David L; Huang, Jin; Park, Crystal L; Clark, Eddie M

    2017-08-01

    Many studies have examined associations between religious involvement and health, linking various dimensions of religion with a range of physical health outcomes and often hypothesizing influences on health behaviors. However, far fewer studies have examined explanatory mechanisms of the religion-health connection, and most have overwhelmingly relied on cross-sectional analyses. Given the relatively high levels of religious involvement among African Americans and the important role that religious coping styles may play in health, the present study tested a longitudinal model of religious coping as a potential mediator of a multidimensional religious involvement construct (beliefs; behaviors) on multiple health behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, alcohol use, cancer screening). A national probability sample of African Americans was enrolled in the RHIAA (Religion and Health In African Americans) study and three waves of telephone interviews were conducted over a 5-year period (N = 565). Measurement models were fit followed by longitudinal structural models. Positive religious coping decreased modestly over time in the sample, but these reductions were attenuated for participants with stronger religious beliefs and behaviors. Decreases in negative religious coping were negligible and were not associated with either religious beliefs or religious behaviors. Religious coping was not associated with change in any of the health behaviors over time, precluding the possibility of a longitudinal mediational effect. Thus, mediation observed in previous cross-sectional analyses was not confirmed in this more rigorous longitudinal model over a 5-year period. However, findings do point to the role that religious beliefs have in protecting against declines in positive religious coping over time, which may have implications for pastoral counseling and other faith-based interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge, beliefs and behavior related to oral health among Tanzanian and Ugandan teacher trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrøm, A N; Jackson, W; Mwangosi, I E

    2000-02-01

    This study was designed to assess levels of oral health knowledge, beliefs and self-reported behavior among teacher trainees in Uganda and Tanzania. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected from trainees attending the final year at teacher training colleges in Rungwe district, Tanzania, in 1997, and in Mbale and Kampala districts of Uganda, in 1998. A total of 195 trainees from Tanzania and 225 trainees from Uganda participated. Results from Pearson's chi2 test and independent sample t tests indicated that Tanzanian students had less experience with oral impairments, were more resolutely prepared to teach about the importance of personal habits for oral health maintenance, and had higher levels of oral health knowledge than Ugandan students. Ugandan students endorsed frequent consumption of sugar products more often than their Tanzanian counterparts, but they were more diligent in visiting dentists. Most of the Tanzanian (97.4%) and Ugandan (95.6%) students reported daily toothbrushing. In both countries, beliefs about the importance of preventive behaviors for oral health were closely related to the frequency with which such habits occurred. This cross-cultural consistency highlights the importance of cognitive factors. The implications for oral health educational programs among teacher trainees across East African countries are discussed.

  4. Awareness of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Indian women: An evaluation of Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Behera, Prateek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Sen, Mitali

    2016-01-01

    The level of awareness about osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who are the common sufferers. This study aims to evaluate the level of awareness in postmenopausal women using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS). Osteoporosis has emerged as a common health problem in geriatric population. A proactive role needs to be played for preventing its consequences. Before initiating any preventive measures, an evaluation of awareness level of the target population is necessary. The questionnaire-based study design was used for this study. A questionnaire (OHBS)-based study in 100 postmenopausal women in Chandigarh was conducted. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in each case by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of the participants were noted. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate any correlation between the various components of the OHBS and the BMD. No statistically significant difference was noted in the seven component parameters of OHBS among the normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic women suggesting that the health belief regarding susceptibility is not much different between the three groups of the study population. A statistically significant difference between the mean BMI of normal and osteoporotic population was noted. The results show that there is a great deficit in the awareness level of postmenopausal Indian women regarding osteoporosis. Most of the women were unaware of the condition and the means to prevent it. The study emphasizes that health care professionals have lot of ground to cover to decrease the incidence of osteoporosis and its associated health problem.

  5. Adolescents' beliefs about preferred resources for help vary depending on the health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Arik V; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2007-07-01

    Adolescents' health care use is less than ideal, especially for more sensitive services. We know little about adolescents' preferred resources for help for health-related issues, and whether these resources vary by problem type. This study examined whether adolescents' preferred resources for help differed depending on the health issue studied. Two hundred ten high school students (54% females; 76.6% participation rate) completed a self-administered survey of four separate age- and gender-specific health case scenarios: an adolescent who has symptoms of pneumonia; smokes five cigarettes daily; plans to initiate sex; and has symptoms of depression. For each health scenario, participants rated the importance of getting help in general, how important it was to get help from specific resources (friends/siblings; significant adults; health care professionals; and mental health professionals), and highest rankings of specific resources. Most adolescents believed it somewhat or very important to get help in general for all scenarios (94% pneumonia; 81% cigarette; 88% depression) except the sex scenario (27%). Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant differences in participants' beliefs in the importance of getting help from each specific resource across the four scenarios (all p importance of getting help from specific resources also varied by age, gender, and beliefs in importance of getting help in general. Adolescents' preferred resources for help differ depending on the health issue in question, with adolescents preferring informal resources (friends and partners) and significant adults (parents) to go to for help for nonphysical health-related issues and physicians for physical health-related issues. Future preventive service efforts and research should also consider the importance of age and gender when examining adolescents' preferred resources for help.

  6. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  7. The effects of health perception on living health belief, living satisfaction and wellbeing-oriented activities according to swimming participation with middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of health perception on health belief, life satisfaction, and wellbeing-oriented activities according to swimming participation with middle-aged women. First, the subvariables of health perception, health interest and health concern, did exert significant effects on the subvariables of health belief, perceived benefit and perceived disability. Health interest and health concern also showed significant effects on the subvariables of life satisfaction and wellbeing-oriented activities, exercise orientation and hobby orientation, as well. Second, the subvariables of health perception, resistance and sensitivity, indicated significant effects on the subvariable of health belief, perceived disability, and they also showed significant effects on life satisfaction, too. Also, resistance-sensitivity had significant effects on the subvariables of wellbeing-oriented activities, mental health orientation and hobby orientation, too.

  8. Low control beliefs in relation to school dropout and poor health: findings from the SIODO case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Hans; Theunissen, Marie-José; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans

    2014-11-28

    There is cumulating evidence that health is compromised through adverse socioeconomic conditions negatively affecting how people think, feel, and behave. Low control beliefs might be a key mechanism. The reversed possibility that low control beliefs might set people on a pathway towards adverse socioeconomic and health-related outcomes is much less examined. A case-control design was used, consisting of 330 cases who dropped out of school in the 2010-2011 school year and 330 controls who still attended school at the end of that year. The respondents, aged between 18 and 23, came from Eindhoven and surrounding areas in the south-east of The Netherlands. A questionnaire asked for current health status, recalled socioeconomic and social background, and recalled control beliefs (mastery and general self-efficacy). Logistic regression analyses were used. Recalls of low mastery and low self-efficacy were strongly related to both dropout and less than good health. Low socioeconomic background was also associated to odds of dropout, but did not confound or moderate the associations of low control beliefs with dropout and health. Odds ratios of dropout and less than good health indicated at least twice the odds of a poor outcome with recalls of low control beliefs. Independent of the socioeconomic background, low control beliefs are related to heightened odds of both poor health and school dropout. Individual differences in control beliefs might thus be as fundamental as socioeconomic conditions in generating life-course socioeconomic and health-related pathways. Although the findings should first be cross-validated in prospective studies, public health professionals working with youth might already start considering early interventions in youth with all too fatalistic and powerless mind-sets.

  9. Gender differences in beliefs about health: a comparative qualitative study with Ghanaian and Indian migrants living in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidu, Lailah; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-20

    There is a well-established association between migration to high income countries and health status, with some groups reporting poorer health outcomes than the host population. However, processes that influence health behaviours and health outcomes across minority ethnic groups are complex and in addition, culture ascribes specific gender roles for men and women, which can further influence perspectives of health. The aim of this study was to undertake a comparative exploration of beliefs of health among male and female Ghanaian and Indian migrants and White British participants residing in an urban area within the UK. Thirty-six participants (12 each Ghanaian, Indian and White British) were recruited through community settings and participated in a semi-structured interview focusing on participant's daily life in the UK, perceptions of their own health and how they maintained their health. Interviews were analyzed using a Framework approach. Three super ordinate themes were identified and labelled (a) beliefs about health; (b) symptom interpretation and (c) self-management and help seeking. Gender differences in beliefs and health behaviour practices were apparent across participants. This is the first study to undertake a comparative exploration of health beliefs among people who have migrated to the UK from Ghana and India and to compare with a local (White British) population. The results highlight a need to consider both cultural and gender-based diversity in guiding health behaviours, and such information will be useful in the development of interventions to support health outcomes among migrant populations.

  10. The Association of Health Literacy with Illness and Medication Beliefs among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Minal S; Federman, Alex D; Krauskopf, Katherine; Wolf, Michael; O'Conor, Rachel; Martynenko, Melissa; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with low adherence to self-management in many chronic diseases. Additionally, health beliefs are thought to be determinants of self-management behaviors. In this study we sought to determine the association, if any, of health literacy and health beliefs among elderly individuals with COPD. We enrolled a cohort of patients with COPD from two academic urban settings in New York, NY and Chicago, IL. Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Using the framework of the Self-Regulation Model, illness and medication beliefs were measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) and Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ). Unadjusted analyses, with corresponding Cohen's d effect sizes, and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationships between HL and illness and medication beliefs. We enrolled 235 participants, 29% of whom had low health literacy. Patients with low health literacy were more likely to belong to a racial minority group (pliteracy were less likely to believe they will always have COPD (p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.42), and were more likely to be concerned about their illness ((p = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.17). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors and other health beliefs, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe that they will always have COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.94). In addition, the association of low health literacy with expressed concern about medications remained significant (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05-1.37) though the association of low health literacy with belief in the necessity of medications was no longer significant (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.04). In this cohort of urban individuals with COPD, low health literacy was prevalent, and associated with illness beliefs that predict decreased adherence. Our results suggest that targeted strategies to address low health

  11. The role of Compensatory Health Beliefs in eating behavior change: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Melanie A; Rackow, Pamela; Inauen, Jennifer; Radtke, Theda; Scholz, Urte

    2017-09-01

    Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs), defined as beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated for by engaging in another healthy behavior, are assumed to hinder health behavior change. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CHBs for two distinct eating behaviors (increased fruit and vegetable consumption and eating fewer unhealthy snacks) with a mixed method approach. Participants (N = 232, mean age = 27.3 years, 76.3% women) were randomly assigned to a fruit and vegetable or an unhealthy snack condition. For the quantitative approach, path models were fitted to analyze the role of CHBs within a social-cognitive theory of health behavior change, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). With a content analysis, the qualitative approach investigated the occurrence of CHBs in smartphone chat groups when pursuing an eating goal. Both analyses were conducted for each eating behavior separately. Path models showed that CHBs added predictive value for intention, but not behavior over and above HAPA variables only in the unhealthy snack condition. CHBs were significantly negatively associated with intention and action planning. Content analysis revealed that people generated only a few CHB messages. However, CHBs were more likely to be present and were also more diverse in the unhealthy snack condition compared to the fruit and vegetable condition. Based on a mixed method approach, this study suggests that CHBs play a more important role for eating unhealthy snacks than for fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between critical thinking skills and self-efficacy beliefs in mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloudemans, Henk A; Schalk, René M J D; Reynaert, Wouter

    2013-03-01

    In the Netherlands, the distinction between Bachelor degree and diploma nursing educational levels remains unclear. The added value of Bachelor degree nurses and how they develop professionally after graduation are subject to debate. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Bachelor degree nurses have higher critical thinking skills than diploma nurses do and whether there is a positive relationship between higher critical thinking skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Outcomes might provide instruments that are helpful in positioning of nursing levels in education and practice. Questionnaire data were used of a sample of 95 registered mental health staff nurses (62 diploma nurses and 33 Bachelor degree nurses). First, ANOVA was performed to test whether the two groups were comparable with respect to elements of work experience. Second, t-tests were conducted to compare the two groups of nurses on self-efficacy, perceived performance and critical thinking outcomes. Third, relationships between the study variables were investigated. Finally, structural equation modelling using AMOS was applied to test the relationships. The hypothesis that Bachelor degree nurses are better critical thinkers than diploma nurses was supported (p<0.01). Years in function turned out to be positively related to self-efficacy beliefs (p<0.01). No significant relation was found between the level of education and self-efficacy beliefs. The results of this study support career development and facilitate more efficient positioning of nursing levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "THE EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCTION IN PROMOTING HEALTH OF HAIRDRESSERS ABOUT HEPATITIS B BASED ON HEALTH BELIEF MODEL "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Baghiani Moghadam

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HB is an infectious disease occurring worldwide which can be transferred by some professions, including hairdressers. Health education is an essential component of public health campaign about this disease. The purpose of this study was to test the utility of the health belief model (HBM in understanding and predicating the intention of hairdressers in prevention of HB in their clients. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to 140 hairdressers (70 men and 70 women in Yazd, Iran. All subjects were divided into two groups: case group (35 men and 35 women and control group (35 men and 35 women. A researcher designed questionnaire according to the framework of HBM was developed, pilot-tested and then completed before and after intervention. There was significant difference between the mean grade scores of knowledge of case group before and after intervention (P < 0.0001. The perceived threat of case group were also increased from 9.8 to 10.61 after intervention, but the perceived threat of control group were decreased from 9.97 to 9. The HBM may offer an effective foundation for development of an educational intervention program in hairdressers for prevention of HB in their clients.

  14. Causal thinking after a tsunami wave: karma beliefs, pessimistic explanatory style and health among Sri Lankan survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R; Slade, Martin D; Ranasinghe, Padmini

    2009-03-01

    In 2004, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded led to a tsunami devastating two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline. We examined whether certain causal beliefs (attributional style and karma, a Buddhist concept used to explain bad events) are associated with tsunami survivors experiencing PTSD and poor health about six months later. Previous studies of causal beliefs associated with illness following the same traumatic event have focused on Western countries and none have considered the role of karma. We interviewed 264 Sri Lankan tsunami survivors. As predicted, we found that belief in karma and a pessimistic explanatory style are independently associated with poor health and a pessimistic explanatory style is associated with PTSD, after adjusting for relevant factors. Thus, both universal and more culturally specific beliefs may contribute to coping following a natural disaster.

  15. Oral Health Related Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs among Secondary School Students in Iringa Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel, Athanase; Chang’endo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    To determine oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among secondary school students in Iringa municipality. Cross-sectional descriptive study. All participants reported to brush their teeth at least once a day, only 24% brush twice a day. The use of plastic tooth brush was reported to be 97.1%. 72.7% of participants who reported to know about dental checkup and 84.6%, recommended the interval of dental check ups to be between one to six months. About 58.6% reported ...

  16. Health beliefs affect the correct replacement of daily disposable contact lenses: Predicting compliance with the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Stefano; Zeri, Fabrizio; Baroni, Rossella

    2017-02-01

    To assess the compliance of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses (DDCLs) wearers with replacing lenses at a manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency. To evaluate the ability of two different Health Behavioural Theories (HBT), The Health Belief Model (HBM) and The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), in predicting compliance. A multi-centre survey was conducted using a questionnaire completed anonymously by contact lens wearers during the purchase of DDCLs. Three hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned. The survey comprised 58.5% females and 41.5% males (mean age 34±12years). Twenty-three percent of respondents were non-compliant with manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency (re-using DDCLs at least once). The main reason for re-using DDCLs was "to save money" (35%). Predictions of compliance behaviour (past behaviour or future intentions) on the basis of the two HBT was investigated through logistic regression analysis: both TPB factors (subjective norms and perceived behavioural control) were significant (pcontact-lens-related eye infection, and to underline the possibility of its prevention. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complex relation among Health Belief Model components in TB prevention and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z T; Yang, S S; Zhang, X X; Fisher, E B; Tian, B C; Sun, X Y

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the relationships among components of the Health Belief Model, tuberculosis (TB) preventive behavior, and intention of seeking TB care. Cross section study. Using convenience sampling, 1154 rural-to-urban migrant workers were selected between the ages of 18-50 years in six urban areas of three provinces in China. The survey was conducted by individual, face-to-face interviews with a standardized questionnaire. Lisrel 8.7 was used to conduct path analysis. The knowledge and benefits components of the Health Belief Model predicted preventive behaviors: cover nose/mouth when coughing or sneezing (β = 0.24, 0.33 respectively), evade others' coughs (β = 0.13, 0.25) and also predicted seeking TB care (β = 0.27, 0.19). Susceptibility and severity also predicted seeking TB care (β = 0.12, 0.16). There were also important relationships among model components. Knowledge of TB predicted both susceptibility (β = 0.32-0.60) and severity (β = 0.41-0.45). Further, each of susceptibility (β = 0.30) and severity (β = 0.41) predicted perceived benefits of preventive care. Thus, a path from knowledge, through severity and susceptibility, and then through benefits predicted prevention and TB care seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of fatalistic beliefs on health beliefs among diabetics in Khartoum, Sudan: a comparison between Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hag Hamed, Dana; Daniel, Marguerite

    2017-07-01

    Although there are many studies assessing the influence of religious beliefs on health they do not agree on whether the impact is positive or negative. More so, there is no consensus in the available literature on the definition of fatalism and what it means to individuals. In this phenomenological study we attempt to define what religious fatalism means to people living with diabetes in Khartoum, and how it affects their health beliefs, and how those beliefs affect their sense of coherence and generalized resistance resources, since salutogenesis is the guiding theory in this study. Three Copts and five Sunnis living with diabetes were interviewed, as well as a Coptic clergyman and a Sunni scholar. The semi-structured interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Thematic network analysis was used to code salient concepts into basic themes, organizing themes and global themes. The empirical findings are thus structured as the three global themes: (1) fatalism and free will; (2) health responsibility; (3) acceptance and coping. Fatalism was defined as events beyond an individual's control where it is then the individual's free will to seek healthy behavior. Thus health responsibility was stressed upon by the participants in this study as well as the clergyman and scholar. There is also the concept of 'God doesn't give one what one cannot handle' that the participants relate to coping and acceptance. This study finds that the meaning of religious fatalism held by participants and religious clergy is not disempowering. The participants believe that they are responsible for their health. The meaning derived from fatalism is related to how they can accept what is beyond their control and cope with their health condition. Religious fatalism contributed to comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness in our participants' response to diabetes.

  19. Physicians' Involvement with the New York State Health Care Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Janna C.; Sealy, Yvette M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined physicians' attitude, involvement, and perceived barriers with the health care proxy. A cross sectional, correlational design was used to survey practicing physicians (N = 70). Physicians had positive attitudes toward the health care proxy and indicated that the most significant barriers to health care proxy completion were…

  20. Beliefs and practices in health care Creencias y prácticas en el cuidado de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    ALZATE POSADA MARTHA LUCÍA; MELGUIZO HERRERA ESTELA

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to review the concepts of beliefs and practices of health care as cultural expressions in order to highlight to caregivers the necessary aspects for them to provide a culturally consistent care, a more human and effective one. From the conception of culture as a human creation which influences and shapes people's beliefs and practices, some definitions of the concepts as of social psicology, anthropology, sociology and transcultural nursing aspects are revised. We found that ...

  1. The Influences of Health Beliefs and Identity on Adolescent Marijuana and Tobacco Co-Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Moffat, Barbara; Jenkins, Emily K; Johnson, Joy L

    2014-07-01

    Among youth, the co-use of marijuana and tobacco is highly prevalent, yet a considerable gap remains in the drug-prevention literature pertaining to such co-use. In particular, the prevention field lacks research exploring how adolescents understand the health implications of smoking these two substances in combination. In this article, we draw on qualitative interviews with adolescents from three communities in British Columbia, Canada, and describe the health beliefs and social identities that they associated with smoking marijuana and tobacco. We argue that smoking prevention and cessation initiatives targeting adolescents must address both marijuana and tobacco. Such initiatives must also be designed to identify and address how adolescents frame the potential health harms associated with smoking these substances. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Factors Affecting Oral-Dental Health in Children in the Viewpoints of Mothers Referred to the Health Centers in Qom City: Using the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Gharlipour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Many dental problems such as tooth decay starts from childhood. In this regard, attitudes and beliefs of mothers about oral-dental health are important. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting oral-dental health in children of the mothers who referred to the Qom health centers by using of the Health Belief Model. Materials and Methods This is cross-sectional descriptive analytic study that was performed among mothers who had Children's health dossier in the Qom health centers, Iran. By using of multi-stage sampling and sample size formula, 300 mothers were selected randomly from health assessment centers. Required data from target group were collected by the questionnaire about Health Belief Model in the field of oral health. The data were analyzed using SPSS -20. Results The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the mothers' behavior towards oral-dental health with perceived benefits and self-efficacy (r=0.16, P

  3. Assessment of Health Belief Model (HBM impact on knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy of women in need of genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Moodi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Regarding the ever-increasing of genetic diseases, counseling for the prevention of these diseases has got overwhelming necessity. Thus, promoting individuals’ awareness of. genetic counseling is required. The current study aimed at determining  the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model on knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy of urbanized women in need of genetic counseling. Materials and Methods: In this randomized field trial study, 80 married women in need of genetic counseling were divided into two equal case and control groups. Data collection means were a researcher-designed questionnaire consisting of demographic data and health belief model queries, which were completed by interview. Educational intervention was done during three 90 minute sessions with one week interval between each one. Finally, the obtained data was fed into SPSS (version 16 applying the statistical tests of Chi-square, repeated ANOVA, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney and Friedman for analysis; and P0.05, but the difference became significant immediately and three months after intervention (P<0.001. There was a significant difference between the knowledge, threat, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy in the two groups three week intervals before and  immediately after intervention, before and after the three months, immediately and after three months in the experimental group (P<0.001, but the difference was not significant in the control group. Conclusion: The results showed that educational interventions based on HBM increases women's knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy regarding the role of genetic counseling in the prevention of congenital malformations.

  4. Locus of control beliefs mediate the relationship between religious functioning and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew E; Francis, Andrew J P

    2012-09-01

    Theistic and spiritually based beliefs and behaviors have been demonstrated to consistently predict physical and mental health, although the psychological processes underlying these relationships are unclear. This study investigated associative relationships and pathways of mediation between religious functioning, locus of control (LOC) and health. The sample consisted of 122 Christians (79 women, 43 men) who were predominately Catholic, ranging in age from 18 to 80 (M = 45.47, SD = 15.0). Participants were recruited from churches in the Western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia, and completed a questionnaire package measuring (1) psychological and physical health, (2) the religious variables of awareness of God, instability and impression management, and (3) God, internal and external LOC domains. Results indicated that awareness of God and internal LOC were associated with better health, whereas external LOC and instability were associated with poorer health. God LOC and impression management were not significantly associated with health. Sobel tests were used to analyse mediation hypotheses. Internal LOC was found to mediate the relationship between awareness of God and better psychological health, and external LOC was found to mediate the relationship between instability and poorer psychological health. These findings are of considerable clinical significance.

  5. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Associated Factors of Milk Consumption among Students: Using Health Belief Model (HBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAmong various food products, milk and dairy products are among the most basic nutrient foods. The consumption of milk and dairy products in Iran is much lower than the global rate of per capita consumption. This study used Health Belief Model to determine associated factors of milk consumption among 7-9th students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on seventh to ninth grade students in the city of Qom. Using multistage cluster sampling method, a total of 390 students were enrolled onto the study. In order to collect data in this study, we used a researcher made questionnaire which was designed based on health belief model. Using SPSS version 20.0 software, the collected data was analyzed via descriptive statistics and independent t-test and Chi-square test.ResultsOf all the participants, 41% consumed milk daily and 59% did not consume milk. The perceived benefits (P=0.007, perceived barriers (P< 0.001, perceived self-efficacy (P

  7. Predicting adherence to antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women in Guyana: Utility of the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalis, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    Barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among pregnant women are varied and complex. This study explored the constructs of a theoretical model, the Health Belief Model (HBM) to understand and predict ART adherence among pregnant women in Guyana. A cross-sectional study surveyed 108 pregnant women attending 11 primary care clinics. ART adherence ranging from the past weekend to three months was assessed through self-reports, and health beliefs with the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire (ADQ). Constructs with sufficient variation in responses were tested for association with the level of adherence using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and test. Sixty-seven per cent (72) of the women reported being always adherent. Although there was positive endorsement of ART treatment and adherence, the HBM did not help in understanding or predicting ART adherence in this population. Only one item from the perceived susceptibility construct was significantly associated (p = 0.009) with adherence. Interventions are warranted to address ART adherence in this population, as 19% of the women were recently non-adherent. Although the ADQ did not contribute to a deeper understanding or provide insight into pathways that can be targeted for intervention, theoretical models can play a key role in identifying these pathways.

  8. Examination of value of the future and health beliefs to explain dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Kimberly Bosworth; Harris, Carole V; Bolding, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown a negative association between value of the future (preference for long-term vs. short-term rewards) and harmful addictive behaviors; however, research in the area of preventive behaviors is limited and has shown conflicting results. The primary objectives were: (1) to examine the association among value of the future and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors, and (2) to assess whether value of the future explained additional variance in behaviors after controlling for theory-based health beliefs related to coronary heart disease (CHD). An online survey was conducted in adults (N = 172) with no prior history of CHD. A delay discounting task was administered to measure value of the future. Questionnaire items were based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and included CHD knowledge, perceived risk, perceived severity, perceived benefits of and barriers to behavior change, self-efficacy, cues to action, diet and PA behaviors and demographic variables. High value of the future was associated with younger age, lower BMI, more healthful diet, and increased PA. After controlling for HBM components and demographics, value of the future did not explain any additional variance in diet or PA behaviors. Significant predictors of healthful diet included female gender (P = .013), increased age (P = .029), greater than high school education (P = .023), greater diet-related self-efficacy (P = .021), and not having received a healthcare provider recommendation to improve diet (P = .018). Significant predictors of PA level included income between $20,000 and $69,999 (P = .014), greater exercise-related self-efficacy (P health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An ethnographic study of diabetes health beliefs and practices in Sri Lankan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, A A T D; Fongkaew, W; Turale, S; Wimalasekara, S W; Chanprasit, C

    2014-12-01

    Globally, type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent; however, unique cultural contexts in each country might affect these diabetes control behaviours. Diabetes is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka and little is known about the impact of sociocultural context on diabetes health behaviours. This first-time qualitative Sri Lankan study explored the health beliefs and practices of adults with diabetes to enhance current nursing care and medical treatment. An ethnographic approach was used to collect data through participant observations, in-depth interviews with 14 key informants in their homes and field notes. Data were analysed by thematic analysis. Findings revealed unique, informative insights into sociocultural worlds of the participants from three Sinhalese, Tamils and Moor ethnic groups. Findings are described under five themes: gaining religious support, changing food habits is a struggle, exercising is challenging, Western medicine causes long-term consequences and Ayurveda/traditional treatments can cure. In Sri Lankans, the impact of sociocultural context on glycaemic control behaviours is significant and should be taken in consideration when health professionals provide care, treatment and health education. Study informants were selected from three ethnic groups and just two communities. Further in-depth research is required using both qualitative and quantitative approaches in individual groups. Culturally relevant policies and protocols for community care and treatment of people with diabetes are urgently required in Sri Lanka to enhance cultural treatment and care and reduce the epidemic of diabetes. These policies need to take into account traditional beliefs and practices of various ethnic groups. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  10. Turkish female academician self-esteem and health beliefs for breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ilknur Aydin; Kumcagiz, Hatice; Altinel, Busra; Caloglu, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse female academician health beliefs for breast cancer screening and levels of self-esteem. This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2010 and March 2011, covering female academicians working in all faculties and vocational schools at Ondokuz Mayis University, except for the ones in the field of health (n=141). Data was collected using a questionnaire developed by researchers in the light of the related literature, the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for Breast Cancer, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Descriptive statistics, the t-test, Mann-Whitney U and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data with the SPSS 13.0 statistical package. 53.8% of the participants were single, 58.6% did not have children, 80.7% had regular menstrual cycles, 28.3% was taking birth control pills, 17.9% were undergoing hormone therapy, 11% suffered breast problems, 8.3% had relatives with breast cancer, 78,6% knew about breast self-examination (BSE), 68.3% was performing BSE, 16.2% were performing BSE monthly, 17.9% had had mammograms, and 30.3% had undergone breast examinations conductedby physicians. The women who had breast physical examinations done by physicians had higher susceptibility, self-efficacy and health motivation, and fewer barriers to mammography than those who did not have breast physical examinations. There was a relationship between the female academician self-esteem and their perceived seriousness of breast cancer, perceived barriers to BSE and health motivation. Our Turksih female academicians had medium levels of self-esteem.

