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Sample records for health behavior theories

  1. Analysis of Health Behavior Theories for Clustering of Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Duffy, Sonia A

    The objective of this article was to review the utility of established behavior theories, including the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model, and Health Promotion Model, for addressing multiple health behaviors among people who smoke. It is critical to design future interventions for multiple health behavior changes tailored to individuals who currently smoke, yet it has not been addressed. Five health behavior theories/models were analyzed and critically evaluated. A review of the literature included a search of PubMed and Google Scholar from 2010 to 2016. Two hundred sixty-seven articles (252 studies from the initial search and 15 studies from the references of initially identified studies) were included in the analysis. Most of the health behavior theories/models emphasize psychological and cognitive constructs that can be applied only to one specific behavior at a time, thus making them not suitable to address multiple health behaviors. However, the Health Promotion Model incorporates "related behavior factors" that can explain multiple health behaviors among persons who smoke. Future multiple behavior interventions guided by the Health Promotion Model are necessary to show the utility and applicability of the model to address multiple health behaviors.

  2. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Objective . The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology . One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results . For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant ( r = 0.524, P theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion . Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors.

  3. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Akulume

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation. Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers’ segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r=0.524, P<0.001. The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers’ segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers’ health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers’ health care waste segregation behaviors.

  4. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Daniel, Casey L.; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dori

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28217036

  5. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  6. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  7. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and externa...

  8. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.

  9. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: Background and Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    RYAN, POLLY

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In ...

  10. Health Behavior Theory in Popular Calorie Counting Apps: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Siena F; Ellsworth, Marisa A; Payne, Hannah E; Hall, Shelby M; West, Joshua H; Nordhagen, Amber L

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store features hundreds of calorie counting apps, the extent to which popular calorie counting apps include health behavior theory is unknown. Objective This study evaluates the presence of health behavior theory in calorie counting apps. Methods Data for this study came from an extensive content analysis of the 10 most popular calorie counting apps in the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store. Results Each app was ...

  11. [Health promotion. Instrument development for the application of the theory of planned behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y O

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe operationalization of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The quest to understand determinants of health behaviors has intensified as evidence accumulates concerning the impact of personal behavior on health. The majority of theory-based research has used the Health Belief Model(HBM). The HBM components have had limited success in explaining health-related behaviors. There are several advantages of the TPB over the HBM. TPB is an expansion of the Theory of Reasoned Action(TRA) with the addition of the construct, perceived behavioral control. The revised model has been shown to yield greater explanatory power than the original TRA for goal-directed behaviors. The process of TPB instrument development was described, using example form the study of smoking cessation behavior in military smokers. It was followed by a discussion of reliability and validity issues in operationalizing the TPB. The TPB is a useful model for understanding and predicting health-related behaviors when carefully operationalized. The model holds promise in the development of prescriptive nursing approaches.

  12. Health Behavior Theory in Physical Activity Game Apps: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah E; Moxley, Victor Ba; MacDonald, Elizabeth

    2015-07-13

    Physical activity games developed for a mobile phone platform are becoming increasingly popular, yet little is known about their content or inclusion of health behavior theory (HBT). The objective of our study was to quantify elements of HBT in physical activity games developed for mobile phones and to assess the relationship between theoretical constructs and various app features. We conducted an analysis of exercise and physical activity game apps in the Apple App Store in the fall of 2014. A total of 52 apps were identified and rated for inclusion of health behavior theoretical constructs using an established theory-based rubric. Each app was coded for 100 theoretical items, containing 5 questions for 20 different constructs. Possible total theory scores ranged from 0 to 100. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to describe the HBT score and association with selected app features, respectively. The average HBT score in the sample was 14.98 out of 100. One outlier, SuperBetter, scored higher than the other apps with a score of 76. Goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-reward were the most-reported constructs found in the sample. There was no association between either app price and theory score (P=.5074), or number of gamification elements and theory score (P=.5010). However, Superbetter, with the highest HBT score, was also the most expensive app. There are few content analyses of serious games for health, but a comparison between these findings and previous content analyses of non-game health apps indicates that physical activity mobile phone games demonstrate higher levels of behavior theory. The most common theoretical constructs found in this sample are known to be efficacious elements in physical activity interventions. It is unclear, however, whether app designers consciously design physical activity mobile phone games with specific constructs in mind; it may be that games lend themselves well to inclusion of theory and any

  13. Health Behavior Theory in Physical Activity Game Apps: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Victor BA; MacDonald, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity games developed for a mobile phone platform are becoming increasingly popular, yet little is known about their content or inclusion of health behavior theory (HBT). Objective The objective of our study was to quantify elements of HBT in physical activity games developed for mobile phones and to assess the relationship between theoretical constructs and various app features. Methods We conducted an analysis of exercise and physical activity game apps in the Apple App Store in the fall of 2014. A total of 52 apps were identified and rated for inclusion of health behavior theoretical constructs using an established theory-based rubric. Each app was coded for 100 theoretical items, containing 5 questions for 20 different constructs. Possible total theory scores ranged from 0 to 100. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to describe the HBT score and association with selected app features, respectively. Results The average HBT score in the sample was 14.98 out of 100. One outlier, SuperBetter, scored higher than the other apps with a score of 76. Goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-reward were the most-reported constructs found in the sample. There was no association between either app price and theory score (P=.5074), or number of gamification elements and theory score (P=.5010). However, Superbetter, with the highest HBT score, was also the most expensive app. Conclusions There are few content analyses of serious games for health, but a comparison between these findings and previous content analyses of non-game health apps indicates that physical activity mobile phone games demonstrate higher levels of behavior theory. The most common theoretical constructs found in this sample are known to be efficacious elements in physical activity interventions. It is unclear, however, whether app designers consciously design physical activity mobile phone games with specific constructs in mind; it may be that games lend

  14. Using meta-analytic path analysis to test theoretical predictions in health behavior: An illustration based on meta-analyses of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chan, Derwin K C; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2016-08-01

    Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs from social cognitive theories is important to test nomological validity, account for mediation effects, and evaluate unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. We illustrate our points by conducting new analyses of two meta-analyses of a popular theory applied to health behaviors, the theory of planned behavior. We conducted meta-analytic path analyses of the theory in two behavioral contexts (alcohol and dietary behaviors) using data from the primary studies included in the original meta-analyses augmented to include intercorrelations among constructs and relations with past behavior missing from the original analysis. Findings supported the nomological validity of the theory and its hypotheses for both behaviors, confirmed important model processes through mediation analysis, demonstrated the attenuating effect of past behavior on theory relations, and provided estimates of the unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. Our analysis illustrates the importance of conducting a simultaneous test of theory-stipulated effects in meta-analyses of social cognitive theories applied to health behavior. We recommend researchers adopt this analytic procedure when synthesizing evidence across primary tests of social cognitive theories in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishing a Relationship between Behavior Change Theory and Social Marketing: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…

  16. Apps seeking theories: results of a study on the use of health behavior change theories in cancer survivorship mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-03-27

    Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile phone cancer survivorship apps. The research team selected a set of criteria-based health apps for mobile phones and assessed each app using qualitative coding methods to assess the application of health behavior change and communication theories. Each app was assessed using a coding derived from the taxonomy of 26 health behavior change techniques by Abraham and Michie with a few important changes based on the characteristics of mHealth apps that are specific to information processing and human computer interaction such as control theory and feedback systems. A total of 68 mobile phone apps and games built on the iOS and Android platforms were coded, with 65 being unique. Using a Cohen's kappa analysis statistic, the inter-rater reliability for the iOS apps was 86.1 (Papps, 77.4 (Papps were consistently higher than those of the Android platform apps. For personalization and tailoring, 67% of the iOS apps (24/36) had these elements as compared to 38% of the Android apps (12/32). In the area of prompting for intention formation, 67% of the iOS apps (34/36) indicated these elements as compared to 16% (5/32) of the Android apps. Mobile apps are rapidly emerging as a way to deliver health behavior change interventions that can be tailored or personalized for individuals. As these apps and games continue to evolve and include interactive and adaptive sensors and other forms of dynamic feedback, their content and interventional elements need to be grounded in human computer interface design and health

  17. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  18. Evaluation of a Person-Centered, Theory-Based Intervention to Promote Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worawong, Chiraporn; Borden, Mary Jo; Cooper, Karen M; Pérez, Oscar A; Lauver, Diane

    Effective promotion of health behaviors requires strong interventions. Applying person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from two motivational theories could strengthen the effects of such interventions. The aim of the study was to report the effect sizes, fidelity, and acceptability of a person-centered, health behavior intervention based on self-regulation and self-determination theories. Using a pre- and postintervention design, with a 4-week follow-up, advanced practice registered nurses made six weekly contacts with 52 volunteer participants. Most participants were educated White women. Advanced practice registered nurses elicited participant motives and particular goals for either healthy diet or physical activity behaviors. Minutes and type of activity and servings of fat and fruit/vegetables were assessed. Effect sizes for engaging in moderate aerobic activity and in fruit/vegetable and fat intake were 0.53, 0.82, and -0.57, respectively. The fidelity of delivery was 80-97% across contacts, and fidelity of participants' receipt of intervention components was supported. Participant acceptance of the intervention was supported by positive ratings on aspects of relevance and usefulness. To advance the science of health behavior change and improve client health status, person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from motivational theories can be applied and tested with a randomized, controlled design and diverse samples to replicate and extend this promising behavioral intervention.

  19. Health belief model and reasoned action theory in predicting water saving behaviors in yazd, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  20. Correlates of hepatitis B virus health-related behaviors of Korean Americans: a situation-specific nursing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Yang, Jin Hyang; Hann, Hie-Won

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the evolution of a situation-specific theory developed to enhance understanding of health-related behaviors of Korean Americans (KAs) who have or are at risk for a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The situation-specific theory evolved from an integration of the Network Episode Model, studies of health-related behaviors of people with HBV infection, and our studies of and practice experiences with Asian American individuals with HBV infection. The major concepts of the theory are sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, illness experience, and health-related behaviors. The major propositions of the theory are that sociocultural context, social network, and individual-level factors influence the illness experience, and that sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, and the illness experience influence health-related behaviors of KAs who have or are at risk for HBV infection. This situation-specific theory represents a translation of abstract concepts into clinical reality. The theory is an explanation of correlates of health-related HBV behaviors of KAs. The next step is to develop and test the effectiveness of a nursing intervention designed to promote behaviors that will enhance the health of KAs who have or are at risk for HBV infection, and that takes into account sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, and illness experience. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. [Theories of behavior change through preventive and health promotion interventions in occupational therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie

    2005-02-01

    Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.

  2. The theory of reasoned action as parallel constraint satisfaction: towards a dynamic computational model of health behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Orr

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach, although ubiquitous in health behavior theory (e.g., Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior, does not adequately address two key dynamical aspects of health behavior: learning and the effect of immediate social context (i.e., social influence. To remedy this, we put forth a computational implementation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA using artificial-neural networks. Our model re-conceptualized behavioral intention as arising from a dynamic constraint satisfaction mechanism among a set of beliefs. In two simulations, we show that constraint satisfaction can simultaneously incorporate the effects of past experience (via learning with the effects of immediate social context to yield behavioral intention, i.e., intention is dynamically constructed from both an individual's pre-existing belief structure and the beliefs of others in the individual's social context. In a third simulation, we illustrate the predictive ability of the model with respect to empirically derived behavioral intention. As the first known computational model of health behavior, it represents a significant advance in theory towards understanding the dynamics of health behavior. Furthermore, our approach may inform the development of population-level agent-based models of health behavior that aim to incorporate psychological theory into models of population dynamics.

  3. The theory of reasoned action as parallel constraint satisfaction: towards a dynamic computational model of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Thrush, Roxanne; Plaut, David C

    2013-01-01

    The reasoned action approach, although ubiquitous in health behavior theory (e.g., Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior), does not adequately address two key dynamical aspects of health behavior: learning and the effect of immediate social context (i.e., social influence). To remedy this, we put forth a computational implementation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) using artificial-neural networks. Our model re-conceptualized behavioral intention as arising from a dynamic constraint satisfaction mechanism among a set of beliefs. In two simulations, we show that constraint satisfaction can simultaneously incorporate the effects of past experience (via learning) with the effects of immediate social context to yield behavioral intention, i.e., intention is dynamically constructed from both an individual's pre-existing belief structure and the beliefs of others in the individual's social context. In a third simulation, we illustrate the predictive ability of the model with respect to empirically derived behavioral intention. As the first known computational model of health behavior, it represents a significant advance in theory towards understanding the dynamics of health behavior. Furthermore, our approach may inform the development of population-level agent-based models of health behavior that aim to incorporate psychological theory into models of population dynamics.

  4. Determinants of responsibility for health, spiritual health and interpersonal relationship based on theory of planned behavior in high school girl students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Afsaneh; Solhi, Mahnaz; Azam, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period of acquiring normal and abnormal habits for all oflife. The study investigates determinants of responsibility for health, spiritual health and interpersonal relations and predictive factors based on the theory of planned behavior in high school girl students in Tabriz. In this Cross-sectional study, 340 students were selected thorough multi-stage sampling. An author-made questionnaire based on standard questionnaires of Health Promotion and Lifestyle II (HPLPII), spiritual health standards (Palutzian & Ellison) and components of the theory of planned behavior (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention) was used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated in a pilot study. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.15 and descriptive and analytical tests (Chi-square test, Pearson correlation co-efficient and liner regression test in backward method). Students' responsibility for health, spiritual health, interpersonal relationships, and concepts of theory of planned behavior was moderate. We found a significant positive correlation (ptheory of planned behavior. Attitude and perceived behavioral control predicted 35% of intention of behavioral change (pbehavioral control predicted 74% of behavioral change in accountability for health (pbehavioral change in spiritual health (pbehavioral change in interpersonal relationship (pbehavioral intention and its determinants such as perceived behavioral control should be noted in promoting intervention programs.

  5. The Theory of Reasoned Action as Parallel Constraint Satisfaction: Towards a Dynamic Computational Model of Health Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, Mark G.; Thrush, Roxanne; Plaut, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The reasoned action approach, although ubiquitous in health behavior theory (e.g., Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior), does not adequately address two key dynamical aspects of health behavior: learning and the effect of immediate social context (i.e., social influence). To remedy this, we put forth a computational implementation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) using artificial-neural networks. Our model re-conceptualized behavioral intention as arising from a dynamic constrain...

  6. Mental and Emotional Self-Help Technology Apps: Cross-Sectional Study of Theory, Technology, and Mental Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Benjamin T; West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Dahle, Kaitana Martinez; Heaton, Thomas L; Beck, Robin N; Muralidharan, Chandni

    2017-10-17

    Mental and emotional self-help apps have emerged as potential mental illness prevention and treatment tools. The health behavior theory mechanisms by which these apps influence mental health-related behavior change have not been thoroughly examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between theoretical behavior change mechanisms and use of mental and emotional self-help apps and whether the use of such apps is associated with mental health behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey of 150 users of mental or emotional health apps in the past 6 months. Survey questions included theory-based items, app engagement and likeability items, and behavior change items. Stata version 14 was used to calculate all statistics. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each of the demographic, theory, engagement, and behavior variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Participants reported that app use increased their motivation, desire to set goals, confidence, control, and intentions to be mentally and emotionally healthy. Engagement (Ptheory items, whereas perceived behavior change was positively associated with theory (Ptheory items. Future efforts should consider the value of impacting key theoretical constructs when designing mental and emotional health apps. As apps are evaluated and additional theory-based apps are created, cost-effective self-help apps may become common preventative and treatment tools in the mental health field. ©Benjamin T Crookston, Joshua H West, P Cougar Hall, Kaitana Martinez Dahle, Thomas L Heaton, Robin N Beck, Chandni Muralidharan. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 17.10.2017.

  7. [Survey on individual occupational health protection behaviors of welding workers using theory of reasoned action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ming-luan; Zhou, Xu-dong; Yuan, Wei-ming; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Mei-bian; Zou, Hua; Zhao, Hai-ying

    2012-03-01

    To apply theory of reasoned action at survey on welding workers occupational health protection behaviors and explore related influencing factors. nine companies were randomly selected from areas with many welding works in Zhejiang Province. All welding workers were surveyed using a questionnaire based on theory of reasoned action. 10.06%, 26.80% and 37.50% of the respondents never or seldom used eyeshade, mask and earplug, respectively. After controlling the socio-demographic factors, welding workers' behavioral belief was correlated with the behaviors of eyeshade-mask and earplug use (χ(2) = 31.88, 18.77 and 37.77, P reasoned action is suitable for welding worker occupational health related behaviors. It is useful to improve occupational health education, to effectively select health education objective and to tailor health education contents.

  8. Theories Applied to m-Health Interventions for Behavior Change in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon-Min; Lee, Seohyun; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Kim, Sun-Young

    2018-02-13

    Recently there has been dramatic increase in the use of mobile technologies for health (m-Health) in both high and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, little is known whether m-Health interventions in LMICs are based on relevant theories critical for effective implementation of such interventions. This review aimed to systematically identify m-Health studies on health behavioral changes in LMICs and to examine how each study applied behavior change theories. A systematic review was conducted using the standard method from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. By searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [CENTRAL]), we identified eligible studies published in English from inception to June 30, 2017. For the identified m-Health studies in LMICs, we examined their theoretical bases, use of behavior change techniques (BCTs), and modes of delivery. A total of 14 m-Health studies on behavioral changes were identified and, among them, only 5 studies adopted behavior change theory. The most frequently cited theory was the health belief model, which was adopted in three studies. Likewise, studies have applied only a limited number of BCTs. Among the seven BCTs identified, the most frequently used one was the social support (practical) technique for medication reminder and medical appointment. m-Health studies in LMICs most commonly used short messaging services and phone calls as modes of delivery for behavior change interventions. m-Health studies in LMICs are suboptimally based on behavior change theory yet. To maximize effectiveness of m-Health, rigorous delivery methods as well as theory-based intervention designs will be needed.

  9. Legislator voting and behavioral science theory: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Vernick, Jon S; Reiney, Erin V; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-11-01

    To examine the application of behavioral science theories to explain the voting behavior of legislators for public health policies. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that examined factors associated with legislator support, intention to vote, or actual votes on public health policies, emphasizing those grounded in behavior science theory. Twenty-one papers met our inclusion criteria, and 6 were explicitly grounded in a behavioral science theory. Behavioral science theories, and the theory of planned behavior in particular, provide a framework for understanding legislator voting behavior and can be used by advocates to advance pro-health policies.

  10. Theory X/Y in the Health Care Setting: Employee Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, David J; Nummelin, Mary Rogers

    Douglas McGregor's conceptualization of Theory X and Theory Y has influenced management practices for almost six decades, despite the relative paucity of empirical support. This empirical study examined the relationships between health care employees' perceptions of (1) manager Theory Y and Theory X orientations; (2) work unit psychological safety, organizational citizenship behavior, and service quality; and (3) the employing entity. The study used survey data from more than 3500 employees of a large US health care system and analyzed them using confirmatory factor and hierarchical regression analyses. Results indicate that McGregor's conceptualization is best considered as two separate constructs-Theory Y and Theory X-rather than as one-dimensional X/Y construct. This study's three dependent variables were positively related to Theory Y and negatively related to Theory X, with larger Theory Y effect sizes. Psychological safety partially mediated the relationship between Theory Y and the dependent variables Y. Practical implications are presented.

  11. Investigating the Perceptions of Care Coordinators on Using Behavior Theory-Based Mobile Health Technology With Medicaid Populations: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Brittany Erika

    2017-03-21

    Medicaid populations are less engaged in their health care than the rest of the population, translating to worse health outcomes and increased health care costs. Since theory-based mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to increase patient engagement, mobile phones may be an optimal strategy to reach this population. With increased development of theory-based mHealth technology, these interventions must now be evaluated with these medically underserved populations in a real-world setting. The aim of our study was to investigate care coordinators' perceived value of using a health behavior theory-based mHealth platform with Medicaid clients. In particular, attention was paid to the perceived impact on patient engagement. This research was conducted using the patient-provider text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform, Sense Health (now Wellpass), which integrates the transtheoretical model (TTM), also called the stages of change model; social cognitive theory (SCT); supportive accountability; and motivational interviewing (MI). Interviews based in grounded theory methodology were conducted with 10 care managers to understand perceptions of the relationship between mHealth and patient engagement. The interviews with care managers yielded a foundation for a grounded theory model, presenting themes that suggested 4 intertwined correlative relationships revolving around patient engagement: (1) A text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform supplements the client-care manager dynamic, which is grounded in high quality, reciprocal-communication to increase patient engagement; (2) Texting enhances the relationship between literacy and access to care for Medicaid patients, increasing low-literacy patients' agency to access services; (3) Texting enhances communication, providing care managers with a new means to support their clients; and (4) Reminders augment client accountability, leading to both increased motivation and readiness to change

  12. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior—the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N=739) ages 18–26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed ten months later. Results Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Conclusions Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior. PMID:22547155

  13. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  14. Using fuzzy-trace theory to understand and improve health judgments, decisions, and behaviors: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J; Reyna, Valerie F

    2016-08-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory is a dual-process model of memory, reasoning, judgment, and decision making that contrasts with traditional expectancy-value approaches. We review the literature applying fuzzy-trace theory to health with 3 aims: evaluating whether the theory's basic distinctions have been validated empirically in the domain of health; determining whether these distinctions are useful in assessing, explaining, and predicting health-related psychological processes; and determining whether the theory can be used to improve health judgments, decisions, or behaviors, especially compared to other approaches. We conducted a literature review using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science to identify empirical peer-reviewed papers that applied fuzzy-trace theory, or central constructs of the theory, to investigate health judgments, decisions, or behaviors. Seventy nine studies (updated total is 94 studies; see Supplemental materials) were identified, over half published since 2012, spanning a wide variety of conditions and populations. Study findings supported the prediction that verbatim and gist representations are distinct constructs that can be retrieved independently using different cues. Although gist-based reasoning was usually associated with improved judgment and decision making, 4 sources of bias that can impair gist reasoning were identified. Finally, promising findings were reported from intervention studies that used fuzzy-trace theory to improve decision making and decrease unhealthy risk taking. Despite large gaps in the literature, most studies supported all 3 aims. By focusing on basic psychological processes that underlie judgment and decision making, fuzzy-trace theory provides insights into how individuals make decisions involving health risks and suggests innovative intervention approaches to improve health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Using meta-analytic path analysis to test theoretical predictions in health behavior: An illustration based on meta-analyses of the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hagger, Martin; Chan, Dervin K. C.; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs fr...

  16. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  17. Social Ecology of Asthma: Engaging Stakeholders in Integrating Health Behavior Theories and Practice-Based Evidence through Systems Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Emily M.; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Yeatts, Karin B.; Hernandez, Michelle L.; Smith, Timothy W.; Lewis, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process for integrating health behavior and social science theories with practice-based insights using participatory systems thinking and diagramming methods largely inspired by system dynamics methods. This integration can help close the gap between research and practice in health education and health behavior by offering…

  18. Integrating Health Behavior Theory and Design Elements in Serious Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Colleen; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs Fg; Bridgman, Heather; Stasiak, Karolina; Shepherd, Matthew; Orpin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Internet interventions for improving health and well-being have the potential to reach many people and fill gaps in service provision. Serious gaming interfaces provide opportunities to optimize user adherence and impact. Health interventions based in theory and evidence and tailored to psychological constructs have been found to be more effective to promote behavior change. Defining the design elements which engage users and help them to meet their goals can contribute to better informed serious games. To elucidate design elements important in SPARX, a serious game for adolescents with depression, from a user-centered perspective. We proposed a model based on an established theory of health behavior change and practical features of serious game design to organize ideas and rationale. We analyzed data from 5 studies comprising a total of 22 focus groups and 66 semistructured interviews conducted with youth and families in New Zealand and Australia who had viewed or used SPARX. User perceptions of the game were applied to this framework. A coherent framework was established using the three constructs of self-determination theory (SDT), autonomy, competence, and relatedness, to organize user perceptions and design elements within four areas important in design: computer game, accessibility, working alliance, and learning in immersion. User perceptions mapped well to the framework, which may assist developers in understanding the context of user needs. By mapping these elements against the constructs of SDT, we were able to propose a sound theoretical base for the model. This study's method allowed for the articulation of design elements in a serious game from a user-centered perspective within a coherent overarching framework. The framework can be used to deliberately incorporate serious game design elements that support a user's sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, key constructs which have been found to mediate motivation at all stages of the change

  19. The behavioral economics of health and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    People often make decisions in health care that are not in their best interest, ranging from failing to enroll in health insurance to which they are entitled, to engaging in extremely harmful behaviors. Traditional economic theory provides a limited tool kit for improving behavior because it assumes that people make decisions in a rational way, have the mental capacity to deal with huge amounts of information and choice, and have tastes endemic to them and not open to manipulation. Melding economics with psychology, behavioral economics acknowledges that people often do not act rationally in the economic sense. It therefore offers a potentially richer set of tools than provided by traditional economic theory to understand and influence behaviors. Only recently, however, has it been applied to health care. This article provides an overview of behavioral economics, reviews some of its contributions, and shows how it can be used in health care to improve people's decisions and health.

  20. Cultural Context and Modification of Behavior Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2009-01-01

    Although social and cultural contexts act on each level of the multilevel ecologic model to affect cancer risk, health behavior, and cancer screening and promotion in health behavior research, people have yet to develop theories that sufficiently integrate the social and environmental context with group and individual behavior. The "Behavioral…

  1. Using a Modified Theory of Planned Behavior to Examine Adolescents' Workplace Safety and Health Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behavioral Intention: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Rebecca J; Toland, Michael D; Okun, Andrea H; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Bernard, Amy L

    2018-03-31

    Work, a defining feature of adolescence in the United States, has many benefits. Work also has risks, as adolescents experience a higher rate of serious job-related injuries compared to adults. Talking Safety, a free curriculum from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is one tool educators may adopt to provide teens with essential workplace safety and health education. Adolescents (N = 2503; female, 50.1%; Hispanic, 50.0%) in a large urban school district received Talking Safety from their eighth-grade science teachers. This study used a modified theory of planned behavior (which included a knowledge construct), to examine students' pre- and post-intervention scores on workplace safety and health knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and behavioral intention to enact job safety skills. The results from confirmatory factor analyses indicate three unique dimensions reflecting the theory, with a separate knowledge factor. Reliability estimates are ω ≥ .83. The findings from the structural equation models demonstrate that all paths, except pre- to posttest behavioral intention, are statistically significant. Self-efficacy is the largest contributor to the total effect of these associations. As hypothesized, knowledge has indirect effects on behavioral intention. Hispanic students scored lower at posttest on all but the behavioral intention measure, possibly suggesting the need for tailored materials to reach some teens. Overall the findings support the use of a modified theory of planned behavior to evaluate the effectiveness of a foundational workplace safety and health curriculum. This study may inform future efforts to ensure that safe and healthy work becomes integral to the adolescent experience.

  2. Self-Determination Theory With Application to Employee Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brenda M; Barnes, Donelle M

    2018-01-01

    Occupational health nurses motivate employees to engage in healthy behaviors. Both clinicians and researchers need strong theories on which to base decisions for health programs (e.g., healthy diet) and experimental interventions (e.g., workplace walking). The self-determination theory could be useful as it includes concepts of individual autonomy, competence to perform healthy behaviors, and relationships as predictors of health behaviors and outcomes. In this article, the self-determination theory is described and evaluated using Walker and Avant's criteria. The theory is applied to a population of federal employees who smoke. By increasing employees' ability to autonomously choose smoking cessation programs, support their competence to stop smoking, and improve their relationships with both others who smoke and employee health services, smoking cessation should increase.

  3. Are socioeconomic disparities in health behavior mediated by differential media use? Test of the communication inequality theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Naoki; Kawachi, Ichiro; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2016-11-01

    Communication inequality has been offered as one potential mechanism through which social determinants influence multiple health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying mechanisms between communication inequality and health behaviors. Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 18,426 people aged 18 years and above in the United States were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, social participation (structural social capital), health media use (TV, print, and the Internet), and five health behaviors (physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and intake of fruit and vegetable). Path analysis was performed to examine the linkages between social determinants, health media use, social participation, and social gradients in health behaviors. Path analysis revealed that socioeconomic gradients in health behaviors is mediated by: 1) inequalities in health media use; 2) disparities in social participation, which leads to differential media use; and 3) disparities in social participation that are not mediated by media use. Consistent with the theory of communication inequality, socioeconomic disparities in media use partially mediate disparities in multiple health behaviors. To address health inequalities, it is important to utilize health media to target populations with low socioeconomic statuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  5. Effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in rural households of kerman, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors.

  6. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  7. Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew B; Jensen, Peter S; Jaccard, James; Gollwitzer, Peter; Oettingen, Gabriele; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2007-03-01

    Despite major recent research advances, large gaps exist between accepted mental health knowledge and clinicians' real-world practices. Although hundreds of studies have successfully utilized basic behavioral science theories to understand, predict, and change patients' health behaviors, the extent to which these theories-most notably the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB)-have been applied to understand and change clinician behavior is unclear. This article reviews the application of theory-driven approaches to understanding and changing clinician behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched, along with bibliographies, textbooks on health behavior or public health, and references from experts, to find article titles that describe theory-driven approaches (TRA or TPB) to understanding and modifying health professionals' behavior. A total of 19 articles that detailed 20 studies described the use of TRA or TPB and clinicians' behavior. Eight articles describe the use of TRA or TPB with physicians, four relate to nurses, three relate to pharmacists, and two relate to health workers. Only two articles applied TRA or TPB to mental health clinicians. The body of work shows that different constructs of TRA or TPB predict intentions and behavior among different groups of clinicians and for different behaviors and guidelines. The number of studies on this topic is extremely limited, but they offer a rationale and a direction for future research as well as a theoretical basis for increasing the specificity and efficiency of clinician-targeted interventions.

  8. The interplay between affect and theory of planned behavior variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keer, M.; van den Putte, B.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether affective evaluations of health behaviors moderate or mediate the influence of theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables on intention. Methods: For each of 20 health behaviors, respondents (N=300) completed questionnaire measures of affective evaluation, attitude,

  9. Extending Theory-Based Quantitative Predictions to New Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Leslie Ann D; Velicer, Wayne F; Redding, Colleen A; Rossi, Joseph S; Prochaska, James O

    2016-04-01

    Traditional null hypothesis significance testing suffers many limitations and is poorly adapted to theory testing. A proposed alternative approach, called Testing Theory-based Quantitative Predictions, uses effect size estimates and confidence intervals to directly test predictions based on theory. This paper replicates findings from previous smoking studies and extends the approach to diet and sun protection behaviors using baseline data from a Transtheoretical Model behavioral intervention (N = 5407). Effect size predictions were developed using two methods: (1) applying refined effect size estimates from previous smoking research or (2) using predictions developed by an expert panel. Thirteen of 15 predictions were confirmed for smoking. For diet, 7 of 14 predictions were confirmed using smoking predictions and 6 of 16 using expert panel predictions. For sun protection, 3 of 11 predictions were confirmed using smoking predictions and 5 of 19 using expert panel predictions. Expert panel predictions and smoking-based predictions poorly predicted effect sizes for diet and sun protection constructs. Future studies should aim to use previous empirical data to generate predictions whenever possible. The best results occur when there have been several iterations of predictions for a behavior, such as with smoking, demonstrating that expected values begin to converge on the population effect size. Overall, the study supports necessity in strengthening and revising theory with empirical data.

  10. Anticipated regret and health behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Noel T; DeFrank, Jessica T; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2016-11-01

    Risk beliefs are central to most theories of health behavior, yet many unanswered questions remain about an increasingly studied risk construct, anticipated regret. The authors sought to better understand anticipated regret's role in motivating health behaviors. The authors systematically searched electronic databases for studies of anticipated regret and behavioral intentions or health behavior. They used random effects meta-analysis to synthesize effect sizes from 81 studies (n = 45,618). Anticipated regret was associated with both intentions (r+ = .50, p emotions and risk appraisals. Anticipated inaction regret has a stronger and more stable association with health behavior than previously thought. The field should give greater attention to understanding how anticipated regret differs from similar constructs, its role in health behavior theory, and its potential use in health behavior interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Complex systems and health behavior change: insights from cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Plaut, David C

    2014-05-01

    To provide proof-of-concept that quantum health behavior can be instantiated as a computational model that is informed by cognitive science, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and quantum health behavior theory. We conducted a synthetic review of the intersection of quantum health behavior change and cognitive science. We conducted simulations, using a computational model of quantum health behavior (a constraint satisfaction artificial neural network) and tested whether the model exhibited quantum-like behavior. The model exhibited clear signs of quantum-like behavior. Quantum health behavior can be conceptualized as constraint satisfaction: a mitigation between current behavioral state and the social contexts in which it operates. We outlined implications for moving forward with computational models of both quantum health behavior and health behavior in general.

  12. Wealth and health behavior: Testing the concept of a health cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans); T.J. Galama (Titus)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWealthier individuals engage in healthier behavior. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by exploiting both inheritances and lottery winnings to test a theory of health behavior. We distinguish between the direct monetary cost and the indirect health cost (value of health lost) of

  13. The Application of Gaming Theory in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzein, Ashley; Drenkard, Karen; Deyo, Patricia; Swartwout, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    As the US health care system moves rapidly toward a population health management focus in communities and care settings, the chief nursing officer has an opportunity to lead innovation efforts for patient care. One innovative strategy for use to influence patient behavior change, ongoing clinical education, and prelicensure education is the application of gaming theory into learning strategies. With the ever-increasing emphasis the general public is placing on social media and online gaming, there has been a significant push by the health sector in recent years to harness this medium for use in health management, education, and behavior change. A number of organizations and insurers have dedicated significant resources to researching and developing games and apps to help patients manage diseases, track self-management activities, and motivate behavior change for healthy lifestyles. This article shares information about gaming theory and its application to health care including a review of the science behind the theory, the use of technology, and gaming education strategies for both patients and clinicians.

  14. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  15. Theories underlying health promotion interventions among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Floyd, Andrea

    2008-08-01

    To review the theories that have been the basis for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) promoting health behavior change among adults diagnosed and treated for cancer. Electronic databases and recent review papers. Several theories have been used in intervention development: Transtheoretical Model, Motivational Interviewing, Social Learning and Social Cognitive Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Cognitive Behavioral Theory. There is support for the efficacy of some of these interventions. However, there has been limited assessment of theory-based constructs and examination of the mediational role of theoretical constructs in intervention efficacy. There is a need to apply theory in the development of interventions to assess the effects of the intervention on the constructs and to conduct mediational tests of these constructs.

  16. Application of health behavior theories to breast cancer screening among Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu

    2013-01-01

    Although breast cancer is a major public health worry among Asian women, adherence to screening for the disease remains an obstacle to its prevention. A variety of psycho-social and cultural factors predispose women to delay or avoidance of screening for breast cancer symptoms at the early stages when cure is most likely to be successful. Yet few interventions implemented to date to address this condition in this region have drawn on health behavior theory. This paper reviews the existing literature on several cognitive theories and models associated with breast cancer screening, with an emphasis on the work that has been done in relation to Asian women. To conduct this review, a number of electronic databases were searched with context-appropriate inclusion criteria. Little empirical work was found that specifically addressed the applicability of health theories in promoting adherence to the current breast cancer prevention programs Among Asian women. However, a few studies were found that addressed individual cognitive factors that are likely to encourage women's motivation to protect themselves against breast cancer in this region of the world. The findings suggest that multi-level, socio-cultural interventions that focus on cognitive factors have much promise with this issue. Interventions are needed that effectively and efficiently target the personal motivation of at-risk Asian women to seek out and engage in breast cancer prevention. Concerning implications, personal motivation to seek out and engage in individual preventive actions for breast cancer prevention among Asian women is a timely, high priority target with practical implications for community development and health promotion. Further studies using qualitative, anthropologic approaches shaped for implementation in multi-ethnic Asian settings are needed to inform and guide these interventions.

  17. Health lifestyle behaviors among U.S. adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarron M. Saint Onge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing research that studies individual health behaviors and conceive of behaviors as simplistically reflecting narrow intentions toward health may obscure the social organization of health behaviors. Instead, we examine how eight health behaviors group together to form distinct health behavior niches. Using nationally-representative data from U.S. adults aged 18 and over from the 2004–2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, we use Latent Class Analysis to identify classes of behavior based on smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity, physician visits, and flu vaccination. We identify 7 distinct health behavior classes including concordant health promoting (44%, concordant health compromising (26%, and discordant classes (30%. We find significant race/ethnic, sex, regional, and age differences in class membership. We show that health behavior classes are associated with prospective mortality, suggesting that they are valid representations of health lifestyles. We discuss the implications of our results for sociological theories of health behaviors, as well as for multiple behavior interventions seeking to improve population health.

  18. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social

  19. Predicting health-promoting self-care behaviors in people with pre-diabetes by applying Bandura social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Hung, Shu-Ling

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to apply Bandura social learning theory in a model for identifying personal and environmental factors that predict health-promoting self-care behaviors in people with pre-diabetes. The theoretical basis of health-promoting self-care behaviors must be examined to obtain evidence-based knowledge that can help improve the effectiveness of pre-diabetes care. However, such behaviors are rarely studied in people with pre-diabetes. This quantitative, cross-sectional survey study was performed in a convenience sample of two hospitals in southern Taiwan. Two hundred people diagnosed with pre-diabetes at a single health examination center were recruited. A questionnaire survey was performed to collect data regarding personal factors (i.e., participant characteristics, pre-diabetes knowledge, and self-efficacy) and data regarding environmental factors (i.e., social support and perceptions of empowerment process) that may have associations with health-promoting self-care behaviors in people with pre-diabetes. Multiple linear regression showed that the factors that had the largest influence on the practice of health-promoting self-care behaviors were self-efficacy, diabetes history, perceptions of empowerment process, and pre-diabetes knowledge. These factors explained 59.3% of the variance in health-promoting self-care behaviors. To prevent the development of diabetes in people with pre-diabetes, healthcare professionals should consider both the personal and the environmental factors identified in this study when assessing health promoting self-care behaviors in patients with pre-diabetes and when selecting the appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.

  1. Storytelling/narrative theory to address health communication with minority populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; DeMarco, Rosanna

    2016-05-01

    To explain the development and application of storytelling/narrative theory in health disparities intervention research as a way to promote health communication and behavior change among racial, ethnic, and minority populations. The proposed storytelling theory helps explain that storytelling affects changes in attitude and health behavior of the viewer through realism, identification, and transportation. The proposed storytelling/narrative theory can be a guide to develop culturally grounded narrative interventions that have the ability to connect with hard-to-reach populations. Narrative communication is context-dependent because it derives meaning from the surrounding situation and provides situation-based stories that are a pathway to processing story content. Although storytelling is grounded in nursing practice and education, it is underutilized in nursing interventional research. Future efforts are needed to extend theory-based narrative intervention studies designed to change attitude and behaviors that will reduce health disparities among minorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Wealth and Health Behavior: Testing the Concept of a Health Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kippersluis, Hans; Galama, Titus J

    2014-11-01

    Wealthier individuals engage in healthier behavior. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by exploiting both inheritances and lottery winnings to test a theory of health behavior. We distinguish between the direct monetary cost and the indirect health cost (value of health lost) of unhealthy consumption. The health cost increases with wealth and the degree of unhealthiness, leading wealthier individuals to consume more healthy and moderately unhealthy, but fewer severely unhealthy goods. The empirical evidence presented suggests that differences in health costs may indeed partially explain behavioral differences, and ultimately health outcomes, between wealth groups.

  3. The Examination of the Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention based on the Planned Behavior Theory on Improving Pubertal Health Behavior in Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Eslamimehr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty is a period of psychological, physical, mental, emotional and social growth that stability and development of personality occurs in this period. This study aimed to determine the effect of planned behavior theory on improving pubertal health behavior in female first grade high school students. Materials and Methods:  A quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in female high school in Khamir city, Iran in 2015. One of the schools were randomly assigned to the control group and other to the experimental group. Using the formula sample, 60 students were selected from each school. Samples were evaluated in two stages through pre-test and two months later via post-test by administered questionnaire including questions about demographic characteristics and structures of planned behavior theory. The content of training was presented through lecture group discussion with teaching aids such as booklet and pamphlet. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: The intervention group mean age at first menstrual period was 12.30 ± 0.84 years old and for control group was 12.25 ± 0.79 years old. The results showed that two months after the intervention, health behaviors, subjective norms, behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude, were significantly higher than pre- intervention (P

  4. The eHealth Behavior Management Model: a stage-based approach to behavior change and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Robert J; Mercer, Nelda; Brusk, John J; Underhile, Ric; Rivas, Jason; Anderson, Judith; Kelleher, Deanne; Lupella, Melissa; de Jager, André C

    2004-10-01

    Although the Internet has become an important avenue for disseminating health information, theory-driven strategies for aiding individuals in changing or managing health behaviors are lacking. The eHealth Behavior Management Model combines the Transtheoretical Model, the behavioral intent aspect of the Theory of Planned Behavior, and persuasive communication to assist individuals in negotiating the Web toward stage-specific information. It is here - at the point of stage-specific information - that behavioral intent in moving toward more active stages of change occurs. The eHealth Behavior Management Model is applied in three demonstration projects that focus on behavior management issues: parent-child nutrition education among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; asthma management among university staff and students; and human immunodeficiency virus prevention among South African women. Preliminary results have found the eHealth Behavior Management Model to be promising as a model for Internet-based behavior change programming. Further application and evaluation among other behavior and disease management issues are needed.