  11. Lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care among parents and adolescents: Exploring the impact of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulp, Esmée E; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2017-04-01

    Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care. Additionally, among immigrant Dutch parents, we examined the associations between acculturation orientations and lay beliefs about emotional problems as well as attitudes toward mental health care. In total, 349 pairs of parents and their adolescent children participated in our study (95 native Dutch, 85 Surinamese-Dutch, 87 Turkish-Dutch, 82 Moroccan-Dutch). A vignette was used to examine participants' lay beliefs. Immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents differed in their lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care, whereas hardly any differences were revealed among their children. Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch parents showed more passive and fewer active solutions to emotional problems compared to native Dutch parents. Additionally, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch parents reported greater fear of mental health care compared to native Dutch parents. Furthermore, the results showed that immigrant Dutch parents who were more strongly oriented toward the Dutch culture reported less fear of mental health care. Our results showed clear differences in lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents but not between their children. Substantial differences were also found between parents from different immigrant Dutch populations as well as within the population of immigrant Dutch parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Perceptions and Beliefs on Aging and Their Impact on Elderly General Health: An Appraisal of Self-Regulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Masoudnia

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The perception toward aging is one of the important determinants and key predictors of elderly general health. Also, the self-regulation model proves to be an appropriate framework to explain the role of beliefs, perceptions, and understanding of the experiences of aging on the physical and mental health status of the elderly.

  13. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Personal Practices regarding Colorectal Cancer Screening among Health Care Professionals in Rural Colorado: A Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Sun Hee; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.; Overholser, Linda; Froshaug, Desiree; Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports the baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices of health care professionals regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) of rural Colorado prior to a community-based educational intervention. It also examines the association between health care staff members'…

  15. Lay Beliefs About Emotional Problems and Attitudes Toward Mental Health Care Among Parents and Adolescents : Exploring the Impact of Immigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulp, Esmée E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330985086; Stevens, Gonneke W J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269103775; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314252045; Vollebergh, Wilma A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893

    Objective: Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in

  16. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish...... consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household...... that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education...

  17. Exploring knowledge, belief and experiences in sexual and reproductive health in immigrant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelopana, Ana M; Alcalde, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the transformation of immigrant women's knowledge, belief and experience with regard to sexual and reproductive health after living in the US. Four focus groups (N = 24) were held with Hispanic women ≥18 years old. We identified two main themes (Fertility/Knowledge and Gender power) with five subthemes (Sex education, Contraception and unintended pregnancy, Men versus women, Intimate partner violence, and Immigrating to the US). Most of these women were raised in a very restricted family context where talking about sex was viewed as sinful. In spite of their own experiences of sexual silence and the consequences to their lives, women valued the positive changes achieved by immigrating to the US; they felt empowered to make their own decisions regarding reproductive health.

  18. Understanding weight management perceptions in first-year college students using the health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhibha M; Evans, Ellen M

    2014-01-01

    To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. First-year students recognize benefits to weight management beyond physical attractiveness to quality-of-life domains, including social (eg, bonding opportunities and energy to socially engage) and mental health (eg, stress management). Men believe that weight management is important for career/financial reasons, whereas women voiced that it will allow them to live a full, independent life with a high level of multitasking. Men believed that their barriers were external (eg, campus resources/programs), whereas females perceived their barriers to be internal (eg, poor time management). College students are challenged by weight management and want the institution to provide resources, including curriculum, to help them manage their physical activity and nutrition behaviors.

  19. Mental health beliefs and barriers to accessing mental health services in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge and Health Beliefs Regarding Sickle Cell Disease Among Omanis in a Primary Healthcare Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Mohammed H.; Al-Belushi, Rajaa; Al-Mamari, Muna; Davidson, Robin; Mathew, Anil C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a global health concern associated with high childhood morbidity and mortality; in Oman, the prevalence of SCD is 0.2%. Public awareness of SCD and the need for premarital screening (PMS) are essential to reduce the incidence of this disease. This study aimed to assess awareness of and beliefs regarding SCD and PMS among Omanis in a primary healthcare setting. Methods This cross-sectional study took place in five health centres located in Al-Seeb Province, Muscat, Oman, between June and August 2015. A total of 500 Omanis aged ≥18 years old attending the clinics were invited to participate in the study. A previously described questionnaire by Gustafson et al. was used to measure awareness of and beliefs regarding SCD and PMS. Results A total of 450 Omani adults completed the questionnaire (response rate: 90.0%). The majority (67.8%) were aware that SCD is genetically inherited and 85.1% believed in the value of PMS; however, only 24.4% reported having undergone PMS previously. Few participants were aware that SCD can be very painful (20.2%) and can cause strokes, infections and organ damage (20.0%). More than half (56.7%) reported that the availability of educational material on SCD or PMS in Oman was inadequate. Participants’ education levels were positively associated with accurate SCD knowledge (P <0.05). Conclusion Despite the free availability of PMS services in local health centres, few Omanis reported having undergone PMS previously. Health promotion and education programmes are therefore needed in Oman in order to increase public awareness of SCD and the value of PMS. PMID:28003889

  1. Exploring Smoking Cessation Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Occupational Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ollie; Fortuna, Grace; Weinsier, Stephanie; Campbell, Kay; Cantrell, Jennifer; Furmanski, William L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore occupational health nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding the delivery of smoking cessation services to workers. The study included 707 members of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) who completed a one-time survey during the fall of 2012. Results indicated that occupational health nurses believed that evidence-based treatments are at least somewhat effective and that they should provide smoking cessation services to their workers; however, a majority of occupational health nurses reported that they did not have appropriate smoking cessation training or guidelines in their workplaces. Occupational health nurses would benefit from training in the use of smoking cessation guidelines and evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, which could be used in their clinical practice. Employers should ensure that workplace policies, such as providing coverage for cessation services, facilitate smokers' efforts to quit. Employers can benefit from many of these policies through cost savings via reduced health care costs and absenteeism. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. THE EFFECT OF FAMILY THERAPY WITH SPIRITUAL APPROACH TOWARD FAMILY’S HEALTH BELIEF MODEL IN TAKING CARE OF PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is the problem with kognitive, mal-adaptive thought and behavior. Family who have a member with mental disorder can experience serious conflict, become an objective and subjective burden, blame each other, get involved in hostility among family members. Various negative effect faced by family can caused by wrong family’s health belief model about Schizophrenia, hence the failure on choosing the treatment and taking care of patient at home. Someone with severe stress will seek comfort and strength from God. But so far, the most effective spiritual models to improve the health belief model of the family in caring for patients with schizophrenia has not been found. Method: Design used in this study was experimental (pre post test control group design. The population was every family of patient with mental disorder in Menur Mental Hospital along the year of 2010, chosen by alocation simple random. Samples were 13 persons in each treatment and control group. The intervention was given in 60–120 minute in 8 times meeting with average interval about 1 week. Data analysis was done using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: There were significant changes in total of family’s health belief model (p=0,004, there was significantly change in aspects of (1 perceptions about bene fi ts (p=0,009, (2 perception about barriers (p=0,035 and perception about self efficacy (p=0,002. There were no significant changing in perception about susceptibility and severity (p=0,052. Discussion: Family believes that all events experienced by the patient and the family is God's will, hoping the patient can be more independent, and believe mental disorders can be changed for the better. The conclusion of this study is that family therapy with a spiritual approach can improve the health belief model of the family in caring for patients with mental disorders.

  3. Ethiopian community health workers' beliefs and attitudes towards children with autism: Impact of a brief training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Dejene; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Araya, Mesfin; Roth, Ilona; Davey, Basiro; Hanlon, Charlotte; Hoekstra, Rosa A

    2017-09-01

    There is a severe shortage of services for children with autism in Ethiopia; access to services is further impeded by negative beliefs and stigmatising attitudes towards affected children and their families. To increase access to services, care provision is decentralised through task-shifted care by community health extension workers. This study aimed to examine the impact of a brief training (Health Education and Training; HEAT) for Ethiopian rural health extension workers and comprised three groups: (1) health extension workers who completed a basic mental health training module (HEAT group, N = 104); (2) health extension workers who received enhanced training, comprising basic HEAT as well as video-based training on developmental disorders and a mental health pocket guide (HEAT+ group, N = 97); and (3) health extension workers untrained in mental health (N = 108). All participants completed a questionnaire assessing beliefs and social distance towards children with autism. Both the HEAT and HEAT+ group showed fewer negative beliefs and decreased social distance towards children with autism compared to the untrained health extension worker group, with the HEAT+ group outperforming the HEAT group. However, HEAT+ trained health extension workers were less likely to have positive expectations about children with autism than untrained health extension workers. These findings have relevance for task-sharing and scale up of autism services in low-resource settings worldwide.

  4. Incentives: Getting and Keeping Workers Involved in Health Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, James F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The article explores motivation as it relates to worksite health promotion participation, addressing incentive use as a motivational means of getting and keeping employees involved in health promotion programs. It suggests various incentives to help program planners, categorizing them as social or material reinforcers. (SM)

  5. Assessing the Relationship between Religious Involvement and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hill, Peter C.; Emmons, Robert; Pargament, Kenneth I.; Ironson, Gail

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that people who are more deeply involved in religion may be more likely to adopt beneficial health behaviors. However, religion is a complex phenomenon, and as a result, religion may affect health behaviors in a number of ways. The purpose of the current study was to see whether a sacred view of the body (i.e.,…

  6. Willingness to use mental health counseling and antidepressants in older Korean Americans: the role of beliefs and stigma about depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A

    2018-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of mental health problems, racial/ethnic minorities are often reluctant to seek mental health services. Their reluctance may be shaped by cultural beliefs and stigma about mental health. The present study examined how beliefs and stigma about depression (e.g. disbelief in depression as a health-related condition, perception of depression as a normal part of aging, and/or depression as a sign of personal weakness/family shame) pose barriers to older Korean Americans' willingness to use mental health counseling and antidepressants. Data were drawn from surveys with 420 Korean American older adults (M age = 71.6, SD = 7.6) living in the New York City metropolitan area in 2010. Using a separate logistic regression model, the role of beliefs and stigma about depression in predicting participants' willingness to receive mental health counseling and to take antidepressants was tested. Based on Andersen's behavioral health service use model, the analysis was conducted in consideration of predisposing characteristics (age, gender, marital status, education, and acculturation), mental health needs (anxiety, depressive symptoms, and self-rated mental health), and enabling/hindering factors (beliefs and stigma). Similar proportions of the sample (69-70%) indicated their willingness to use mental health counseling or antidepressants. Willingness was more likely among participants who had beliefs about depression as a health-related concern (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.15-3.27 for mental health counseling; OR = 4.47, 95% CI = 2.59-7.70 for antidepressants) and less likely among those who associated depression with family shame (OR = .55, 95% CI = 0.33-0.91 for mental health counseling; OR = .56, 95% CI = 0.33-0.95 for antidepressants). In addressing mental health problems and promoting the use of mental health services, cultural beliefs and stigma shared within an ethnic community should be considered. Given that

  7. Changing men's involvement in reproductive health and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Forest, Rosa; Giarratano, Gloria

    2004-06-01

    The shift in focus on men's reproductive health was influenced by the 1994 Cairo (ICPD) Action Plan to promote gender equality and equity, empower women, and improve family health in society. Changing and improving the way in which men are involved in reproductive health can only have a positive impact on women's, men's, and children's health. Educating and counseling men about contraceptive choices is essential if they are to be supportive of women's reproductive health. Research on new male contraceptive methods must continue if the bias of women shouldering the major responsibility for contraception is to be eliminated.

  8. Understanding health beliefs and behaviour in workers with suspected occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Gareth I; Soundy, Andy; Robertson, Alastair S; Burge, P Sherwood; Ayres, Jon G

    2015-03-01

    Long delays from symptom onset to the diagnosis of occupational asthma have been reported in the UK, Europe and Canada and workers are often reluctant to seek medical help or workplace solutions for their symptoms. Reducing this delay could improve workers' quality of life, and reduce the societal cost of occupational asthma. This study aimed to explore reasons behind such delays. A purposive sample of 20 individuals diagnosed with, or under investigation for, occupational asthma (median age = 52; 70% male; 80% white British) undertook a single semi-structured interview. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken in order to explore health beliefs and identify barriers to diagnosis. Four themes were identified: (1) workers' understanding of symptoms, (2) working relationships, (3) workers' course of action and (4) workers' negotiation with healthcare professionals. Understanding of symptoms varied between individuals, from a lack of insight into the onset, pattern and nature of symptoms, through to misunderstanding of what they represented, or ignorance of the existence of asthma as a disease entity. Workers described reluctance to discuss health issues with managers and peers, through fear of job loss and a perceived lack of ability to find a solution. The evolution of workers' understanding depended upon how actively they looked to define symptoms or seek a solution. Proactive workers were motivated to seek authoritative help and negotiate inadequate healthcare encounters with GPs. Understanding workers' health beliefs will enable policy makers and clinicians to develop better workplace interventions that may aid diagnosis and reduce delay in identifying occupational asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of a prevention program based on health belief model on osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a prevention program based on health belief model on osteoporosis among women. In this quasi-case study, 120 patients (60 cases and 60 control), registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after the intervention and six months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and six months after intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS19 via chi-square test, independent t-test, and Repeated Measures ANOVA at significance level of 0.05. Immediately and six months after the intervention, the case group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after the intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-Score in the case group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to -0.043. The value of the Hip BMD T-Score in the intervention group increased to 0.125 but it decreased to -0.028 in the control group. This study showed the effectiveness of knowledge, walking and diet on bone mass by HBM model. Hence, these models can act as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the osteoporosis prevention.

  10. The effects of breast cancer educational intervention on knowledge and health beliefs of women 40 years and older, Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Mohsen; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Moodi, Mitra; Abbasi, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is an international health problem in the world over. Mammography screening behavior has critical role in early detection and decreasing of its mortality. Educational programs play an important role in promoting breast cancer screening behaviors and women health. Health belief models (HBM) is the most common models that have been applied in Mammography screening behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breast cancer screening education using HBM on knowledge and health beliefs in 40 years women and older. Materials and Methods: In this Population-based controlled trial, 290 women of 40 years and older were divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Health beliefs determined using the Persian version of Champion's health belief model scale (CHBMS). Questionnaires were completed before and 4 weeks after intervention. Four educational sessions were conducted each session lasting 90 min by lecturing, group discussion, showing slide and educational film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version 18) and statistical test at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: Mean scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy of mammography and health motivation in the experimental group had significant differences in comparison with the control group after educational intervention (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study have confirmed the efficiency of educational intervention based on HBM in increasing of knowledge and health beliefs about breast cancer and mammography screening behavior. Hence, implementing appropriate educational programs with focus on benefits of Mammography in early detection of breast cancer and creating positive motivation for health among women, can increase their practice of having mammography screening. PMID:25013836

  11. Health beliefs and practices in an isolated polygamist community of southern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne Catherine; Karkazis, Katrina

    2013-06-01

    Short Creek is a largely closed and isolated community on the border between Utah and Arizona, made up of the sister towns of Hildale, Utah, and Colorado City, Arizona. Beginning from childhood, the 6,000 or so members of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS) are brought up in a lifestyle of plural marriage, meaning a marriage among one man and more than one woman, and are surrounded by their peers in "the covenant." A lifestyle of plural marriage is likely to affect the health of community members, but its effects have not been studied because of the community's isolation and distrust of outsiders. This paper addresses several questions that arise in contemplating the health of the Short Creek community: What are the health beliefs in this community, and what are their historical bases? Where do families seek medical care, and for what or at what threshold of illness or injury? What is the attitude of care providers serving this community, and how are the providers viewed by the community? More broadly, this paper examines the ways in which polygamy configures health. In order to meet this objective, this paper aims first to provide a brief account of this community's history and demographic profile, followed by a discussion of health care in this community and how it is affected by the practice of plural marriage, with the data comprised of qualitative interviews with health care providers to the community. The goals of this project are to gain a rich, historically nuanced understanding of the health of community members, and to identify directions for further academic and policy research. Our findings indicate that health in this community is shaped by limited resources, an attitude of health fatalism, and a profound insularity and corresponding isolation from the outside world.

  12. Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Hoffman, Allison C; Zandberg, Izabella; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Systematic review of beliefs, behaviours and influencing factors associated with disclosure of a mental health problem in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brohan Elaine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination present an important barrier to finding and keeping work for individuals with a mental health problem. This paper reviews evidence on: 1 employment-related disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem; 2 factors associated with the disclosure of a mental health problem in the employment setting; 3 whether employers are less likely to hire applicants who disclose a mental health problem; and 4 factors influencing employers' hiring beliefs and behaviours towards job applicants with a mental health problem. Methods A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem. Results The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1 expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2 other reasons for non-disclosure; 3 reasons for disclosure; and 4 disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective. Conclusions By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes.

  14. Systematic review of beliefs, behaviours and influencing factors associated with disclosure of a mental health problem in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Stigma and discrimination present an important barrier to finding and keeping work for individuals with a mental health problem. This paper reviews evidence on: 1) employment-related disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem; 2) factors associated with the disclosure of a mental health problem in the employment setting; 3) whether employers are less likely to hire applicants who disclose a mental health problem; and 4) factors influencing employers' hiring beliefs and behaviours towards job applicants with a mental health problem. Methods A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem. Results The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1) expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2) other reasons for non-disclosure; 3) reasons for disclosure; and 4) disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective. Conclusions By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes. PMID:22339944

  15. The influence of famous athletes on health beliefs and practices: Mark McGwire, child abuse prevention, and Androstenedione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J; Basil, Michael D; Bocarnea, Mihai C

    2003-01-01

    When Mark McGwire broke Roger Maris's home run record in September of 1998, he was instantly declared an American hero and held up as a positive role model for teenagers and young adults. The extensive media attention focused on McGwire made the general public aware of his use of a muscle-building dietary supplement, Androstenedione. It also increased the public's awareness of McGwire's public service to prevent child abuse. The present research assesses audience involvement with McGwire through parasocial interaction and identification, and the effects of that involvement on audience knowledge of and attitudes toward Androstenedione and child abuse prevention. Results indicate parasocial interaction with an athlete regarded as a public role model likely leads to audience identification with that person, which in turn promotes certain attitudes and beliefs. In this case, parasocial interaction and identification with Mark McGwire was strongly associated with knowledge of Androstenedione, intended use of the supplement, and concern for child abuse. Implications of this research for featuring celebrities in health communication campaigns are discussed.

  16. Beliefs about health and illness in Swedish and African-born women with gestational diabetes living in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Katarina; Berntorp, Kerstin; Apelqvist, Jan

    2012-05-01

    This paper is a report on a study exploring beliefs about health and illness in women with gestational diabetes born in Sweden and Africa living in Sweden. A further aim is to study the influence of beliefs on self-care and care seeking. Extensive global migration leading to multicultural societies implies challenges to health care. Health/illness beliefs are culturally related and determine health-related behaviour, including self-care, which is crucial in management of gestational diabetes. The risk of developing gestational diabetes is increased in migrants, particularly of African origin, when residing in Western countries. No previous studies, except one, have been found comparing health/illness beliefs in women with gestational diabetes of different origin. Exploratory descriptive study. Semi-structured interviews. Consecutive sample of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes, 13 born in Sweden and 10 born in Africa, from a diabetes clinic in Sweden. Qualitative content analysis of data was applied. Beliefs were mainly related to individual and social factors. Health was described as freedom from disease and being healthy. Swedish women perceived heredity and hormonal changes as causing gestational diabetes, avoided work-related stress, had a healthy lifestyle, worried about the baby's health and development of type 2 diabetes, sought information, used more medications and health care and were on sick-leave more often because of pregnancy-related problems than African women, who did not know the cause of gestational diabetes, had a passive self-care attitude and followed prescriptions, often reported being told by staff that gestational diabetes would disappear after delivery and stated more pregnancy-related problems which they treated with rest or watchful waiting. Health/illness beliefs differed and affected self-care and care seeking. Lower risk awareness in African-born women was related to limited knowledge about the body and gestational diabetes

  17. Application of the Health Belief Model to Teach Complementary Feeding Messages in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariku, Befikadu; Whiting, Susan J; Mulualem, Demmelash; Singh, Pragya

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia many women do not practice appropriate complementary feeding (CF). The Health Belief Model (HBM) asserts that change in behavior is determined after consideration of severity, benefit, and barriers to change. This study examined the effectiveness of 3 months of HBM-based education compared to the traditional (didactic) method on CF practices of mothers, with no education as control, using three randomized groups. One hundred sixty-six mother-infant (6-18 months) pairs were recruited. At baseline and after intervention, knowledge, perceptions, and practices about CF and related areas were determined. It was only diet diversity that increased significantly in the HBM group (from 3.05±0.94 food groups to 3.79±0.82, peducation about diet diversity improvement needs to be conducted promotes behavior change.

  18. Do interviewers health beliefs and habits modify responses to sensitive questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained...... of pregnancy were collected during the time period October 1, 1997-February 1, 1999. Overall, the authors found little evidence to suggest that interviewers' personal habits or attitudes toward smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy had consequences for the responses they obtained; neither did...... the interviewers' education, age, or parity correlate with the answers they obtained. In these data gathered through computer-assisted telephone interviews, interviewer effects arising from variations in interviewers' health beliefs and personal habits were found to be negligible. Thorough training...

  19. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Obesity Bias in Training: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Observations among Advanced Trainees in Professional Health Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Luedicke, Joerg; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined weight bias among students training in health disciplines and its associations with their perceptions about treating patients with obesity, causes of obesity, and observations of weight bias by instructors and peers. Design and Methods Students (N = 107) enrolled in a post-graduate health discipline (Physician Associate, Clinical Psychology, Psychiatric Residency) completed anonymous questionnaires to assess the above variables. Results Students reported that patients with obesity are a common target of negative attitudes and derogatory humor by peers (63%), health-care providers (65%), and instructors (40%). Although 80% of students felt confident to treat obesity, many reported that patients with obesity lack motivation to make changes (33%), lead to feelings of frustration (36%), and are noncompliant with treatment (36%). Students with higher weight bias expressed greater frustration in these areas. The effect of students’ weight bias on expectations for treatment compliance of patients with obesity was partially mediated by beliefs that obesity is caused by behavioral factors. Conclusions Weight bias is commonly observed by students in health disciplines, who themselves report frustrations and stereotypes about treating patients with obesity. These findings contribute new knowledge about weight bias among students and provide several targets for medical training and education. PMID:24124078

  1. Attitudes and beliefs about mental health among African American older adults suffering from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kyaien O; Lee, Brenda; Mayers, Vanessa; Robinson, Deborah; Reynolds, Charles F; Albert, Steve; Brown, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Depression among older adults is a major public health concern leading to increased disability and mortality. Less than 3% of older adults utilize professional mental health services for the treatment of depression, less than any other adult age group. And despite similar rates of depression, African Americans are significantly less likely to seek, engage and be retained in professional mental health services than their white counterparts. Cultural differences in the way depression symptoms are manifested, defined, interpreted and labeled may in part explain some of these racial differences in help-seeking behaviors. Focus group methodology was utilized to identify and explore attitudes and beliefs about depression and mental health treatment utilization among 42 older African Americans who had recently suffered a major depressive episode. Thematic analysis of identified six overarching themes: (a) perceptions of depression, (b) the African American experience, (c) seeking treatment as a last resort, (d) myths about treatment, (e) stigma associated with seeking treatment and (f) culturally appropriate coping strategies. We discuss implications for practice, education and research.

  2. How Religious Beliefs and Practices Influence the Psychological Health of Catholic Priests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Anthony; Sahker, Ethan; Krinock, Elizabeth; Sim, Wonjin; Hamilton, Deanna

    2016-07-01

    Roman Catholic diocesan priests are a subgroup of men with unique religious and spiritual roles, beliefs, and practices. This qualitative study of 15 priests from the mid-Atlantic area of the United States focused on how priests' relationship with God and promises of celibacy and obedience influenced their psychological health. Using a consensual qualitative research (CQR) design, the analysis revealed that participants described their relationship with God as central to their health and contributing to positive outcomes (e.g., sense of connection and support). The influence of their promises of celibacy and obedience were linked to both positive outcomes (e.g., decreased stress, improved relationships) and negative outcomes (e.g., internal conflict, depression/loneliness). This study highlighted the central role that priests' relationship with God has on positive psychological health. Future research is necessary to understand how to maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects of priests' promises of celibacy and obedience, which would benefit programs aimed at supporting priests' psychological health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Applying the Health Belief Model in Explaining the Stages of Exercise Change in Older Adults

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    Sas-Nowosielski Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The benefits of physical activity (PA have been so well documented that there is no doubt about the significance of PA for personal and social health. Several theoretical models have been proposed with a view to understanding the phenomenon of PA and other health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if and how the variables suggested in the Health Belief Model (HBM determine physical activity stages of change in older adults. Material and methods. A total of 172 students of Universities of the Third Age aged 54 to 75 (mean = 62.89 ± 4.83 years agreed to participate in the study, filling out an anonymous survey measuring their stage of exercise change and determinants of health behaviours proposed by the HBM, including: perceived benefits of physical activity, perceived barriers to physical activity, perceived severity of diseases associated with sedentary lifestyle, perceived susceptibility to these diseases, and self-efficacy. Results. The results only partially support the hypothesis that the HBM predicts intentions and behaviours related to the physical activity of older adults. Only two variables were moderately-to-strongly related to stages of exercise change, namely perceived barriers and self-efficacy. Conclusion. Interventions aimed at informing older adults about the benefits of physical activity and the threats associated with sedentary lifestyle can be expected to have rather a weak influence on their readiness for physical activity.

  4. Australian Hajj pilgrims' infection control beliefs and practices: Insight with implications for public health approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Amani S; Sheikh, Mohamud; Wiley, Kerrie; Heywood, Anita E

    2015-01-01

    Hajj is one of the largest annual mass gatherings around the world. Although the Saudi Arabian health authority recommends vaccination and other infection control measures, studies identified variable uptake of these measures among pilgrims, and the reasons behind this variability remain unclear. This qualitative study aimed to addresses this knowledge gap. In-depth interviews were conducted with pilgrims over 18 years of age. A total of 10 participants took part in the study. There was low perception of the potential severity of respiratory conditions and the need for influenza vaccination during Hajj. Different attitudes were found by age group with elderly participants believing that they were under Allah's protection, and were fatalistic about the risk of illness. While younger participants described the impact infections would have on their worship. Facemask use was infrequent with discomfort; difficulty in breathing and a feeling of isolation were commonly cited barriers to use of facemasks. Participants accepted and trusted preventative health advice from travel agents and friends who had previously undertaken the Hajj more so than primary care practitioners. This study extended our understanding of how health beliefs influence uptake of preventive measures during the Hajj, and the gaps in the provision of Hajj-specific health information to pilgrims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ?Knowledge, recommendation, and beliefs of e-cigarettes among physicians involved in tobacco cessation: A qualitative study?

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Binu; Hrywna, Mary; Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.; M. Jane Lewis; Steinberg, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Physicians are rated the most trustworthy source of information for smokers and thus play an increasing role in disseminating information on e-cigarettes to patients. Therefore, it is important to understand what is currently being communicated about e-cigarettes between physicians and patients. This study explored the knowledge, beliefs, communication, and recommendation of e-cigarettes among physicians of various specialties. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in early 2016 with 35 p...

  6. Beliefs and perception of ill-health causation: a socio-cultural qualitative study in rural North-Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kahissay, Mesfin H.; Fenta, Teferi G.; Boon, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding perceptions of the causes of ill-health common in indigenous communities may help policy makers to design effective integrated primary health care strategies to serve these communities. This study explored the indigenous beliefs of ill-health causation among those living in the Tehuledere Woreda /district/ in North East Ethiopia from a socio-cultural perspective. Methods The study employed a qualitative ethnographic method informed by Murdock?s Theory of Illness. Part...

  7. Attitudes of mental health professionals towards service user involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortteisto, Tiina; Laitila, Minna; Pitkänen, Anneli

    2017-08-22

    Patient-centred care and user involvement in healthcare services are much emphasised globally. This study was the first step in a multicentre research project in Finland to improve service users' and carers' opportunities to be more involved in mental health services. The aim of the study was to assess attitudes of professionals towards service user involvement. The data were collected via an online questionnaire from 1069 mental health professionals in four hospital districts. Altogether, 351 professionals responded. Data were analysed using appropriate statistical methods. According to the results, attitudes of healthcare professionals were more positive towards service users' involvement in their own treatment than in other levels of services. There were also differences in gender, age groups, working places and experiences in the attitudes of professionals concerning service users' involvement in their own treatment. These should be taken into account in the future when planning education for mental health professionals. In spite of governmental guidance on service user involvement and the growing body of knowledge of the benefits associated with it, change in attitudes towards user involvement is slow. Special attention should be paid to the attitudes of professionals working in inpatient care and of those with less working experience. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Effect of health-belief-model-based training on performance of women in breast self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, Fatemeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Asadi, Zeynab; Shakeri, Nezhat

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women in the world. With prevention and examinations, including breast self-examination, the death rate will be reduced. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of health-belief-model-based training on the performance of women in breast self-examination in the province of Fars (Iran). An empirical study examined the effect of an eight-week training program based on the health belief model among 144 women who visited health care centers in the city of Abadeh in Fars Province (Iran) in 2015. Data gathered through researcher-made questionnaires including awareness, components of the health belief model, performance, and demographic information. IBM-SPSS software version 20, descriptive and inferential statistical tests such as T-test, chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and repeated measurements were used for data analysis. After the intervention, a significant difference was seen in average awareness, perceived susceptibility, and performance of women (pwomen about breast self-examination, using a health belief model with an increase of the perceived susceptibility could be effective in improving their performance in breast self-examination.

  9. The effectiveness of nutritional education on the knowledge of diabetic patients using the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifirad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Patients have a major role in the control and treatment of type 2 diabetes. So, knowledge of different aspects of this disease especially diet therapy is very important for these patients. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the Health Belief Model (HBM on nutrition education in type 2 diabetic patients.
    • METHOD: Eighty eight type 2 diabetic patients attending Iranian Diabetes Association seminars were randomly selected to participate in the study (44 in intervention group and 44 in control group. The intervention was consisted of two educational sessions each one for 80 minutes. Data were collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire (58 questions before intervention and one month after intervention.
    • RESULTS: After intervention, knowledge scores increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (Mean differences in the intervention and test group: 22.68 ± 15.90 vs - 2.27 ± 17.30, P < 0.001. Perceived susceptibility increased significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (27.5 ± 18.5 vs 3.9 ± 17.2, P < 0.001. The result was the same for perceived severity, perceived threatened and perceived benefits (P < 0.001. In contrast perceived barriers reduced in the intervention group compared to the control diet (-14.7 ± 13.3 vs 0.9 ± 13.9, P < 0.001. In the intervention group, behavior grades increased more than control group (34.61 ± 14.93 vs -0.23 ± 8.52, P < 0.001.
    • CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the health belief model in nutritional education to the diabetic patients was confirmed in the present study.

  10. Factors influencing the decision that women make on their mode of delivery: the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Davies, Louise; Li, Sau-fun

    2015-07-20

    Childbirth is regarded as an important life event for women, and growing numbers of them are making the choice to give birth by Caesarean Delivery. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing the decision that women make on their mode of delivery, underpinned by the Health Belief Model. This was a cross-sectional study. Hong Kong Chinese women aged 18-45, who were pregnant or had given birth within the last three years were recruited. The participants were asked to complete a structured self-administered questionnaire consisting of 62 questions. A total of 319 women were recruited, of whom 73 (22.9%) preferred to have a cesarean section delivery (CD). The results showed that women preferred CD because they were concerned about being pregnant at an advanced age, were worried about labor pain and perineum tearing, wanted to have a better plan for maternity leave, had chosen an auspicious date to deliver, and perceived that CD is a more convenience way to deliver. The perceived benefits and severity of a vaginal birth (VB), and the perceived benefits, severity, and cues to action of CD, affected the decision to undergo either a VB or CD. The data indicated that the constructs of the Health Belief Model--perceived benefits, perceived severity, and cues to action--affect the decision that women make on their mode of delivery. This research indicates that there is value in designing educational programs for pregnant women to educate them on the benefits, risks, and severity of the two different modes of birth based on the constructs of HBM. This will enable women to be active participants in choosing the mode of birth that they believe is right for them.

  11. Health Beliefs and Practices Related to Dengue Fever: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    Background This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16th December, 2011 and 12th May, 2012. Results The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Conclusion Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments. PMID:23875045

  12. Health beliefs and practices related to dengue fever: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16(th) December, 2011 and 12(th) May, 2012. The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments.

  13. [A mental health awareness anti-stigma program including user-trainers has a significant impact on knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of job centre professionals in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouet, E; Moineville, M; Favriel, S; Leriche, P; Greacen, T

    2014-04-01

    Developing programs and actions to fight stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders is a priority both internationally and in France. Involving mental health service users in these anti-stigma programs has proved to be a key element for effective programs. The present study evaluates the impact of user-trainers in an anti-stigma campaign with job counselors on their knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance with regard to mental illness and the mentally ill. Eighty-nine professionals participated in eight mental health awareness days from December 2008 to June 2009. Each training day was built around two pedagogical units: firstly, a psychiatrist providing a theoretical overview of mental illness and care and secondly, user-trainers describing their point of view on mental illness and exchanging with participants. A questionnaire administered at the beginning and at the end of the mental health awareness day assessed the impact of the day on participants' knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance. Answers to open questions were evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. The intervention had statistically significant positive effects on all three training objectives: knowledge, beliefs and desire for social distance. Analysis of qualitative data confirmed participants' need for information and training with regard to providing support to clients with mental health problems; participants frequently attributed their improved self-confidence at the end of the day with regard to providing job coaching for this population group to the presence of user-trainers. A mental health awareness day using mental health service users and psychiatrists as trainers had significant positive effects in terms of reducing stigma with regard to people with mental illness. Further research is needed to understand whether the impact of such awareness approaches can be maintained in everyday professional practice over time. Copyright © 2013

  14. An Investigation of Somali Women’s Beliefs, Practices, and Attitudes about Health, Health Promoting Behaviours and Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Francis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examined Somali women's perception of health/access to care, examined their knowledge and attitudes about cancer prevention, and discussed strategies to improve service provision and education. Using a multidisciplinary approach, twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with Somali women ages 18 and older, residing in a mid-western city. Open coding was used to categorize and reflect the interview statements and to identify reoccurring themes. Somali women are concerned about a variety of health issues and cited the role of culture and religion in developing prevention strategies.   Participants emphasized the use of religious leaders, health care advocates, oral traditions, and translators in providing culturally appropriate health care services. Religion and culture play a prominent role in the Somali community and impact beliefs about health and wellness.  Health practitioners need to work closely with individuals and community leaders to tailor services that are culturally appropriate and accessible.       

  15. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    OpenAIRE

    H. Heathcote

    1999-01-01

    No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respond...

  16. Epistemological beliefs and therapeutic health concepts of physiotherapy students and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bientzle, Martina; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Health knowledge develops fast and includes a lot of ambiguous or tentative information. In their daily routine, both health care students and professionals continuously have to make judgments about the viability of health knowledge. People's epistemological beliefs (EBs) and their therapeutic health concepts are factors that influence how they deal with health knowledge. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these factors at different stages of people's career. The present study examines the EBs and therapeutic health concepts of physiotherapy students in their vocational training and the EBs and therapeutic health concepts of professionals. In a cross-sectional study physiotherapy students and professional physiotherapists filled in a questionnaire that measured their personal EBs about physiotherapy and medicine, as well as their biomedical and biopsychosocial therapeutic health concepts. We compared the participants' EBs regarding both knowledge domains, and their therapeutic health concepts using paired samples t-tests. We also examined the differences between first-year students, advanced students, and professionals regarding their EBs and their therapeutic health concepts using ANOVAs. Eighty-three students and 84 professionals participated in this study, 114/167 (68%) participants were female. EBs as well as therapeutic health concepts differed depending upon the participants' training status. Professionals had more sophisticated EBs than students regarding both knowledge in physiotherapy (F(2, 164) = 6.74, P = 0.002, η(2)(p) = 0.08) and knowledge in medicine (F(2, 164) = 5.93, P = 0.003, η(2)(p) = 0.07). In addition, high values in a biopsychosocial therapeutic health concept already occurred in an early phase of training (F(2, 164) = 5.39, P = 0.005, η(2)(p) = 0.06), whereas increased values in a biomedical concept did not occur until people's professional life (F(2, 164) = 10.99, P

  17. Influence of Health Warnings on Beliefs about the Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking, in the Context of an Experimental Study in Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Reid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette package health warnings can be an important and low-cost means of communicating the health risks of smoking. We examined whether viewing health warnings in an experimental study influenced beliefs about the health effects of smoking, by conducting surveys with ~500 adult male smokers and ~500 male and female youth (age 16–18 in Beijing, China (n = 1070, Mumbai area, India (n = 1012, Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 1018, and Republic of Korea (n = 1362. Each respondent was randomly assigned to view and rate pictorial health warnings for 2 of 15 different health effects, after which they reported beliefs about whether smoking caused 12 health effects. Respondents who viewed relevant health warnings (vs. other warnings were significantly more likely to believe that smoking caused that particular health effect, for several health effects in each sample. Approximately three-quarters of respondents in China (Beijing, Bangladesh (Dhaka, and Korea (which had general, text-only warnings thought that cigarette packages should display more health information, compared to approximately half of respondents in the Mumbai area, India (which had detailed pictorial warnings. Pictorial health warnings that convey the risk of specific health effects from smoking can increase beliefs and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, particularly for health effects that are lesser-known.

  18. Behavioral Health Providers and Electronic Health Records: An Exploratory Beliefs Elicitation and Segmentation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…

  19. Sport involvement, sport violence and health behaviours of Greek adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Karastogiannidou, Calliope; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2004-06-01

    Within the context of problem-behaviour theory, this study investigated the intra-relationship between attitudes and behaviours towards exercise, sport involvement, violence in sport-related events, eating fruits, smoking and hashish or ecstasy use in a sample of Greek adolescents. Age and gender patterns are considered. Participants were 5991 Greek school pupils who responded to questionnaires assessing behaviour and attitudes towards health-related behaviours. Positive associations were found between pupils' reports of violence in sport-related events, smoking and hashish or ecstasy use on the one hand, and eating fruits and participation in sport and exercise on the other. In contrast, small positive association was observed between sport involvement and violence in sport-related events. Attitudes towards health risk behaviours were inversely related to attitudes towards health-promoting behaviours, and attitudes were positively related to corresponding behaviours. Sport involvement and regular exercise decreased but smoking and use of hashish or ecstasy increased with age. More males than females participated in organized sport and violent acts in sport-related events. Males' involvement in sport violence increased with age. Sport is a suitable context for the promotion of several health-related behaviours apart from exercise. Nevertheless, the present sport structure excludes most young people and is positively linked with sport violence. A less demanding sport context should be provided for the majority of young people, particularly for females. Sport programmes designed to promote health behaviours should be encouraged. More concentrated actions to combat sport violence are required.

  20. Physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health of entering graduate health professional students: Evidence to support screening and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek Melnyk, Bernadette; Slevin, Caitlin; Militello, Lisa; Hoying, Jacqueline; Teall, Alice; McGovern, Colleen

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health among first-year health professional graduate students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe these attributes as well as to explore the relationships among them. A descriptive correlational study was conducted on the baseline data from a wellness onboarding intervention study with 93 health sciences students from seven different colleges within a large public land grant university in the Midwest United States. Nearly 40% of the sample was overweight/obese, and 19% of students had elevated total cholesterol levels. Only 44% met the recommended 30 min of exercise 5 days per week. Forty-one percent reported elevated depressive symptoms and 28% had elevated anxiety. Four students reported suicidal ideation. Inverse relationships existed among depression/anxiety and healthy lifestyle beliefs/behaviors. Students entering health professional schools are at high risk for depression, anxiety, and unhealthy behaviors, which could be averted through screening and early evidence-based interventions. Assessing the physical health, lifestyle behaviors, and mental health of first-year health sciences professional students is important to identify health problems and modifiable at-risk behaviors so that early interventions can be implemented to improve outcomes. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Male involvement in maternal health: perspectives of opinion leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborigo, Raymond A; Reidpath, Daniel D; Oduro, Abraham R; Allotey, Pascale

    2018-01-02

    Twenty years after acknowledging the importance of joint responsibilities and male participation in maternal health programs, most health care systems in low income countries continue to face challenges in involving men. We explored the reasons for men's resistance to the adoption of a more proactive role in pregnancy care and their enduring influence in the decision making process during emergencies. Ten focus group discussions were held with opinion leaders (chiefs, elders, assemblymen, leaders of women groups) and 16 in-depth interviews were conducted with healthcare workers (District Directors of Health, Medical Assistants in-charge of health centres, and district Public Health Nurses and Midwives). The interviews and discussions were audio recorded, transcribed into English and imported into NVivo 10 for content analysis. As heads of the family, men control resources, consult soothsayers to determine the health seeking or treatment for pregnant women, and serve as the final authority on where and when pregnant women should seek medical care. Beyond that, they have no expectation of any further role during antenatal care and therefore find it unnecessary to attend clinics with their partners. There were conflicting views about whether men needed to provide any extra support to their pregnant partners within the home. Health workers generally agreed that men provided little or no support to their partners. Although health workers had facilitated the formation of father support groups, there was little evidence of any impact on antenatal support. In patriarchal settings, the role of men can be complex and social and cultural traditions may conflict with public health recommendations. Initiatives to promote male involvement should focus on young men and use chiefs and opinion leaders as advocates to re-orient men towards more proactive involvement in ensuring the health of their partners.

  2. Evaluating the performance of unhealthy junk food consumption based on health belief model in elementary school girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Fathi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Nowadays, due to changes in eating patterns, the worthless junk foods are replaced useful food among children. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of unhealthy junk food consumption based on health belief model in elementary school girls Methods: Cross-sectional study Descriptive-analytic type of multi-stage sampling (208 samples was carried out in 2016. The survey instrument was a questionnaire valid and reliable based on the Health Belief Model (70 items. Data was analyzed by SPSS software according to statistical tests of significance level of 0.05. Results: Results showed that students of sensitivity (49% and relatively high efficacy (53/8%, perceived benefits (73/1% and better social protection (68/3% had. The results showed that among all the health belief model structures with yield (junk food intake significantly correlated. Also significant differences in parental education and sensitivity, perceived severity, self-efficacy, social support and yield (p<0/05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that students from relatively favorable sensitivity and self-efficacy, perceived benefits and social protection in the field of unhealthy snacks were good. Also a significant relationship between structural and non-use study results showed unhealthy snacks but because of the importance of unhealthy snacks and unhealthy snack consumption among school children and the complications of the health belief model in predicting nutritional behaviors suggest that this model used as a framework for school feeding programs. Paper Type: Research Article.

  3. Sun protective behaviour in renal transplant recipients. A qualitative study based on individual interviews and the Health Belief Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Haedersdal, Merete

    2010-01-01

    . METHODS: A total of 10 RTRs were individually interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide (five women, five men). The interviews were conducted in Copenhagen in June 2008. Transcriptions of the interviews were subsequently analyzed using predefined concepts from the Health Belief Model. RESULTS...

  4. Men's and Women's Health Beliefs Differentially Predict Coronary Heart Disease Incidence in a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korin, Maya Rom; Chaplin, William F.; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Butler, Mark J.; Ojie, Mary-Jane; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in the association between beliefs in heart disease preventability and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based sample. Methods: A total of 2,688 Noninstitutionalized Nova Scotians without prior CHD enrolled in the Nova Scotia Health Study (NSHS95) and were followed for 10…

  5. Testicular Self-Examination: A Test of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Carol; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Bennett, Cara; O'Neill, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, on the…

  6. Using Health Belief Model Constructs to Examine Differences in Adherence to Pap Test Recommendations among Iranian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, Mahmood; Azarpira, Hossein; Araban, Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Despite documented successful Pap tests in routine care of women, screening levels are unfortunately often lower than recommended. This study aimed to assess differences in adherence to Pap test guidelines among a sample of Iranian women using the Health Belief Model (HBM). In this descriptive and analytical study, information was collected from a total of 305 women, (age range of 15-49) from Zarandieh health centers in Iran using a random multistage sampling method. The questionnaire covered demographic characteristics; health belief model constructs were gathered by a self-report method. The results were analyzed using the independent samples t test and logistic regression in SPSS-20. A total 32% of the subjects had a history of a Pap test and the score mean of the whole constructs model (knowledge, susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers and self-efficacy) in these individuals was higher than those without a positive history. Among the predictive variables of HBM constructs, the highest weights were observed for perceived benefits ß)=0.36), perceived susceptibility =ß) 0.35) and self-efficacy ß)=0.29). Based on our finding of positive relationships for health belief model structures with performance of a pap smear test, designing educational interventions for changing the knowledge levels and beliefs of women is recommended. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Application of a modified health belief model to HIV preventive behavioral intentions among gay and bisexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Siero, F.W.; van den Eynden, R.J.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The utility of a modified health belief model (Janz and Pecker, 1984) for predicting the intention to use condoms was tested in a study among gay and bisexual men. The model explained a reasonable amount of variance. It was found that younger men's decision to have safe sex was guided by factors

  8. Implicit associations and compensatory health beliefs in smokers: Exploring their role for behaviour and their change through warning labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glock, S.; Müller, B.C.N.; Krolak-Schwerdt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Smokers might think that the negative effects of smoking can be compensated for by other behaviours, such as doing exercise or eating healthily. This phenomenon is known as compensatory health beliefs (CHBs). Graphic warning labels on cigarette packets emphasize the negative effects of

  9. Applying the Health Belief Model in Predicting Breast Cancer Screening Behavior of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoudiyekta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. However, early detection of this cancer leads to a timely treatment and better prognosis, which significantly improves the survival rate in patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to predict the breast cancer screening behavior of women who referred to health centers in Dezful, Iran, using the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 226 women who were selected with cluster sampling method from those referred to Dezful health centers. Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire based on the constructs of the HBM. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through methods of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and regression. Results According to the findings of the study, the knowledge and performance of women were poor, and there was a significant relationship between women’s performance and variables of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. In addition, variables of knowledge (P = 0.001, perceived sensitivity (P = 0.022, and self-efficacy (P = 0.001 were predictors of performance in women participating in this study. Conclusions Poor knowledge and performance of women indicates a crucial need for formal educational programs to sensitize women regarding the importance of breast cancer screening. These educational programs should consider factors affecting breast cancer screening behaviors.

  10. Effects of participation in swimming lessons on health perception and belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Deuk-Ja; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the degree of participation in swimming lessons and the participation styles on health perception and belief. To do this, several analyses were conducted-statistical analysis, frequency analysis, factorial analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis-using SPSS 18.0. A total of 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and after excluding those that are considered invalid, only 278 copies were used for the study. As a result, first, for the participants for "30 min-1 h," "1 h-2 h," and "more than 2 h" in time and "2-3 times a week" and "4-5 times a week" in frequency, swimming lessons in types had a significant effect on health interest and health concern. Second, participants for "30 min-1 h" and "1 h-2 h" in time and "hard' in intensity had a significant effect on resistance and sensitivity. Third, all frequencies and intensities excluding the participants for "15 min-30 min." and "swimming lessons" in types had a significant effect on perceived benefit. Fourth, all participants for a time period did not have a significant effect on the perceived disability, but they all had a significant effect on the former in terms of frequency and intensity. This being said, however, the participating types did not have any a significant effect.

  11. Clinicians' Beliefs and Practices Regarding Drug Use Care of Their Community Health Center Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anjani T; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2015-01-01

    Integration of behavioral health including substance use problems into primary care is an essential benefit that federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) will offer as part of the Affordable Care Act. This study explores FQHC primary care clinicians' beliefs and practices regarding illicit drug use assessment and treatment. We administered a 10-minute questionnaire to 68 primary care clinicians of 5 FQHCs in Los Angeles. Clinicians expressed limited confidence in their ability to address patients' illicit drug use, scoring on average 3.31 on a 5-point Likert scale. Two thirds reported that they assess for drug use routinely "at every visit" and/or "at annual visits." When asked how often they counsel regarding drug use (on a 5-point Likert scale from "never" to "always"), the median response was 4 ("usually"). Regarding their perspectives on the best practical resource for addressing drug use in their clinics, 45.6% named primary care clinicians. A minority (29.4%) of clinicians had completed a clinical rotation dealing with substance use, and 27.2% reported receiving more than 10  hours of training regarding substance use problems. Having a substance use rotation was associated with greater confidence in drug use assessment and treatment (P integrating drug use care in FQHCs may improve confidence in substance use care and facilitate the Affordable Care Act's mandate to integrate behavioral health into routine FQHC primary care.

  12. Are Cigarette Smokers', E-Cigarette Users', and Dual Users' Health-Risk Beliefs and Responses to Advertising Influenced by Addiction Warnings and Product Type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher; Burton, Scot; Howlett, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    This research examines cigarette smokers' and e-cigarette users' product-related health-risk beliefs across tobacco products and considers the effects of addiction warnings on consumers' responses to persuasion attempts. Study 1 used a cross-sectional survey with a sample of 195 adult cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and dual users to examine health-risk beliefs associated with combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes (cancer, lung disease, stroke, heart disease, harm to an unborn baby, and addiction). Using a sample of 265 adult cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and dual users, Study 2 used a between-subjects experiment to examine the effects of an addiction warning presented in an advertisement on health-risk beliefs and willingness to try the promoted product. Study 1 results reveal that health-risk beliefs for cigarettes are extremely high, whereas health-risk beliefs for e-cigarettes are lower and vary across specific health-risk beliefs; specifically, beliefs related to addiction and harm to an unborn baby are greater than other risk beliefs. Extending these findings, Study 2 results demonstrate that health-risk beliefs associated with cigarette smoking are not affected by an addiction warning in a cigarette advertisement. However, an addiction warning in an e-cigarette advertisement does modify e-cigarette-related risk beliefs, which, in turn, reduces consumers' willingness to try the promoted e-cigarette. Findings indicate that the addition of an addiction warning may be effective in changing consumers' risk beliefs associated with e-cigarettes and consumers' responses to e-cigarette persuasion attempts. By examining cigarette smokers' and e-cigarette users' product-related health-risk beliefs and considering the effects of an addiction warning on consumers' responses to persuasion attempts, this research contributes to the understanding of how warnings in tobacco promotion affect cigarette smokers', e-cigarette users', and dual users' health

  13. Meeting the health care needs of street-involved youth

    OpenAIRE

    April S. Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Health care providers who see homeless or street-involved youth can help to reduce the impact of many risk factors – physical, mental, emotional and social – pertaining to street culture. The present statement describes the types and scale of homelessness in Canada, and reviews reasons why youth turn to the street, risks of the ‘street economy’ and barriers to health care. Common physical and mental health problems are considered, along with legal and ethical issues that may affect care. Prin...

  14. Active-involvement principle in dental health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1985-01-01

    A basic problem in dental health education (DHE) is that the effect usually disappears shortly after the termination of a program. The purpose of the present study was to obtain long-term effect of a DHE-program by emphasizing the active involvement of the participants. The sample comprised...

  15. Association of Healthy Habits Beliefs and Mortality in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Villa, Julio M; Marquez, David X; Sanchez-Garrido, Natalia; Perez-Zepeda, Mario U; Gonzalez-Lara, Mariana

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish the association between beliefs about healthy habits and mortality in a group of Mexican older adults. This is an 11-year follow-up secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. There was a significant difference ( p healthy habits have the potential to improve health compared with those who did not. After adjustment for confounders, Cox regression models showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.07, 0.38], p healthy habits. Although the mechanism is not completely clear, according to our results, believing that healthy habits can improve health was associated with lower rates of mortality. Further research should elucidate potential strategies for changing beliefs in older adults with the goal of improving their overall health.

  16. Gendered Cultural Identities: The Influences of Family and Privacy Boundaries, Subjective Norms, and Stigma Beliefs on Family Health History Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Jung

    2017-05-25

    This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication. Age- and gender-related privacy boundaries were negatively related to perceived privacy boundaries, however. Finally, the results show that gendered cultural identities have three-way interaction effects on two associations: (1) between perceived family boundaries and perceived privacy boundaries and (2) between perceived privacy boundaries and current FHH communication. The findings have meaningful implications for future cross-cultural studies on the roles of family systems, subjective norms, and stigma beliefs in FHH communication.

  17. The Effect of Education on Women's Practice Based on the Health Belief Model About Pap Smear Test

    OpenAIRE

    Asiyeh Pirzadeh; Maryam Amidi Mazaheri

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in Iran. The single most effective tool in reducing death due to cervical cancer is the use of pap smear as a screening tool. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education based on Health Belief Model about giving pap smear in women. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 70 women who referred to two health center in Kouhdasht (Lorestan- Iran). The samples were randoml...

  18. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarland, Ditsapelo

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included ...

  19. Do Health Beliefs and Behaviors Differ According to Severity of Obesity? A Qualitative Study of Australian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Castle, David J; Komesaroff, Paul A.; Jim Hyde; R. Warwick Blood; Thomas, Samantha L.; Sophie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Public responses to obesity have focused on providing standardized messages and supports to all obese individuals, but there is limited understanding of the impact of these messages on obese adults. This descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a thematic method of analysis, compares the health beliefs and behaviors of 141 Australian adults with mild to moderate (BMI 30−39.9) and severe (BMI ≥ 40) obesity. Mildly obese individuals felt little need to change their health beh...