  5. Close relationship processes and health: implications of attachment theory for health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; Uchino, Bert; Dunkel Schetter, Christine

    2013-05-01

    Health psychology has contributed significantly to understanding the link between psychological factors and health and well-being, but it has not often incorporated advances in relationship science into hypothesis generation and study design. We present one example of a theoretical model, following from a major relationship theory (attachment theory) that integrates relationship constructs and processes with biopsychosocial processes and health outcomes. We briefly describe attachment theory and present a general framework linking it to dyadic relationship processes (relationship behaviors, mediators, and outcomes) and health processes (physiology, affective states, health behavior, and health outcomes). We discuss the utility of the model for research in several health domains (e.g., self-regulation of health behavior, pain, chronic disease) and its implications for interventions and future research. This framework revealed important gaps in knowledge about relationships and health. Future work in this area will benefit from taking into account individual differences in attachment, adopting a more explicit dyadic approach, examining more integrated models that test for mediating processes, and incorporating a broader range of relationship constructs that have implications for health. A theoretical framework for studying health that is based in relationship science can accelerate progress by generating new research directions designed to pinpoint the mechanisms through which close relationships promote or undermine health. Furthermore, this knowledge can be applied to develop more effective interventions to help individuals and their relationship partners with health-related challenges. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Gender, health behavior, and intimate relationships: lesbian, gay, and straight contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2012-06-01

    Many studies focus on health behavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around health behavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N = 100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of "health behavior work" to align activities done to promote health behavior with theories on unpaid work in the home. Respondents in all couple types describe specialized health behavior work, wherein one partner works to shape the other partner's health behavior. In straight couples, women perform the bulk of specialized health behavior work. Most gay and lesbian respondents-but few straight respondents--also describe cooperative health behavior work, wherein partners mutually influence one another's health behaviors. Findings suggest that the gendered relational context of an intimate partnership shapes the dynamics of and explanations for health behavior work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The persuasive power of oral health promotion messages: a theory of planned behavior approach to dental checkups among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christina N; Noar, Seth M; Rogers, Brandi D

    2013-01-01

    Although routine dental checkups are important for both oral and overall health, several factors influence young adults' use or nonuse of dental services. The two studies included in this report tested the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and an expanded TPB model in predicting young adults' routine dental checkups. Additionally, the study tested the perceived message effectiveness of TPB-based messages. Results support the use of an expanded TPB model (particularly adding satisfaction with the dentist and environmental constraints to the traditional model) for an understanding of routine dental checkup intention and behavior, and, most notably, provide support for the use of subjective norm-based messages to prompt dental checkups. This study lays the groundwork for a health communication campaign encouraging routine dental checkups among young adults. The use of targeting and tailoring to design effective oral health media campaign messages is discussed.

  8. Perceived enjoyment, concentration, intention, and speed violation behavior: Using flow theory and theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atombo, Charles; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhang, Hui; Wemegah, Tina D

    2017-10-03

    Road accidents are an important public health concern, and speeding is a major contributor. Although flow theory (FLT) is a valid model for understanding behavior, currently the nature of the roles and interplay of FLT constructs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework when attempting to explain the determinants of motivations for intention to speed and speeding behavior of car drivers is not yet known. The study aims to synthesize TPB and FLT in explaining drivers of advanced vehicles intentions to speed and speed violation behaviors and evaluate factors that are critical for explaining intention and behavior. The hypothesized model was validated using a sample collected from 354 fully licensed drivers of advanced vehicles, involving 278 males and 76 females on 2 occasions separated by a 3-month interval. During the first of the 2 occasions, participants completed questionnaire measures of TPB and FLT variables. Three months later, participants' speed violation behaviors were assessed. The study observed a significant positive relationship between the constructs. The proposed model accounted for 51 and 45% of the variance in intention to speed and speed violation behavior, respectively. The independent predictors of intention were enjoyment, attitude, and subjective norm. The independent predictors of speed violation behavior were enjoyment, concentration, intention, and perceived behavioral control. The findings suggest that safety interventions for preventing speed violation behaviors should be aimed at underlying beliefs influencing the speeding behaviors of drivers of advanced vehicles. Furthermore, perceived enjoyment is of equal importance to driver's intention, influencing speed violation behavior.

  9. Utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior for predicting physician behavior: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, S G

    1996-09-01

    The utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for prospectively predicting physicians' delivery of preventive services was compared. Primary care physicians (N = 765) completed 2 mail surveys at periods 6 months apart. The addition of perceived behavioral control to the TRA model significantly increased the variance accounted for in behavioral intention and subsequent behavior (p behavioral control had direct effects on behavior and interacted with social norms and behavioral intentions. Applications of models such as the TRA or TPB have focused primarily on predicting the behavioral intentions and behaviors of patients. Results suggest that these models have relevance for studying the behavior of health care providers as well.

  10. Theory and model use in social marketing health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Nadina Raluca; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that theories and models can serve as valuable frameworks for the design and evaluation of health interventions. However, evidence on the use of theories and models in social marketing interventions is sparse. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify to what extent papers about social marketing health interventions report using theory, which theories are most commonly used, and how theory was used. A systematic search was conducted for articles that reported social marketing interventions for the prevention or management of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, HIV, STDs, and tobacco use, and behaviors related to reproductive health, physical activity, nutrition, and smoking cessation. Articles were published in English, after 1990, reported an evaluation, and met the 6 social marketing benchmarks criteria (behavior change, consumer research, segmentation and targeting, exchange, competition and marketing mix). Twenty-four articles, describing 17 interventions, met the inclusion criteria. Of these 17 interventions, 8 reported using theory and 7 stated how it was used. The transtheoretical model/stages of change was used more often than other theories. Findings highlight an ongoing lack of use or underreporting of the use of theory in social marketing campaigns and reinforce the call to action for applying and reporting theory to guide and evaluate interventions.

  11. Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W

    2014-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackman CL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB and the theory of reasoned action (TRA have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults.Methods: The following databases were systematically searched to find articles for this review: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL; Education Resources Information Center (ERIC; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1 primary or secondary interventions, 2 with any quantitative design, 3 published in the English language, 4 between January 2003 and March 2014, 5 that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6 which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7 utilized TPB or TRA.Results: Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication.Conclusion: Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors

  13. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.

  14. Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adult active transportation: adding habit strength to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Singh, A.; van den Putte, B.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many health behaviors have a history of repetition and, as a result, may become habitual. Because including a measure of habit strength may add depth to current theoretical models on health behavior, the present study explored the issue of habit strength within the context of the theory

  16. Evaluation of physical activity web sites for use of behavior change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Amol; Patrick, Kevin; Sallis, James F; Calfas, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) Web sites were assessed for their use of behavior change theories, including constructs of the health belief model, Transtheoretical Model, social cognitive theory, and the theory of reasoned action and planned behavior. An evaluation template for assessing PA Web sites was developed, and content validity and interrater reliability were demonstrated. Two independent raters evaluated 24 PA Web sites. Web sites varied widely in application of theory-based constructs, ranging from 5 to 48 on a 100-point scale. The most common intervention strategies were general information, social support, and realistic goal areas. Coverage of theory-based strategies was low, varying from 26% for social cognitive theory to 39% for health belief model. Overall, PA Web sites provided little assessment, feedback, or individually tailored assistance for users. They were unable to substantially tailor the on-line experience for users at different stages of change or different demographic characteristics.

  17. The Theory of Planned Behavior as it predicts potential intention to seek mental health services for depression among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Lisa M; Cotter, Kelly A; Kravitz, Richard L; Cello, Philip C; Fernandez Y Garcia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Between 9.5% and 31.3% of college students suffer from depression (American college health association national college health assessment II: reference group executive summary spring 2013. Amer. Coll. Health Assoc. 2013; Eagan K, Stolzenberg EB, Ramirez JJ, Aragon, MC, Suchard, RS, Hurtado S. The American freshman: national norms fall 2014. Higher Educ. Res. Inst.; 2015). Universities need to understand the factors that relate to care-seeking behavior. Across 3 studies, to relate attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavioral control to intention to seek mental health services, and to investigate barriers to care-seeking. University college students (N = 845, 64% female, 26% male, and 10% unspecified). New measures were created in Studies 1 and 2, and were examined using structural equation modeling in Study 3. Partially consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, I, Fishbein, M. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1980), a model with an excellent fit revealed that more positive attitudes about care and higher perceived behavioral control directly predicted higher intention to seek mental health services. Educating college students about mental health disorders and treatments, enhancing knowledge about available services, and addressing limited access to long-term care might improve treatment rates for students suffering from depression.

  18. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  19. Improving hand hygiene compliance in healthcare settings using behavior change theories: reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Pittet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Although hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing healthcare-associated infections, hand hygiene practice falls short in many healthcare facilities. The compliance rate is mostly linked to system design and easily accessible hand hygiene products. System change, healthcare worker motivation, and complex behavioral considerations seem to play a significant role. This article discusses the application of behavioral theories in hand hygiene promotion in a theoretical manner. The program relies on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health behavior change, John Keller's (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Thus, the program links attitudes and behavior to hand hygiene promotion. The TTM of health behavior change helps to tailor interventions to predict and motivate individual movement across the pathway to change. A program could be based on this theory with multiple intercalations with John Keller's ARCS and the TPB. Such a program could be strengthened by linking attitudes and behavior to promote hand hygiene. The program could utilize different strategies such as organization cultural change that may increase the attention as well as fostering the movement in the ARCS stages. In addition, modeling TPB by creating peer pressure, ability to overcome obstacles, and increasing knowledge of the role of hand hygiene may lead to the desired outcome. The understanding and application of behavior change theories may result in an effective program to improve awareness and raise intention and thus may increase the potential for success of hand hygiene promotion programs.

  20. Determinants of customers' intention to participate in a Korean restaurant health promotion program: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyungeui; Gittelsohn, Joel; Joung, Hyojee

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of personal characteristics and theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to participate in a restaurant health promotion program. In total, 830 adults residing in Seoul were sampled by a multi-stage cluster and random sampling design. Data were collected from a structured self-administered questionnaire, which covered variables concerning demographics, health status and TPB constructs including attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. A path analysis combining personal characteristics and TPB constructs was used to investigate determinants of the customers' intention. Positive and negative attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control directly affected the intention to participate. Demographics and health status both directly and indirectly affected the intention to participate. This study identifies personal characteristics and TPB constructs that are important to planning and implementing a restaurant health promotion program.

  1. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman CL; Knowlden AP

    2014-01-01

    Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interven...

  2. Asthma management simulation for children: translating theory, methods, and strategies to effect behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Bartholomew, L Kay; Gold, Robert S; Pierrel, Elaine; Parcel, Guy S; Sockrider, Marianna M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Fernandez, Maria E; Berlin, Nina J; Abramson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Translating behavioral theories, models, and strategies to guide the development and structure of computer-based health applications is well recognized, although a continued challenge for program developers. A stepped approach to translate behavioral theory in the design of simulations to teach chronic disease management to children is described. This includes the translation steps to: 1) define target behaviors and their determinants, 2) identify theoretical methods to optimize behavioral change, and 3) choose educational strategies to effectively apply these methods and combine these into a cohesive computer-based simulation for health education. Asthma is used to exemplify a chronic health management problem and a computer-based asthma management simulation (Watch, Discover, Think and Act) that has been evaluated and shown to effect asthma self-management in children is used to exemplify the application of theory to practice. Impact and outcome evaluation studies have indicated the effectiveness of these steps in providing increased rigor and accountability, suggesting their utility for educators and developers seeking to apply simulations to enhance self-management behaviors in patients.

  3. Survey of osteoporosis preventive behaviors among women in Fasa: The Application of the Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khani Jeihooni

    2016-04-01

    self-regulation, social protection of social cognitive theory, and questionnaire of functional feeding and walking were determined to prevent osteoporosis in women. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: The average age of women was 40/9± 6/2 years. The variables of perceived susceptibility, motivation, social support and self-regulation for walking behavior and variables of perceived sensitivity and self-regulation for feeding behavior were predicted. There was a significant association between walking performance and perceived susceptibility (B=0.252 ,p=0/007, motivation (B=0.235 ,p=0.009, social support (B=0.078 ,p=0.030 and Self-regulation (B=0.105 ,p=0.007. In this study, there was a significant association between nutritional performance and perceived susceptibility (B=0.10,p=0.02, self-regulation (r=0.069 ,p=0.050. The variables under study expressed 29/1% of the variance in walking behavior and 20/2% of the variance in feeding behavior in osteoporosis prevention. Conclusion: The study indicated that perceived susceptibility, motivation, self-regulation and social support, otherwise more people might have osteoporosis preventive behaviors better .Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory can be used as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the prevention of osteoporosis in women and can help to improve and maintain their health.

  4. Adolescent Health-Compromising Behaviors: Motivating School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Liza; Scherer, David G.; Lee, William

    2000-01-01

    Investigated middle and high school counselors' perceptions of adolescent health-compromising behaviors and motivations to intervene. Data from a survey based on protection motivation theory showed differences in counselors' perceptions of the severity of risk-taking behaviors. Perceptions were highly correlated with intentions to seek out…

  5. Relationships between self-determination theory and theory of planned behavior applied to physical activity and exercise behavior in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jessica M; Iwanaga, Kanako; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Cotton, Brandi Parker; Deiches, Jon; Morrison, Blaise; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between self-determination theory (SDT) and theory of planned behavior (TpB) applied to physical activity and exercise behavior (PA&E) in people with chronic pain. Two hundred and eleven adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (28 males and 183 females, age range 18 to 82 years, mean age 43 years) were recruited from online support groups and clinic networks in the United States. Participants completed SDT measures relevant to PA&E on perceived autonomy support, autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as well as TpB measures relevant to PA&E on intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Correlational techniques and canonical correlation analysis were performed to examine the relationships and variance within and between theoretical dimensions. Overall, the SDT set accounted for 37% of the TpB variance and the TpB set accounted for 32% of the SDT set variance. The results indicate there are statistical similarities and differences between concepts in SDT and TpB models for PA&E. Using both empirical guidance and clinical expertise, researchers and practitioners should attempt to select and integrate non-redundant and complementary components from SDT, TpB, and other related health behavior theories.

  6. The interpersonal theory of suicide and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, S; Feldman, D; Snir, A; Apter, A; Carli, V; Hoven, C W; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D

    2015-09-01

    Joiner's interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide results from the combination of a perception of burdening others, social alienation, and the capability for self-harm. The theory gained some empirical support, however the overall model has yet to be tested. This study aimed to test the main predictions of IPTS in a large community sample of Israeli adolescents. 1196 Israeli Jewish and Arab high-school pupils participating in the SEYLE project completed a self-report questionnaire measuring perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, health risk behaviors, and non-suicidal self-injury (risk variables), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (outcome measures). The data were tested in cross-sectional regression models. Consistent with IPTS, perceived burdensomeness was found to interact with thwarted belongingness, predicting suicidal ideation. Depression mediated most of the effect of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness on suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for self-harm, as measured by health risk behaviors and direct non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors, predicted suicide attempt. However, this mechanism operated independently from ideation rather than in interaction with it, at variance with IPTS-based predictions. The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about causality and directionality. Proxy measures were used to test the interpersonal theory constructs. The findings support some of the IPTS predictions but not all, and imply two separate pathways for suicidal behavior in adolescents: one related to internalizing psychopathology and the other to self-harm behaviors. This conceptualization has clinical implications for the differential identification of adolescents at risk for suicidal behavior and for the development of prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  9. The predictive capacity of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior in exercise research: an integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, C L

    1995-04-01

    Although the association between habitual exercise and health benefits has been well documented, physical activity levels in the United States are lower than is necessary to reach the nation's health potential. Beliefs that people hold can be a motivating factor in engaging in exercise. A critical review of the literature was conducted to assess the efficacy of using the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior with respect to exercise. Evidence for the predictive utility of the theories was found. The Theory of Planned Behavior is a more promising framework for the study of exercise because it includes beliefs about control of factors that would facilitate or inhibit carrying out exercise. Strategies for use of the theories in planning exercise programs are provided and suggestions for future research discussed.

  10. Behavioral momentum theory: equations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context. The theory suggests that all reinforcers obtained in the presence of a discriminative stimulus increase resistance to change, regardless of whether those reinforcers are contingent on the target behavior, are noncontingent, or are even contingent on an alternative behavior. In this paper, we describe the equations that constitute the theory and address their application to issues of particular importance in applied settings. The theory provides a framework within which to consider the effects of interventions such as extinction, noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, and other phenomena (e.g., resurgence). Finally, the theory predicts some counterintuitive and potentially counterproductive effects of alternative reinforcement, and can serve as an integrative guide for intervention when its terms are identified with the relevant conditions of applied settings.

  11. Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The theoretical basis for practice-relevant medication use research: patient-centered/behavioral theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need for research to improve the quality of medication use among those who require pharmacotherapy. To describe how behavioral science theories can help to achieve this goal. We begin by describing what a theory is and the functions that theories serve. We then provide 8 guiding principles that are crucial for investigators to understand if they are to use theory appropriately. We conclude by discussing the need for a new model of patient medication self-management that incorporates information concerning factors operating at all levels of the ecological framework, ranging from patient-level to societal-level factors. The 8 guiding principles discussed are the following: (1) There is no single theory that is appropriate for guiding all medication use research; (2) Behavioral science theories are probabilistic, not deterministic; (3) When trying to influence a health behavior, the health behavior of interest must be defined precisely; (4) Many factors outside of patient control influence patient medication use; (5) Every patient is unique; (6) Patient motivation is a fundamental ingredient required to optimize medication use, especially when maintenance of long term behavior is the goal; (7) Health care providers can have a profound effect on patient medication use, and this effect can operate through several possible causal pathways; and (8) When planning an intervention to optimize medication use, it is important to develop a conceptual model that links intervention inputs to the ultimate outcomes that are desired. Medication use can be influenced by a wide variety of factors acting at different levels of the ecological model. The quality of research on medication use could be improved by development of an ecological model specific to medication self-management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social cognitive aspects of the participation in workplace health promotion as revealed by the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttger, Stefan; Maier, Johanna; Krex-Brinkmann, Larissa; Kowalski, Jens T; Krick, Annika; Felfe, Jörg; Stein, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Health-promoting efforts strongly depend on individual cognitions such as attitudes as well as social cognitive aspects of the work environment such as leadership and support. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical frame, participation behavior of employees in courses offered by the workplace health promotion (WHP) program of the German Armed Forces was investigated. Social cognitive aspects of the work environment, such as leadership behaviors by setting an example or optimizing organization of work, were included in the TPB components of subjective norm and perceived behavioral control, which allowed for an investigation of the specific effects of leadership on WHP participation. A survey study with N=1385 members of the German Armed Forces was conducted in 2015 in Germany. Results showed that perceived behavioral control and attitudes towards WHP were the strongest predictors for WHP participation. While subjective norm was positively related to attitudes, it had a slightly negative effect on intention to participate in WHP activities. These findings suggest that the most effective way for leadership to increase WHP participation is to enhance perceived behavioral control. Quite contrary, creating a positive subjective norm regarding WHP participation may even result in psychological reactance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow for Exercise Adherence: Testing an Intrinsic Model of Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. Lingyak; Holtz, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health behavior theory generally does not include intrinsic motivation as a determinate of health practices. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the flow theory of exercise adherence. Flow theory posits that exercise can be intrinsically rewarding if the experiences of self/time transcendence and control/mastery are achieved…

  15. Advancing Models and Theories for Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Michie, Susan; Pavel, Misha; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Jimison, Holly B; Garnett, Claire; Parral, Skye; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2016-11-01

    To be suitable for informing digital behavior change interventions, theories and models of behavior change need to capture individual variation and changes over time. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations for development of models and theories that are informed by, and can inform, digital behavior change interventions based on discussions by international experts, including behavioral, computer, and health scientists and engineers. The proposed framework stipulates the use of a state-space representation to define when, where, for whom, and in what state for that person, an intervention will produce a targeted effect. The "state" is that of the individual based on multiple variables that define the "space" when a mechanism of action may produce the effect. A state-space representation can be used to help guide theorizing and identify crossdisciplinary methodologic strategies for improving measurement, experimental design, and analysis that can feasibly match the complexity of real-world behavior change via digital behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of students’ eHealth, mHealth and serious games expertise in health behavior change during health and social studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Punna

    2015-10-01

    New clienthoods require new ways to work in health care and social services at the future. Professionals’ expertise in different kind of digital environments is essential. Expertise should be a combination of evidence-based practice, behavior change theories and the practical experiences of using different kind of applications and they should also overcome of the possible fear of unknown and technological challenges. These are the reasons why eHealth, mHealth and serious games should be involved to curriculum in health care and social services studies. When the expertise has started to develop during the studies by varied methods, the interest and motivation to utilize digital solutions could be increased. Skills to critically assess various digital applications in the aspect of behavior change theories also increase the quality of evidence based practice in health care and social services.