  20. Health Beliefs About Tobacco With Betel Nut Use Among Adults in Yap, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareg, Aileen Rosogmar Castaritas; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Santos, Hildemar Dos

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is high among Pacific Islanders in general and little tobacco research has been done in Yap, Micronesia. This study aimed to explore perceptions of tobacco use coupled with chewing of betel (areca) nut among adults in Yap using self-administered questionnaires based on the health belief model. A Likert scale (ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree or very unlikely to very likely) was used to measure susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy among individuals aged 18 and older. Older adults felt quitting tobacco or betel nut use would be significantly more difficult because of social reasons and withdrawal problems. Most participants felt susceptible to tobacco-related diseases. These findings possibly indicate a receptive attitude toward any future tobacco use prevention and intervention program. Older Yapese population would need to be especially targeted. Health promotion programs should target smoking behaviors and risk reduction. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Application of the Extended Health Control Belief Model to Predict Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Grace L; Nguyen, Hannah H; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Fisher, Dennis G; Odell, Anne; Xandre, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Adult vaccination compliance rates vary according to sample and type of vaccine administered (influenza, pneumococcal). This study looked at vaccination of a community sample of low-income, minority adults. Nurses offered free vaccination for hepatitis A and B in the form of the combined Twinrix vaccine to adults on a walk-in basis. In addition to dosing information, participants completed the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Coping Strategies Indicator and the Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. Skaff's extended Health Belief Model was used as the theoretical framework. Count regression was used to model receipt of one, two, or three doses. The majority of participants were male with a mean age of 40 years. The distribution of doses was: 173 individuals (27.6%) received one dose only, 261 (41.7%) received two doses, and 191 (30.5%) received three doses of vaccine. The multivariate count regression model including being male, having previously been told by a health care provider that one has syphilis, having severe negative emotions, and perceived social support were associated with participants' receiving fewer doses of hepatitis vaccine. A greater problem-solving score was associated with a higher number of vaccine doses received. Despite free vaccinations offered in an easily accessible community setting, the majority of participants failed to complete the hepatitis vaccine series. More effort is needed to get adult men to participate in hepatitis vaccination clinics. Additional research is necessary to understand barriers other than cost to adults receiving vaccination. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dispositional pandemic worry and the health belief model: promoting vaccination during pandemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Courtney L; Jensen, Jakob D; Christy, Katheryn

    2017-12-01

    Promoting vaccination during pandemics is paramount to public health, yet few studies examined theoretical motivations for vaccination during pandemics. Thus, the relationships between dispositional pandemic worry, constructs of the health belief model (HBM) and vaccination during the H1N1 pandemic were studied. Participants (N = 1377) completed surveys assessing dispositional pandemic worry, HBM variables and H1N1 vaccination. Principle axis factor analysis and point biserial correlations were conducted. Differences in worry and vaccination were assessed via independent samples t-tests. Relationships between vaccination, demographics and worry were investigated using hierarchical linear regression. PROCESS analysis was conducted to explicate the relationship between worry and vaccination intention. A two-factor structure of dispositional pandemic worry-worry frequency and worry severity-was confirmed. Dispositional worry was higher among those who intended to and received H1N1 vaccine. Worry frequency and worry severity were positively related to vaccination. Threat, benefits and barriers mediated the impact of worry severity and threat and barriers mediated the impact of worry frequency on vaccination intentions. Messages increasing dispositional worry and benefits while decreasing barriers may boost vaccination behavior during a pandemic event. Future study of relationships between dispositional worry and HBM variables is warranted.

  3. "For Every Illness There is a Cure": Attitudes and Beliefs of Moroccan Muslim Women Regarding Health, Illness and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaddour, Chaïma; Broeckaert, Bert

    2017-08-03

    In order to provide adequate health care, it is important to be well aware of the views and attitudes of the health seeker regarding health, illness and medicine. In the Belgian context, the views of Muslim women, particularly of middle-aged and elderly Moroccan women, have been understudied. The aim of this article is twofold. First, we seek to bring forward the attitudes and beliefs of middle-aged and elderly Moroccan Muslim women living in Antwerp (Belgium) towards health, illness and medicine. Second, we seek to explore which role religion plays in their views and attitudes regarding health, illness and medicine. Qualitative empirical research was conducted with a sample of middle-aged and elderly Moroccan Muslim women living in Antwerp (Belgium) (n = 30) and with experts in the field (n = 15). In-depth interviews and participant observations were conducted to reveal their perceptions regarding health, illness and medicine. This study reveals that religion plays a crucial role in how Muslim women perceive and deal with illness. Theological considerations that centre on God's omnipotence, the belief in the afterlife and religious virtues take up a central position. A holistic approach is adopted in the search for healing, i.e. an interplay between calling upon medicine and turning to God. Religious beliefs seem to be a powerful source in coping with illness.

  4. Determinants of Preventive Behaviors of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnant Women Based on the Constructs of Health Belief Model in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS MazloomyMahmoodabad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infection is considered as one of the most common complications of pregnancy, which can be avoided via adopting preventive behaviors. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate determinants of preventive behaviors of urinary tract infection in pregnant women based on the constructs of Health Belief Model in Yazd. Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted on 160 pregnant women referred to health centers of Yazd, suffering from urinary tract infection, who were selected via purposive sampling method. In order to glean the study data, a questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model construct was applid and then the study data were analyzed using SPSS Software (ver.18 via frequency tables and t-test. Results: Among the pregnant women, 63.1% (101 patients demonstrated average score of knowledge and 36.9% (59 patients had good knowledge. Regarding the constructs of Health Belief Model, 73.1% (117 had good score of perceived barriers, 95% (152 demonstraded good perceived benefits, 95% (152 reported good perceived susceptibility, and 81.3% (130 scored a good level of perceived severity. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the total score of knowledge and attitude (p=0.02, though the correlation between the behavior and knowledge (p=0.08 as well as attitude and behavior (p=0.09 were not proved to be significant. Conclusions: According to the results, further structural intervention needs to focus on perceived barriers in order to prevent the urinary tract infections. Furthermore, behaviors related to eating and hygiene habits should be considered further and the importance of family, wife and the media involvement seem to be essential in designing the training programs.

  5. Using the health belief model to predict breast self examination among Saudi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; BaniMustafa, Ala'a A; Mahfouz, Aisha A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Al-Juhani, Amal F; Alaskar, Ahmed S

    2015-11-23

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, breast cancer (BC) usually presents at advanced stages and more frequently in young pre-menopausal women in comparison to western countries. There is controversy surrounding the efficacy of breast self examination (BSE) for early detection of BC in countries where other methods are available. This study aims to explore the perception towards breast cancer and towards BSE among Saudi women, using the Health Belief Model (HBM). A convenient sample of adult Saudi female employees, working at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (n = 225), and their non-working adult female family members (n = 208), were subjected to the Arabic version of revised Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) and the Arabic version of Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM), to assess their knowledge and attitude on BC respectively. Percentage mean score (PMS) for each HBM domain was calculated. Significant predictors of BSE practice were identified using logistic regression analysis and significance was considered at p women heard about BSE (91.2 %), only 41.6 % reported ever practicing BSE and 21 % performed it regularly. Reported reasons for not doing BSE were: not knowing how to examine their breast (54.9 %), or untrusting themselves able to do it (24.5 %). Women were less knowledgeable about BC in general, its risk factors, warning signs, nature and screening measures (PMS:54.2 %, 44.5 %, 61.4 %, 53.2 %, 57.6 % respectively). They reported low scores of; perceived susceptibility, seriousness, confidence and barriers (PMS: 44.8 %, 55.6 %, 56.5 % & 41.7 % respectively), and high scores of perceived benefits and motivation (PMS: 73 % & 73.2 % respectively) to perform BSE. Significant predictors of BSE performance were: levels of perceived barriers (p = 0.046) and perceived confidence (p = 0.001) to BSE, overall knowledge on BC (p women had poor knowledge on BC, reported negative attitude towards BSE and their practice was

  6. Association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and number of attendances in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Soati, Fatemeh; Khanegha, Atefeh Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    This survey was designed to determine the association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and Number of attendances in type 1 diabetic patients in Rasht, Guilan Province - North of Iran. Data was derived from chart reviews of 92 patients. Patients' glycosylated hemoglobin level and their number of health care attendances during the last 6 months were recorded. The four part questionnaires covered patients' demographic data, knowledge, perceived control and health belief of diabetes. A blood sample was taken from each patient. There was no significant relationship between demographic data such as gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, duration of the disease, place of living and family history with knowledge, health belief and locus of control (P > 0.05). Also the results didn't show any significant association between the complicated group and their knowledge and health belief (P > 0.05) while it was significantly related to their locus of control (P knowledge (59.8%), health belief (71.7%) and locus of control (62%). There was no significant relationship between patients' knowledge, health belief and locus of control with their glycosylated hemoglobin level, number of referrals and self-management. It is suggested by the present survey that locus of control, health belief and knowledge of patients are not found to have no practical effect upon diabetic self-management behavior or outcomes, according to the variables used and care for the diabetic patients must be tailored to individual requirements.

  7. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  8. The validity and reliability of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for breast cancer screening behaviors among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Berry, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is a global issue that continues to be the most diagnosed cancer in women. The incidence of breast cancer is increasing, and the incidence age for Iranian women is at least 10 years earlier than in western countries. Beliefs related to breast cancer have been found to be a factor in a woman's decision about breast screening behavior, and a valid and reliable questionnaire is necessary to the development of education interventions in this area. The aim of the current study was to translate the Champion Health Belief Model Scale to Farsi and to examine the psychometric properties of the Farsi version. A random sample of 606 employed women (20-69 years old) from Sanandaj, Iran, participated in the study. Construct validity of the Farsi version was supported through factor analysis. Nine factors emerged for breast self-examination (2 barriers factors, 2 benefits factors, 2 confidence factors, and 1 factor each related to seriousness, motivation, and susceptibly) and 6 factors related to mammography (barriers, seriousness, susceptibly, benefits, and 2 motivation factors). All items loaded on their respective factors except 1 item. It was concluded that the Farsi version of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale has the potential to measure beliefs related to breast self-examination and mammography with Iranian women. Further evaluation of the measure with different populations is warranted.

  9. Breast cancer screening behavior in Turkish women: Relationships with health beliefs and self-esteem, body perception and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Olcay; Gümüs, Aysun Babacan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to examine breast cancer screening behavior in Turkish women, the reasons for not doing screening and the relationship between health beliefs and levels of self-esteem, body perception, and hopelessness. This research was conducted as a descriptive, correlational study in an area covered by three neighborhood primary health care clinics in Bornova, Izmir. The data were collected between April and November 2006 from 382 women over 40 years of age who were selected using a stratified random sampling method and a descriptive information form, Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS) and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). The breast cancer screening methods used by women participating in the research were, respectively, mammography (34%), clinical breast examination (14.1%), breast self-examination (BSE) (59.4%). The reasons why women did not do breast cancer screening methods were determined to be: not having any symptoms, neglect, not sensing the need, and not knowing how BSE is done. In the examination of the women's CHBMS subscale score means and RSES, BCS and BHS score mean a statistically significant relationships were determined between Benefits-BSE, Barriers-BSE, Confidence, Health motivation, Benefits-mammography and barriers-mammography subscale score means and RSES, BCS and BHS mean scores (pself-esteem, high level of hope for the future and with a positive body perception have more positive health beliefs on breast cancer screening.

  10. Control beliefs and health locus of control in Ugandan, German and migrated sub-Saharan African HIV infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, Ruth U; Husstedt, Ingo-W; Reichelt, Doris; Evers, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the influence of control beliefs on antiretroviral drug adherence in patients who migrated from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in health locus of control and control beliefs between HIV infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa with and without a lifetime experience of migration. A sample of 62 HIV infected consecutive patients referred to the HIV clinics at the University Hospital of Münster (Germany) and at the Rubaga Hospital Kampala (Uganda) were enrolled into this study. We compared three groups of patients: sub-Saharan African migrants, German patients, and local Ugandan patients. We used the German health and illness related control beliefs questionnaire (KKG), the Competence and control beliefs questionnaire (FKK), and the Powe Fatalism Inventory-HIV/AIDS-Version (PFI-HIV/AIDS-Version) and translated these scales into English and Luganda. In addition, the patients' sociodemographic, acculturation, clinical, and immunological data were registered. Significant results were shown in HIV related external locus of control between migrated sub-Saharan African and local Ugandan patients compared to German patients. General control beliefs showed no significant differences. In the PFI-HIV-Version, there was a significant difference between migrated sub-Saharan African and Ugandan patients compared to German patients. Our data suggest that the experience of migration does not influence the locus of control. Compared to German HIV patients, African patients in general showed a significantly higher external health locus of control which might have implications for drug adherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Health belief model based evaluation of school health education programme for injury prevention among high school students in the community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi-Juan; Chen, Yue; Wang, Shu-Mei

    2014-01-10

    Although multifaceted community-based programmes have been widely developed, there remains a paucity of evaluation of the effectiveness of multifaceted injury prevention programmes implemented in different settings in the community context. This study was to provide information for the evaluation of community-based health education programmes of injury prevention among high school students. The pre-intervention survey was conducted in November 2009. Health belief model (HBM) based health education for injury prevention started in January 2010 and stopped in the end of 2011 among high school students in the community context in Shanghai, China. A post-intervention survey was conducted six weeks after the completion of intervention. Injury-related health belief indicators were captured by a short questionnaire before and after the intervention. Health belief scores were calculated and compared using the simple sum score (SSS) method and the confirmatory factor analysis weighted score (CFAWS) method, respectively. The average reliability coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.89. The factor structure of HBM was given and the data fit HBM in the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) very well. The result of CFA showed that Perceived Benefits of Taking Action (BEN) and Perceived Seriousness (SER) had the greatest impact on the health belief, Perceived Susceptibility (SUS) and Cues to Action (CTA) were the second and third most important components of HBM respectively. Barriers to Taking Action (BAR) had no notable impact on HBM. The standardized path coefficient was only 0.35, with only a small impact on CTA. The health belief score was significantly higher after intervention (p method and in the SSS method. However, the 95% confidential interval in the CFAWS method was narrower than that in the SSS method. The results of CFA provide further empirical support for the HBM in injury intervention. The CFAWS method can be used to calculate the health belief scores and

  12. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)—the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders—tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs. PMID:26441699

  13. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAltweck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL – the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders – tends to be higher in Asian and African cultures, compared to European and North American cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: a to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, b to examine the MHL model quantitatively, c to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and d to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs.

  14. Information Behaviour, Health Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Health Behaviour in Icelanders' Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsdottir, Agusta

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to gather knowledge about how different groups of Icelanders take advantage of information about health and lifestyle in their everyday life. Method: A random sample of 1,000 people was used in the study and data was gathered as a postal survey. Response rate was 50.8%. Analysis: K-means cluster analysis was…

  15. Barriers and Health Beliefs Related to Weight Management Among Veterans With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Shannon; Dinatale, Emily; Hartley, Sarah; St Jacques, Monica; Oursler, Kris Ann

    2017-01-01

    The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program. Institutional review board approval was granted before the start of the study. All participants were recruited from the Infectious Disease clinic if they met national inclusion criteria for the MOVE weight management program and had not previously participated in the program. Transcribed audio recordings were independently analyzed and coded by four of the researchers using an exploratory process to obtain consensus regarding themes. An interrater reliability analysis for the Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency among raters. The relationship between physical activity self-efficacy scores and nutrition self-efficacy scores was tested using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The median age of the sample was 56 with high rates of diabetes (36%), hypertension (73%), hyperlipidemia (36%), and tobacco use history (82%). External barriers to participation were discussed in addition to 8 other themes, which influence treatment engagement for Veterans with obesity and HIV including adaptation, stigma, self-management, and support. Veterans held strong beliefs about responsibility and commitment to their health and wanted to assume an active and informed role in their health care. Veterans with high levels of perceived

  16. Survey of breast cancer mammography screening behaviors in Eastern Taiwan based on a health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the main form of cancer affecting women and the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality in women. The aim of this study was to explore regular mammography screening in Hualien women and to identify the factors that influence its uptake based on a health belief model. This cross-sectional study was performed between July 2012 and December 2012. A total of 776 women aged 45–69 years were enrolled in the study. The results of crude and adjusted analyses showed that there were significant differences in the prevalence of regular mammography screening, which were related to different age groups, residence areas, educational levels, hormone replacement therapy status, and history of breast cancer. Women in the older age groups, with a higher educational level, in receipt of hormone replacement therapy, and with a personal history of breast cancer had significantly higher odds ratios for regular mammography screening (2.75, 1.68, 1.75, and 1.98, respectively; all p < 0.05.

  17. Use of the Health Belief Model to examine older adults' food-handling behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jennifer A; Benedict, Jamie A

    2002-01-01

    To measure the association among Health Belief Model (HBM) variables and safe food-handling behaviors among older adults. A mail survey using Dillman's Total Design Method. In October 1999, a survey was sent to volunteers from a preexisting cohort of noninstitutionalized older adults living throughout Nevada. Data collection continued through January 2000. With a 56% response rate, the sample (n = 266) was composed mainly of women (73%) and individuals from urban counties (74%). The mean age was 68.09 years (SD = 8.27). Except for gender, sample characteristics were similar to those of the preexisting cohort. Perceived threat of foodborne illness (ie, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility), cues to action (ie, media cues and educational cues), and safe food-handling behaviors (ie, sanitation and cross-contamination). Rank order correlation coefficients were computed to measure the association among variables. Significance was set at P food-handling behaviors. Perceived severity of foodborne illness was positively related to one dimension of safe food-handling behaviors (ie, sanitation). The HBM is a useful framework for examining food-handling behaviors among older adults.

  18. Age-Related Differences in Health Beliefs Regarding Cervical Cancer Screening Among Korean American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunice E.; Eun, Young; Lee, Shin-Young; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening rates among older Korean American (KA) women are much lower than the rates for younger KA women, even though the overall cancer screening rates in the population continue to have one of the lowest Papanicolaou (Pap) test adherence rates compared with non-Hispanic White women. Variables based on the Health Belief Model related to cervical cancer screening were compared by age group among KA women. A telephone survey was conducted with 189 KA women living in the midwestern United States. Perceived barriers to having a Pap test predicted the outcome variable of having had Pap tests in the preceding 3 years in older KA women who were 65 or older, but not in younger women who were between 40 and 64 years old. Having physical examinations without symptoms in the preceding 2 years predicted the outcome variable in both age groups. Intervention strategies for all KA women should focus on encouraging them to receive routine physical examinations. In addition, attempts should be made to reduce perception of barriers in older KA women to improve their cervical cancer screening behaviors. PMID:22477716

  19. Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors Among Nurses Based on the Health Belief Model Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sharafkhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nursing profession is physically demanding as it is ranked second from the viewpoint of physical activity, following industrial occupations. Nursing is considered a profession with high musculoskeletal disorders, specifically low back pain. This article evaluated the nurses’ educational needs based on the Health Belief Model (HBM with focus on the low back pain and adoption of preventive behaviors. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 nurses who were selected randomly from three public educational hospitals affiliated with Arak University of Medical Sciences. Data collection was performed with a questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics, questions on HBM constructs, and a checklist for explaining the performances. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In this study, among the HBM constructs, the cues to action and the perceived barriers were the main predictors of optimal performance among the sample subjects (B = 0.09, p < .01. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the nurses’ performance on adopting the preventive behaviors and the scores of perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action (p < .05. However, no significant relationship was observed between the nurses’ performance and perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits. In this study, as for behavior barriers, the nurses complained about unfamiliarity with the workplace ergonomics and inappropriate conditions based on ergonomic principles, which requires educational planning with the aim of overcoming perceived barriers, improving managerial activities, and enhancing the working place conditions.

  20. The Effect of Education on Women's Practice Based on the Health Belief Model About Pap Smear Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in Iran. The single most effective tool in reducing death due to cervical cancer is the use of pap smear as a screening tool. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education based on Health Belief Model about giving pap smear in women. This quasi-experimental study was performed on 70 women who referred to two health center in Kouhdasht (Lorestan- Iran). The samples were randomly divided in two groups (35 in intervention group and 35 in control group). The data were collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire. Interventions were run based on Health Belief Model during three sessions only for intervention group. Each educational session was for 45-60 min. The independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze data. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. According to results, the mean scores of knowledge were significantly different between two groups after intervention (P education programs based on health belief model can promote the practice of women regarding to pap smear tests.

  1. The impact of tailored text messages on health beliefs and medication adherence in adults with diabetes: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Erickson, Steven R; An, Lawrence C; Piette, John D; Farris, Karen B

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate medication adherence reduces optimal health outcomes and can lead to increased costs, particularly in patients with diabetes. Efforts to improve adherence have resulted in limited effects; approaches leveraging mobile technology have emerged, but their focus has mainly been limited to simple reminder messages. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of tailored text messages focusing on improving medication adherence and health beliefs in adults with diabetes. Adults aged 21-64, with uncontrolled diabetes, and taking at least one anti-diabetic medication were recruited and randomized into 2 study arms: daily tailored text messaging for 90 days or standard care. Comparing baseline and endpoint survey responses, changes in theory-driven health beliefs and attitudes were assessed. The impact on medication adherence was evaluated using pharmacy claims by calculating the percent of days covered (PDC). A total of 75 subjects were consented, and 48 were randomized. Mean PDC at baseline were comparable between cohorts (84.4% and 87.1%, respectively). Declines in adherence were observed in both groups over time but no significant differences were observed between groups or from baseline to the end of the active study period. Unadjusted tests suggested that perceived benefits and competence might have improved in the intervention arm. Tailoring mobile phone text messages is a novel way to address medication nonadherence and health beliefs; further investigation to this combined technique is needed to better understand its impact on behavior change in adults with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Math Achievement in Early Adolescence: The Role of Parental Involvement, Teachers' Behavior, and Students' Motivational Beliefs about Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levpuscek, Melita Puklek; Zupancic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Contributions of parental involvement in educational pursuits as well as math teachers' classroom behavior to students' motivation and performance in math were investigated. By the end of the first school term, 365 Slovene eighth graders reported on their parents' academic involvement (pressure, support, and help) and their math teachers' behavior…

  3. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students

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    Mitra Moodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5 using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01. Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05. ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05. Conclusions: Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed.

  4. Self-medication among students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of self-medication is high all over the world, especially in Iran. But there is a paucity of studies to explore self-medication activities among the university students. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the self-medication among student in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, based on Health Belief Model (HBM). This cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 medical students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences who were randomly chosen by a stratified random sampling method in 2009. The data were collected using a validated and reliable questionnaire based on HBM. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (ver. 16). Descriptive and analytical statistics (independent t-test and test) were used. A two-tailed P value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean and standard deviation of participants' age was 22.00 ± 2.77 years. 67.3% of the sample consisted of females. The mean scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barrier were 80.36 ± 18.29, 40.92 ± 13.89, 61.48 ± 19.03, 59.11 ± 18.46, and 30.36 ± 12.40, respectively. According to the results, 84.98% of students had experienced self-medication at least for one disease during the past 6 months. The prevalence of self-medication in medical students is high and we can consider it as a health problem. So, we need educational interventions for the students, using HBM constructs.

  5. Impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement and risk perception of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    focus on a more specific product level. such as knowledge, convenience or general attitudes - This study exemplifies the need for more effective communication about healthy eating and fish consumption as a part of healthy eating pattern to the broader public. Additionally, the findings provide cross-culturally....... Furthermore, it cross-culturally validates all the measures....

  6. Bidirectional Associations between Sport Involvement and Mental Health in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Allen, Mark S; Schweickle, Matthew J; Magee, Christopher A

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential bidirectional relationships between sport participation and mental health during early adolescence. Data were taken from wave 5 (2012) and wave 6 (2014) of the K cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. In total, there were 4023 participants (mean age = 12.41 yr, SD = 0.49 yr, at baseline), and this sample was followed up 24 months later. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine bidirectional relationships between sport participation (hours per week for team, individual, and total sport participation) and mental health (total psychological difficulties, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems) as measured by the parent-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Bidirectional relationships were evident between time involved in sport and overall mental health (Sport12→SDQ14: β = -0.048; SDQ12→Sport14: β = -0.062). Bidirectional relationships were also evident between time involved in sport participation and internalizing (social and emotional) problems (Sport12→SDQ14: β = -0.068; SDQ12→Sport14: β = -0.067). The relationship between time in organized sport and externalizing problems (conduct problems and inattention/hyperactivity problems) was not bidirectional. Externalizing problems predicted later sports participation (β = -0.039), but not vice versa. Findings demonstrate bidirectional relationships between sport participation and adolescent mental health. The design and implementation of youth sport programs should maximize mental health benefits, and programs should be designed, implemented, and marketed to be attractive to participants with poor psychosocial health.

  7. Developing a new model for cross-cultural research: synthesizing the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, J E

    2001-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a new model representing the synthesis of two models that are often used to study health behaviors: the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The new model was developed as the theoretic framework for an investigation of the factors affecting participation by Mexican migrant workers in tuberculosis screening. Development of the synthesized model evolved from the concern that models used to investigate health-seeking behaviors of mainstream Anglo groups in the United States might not be appropriate for studying migrant workers or persons from other cultural backgrounds.

  8. RELIGIOUS, SPIRITUAL, AND TRADITIONAL BELIEFS AND PRACTICES AND THE ETHICS OF MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH IN LESS WEALTHY COUNTRIES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOLAN, JENNIFER A.; WHETTEN, KATHRYN; KOENIG, HAROLD G.

    2013-01-01

    This discussion article contributes to ethics reform by introducing the contribution of religious, spiritual, and traditional beliefs and practices to both subject vulnerability and patient improvement. A growing body of evidence suggests that religious, spiritual, and traditional beliefs and practices may provide positive benefits, although in some cases mixed or negative consequences to mental and physical health. These beliefs and practices add a new level of complexity to ethical deliberations, in terms of what ignoring them may mean for both distributive justice and respect for persons. International ethical guidelines need to be created that are expansive enough to cover an array of social groups and circumstances. It is proposed that these guidelines incorporate the religious, spiritual, and/or traditional principles that characterize a local population. Providing effective mental healthcare requires respecting and understanding how differences, including ones that express a population's religious, spiritual, or traditional belief systems, play into the complex deliberations and negotiations that must be undertaken if researchers are to adhere to ethical imperatives in research and treatment. PMID:22439296

  9. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Ditsapelo M

    2013-01-01

    Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit) regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%). Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%). Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57%) and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%). There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana.

  10. Health beliefs and stress among non-insulin dependent diabetes outpatients in a rural teaching hospital in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantwa W Bopape

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the health beliefs and stress among non-insulin dependent diabetes out patients. Opsomming Die doel van die navorsing was om die oortuigings oor gesondheid en stres van buitepasiënte wat ly aan nie insulien afhanklike diabetes na te vors. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  11. Race and Religious Beliefs Are Associated With Communication Regarding Reproductive Health and Preconception Counseling in Young Women With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devido, Jessica Anne; Sereika, Susan M; Cohen, Susan Merle; Charron-Prochownik, Denise

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between selected internal and external characteristics and communication (intended and actual) with health care providers (HCPs) about reproductive health and preconception counseling among adolescent females with diabetes. A descriptive, correlational design was employed to conduct a secondary analysis of baseline data from a multisite, randomized controlled trial. Participants were 110 female adolescents (92% type 1 diabetes). Analysis included multiple linear regression and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses to examine the association of internal characteristics (age, race, religion, and religious beliefs) and external characteristics (ever sexually active, social support, and type of routine HCP). Participants were from 13.3 to 20.0 years of age, 82% were Caucasian, 80% had never been sexually active, and 58% perceived low to moderate amounts of social support. For both internal and external characteristics, no significant main effects were found for actual or intended communication. For internal characteristics, there was an interaction between race and religious beliefs for the probability of actual communication. African American women who reported that their religious beliefs did not influence their sexual behavior had the lowest probability of actual communication compared to all other participants. Race and religious beliefs should be considered when providing reproductive health information to young women with diabetes. Further research with a larger, more diverse sample is warranted. These results may be considered for future development of novel interventions with targeted messages based on these personal characteristics to empower young women to initiate conversations with HCPs about reproductive health and preconception counseling. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Health beliefs and stress among non-insulin dependent diabetes outpatients in a rural teaching hospital in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantwa W Bopape

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the health beliefs and stress among non-insulin dependent diabetes out patients. Opsomming Die doel van die navorsing was om die oortuigings oor gesondheid en stres van buitepasiënte wat ly aan nie insulien afhanklike diabetes na te vors. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  13. Health beliefs and perceived need for mental health care of anxiety and depression - The patients' perspective explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Marijn A.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Bensing, Jozien M.; van der Meer, Klaas

    Patients' illness representations and beliefs about treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as their perceived needs, are important for treatment. A systematic review was conducted of 71 studies describing the beliefs or perceived needs of patients and non-patients. Patients give

  14. Self-reported discrimination and mental health among Asian Indians: Cultural beliefs and coping style as moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sarah B.; Kanaya, Alka M.; McDade, Thomas W.; Kandula, Namratha R.