  17. Modifying and developing health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L W

    1984-01-01

    The literatures on both behavior modification and behavioral development have engendered innovations in public health programs, addressing problems of patient adherance to preventive and therapeutic regimens, delay in seeking diagnosis of illness symptoms, risk-taking behavior, and other aspects of lifestyle associated with health. Because most of this literature derives from psychology, there has been a distinct bias in the construction of interventions, pointing them directly at individuals, usually in a counseling or small group mode of delivery. These developments served public health well enough during a decade or so when the preoccupation was with utilization of health services and medical management of chronic diseases. With the publication of the Lalonde Report in Canada in 1974, the passage of Public Law 94-317 in 1976 in the United States, and similar initiatives in other English-speaking and European countries, the recognition of the greater complexities of lifestyle development and modification in the absence of symptoms has taken hold. Policy makers and public health workers seek a more efficient and equitable set of strategies to meet the behavioral health challenges of modern society without placing the entire weight of responsibility for behavior on the individual or on therapeutic practitioners. Concurrently, on a more global scale and in the developing countries, a concern has emerged for strategies that give individuals, families, and communities a greater role in deciding their own health priorities. The convergence of these two trends--one seeking to distribute responsibility for lifestyle more equitably and the other seeking to distribute responsibility for planning health programs more equitably --calls for policies, strategies, and interventions that will place similar emphasis on health education and organizational, economic, and environmental supports for health behavior. The combination of these elements of support for behavior calls, in

  18. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya K. C. Manchaiah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Health behavior change (HBC refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL. In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  19. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  20. Social cognitive theories used to explain physical activity behavior in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Costigan, Sarah A; Karunamuni, Nandini; Lubans, David R

    2013-05-01

    To systematically review and examine the explanatory power of key social-cognitive theories used to explain physical activity (PA) intention and behavior, among adolescents. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was performed using the electronic databases Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SPORTdiscus, EBSCO and Education Resources Information Center, Proquest Education Journals Collection, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scopus for social-cognitive theories (i.e., Health Promotion Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Reasoned Action, Protection Motivation Theory, Social Cognitive Theory/Self-Efficacy Theory, Health Belief Model, Self-Determination Theory, Transtheoretical Model) used to explain PA intention and behavior. Related keywords in titles, abstracts, or indexing fields were searched. Twenty-three studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were retained for data extraction and analysis; 16 were cross-sectional studies and seven were longitudinal studies. Most studies employed self-report measures. In general, the models explained greater proportions of variance for intention compared to behavior. The meta-analyses revealed 33% and 48% of the variance respectively for PA and intention were explained by social cognitive models. Few studies have tested the predictive capacity of social cognitive theories to explain objectively measured PA. The majority of PA variance remains unexplained and more theoretical research is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Why the Rich drink More but smoke Less: The Impact of Wealth on Health Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans); T.J. Galama (Titus)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWealthier individuals engage in healthier behavior. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by developing a theory of health behavior, and exploiting both lottery winnings and inheritances to test the theory. We distinguish between the direct monetary cost and the indirect health

  2. Effect of Health Education Based on the Protection Motivation Theory on Malaria Preventive Behaviors in Rural Households of Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected thr...

  3. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  4. Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teague, Bruce T.; Gartner, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The chapter reviews several of the most prominent entrepreneurship frameworks to demonstrate that the entrepreneurship field lacks a theory of entrepreneurial behavior. However, each of these existing frameworks would benefit from, and be complemented by, an entrepreneurial behavioral theory. Dra...

  5. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  6. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  7. Lighting a Fire Under Public Health and Safety Education: Influence Through Rational Choice, Reasoned Behavior, and Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Gigerenzer, Gerd, and Daniel G. Goldstein . “Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality.” Psychological Review 103, no. 4 (1996): 650–69...27 Ward Edwards, “The Theory of Decision Making,” Psychological Bulletin 51, no. 4 (1954): 381. 28...human behavior. Prominent models in health research include the Health Belief Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action.43 An

  8. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Christine L; Knowlden, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults. THE FOLLOWING DATABASES WERE SYSTEMATICALLY SEARCHED TO FIND ARTICLES FOR THIS REVIEW: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1) primary or secondary interventions, 2) with any quantitative design, 3) published in the English language, 4) between January 2003 and March 2014, 5) that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6) which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7) utilized TPB or TRA. Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication. Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors in adolescents should aim to incorporate multi-faceted, theory-based approaches. Future studies should consider utilizing randomized control trial design and

  9. Evaluation of Diet-Related Infographics on Pinterest for Use of Behavior Change Theories: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jessica L; Strickling, Kate; Payne, Hannah E; Jensen, Kayla C; West, Joshua H

    2016-12-08

    There is increasing interest in Pinterest as a method of disseminating health information. However, it is unclear whether the health information promoted on Pinterest is evidence-based or incorporates behavior change theory. The objective of the study was to determine the presence of health behavior theory (HBT) constructs in pins found on Pinterest and assess the relationship between various pin characteristics and the likelihood of inclusion of HBT. A content analysis was conducted on pins collected from Pinterest identified with the search terms "nutrition infographic" and "healthy eating infographic." The coding rubric included HBT constructs, pin characteristics, and visual communication tools. Each HBT construct was coded as present or not present (yes=1, no=0). A total theory score was calculated by summing the values for each of the 9 constructs (range 0-9). Adjusted regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the inclusion of health behavior change theory in pins (Pinfographics targeting healthy eating contain few HBT elements. Health professionals and organizations should create and disseminate infographics that contain more elements of HBT to better influence healthy eating behavior. This may be accomplished by creating pins that use both text and images of people and food in order to portray elements of HBT and convey nutritional information. ©Jessica L Wilkinson, Kate Strickling, Hannah E Payne, Kayla C Jensen, Joshua H West. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 08.12.2016.

  10. Behavioral Health Providers and Electronic Health Records: An Exploratory Beliefs Elicitation and Segmentation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…

  11. Health values and prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, J R; Lenert, L A

    1999-01-01

    Health values are important components of medical decisions. Experimental data suggest that people value health in complex and dynamic ways. Prospect theory is a descriptive theory of choice that may accurately characterize how people assign values to health states. The authors first provide background on prospect theory and how it can be applied to health values. Next, they review the relevant health research and find mixed support for prospect theory. Last, they discuss implications of prospect theory for cost-effectiveness analysis. The application of prospect theory to health deserves further research because it may help clarify the link between health and values.

  12. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  13. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  14. Crisis behavior: An exploration of theories in concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jason B; Crudo, Christine

    2015-01-01

    How might prominent existing communication theory better explain behavior in a crisis context, when considered in concert with one another? This theoretical work highlights the insight to be gained using Situational Crisis Communication Theory and Bandura's notions of self-efficacy to heighten the explanatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior as applied to communication during times of crisis. Situational Crisis Communication Theory better explains how past experience with crisis influences the attitudes and social norms of crisis behavior, while Bandura's notion of self-efficacy speaks more directly to the availability of resources as contributing factors to perceived behavioral control in a crisis situation. As such, the incorporation of these well-developed notions into the broader framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior affords greater understanding of the relationship between communication and behavior during a crisis. Further exploration of this theoretical relationship is warranted.

  15. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Predictors of Oral Hygiene: A Collection of Unique Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brein, Daniel J; Fleenor, Thomas J; Kim, Soo-Woo; Krupat, Edward

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to identify predictors of performed oral hygiene behaviors (OHBs) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), oral health knowledge, and demographic factors. Using a questionnaire, 381 participants in three general dental offices and one hospital dental department in York, Pennsylvania, were surveyed regarding performed OHB, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, income, age, and sex. Three unique elements of OHB were identified for analysis: brushing, interdental cleaning, and tongue cleaning. Regression analysis revealed that attitude was the strongest predictor of brushing behavior, followed by oral health knowledge, perceived behavior control, subjective norms, and income. Perceived behavior control was the strongest predictor of interdental cleaning, followed by increased age and attitude. Female sex was the strongest predictor of tongue cleaning, followed by subjective norms, decreased age, and perceived behavior control. Respectively, these three groups of predictive variables explained 22.5% of brushing behavior, 22.7% of interdental cleaning behavior, and 9.5% of tongue cleaning behavior. The present findings highlight the utility of viewing OHB as a set of unique behaviors with unique predictive variables and provide additional support for use of TPB in predicting OHB. Periodontal practitioners should consider the strong associations of attitude and perceived behavioral control with brushing and interdental cleaning behaviors when designing interventional efforts to improve patient home care.

  16. Mapping Coaches' Views of Participation in CrossFit to the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change and Sense of Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Carlisle, Taran; Kehler, Ainslie; Cosgrove, Sarah J

    Group-based training through CrossFit has recently exploded in popularity. Anecdotally, participants often make lifestyle changes and experience improved fitness. Participation factors were mapped to the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change and "sense of community" constructs. Key informant interviews were conducted with 6 CrossFit gym owners/coaches. Data were thematically coded with NVivo 10. Results revealed key factors that both facilitated and restricted participation in CrossFit. Findings provide implications for future theory application and highlight how to improve initiation and adherence by capitalizing on community building and taking steps to reduce intimidation and cost, facilitate realistic goals, and ensure social support.

  17. Mapping Coaches’ Views of Participation in CrossFit to the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change and Sense of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M.; Carlisle, Taran; Kehler, Ainslie; Cosgrove, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Group-based training through CrossFit has recently exploded in popularity. Anecdotally, participants often make lifestyle changes and experience improved fitness. Participation factors were mapped to the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change and “sense of community” constructs. Key informant interviews were conducted with 6 CrossFit gym owners/coaches. Data were thematically coded with NVivo 10. Results revealed key factors that both facilitated and restricted participation in CrossFit. Findings provide implications for future theory application and highlight how to improve initiation and adherence by capitalizing on community building and taking steps to reduce intimidation and cost, facilitate realistic goals, and ensure social support. PMID:27870750

  18. Development of a health information technology acceptance model using consumers' health behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2012-10-01

    For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers' intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers' behavioral intention of using HIT. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model's explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers' behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers' use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers' attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers' health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health consumers' behavioral intention. We categorized the concepts in

  19. Health marketing and behavioral change: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirez, Cristina-Mihaela; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Health marketing as a part of social marketing, must influence individuals, voluntarily, through various social programmes, in order to accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior in favour of a healthier lifestyle. Acting on individual behavior change, social marketing can influence the behaviour of those who decide public policies, with positive effects in social change. In time, in order to understand and predict a behavior, a number of theories, models and tactics were developed with the aim to identify factors and mechanisms with the greatest impact in the changing process. Cognitive- social theories proved to be more effective, because they offer guidelines for conducting research in behavioral change.

  20. Health marketing and behavioral change: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirez, Cristina-Mihaela; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Health marketing as a part of social marketing, must influence individuals, voluntarily, through various social programmes, in order to accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior in favour of a healthier lifestyle. Acting on individual behavior change, social marketing can influence the behaviour of those who decide public policies, with positive effects in social change. In time, in order to understand and predict a behavior, a number of theories, models and tactics were developed with the aim to identify factors and mechanisms with the greatest impact in the changing process. Cognitive- social theories proved to be more effective, because they offer guidelines for conducting research in behavioral change. PMID:29696059

  1. Cooperation or Competition: Does Game Theory Have Relevance for Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Cohen, Cynthia F.; Cooper, Elizabeth Elliott; Corvin, Jaime; McDermott, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use game theory to understand decisions to cooperate or to compete in the delivery of public health services. Health care is a quasi-public good that is often associated with altruistic behavior, yet it operates in an increasingly competitive environment. With mounting health care regulation and changes in privatization,…

  2. Comparing three attitude-behavior theories for predicting science teachers' intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zint, Michaela

    2002-11-01

    Social psychologists' attitude-behavior theories can contribute to understanding science teachers' behaviors. Such understanding can, in turn, be used to improve professional development. This article describes leading attitude-behavior theories and summarizes results from past tests of these theories. A study predicting science teachers' intention to incorporate environmental risk education based on these theories is also reported. Data for that study were collected through a mail questionnaire (n = 1336, radjusted = 80%) and analyzed using confirmatory factor and multiple regression analysis. All determinants of intention to act in the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior and some determinants in the Theory of Trying predicted science teachers' environmental risk education intentions. Given the consistency of results across studies, the Theory of Planned Behavior augmented with past behavior is concluded to provide the best attitude-behavior model for predicting science teachers' intention to act. Thus, science teachers' attitude toward the behavior, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm need to be enhanced to modify their behavior. Based on the Theory of Trying, improving their attitude toward the process and toward success, and expectations of success may also result in changes. Future research should focus on identifying determinants that can further enhance the ability of these theories to predict and explain science teachers' behaviors.

  3. Perilaku Pembelian Konsumen: Sebuah Tinjauan Literatur Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meitiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the differences between several empirical articles on the theory of planned behavior. Theory of planned behavior provides a framework for studying attitudes toward behaviors that postulate three determinants of conceptual intent. Specifically, the intention is based on the variables of attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Although this theory has been used frequently, there are still differences in outcomes in explaining attitudes toward behavior. The results show that there is still a different view of the theory of planned behavior so it is necessary to identify the gaps that occur in this theory. For further research is expected to expand and enrich the discussion of the theory of planned behavior

  4. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  5. High-energy behavior of non-Abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieh, H.T.; Yao, Y.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a detailed account of a study in perturbation theory of the high-energy behavior of non-Abelian gauge theories. The fermion-fermion scattering amplitude is calculated up to sixth order in the coupling constant in the high-energy limit s → infinity with fixed t, in the approximation of keeping only the leading logarithmic terms. Results indicate that the high-energy behavior of non-Abelian gauge theories are complicated, and quite different from the known behaviors of other field theories studied so far

  6. Utilizing Genomics through Family Health History with the Theory of Planned Behavior: Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors and Preventive Behavior in an African American Population in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborn, Cynthia; Suther, Sandra; Lee, Torhonda; Kiros, Gebre-Egziabher; Becker, Alan; Campbell, Ellen; Collins-Robinson, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent African Americans' knowledge and awareness of family health history and related risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes influence their likelihood of adopting a preventive behavior. This study employed an anonymous pencil-and-paper, self-administered survey consisting of two sections. Section 1 was a modified version of the US Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative and the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Risk Factor Survey. Section 2 of the survey was based on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior. Over 394 African American participants completed the survey. 'Perceived behavioral control' was the strongest predictor of 'likelihood of adopting preventive behavior'. Participants were aware of their family history as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but it was not a significant predictor of behavior modifications based on that knowledge. The lack of perceived risk in this population shows the importance of not only knowing one's risk factors but translating those risk factors to a more personalized form that fits into the current lifestyle of the individual in a meaningful way. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Statistical test theory for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    de Gruijter, Dato N M

    2007-01-01

    Since the development of the first intelligence test in the early 20th century, educational and psychological tests have become important measurement techniques to quantify human behavior. Focusing on this ubiquitous yet fruitful area of research, Statistical Test Theory for the Behavioral Sciences provides both a broad overview and a critical survey of assorted testing theories and models used in psychology, education, and other behavioral science fields. Following a logical progression from basic concepts to more advanced topics, the book first explains classical test theory, covering true score, measurement error, and reliability. It then presents generalizability theory, which provides a framework to deal with various aspects of test scores. In addition, the authors discuss the concept of validity in testing, offering a strategy for evidence-based validity. In the two chapters devoted to item response theory (IRT), the book explores item response models, such as the Rasch model, and applications, incl...

  8. Validity and reliability analysis of the planned behavior theory scale related to the testicular self-examination in a Turkish context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyigun, Emine; Tastan, Sevinc; Ayhan, Hatice; Kose, Gulsah; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability levels of the Planned Behavior Theory Scale as related to a testicular self-examination. The study was carried out in a health-profession higher-education school in Ankara, Turkey, from April to June 2012. The study participants comprised 215 male students. Study data were collected by using a questionnaire, a planned behavior theory scale related to testicular self-examination, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). The sub-dimensions of the planned behavior theory scale, namely those of intention, attitude, subjective norms and self-efficacy, were found to have Cronbach's alpha values of between 0.81 and 0.89. Exploratory factor analysis showed that items of the scale had five factors that accounted for 75% of the variance. Of these, the sub-dimension of intention was found to have the highest level of contribution. A significant correlation was found between the sub-dimensions of the testicular self-examination planned behavior theory scale and those of CHBMS (p Planned Behavior Theory Scale is a valid and reliable measurement for Turkish society.

  9. Do Parents Expect Pediatricians to Pay Attention to Behavioral Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Justine Julia; Lynch, Sean; Tarver, Leslie Bishop; Mitchell, Laura; Frosch, Emily; Solomon, Barry

    2015-08-01

    This study is a qualitative analysis examining caregivers' expectations for pediatricians with regard to behavioral health care. Fifty-five parents/caregivers of children seen in an urban primary care clinic participated in semistructured interviews. Participants were parents or guardians of children between the ages of 2 and 17 years, referred from the pediatric clinic to the mental health center. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Pertinent themes were the following: expected range of care, components of an effective primary care provider (PCP) relationship, action of the PCP, and parent reaction to PCP intervention. Forty-seven percent of caregivers saw the PCP role as strictly for physical health care; 53% expected the PCP to have a role in both physical and behavioral health. Responses were overwhelmingly positive from caregivers when the PCP asked about or conducted a behavioral health intervention. Caregivers did not consistently expect but responded positively to PCPs engaging around behavioral health concerns. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Educational Theory and Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Ronald G.; Smith, William S.

    1979-01-01

    Described are two instruments used in a workshop designed to help teachers clarify their own beliefs about education and to shape their classroom behavior accordingly. The Student-Content Inventory concerns styles of student-teacher interaction and the Educational Theory Inventory correlates the respondent's beliefs to major educational theories.…

  11. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT and construal level theory (CLT. We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  12. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  13. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  14. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W

    2017-04-01

    Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and (2) assess the association between extensiveness of theory use and intervention effectiveness. Studies were previously identified through a systematic search, including only randomized controlled trials published from 2005 to 2013, that addressed physical activity behavior change and studied survivors who were theory items from Michie and Prestwich's coding framework were selected to calculate theory intensity scores. Studies were classified into three subgroups based on extensiveness of theory use (Level 1 = sparse; Level 2 = moderate; and Level 3 = extensive). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met search criteria. Most trials used the transtheoretical model ( n = 5) or social cognitive theory ( n = 3). For extensiveness of theory use, 5 studies were classified as Level 1, 4 as Level 2, and 5 as Level 3. Studies in the extensive group (Level 3) had the largest overall effect size ( g = 0.76). Effects were more modest in Level 1 and 2 groups with overall effect sizes of g = 0.28 and g = 0.36, respectively. Theory use is often viewed as essential to behavior change, but theory application varies widely. In this study, there was some evidence to suggest that extensiveness of theory use enhanced intervention effectiveness. However, there is more to learn about how theory can improve interventions for breast cancer survivors.

  15. Gender, Health Behavior, and Intimate Relationships: Lesbian, Gay, and Straight Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Many studies focus on health behavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around health behavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N=100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of “health behavi...