    2016-01-01

    The South Asian (SA) population has been underrepresented in research linking discrimination with health indicators; studies that focus on the unique cultural and psychosocial experiences of different SA subgroups are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between self-reported discrimination and mental health among Asian Indians (AIs), and whether traditional cultural beliefs (believing that South Asian cultural traditions should be practiced in the US), coping style, and social support moderated these relationships. Asian Indians (N = 733) had been recruited from community-based sampling frames for the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study were included in this analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses were employed to evaluate relationships between discrimination and depressive symptoms, anger, and anxiety. Participants (men = 54%) were on average 55 years of age and had high levels of English proficiency, education, and income. Higher reports of discrimination were significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, B = .27 (.05) p discrimination and anger, B = −.005 (.002), p = .02, were weakest among those with stronger cultural beliefs. The link between discrimination and anxiety was attenuated by an active coping style, B = −.05 (.03), p = .04. In sum, self-reported discrimination appeared to adversely impact the mental health of AIs. Discrimination may be better coped with by having strong traditional cultural beliefs and actively managing experiences of discrimination. PMID:27668066

  15. Health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours in women who applied to cancer early detection center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Serpil Talas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting women in Turkey. The early detection methods for breast cancer have been associated with health belief variables. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine women's health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours. Methods: This study was designed as descriptive and cross-sectional survey and was performed on 344 women who applied the Nigde Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening and Education Center between May and October 2009. The data were collected using a questionnaire which consists of socio-demographic characteristics and breast cancer risk factors and Health Belief Model Scale. Data analysis was performed using frequency and Mann-Whitney U Test. All values of p0.05. According to study results, the rate of regular BSE performance rate for women was found low. Therefore, KETEM was planned to the training programs related to breast cancer screening methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 265-271

  16. A randomized trial to promote health belief and to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nekoei-Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread among women in Iran. This study aimed to explore the impact of education on health belief and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women. This randomized trial was administrated to 130 pregnant women exposed to ETS. The face-to-face education was provided for the intervention group after completing the questionnaire compiled on the constructs of the health belief model and self-reports of weekly ETS exposure. The theoretical constructs and weekly ETS exposure were compared in the study groups at the intake, third, fourth and fifth sections. In the intervention group, perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits increased and the weekly ETS exposure decreased on the third as opposed to the first section (P education about the impacts of ETS exposure of pregnant women is an effective way to increase the theoretical constructs according to the health belief model and is associated with a reduction of ETS exposure. But this is not sufficient for making smoke-free homes.

  17. Age-associated predictors of medication adherence in HIV-positive adults: health beliefs, self-efficacy, and neurocognitive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Terry R; Hinkin, Charles H; Castellon, Steven A; Mason, Karen I; Reinhard, Matthew J; Marion, Sarah D; Levine, Andrew J; Durvasula, Ramani S

    2007-01-01

    Although most agree that poor adherence to antiretrovirals is a common problem, relatively few factors have been shown to consistently predict treatment failure. In this study, a theoretical framework encompassing demographic characteristics, health beliefs/attitudes, treatment self-efficacy, and neurocognitive status was examined in relationship to highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence. Prospective, cross-sectional observational design. Neuropsychological test performance, health beliefs and attitudes, and medication adherence tracked over a 1-month period using electronic monitoring technology (Medication Event Monitoring System caps). The rate of poor adherence was twice as high among younger participants than with older participants (68% and 33%, respectively). Results of binary logistic regression revealed that low self-efficacy and lack of perceived treatment utility predicted poor adherence among younger individuals, whereas decreased levels of neurocognitive functioning remained the sole predictor of poor adherence among older participants. These data support components of the health beliefs model in predicting medication adherence among younger HIV-positive individuals. However, risk of adherence failure in those ages 50 years and older appears most related to neurocognitive status.

  18. Influencing factors in the health promoting behaviors of Urinary system based on health belief model in pregnant women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Noroozi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy that will follow with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the urinary system health promoting behaviors in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and methods: The present study is a descriptive - analytic study was performed on 250 pregnant women referred to health centers of Bushehr. The tools for collecting information was a multi sectional questionnaire consisting of demographic information, measurement of urinary system health behavior, knowledge and health belief model constructs, which its validity and reliability were ensured previously. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 by using correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: The mean age of subjects 27/4±4/4 years.The relationship between demographic variables and health behavior wasn’t found. The most people (179 equivalents to 71/6% had medium level of knowledge about urinary tract infection, and only 44 women (17.6% had appropriate awareness. Mean score of preventive behaviors was significant difference between different levels of knowledge (p =0/026, self efficacy (p=0/000 and perceived barriers (p=0/002. In multivariate ANOVA, only the self efficacy had strong positive relationship with the preventing behaviors of urinary tract infection (p=0/000. Conclusion: Based on these results, the necessity of education based on health belief model with an emphasis on increasing the efficacy is necessary.

  19. Cancer of the cervix: knowledge, beliefs and screening behaviours of health workers in Mudzi District in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarwireyi, F; Chirenje, Z M; Rusakaniko, S

    2003-01-01

    To assess the knowledge, beliefs and screening behaviours on cervical cancer among health workers in Mudzi District. Cross sectional survey. Mudzi District Hospital and all the 20 rural health centres in Mudzi District of Mashonaland East. Sixty health workers in Mudzi District. Knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, screening methods and treatment options. Beliefs and screening behaviours. The knowledge levels were lower for many of the predisposing factors of cervical cancer except for the use of vaginal herbs or chemicals, which 85% of the health workers knew. Though 50% of the respondents knew of the Pap smear as a screening method for cervical cancer, 86.6% did not know the human papiloma virus screening and 90% did not know of the visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid. There were also very low knowledge levels for most of the treatment options for pre-cancer with all health workers not knowing the leep and the Laser options. The majority 73.3% believed that they where not at risk of developing cervical cancer. Most of the respondents, 81.7%, had not undergone any form of cervical cancer screening. However, the main reason for non screening was that there were no cervical cancer screening facilities in Mudzi District. The study revealed low knowledge levels, negative beliefs about the risk of developing cervical cancer and poor screening behaviours among health workers in Mudzi District. Training in cervical cancer is, therefore, recommended for the health workers. However, the training should be combined with setting up facilities for cervical cancer screening.

  20. Is the Belief in Meritocracy Palliative for Members of Low Status Groups? Evidence for a Benefit for Self-Esteem and Physical Health via Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Shannon K.; Wellman, Joseph D.; Cosley, Brandon; Saslow, Laura; Epel, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Consensually held ideologies may serve as the cultural “glue” that justifies hierarchical status differences in society (e.g. Augustinos, 1998). Yet to be effective these beliefs need to be embraced by low-status groups. Why would members of low-status groups endorse beliefs that justify their relative disadvantage? We propose that members of low-status groups in the United States may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs (such as the belief in meritocracy) to the extent that these beliefs emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. In 2 studies, among women, lower-SES women, and women of color, we found a positive relationship between the belief in meritocracy and well-being (self-esteem and physical health) that was mediated by perceived control. Members of low-status groups may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs to the extent that these beliefs, like the belief in meritocracy, emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. PMID:24039310

  1. Skin protective behavior amongst girl students; based on health belief model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Davati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in most of the countries and more than 90% of cancer cases are related to ultra violet rays of the sun. Therefore protective behaviors against sunlight are considered the most essential measures for skin cancer prevention. This study has been conducted to determine the frequency of protective behavior against sunlight among female students of Tehran city high schools. The Health Belief Model has been used for this cross-sectional study to analyze the factors related to protective behaviors. A multi-phase sampling method was used. 941 female student of Tehran city high schools were studied using a probed question form. The data were then analyzed using SPSS software. During the study of protective behaviors against the sunlight, 24.7% of participants mentioned that they always use sunscreen. The behavior of using sunscreen is related to perceived sensitivity, severity and benefit amongst the students (P<0.05. Also 3.8% of the students who participated in our study were always using gloves in summer to protect against sunlight. The behavior of using gloves in summer was also related to perceived sensitivity, severity and benefit (P<0.05. Physicians were the most effective influencing people with 84.9% influence on the appropriate decision making by these students. There is a low frequency of protective behavior against sunlight among the female students of Tehran city high schools. These findings show the necessity of training the students in this regard and promote the protective behaviors amongst them.

  2. Improving prenatal care in pregnant women in Iranshahr, Iran: applying Health Belief Model (HBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadirad, Hossien; Niknami, Shamsoddin; Zareban, Iraj; Hidarnia, Alireza

    2017-11-07

    To determine the effect of an education-based intervention on receiving adequate prenatal care. This randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 90 primiparous pregnant women, referred in Iranshahr, Iran for prenatal care (intervention = 45, control group = 45). The data were collected from February to June 2016 using a questionnaire developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The intervention group received three intervention sessions during the second trimester of pregnancy, and 3 months after intervention, both groups completed a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-tests, chi-squared tests, paired t-test, Pearson and multivariate regression. Unlike the control group, in the intervention group's mean scores for knowledge, variables from the HBM model and frequency of prenatal care significantly differed from pre- to post-intervention (pre-intervention mean = 12.62 ± 2.63, post-intervention mean = 17.71 ± 1.56, (p˂0.05). Self-efficacy was positively correlated with knowledge (r = 0.304, p = 0.02) and adequate prenatal care (r = 0.583, p ˂ 0.001). The constructs of the HBM explained 75% of the variance in frequency of prenatal care in multivariable models. Developing an educational program based on the HBM was effective in the adoptation of prenatal care. Additionally, considering social, economic and educational follow-up while implementing these programs is recommended.

  3. Comparing theory-based condom interventions: health belief model versus theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Erika A; Bryan, Angela D

    2014-10-01

    This study sought to experimentally manipulate the core constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in order to compare the success of interventions to increase preparatory condom use behavior (i.e., purchasing condoms, talking to a boyfriend or girlfriend about using condoms, and carrying condoms) based on these theories. A total of 258 participants were randomly assigned to one of three computer-based interventions (HBM, TPB, or information-only control). A total of 204 (79.1%) completed follow-up assessments 1 month later. Regression analyses were conducted to determine which set of theoretical constructs accounted for the most variance in behavior at baseline. A series of structural equation models were estimated to determine which constructs were the "active ingredients" of change. The TPB accounted for 32.8% of the variance in risky sexual behavior at baseline, while the HBM only explained 1.6% of the variance. Mediational analyses revealed differential intervention effects on perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and attitudes toward condom use. However, it was attitudes toward condom use and condom use self-efficacy that were associated with intentions, which then predicted preparatory condom use behavior at follow-up. Except for attitudes, the mediators that were successfully manipulated by the interventions (i.e., perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and attitudes) were not the same constructs that predicted intentions (i.e., attitudes and condom use self-efficacy), and subsequently predicted behavior. This suggests that the constructs that explain behavior are not the same as those that produce behavior change.

  4. Determinants of male involvement in maternal and child health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditekemena John

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Male participation is a crucial component in the optimization of Maternal and Child Health (MCH services. This is especially so where prevention strategies to decrease Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are sought. This study aims to identify determinants of male partners’ involvement in MCH activities, focusing specifically on HIV prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Literature review was conducted using the following data bases: Pubmed/MEDLINE; CINAHL; EMBASE; COCHRANE; Psych INFORMATION and the websites of the International AIDS Society (IAS, the International AIDS Conference and the International Conference on AIDS in Africa (ICASA 2011. Results We included 34 studies in this review, which reported on male participation in MCH and PMTCT services. The majority of studies defined male participation as male involvement solely during antenatal HIV testing. Other studies defined male involvement as any male participation in HIV couple counseling. We identified three main determinants for male participation in PMTCT services: 1 Socio-demographic factors such as level of education, income status; 2 health services related factors such as opening hours of services, behavior of health providers and the lack of space to accommodate male partners; and 3 Sociologic factors such as beliefs, attitudes and communication between men and women. Conclusion There are many challenges to increase male involvement/participation in PMTCT services. So far, few interventions addressing these challenges have been evaluated and reported. It is clear however that improvement of antenatal care services by making them more male friendly, and health education campaigns to change beliefs and attitudes of men are absolutely needed.

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between Cyberbullying Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Amanda E; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Smuk, Melanie; Smith, Neil R; Cummins, Steven; Clark, Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    Cyberbullying differs from face-to-face bullying and may negatively influence adolescent mental health, but there is a lack of definitive research on this topic. This study examines longitudinal associations between cyberbullying involvement and adolescent mental health. Participants were 2,480 teenagers taking part in the Olympic Regeneration in East London study. We collected information from participants when they were 12-13 years old and again 1 year later to examine links between involvement in cyberbullying and future symptoms of depression and social anxiety, and mental well-being. At baseline, 14% reported being cybervictims, 8% reported being cyberbullies, and 20% reported being cyberbully-victims in the previous year. Compared to uninvolved adolescents, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims were significantly more likely to report symptoms of depression (cybervictims: odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.00, 2.06]; cyberbully-victims: OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.13, 2.09]) and social anxiety (cybervictims: OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.11, 2.07]; cyberbully-victims: OR = 1.44, 95% CI [1.10, 1.89]) but not below average well-being (cybervictims: relative risk ratio = 1.28, 95% CI [.86, 1.91]; cyberbully-victims: relative risk ratio = 1.38, 95% CI [.95, 1.99]) at 1 year follow-up, after adjustment for confounding factors including baseline mental health. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of cyberbullying and the potential of cybervictimization as a risk factor for future depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and below average well-being among adolescents. Future research should identify protective factors and possible interventions to reduce adolescent cyberbullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Beliefs about dangerousness of people with mental health problems: the role of media reports and personal exposure to threat or harm.

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    Reavley, N J; Jorm, A F; Morgan, A J

    2016-09-01

    To assess the associations between beliefs about the dangerousness of people with mental health problems and exposure to media reports of violence or personal experiences of fear, threat or harm. Telephone interviews were carried out with 5220 Australians aged 18+. Respondents heard a vignette of a person with depression or early schizophrenia and were asked whether they believed him to be dangerous. Other questions covered past 12-month recall of media reports of violence and mental health problems, contact with and experiences of fear, threat or harm by people with mental health problems. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the associations between beliefs about dangerousness and media and these types of contact with people with mental health problems. For the early schizophrenia vignette, recall of media reports and having felt afraid of someone were associated with beliefs about dangerousness. For the depression vignette, media reports about violence and mental health problems or the experiences of feeling afraid or having been threatened or harmed were not strongly associated with beliefs about dangerousness. For both vignettes, knowing someone with a mental health problem and having a higher level of education were associated with less belief in dangerousness. Media reports may play a greater role in forming attitudes in low prevalence disorders and further efforts to reduce any adverse impact of media reporting should focus on these disorders. The study also supports the effectiveness of contact with people with mental health problems in reducing beliefs about dangerousness.

  7. A Group of Asthma Patients\\\\\\' Treatment Related Thoughts Based on Health Belief Model and Perception of Medication Success

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    Mesut Cimen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is a descriptive study which aims to determine the attitude and perceptions of asthma patients about their health and their opinion regarding the success of treatment. Method: The study is carried out without any sampling. The participants are 74 patients who were admitted in a public pulmonary disease clinic between April and June 2010. A revised version of Health Belief Model scale for asthma treatment and another scale, which was developed to determine the opinion and observations of patients regarding the success of treatment, are used for data collection. In addition to descriptive statistics, regression analysis, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests are used in the data analysis. Findings: The mean score of attitudes and perceptions of asthma patients, which is defined with the Health Belief Model and which can affect their responsiveness to treatment, is found out 3,37(±0,38 and the attitude and perceptions of patients are positive. The mean value for success treatment is 2,35(±0,49. Since the treatment is deemed to be more successful as it gets closer to 1 hence it can be said that the opinion of asthma patients regarding the success of treatment is positive. In the study, it is found out that the participants have a high admission rate to hospitals and that there is no significant difference for socio-demographic characteristics in the positive attitude development and in their belief in the efficiency of the treatment that they are receiving, of which both are components of health belief model concept. The findings from regression analysis indicate that the duration of the asthma sickness and the number of people living in the household not only affect the perceptions and attitudes of patients that are investigated by health belief model, but also the effectiveness of the treatment and the number of admissions to the Emergency Room in the last 6 months. Conclusion: In order to prevent long-term complications

  8. Health beliefs and sense of one's own efficacy and prophylaxis of osteoporosis in peri- and post-menopausal women.

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    Janiszewska, Mariola; Firlej, Ewelina; Dziedzic, Małgorzata; Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis constitutes one of the relevant health, social and economic problems of the contemporary world which concerns 200 million women, of whom about 20-25% will experience a bone fracture. The aim of the study was to learn about the health beliefs and sense of self-efficacy in peri- and post-menopausal women regarding the prevention of osteoporosis. A group of 300 randomly chosen women aged 45-65 who were patients of healthcare centres in Chełm, Lublin, and the surroundings of Zamość (eastern Poland), was examined. Own Health Beliefs Scale (OHBS) associated with Osteoporosis and Own Efficacy Evaluation Scale (OSES) were used for the study. The obtained material was subjected to descriptive and statistical analysis. Tukey test, t-student test and variance analysis (ANOVA) were all applied. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results were analysed using the SPSS version 19 software package. It was stated that respondents had thought that osteoporosis is an averagely serious health problem, and they did not feel peculiarly exposed to falling ill with the disease. They attached great significance to the benefits of physical activity and correct nutrition. The perception of barriers to calcium intake and everyday exercise was moderate. Health motivation remained at the average level. Socio-demographic conditions influenced the respondents' health beliefs in a statistically significant way. Sense of self-efficacy from the aspect of taking possible action preventing osteoporosis remained on the average level; in addition, respondents more often declared the desire for a change in eating habits than resorting to physical activity.

  9. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education Based on Health Belief Model during Pregnancy on Knowledge and Attitude of Women Referred to Health Centers of Gonbad Kavoos City

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    Hamideh Ahmadpoor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aims Pregnancy is a good time for changing the feeding behaviors. Nutritional education plays an important role in maternal and child health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education based on Health Belief Model during pregnancy on knowledge and attitude of women. Materials and Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted among pregnant women referred to health centers of Gonbad Kavoos city in 2013. Cluster sampling was used for selection of 80 subjects in each study groups, and data were collected using an unstructured questionnaire. Validity and reliability of questionnaire were evaluated by panel of experts, test-retest and reported as Cronbach’s alpha. Classified information of two groups were compared before and 2 months after intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS v.16. Results After educational intervention, the mean score of knowledge and Health Belief Model constructs, were significantly increased in intervention group than the control. But the mean of cuse to action of the experiment group, was not significantly different compared to the control. Conclusion Education based on Health Belief Model was effective on knowledge and attitude of pregnant women about nutrition and educational interventions in this field are recommended. * Corresponding Author: Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Public Health. Email: Shojae5@yahoo.com

  10. Do health beliefs and behaviors differ according to severity of obesity? A qualitative study of Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sophie; Thomas, Samantha L; Blood, R Warwick; Hyde, Jim; Castle, David J; Komesaroff, Paul A

    2010-02-01

    Public responses to obesity have focused on providing standardized messages and supports to all obese individuals, but there is limited understanding of the impact of these messages on obese adults. This descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a thematic method of analysis, compares the health beliefs and behaviors of 141 Australian adults with mild to moderate (BMI 30-39.9) and severe (BMI > or = 40) obesity. Mildly obese individuals felt little need to change their health behaviors or to lose weight for health reasons. Most believed they could "lose weight" if they needed to, distanced themselves from the word obesity, and stigmatized those "fatter" than themselves. Severely obese individuals felt an urgent need to change their health behaviors, but felt powerless to do so. They blamed themselves for their weight, used stereotypical language to describe their health behaviors, and described being "at war" with their bodies. Further research, particularly about the role of stigma and stereotyping, is needed to fully understand the impact of obesity messaging on the health beliefs, behaviors, and wellbeing of obese and severely obese adults.

  11. Do Health Beliefs and Behaviors Differ According to Severity of Obesity? A Qualitative Study of Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Castle

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Public responses to obesity have focused on providing standardized messages and supports to all obese individuals, but there is limited understanding of the impact of these messages on obese adults. This descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a thematic method of analysis, compares the health beliefs and behaviors of 141 Australian adults with mild to moderate (BMI 30−39.9 and severe (BMI ≥ 40 obesity. Mildly obese individuals felt little need to change their health behaviors or to lose weight for health reasons. Most believed they could “lose weight” if they needed to, distanced themselves from the word obesity, and stigmatized those “fatter” than themselves. Severely obese individuals felt an urgent need to change their health behaviors, but felt powerless to do so. They blamed themselves for their weight, used stereotypical language to describe their health behaviors, and described being “at war” with their bodies. Further research, particularly about the role of stigma and stereotyping, is needed to fully understand the impact of obesity messaging on the health beliefs, behaviors, and wellbeing of obese and severely obese adults.

  12. The Effect of an Intervention Based on the Health Belief Model on Preventive Behaviors of Domestic Violence in Female High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Garmaroudi; Bita Sarlak; Roya Sadeghi; Abbas Rahimi Foroushani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to determine the effect of education on health belief model on preventive behaviors of domestic violence among female secondary school students in Tehran.Methods: 242 female students in high schools of Tehran were divided randomly into two groups (intervention and control). Data collection tool were a questionnaire composed of demographic information and health belief model structures before the intervention, a pre-test was performed, and then based on the resul...

  13. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  14. Participatory Design, User Involvement and Health IT Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre; Nøhr, Christian

    2016-01-01

    End user involvement and input into the design and evaluation of information systems has been recognized as being a critical success factor in the adoption of information systems. Nowhere is this need more critical than in the design of health information systems. Consistent with evidence from the general software engineering literature, the degree of user input into design of complex systems has been identified as one of the most important factors in the success or failure of complex information systems. The participatory approach goes beyond user-centered design and co-operative design approaches to include end users as more active participants in design ideas and decision making. Proponents of participatory approaches argue for greater end user participation in both design and evaluative processes. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of increased user involvement in design is explored in this contribution in the context of health IT. The contribution will discuss several approaches to including users in design and evaluation. Challenges in IT evaluation during participatory design will be described and explored along with several case studies.

  15. The effect of an educational program based on health belief model on preventing osteoporosis in women

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    Ali Khani Jeihooni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study′s objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771, marital status (P = 0.880, occupation (P = 0.673, breastfeeding (P = 0.769, smoking (P = 0.315, history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378, history of special diseases (P = 0.769, and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543. Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group

  16. The Effect of an Educational Program Based on Health Belief Model on Preventing Osteoporosis in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study's objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on preventing osteoporosis in women. In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771), marital status (P = 0.880), occupation (P = 0.673), breastfeeding (P = 0.769), smoking (P = 0.315), history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378), history of special diseases (P = 0.769), and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543). Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to -0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group increased to 0.125, but it decreased to -0

  17. The relationship of causal beliefs and contact with users of mental health services to attitudes to the 'mentally ill'.

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    Read, J; Law, A

    1999-01-01

    Programmes to destigmatise 'mental illness' have traditionally been based on the 'mental illness is an illness like any other' metaphor and have been largely unsuccessful. By measuring attitudes towards, and etiology beliefs about, 'mental illness' before and after a series of four undergraduate lectures presenting the psychosocial causes of, and solutions to, severe mental health problems, this study (a) replicated previous studies demonstrating a relationship between biogenetic causal beliefs and negative attitudes towards 'mental patients'; (b) found that following the lectures attitudes improved, particularly around the key variables of dangerousness and unpredictability; and (c) demonstrated that amount of contact with people who had received psychiatric treatment was an even stronger predictor of positive attitudes than acceptance of a psychosocial perspective.

  18. Diabetes Cultural Beliefs and Traditional Medicine Use Among Health Center Patients in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Giacinto, Rebeca; Castañeda, Sheila F; Perez, Ramona L; Nodora, Jesse N; Gonzalez, Patricia; Lopez, Emma Julián; Talavera, Gregory A

    2016-12-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus is currently the leading cause of death in Mexico. Oaxaca is one of the poorest states in Mexico with the largest concentration of indigenous people in the country. Despite the alarming increase of diabetes rates in this region, little is known about the indigenous populations' cultural understandings and related practices for this chronic disease. This study examined diabetes cultural beliefs and traditional medicine use among a sample of 158 adults with and without diabetes in Oaxaca, Mexico. Individuals with and without diabetes did not differ in their traditional culture beliefs regarding diabetes in this study. Younger age (OR = 1.04) and stronger beliefs in punitive and mystical retribution (OR = 5.42) regarding diabetes causality increased the likelihood of using traditional medicine (p < .05). Findings may aid in the development of culturally tailored programs to address diabetes prevention and management efforts in the region.

  19. Who wants to be involved in health care decisions? Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden

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    Mio Fredriksson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient and public involvement (PPI is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems–Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population’s preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Results Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. Conclusions An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the

  20. Who wants to be involved in health care decisions? Comparing preferences for individual and collective involvement in England and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Eriksson, Max; Tritter, Jonathan

    2017-07-14

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is framed as positive for individuals, the health system, public health, as well as for communities and society as a whole. We investigated whether preferences for PPI differed between two countries with Beveridge type health systems-Sweden and England. We measured willingness to be involved in individual treatment decisions and in decisions about the organization and provision of local health and social care services. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of the general population's preferences. Together, the two samples included 3125 respondents; 1625 in England and 1500 in Sweden. Country differences were analysed in a multinomial regression model controlling for gender, age and educational attainment. Overall, 68% of respondents wanted a passive patient role and 44% wanted to be involved in local decisions about organization and provision of services. In comparison with in Sweden, they were in England less likely to want a health professional such as a GP or consultant to make decisions about their treatment and also more likely to want to make their own decisions. They were also less likely to want to be involved in local service development decisions. An increased likelihood of wanting to be involved in organizational decision-making was associated with individuals wanting to make their own treatment decisions. Women were less likely to want health professionals to make decisions and more likely to want to be involved in organizational decisions. An effective health system that ensures public health must integrate an effective approach to PPI both in individual treatment decisions and shaping local health and social care priorities. To be effective, involvement activities must take in to account the variation in the desire for involvement and the implications that this has for equity. More work is needed to understand the relationship between the desire to be involved and actually being involved, but both appear

  1. Do I need training in public health ethics? A survey on Italian residents' beliefs, knowledge and curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Massimiliano; Chellini, Martina; Anello, Paola; Arru, Benedetto; Tettamanti, Glenda; Marcon, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Ethics is needed to support the decision-making process in public health and to face moral issues during practice. However, professionals are often not adequately trained. In 2015, the National Conference of Public Health Medical Residents of the Italian Society of Public Health started the "Public Health Ethics" workgroup to evaluate how the Italian Schools of Public Health train their residents in ethics, and which are residents' beliefs, knowledge and attitudes about public health ethics. A survey was built and emailed to the Italian public health residents. Residents are interested in ethics/bioethics (83.2%) and are aware of its importance for professional practice (97.2%). However, few of them (19.6%) evaluated their competence above a satisfactory level. They believe that a training in ethics should be offered during residency (92.1%). Nonetheless, in Italy only two schools required a course on bioethics, and one a course in public health ethics. According to residents, a public health ethics trainer should be a public health professional (23.2%) or a social scientist (22.8%). In Italy, Schools of Public Health do not train future professionals in ethics or public health ethics during residency. Training should be implemented in curricula, and trainers should have a strong competence in both public health and ethics.

  2. Effect of health education about cervical cancer and papanicolaou testing on the behavior, knowledge, and beliefs of Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, Hatice; Reis, Nesrin; Yavan, Tulay; Bayrak, Damla; Unal, Ayşe; Bodur, Serkan

    2012-10-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common form of cancer observed among women in Turkey. The participation of women in cervical cancer screening programs is strongly affected by Turkish attitudes, beliefs, and sociocultural structure. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of health education that aimed to raise awareness about Papanicolaou testing and to emphasize the importance of the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The study was conducted as a prospective, randomized, controlled trial and was carried out in 148 women. Seventy-five women in the control group were asked to fill out questionnaire forms. A 45-minute conference-style training was given to 73 women in the study group, and all of the subjects were asked to fill out the forms after the training. The sociodemographic characteristics of the 2 groups and the mean "Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test" scores of the 2 groups were statistically analyzed by Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS), version 15. There was no statistically significant difference noticed between the sociodemographic characteristics of the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The difference in test scores, which represented knowledge about cervical cancer and Papanicolaou testing, was statistically significant between the control group and the study group (t = 10.122, P Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test, there were statistically significant differences in the following measures: lower levels of susceptibility to cervical cancer score (t = -2.035, P educating women about cervical cancer and Papanicolaou testing. By doing so, they can change the attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs of the women.

  3. Determination of the Health Belief and Attitude of Women Regarding Breast Cancer and Breast Self-Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Gül; Dönmez, Yelda Candan; Dolgun, Eda

    2017-04-01

    This study has been carried out with the purpose of determining the belief and attitude of women regarding breast cancer and breast self-exam and the factors which affect the performance frequency of breast self-exam and it is a descriptive kind of study. Data has been collected through questionnaire forms created by the researchers based on literature information and Champion Health Belief Model Scale. Data collection was collected via face-to-face interviews with the patients. Questionnaire forms were applied to 350 women who accepted to participate in the study. Data was analyzed frequency, percentage, t-test and x2 test with SPSS for Windows 12.0. Average age of women who were included in the study was found to be 33.25±10.27. Average point for the sensitivity sub-dimension of the women within the scope of study was 7.79±2.38, average score for the seriousness sub-dimension 23.30±5.82, average score for the benefit sub-dimension 15.48±4.03, average score for the obstacle sub-dimension was 26.34±7.64, average score of health motivation sub-dimension was 32.77±9.11 and average score for the self-confidence sub-dimension was 25.20±5.02. The beliefs of women regarding the subject should be developed by providing in-service training regarding breast cancer and breast self-exam. It can be suggested that studies be carried out analyzing the effect of the attempts for increasing the performance frequency of breast self-exam of women on the beliefs and attitudes.

  4. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009. Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona. Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: "The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;" "The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;" "Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;" and "The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum." Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized. Type: Original Research

  5. Effects of zinc and "health belief model" education on upper respiratory infections in hajj travelers: a randomized clinical trial

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    Mahmoudian S.A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The common cold is the most prevalent sickness and an important cause of absence from job. Furthermore, it often disturbs travel, including the practice of hajj, causing the use of many inappropriate drugs by these travelers. The health belief model is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of zinc and health belief model based educational intervention on the behavior of hajj travelers with regard to viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled trial was performed among hajj travelers in 2005. Preventive measures were randomly allocated to four groups: 1- education + zinc sulfate. 2- education + placebo. 3- zinc sulfate only 4- placebo only. Data regarding incidence and duration of URTIs, background disorders, vaccination and health behaviors for cold were gathered by questionnaire by physicians and finally analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using chi-square, t-test and independent samples t-test.Results: A total of 646 travelers were studied. The incidence of common cold in groups receiving zinc were significantly less than that for those receiving the placebo. (P=0.05. However, incidence was statistically the same for those who received education versus those who did not. Use of handkerchief was the most prevalent behavior and use of mask was the least prevalent behavior. Mean duration of symptoms was less in those receiving zinc and education (3.7 days comparing to those who received placebo and education (5.6 days.  Conclusions: This study showed that zinc consumption can decrease the incidence and duration of the common cold. Health belief model based education could promote some preventive behaviors although most people do not take advantage of them. We recommend the use of zinc by those attending hajj.

  6. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

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    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  7. Insights into the oral health beliefs and practices of mothers from a north London Orthodox Jewish community.

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    Scambler, Sasha; Klass, Charlotte; Wright, Desmond; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2010-06-07

    The objective of this study was to explore oral health knowledge and beliefs and access to dental care in a culturally distinct Orthodox Jewish community in North London, with a view to informing local health policy. A dual method qualitative approach to data collection was adopted in this study utilising semi-structured face to face interviews and focus groups with women from this North London orthodox Jewish community. In total nine interviews and four focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of thirty three mothers from the community aged 21-58 years. The data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology Cultural influences, competing pressures and perceptions of hereditary influences, together with a lack of contemporary oral health knowledge are the main factors affecting oral health knowledge and beliefs. This supported an overall perspective of disempowerment or a perceived lack of control over oral health behaviours, both for mothers and their children. Community signposting pointed mothers to dental services, whilst family pressures together with inadequate capacity and capability and generic barriers such as fear and cost acted as barriers. Mothers from this community welcomed community development initiatives from the NHS. The results of this study provide insight into the challenges of a culturally isolated community who would welcome community support through schools and expanded culturally appropriate opening hours to improve access to dental care.

  8. Insights into the oral health beliefs and practices of mothers from a north London Orthodox Jewish community

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    Wright Desmond

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to explore oral health knowledge and beliefs and access to dental care in a culturally distinct Orthodox Jewish community in North London, with a view to informing local health policy. Methods A dual method qualitative approach to data collection was adopted in this study utilising semi-structured face to face interviews and focus groups with women from this North London orthodox Jewish community. In total nine interviews and four focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of thirty three mothers from the community aged 21-58 years. The data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology Results Cultural influences, competing pressures and perceptions of hereditary influences, together with a lack of contemporary oral health knowledge are the main factors affecting oral health knowledge and beliefs. This supported an overall perspective of disempowerment or a perceived lack of control over oral health behaviours, both for mothers and their children. Community signposting pointed mothers to dental services, whilst family pressures together with inadequate capacity and capability and generic barriers such as fear and cost acted as barriers. Mothers from this community welcomed community development initiatives from the NHS. Conclusions The results of this study provide insight into the challenges of a culturally isolated community who would welcome community support through schools and expanded culturally appropriate opening hours to improve access to dental care.

  9. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women.

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    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet

    2012-05-01

    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Male involvement in reproductive, maternal and child health: a qualitative study of policymaker and practitioner perspectives in the Pacific.

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    Davis, Jessica; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Luchters, Stanley; Simon, David; Holmes, Wendy

    2016-07-16

    The importance of involving men in reproductive, maternal and child health programs is increasingly recognised globally. In the Pacific region, most maternal and child health services do not actively engage expectant fathers and fathers of young children and few studies have been conducted on the challenges, benefits and opportunities for involving fathers. This study explores the attitudes and beliefs of maternal and child health policymakers and practitioners regarding the benefits, challenges, risks and approaches to increasing men's involvement in maternal and child health education and clinical services in the Pacific. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 senior maternal and child health policymakers and practitioners, including participants from five countries (Cook Island, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Island, and Vanuatu) and four regional organisations in the Pacific. Qualitative data generated were analysed thematically. Policymakers and practitioners reported that greater men's involvement would result in a range of benefits for maternal and child health, primarily through greater access to services and interventions for women and children. Perceived challenges to greater father involvement included sociocultural norms, difficulty engaging couples before first pregnancy, the physical layout of clinics, and health worker workloads and attitudes. Participants also suggested a range of strategies for increasing men's involvement, including engaging boys and men early in the life-cycle, in community and clinic settings, and making health services more father-friendly through changes to clinic spaces and health worker recruitment and training. These findings suggest that increasing men's involvement in maternal and child health services in the Pacific will require initiatives to engage men in community and clinic settings, engage boys and men of all ages, and improve health infrastructure and service delivery to include men. Our findings also suggest

  11. Beliefs and Recommendations Regarding Child Custody and Visitation in Cases Involving Domestic Violence: A Comparison of Professionals in Different Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel G; Faller, Kathleen C; Tolman, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Research is lacking on differing perspectives regarding custody cases involving domestic violence (DV). In a survey of judges, legal aid attorneys, private attorneys, DV program workers, and child custody evaluators (n = 1,187), judges, private attorneys, and evaluators were more likely to believe that mothers make false DV allegations and alienate their children. In response to a vignette, evaluators and private attorneys were most likely to recommend joint custody and least likely to recommend sole custody to the survivor. Legal aid attorneys and DV workers were similar on many variables. Gender, DV knowledge, and knowing victims explained many group differences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Effects of sociodemographic characteristics and patients' health beliefs on tuberculosis treatment adherence in Ethiopia: a structural equation modelling approach.

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    Tola, Habteyes Hailu; Karimi, Mehrdad; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed

    2017-12-15

    Patients' beliefs are a major factor affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. However, there has been little use of Health Belief Model (HBM) in determining the pathway effect of patients' sociodemographic characteristics and beliefs on TB treatment adherence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and patients' health beliefs on TB treatment adherence based on the HBM concept in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia among TB patients undertaking treatment. Thirty health centres were randomly selected and one hospital was purposely chosen. Six hundred and ninety-eight TB patients who had been on treatment for 1-2 month, were aged 18 years or above, and had the mental capability to provide consent were enrolled consecutively with non-probability sampling technique from the TB registration book until required sample size achieved. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. Structural equation modelling was employed to assess the pathway relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, patients' beliefs, and treatment adherence. Of the 698 enrolled participants, 401 (57.4%) were male and 490 (70.2%) were aged 35 years and below. The mean age of participants was 32 (± 11.7) and the age range was 18-90 years. Perceived barrier/benefit was shown to be a significant direct negative effect on TB treatment adherence (ß = -0.124, P = 0.032). In addition, cue to action (ß = -0.68, P ≤ 0.001) and psychological distress (ß = 0.08, P < 0.001) were shown significant indirect effects on TB treatment adherence through perceived barrier/benefit. Interventions intended to decrease perceived barriers and maximize perceived benefits should be implemented to enhance TB treatment adherence. In addition, it is crucial that counselling is incorporated with the regular directly observed therapy program. Motivators (cue to actions) such as

  13. Effectiveness of Education Based on the Health Belief Model on Performing Preventive Measures for Breast Cancer Among Female Teachers in Zahedan

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    Khadijeh Kalan-Farmanfarma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preventive behaviors such as screening tests have an important role in prevention and control of breast cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs on preventive behaviors of breast cancer based on the health belief model among female teachers of guidance schools in Zahedan city. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 240 female teachers from (120 participants in each of the control and intervention groups Zahedan guidance schools. The data-gathering tool was a multipart questionnaire containing demographic variables, knowledge and health belief model structures. An educational program was performed based on the health belief model in five sessions through lectures, training videos, question and answer session for participants in the intervention group. Questionnaires were filled before and two months after the intervention in the two groups. Data was analyzed by independent T-test, chi-square and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-15 software. Results: There was no meaningful difference in the mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and performance between the two groups before the educational intervention, but the mean scores of variables increased significantly after the intervention (P< 0.05. Conclusion: The health belief model was effective to promote preventive behaviors. Hence, educational interventions with an emphasis on raising awareness, change in beliefs and improving self-efficacy regarding breast cancer are recommended

  14. Health Beliefs about Osteoporosis and Osteoporosis Screening in Older Women and Men

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    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine older adults' beliefs about osteoporosis and osteoporosis screening to identify barriers to screening. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: Western Pennsylvania. Methods: Surveys were mailed to 1,830 women and men aged 60 years and older. The survey assessed socio-demographic characteristics, osteoporosis and…

  15. Mutually Dependent Health Beliefs Associated with Breast Self-Examination in British Female University Students

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    Umeh, Kanayo; Jones, Leonnie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Whereas research suggests young women's beliefs about breast cancer (susceptibility/severity) and its early detection (barriers/benefits) reliably distinguish breast self-examiners from nonexaminers, this study assessed whether these impressions are interreliant, especially in the context of familial risk. Participants: The sample…

  16. Predicting iron-fortified soy sauce consumption intention: application of the theory of planned behavior and health belief model.

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    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2006-01-01

    To identify variables that significantly predict the intention of iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA)-fortified soy sauce (FeSS) consumption. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Health Belief Model (HBM), was administered, and a multistage, stratified sampling method was carried out to select study samples. Urban and rural areas in Guizhou province, China. 636 women from rural areas and 454 from urban areas completed 1090 eligible questionnaires. Women's knowledge of FeSS; perceived severity and susceptibility of iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anemia (IDA); and attitudes toward behavior, control beliefs, barriers, cues, intention to buy FeSS, health value, and health behavior identity factors were measured. A path analysis was conducted to test the goodness of fit of the model and to modify the model. Scale and factor analyses were conducted to verify the scale's reliability and construct validity. The alpha level was set at .05. The model explained 35% to 55% of the variance of behavioral intention. FeSS knowledge directly and indirectly affected the intention to buy FeSS. The behavioral intention was also impacted by women's health value and perception of perceived susceptibility and severity of IDA through the behavior identity and attitudes toward behavior. Cues, as an external factor, greatly affected the intention. The external control belief was a weak factor affecting intention. Integrated TPB and HBM explained the behavioral intention of FeSS consumption among women in Guizhou, China. Nutrition education should emphasize behavioral attitudes and identity, and improve knowledge of FeSS and perception of ID and IDA, which would relieve anxiety about FeSS.

  17. Attitudes and beliefs of health risks associated with sodium intake in diabetes.

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    Gray, Kristy L; Petersen, Kristina S; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2014-12-01

      Despite good evidence that reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure (BP), salt intake in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains high. The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of health risks associated with a high salt diet in adults with diabetes. Men and women with T1DM (n = 27; age 38 ± 16 years) or T2DM (n = 124; age 60 ± 11 years) were recruited. Nine (6.0%) respondents knew the correct maximum daily recommended upper limit for salt intake. Thirty-six (23.9%) participants were not concerned with the amount of salt in their diet. Most participants knew that a diet high in salt was related to high BP (88.1%) and stroke (78.1%) and that foods such as pizza (80.8%) and bacon (84.8%) were high in salt. Fewer than 30% of people knew that foods such as white bread, cheese and breakfast cereals are high in salt (white bread 28.5%, cheese 29.1%, breakfast cereals 19.9%) and 51.0% correctly ranked three different nutrition information panels based on the sodium content. Label reading and purchase of low salt products was used by 60-80% of the group. Estimated average 24 hour urinary sodium excretion was 169 ± 32 mmol/24 h in men and 115 ± 27 mmol/24 h in women. Label reading and purchase of low salt products was used by the majority of the group but their salt excretion was still high. Men who used label reading had a lower salt intake. Other strategies to promote a lower sodium intake such as reducing sodium in staple foods such as bread need investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of salt-restriction-spoon using behavior in China: application of the health belief model.

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    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-gram salt-restriction-spoons, which can be used to reduce the salt intake of people, had been handed out for free by the Chinese government to the citizens several years ago, but only a small fraction of residents use such a spoon currently. Since no studies have been conducted to investigate relevant influencing factors, this study was designed to explore the determinants of salt-restriction-spoon using behavior (SRB in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing, China. Altogether 269 rural residents and 244 urban residents aged over 18 were selected by convenience sampling method in 2012. Variables measured in a questionnaire designed according to the Health Belief Model (HBM included socio-demographics, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived objective barriers, perceived subjective barriers, self-efficacy, knowledge of hypertension, cues to action, and SRB. Answers to the questionnaire were obtained from all the participants, and 24-hour urine samples were collected to determine the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa. Path analyses were used to explore the determinants of SRB. RESULTS: Approximately 22.7% and 45.3% of residents used a salt-restriction-spoon everyday in the rural and urban areas, respectively. The average 24HUNa was 211.19±98.39 mmol for rural residents and 109.22±58.18 mmol for urban residents. Path analyses shown that perceived objective barriers, perceived benefits, perceived severity, knowledge and age were related to SRB and 24HUNa for both rural and urban participants, among which perceived objective barrier (β =  - 0.442 and β =  - 0.543, respectively was the most important determinant. CONCLUSION: Improvement of the current salt-restriction-spoon and education on the right usage of the salt-restriction-spoon, the severity of hypertension, and the benefit of salt reduction are necessary, especially among those who are

  19. The impact of criminal justice involvement on victims' mental health.

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    Parsons, Jim; Bergin, Tiffany

    2010-04-01

    The aftermath of violent crime can leave victims with persistent emotional and mental health problems. Although research has shown the potential benefits of prosecuting cases through the courts, there is also a substantial literature that suggests that common features of the criminal justice system can exacerbate the impact of the initial crime, leading to a secondary victimization. The authors present a review of the research on the positive and negative impact of criminal justice involvement, and common points of failure in the efforts of justice institutions to meet the needs of victims. They conclude with recommendations for future work, including the need for research on restorative justice, victim impact statements, court notification systems, victim services, and victim advocates.

  20. Does Health Information in Mass Media Help or Hurt Patients? Investigation of Potential Negative Influence of Mass Media Health Information on Patients' Beliefs and Medication Regimen Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Heewon; Huh, Jisu

    2017-03-01

    As an important public health issue, patient medication non-adherence has drawn much attention, but research on the impact of mass media as an information source on patient medication adherence has been scant. Given that mass media often provide confusing and contradicting information regarding health/medical issues, this study examined the potential negative influence of exposure to health information in mass media on patients' beliefs about their illnesses and medications, and medication adherence, in comparison with the effects of exposure to another primary medication information source, physicians. Survey data obtained from patients on blood thinner regimens revealed that the frequency of exposure to health information in mass media was negatively related to accuracy of patients' beliefs about their medication benefits and patient medication adherence. On the other hand, frequency of visits with physicians was positively associated with patients' beliefs about their medication benefits but had no significant relation to medication regimen adherence. The implications of the study findings are discussed, and methodological limitations and suggestion for future research are presented.

  1. The compensatory health beliefs scale: psychometric properties of a cross-culturally adapted scale for use in The Netherlands.

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    de Nooijer, Jascha; Puijk-Hekman, Saskia; van Assema, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    This study assesses the psychometric properties of a measuring scale for compensatory health beliefs (CHBs), culturally adapted for use in the Dutch context. CHBs refer to the idea that people can compensate for unhealthy (mostly pleasant) behaviours with healthy behaviours, e.g. 'It is OK to eat a chocolate bar, because I am going to the gym tonight'. We are critical towards such beliefs as they may also be an excuse to justify unhealthy behaviours. Before such effects can be studied, an appropriate tool to measure CHBs must be developed. We adapted a Canadian scale, consisting of four factors relating to beliefs about substance use, eating/sleeping habits, stress and weight regulation, translating it according to guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation and testing it among 145 Dutch students. Factor analysis showed that the structure was not entirely identical in the Dutch context, and the internal consistency of the four subscales was also low. The overall scale showed a high internal consistency (alpha = 0.78), indicating the existence of an underlying construct, and a high Pearson correlation between the first and second measurements (r = 0.82), showing good stability. We recommend using the overall scale and further studying its reliability among other subgroups as well as its validity.

  2. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: comparing the health belief model and theory of planned behavior.

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    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

    2012-10-01

    Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior-the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)-in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N = 739) ages 18-26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed 10 months later. Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior.

  3. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

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    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  4. Impact of biomedical and biopsychosocial training sessions on the attitudes, beliefs, and recommendations of health care providers about low back pain: a randomised clinical trial.

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    Domenech, J; Sánchez-Zuriaga, D; Segura-Ortí, E; Espejo-Tort, B; Lisón, J F

    2011-11-01

    The beliefs and attitudes of health care providers may contribute to chronic low back pain (LBP) disability, influencing the recommendations that they provide to their patients. An excessively biomedical style of undergraduate training can increase negative beliefs and attitudes about LBP, whereas instruction following a biopsychosocial model could possibly lessen these negative beliefs in health care professionals. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of 2 brief educational modules with different orientations (biomedical or biopsychosocial) on changing the beliefs and attitudes of physical therapy students and the recommendations that they give to patients. The intervention in the experimental group was based on the general biopsychosocial model, whereas the sessions in the control group dealt with the basics of the biomechanics of back pain. The participants completed the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), and Rainville et al. Clinical Cases questionnaire before and after the interventions. The participants attending the biopsychosocial session displayed a reduction in fear-avoidance beliefs (P<.001) and Pain-Impairement beliefs (P<.001), which was strongly correlated with an improvement in clinicians' activity and work recommendations. However, the students assigned to the biomechanics sessions increased their fear-avoidance scores (P<.01), and their recommendations for activity levels worsened significantly (P<.001). Our results confirm the possibility of modifying the behaviour of students through the modification of their beliefs and attitudes. We also conclude that a strictly biomedical education exacerbates maladaptive beliefs, and consequently results in inadequate activity recommendations. The implications of this study are important for both the development of continuing medical education and the design of the training curriculum for

  5. Description of Adults Seeking Hearing Help for the First Time According to Two Health Behavior Change Approaches: Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) and Health Belief Model.

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    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Frederick, Melissa T; Silverman, ShienPei C; Nielsen, Claus; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Several models of health behavior change are commonly used in health psychology. This study applied the constructs delineated by two models-the transtheoretical model (in which readiness for health behavior change can be described with the stages of precontemplation, contemplation and action) and the health belief model (in which susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action are thought to determine likelihood of health behavior change)-to adults seeking hearing help for the first time. One hundred eighty-two participants (mean age: 69.5 years) were recruited following an initial hearing assessment by an audiologist. Participants' mean four-frequency pure-tone average was 35.4 dB HL, with 25.8% having no hearing impairment, 50.5% having a slight impairment, and 23.1% having a moderate or severe impairment using the World Health Organization definition of hearing loss. Participants' hearing-related attitudes and beliefs toward hearing health behaviors were examined using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the health beliefs questionnaire (HBQ), which assess the constructs of the transtheoretical model and the health belief model, respectively. Participants also provided demographic information, and completed the hearing handicap inventory (HHI) to assess participation restrictions, and the psychosocial impact of hearing loss (PIHL) to assess the extent to which hearing impacts competence, self-esteem, and adaptability. Degree of hearing impairment was associated with participation restrictions, perceived competence, self-esteem and adaptability, and attitudes and beliefs measured by the URICA and the HBQ. As degree of impairment increased, participation restrictions measured by the HHI, and impacts of hearing loss, as measured by the PIHL, increased. The majority of first-time help seekers in this study were in the action stage of change. Furthermore, relative to individuals with less hearing impairment

  6. Beliefs, Knowledge, Implementation, and Integration of Evidence-Based Practice Among Primary Health Care Providers: Protocol for a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Filipa; Salvi, Mireille; Verloo, Henk

    2017-08-01

    The adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) is promoted because it is widely recognized for improving the quality and safety of health care for patients, and reducing avoidable costs. Providers of primary care face numerous challenges to ensuring the effectiveness of their daily practices. Primary health care is defined as: the entry level into a health care services system, providing a first point of contact for all new needs and problems; patient-focused (not disease-oriented) care over time; care for all but the most uncommon or unusual conditions; and coordination or integration of care, regardless of where or by whom that care is delivered. Primary health care is the principal means by which to approach the main goal of any health care services system: optimization of health status. This review aims to scope publications examining beliefs, knowledge, implementation, and integration of EBPs among primary health care providers (HCPs). We will conduct a systematic scoping review of published articles in the following electronic databases, from their start dates until March 31, 2017: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) via PubMed (from 1946), Embase (from 1947), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; from 1937), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; from 1992), PsycINFO (from 1806), Web of Science (from 1900), Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) database (from 1998), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE; from 1996), Trip medical database (from 1997), and relevant professional scientific journals (from their start dates). We will use the predefined search terms of, "evidence-based practice" and, "primary health care" combined with other terms, such as, "beliefs", "knowledge", "implementation", and "integration". We will also conduct a hand search of the bibliographies of all relevant articles and a search for unpublished studies using Google Scholar, ProQuest, Mednar, and World

  7. Effects of imparting planned health education on hot flush beliefs and quality of life of climacteric women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sis Çelik, A; Pasinlioğlu, T

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of imparting planned health education to climacteric women on their beliefs related to hot flushes and on their quality of life. The research was conducted using pretest and post-test semi-experimental models along with a control group. Of 450 women, 255 were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Five people did not agree to participate in the study. Three people were also excluded from the study because they did not complete training. The research sample was comprised of 247 climacteric women (121 women in the experimental group and 126 women in the control group) who were Quality of Life Questionnaire. Three educational sessions at 2-week intervals were given to the women in the experimental group. The research was supported with an educational booklet prepared by the researchers. Training was not given to the women in the control group. After the education of the experimental group (after about 6 months), women in both groups recompleted the data collection forms, and post-test data were collected. On all the subscales, the total of the Hot Flush Beliefs Scale, and the average post-test score, the women in the experimental group scored lower than the women in the control group (the average post-test total score in the experimental group was 26.22 ± 10.09 and in control group it was 52.25 ± 15.04; p women in the experimental group developed positive beliefs about their hot flushes, the beliefs of the women in the control group remained unchanged. The average post-test score on all the subscales of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire for the women in the experimental group was lower than that for the women in the control group (p quality of life of the women in the experimental group showed an upward trend, that of the women in the control group remained the same. It was found that planned health education about the climacteric period reduced women

  8. Congruence-Incongruence Patterns in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Couples' Genetic Determinist Beliefs and Perceived Control over Genes: Implications for Clinical and Public Health Genomic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne L; Smith, Rachel A; Hong, Soo Jung; Worthington, Amber

    2015-06-01

    Genomics makes possible the isolation of multiple genes as co-factors that increase, but do not determine, risk for many adult-onset medical conditions, including alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). Those diagnosed with an adult-onset medical condition, such as AATD, are often married and make decisions about testing and care as a couple. We examined genetic essentialist and threat beliefs, focusing on beliefs about the genetic contribution to disease susceptibility and severity, as well as perceptions of control related to genes and health for married couples (N =59), in which one spouse has been tested for genetic mutations associated with AATD. The intraclass correlation for spouses' beliefs about genetic essentialism was strong and statistically significant, but the associations for their other beliefs were not. Incongruence between AATD participants and their spouses regarding genes' influence on disease severity directly related to incongruent perceptions of control and genetic contribution to disease susceptibility. Results revealed an inverse relationship to AATD participants' perceptions of behavioral control and a direct relationship to their beliefs about genes' influence on disease severity. This suggests a pattern of incongruence in which AATD participants have low levels of perceived control over genes' influence on health and high levels of perceived genetic influence on disease severity compared to spouses. With public health communication efforts lagging behind the science of genomics, insights regarding the congruence or incongruence associated with married couples' beliefs about genes' influence on disease afford pathways to guide clinical and public health communication about genomics.

  9. The Effect of Religious Belief on the Mental Health Status and Suicide Probability of Women Exposed to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngörmüş, Zeynep; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Gündoğan, Tuğba

    2015-10-01

    It is known that violence against women is an important health problem both in the world and in Turkey (World Health Organization 2005; General Directorate on the Status of Women 2008). Religion is an important factor in preventing suicide and mental disorders by increasing one's ability to cope with events, channeling his/her perspective on life and the future toward a more positive path satisfying people about topics such as the need to be safe, the need for meaning and the reason for creation (Altuntop 2005). Hence, the objective of our study was to determine the effects of religious belief on the mental health status and suicide probabilities of women exposed to violence in Turkey. The study used a descriptive design. The study sample consisted of 135 women who have suffered violence who were consecutively admitted to the Department of Emergency of a State Hospital due to exposed to violence. They entered the study based on their acceptance to the questionnaire. The belief levels of women are based on their own statements and they are all Muslims. The data were collected using a questionnaire form, the Suicide Probability Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Statistical analyses were used percentage calculation, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test. In conclusion, a negative relationship was determined between the religious belief levels of women exposed to violence in Turkey and their moods and suicide probabilities. Hence, nurses who can stay alone with women for long periods of time can provide advancement in the determination and prevention of suicides decreasing depression via specific methods and overcoming hopelessness.