  16. A behavior-analytic critique of Bandura's self-efficacy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony

    1987-01-01

    A behavior-analytic critique of self-efficacy theory is presented. Self-efficacy theory asserts that efficacy expectations determine approach behavior and physiological arousal of phobics as well as numerous other clinically important behaviors. Evidence which is purported to support this assertion is reviewed. The evidence consists of correlations between self-efficacy ratings and other behaviors. Such response-response relationships do not unequivocally establish that one response causes another. A behavior-analytic alternative to self-efficacy theory explains these relationships in terms of environmental events. Correlations between self-efficacy rating behavior and other behavior may be due to the contingencies of reinforcement that establish a correspondence between such verbal predictions and the behavior to which they refer. Such a behavior-analytic account does not deny any of the empirical relationships presented in support of self-efficacy theory, but it points to environmental variables that could account for those relationships and that could be manipulated in the interest of developing more effective treatment procedures. PMID:22477956

  17. [Health and health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Glòria; Martí-Pastor, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Bartoll, Xavier; Diez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2015-01-01

    to Describe perceived health, mental health and certain health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior in the population residing in Barcelona in 2011. Perceived health, mental health, chronic conditions and health-related behaviors were analyzed in 2675 people aged 15 to 64 years. The Barcelona Health Survey for 2011 was used, which included questions on sexual attraction and behavior. Multivariate robust Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios. People feeling same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of worse perceived and mental health. These people and those who had had sex with persons of the same sex more frequently reported harmful health-related behaviors. Lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual people may have health problems that should be explored in depth, prevented, and attended. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAIs) in Mobile Health: Key Components and Design Principles for Ongoing Health Behavior Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Smith, Shawna N; Spring, Bonnie J; Collins, Linda M; Witkiewitz, Katie; Tewari, Ambuj; Murphy, Susan A

    2018-05-18

    The just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) is an intervention design aiming to provide the right type/amount of support, at the right time, by adapting to an individual's changing internal and contextual state. The availability of increasingly powerful mobile and sensing technologies underpins the use of JITAIs to support health behavior, as in such a setting an individual's state can change rapidly, unexpectedly, and in his/her natural environment. Despite the increasing use and appeal of JITAIs, a major gap exists between the growing technological capabilities for delivering JITAIs and research on the development and evaluation of these interventions. Many JITAIs have been developed with minimal use of empirical evidence, theory, or accepted treatment guidelines. Here, we take an essential first step towards bridging this gap. Building on health behavior theories and the extant literature on JITAIs, we clarify the scientific motivation for JITAIs, define their fundamental components, and highlight design principles related to these components. Examples of JITAIs from various domains of health behavior research are used for illustration. As we enter a new era of technological capacity for delivering JITAIs, it is critical that researchers develop sophisticated and nuanced health behavior theories capable of guiding the construction of such interventions. Particular attention has to be given to better understanding the implications of providing timely and ecologically sound support for intervention adherence and retention.

  19. [Research on maternal health behaviors for Yi-nationality women in poor rural areas based on the theory of reasoned action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuju; Hao, Gang; Sun, Shuai; Chen, Yuehui; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Qiaolan; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Huan

    2015-08-01

    To analyze the status of maternal health behaviors and it's risk factors for Yi-nationality women in poor rural areas of Sichuan province. In 2012, multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 14 villages of two poor counties in Liangshan Yi-nationality autonomous prefecture Sichuan province. At least 10 women who have infants aged 0-12 months were selected in each simple villages, a total of 284. The structured questionnaire was developed on the basis of the theory of reasoned action. Yi-nationality female college students were trained as investigators. Research indicators included prenatal care rate, hospital delivery rate, postpartum examination rate, socio-demographic characteristics, maternal health care knowledge. χ² test was used to compare the differences of above indicators among different groups. The structural equation model were used to statistical analyze. In the 284 subject women, 51.7% (147/284) women owned more than 2 children, 41.6% (118/284) women were more than 30 years old, 87.3% (248/284) women were illiteracy. The prenatal care rate was 69.7% (197/284), the hospital delivery rate was 26.8% (76/284), and the postnatal check rate was 22.9% (65/284). The influence factors of maternal health behaviors included the number of children, age and education (χ² were 10.92, 13.24, 9.58; P values were 0.027, 0.004, 0.008, respectively).The structural equation model analysis results showed that the maternal health behaviors were directly or indirectly affected by subjective norms (β = 0.236, P < 0.001), women's cognition (β = 0.226, P = 0.020) and women's attitudes on maternal health behavior (β = 0.157, P = 0.001). Among subjective norms, women have high compliance to their husbands (β = 0.850, P < 0.001), their peers (β = 0.708, P < 0.001), and their mothers-in-law (β = 0.636, P < 0.001). There were still serious problems in maternal health behaviors for Yi-nationality women in poor rural areas. The main factors included

  20. The problem of creating habits: establishing health-protective dental behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, K D; Glasgow, R E; O'Neill, H K

    1992-01-01

    We describe three experiments testing treatments to promote the performance of health-protective dental behaviors. Subjects included 55 women from an introductory psychology course (Experiment 1), 45 men and women (Experiment 2), and 81 older-than-average students identified as at risk for gum disease (Experiment 3). The interventions, derived from social cognitive theory, included health education, skills training, and self-monitoring. In each study, we examined the contribution of additional treatment components, including social support (Experiment 1), intensive contact (Experiment 2), and flexible goal setting (Experiment 3). Across experiments, the behavioral results were remarkably similar: Subjects exhibited excellent adherence while in the study but, at follow-up, reported behavior that differed little from baseline. We discuss parallels between attempts to promote health-protective dental behaviors and other health-promotion programs, and we describe different perspectives from which to address the problem of creating healthy habits.

  1. Physical Activity Participation: Social Cognitive Theory versus the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzewaltowski, David A; Noble, John M; Shaw, Jeff M

    1990-12-01

    Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

  2. Can prospect theory explain risk-seeking behavior by terminally ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiel, Emma B; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Schulman, Kevin A

    2005-01-01

    Patients with life-threatening conditions sometimes appear to make risky treatment decisions as their condition declines, contradicting the risk-averse behavior predicted by expected utility theory. Prospect theory accommodates such decisions by describing how individuals evaluate outcomes relative to a reference point and how they exhibit risk-seeking behavior over losses relative to that point. The authors show that a patient's reference point for his or her health is a key factor in determining which treatment option the patient selects, and they examine under what circumstances the more risky option is selected. The authors argue that patients' reference points may take time to adjust following a change in diagnosis, with implications for predicting under what circumstances a patient may select experimental or conventional therapies or select no treatment.

  3. Eating Behaviors of Older African Americans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neal, Catherine Walker

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger intervention study. Results: Attitudes about eating fruit and vegetables, subjective social norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to older African Americans’ intentions to consume fruits and vegetables. Social norms and behavioral intentions were associated with fruit and vegetable eating behaviors. Perceived control did not moderate the influence of behavioral intentions on actual behavior. Implications: Results indicated that the theory of planned behavior can be used to explain variation in older African Americans’ eating behavior. This study also emphasizes the value of considering broader behavioral domains when employing the theory of planned behavior rather than focusing on specific behaviors. Furthermore, social service programs aimed at reducing the incidence of diseases commonly associated with poor eating behaviors among older African Americans must consider promoting not only fruit and vegetable consumption but also related behaviors including preparing and self-monitoring by eliminating structural, cognitive, and normative constraints. PMID:23241919

  4. Contextualization and standardization of the supportive leadership behavior questionnaire based on socio- cognitive theory in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hosein; Mirmoosavi, Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo

    2014-01-01

    Effective leadership is of prime importance in any organization and it goes through changes based on accepted health promotion and behavior change theory. Although there are many leadership styles, transformational leadership, which emphasizes supportive leadership behaviors, seems to be an appropriate style in many settings particularly in the health care and educational sectors which are pressured by high turnover and safety demands. Iran has been moving rapidly forward and its authorities have understood and recognized the importance of matching leadership styles with effective and competent care for success in health care organizations. This study aimed to develop the Supportive Leadership Behaviors Scale based on accepted health and educational theories and to psychometrically test it in the Iranian context. The instrument was based on items from established questionnaires. A pilot study validated the instrument which was also cross-validated via re-translation. After validation, 731 participants answered the questionnaire. The instrument was finalized and resulted in a 20-item questionnaire using the exploratory factor analysis, which yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors (all above 0.6). Mapping these four measures of leadership behaviors can be beneficial to determine whether effective leadership could support innovation and improvements in medical education and health care organizations on the national level. The reliability measured as Cronbach's alpha was 0.84. This new instrument yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors which are applicable in health and educational settings and are helpful in improving self -efficacy among health and academic staff.

  5. Toward an understanding of late life suicidal behavior: the role of lifespan developmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; O'Riley, Alisa A

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in late life differs in important ways from suicidal behavior that occurs earlier in the lifespan, suggesting the possibility of developmental differences in the etiology of suicidal behavior. This paper examines late life suicidal behavior within the context of lifespan developmental theory. This paper presents a conceptual framework for using lifespan developmental theory to better understand late life suicidal behavior. We argue that the motivational theory of lifespan development, which focuses on control, is particularly relevant to late life suicide. This theory posits that opportunities to exert control over important aspects of one's life diminish in late life as a result of declines in physical functioning and other factors, and that successful aging is associated with adaptive regulation of this developmental change. Although continued striving to meet goals is normative throughout the lifespan, most individuals also increase the use of compensatory strategies in old age or when faced with a decline in functioning. We propose that individuals who do not adapt to developmental changes by altering their strategies for exerting control will be at risk for suicidal behavior in late life. This paper reviews evidence that supports the importance of control with respect to suicidal outcomes in older adults, as well as findings regarding specific types of control strategies that may be related to suicide risk in older adults with health-related limitations. Although suicidal behavior is not a normal part of aging, the application of lifespan developmental theory may be useful in understanding and potentially preventing suicide among older adults.

  6. Perilaku Pembelian Konsumen: sebuah Tinjauan Literatur Theory Of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Meitiana, Meitiana

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the differences between several empirical articles on the theory of planned behavior. Theory of planned behavior provides a framework for studying attitudes toward behaviors that postulate three determinants of conceptual intent. Specifically, the intention is based on the variables of attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Although this theory has been used frequently, there are still differences in outcomes in explaining atti...

  7. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Arcaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose–response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population.

  8. Contextualization and standardization of the supportive leadership behavior questionnaire based on socio- cognitive theory in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hosein; Mirmoosavi, ,Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Effective leadership is of prime importance in any organization and it goes through changes based on accepted health promotion and behavior change theory. Although there are many leadership styles, transformational leadership, which emphasizes supportive leadership behaviors, seems to be an appropriate style in many settings particularly in the health care and educational sectors which are pressured by high turnover and safety demands. Iran has been moving rapidly forward and its ...

  9. Effect of Theory of Planned Behavior-based Educational Intervention on Breastfeeding Behavior in Pregnant Women in Fasa City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Marjan Arshad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Breastfeeding is a matter of significant importance. Given the role of such factors as attitude and subjective norms on the behavior of mothers and the low level of exclusive breastfeeding, the present study aimed to determine the effect of educational program based on the theory of planned behavior on breastfeeding behavior among the pregnant women in Fasa, Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 pregnant women with the gestational age of 30-35 weeks who referred to the health care centers of Fasa, Iran, in 2017. The study population was selected using random sampling technique, and then assigned into two groups of control (n=50 and intervention (n=50. The data were collected using a demographic form, components of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire, and a breastfeeding checklist. The intervention group received three 55-to-60-minute training sessions. The mothers' breastfeeding behavior was evaluated before the training sessions and 40 days post-delivery in both groups. The data were analyzed in SPSS software, version 22, using Chi-square test, independent t-test, and paired sample t-test. Results: According to the results, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the components of the theory of planned behavior before the educational intervention (P=0.208. However, after the training sessions, the intervention group showed a significant improvement in all components of the theory of planned behavior, including intention and breastfeeding behavior, compared to the control group (P=0.001. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, appropriate training programs, social network support, and suitable conditions for breastfeeding in the community are among the effective factors that can change the mothers’ attitudes towards lactation and result in successful breastfeeding in the first three months after childbirth.

  10. Can Social Cognitive Theories Help Us Understand Nurses' Use of Electronic Health Records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian; Booth, Richard; Mistry, Kartini

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health record implementations have accelerated in clinical settings around the world in an effort to improve patient safety and enhance efficiencies related to care delivery. As the largest group of healthcare professionals globally, nurses play an important role in the use of these records and ensuring their benefits are realized. Social cognitive theories such as the Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and the Technology Acceptance Model have been developed to explain behavior. Given that variation in nurses' electronic health record utilization may influence the degree to which benefits are realized, the aim of this article is to explore how the use of these social cognitive theories may assist organizations implementing electronic health records to facilitate deeper-level adoption of this type of clinical technology.

  11. Investigating m-Health Acceptance from a Protection Motivation Theory Perspective: Gender and Age Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xitong; Han, Xiaocui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Dang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly important and widely accepted. However, empirical studies on potential users' m-health acceptance behavior remain underexplored. Indeed, m-health adoption is not only a technology acceptance behavior, but also a health-related behavior. Based on the Protection Motivation Theory, this article explores users' m-health adoption behavior from the perspectives of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and also examines the moderating role of gender and age through a survey of potential users. The survey was conducted among 500 potential m-health service participants. Our results show that threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors influence adoption intention through attitude. It is also found that gender and age play different moderating roles with threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors. Gender and age play different roles between threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors in the acceptance of m-health. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. Prediction of Exercise in Patients across Various Stages of Bariatric Surgery: A Comparison of the Merits of the Theory of Reasoned Action versus the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Hillary R.; Gross, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide health concern approaching epidemic proportions. Successful long-term treatment involves a combination of bariatric surgery, diet, and exercise. Social cognitive models, such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), are among the most commonly tested theories utilized in the…

  13. The Effect of an Educational Program Based on Protection Motivation Theory on Pap Smear Screening Behavior among Women Referring to Health Centers in Fasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khiyali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Despite the importance of pap smear in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer and its death, this cancer is still one of the leading causes of death among women around the world. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of an educational program based on the protection motivation theory on Pap smear screening behavior. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 200 women referring to Fasa health centers, Fasa, Iran. The participants were randomized into experimental and control groups (n=100 per group. The data collection tool, which consisted of demographic data and protection motivation theory constructs, was completed by both groups before and 2 months after the intervention. For the experimental group, the educational program was implemented during 4 sessions using group discussions and educational pamphlets. To analyze the data, chi-square test, independent t-test, and paired t-test were run in SPSS, version 22. Results: After the intervention, the mean scores of protection motivation theory constructs significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.001. However, no significant difference was noted between the two groups regarding the response efficacy construct at the post-intervention stage (P=0.552. In addition, after the intervention, the rate of conducting Pap smear test significantly incremented in the experimental group (58%. Conclusions: The study results revealed the effectiveness of the educational intervention based on protection motivation theory in promoting Pap smear screening behavior. Therefore, we recommend designing educational interventions based on this theory to promote public health, especially in women.

  14. Optimal search behavior and classic foraging theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartumeus, F; Catalan, J

    2009-01-01

    Random walk methods and diffusion theory pervaded ecological sciences as methods to analyze and describe animal movement. Consequently, statistical physics was mostly seen as a toolbox rather than as a conceptual framework that could contribute to theory on evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the existence of mechanistic relationships and feedbacks between behavioral processes and statistical patterns of movement suggests that, beyond movement quantification, statistical physics may prove to be an adequate framework to understand animal behavior across scales from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Recently developed random search theory has served to critically re-evaluate classic ecological questions on animal foraging. For instance, during the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether search behavior can include traits that improve success by optimizing random (stochastic) searches. Here, we stress the need to bring together the general encounter problem within foraging theory, as a mean for making progress in the biological understanding of random searching. By sketching the assumptions of optimal foraging theory (OFT) and by summarizing recent results on random search strategies, we pinpoint ways to extend classic OFT, and integrate the study of search strategies and its main results into the more general theory of optimal foraging.

  15. Religion, evolution, and mental health: attachment theory and ETAS theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.

  16. Conceptualizing physical activity behavior of older Korean-Americans: an integration of Korean culture and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung-Choon; Waters, Catherine M; Froelicher, Erika S; Kayser-Jones, Jeanie S

    2008-01-01

    People can live longer and healthier lives by engaging in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this article is to assess the social cognitive theory (SCT) in relation to its relevance to produce cultural-specific directions for gerontological nursing practice in order to guide the design of PA interventions for Korean-American elders. SCT is compared to the Korean cultural, social, and health belief system and is analyzed and evaluated based on 3 criteria: assumptions of the theory, completeness and consistency, and essence of nursing. Within the Korean culture, as presumed in the SCT and the nursing paradigm, health-promoting behavior, such as PA, is conceptualized as the desire for a higher level of health rather than a fear of disease as is proposed by other health behavior theories. SCT with the integration of Korean culture recognizes cultural, developmental, societal, and other external constraints that may help in formulating interventions and better understanding of the limits faced by older Korean-Americans (OKAs) in their pursuit of routine PA.

  17. Increasing selective exposure to health messages by targeting person versus behavior schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Meridith E; Brannon, Laura A; Pilling, Valerie K

    2006-01-01

    Schema correspondence theory (Brannon and Brock, 1994) was applied to the topic of selective exposure to health information. The following question was asked: When do people prefer to expose themselves to health-relevant information tailored to match their own needs and values (i.e., recipient self-schema matching) versus the values and goals that the healthy behavior brings to mind (i.e., behavior schema matching)? In general, recipient self-schema matched messages tended to be preferred over behavior schema matched messages. However, this tendency was attenuated to the extent that the behavior had a very well defined (prototypical) schema.

  18. Perseverative Cognition and Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye Clancy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in stress theory have emphasized the significance of perseverative cognition (worry and rumination in furthering our understanding of stress-disease relationships. Substantial evidence has shown that perseverative cognition (PC is associated with somatic outcomes and numerous physiological concomitants have been identified (i.e., cardiovascular, autonomic and endocrine nervous system activity parameters. However, there has been no synthesis of the evidence regarding the association between PC and health behaviors. This is important given such behaviors may also directly and/or indirectly influence health and disease outcomes (triggered by PC. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to synthesise available studies that have explored the relationship between worry and rumination and health behaviors (health risk: behaviors which, if performed, would be detrimental to health; health promoting: behaviors which, if performed, would be beneficial for health. A systematic review and meta-analyses of the literature were conducted. Studies were included in the review if they reported the association between PC and health behavior. Studies identified in MEDLINE or PsycINFO (k = 7504 were screened, of which19 studies met the eligibility criteria. Random-effects meta-analyses suggested increased PC was generally associated with increased health risk behaviors but not health promoting behaviors. Further analyses indicated that increases in rumination, (r = .122, but not reflection (r = -.080, or worry, r = .048 were associated with health risk behaviors. In conclusion, these results showed that increases in PC are associated with increases in health risk behaviors (substance use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating and smoking that are driven primarily through rumination. These findings provide partial support for our hypothesis that in Brosschot and colleagues (2006 original perseverative cognition hypothesis, there may be scope

  19. The Determinants of Medical Tourism Intentions: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Martin, David S; Martin, Warren S

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the theory of planned behavior to health care marketers by extending and replicating a prior study that predicted student's intention to engage in medical tourism. Based on a sample of 164 usable survey responses, our findings suggested that the MEDTOUR scale (developed and introduced a prior study) is robust and works reasonably well with a national sample. Based on these findings, MEDTOUR appears to be worthy of further consideration by health marketing scholars.

  20. Basic need status and health-promoting self-care behavior in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G J; Malathum, P

    2000-11-01

    Health-promoting self-care behavior emphasizing positive lifestyle practices may improve the health and quality of life of adults. One variable that may influence health-related decisions is the status of basic needs as described by Maslow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among basic need satisfaction, health-promoting self-care behavior, and selected demographic variables in a sample of community-dwelling adults. A convenience sample of 84 community-dwelling adults was recruited to complete the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and demographic information. Results of the study indicated that self-actualization, physical, and love/belonging need satisfaction accounted for 64% of the variance in health-promoting self-care behavior. The findings of this study are consistent with Maslow's theory of human motivation and suggest that persons who are more fulfilled and content with themselves and their lives, have physical need satisfaction, and have positive connections with others may be able to make better decisions regarding positive health-promoting self-care behaviors.