  10. Bosnian, Iraqi, and Somali Refugee Women Speak: A Comparative Qualitative Study of Refugee Health Beliefs on Preventive Health and Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Altaf; Bond, Barbara E; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The low uptake of preventive services in disadvantaged communities is a continuing challenge to public health. Women refugee communities are particularly vulnerable populations, and disparities in both preventive care and breast cancer screening have been documented sparsely. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore Bosnian, Iraqi, and Somali women refugees' beliefs about preventive care and breast cancer screening to inform future community interventions and best practices. In an urban community health center, 57 interviews with Bosnian, Somali, and Iraqi women refugees were conducted by native language speakers. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed according to best practices for thematic and content analysis. The responses of three groups were compared. Similarities across participants included barriers to care such as fear of pain and diagnosis, modesty, and work and childcare commitments; facilitative factors such as outreach efforts, appointment reminders, and personal contact from health providers; perceptions of how the American medical infrastructure compared with inadequacies in their home countries; and positive attitude toward U.S. health professionals. Differences that emerged among groups were: varying degrees of medical exposure to doctors in home countries, the impact of war on health systems; and understanding preventive breast care. Taken together, duration of time in United States and prior exposure to Western medicine account for differences in refugee women's knowledge of preventive care. Understanding population-specific health beliefs, health information, and behavior are crucial for designing tailored prevention programs for refugee women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How Health Care Reform Can Transform The Health Of Criminal Justice–Involved Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Josiah D.; Chandler, Redonna; Williams, Brie A.; Dumont, Dora; Wang, Emily A.; Taxman, Faye S.; Allen, Scott A.; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Greifinger, Robert B.; Wildeman, Christopher; Osher, Fred C.; Rosenberg, Steven; Haney, Craig; Mauer, Marc; Western, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Provisions of the Affordable Care Act offer new opportunities to apply a public health and medical perspective to the complex relationship between involvement in the criminal justice system and the existence of fundamental health disparities. Incarceration can cause harm to individual and community health, but prisons and jails also hold enormous potential to play an active and beneficial role in the health care system and, ultimately, to improving health. Traditionally, incarcerated populations have been incorrectly viewed as isolated and self-contained communities with only peripheral importance to the public health at large. This misconception has resulted in missed opportunities to positively affect the health of both the individuals and the imprisoned community as a whole and potentially to mitigate risk behaviors that may contribute to incarceration. Both community and correctional health care professionals can capitalize on these opportunities by working together to advocate for the health of the criminal justice–involved population and their communities. We present a set of recommendations for the improvement of both correctional health care, such as improving systems of external oversight and quality management, and access to community-based care, including establishing strategies for postrelease care and medical record transfers. PMID:24590946

  12. How health care reform can transform the health of criminal justice-involved individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Josiah D; Chandler, Redonna; Williams, Brie A; Dumont, Dora; Wang, Emily A; Taxman, Faye S; Allen, Scott A; Clarke, Jennifer G; Greifinger, Robert B; Wildeman, Christopher; Osher, Fred C; Rosenberg, Steven; Haney, Craig; Mauer, Marc; Western, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    Provisions of the Affordable Care Act offer new opportunities to apply a public health and medical perspective to the complex relationship between involvement in the criminal justice system and the existence of fundamental health disparities. Incarceration can cause harm to individual and community health, but prisons and jails also hold enormous potential to play an active and beneficial role in the health care system and, ultimately, to improving health. Traditionally, incarcerated populations have been incorrectly viewed as isolated and self-contained communities with only peripheral importance to the public health at large. This misconception has resulted in missed opportunities to positively affect the health of both the individuals and the imprisoned community as a whole and potentially to mitigate risk behaviors that may contribute to incarceration. Both community and correctional health care professionals can capitalize on these opportunities by working together to advocate for the health of the criminal justice-involved population and their communities. We present a set of recommendations for the improvement of both correctional health care, such as improving systems of external oversight and quality management, and access to community-based care, including establishing strategies for postrelease care and medical record transfers.

  13. Avocados: consumer beliefs and effect on weight loss and markers of cardiovascular health / Z. White

    OpenAIRE

    White, Zelda

    2003-01-01

    Motivation The objective of the South African Avocado Growers Association (SAAGA) is to increase the demand of avocados by advertising, promoting and other means deemed fit by them. In order to promote and advertise a product, consumer research has to be done to determine the consumers' attitudes towards and beliefs concerning the product. These findings then need to be followed up by scientific studies, targeted at specific problems and target groups to yield scientific evidence. ...

  14. Attitudes and Beliefs Pertaining to Sexual and Reproductive Health Among Unmarried, Female Bhutanese Refugee Youth in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Cherie Priya; Kaflay, Dilu; Dowshen, Nadia; Miller, Victoria A; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Barg, Frances K; Yun, Katherine

    2017-09-18

    We explored attitudes and beliefs pertaining to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among unmarried, female, resettled Bhutanese refugees 16-20 years. Fourteen interviews were analyzed using the constant comparison method, and major themes were identified. SRH was stigmatized for unmarried youth, making seeking information about SRH or accessing family planning difficult. There were many misconceptions about access to SRH. Universal, culturally, and linguistically appropriate comprehensive SRH education is recommended for female Bhutanese refugee youth. Terminology used should take into account differences in conceptualization of concepts like dating. Educators and health care providers should clearly describe consent and confidentiality laws regarding adolescent SRH services. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Study of Pap Smear Conduction and its Related Factors Based on Health Belief Model in Women Referring to Health Care Centers in Qom During 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Mohebi*

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pap smear is a screening test for diagnosing cervical cancer in females. It is considered a health-promotion exam, and it has been shown that this test can prevent up to %60 of all deaths resulting from cervical cancer. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of this test and its related factors based on the health belief model in females referring to health centers in Qom. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 320 females, who had health records and had referred to health centers in Qom in 2014 were selected using the multistage random sampling method and through following inclusion and exclusion criteria. A valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, awareness questions, and questions based on the health belief model was used for data collection. The data were finally analyzed by SPSS software with 0.05 significance level. Results: Overall, %11.25 of the subjects regularly underwent Pap smear screening, %51.87 irregularly participated in cervical cancer screening programs, and %36.88 did not undergo the tests. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA results showed that the mean scores of the health belief model constructs were significantly different in terms of Pap smear screening (P<0.05. Conclusion: The participants did not consider cervical cancer a serious disease. Even women who felt vulnerable tried to hide it. Therefore, while perceived vulnerability and perceived severity of the disease risk was low in them, they perceived more barriers and, for this reason, the level of utilization of Pap smear was undesirable.

  16. Health belief model and practice of breast self-examination and breast cancer screening in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Auladi, Sahar

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the role of different health belief model components in practice of breast cancer screening among Iranian women. A cross-sectional study of 500 women aged 18-65 years was conducted in an urban population under the coverage of a health therapeutic system in Babol, northern Iran in 2012. Demographic data and data regarding practice of breast self-examination (BSE), breast clinical examination (BCE), and mammography were collected by interview, and a standard health belief model questionnaire was used to assess women's attitudes in six different domains based on a Likert scale that ranked from 1 to 5. The average score of each item for each domain was calculated. The Wilcoxon rank test and a multiple logistic regression model were used to estimate the odds ratio of each domain for performing breast cancer screening (BSE, BCE, and mammography). The mean age of the women was 31.2 (9.4) years. Overall, the average scores in domains of perceived benefit, self-efficacy, and health motivation were significantly higher among those who performed BSE and BCE, but not for mammography. For the domains of perception of susceptibility, seriousness, and barriers, no significant differences were observed. Higher scores on the scales of perceived benefits, perceived confidence/self-efficacy, and health motivation showed significant positive association with performing BSE [adjusted OR (95 % confidence interval [CI]) 1.73 (1.11, 2.72), 4.01 (2.39, 6.73), and 2.01 (1.30, 3.08), respectively] and BCE [adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1.65 (1.0, 2.95), 2.33 (1.39, 3.91), and 1.58 (1.0, 2.53), respectively], but not for performing mammography. For perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, and barriers, no significant association was observed. Positive attitudes toward perceived benefits, perceived confidence/self-efficacy, and health motivation have a strong association with performing BSE and BCE. The impact of health belief model subscales on

  17. Young people's mental health first aid intentions and beliefs prospectively predict their actions: findings from an Australian National Survey of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2012-04-30

    Little is known about whether mental health first aid knowledge and beliefs of young people actually translate into actual behavior. This study examined whether young people's first aid intentions and beliefs predicted the actions they later took to help a close friend or family member with a mental health problem. Participants in a 2006 national survey of Australian youth (aged 12-25 years) reported on their first aid intentions and beliefs based on one of four vignettes: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, psychosis, and social phobia. At a two-year follow-up interview, they reported on actions they had taken to help any family member or close friend with a problem similar to the vignette character since the initial interview. Of the 2005 participants interviewed at follow-up, 608 reported knowing someone with a similar problem. Overall, young people's first aid intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of particular first aid actions predicted the actions they actually took to assist a close other. However, the belief in and intention to encourage professional help did not predict subsequent action. Findings suggest that young people's mental health first aid intentions and beliefs may be valid indicators of their subsequent actions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Internal and External Religious Beliefs in Mental Health and Rate of Depression in Elderly People

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    Fazel Bahrami

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present research is aimed at surveying the role of (internal and external religious orientation in the mental health and the extent of depression in elderly people residing in welfare centers and the society. Methods: The study has been conducted through post-event and correlation method by using stochastic and cluster sampling in 230 cases of elderly people at senior citizens` homes, affiliated with the Welfare Organization, and public places (mosques and parks which are gathering centers for the elderly people of society, both male and female. The cases were initially screened in terms of recognition complications. Then 28-question tests on general health and depression of Beck and Alport`s test on religious approach were completed and the results were analyzed by using Pierson and Manvitni`s dependent statistical tests. Results: Results showed that there is a significant correlation between the religious orientation and depression of the elderly people. That is, the more the scores of external religious orientation rise, the more the scores of disorder in mental health and depression increase. There is also a meaningful difference between mental health, depression and religious orientation of the elderly people who are residence and non-residence of the society. That is, the elderly people who live in the centers enjoy a more external religious orientation and disorder of mental health and more depression as compared to the group of the elderly people residing in the society. Discussion: The external religious belief has a correlation with disorder in the mental health and depression as well as internal religious belief. Moreover, mental disorders and depression among the resident elderly people are higher than non residents, while resident elderly people have a more external religious approach.

  19. Partnering with health care systems to assess tobacco treatment practices and beliefs among clinicians: evaluating the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestin, Michael D; Hart, Alton; Moody-Thomas, Sarah

    2014-05-29

    Tobacco is a major cause of preventable illness and death. However, clinician use of an evidence-based guideline for treatment of tobacco use is low. This case study describes the process for conducting a pre-intervention assessment of clinician practices and beliefs regarding treatment of tobacco use. Louisiana State University Health System, one of the largest safety-net public hospital systems in the United States, consists of 10 facilities in population centers across the state of Louisiana. The system serves a large proportion of the state's underinsured and uninsured, low-income, and racial/ethnic minority populations, groups that have high rates of tobacco use. Activities included 1) partnering with hospital administrators to generate support for conducting a clinician assessment, 2) identifying and adapting a survey tool to assess clinicians' practices and beliefs regarding treatment of tobacco use, 3) developing a survey protocol and obtaining approval from the institutional review board, and 4) administering the survey electronically, using the hospital's e-mail system. Existing partnerships and system resources aided survey administration. Use of the hospital's internal e-mail system and distribution of an online survey were effective means to engage clinicians. Following notification, 43.6% of 4,508 clinicians opened their e-mail containing the invitation letter with a Web link to the survey; of these, 83.1% (1,634) completed the survey. Partnering with stakeholders and using existing resources within the health care system are essential to successful implementation of a system-wide survey of clinician practices and beliefs regarding treatment of tobacco use.

  20. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  1. PRO-HEALTH BEHAVIOURS AND BELIEF IN ONESELF AMONG 13-15-YEAR OLD TEENAGERS LIVING IN BIALA PODLASKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grad Rafal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to get information about pro-health behaviours and belief in oneself among 13-15-year old teenagers living in Biała Podlaska. The research included 229 pupils from three Grammar Schools (115 girls and 114 boys. The range of respondents’ age varied from 13 to 15 years old. The research tool was two anonymous questionnaires. The first questionnaire contained questions concerning teenagers’ belief in themselves and the efficacy of their activities (10 statements. The second questionnaire referred to the pro-health behaviours and it consisted of 14 situations described in the form of multiple choice questions. It was shown that Grammar School goers higly evaluated their own sense of efficacy (31,2 points. Girls (30,39 points in comparison to boys (32,05 evaluated their efficacy lower by 1,66 points. Grammar School goers in 85,7% of cases choose healthy behaviours and girls are the group which reach for such behaviours more often.

  2. Coping strategies and irrational beliefs as mediators of the health-related quality of life impairments in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanculete, Mihaela Fadgyas; Matu, Silviu; Pojoga, Cristina; Dumitrascu, Dan L

    2015-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal disorder. Although considerable research has underlined the influence of coping mechanisms as the determinants of the quality of life (QOL), only limited data are available regarding the specific coping mechanisms used by IBS patients to manage illness in daily life. Irrational cognitions are known to emerge in stressful situations such as chronic diseases, and it has been proposed to have implications in the QOL. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between coping styles and irrational beliefs in predicting the effects of IBS symptoms on the health-related QOL (HRQOL). A cross-sectional study was performed at two tertiary gastroenterology centers. A sample of 70 consecutive IBS patients and 55 healthy controls was studied. All participants completed the Brief Cope Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, the Short-Form Health Survey and a demographic questionnaire. All the HRQOL scores of the group with IBS were significantly lower than the HRQOL scores of the healthy group [Pillai's trace V = 0.404, F(8, 116) = 9.833, p coping and avoidant-oriented coping than healthy subjects. The impact of IBS symptoms on HRQOL distress is mediated by irrational beliefs and avoidant oriented coping. Our findings highlight the role of irrational cognition and coping mechanisms in patients with IBS. The results underline the importance of the evaluation of psychological aspects of IBS with the possibility of having more tailored treatments for these patients.

  3. Male Involvement: Implications for Reproductive and Sexual Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Lena; Rink, Elizabeth; Zukoski, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The sexual health needs of young males have been largely ignored in the field of reproductive health. Until recently, the health care needs of females have received the vast majority of attention from public health professionals and organizations with services focused on the prevention of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and…

  4. Involving stakeholders and developing a policy for stakeholder involvement in the European network for Health Technology Assessment, EUnetHTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmhøj Nielsen, Camilla; Wadmann, Sarah; Børlum Kristensen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This article explains how the issue of stakeholder involvement was addressed in the European network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) Project and describes the structures of future stakeholder involvement in the EUnetHTA Collaboration. Methods: Initiatives led to a dialogue...... with stakeholders and exchanging views and expectations on health technology assessment (HTA) processes and the future development of EUnetHTA. The methods of involving different stakeholder groups in EUnetHTA included general information to stakeholders about EUnetHTA, targeted information on a Web site, analysis...

  5. "They Just Want to Know" - Genetic Health Professionals' Beliefs About Why Parents Want to Know their Child's Carrier Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vears, Danya F; Delany, Clare; Massie, John; Gillam, Lynn

    2017-12-01

    In the context of a child being diagnosed with a genetic condition, reports from both parents and health professionals suggest many genetic health professionals are reluctant to provide carrier testing for unaffected siblings, despite the lack of evidence of harm. We propose that genetic health professionals' understandings of why parents want to have their children tested may contribute to their reluctance to test. We draw on interviews with 17 genetic health professionals, reporting their beliefs about parents' motivations for testing and their intentions to communicate results to their children. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Genetic health professionals reported attributions that contrasted with reasons parents actually report. These disparities fall into two categories: 1) attributing reasons that parents do not themselves report (i.e. for reassurance about their child's health), and 2) not recognizing the reasons that parents actually do report for wanting testing (i.e. to communicate the information to their child). By identifying that genetic health professionals may be misattributing reasons to parents for desiring their child"s carrier status, they may be missing an opportunity to assist parents to make decisions that are in line with their values and the best interests of the family.

  6. Creencias y prácticas en el cuidado de la salud Beliefs and practices in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTELA MELGUIZO HERRERA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo es revisar los conceptos de creencias y prácticas del cuidado de la salud como expresiones culturales con el propósito de poner a consideración de los cuidadores aspectos necesarios para brindar un cuidado culturalmente congruente, más humano y efectivo. Partiendo de la concepción de cultura como creación humana que influye y moldea las creencias y las prácticas de las personas, se revisan algunas definiciones de los conceptos desde la psicología social, la antropología, la sociología y la enfermería transcultural. Se encontró que tanto las creencias como las prácticas de cuidado de la salud se originan y desarrollan dentro del contexto social, se influyen mutuamente y son parte del carácter dinámico que permite a la cultura favorecer la adaptación de la persona a su entorno. Tener en cuenta los aspectos culturales le da un toque humano al cuidado y favorece alcanzar los objetivos terapéuticos. Esta revisión conceptual es un producto de la tesis doctoral "Creencias y prácticas de cuidado de los ancianos en situación de discapacidad, en un contexto de pobreza, en Cartagena", la cual se adelanta dentro de los proyectos del grupo Cuidado Cultural de la Salud, Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá.The objective is to review the concepts of beliefs and practices of health care as cultural expressions in order to highlight to caregivers the necessary aspects for them to provide a culturally consistent care, a more human and effective one. From the conception of culture as a human creation which influences and shapes people's beliefs and practices, some definitions of the concepts as of social psicology, anthropology, sociology and transcultural nursing aspects are revised. We found that both beliefs and healthcare practices were originated and developed within the social context, they are mutually influenced and they are a part of the dynamic character which allows culture to favor

  7. Beliefs and practices in health care Creencias y prácticas en el cuidado de la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALZATE POSADA MARTHA LUCÍA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to review the concepts of beliefs and practices of health care as cultural expressions in order to highlight to caregivers the necessary aspects for them to provide a culturally consistent care, a more human and effective one. From the conception of culture as a human creation which influences and shapes people's beliefs and practices, some definitions of the concepts as of social psicology, anthropology, sociology and transcultural nursing aspects are revised. We found that both beliefs and healthcare practices were originated and developed within the social context, they are mutually influenced and they are a part of the dynamic character which allows culture to favor the adaptation of a person to his/her environment. Taking into account cultural aspects, gives care a human touch and helps achieve therapeutic objectives. This conceptual revision is a product of the doctoral thesis "Beliefs and care practices of older people in a disability situation, in a context of poverty in Cartagena", which is worked on within the projects of the Cultural Health Care group, Nursing Faculty of the Colombia National University, Bogotá.El objetivo es revisar los conceptos de creencias y prácticas del cuidado de la salud como expresiones culturales con el propósito de poner a consideración de los cuidadores aspectos necesarios para brindar un cuidado culturalmente congruente, más humano y efectivo. Partiendo de la concepción de cultura como creación humana que influye y moldea las creencias y las prácticas de las personas, se revisan algunas definiciones de los conceptos desde la psicología social, la antropología, la sociología y la enfermería transcultural. Se encontró que tanto las creencias como las prácticas de cuidado de la salud se originan y desarrollan dentro del contexto social, se influyen mutuamente y son parte del carácter dinámico que permite a la cultura favorecer la adaptación de la persona a su entorno

  8. Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among 11 to 12-year-old Finnish schoolchildren with different oral health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Hausen, Hannu

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among 11 to 12-year-old schoolchildren with favorable, moderate, or poor behavior related to oral health. The data were gathered by questionnaire. Recommendations commonly used in Finland in oral health education were chosen as the criteria for selection of groups of children with favorable, moderate, and poor oral health behavior. Differences between groups were analyzed using crosstabulations and factors related to unfavorable behavior using logistic regression analysis. The percentage of children with appropriate knowledge was higher in the good behavior group (GB) than in the other groups. The groups differed most in the children's knowledge of the recommendation to use fluoride toothpaste at least twice a day. Most children in the GB group considered it important to brush their teeth for the fresh feeling this gave. The majority of children in all groups considered it important to brush their teeth when going to the dentist. The majority also considered brushing important for avoiding tooth decay and tooth discoloration as well as for having fresh breath. Unfavorable knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior tended to accumulate in the same children. Factors associated with unfavorable behavior were male sex, mother's low skill occupation level, and child's poor knowledge of oral health-related facts.

  9. Intentional and Unintentional Medication Non-Adherence in Hypertension: The Role of Health Literacy, Empowerment and Medication Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náfrádi, Lilla; Galimberti, Elisa; Nakamoto, Kent; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-12-09

    Medication non-adherence is a major public health issue, creating obstacles to effective treatment of hypertension. Examining the underlying factors of deliberate and non-deliberate non-adherence is crucial to address this problem. Thus, the goal of the present study is to assess the socio-demographic, clinical and psychological determinants of intentional and unintentional non-adherence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March, 2015 and April, 2016. The sample consisted of hypertension patients holding at least one medical prescription (N=109). Measurements assessed patients' medication adherence, health literacy, empowerment, self-efficacy, medication beliefs, and patients' acceptance of their doctor's advice, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients who occasionally engaged in either intentional or unintentional non-adherence reported to have lower adherence selfefficacy, higher medication concern beliefs, lower meaningfulness scores and were less likely to accept the doctor's treatment recommendations. Patients who occasionally engaged in unintentional nonadherence were younger and had experienced more side effects compared to completely adherent patients. Adherence self-efficacy was a mediator of the effect of health literacy on patients' medication adherence and acceptance of the doctor's advice was a covariate. Regarding the research implications, health literacy and adherence self-efficacy should be assessed simultaneously when investigating the factors of non-adherence. Regarding the practical implications, adherence could be increased if physicians i) doublecheck whether their patients accept the treatment advice given and ii) if they address patients' concerns about medications. These steps could be especially important for patients characterized with lower self-efficacy, as they are more likely to engage in occasional nonadherence.

  10. Knowledge and Health Beliefs Regarding Sickle Cell Disease Among Omanis in a Primary Healthcare Setting: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Mohammed H; Al-Belushi, Rajaa; Al-Mamari, Muna; Davidson, Robin; Mathew, Anil C

    2016-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a global health concern associated with high childhood morbidity and mortality; in Oman, the prevalence of SCD is 0.2%. Public awareness of SCD and the need for premarital screening (PMS) are essential to reduce the incidence of this disease. This study aimed to assess awareness of and beliefs regarding SCD and PMS among Omanis in a primary healthcare setting. This cross-sectional study took place in five health centres located in Al-Seeb Province, Muscat, Oman, between June and August 2015. A total of 500 Omanis aged ≥18 years old attending the clinics were invited to participate in the study. A previously described questionnaire by Gustafson et al. was used to measure awareness of and beliefs regarding SCD and PMS. A total of 450 Omani adults completed the questionnaire (response rate: 90.0%). The majority (67.8%) were aware that SCD is genetically inherited and 85.1% believed in the value of PMS; however, only 24.4% reported having undergone PMS previously. Few participants were aware that SCD can be very painful (20.2%) and can cause strokes, infections and organ damage (20.0%). More than half (56.7%) reported that the availability of educational material on SCD or PMS in Oman was inadequate. Participants' education levels were positively associated with accurate SCD knowledge (P <0.05). Despite the free availability of PMS services in local health centres, few Omanis reported having undergone PMS previously. Health promotion and education programmes are therefore needed in Oman in order to increase public awareness of SCD and the value of PMS.

  11. Knowledge and Health Beliefs Regarding Sickle Cell Disease Among Omanis in a Primary Healthcare Setting; Cross-sectional study

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    Mohammed H. Al-Azri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sickle cell disease (SCD is a global health concern associated with high childhood morbidity and mortality; in Oman, the prevalence of SCD is 0.2%. Public awareness of SCD and the need for premarital screening (PMS are essential to reduce the incidence of this disease. This study aimed to assess awareness of and beliefs regarding SCD and PMS among Omanis in a primary healthcare setting. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place in five health centres located in Al-Seeb Province, Muscat, Oman, between June and August 2015. A total of 500 Omanis aged ≥18 years old attending the clinics were invited to participate in the study. A previously described questionnaire by Gustafson et al. was used to measure awareness of and beliefs regarding SCD and PMS. Results: A total of 450 Omani adults completed the questionnaire (response rate: 90.0%. The majority (67.8% were aware that SCD is genetically inherited and 85.1% believed in the value of PMS; however, only 24.4% reported having undergone PMS previously. Few participants were aware that SCD can be very painful (20.2% and can cause strokes, infections and organ damage (20.0%. More than half (56.7% reported that the availability of educational material on SCD or PMS in Oman was inadequate. Participants’ education levels were positively associated with accurate SCD knowledge (P <0.05. Conclusion: Despite the free availability of PMS services in local health centres, few Omanis reported having undergone PMS previously. Health promotion and education programmes are therefore needed in Oman in order to increase public awareness of SCD and the value of PMS.

  12. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Maryam Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM-based education onknowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93 and control (n=87 groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS, and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05 in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05. The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations.

  13. Health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families: A qualitative study in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Abebayehu Tora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families.A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in March 2016 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs, with a total of one hundred seventeen 9 to15-year-old children recruited from podoconiosis affected families. The study revealed various misconceptions regarding risk factors for podoconiosis. Most children believed barefoot exposure to dew, worms, snake bite, frog urine, other forms of poison, and contact with affected people to be major causes of the disease. Their knowledge about the role of heredity and that of long term barefoot exposure to irritant mineral particles was also weak. Though most participants correctly appraised their susceptibility to podoconiosis in relation to regular use of footwear and foot hygiene, others based their risk perceptions on factors they think beyond their control. They described several barriers to preventive behaviour, including uncomfortable footwear, shortage and poor adaptability of footwear for farm activities and sports, and shortage of soap for washing. Children also perceived low self-efficacy to practice preventive behaviour in spite of the barriers.Health education interventions may enhance school-age children's health literacy and be translated to preventive action. Overcoming practical challenges such as shortage of footwear and other hygiene facilities requires other forms of interventions such as livelihood strengthening activities. Linking podoconiosis-affected families with local governmental or non-governmental organizations providing socio

  14. Development and validation of a health belief model based instrument for measuring factors influencing exercise behaviors to prevent osteoporosis in pre-menopausal women (HOPE).

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    Soleymanian, Atoosa; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The health belief model (HBM) is the most commonly used conceptual framework for evaluating osteoporosis health belief and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a health belief model based questionnaire for exercise behavior for preventing osteoporosis among women aged 30 years and over. This was a cross sectional study of a convenience sample of women aged 30 years and over in Tehran, Iran using a theory-based instrument (HOPE). The instrument contained 39 items covering issues relate to osteoporosis prevention behavior. In this methodological study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used for psychometric evaluation. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the reliability of the scale. In all 240 women participated in the study. The mean age of participant was 39.2 ± 7.8 years. The initial analysis extracted nine factors for the questionnaire that jointly accounted for 66.5% of variance observed. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the data obtained was fit with Health Belief Model (HBM) and self-regulation construct (X2 = 1132.80, df = 629, P belief and self-regulation for prevention of osteoporosis.

  15. Infant oral health care: beliefs and practices of American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members.