  1. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Theory of Value-Based Payment Incentives and Their Application to Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas A

    2015-12-01

    To present the implications of agency theory in microeconomics, augmented by behavioral economics, for different methods of value-based payment in health care; and to derive a set of future research questions and policy recommendations based on that conceptual analysis. Original literature of agency theory, and secondarily behavioral economics, combined with applied research and empirical evidence on the application of those principles to value-based payment. Conceptual analysis and targeted review of theoretical research and empirical literature relevant to value-based payment in health care. Agency theory and secondarily behavioral economics have powerful implications for design of value-based payment in health care. To achieve improved value-better patient experience, clinical quality, health outcomes, and lower costs of care-high-powered incentives should directly target improved care processes, enhanced patient experience, and create achievable benchmarks for improved outcomes. Differing forms of value-based payment (e.g., shared savings and risk, reference pricing, capitation, and bundled payment), coupled with adjunct incentives for quality and efficiency, can be tailored to different market conditions and organizational settings. Payment contracts that are "incentive compatible"-which directly encourage better care and reduced cost, mitigate gaming, and selectively induce clinically efficient providers to participate-will focus differentially on evidence-based care processes, will right-size and structure incentives to avoid crowd-out of providers' intrinsic motivation, and will align patient incentives with value. Future research should address the details of putting these and related principles into practice; further, by deploying these insights in payment design, policy makers will improve health care value for patients and purchasers. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Mental health literacy as theory: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Douglas A; Hammer, Joseph H

    2018-02-13

    Mental health literacy (MHL) is one increasingly researched factor thought to influence mental health behaviors. Researchers have argued for expanding the definition of MHL to include additional constructs, but no consensus has yet been reached on what constructs should be included as part of MHL. The purpose of this paper is to (i) elucidate how the expansion of the MHL construct has impeded the growth of MHL research and (ii) through the lens of construct and theory development, highlight how these challenges might be remedied. An inclusive search of the literature was undertaken to identify MHL studies. The principles of construct and theory development guided a critical analysis of MHL. The review of the literature found that MHL violates many principles of what constitutes an acceptable construct definition. To address these concerns, we proposed conceptualizing MHL as a theory and recommended principles of theory development that should be taken into consideration. A theory of MHL can guide future researchers to clearly delineate important constructs and their interrelationships. For practitioners, a theory of MHL can help inform how to improve MHL at both the individual and community level.

  4. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  5. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, M.S.; Hardcastle, S.J.; Chater, A.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  6. Enhancing "theory of mind" through behavioral synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimel, Adam; Severson, Rachel L; Baron, Andrew S; Birch, Susan A J

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind refers to the abilities underlying the capacity to reason about one's own and others' mental states. This ability is critical for predicting and making sense of the actions of others, is essential for efficient communication, fosters social learning, and provides the foundation for empathic concern. Clearly, there is incredible value in fostering theory of mind. Unfortunately, despite being the focus of a wealth of research over the last 40 years relatively little is known about specific strategies for fostering social perspective taking abilities. We provide a discussion of the rationale for applying one specific strategy for fostering efficient theory of mind-that of engaging in "behavioral synchrony" (i.e., the act of keeping together in time with others). Culturally evolved collective rituals involving synchronous actions have long been held to act as social glue. Specifically, here we present how behavioral synchrony tunes our minds for reasoning about other minds in the process of fostering social coordination and cooperation, and propose that we can apply behavioral synchrony as a tool for enhancing theory of mind.

  7. Self-Determination Theory Applied to Health Contexts: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Johan Y Y; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Duda, Joan L; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2012-07-01

    Behavior change is more effective and lasting when patients are autonomously motivated. To examine this idea, we identified 184 independent data sets from studies that utilized self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) in health care and health promotion contexts. A meta-analysis evaluated relations between the SDT-based constructs of practitioner support for patient autonomy and patients' experience of psychological need satisfaction, as well as relations between these SDT constructs and indices of mental and physical health. Results showed the expected relations among the SDT variables, as well as positive relations of psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation to beneficial health outcomes. Several variables (e.g., participants' age, study design) were tested as potential moderators when effect sizes were heterogeneous. Finally, we used path analyses of the meta-analyzed correlations to test the interrelations among the SDT variables. Results suggested that SDT is a viable conceptual framework to study antecedents and outcomes of motivation for health-related behaviors. © The Author(s) 2012.

  8. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  9. Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

  10. Adolescent Motivations to Engage in Pro-Social Behaviors and Abstain From Health-Risk Behaviors: A Self-Determination Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A; Dollahite, David C; Johnson, Natalie; Christensen, Justin B

    2015-10-01

    The present study used self-determination theory to examine adolescents' motivations to engage in charitable donating and community volunteering and to abstain from sexual intercourse and marijuana use. The sample consisted of 419 late adolescents recruited from across the country through an online survey panel. Participants completed online measures of motivations to engage in donating and volunteering, motivations to abstain from sex and marijuana, and single-item indexes of the four behaviors. Variable-centered analyses (correlation and regression) found evidence for a general motivational factor, motivational specificity by behavioral domain (positive and negative behaviors), motivational specificity by particular behavior (charitable donating, volunteering, sexual risk-taking, and marijuana use), and a stronger relative role for autonomous motivations than controlled motivations. Person-centered analyses (cluster analysis) found four motivation profiles (low motivation, medium motivation, high motivation, and mixed motivation) for all four behaviors and suggested that level of autonomous motivation was a key factor differentiating the groups on levels of behavior. The findings suggest different levels of motivational specificity and highlight the importance of autonomous motivations in predicting behaviors as compared to controlled motivations. Further, similar patterns were found for motivations to engage and to abstain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Isabel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict intention to comply with a food recall message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has provided considerable insight into the public's intention to comply with many different health-related messages, but has not been applied previously to intention to comply with food safety recommendations and recalls ( Hallman & Cuite, 2010 ). Because food recalls can differ from other health messages in their urgency, timing, and cessation, the applicability of the TPB in this domain is unknown. The research reported here attempted to address this gap using a nationally representative consumer panel. Results showed that, consistent with the theory's predictions, attitudes and subjective norms were predictive of the intention to comply with a food recall message, with attitudes having a much greater impact on intent to comply than subjective norms. Perceived behavioral control failed to predict intention to comply. Implications of these results for health public relations and crisis communications and recommendations for future research were discussed.

  13. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-04-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R(2) around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control.

  14. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Predicting intention to use voluntary HIV counseling and testing services among health professionals in Jimma, Ethiopia, using the theory of planned behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abamecha F

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fira Abamecha,1 Ameyu Godesso,2 Eshetu Girma3 1Department of Nursing, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan, 2Department of Sociology, Jimma University, Jimma, 3Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: To endorse involvement in voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT, it is essential to recognize factors that influence people in deciding whether to access VCT services and their underlying route factors. Theory of planned behavior (TPB constitutes a proficient framework for predicting behaviors and intentions. Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the predicting ability of TPB in determining the intended use of VCT services among health professionals in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: This was an institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study of a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, southwest Ethiopia between February 5 to March 28, 2012. Data were collected using structured questionnaire self-administered by the study participants. A hierarchal multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of TPB constructs that can influence the intention to use VCT services. Results: The constructs of TPB explained the variability in intention to use VCT by 27% (R2 adjusted = 0.27. The standardized regression coefficients showed that the strongest predictor of intention to use VCT was subjective norms (β = 0.32, P < 0.0005 followed by attitude (β = 0.21, P < 0.002. Perceived behavioral control was not a significant predictor of intention to use VCT among the study group (P = 0.12. Conclusion: The study revealed the possibility of describing the intention to use VCT among health professionals using TPB, with perceived social pressure being the leading predictor. In light of this, health intervention programs should be designed to develop health professionals’ ability to resist norms that oppose the use of VCT and to

  16. The role of descriptive norm within the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean Americans' exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo

    2011-08-01

    There are few studies investigating psychosocial mechanisms in Korean Americans' exercise behavior. The present study tested the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean American's exercise behavior and whether the descriptive norm (i.e., perceptions of what others do) improved the predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior. Using a retrospective design and self-report measures, web-survey responses from 198 Korean-American adults were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. The theory of planned behavior constructs accounted for 31% of exercise behavior and 43% of exercise intention. Intention and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of exercise behavior. Although the descriptive norm did not augment the theory of planned behavior, all original constructs--attitude, injunctive norm (a narrow definition of subjective norm), and perceived behavioral control--statistically significantly predicted leisure-time physical activity intention. Future studies should consider random sampling, prospective design, and objective measures of physical activity.

  17. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashing-Giwa, K

    1999-01-01

    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  18. Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions.

  19. Behaviorism Makes Its Debut: A Review of Lattal and Chase's Behavior Theory and Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Zuriff, G.E

    2005-01-01

    Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pr...

  20. Health Belief Model and Labelling Theory in the Analysis of Preventive Behaviors to Address Biopsychosocial Impacts of Sexual Violence Among Street Children in YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Intan Noor Khalifah; Argyo Demartoto; Harsono Salimo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Street children are at high risk of sexual violence. Necessary measures should be undertaken to address deleterious biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence. This study aimed to analyze the preventive behaviors to address biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence among street children in Yogyakarta using Health Belief Model and Labelling Theory.Subjects and Method: This study was qualitative descriptive with phenomenology approach. The key informants for this study included Hea...

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Second Edition. Theories of Psychotherapy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    In this revised edition of "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy," Michelle G. Craske discusses the history, theory, and practice of this commonly practiced therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) originated in the science and theory of classical and instrumental conditioning when cognitive principles were adopted following dissatisfaction…

  2. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  3. Encouraging Healthful Dietary Behavior in a Hospital Cafeteria: A Field Study Using Theories from Social Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Mary Carol

    2013-01-01

    Public policy efforts to curb obesity often adhere to a rational actor model of human behavior, asserting that consumer behavior will change provided proper economic incentives, nutritional information, and health education. However, rigorous academic research related to such questions remains limited in scope and appears inconclusive as to the success of such economic and cognitive interventions. In contrast, research in social psychology and behavioral economics suggests that decision mak...

  4. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  5. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory, technological factors (TAM, and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively, which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  6. Iranian Women's Breast Health-Seeking Behaviors: Husband's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Khodayarian, Mahsa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Lamyian, Minoor; Tavangar, Hossein

    2017-12-14

    Breast cancer has become the most common cancer among Yazdi women in Iran. Thus, it is necessary to encourage these women to participate in breast health-seeking behaviors. In this regard, husbands can play an effective role. The aim of this study was to explore women's perceptions about the effect of their husband's role on breast health-seeking protection motivation. This study used a directed qualitative content analysis approach based on the Protection Motivation Theory. Participants were selected using purposive sampling; in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 Yazdi women were completed. One major category named "motivator role of husband" emerged from the analysis. The following subcategories underlying this category were "indifference and a lack of support as long as the women can continue with expected duties," "what women want for support," "facilitating and restrictive factors of husband's supportive role," "public health education needed," and "husband's agreement with preventive actions." Voluntary participation in breast health-seeking behaviors is a culturally sensitive topic. The qualitative methodology allowed this sensitive topic and its different aspects to be explored. The findings indicated that the major source of support for women was their husband's behavior toward breast health-seeking actions. Family cohesion and love among couples were identified as strong determinant factors pertaining to husband's supportive behaviors. The study findings provided deeper understanding about the effective factors related to a husband's role in motivating a wife to practice breast cancer prevention. These new findings are relevant for health educators and practitioners to develop culturally based interventions.

  7. Development and validation of an instrument to assess perceived social influence on health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOLT, CHERYL L.; CLARK, EDDIE M.; ROTH, DAVID L.; CROWTHER, MARTHA; KOHLER, CONNIE; FOUAD, MONA; FOUSHEE, RUSTY; LEE, PATRICIA A.; SOUTHWARD, PENNY L.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of social influence on health behavior is often approached through a situational context. The current study adapted an existing, theory-based instrument from another content domain to assess Perceived Social Influence on Health Behavior (PSI-HB) among African Americans, using an individual difference approach. The adapted instrument was found to have high internal reliability (α = .81–.84) and acceptable testretest reliability (r = .68–.85). A measurement model revealed a three-factor structure and supported the theoretical underpinnings. Scores were predictive of health behaviors, particularly among women. Future research using the new instrument may have applied value assessing social influence in the context of health interventions. PMID:20522506

  8. Theory of planned behavior applied to fish consumption in modern Metropolitan Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie HIGUCHI

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite being an important source of protein, fish consumption in Peru is low compared with other coastal countries. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the core determinants of such consumption. We based our analysis on the framework provided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB where attitudes, subjective norms, past experience and health involvement determine the intention and frequency of fish consumption. Primary data were gathered through 159 consumers of fish in modern Metropolitan Lima between August and October 2015. From a set of likert scale indicators a structural model was specified to evaluate the relationships given by the theoretical framework of the TPB. The results showed that the intention to eat fish is determined by personal attitudes, norms and past experience, and as expected, intention itself causes the frequency of fish consumption. Nonetheless, although consumers’ interest in healthy eating was shown to positively influence fish consumption behavior by theory, Metropolitan Lima fish consumers seem to be not concerned by positive health attributes related to fish consumption. These results may have important implications on production decisions, sales and marketing for the promotion of fish in Lima as a means of economic development.

  9. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  10. Applying theory of planned behavior to predict exercise maintenance in sarcopenic elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Hasnan Ahmad,1 Suzana Shahar,2 Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng,2 Zahara Abdul Manaf,2 Noor Ibrahim Mohd Sakian,3 Baharudin Omar41Centre of Nutrition Epidemiology Research, Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Dietetics Program, 3Occupational Therapy Program, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala ­Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5±5.2 (men and 66.1±5.1 (women years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1 exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women; and 2 the control group (n=31; 22 men, nine women. Structural equation modeling, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB’s model, attitude (ß=0.60 and perceived behavioral control (ß=0.24 were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm (ß=0.82 was the major predictor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men’s, ß=0.68; women’s, ß=0.24 and subjective norm (men’s, ß=0.12; women’s, ß=0.87 were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. “Feels healthier with exercise” was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men (ß=0.36 and women (ß=0.49. “Not motivated to perform exercise” was the main barrier among men’s intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and

  11. Behaviorism Makes Its Debut: A Review of Lattal and Chase's Behavior Theory and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G.E

    2005-01-01

    Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pragmatism, selectionism, analytic philosophy). Part II examines behavior-analytic interpretations of mentalistic concepts (intention, imagination, ethics, cognition). Part III presents extensions and applications of basic research in behavior analysis (verbal behavior, creativity, development, education, disability, and corporate culture). The publication of this book signals that behaviorism has developed mature philosophical foundations.

  12. A Behavioral Theory of Human Capital Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper

    design in fostering the integration and use of human capital is bounded by individual cognitive limitations that may lead employees to deviate from expected behavior, both individually and in collaboration. The thesis consists of three research papers relying on comprehensive longitudinal project data...... with one another. The overarching contribution of the thesis is to demonstrate, through the combination of psychological and organizational theory, how the ability of firms to properly activate and apply the knowledge held by their employees is fundamentally contingent on the interplay of cognitive...... of a behavioral theory of human capital integration....

  13. Self-Efficacy, Health Literacy, and Nutrition and Exercise Behaviors in a Low-Income, Hispanic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntzviller, Lisa M; King, Andy J; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, LaShara A

    2017-04-01

    Public health goals have emphasized healthy nutrition and exercise behaviors, especially in underserved populations. According to social cognitive theory (SCT), self-efficacy and capability (e.g., health literacy) may interact to predict preventative behaviors. We surveyed 100 low-income, native Spanish-speakers living in the United States who were low in English proficiency and predominantly of Mexican heritage. Participants reported their nutritional and exercise self-efficacy, Spanish health literacy, and nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Consistent with SCT, the interaction of self-efficacy and health literacy significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption and weekly exercise, and marginally predicted avoidance of high fat foods. For all three interactions, higher health literacy levels strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and health behaviors. The results offer support for the tenets of SCT and suggest-for low-income, Spanish-speaking adults-that a combination of behavioral confidence and literacy capability are necessary to enact appropriate health behaviors.

  14. "What you see depends on where you stand" exploring the relationship between leadership behavior and job type in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Laura; Duxbury, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This chapter seeks to increase our understanding of health care employees' perceptions of effective and ineffective leadership behavior within their organization. Interviews were conducted with 59 employees working in a diversity of positions within the case study hospital. Interviewees were asked to cite behaviors of both an effective and an ineffective leader in their organization. They were also asked to clarify whether their example described the behavior of a formal or informal leader. Grounded theory data analysis techniques were used and findings were interpreting using existing leadership behavior theories. (1) There was a consistent link between effective leadership and relationally oriented behaviors. (2) Employees identified both formal and informal leadership within their hospital. (3) There were both similarities and differences with respect to the types of behaviors attributed to informal versus formal leaders. (4) Informants cited a number of leadership behaviors not yet accounted for in the leadership behavior literature (e.g., 'hands on', 'professional', 'knows organization'). (5) Ineffective leadership behavior is not simply the opposite of effective leadership. Findings support the following ideas: (1) there may be a relationship between the type of job held by employees in health care organizations and their perceptions of leader behavior, and (2) leadership behavior theories are not yet comprehensive enough to account for the varieties of leadership behavior in a health care organization. This study is limited by the fact that it focused on only those leadership theories that considered leader behavior. There are two practical implications for health care organizations. (1) leaders should recognize that the type of behavior an employee prefers from a leader may vary by follower job group (e.g., nurses may prefer relational behavior more than managerial staff do), and (2) organizations could improve leader development programs and evaluation

  15. Learning Theory and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhan, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Although theories of learning which stress the role of reinforcement can help us understand altruistic behaviors, it seems clear that a more complete comprehension calls for an expansion of our notions of learning, such that they incorporate affect and cognition. (Author/JM)

  16. Can Mobile Phone Apps Influence People's Health Behavior Change? An Evidence Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Freeman, Becky; Li, Mu

    2016-10-31

    Globally, mobile phones have achieved wide reach at an unprecedented rate, and mobile phone apps have become increasingly prevalent among users. The number of health-related apps that were published on the two leading platforms (iOS and Android) reached more than 100,000 in 2014. However, there is a lack of synthesized evidence regarding the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in changing people's health-related behaviors. The aim was to examine the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in achieving health-related behavior change in a broader range of interventions and the quality of the reported studies. We conducted a comprehensive bibliographic search of articles on health behavior change using mobile phone apps in peer-reviewed journals published between January 1, 2010 and June 1, 2015. Databases searched included Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Embase, Health Technology Assessment, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research during that same period were hand-searched on the journal's website. Behavior change mechanisms were coded and analyzed. The quality of each included study was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria, arranged under 11 themes according to their target behaviors. All studies were conducted in high-income countries. Of these, 17 studies reported statistically significant effects in the direction of targeted behavior change; 19 studies included in this analysis had a 65% or greater retention rate in the intervention group (range 60%-100%); 6 studies reported using behavior change theories with the theory of planned behavior being the most commonly used (in 3 studies). Self-monitoring was the most common behavior change technique applied (in 12 studies). The studies suggest that some features improve the effectiveness of apps, such as less time

  17. Ethics and incentives: an evaluation and development of stakeholder theory in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Heather; Berman, Shawn; Wicks, Andrew C

    2002-10-01

    This paper utilizes a qualitative case study of the health care industry and a recent legal case to demonstrate that stakeholder theory's focus on ethics, without recognition of the effects of incentives, severely limits the theory's ability to provide managerial direction and explain managerial behavior. While ethics provide a basis for stakeholder prioritization, incentives influence whether managerial action is consistent with that prioritization. Our health care examples highlight this and other limitations of stakeholder theory and demonstrate the explanatory and directive power added by the inclusion of the interactive effects of ethics and incentives in stakeholder ordering.

  18. Salient Public Beliefs Underlying Disaster Preparedness Behaviors: A Theory-Based Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Elmi, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Given the increasing importance of disaster preparedness in Tehran, the capital of Iran, interventions encouraging disaster preparedness behavior (DPB) are needed. This study was conducted to show how an elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about DPB and provide recommendations for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a semi-structured elicitation questionnaire was conducted with 132 heads of households from 22 districts in Tehran, Iran. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), six open-ended questions were used to record the opinion of people about DPB: advantages of engaging in DPB; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it difficult. Content analysis showed the categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. The three most frequently mentioned advantages obtained from inhabitants of Tehran were health outcomes (eg, it helps us to save our lives, it provides basic needs, and it protects us until relief workers arrive); other salient advantages were mentioned (eg, helps family reunification). The main disadvantage was preparedness anxiety. Family members were the most frequently mentioned social referent when people were asked who might approve or disapprove of their DPB. The two main circumstances perceived to obstruct DPB included not having enough knowledge or enough time. The results of this qualitative study suggest that interventions to encourage DPB among Tehran inhabitants should address: perceived consequences of DPB on health and other factors beyond health; barriers of not having enough knowledge and time perceived to hinder DPB; and social approval. More accurate research on salient beliefs with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of Tehran inhabitants is necessary. Research with other

  19. Intention to Enact and Enactment of Gatekeeper Behaviors for Suicide Prevention: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Shane T W; Walch, Susan E; Bauer, Kristina N; Glenn, April D

    2017-08-01

    Gatekeeper training for suicide prevention was evaluated on a college campus to examine the impact of training on gatekeeper enactment of behaviors in support of suicide prevention and identify predictors of enactment of gatekeeper behaviors. Trained gatekeepers (N = 216) displayed greater perceived knowledge and self-efficacy for suicide prevention and reported higher rates of self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors, including inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring for mental health treatment when they encountered someone in distress, compared to their untrained counterparts (N = 169). Consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior, SEM results indicated that attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived knowledge explained intentions to engage in gatekeeper behaviors, accounting for 59% of the variance in intentions to inquire about suicidal ideation and supporting the role of attitudes and perceived behavioral control in intentions to act. These intentions explained self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors among participants who encountered someone in distress, with each one-point increase in intention associated with nearly twice the likelihood of both inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring someone for mental health care. On the other hand, self-reported situational barriers were associated with a decreased likelihood of referral behavior, indicating the role of actual behavioral control over volitional actions. Findings support the value of gatekeeper training for promoting factors that influence the likelihood of action on behalf of suicide prevention.

  20. Motivational Antecedents of Well-Being and Health Related Behaviors in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Isabel; Duda, Joan L; Castillo, Isabel

    2017-10-01

    Grounded in the Achievement Goal Theory framework of motivation and optimal functioning, there were two objectives of this study: (a) to test a model hypothesizing links between personal theories of school achievement, indices of the quality of academic engagement, wellbeing, and health-related behaviors, and (b) to explore whether the hypothesized model was invariant across gender groups. A multisection questionnaire pack tapping the targeted variables was administered to 967 teenagers (475 boys and 492 girls) aged between 11 to 16 years old. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that Task theory of achievement predicted positively satisfaction in school and negatively boredom in school. An Ego theory of achievement was linked to higher levels of boredom in school. Satisfaction in school corresponded to higher life satisfaction, while boredom was negatively related. Higher life satisfaction was associated with lower tobacco, alcohol and marijuana consumption, more healthy food intake and greater levels of physical activity. The results revealed partial invariance of the model by gender. The quality of adolescents' involvement in the classroom holds important implications for adolescent's well-being and their health related behaviors. Interventions on the creation of a task-involving motivational climate in the school are proposed to promote healthy lifestyles among young people.

  1. Habit, custom, and power: a multi-level theory of population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2013-03-01

    In multi-level theory, individual behavior flows from cognitive habits, either directly through social referencing, rules of thumb, or automatic behaviors; or indirectly through the shaping of rationality itself by framing or heuristics. Although behavior does not arise from individually rational optimization, it generally appears to be rational, because the cognitive habits that guide behavior evolve toward optimality. However, power imbalances shaped by particular social, political, and economic structures can distort this evolution, leading to individual behavior that fails to maximize individual or social well-being. Replacing the dominant rational-choice paradigm with a multi-level theoretical paradigm involving habit, custom, and power will enable public health to engage in rigorous new areas of research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion: The Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conatser, Phillip; Block, Martin; Gansneder, Bruce

    2002-04-01

    The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors' beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities- Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors' beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors' inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors' behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

  3. Predicting Facebook users' online privacy protection: risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-01-01

    The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed.

  4. Correlations Between Oral Health Knowledge, Locus of Control, and Oral Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    18 Theory of Planned Behavior.................................................. 19 Social Learning Theory and Locus of Control...these models have been applied to health behavior, and include the Social Learning Theory (Rotter, 1954), Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1966...Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982), Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), and Social Cognitive Theory ( Bandura , 1994). These

  5. Mediation of effects of a theory-based behavioral intervention on self-reported physical activity in South African men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, John B; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-03-01

    Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The bounds of reason game theory and the unification of the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gintis, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Game theory is central to understanding human behavior and relevant to all of the behavioral sciences-from biology and economics, to anthropology and political science. However, as The Bounds of Reason demonstrates, game theory alone cannot fully explain human behavior and should instead complement other key concepts championed by the behavioral disciplines. Herbert Gintis shows that just as game theory without broader social theory is merely technical bravado, so social theory without game theory is a handicapped enterprise. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Reinvigorati

  7. The Effect of an Educational Program Based on Protection Motivation Theory on Pap Smear Screening Behavior among Women Referring to Health Centers in Fasa

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Khiyali; Leila Ghahremani; Mohammad Hossein Kaveh; Sareh Keshavarzi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Despite the importance of pap smear in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer and its death, this cancer is still one of the leading causes of death among women around the world. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of an educational program based on the protection motivation theory on Pap smear screening behavior. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 200 women referring to Fasa health centers, Fasa, Ira...

  8. On the short distance behavior of string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, R.; Konishi, K.; Provero, P.

    1991-01-01

    Short distance behavior of string theories is investigated by the use of the discretized path-integral formulation. In particular, the minimum physical length and the generalized uncertainty relation are re-derived from a set of Ward-Takahashi identities. In this paper several issues related to the form of the generalized uncertainty relation and to its implications are discussed. A consistent qualitative picture of short distance behavior of string theory seems to emerge from such a study

  9. Intentions of Chiropractic Interns Regarding use of Health Promotion in Practice: Applying Theory of Reasoned Action to Identify Attitudes, Beliefs, and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion W; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action is a health behavioral theory that has been used to predict personal health behaviors and intentions as well as those of providers delivering health care. The purpose of this study was to determine interns' future practices regarding the use of health promotion using this model to develop survey questions and to determine attitudes and perceived influences on their prospective behaviors in general, toward the use of health promotion once in practice. Across the course of one year, all graduating interns at a chiropractic college were queried with a 20 question survey designed using the theory of reasoned action. Frequencies and inferential statistics were performed including prediction modeling using logistic regression. A majority (>85%) of interns indicated they would use health promotion in practice. Differences were noted based on perceived skill levels, perception of educational emphasis, various normative beliefs, and gender. Most interns will use some form of health promotion in practice. Normative influences including those seen as key influencers are as powerful a predictor as perceived education or skill levels on future practice of health promotion.

  10. Rural health care bypass behavior: how community and spatial characteristics affect primary health care selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott R; Erickson, Lance D; Call, Vaughn R A; McKnight, Matthew L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    (1) To assess the prevalence of rural primary care physician (PCP) bypass, a behavior in which residents travel farther than necessary to obtain health care, (2) To examine the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass behavior, and (3) To analyze spatial bypass patterns to determine which rural communities are most affected by bypass. Data came from the Montana Health Matters survey, which gathered self-reported information from Montana residents on their health care utilization, satisfaction with health care services, and community and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression and spatial analysis were used to examine the probability and spatial patterns of bypass. Overall, 39% of respondents bypass local health care. Similar to previous studies, dissatisfaction with local health care was found to increase the likelihood of bypass. Dissatisfaction with local shopping also increases the likelihood of bypass, while the number of friends in a community, and commonality with community reduce the likelihood of bypass. Other significant factors associated with bypass include age, income, health, and living in a highly rural community or one with high commuting flows. Our results suggest that outshopping theory, in which patients bundle services and shopping for added convenience, extends to primary health care selection. This implies that rural health care selection is multifaceted, and that in addition to perceived satisfaction with local health care, the quality of local shopping and levels of community attachment also influence bypass behavior. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Promotion of sun protective behaviors in high school students in Ahwaz: a theory-based intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Heydar Rahmati Asl; Kambiz Ahmadi Angali; Marzieh Araban

    2017-01-01

    The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four mo...

  12. Applying the concept of culture to reduce health disparities through health behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa Singer, Marjorie

    2012-11-01

    Culture is often cited as an underlying cause of the undue burden of disease borne by communities of color along the entire life cycle. However, culture is rarely defined or appropriately measured. Scientifically, culture is a complex, integrated, and dynamic conceptual framework that is incongruent with the way it is operationalized in health behavior theories: as a unidimensional, static, and immutable character element of a homogeneous population group. This paper lays out this contradiction and proposes a more scientifically grounded approach to the use of culture. The premise is that if the concept of culture were better operationalized, results from studies of diverse population groups would produce findings that are more scientifically valid and relevant to the community. Practitioners could then use these findings to develop more effective strategies to reduce health disparities and improve the health of all population groups. Six steps are proposed to increase our ability to achieve greater clarity on what culture is and to identify how it impacts health behavior and ultimately health outcomes, enabling researchers to build a stronger science of cultural diversity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The Effect of Doctor-Consumer Interaction on Social Media on Consumers’ Health Behaviors: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tailai; Deng, Zhaohua; Gaskin, Darrell J; Zhang, Donglan; Wang, Ruoxi

    2018-01-01

    Background Both doctors and consumers have engaged in using social media for health purposes. Social media has changed traditional one-to-one communication between doctors and patients to many-to-many communication between doctors and consumers. However, little is known about the effect of doctor-consumer interaction on consumers’ health behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate how doctor-consumer interaction in social media affects consumers’ health behaviors. Methods On the basis of professional-client interaction theory and social cognitive theory, we propose that doctor-consumer interaction can be divided into instrumental interaction and affective interaction. These two types of interactions influence consumers’ health behaviors through declarative knowledge (DK), self-efficacy (SE), and outcome expectancy (OE). To validate our proposed research model, we employed the survey method and developed corresponding measurement instruments for constructs in our research model. A total of 352 valid answers were collected, and partial least square was performed to analyze the data. Results Instrumental doctor-consumer interaction was found to influence consumers’ DK (t294=5.763, Pinteraction also impacted consumers’ DK (t294=4.025, Peffect of instrumental interaction on health behaviors, whereas the three mediators fully mediated the effect of affective interaction on health behaviors. Conclusions Compared with many intentional intervention programs, doctor-consumer interaction can be treated as a natural cost-effective intervention to promote consumers’ health behaviors. Meanwhile, both instrumental and affective interaction should be highlighted for the best interaction results. DK, SE, and OE are working mechanisms of doctor-consumer interaction. PMID:29490892

  14. Explaining Consumer Safe Food Handling Through Behavior-Change Theories: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Reimer, Danielle; Greig, Judy; Meldrum, Richard; Turgeon, Patricia; Waddell, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Consumers often engage in unsafe food handling behaviors at home. Previous studies have investigated the ability of behavior-change theories to explain and predict these behaviors. The purpose of this review was to determine which theories are most consistently associated with consumers' safe food handling behaviors across the published literature. A standardized systematic review methodology was used, consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of identified references; confirmation of relevance and characterization of relevant articles; risk-of-bias assessment; data extraction; and descriptive analysis of study results. A total of 20 relevant studies were identified; they were mostly conducted in Australia (40%) and the United States (35%) and used a cross-sectional design (65%). Most studies targeted young adults (65%), and none focused on high-risk consumer groups. The outcomes of 70% of studies received high overall risk-of-bias ratings, largely due to a lack of control for confounding variables. The most commonly applied theory was the Theory of Planned Behavior (45% of studies), which, along with other investigated theories of behavior change, was frequently associated with consumer safe food handling behavioral intentions and behaviors. However, overall, there was wide variation in the specific constructs found to be significantly associated and in the percentage of variance explained in each outcome across studies. The results suggest that multiple theories of behavior change can help to explain consumer safe food handling behaviors and could be adopted to guide the development of future behavior-change interventions. In these contexts, theories should be appropriately selected and adapted to meet the needs of the specific target population and context of interest.

  15. Can Mobile Phone Apps Influence People’s Health Behavior Change? An Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Li, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, mobile phones have achieved wide reach at an unprecedented rate, and mobile phone apps have become increasingly prevalent among users. The number of health-related apps that were published on the two leading platforms (iOS and Android) reached more than 100,000 in 2014. However, there is a lack of synthesized evidence regarding the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in changing people’s health-related behaviors. Objective The aim was to examine the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in achieving health-related behavior change in a broader range of interventions and the quality of the reported studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive bibliographic search of articles on health behavior change using mobile phone apps in peer-reviewed journals published between January 1, 2010 and June 1, 2015. Databases searched included Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Embase, Health Technology Assessment, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research during that same period were hand-searched on the journal’s website. Behavior change mechanisms were coded and analyzed. The quality of each included study was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Results A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria, arranged under 11 themes according to their target behaviors. All studies were conducted in high-income countries. Of these, 17 studies reported statistically significant effects in the direction of targeted behavior change; 19 studies included in this analysis had a 65% or greater retention rate in the intervention group (range 60%-100%); 6 studies reported using behavior change theories with the theory of planned behavior being the most commonly used (in 3 studies). Self-monitoring was the most common behavior change technique applied (in 12 studies). The studies suggest that some features improve the

  16. Theory analysis for Pender's health promotion model (HPM) by Barnum's criteria: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Zohreh; Rayyani, Masoud; Tirgari, Batool

    2018-01-13

    Background Analysis of nursing theoretical works and its role in knowledge development is presented as an essential process of critical reflection. Health promotion model (HPM) focuses on helping people achieve higher levels of well-being and identifies background factors that influence health behaviors. Objectives This paper aims to evaluate, and critique HPM by Barnum's criteria. Methods The present study reviewed books and articles derived from Proquest, PubMed, Blackwell Databases. The method of evaluation for this model is based on Barnum's criteria for analysis, application and evaluation of nursing theories. The criteria selected by Barnum embrace both internal and external criticism. Internal criticism deals with how theory components fit with each other (internal construction of theory) and external criticism deals with the way in which theory relates to the extended world (which considers theory in its relationships to human beings, nursing, and health). Results The electronic database search yielded over 27,717 titles and abstracts. Following removal of duplicates, 18,963 titles and abstracts were screened using the inclusion criteria and 1278 manuscripts were retrieved. Of these, 80 were specific to HPM and 23 to analysis of any theory in nursing relating to the aim of this article. After final selection using the inclusion criteria for this review, 28 manuscripts were identified as examining the factors contributing to theory analysis. Evaluation of health promotion theory showed that the philosophical claims and their content are consistent and clear. HPM has a logical structure and was applied to diverse age groups from differing cultures with varying health concerns. Conclusion In conclusion, among the strategies for theory critique, the Barnum approach is structured and accurate, considers theory in its relationship to human beings, community psychiatric nursing, and health. While according to Pender, nursing assessment, diagnosis and interventions

  17. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-02-02

    Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the "social support" perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual's efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. In this paper, we describe grounded theory-based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual's efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include "sleepiness," "pledge," "patch," "spouse," and "slip." Examples of themes include "traditions," "social support

  18. Apps of Steel: Are Exercise Apps Providing Consumers with Realistic Expectations?: A Content Analysis of Exercise Apps for Presence of Behavior Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Logan T.; Van Wagenen, Sarah A.; Brown, Brittany A.; Hedin, Riley J.; Seino-Stephan, Yukiko; Hall, P. Cougar; West, Joshua H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the presence of health behavior theory constructs in iPhone apps targeting physical activity. Methods. This study used a content analysis of 127 apps from Apple's (App Store) "Health & Fitness" category. Coders downloaded the apps and then used an established theory-based instrument to rate each app's inclusion of…

  19. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  20. Theories of suicidal behavior applied to Sylvia Plath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1998-01-01

    The suicide of Sylvia Plath is examined from the perspective of 15 theories of suicidal behavior and is found to fit best with psychoanalytic and cognitive theories of suicide, in particular those of Aaron Beck, Henry Murray, and Edwin Shneidman.

  1. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Brug, Hans; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the the...

  2. Modified social learning theory re-examined: correlates of self-management behaviors of persons with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Linda E; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-12-01

    Modified social learning theory (MSLT) applied to health predicts that health behavior is a multiplicative function of health value and perceptions of control over health. The self-management behaviors of persons with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, internal diabetes locus of control (IDLC), diabetes self-efficacy (DSE), and health value (HV) were assessed with an index of diabetes self-care activities in 107 patients receiving insulin. Multiple regression analysis showed DSE as the only MSLT construct that correlated with the index of diabetes self-care behaviors (β = .21, p < .05). While the predicted three-way interaction of IDLC × DSE × HV was significant (∆R 2  = 4.5 %, p < .05) in the final step of the hierarchical model, the pattern of the findings only partially supported MSLT. Instead of finding that patients who were simultaneously high on all three predictors scored highest on the behavioral index, we found that patients who were low on all three constructs reported the least amount of diabetes self-care behavior. Implications for further modification of MSLT and its applications to clinical practice are discussed.

  3. Make the healthy choice the easy choice: using behavioral economics to advance a culture of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpp, K G; Asch, D A

    2017-05-01

    Despite great advances in the science and technology of health care, a large gap separates theoretically achievable advances in health from what individuals and populations actually achieve. Human behavior sits on the final common pathway to so many of our health and health care goals, including the prevention and management of illness and the fostering of wellness. Behavioral economics is a relatively new field offering approaches to supplement many of the conventional approaches to improving health behaviors that rely on education or standard economic theory. While those conventional approaches presume that an educated public will naturally make decisions that optimize personal welfare, approaches derived from behavioral economics harness existing and predictable patterns of behavior that often lead people to make choices against their best interests. By keeping these predictable patterns of behavior in mind when designing health insurance, health care programs or the health-related aspects of everyday life, behavioral economists aim to meet people half-way: no longer asking them to reshape their behavior to something more health promoting, but helping the behavioral patterns they already follow lead them to better health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Understanding human papillomavirus vaccination intentions: comparative utility of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior in vaccine target age women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Salisbury, Claire M A; Salvadori, Marina I

    2013-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an exceedingly prevalent sexually transmitted infection with serious medical, sexual, and relationship consequences. HPV vaccine protection is available but vaccine uptake is very inconsistent. This research applies two major theories of health behavior uptake, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior, in an effort to understand intentions to receive HPV vaccine among vaccine target age women and men. The Theory of Reasoned Action asserts that attitudes toward HPV vaccination and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination are the determinants of intentions to be vaccinated, whereas the Theory of Planned Behavior holds that attitudes toward vaccination, perceptions of social support for vaccination, and perceived ability to get vaccinated are the determinants of intentions to be vaccinated. Canadian university men (N=118) and women (N=146) in the HPV vaccine target age range took part in this correlational study online. Participants completed standard measures of attitudes toward HPV vaccination, perceptions of social support for vaccination, perceived ability to get vaccinated, beliefs about vaccination, and intentions to be vaccinated in the coming semester. Findings confirmed the propositions of the Theory of Reasoned Action and indicated that attitudes toward undergoing HPV vaccination and perceptions of social support for undergoing HPV vaccination contributed uniquely to the prediction of women's (R2=0.53) and men's (R2=0.44) intentions to be vaccinated in the coming semester. Clinical and public health education should focus on strengthening attitudes and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination, and on the basic beliefs that appear to underlie attitudes and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination, in efforts to promote HPV vaccine uptake. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. The Effect of Training on Adopting Behaviors Preventing from Knee Osteoarthritis Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the arthritis is believed to be among common diseases which prevail in the developed and developing countries, including Iran. In demographic studies, the prevalence of knee arthritis which stands at %15/3 in the population above 15-years old was shown. Owing to the fact that societies are about to be aged than before, the issue has become a growing significance in the subject matter of public health. The present study is conducted with an aim to investigate into the effect of training based on the planned behavior model on preventing the teachers of preliminary schools from getting knee arthritis. Methods: the study as an intervention research is of quasi-experimental kind. The population in question included 114 individuals among female teachers of preliminary schools who were brought to the study randomly and divided into two groups intervention and non-intervention. Based on the primary results, the educational contents were designed and submitted in the intervention group. After two months of executing the training program, the post test was carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 18. Due to the loss of normality in data distribution, non- parametric tests were used. Results: the study demonstrated that the components of the planned behavior theory (i.e. the attitudes, subjective norms and the control of perceived behavior could altogether estimate %37 of intention and %43 of behavior. Meanwhile, the role of subjective norms (β =56/0 in predicting intention was overriding, In this study,after the educational program, control of perceived behavior scores increased of 32/50 ± 4/05 to 34/82 ± 5/66. indicating that the major obstacles in adopting behaviors preventing from knee arthritis are the lack of regular physical activity (%72/4 and failure to use western-style toilet (%57. Conclusion: In this Study the effect theory of planned behavior support in predicting exercise intentions and behavior in the prevention of

  6. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is

  7. Using grounded theory to create a substantive theory of promoting schoolchildren's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakka, Kristiina; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Kiikkala, Irma; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Paavilainen, Eija

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the creation of a substantive theory using grounded theory. This article provides an example of generating theory from a study of mental health promotion at a high school in Finland. Grounded theory is a method for creating explanatory theory. It is a valuable tool for health professionals when studying phenomena that affect patients' health, offering a deeper understanding of nursing methods and knowledge. Interviews with school employees, students and parents, and verbal responses to the 'school wellbeing profile survey', as well as working group memos related to the development activities. Participating children were aged between 12 and 15. The analysis was conducted by applying the grounded theory method and involved open coding of the material, constant comparison, axial coding and selective coding after identifying the core category. The analysis produced concepts about mental health promotion in school and assumptions about relationships. Grounded theory proved to be an effective means of eliciting people's viewpoints on mental health promotion. The personal views of different parties make it easier to identify an action applicable to practice.