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    Bubna, Shikha; Perez-Spiess, Silvia; Cernigliaro, Julie; Julliard, Kell

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) members about their beliefs and practices regarding the age 1 dental visit. A 31-item survey was mailed to 1,500 randomly selected AAPD members to assess their beliefs and practices regarding the age 1 dental visit and prenatal dental counseling. Descriptive analyses and chi-square tests were done to analyze the data. Five hundred fifty-four (~37%) surveys were returned; 496 (91%) respondents agreed with the AAPD Policy on the Dental Home, while 490 (~90%) respondents performed age 1 dental evaluations. The most commonly cited reason respondents gave for not performing infant evaluations was "parents do not see the value." Eighty-five (~15 %) respondents provided prenatal dental counseling to members in their community, and 250 (~51%) who performed infant oral evaluations inquired about parents' dental history. Younger, more recently trained pediatric dentists were more likely to agree with the policy compared to older, more experienced pediatric dentists. Most respondents agreed with the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry's Policy on the Dental Home and performed infant oral evaluations. Few respondents (15%) provided prenatal dental counseling to individuals/groups in their community.

  16. Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity of Surinamese Immigrants of Indian Descent in The Netherlands: A Qualitative Study.

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    Hendriks, A-M; Gubbels, J S; Jansen, M W J; Kremers, S P J

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health beliefs about eating habits and physical activity (PA) of Surinamese immigrants of Indian (Hindustani) descent to examine how health education messages to prevent obesity can be made more culturally sensitive. Indians are known for their increasing obesity incidence and are highly vulnerable for obesity-related consequences such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Therefore they might benefit from culturally sensitive health education messages that stimulate healthy eating habits and increase PA levels. In order to examine how health education messages aimed at preventing obesity could be adapted to Indian culture, we interviewed eight Hindustanis living in The Netherland, and conducted two focus groups (n = 19) with members from a Surinamese Hindustani community. Results showed cultural implications that might affect the effectiveness of health education messages: karma has a role in explaining the onset of illness, traditional eating habits are perceived as difficult to change, and PA was generally disliked. We conclude that health education messages aimed at Hindustani immigrants should recognize the role of karma in explaining the onset of illness, include more healthy alternatives for traditional foods, pay attention to the symbolic meaning of food, and suggest more enjoyable and culturally sensitive forms of PA for women.

  17. Health beliefs and practices of young people in a multicultural community: Findings from a child-centered ethnography

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    Reeve, Suzanne

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation presents an analysis of the health-related beliefs and behaviors of thirteen fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children, as evidenced through photo self-documentation, semistructured interview responses, and more than a year of ethnographic observations in home, school, and other settings. The ethnic, language, and socioeconomic backgrounds of the children and their families vary widely. I focus on three research questions: (1) How do children and families come to understand personal health, including related nutritional topics, in a multicultural community? (2) What are some of the main developmental influences on their learning---including its relation to their understanding of science and their life circumstances? (3) How do the understandings of children and families connect to health and nutritional behaviors? The analysis shows greater diversity in the meanings these young people assigned to the concepts "healthy" and "unhealthy" than has been acknowledged in significant segments of the existing literature. The findings also show that children draw extensively on experiences from formal schooling and their non-school everyday lives and practices in talking about health-related concepts. Case studies of two children detail the specific ways in which health-related learning takes shape in their home, school, and community environments. The dissertation concludes with implications of these findings for science education, such as increasing the amount and conceptual sophistication of content related to health in the science classroom, in accordance with a broader emphasis on making science teaching relevant to students' local and personal contexts.

  18. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

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    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (psocial marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention.

  19. Evaluation in health: participatory methodology and involvement of municipal managers.

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    Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli de; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-08-04

    To analyze scopes and limits of the use of participatory methodology of evaluation with municipal health managers and administrators. Qualitative research with health policymakers and managers of the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR - Regional Interagency Commission) of a health region of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Representatives from seven member cities participated in seven workshops facilitated by the researchers, with the aim of assessing a specific problem of the care line, which would be used as a tracer of the system integrality. The analysis of the collected empirical material was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic methodology and aimed at the evaluation of the applied participatory methodology, according to its capacity of promoting a process of assessment capable to be used as a support for municipal management. With the participatory approach of evaluation, we were able to promote in-depth discussions with the group, especially related to the construction of integral care and to the inclusion of the user's perspective in decision-making, linked to the search for solution to concrete problems of managers. By joint exploration, the possibility of using data from electronic information systems was opened, as well as information coming directly from the users of the services, to enhance discussions and negotiations between partners. The participants were disbelievers of the replication potential of this type of evaluation without the direct monitoring of the academy, given the difficulty of organizing the process in everyday life, already taken by emergency and political issues. Evaluations of programs and services carried out within the Regional Interagency Commission, starting from the local interest and facilitating the involvement of its members by the use of participatory methodologies, can contribute to the construction of integral care. To the extent that the act of evaluating stay invested with greater significance to the local actors

  20. Development and validation of the CAM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ and CAM use and attitudes amongst medical students

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    Boker John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them, including use of CAM itself, remain unreported. Methods A 10-item measure (CHBQ – CAM Health Belief Questionnaire was constructed and administered to three successive classes of medical students simultaneously with the previously validated 29-item Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ. Both measures were imbedded in a baseline needs assessment questionnaire. Demographic and other data were collected on students' use of CAM modalities and their awareness and use of primary CAM information resources. Analysis of CHBQ items was performed and its reliability and criterion-related validity were established. Results Response rate was 96.5% (272 of 282 students studied. The shorter CHBQ compared favorably with the longer IMAQ in internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.75 and 0.83 for the CHBQ and IMAQ respectively. Students showed positive attitudes/beliefs towards CAM and high levels of self-reported CAM use. The majority (73.5% of students reported using at least one CAM modality, and 54% reported using at least two modalities. Eighty-one percent use the internet as a primary source of information for CAM. Conclusions The CHBQ is a practical, valid and reliable instrument for measuring medical student attitudes/beliefs and has potential utility for measuring the impact of CAM instruction. Medical students showed a high self-reported rate of CAM use and positive attitudes towards CAM. Short, didactic exposure to CAM instruction in the first year of medical school did not additionally

  1. Land use planning: why public health must be involved.

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    Jackson, Richard; Harp, Toni; Wright, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The way that land is used has a direct impact on public health. Legislators and other with responsibility for land use planning need to be aware of the public health connection and need to promote effective land use planning as a means of improving the public's health. This article discusses the public health/land use connection and the role that local, state, and national legislators can play in promoting land use planning that supports the public's health. It also provides an example of a collaborative local land use initiative aimed at addressing a public health problem in a city and at providing a model that other locations can use in making land use conform to sound public health policy. Finally, it provides an overview of initiatives to promote healthy land use in the New York metropolitan area by Regional Plan Association, a private non-profit planning organization.

  2. Using the health belief model in qualitative focus groups to identify HPV vaccine acceptability in college men.

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    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj; Lee, Rebecca C

    This study determines predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability among college-aged male students through the qualitative data collection strategy of focus groups. Over the course of 2 months, six focus groups were conducted with 50 participants, with approximately 10 participants in each focus group. Participants were predominately single, heterosexual, about 20 years old, Caucasian males attending a large Midwestern University. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as a guide in developing questions for the focus groups. Each question related to a construct of the HBM. A lack of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity of HPV, and barriers toward taking the HPV vaccine were major themes identified from the focus groups. Overall, the focus group proved to be effective in understanding predictors toward HPV vaccine acceptability. Results enabled the researchers to develop an understanding of content needed for effective interventions. This study indicates a need for more qualitative studies exploring attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to HPV vaccine acceptability among at-risk populations.

  3. Autonomous Motivation Is Not Enough: The Role of Compensatory Health Beliefs for the Readiness to Change Stair and Elevator Use

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    Theda Radtke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior.

  4. Autonomous motivation is not enough: the role of compensatory health beliefs for the readiness to change stair and elevator use.

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    Radtke, Theda; Rackow, Pamela

    2014-11-28

    Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior.

  5. Parental Health Beliefs, Socio-demographics, and Healthcare Recommendations Influence Micronutrient Supplementation in Youth with Celiac Disease.

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    Hoffmann, Michelle R; Alzaben, Abeer S; Enns, Simone E; Marcon, Margaret A; Turner, Justine; Mager, Diana R

    2016-03-01

    To identify parental influences affecting micronutrient supplementation in children and adolescents (2-18 years of age) with Celiac Disease (CD), a multi-method (survey, focus groups) study was conducted. A 35-item questionnaire consisting of open- and closed-ended questions was launched nationally via Canadian Celiac Association internet sites. Five focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. The survey and semi-structured interview guide content was vetted for face and content validity. Thematic analyses were conducted on the focus group content and open-ended survey questions, and χ(2) and Fischer's exact analysis were performed on closed-ended survey data. Survey respondents were predominantly mothers (97%) of female children (80 F, 49 M) between the ages of 9-12 (31%) with CD, residing in western provinces (55%) with a combined family income ≥$100 000/year (63%). Seventy-seven percent of parental respondent's children or adolescents consumed micronutrient supplements, for 1-5 years (52%), 7 days a week (65%), as both multi-vitamin and single vitamin preparations (40%). Parental influences on child micronutrient use included health beliefs and knowledge, parental supplement use, supplement characteristics, age of child (above or below 13 years), household routines, and provincial residential status (P < 0.05). Parents relied on health professional recommendation (69%; MD, RD) and the internet (21%) as sources of information regarding child micronutrient supplementation. Parental health beliefs and knowledge, socio-demographic factors, and practitioner recommendation influence micronutrient supplement use in children and adolescents with CD.

  6. Prediction of breast self-examination in a sample of Iranian women: an application of the Health Belief Model.

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    Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Hasani, Laleh; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Zare, Shahram; Gregory, David

    2009-12-29

    Iranian women, many of whom live in small cities, have limited access to mammography and clinical breast examinations. Thus, breast self examination (BSE) becomes an important and necessary approach to detecting this disease in its early stages in order to limit its resultant morbidity and mortality. This study examined constructs arising from the Health Belief Model as predictors of breast self examination behavior in a sample of women living in Bandar Abbas, Iran. This study was conducted in eight health centers located in Bandar Abbas, Iran. The sample consisted of 240 eligible women who were selected from referrals to the centers. The inclusion criteria were as follows: aged 30 years and over; and able to read and write Farsi. Women with breast cancer, who were pregnant, or breast feeding, were excluded from the study. Data were collected by using a self administered questionnaire which included demographic characteristics and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. This instrument measures the concepts of disease susceptibility (3 items), seriousness (6 items), benefits (4 items), barriers (8 items) and self-efficacy (10 items). The subjects' mean age was 37.2 (SD = 6.1) years. Just under a third of the subjects (31.7%) had performed BSE in the past and 7.1% of them performed it at least monthly. Perceived benefits and perceived self-efficacy of the women who performed BSE were significantly higher compared with women who did not practice BSE (p women who perceived fewer barriers (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.63-0.77, p women. Therefore, BSE training programs that emphasize self-efficacy and address perceived barriers are recommended.

  7. South Asians and epilepsy: exploring health experiences, needs and beliefs of communities in the north of England.

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    Ismail, Hanif; Wright, John; Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Jacoby, Ann

    2005-10-01

    To examine the beliefs and experiences of South Asians with epilepsy and the extent of provision of appropriate information and accessible services for them by health professionals. Qualitative interviews with 30 South Asians with epilepsy, 16 carers and 10 health professionals. In addition, two focus groups were held with 16 South Asians without epilepsy recruited from community centers. The interview sample was divided by religious groupings (Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims). Fieldwork was conducted in Bradford and Leeds (England). Beliefs that epilepsy is caused by spirit possession (Muslims) or attributable to sins committed in a past life (Sikhs and Hindus) were reported as being widely held among South Asians living both in the UK and the Indian subcontinent, although few informants themselves subscribed to such views. Compliance with conventional medication was high; however, those who experienced seizures most often were most likely to turn to traditional South Asian therapies. Most informants used both treatments simultaneously. The main issues regarding the provision of services were: lack of appropriate information and advice; language and communication barriers; problems in interaction with health professionals. Also discussed were the potential merits of attending support groups. Greatest dissatisfaction was expressed in relation to primary care, whereas the highest praise was reserved for specialist epilepsy nurses. Our findings show both similarities and differences between participants' experiences, where gender, age or other aspects of personal biography can be as important as religion, culture or country of origin. Furthermore, the impact of being diagnosed with epilepsy can be exacerbated by structural impediments to accessing information and appropriate services.

  8. Finnish parental involvement ethos, health support, health education knowledge and participation: results from a 2-year school health intervention.

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    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P < 0.001), increased knowledge of health education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.

  9. Beliefs and perception of ill-health causation: a socio-cultural qualitative study in rural North-Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahissay, Mesfin H; Fenta, Teferi G; Boon, Heather

    2017-01-26

    Understanding perceptions of the causes of ill-health common in indigenous communities may help policy makers to design effective integrated primary health care strategies to serve these communities. This study explored the indigenous beliefs of ill-health causation among those living in the Tehuledere Woreda /district/ in North East Ethiopia from a socio-cultural perspective. The study employed a qualitative ethnographic method informed by Murdock's Theory of Illness. Participatory observation, over a total of 5 months during the span of one year, was supplemented by focus group discussions (n = 96 participants in 10 groups) and in-depth interviews (n = 20) conducted with key informants. Data were analyzed thematically using narrative strategies. In these communities, illness is perceived to have supernatural (e.g., almighty God/ Allah, nature spirits, and human agents of the supernatural), natural (e.g., environmental sanitation and personal hygiene, poverty, biological and psychological factors) and societal causes (e.g., social trust, experiences of family support and harmony; and violation of social taboos). Therefore, the explanatory model of illness causation in this community was very similar to that of the Murdock model with one key difference: social elements need to be added to the model. Members of the study community believes that supernatural, natural and social elements are linked to ill-health causation. A successful integrated primary health care strategy should include strategies for supporting patients' needs in all three of these domains.

  10. Meeting tomorrow's health care needs through local and global involvement.

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    Opollo, Jackline G; Bond, Mary Lou; Gray, Jennifer; Lail-Davis, Vivian J

    2012-02-01

    Strengthened efforts to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by 2015 are urgently needed. A fundamental step toward achieving these goals is strengthening global partnerships for development. This article describes critical challenges and opportunities in global health and the social responsibility of the nursing profession in this area. Examples and suggestions for nursing action are provided for consideration by those interested in influencing global health. Engaging in global health activities such as study abroad programs, interprofessional exchanges, continuing education workshops, and seminars with a global health focus can have significant implications for nursing education, research, policy, and practice. Equipping nurses with the leadership skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed to advance global health is integral in the delivery of effective, culturally relevant health care. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Association of Cervical Cancer Screening with Knowledge of Risk Factors, Access to Health Related Information, Health Profiles, and Health Competence Beliefs among Community-Dwelling Women in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Toyoshima, Masato; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the past attendance for cervical cancer screening with knowledge of risk factors, access to health-related information, health profiles and health competence beliefs among Japanese women. Methods: Women ages 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 were contacted cross-sectionally as part of a project for the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Nikaho, Akita prefecture Japan between June 2010 and March 2011, and 249 women were analyzed for the current study. The questionnaire asked about past cervical cancer screening. Knowledge of each cervical cancer risk factor was determined on a four-point scale. A barriers to information access scale was utilized to assess the degree of difficulty in accessing health-related information. Health profiles were measured using the EuroQOL EQ-5D. Perceived health competence was measured using a scale (PHCS). The association was evaluated with odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated from a logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and potential confounders. The trend across the level was also assessed. Results: Women who knew that sexual intercourse at young age was a risk factor were significantly more likely to have participated in cervical cancer screening sometime in their lives (p for trend =0.02). Women who had pain/discomfort and those who had anxiety/depression were significantly more likely to have participated in cervical screening within the past two years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–3.94; OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.05–5.16, respectively). Women with higher PHCS were significantly more likely to have attended for cervical screened at some point in their lives (p=0.04). Conclusion: This study observed that specific knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, health profiles and PHCS were associated with the past attendance for cervical cancer screening among women in a community. Further researches are

  12. Association of Cervical Cancer Screening with Knowledge of Risk Factors, Access to Health Related Information, Health Profiles, and Health Competence Beliefs among Community-Dwelling Women in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Toyoshima, Masato; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2017-08-27

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the past attendance for cervical cancer screening with knowledge of risk factors, access to health-related information, health profiles and health competence beliefs among Japanese women. Methods: Women ages 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 were contacted cross-sectionally as part of a project for the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Nikaho, Akita prefecture Japan between June 2010 and March 2011, and 249 women were analyzed for the current study. The questionnaire asked about past cervical cancer screening. Knowledge of each cervical cancer risk factor was determined on a four-point scale. A barriers to information access scale was utilized to assess the degree of difficulty in accessing health-related information. Health profiles were measured using the EuroQOL EQ-5D. Perceived health competence was measured using a scale (PHCS). The association was evaluated with odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated from a logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and potential confounders. The trend across the level was also assessed. Results: Women who knew that sexual intercourse at young age was a risk factor were significantly more likely to have participated in cervical cancer screening sometime in their lives (p for trend =0.02). Women who had pain/discomfort and those who had anxiety/depression were significantly more likely to have participated in cervical screening within the past two years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–3.94; OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.05–5.16, respectively). Women with higher PHCS were significantly more likely to have attended for cervical screened at some point in their lives (p=0.04). Conclusion: This study observed that specific knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, health profiles and PHCS were associated with the past attendance for cervical cancer screening among women in a community. Further researches are

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs about Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) among a Sample of Health Care Providers in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gaston, Stéphanie; Rubens, Muni; Theodore, Harry; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P; Pape, Jean William

    2015-01-01

    Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti. A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year. The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%), nurses (49.0%), and other health care professionals (20.0%). Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15-5.71) times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing "the best age to perform MMC" as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%. Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health providers in Haiti, studies with larger and

  14. Mental health literacy of resettled Iraqi refugees in Australia: knowledge about posttraumatic stress disorder and beliefs about helpfulness of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Mond, Jonathan; Bussion, Elise; Mohammad, Yaser; Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Smith, Mitchell; Milosevic, Diana; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2014-11-18

    Resettled refugees are a particularly vulnerable group. They have very high levels of mental health problems, in particular, trauma-related disorders, but very low uptake of mental health care. Evidence suggests that poor "mental health literacy", namely, poor knowledge and understanding of the nature and treatment of mental health problems is a major factor in low or inappropriate treatment-seeking among individuals with mental health problems. This study used a culturally adapted Mental Health Literacy Survey method to determine knowledge of, and beliefs about, helpfulness of treatment interventions and providers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst resettled Iraqi refugees. 225 resettled Iraqi refugees in Western Sydney attending the Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP), federally funded English language tuition, were surveyed. A vignette of a fictional character meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD was presented followed by the Mental Health Literacy Survey. PTSD symptomology was measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire part IV (HTQ part IV), with Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) used to measure levels of general psychological distress. Only 14.2% of participants labelled the problem as PTSD, with "a problem with fear" being the modal response (41.8%). A total of 84.9% respondents indicated that seeing a psychiatrist would be helpful, followed by reading the Koran or Bible selected by 79.2% of those surveyed. There was some variation in problem recognition and helpfulness of treatment, most notably influenced by the length of resettlement in Australia of the respondents. These findings have important implications for the design and implementation of mental health promotion and treatment programs for resettled refugees and those who work with them.

  15. Sport involvement, sport violence and health behaviours of Greek adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Karastogiannidou, Calliope; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of problem-behaviour theory, this study investigated the intra-relationship between attitudes and behaviours towards exercise, sport involvement, violence in sport-related events...

  16. The Investigation of the Impact of Health Belief Model Based Training on Brest Self-Exam in Women Referred to Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirmohammad jadgal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women .More than 90 percent of patients are treated if diagnosed early. This study has been done to investigate the impact of Health Belief Model based training in the creation of the BSE behavior Methods: This study is a controlled intervention one performed on 180 women referred to health centers Torbat Heydaryieh which 90 people were in the intervention group and 90 people were in the control group. Before doing intervention training, a questionnaire designed based on HBM was completed by the investigating units. Then intervention training was carried out in intervention group using lecture, questions, and answers. Two month after the intervention, post tests were given using the same questionnaire. The data was analyzed by using spss 18 software, independent t-test, paired t-test and chi-square and was considered significant Results: Independent T-Test showed that before intervention, the difference between mean scores of knowledge and HBM structures of control and intervention groups was not statistically significant. But this difference was significant after the intervention Conclusion: It seems that, a training program designed based on HBM is effective to create the behavior of BSE. It is suggested educational programs Implemented  on based Health Belief Model In order to improve the performance of women. Paper Type: Research Article

  17. The efficacy of the health belief model for predicting condom usage and risky sexual practices in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollis, C M; Johnson, E H; Antoni, M H

    1997-12-01

    This investigation examined the ability of the health belief model (HBM) to predict condom usage and risky sexual practices in 122 white heterosexual college students (ages 17 to 33 years). The HBM did not significantly explain condom usage in the 58 men and 64 women surveyed; rather it partially explained the variance in sexual risk behaviors. Results were not consistent for men and women. The HBM components significantly explained 18% of the variance in multiple sexual partnerships in men and 22% of the variance in this behavior in women. The HBM constructs also explained 9% of the variance in the likelihood of women being intoxicated or high during sex and 18% of the variance in the number of sexual risk behaviors endorsed by women. These findings suggest that the HBM has differential and limited utility for predicting sexual practices in university students. Future research is needed to examine more comprehensive models of behavior change.

  18. Prediction of Preventive Behaviors of the Needlestick Injuries during Surgery among Operating Room Personnel: Application of the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yadollah; Barati, Majid; Zandiyeh, Mitra; Bashirian, Saeed

    2017-10-01

    Operating room personnel are at high risk of needlestick injuries (NSIs) and exposure to blood and body fluids. To investigate the predictors of NSIs preventive behaviors during surgery among operating room personnel based on a health belief model (HBM). This cross-sectional study was conducted on 128 operating room personnel in Hamadan, western Iran. Participants were selected, by census sampling, from teaching hospitals, completed a self-reported questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and HBM constructs. The levels of knowledge and perceived self-efficacy for the NSIs preventive behaviors among operating room personnel were not satisfactory. However, the levels of perceived benefits, susceptibility and severity were reported to be relatively good. The results showed that the perceived susceptibility (β ‑0.627) and cues to action (β 0.695) were the most important predictors of the NSIs preventive behaviors. The framework of the HBM is useful to predict the NSIs preventive behaviors among operating room personnel.

  19. Impact of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy on physical activity and dietary habits during the post-partum period after gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Barbara; Razurel, Chantal; Jeannot, Emilien

    2013-06-21

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on women who have had GDM.

  20. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior—the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N=739) ages 18–26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed ten months later. Results Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Conclusions Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior. PMID:22547155

  1. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Rodrigues Rissi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.

  2. Relationship between expanded health belief model variables and mammography screening adherence in women with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraska, Karen

    2012-01-01

    People with disabilities often find it more difficult to access health-care services than the general population, further jeopardizing their health and well-being. The purpose of this descriptive pilot study was to explore the relationship between variables of the Expanded Health Belief Model (EHBM) and adherence to mammography screening in a sample of homebound women with MS after completion of a National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) intervention, known as the "Home-Based Health Maintenance Program for Women with MS," that was conducted in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The intervention was conducted in the patients' homes and included education of the women and their partners on risk factors for breast cancer and instruction in breast examination techniques. The patients were also helped to make appointments for mammograms. This study derived its sample from the intervention program and used data on adherence recorded by the NMSS. After completion of the intervention, telephone interviews were conducted with women who met the inclusion criteria (N = 11). Descriptive statistics indicate that adherence can be successfully described using variables of the EHBM, including perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy. The instruments chosen for the research were well tolerated, useful, and efficient to administer and allowed for immediate assessment.

  3. The reliability of the Arabic version of osteoporosis knowledge assessment tool (OKAT) and the osteoporosis health belief scale (OHBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Hassan, Rima M; Bashour, Hyam N

    2013-04-08

    Knowledge and awareness about osteoporosis and its related risk factors are important contributors to osteoporosis preventive behavior. There is a need to assess the reliability of international osteoporosis-related knowledge and belief measurement tools in Arabic community. This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Arabic version of Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT) and the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) among Syrian women. The study included two phases. The first phase included a forward and backward translation of the osteoporosis-related tools (OKAT and OHBS) followed by a pilot testing. The second phase was an assessment of the test-retest reliability of the tools among a convenience sample of one hundred working women at Damascus Faculty of Medicine and its teaching hospitals. For this purpose each instrument was administered twice to all women at an interval of two weeks. Data collection took place in the fall of 2011, and was facilitated by a trained interviewer whose task was to administer the tools and collect some background data from the women who consented to participate in the study. A total of one hundred women were recruited in this study for the reliability test-retest of the Arabic version of the tools. The mean age of studied women was 37.1 (SD = 8.4) years. Most of the women were married and nearly one-half of them had a university education. The internal consistency values for OHBS (Cronbach's alpha = 0.806) as well as the OKAT (Cronbach's alpha = 0.824) met the 0.7 Cronbach's alpha value requirement. Item analysis did not necessitate any omissions in either tool. McNemar's test identified only three items on the OKAT questionnaire that significantly differed from the test to the retest. The OKAT mean score (SD) for the test was 9.4 (2.6) and that for the re-test was 10.1 (2.9). Paired t test did not show significant difference (P = 0.068). The Arabic version of both the Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT

  4. Nursing and medical students' attitude, knowledge and beliefs regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents seeking health care for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rose; Watkins, Rochelle; Zappia, Tess; Nicol, Pam; Shields, Linda

    2012-04-01

    Little research has been conducted to investigate students' attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents seeking health care for their children. Descriptive, comparative study. Validated scales were used to assess students' attitudes, knowledge and beliefs and gay affirmative practice. Three open ended questions assessed beliefs regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents accessing health care for their children. Nursing and medical students completed questionnaires about attitudes to homosexuality. Associations between variables were assessed using chi-square tests of independence, and differences between nursing and medical student groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U-test or the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test. Responses to the open ended questions were evaluated, coded and described. Knowledge and attitudes about homosexuality were significantly associated with students' race, political voting behaviour, religious beliefs and having a friend who is openly lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. It is important to develop strategies to address the existence of prejudicial attitudes among student health professionals and prevent discriminatory practices towards lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents when seeking health care for their children. Educators can develop programs that provide students with knowledge and skills to ensure lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families receive effective health care when they access services for their children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Exploring practice of Isfahan University of Medical Science students regarding using ecstasy based on health belief model in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mirkarimi, Kamal; Kamran, Aziz; Fathian, Zohre

    2012-01-01

    Ecstasy consumption has increased 70% worldwide, and its use is currently outweighed heroin and cocaine. Conducted survey found that students more than other groups used ecstasy pills. Ecstasy usage has recently augmented in students. Therefore, this study aims to determine practice of Isfahan University of Medical Science students about using ecstasy based on health belief model in 2011. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 267 students of Isfahan University of Medical Science. Data were collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire in 3 parts (demographic information, H.B.M constructs, and practice). To analyze, SPSS software (ver.18) and statistical test including T-Test and Kruskal-Wallis were used. The mean score of age was 20.95 ± 1.61 years, and 39.3% of men and 90.6% of women were single. 2.2% of students have used ecstasy pills. The mean score of H.B.M constructs was perceived susceptibility (72.75 ± 19.68), perceived severity (84.58 ± 16.98), and perceived benefits (80.43 ± 23.49). The finding presented that there was significant differences between the using ecstasy and perceived severity and perceived benefits (P ≤ 0.001), but there was no significant statistical relationship between the using ecstasy and perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers (P = 0.076, P = 0.554). In terms of cues to action, students suggested that radio and TV are most significance cues. According to results, to prevent ecstasy usage among Isfahan University of Medical Science students based on health belief model, we should improve perceived susceptibility. Besides, radio and TV rules as the most important cues should not also be denied. Moreover, newly identified susceptibility indicates the need for quantitative research and behavioral trials.

  6. Effects of the Health Belief Model (HBM-Based Educational Program on the Nutritional Knowledge and Behaviors of CABG Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarallah Shojaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reducing blood pressure through diet decreases the possibility