  8. Venkatapuram's Capability theory of Health: A Critical Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2016-01-01

    The discussion about theories of health has recently had an important new input through the work of Sridhar Venkatapuram. He proposes a combination of Lennart Nordenfelt's holistic theory of health and Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. The aim of the present article is to discuss and evaluate this proposal. The article starts with a discussion of Nordenfelt's theory and evaluates Venkatapuram' critique of it, that is, of its relativism, both regarding goals and environment, and of the subjectivist theory of happiness used. Then the article explains why Nordenfelt's idea of a reasonable environment is not a problem for the theory, and it critiques Venkatapuram's own incorporation of the environment into the concept of health, suggesting that this makes the concept too wide. It contends, moreover, that Venkatapuram's alternative theory retains a problem inherent in Nordenfelt's theory, namely, that health is conceived of as a second-order ability. It is argued that health should, instead, be defined as first-order abilities. This means that health cannot be seen as a capability, and also that health cannot be seen as a meta-capability of the kind envisioned by Venkatapuram. It is, furthermore, argued that the theory lacks one crucial aspect of health, namely, subjective wellbeing. Finally, the article tries to illustrate how health, in the suggested alternative sense, as first-order abilities, fits into Nussbaum's capability theory, since health as an 'actuality' is part of all the 'combined capabilities' suggested by Nussbaum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Infrared behaviors of SU(2 gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen Kimmo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss some recent results in the determination of the location of the conformal window in SU(2 gauge theory with Nf fermions in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. In particular, we will demonstrate that the long distance behavior of the continuum theory with Nf = 6 is governed by an infrared stable fixed point.

  10. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-01-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast fo...

  11. Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, J.; Horton, K.D.; Ellison, Ch.G.; Loukas, A.; Downey, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328

  12. A Study of Personal Health Record User's Behavioral Model Based on the PMT and UTAUT Integrative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Lung; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Chuang, Bi-Kun; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-12-23

    The personal health record (PHR) is a system that enables borderless medical care services by combining technological innovation and human consideration. This study explored factors affecting the adoption of PHR from technical, medical, and social perspectives according to the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. A survey using a structured questionnaire was subsequently conducted, which produced the following results: (1) The PMT and UTAUT were effective at predicting PHR usage behaviors; (2) Perceived ease-of-use was the most decisive factor influencing the use of PHR, followed by self-efficacy and perceived usefulness; and (3) Behavioral intention for PHR was significantly and positively correlated with usage behavior. From the obtained results, this study recommends that health authorities and medical institutions promote self-efficacy in the use of PHR to improve the levels of behavioral intention and usage behavior among the people. Additionally, medical care institutions are recommended to promote health management and preventive healthcare concepts to help improve public acceptance of the PHR system as a means to self-manage their health. Finally, community centers, medical institutions, and health authorities are urged to work together to enhance public medical knowledge and pool resources for the PHR system, both of which are essential for improving the popularity of the PHR, public quality of life, and the effectiveness of health management.

  13. Promotion of sun protective behaviors in high school students in Ahwaz: a theory-based intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Rahmati Asl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four months after the intervention. In the posttest, there was a significant difference in mean score of the protection motivation theory components between the experimental and control groups. the comparison of the mean score of the components of protection motivation theory in the experimental and control groups before and after the intervention showed a significant difference in all the components except for the response cost, while in the control group the mean score difference not significant. The results of this study showed that the intervention may lead to the sun exposure preventive behaviors, which reflects the effectiveness of the educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory.

  14. Risky music-listening behaviors and associated health-risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Burdorf, Alex; de Waart, Frouwkje

    2012-06-01

    To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drugs) and unsafe sexual intercourse. A total of 944 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Risky MP3-player listeners used cannabis more often during the past 4 weeks. Students exposed to risky sound levels during discotheque and pop concert attendance used cannabis less often during the past 4 weeks, were more often binge drinkers, and reported inconsistent condom use during sexual intercourse. The coexistence of risky music-listening behaviors with other health-risk behaviors provides evidence in support of the integration of risky music-listening behaviors within research on and programs aimed at reducing more traditional health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and unsafe sexual intercourse.

  15. Driving violations and health promotion behaviors among undergraduate students: Self-report of on-road behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Weiss, Yossi; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2017-11-17

    The purposes of this study are to characterize Israeli undergraduate students' driving violations in the terms of problem behavior theory and to identify whether there is any relationship between driving violations and health risk behaviors, daring behaviors, excitement seeking, and health promotion behaviors. This study is based on a structured self-reported anonymous questionnaire distributed to undergraduate students in an academic institution. The sample included 533 undergraduate students (374 females and 159 males). The mean age was 23.4 (SD = 1.4, range = 5). A higher prevalence of self-reported driving violations was found among males in comparison to females. All substance use measures were positively related to driving violations; for example, use of cigarettes (OR = 4.287, P driving violations. The strongest predictive factors for the frequent driving violations group were alcohol consumption-related variables: binge drinking (OR = 2.560, P driving violations group and selling or dealing drugs (12.143, P driving violations group was physical confrontation due to verbal disagreement (3.439, P driving violations was higher for subjects who reported intense physical workout regimens (OR = 1.638, P driving violations. This study shows that bachelors tend to be more involved in risk behaviors, such as substance use, excitement-seeking behaviors, and daring behaviors and are active physically and thus constitute a risk group for driving violations. As such, intervention resources should be directed toward this group.

  16. An approach to children's smoking behavior using social cognitive learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan; Armstrong, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses the theoretical principles of social cognitive learning theory and children's risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking, along with preventive initiatives. Social cognitive learning theorists examine the behavior of initiating and sustained smoking using a social systems approach. The authors discuss the reciprocal determinism aspect of the theory as applied to the importance of individual factors, and environment and behavioral interactions that influence smoking behavior. Included is the concept of vicarious capability that suggests that smoking behavior is determined in response to and interaction with feedback provided by the environment. The principle of self-regulatory capability asserts that people have control over their own behavior and thus that behavior change is possible. The principle of self-efficacy proposes that high level of self-efficacy of an individual may decrease the behavior of attempting to or continuing to smoke. Examples of initiatives to be undertaken in order to prevent smoking in accordance with social cognitive learning theory are presented at the end of each principle.

  17. Intentions of Chiropractic Interns Regarding use of Health Promotion in Practice: Applying Theory of Reasoned Action to Identify Attitudes, Beliefs, and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion W.; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The theory of reasoned action is a health behavioral theory that has been used to predict personal health behaviors and intentions as well as those of providers delivering health care. The purpose of this study was to determine interns' future practices regarding the use of health promotion using this model to develop survey questions and to determine attitudes and perceived influences on their prospective behaviors in general, toward the use of health promotion once in practice. Methods: Across the course of one year, all graduating interns at a chiropractic college were queried with a 20 question survey designed using the theory of reasoned action. Frequencies and inferential statistics were performed including prediction modeling using logistic regression. Results: A majority (>85%) of interns indicated they would use health promotion in practice. Differences were noted based on perceived skill levels, perception of educational emphasis, various normative beliefs, and gender. Conclusion: Most interns will use some form of health promotion in practice. Normative influences including those seen as key influencers are as powerful a predictor as perceived education or skill levels on future practice of health promotion. PMID:19390679

  18. Integrating design science theory and methods to improve the development and evaluation of health communication programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L

    2014-12-01

    Traditional communication theory and research methods provide valuable guidance about designing and evaluating health communication programs. However, efforts to use health communication programs to educate, motivate, and support people to adopt healthy behaviors often fail to meet the desired goals. One reason for this failure is that health promotion issues are complex, changeable, and highly related to the specific needs and contexts of the intended audiences. It is a daunting challenge to effectively influence health behaviors, particularly culturally learned and reinforced behaviors concerning lifestyle factors related to diet, exercise, and substance (such as alcohol and tobacco) use. Too often, program development and evaluation are not adequately linked to provide rapid feedback to health communication program developers so that important revisions can be made to design the most relevant and personally motivating health communication programs for specific audiences. Design science theory and methods commonly used in engineering, computer science, and other fields can address such program and evaluation weaknesses. Design science researchers study human-created programs using tightly connected build-and-evaluate loops in which they use intensive participatory methods to understand problems and develop solutions concurrently and throughout the duration of the program. Such thinking and strategies are especially relevant to address complex health communication issues. In this article, the authors explore the history, scientific foundation, methods, and applications of design science and its potential to enhance health communication programs and their evaluation.

  19. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  20. Combinations of techniques that effectively change health behavior : evidence from meta-Cart analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Buuren, S. van; Genugten, L. van; Verheijden, M.W.; Empelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many health-promoting interventions combine multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) to maximize effectiveness. Although, in theory, BCTs can amplify each other, the available meta-analyses have not been able to identify specific combinations of techniques that provide synergistic

  1. Prospect theory in the valuation of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Maurice L; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2005-08-01

    Prospect theory is the prominent nonexpected utility theory in the estimation of health state preference scores for quality-adjusted life year calculation. Until recently, the theory was not considered to be developed to the point of implementation in economic analysis. This review focuses on the research and evidence that tests the implementation of prospect theory into health state valuation. The typical application of expected utility theory assumes that a decision maker has stable preferences under conditions of risk and uncertainty. Under prospect theory, preferences are dependent on whether the decision maker regards the outcome of a choice as a gain or loss, relative to a reference point. The conceptual preference for standard gamble utilities in the valuation of health states has led to the development of elicitation techniques. Empirical evidence using these techniques indicates that when individual preferences are elicited, a prospect theory consistent framework appears to be necessary for adequate representation of individual health utilities. The relevance of prospect theory to policy making and resource allocation remains to be established. Societal preferences may not need the same attitudes towards risks as individual preferences, and may remain largely risk neutral.

  2. Predicting children's sunscreen use: application of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S C; Jacobsen, P B; Lucas, D J; Branch, K A; Ferron, J M

    1999-07-01

    Skin cancer remains the most common form of cancer in the United States despite the fact that most cases can be prevented by limiting sun exposure. Childhood and adolescence are periods of life during which prolonged sun exposure is particularly common. Accordingly, promoting sun-protective behaviors during these formative years can be of critical importance in preventing skin cancer. The present study applied the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior to the understanding of children's sunscreen use. Based on these theories, it was hypothesized that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control would be related to intentions to use sunscreen, which, in turn, would be related to actual sunscreen use. Questionnaires measuring sun-related attitudes, beliefs, perceived control, and intentions were administered to 199 fourth graders (ages 9 to 13, mean = 10.3) attending public schools in Florida. Self-report measures of sun-related behavior were administered to the same subjects 1 month later. Results of correlational analyses were consistent with study hypotheses. Higher rates of sunscreen use at follow-up were predicted by stronger intentions to use sunscreen assessed 1 month previously. In addition, stronger intentions to use sunscreen were found to be related to more favorable attitudes toward sunscreen use, stronger beliefs that peers and parents favored sunscreen use, and greater perceptions of personal control in using sunscreen. Path and multiple regression analyses identified direct and indirect relationships among study variables that partially confirmed those predicted by the theories and provided support for the use of an expanded model that included perceived behavioral control. The present study confirmed hypotheses derived from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior regarding the relation of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control to sunscreen use among fourth graders. In addition to their

  3. The Effect of Doctor-Consumer Interaction on Social Media on Consumers' Health Behaviors: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tailai; Deng, Zhaohua; Feng, Zhanchun; Gaskin, Darrell J; Zhang, Donglan; Wang, Ruoxi

    2018-02-28

    Both doctors and consumers have engaged in using social media for health purposes. Social media has changed traditional one-to-one communication between doctors and patients to many-to-many communication between doctors and consumers. However, little is known about the effect of doctor-consumer interaction on consumers' health behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate how doctor-consumer interaction in social media affects consumers' health behaviors. On the basis of professional-client interaction theory and social cognitive theory, we propose that doctor-consumer interaction can be divided into instrumental interaction and affective interaction. These two types of interactions influence consumers' health behaviors through declarative knowledge (DK), self-efficacy (SE), and outcome expectancy (OE). To validate our proposed research model, we employed the survey method and developed corresponding measurement instruments for constructs in our research model. A total of 352 valid answers were collected, and partial least square was performed to analyze the data. Instrumental doctor-consumer interaction was found to influence consumers' DK (t 294 =5.763, Pinteraction also impacted consumers' DK (t 294 =4.025, Pinteraction on health behaviors, whereas the three mediators fully mediated the effect of affective interaction on health behaviors. Compared with many intentional intervention programs, doctor-consumer interaction can be treated as a natural cost-effective intervention to promote consumers' health behaviors. Meanwhile, both instrumental and affective interaction should be highlighted for the best interaction results. DK, SE, and OE are working mechanisms of doctor-consumer interaction. ©Tailai Wu, Zhaohua Deng, Zhanchun Feng, Darrell J Gaskin, Donglan Zhang, Ruoxi Wang. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.02.2018.

  4. Portfolio selection between rational and behavioral theories emergent markets case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouri Abdelfatteh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the determinants of Portfolio Choice under the investors, professionals and academics’ perception. We introduce an approach based on cognitive mapping technique with a series of semi-directive interviews. Among a sample of 30 Tunisian individuals, we propose tow different frameworks: a mean-variance framework and a behavioral framework. Each framework is oriented to capture the effect of some concepts as proposed by the mean-variance portfolio theory and the behavioral portfolio theory on the portfolio choice decision. The originality of this research paper is guaranteed since it traits the behavioral portfolio choice in emergent markets. In the best of our knowledge this is the first study in the Tunisian context that explores such area of research. Ours results show that the Tunisian investors behave as it prescribed by the behavioral portfolio theory. They use some concepts proposed by the rational mean-variance theory of portfolio choice but they are affected by their emotions and some others cognitive bias when constructing and managing they portfolio of assets.

  5. A critical assessment of theories/models used in health communication for HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Obregon, R

    2000-01-01

    Most theories and models used to develop human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) communication are based on social psychology that emphasizes individualism. Researchers including communication and health scholars are now questioning the presumed global relevance of these models and thus the need to develop innovative theories and models that take into account regional contexts. In this paper, we discuss the commonly used theories and models in HIV/AIDS communication. Furthermore, we argue that the flaws in the application of the commonly used "classical" models in health communication are because of contextual differences in locations where these models are applied. That is to say that these theories and models are being applied in contexts for which they were not designed. For example, the differences in health behaviors are often the function of culture. Therefore, culture should be viewed for its strength and not always as a barrier. The metaphorical coupling of "culture" and "barrier" needs to be exposed, deconstructed, and reconstructed so that new, positive, cultural linkages can be forged. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has served as a flashpoint to either highlight the importance or deny the relevance of theories and models while at the same time addressing the importance of culture in the development and implementation of communication programs.

  6. Behavioral risk-reduction strategies to prevent HIV infection among homosexual men: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, J B; Teunis, N; van Griensven, G J; Sandfort, T G

    1994-12-01

    To be able to design effective health education interventions for homosexual men, it is necessary to understand determinants of safe and unsafe sex from the perspective of those involved. In this qualitative study, therefore, an open approach was taken to allow for this perspective. Interviews were conducted with 50 randomly selected HIV-antibody negative participants in the Amsterdam Cohort Study. Detailed questions were asked about sexual interactions and behaviors with steady and nonsteady partners. Whether or not homosexual men consciously protected themselves from HIV infection and which strategy they adopted was found to depend on three major factors: 1) motivation and intention, 2) significance of anal sex, and 3) risk perception within specific relationships. From a theoretical perspective results indicate that, next to the centrality of individual motivation as postulated in both the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior, symbolic meaning inherent in sexual acts, as well as type of relationship are important determinants of protective sexual behaviors that have to be taken into account to understand adequately why homosexual men engage in safe or unsafe sex. Some strategies employed by homosexual men carry uncertainties that continue to put them at increased risk for HIV infection. Health education interventions can be designed to address these issues.

  7. Contributions of Socialization Theory to Consumer Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Scott

    1978-01-01

    Socialization theory can contribute to consumer research because it focuses on (1) youth and development, (2) interaction of factors affecting consumer behavior, and (3) linkages between mental processes and overt behavior. Various approaches to socialization research and consumer research are described, including cognitive development and…

  8. Sociostructural factors influencing health behaviors of urban African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Young, Anthony E

    2003-06-01

    African-American men are suffering disproportionately from most illnesses. Seemingly, action is needed if health disparities that disproportionately affect African-American men as compared to their White and female counterparts are to be reduced or eliminated. An important step in decreasing common health disparities evidenced among African-American men is to understand social factors that act as motivators and barriers to seeking care for most of this vulnerable population. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social structure factors that motivate urban African-American men to seek care. Leininger's Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory guided this study. Qualitative interviews were conducted with urban African-American men and other individuals in the community to explore understanding, attitudes, and beliefs about health. Critical issues examined included social factors associated with health seeking behaviors. Themes that emerged from these data indicated that critical social factors include: 1) Kinship/significant others; 2) accessibility of resources; 3) ethnohealth belief; and 4) accepting caring environment. The data also indicated a relationship between these social factors and health seeking behaviors of urban African-American men.

  9. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong T; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks - the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model - termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model- is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  10. Can Customizing an Avatar Motivate Exercise Intentions and Health Behaviors Among Those with Low Health Ideals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, T Franklin; Sundar, S Shyam; Auriemma, Joshua

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown that self-resembling avatars in health games and other applications can heighten exercise intentions, but objective self-awareness (OSA) theory suggests that this effect is likely to be true only for those who believe in the ideal of a healthy self. How can avatars be used to motivate those who do not hold this ideal and may not be motivated by avatars to pursue healthy activities? One possibility is to afford individuals the ability to customize their avatar, so they are not only more self-aware but also feel in control of their persona, both of which are necessary conditions for behavior change according to OSA. In order to test this prediction, participants in an online virtual environment created an avatar of the same sex or opposite sex by choosing among a small or large number of possible traits, then completed a series of items measuring self-awareness, sense of control, health-focused behavior, and ideal internalization. Results show that customizing a same-sex avatar can overcome differences in health intentions and behaviors between individuals with high and low levels of prior health-ideal internalization.

  11. Theory of planned behavior and adherence in chronic illness: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, A.; Brandes, K.; Mullan, B.; Hagger, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive models such as the theory of planned behavior have demonstrated efficacy in predicting behavior, but few studies have examined the theory as a predictor of treatment adherence in chronic illness. We tested the efficacy of the theory for predicting adherence to treatment in chronic

  12. Using findings in multimedia learning to inform technology-based behavioral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C

    2013-09-01

    Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.

  13. The Theory-based Influence of Map Features on Risk Beliefs: Self-reports of What is Seen and Understood for Maps Depicting an Environmental Health Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Severtson, Dolores J.; Vatovec, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Theory-based research is needed to understand how maps of environmental health risk information influence risk beliefs and protective behavior. Using theoretical concepts from multiple fields of study including visual cognition, semiotics, health behavior, and learning and memory supports a comprehensive assessment of this influence. We report results from thirteen cognitive interviews that provide theory-based insights into how visual features influenced what participants saw ...

  14. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE). Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  15. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  16. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  17. A Study of Personal Health Record User’s Behavioral Model Based on the PMT and UTAUT Integrative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lung Hsieh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The personal health record (PHR is a system that enables borderless medical care services by combining technological innovation and human consideration. This study explored factors affecting the adoption of PHR from technical, medical, and social perspectives according to the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT model. A survey using a structured questionnaire was subsequently conducted, which produced the following results: (1 The PMT and UTAUT were effective at predicting PHR usage behaviors; (2 Perceived ease-of-use was the most decisive factor influencing the use of PHR, followed by self-efficacy and perceived usefulness; and (3 Behavioral intention for PHR was significantly and positively correlated with usage behavior. From the obtained results, this study recommends that health authorities and medical institutions promote self-efficacy in the use of PHR to improve the levels of behavioral intention and usage behavior among the people. Additionally, medical care institutions are recommended to promote health management and preventive healthcare concepts to help improve public acceptance of the PHR system as a means to self-manage their health. Finally, community centers, medical institutions, and health authorities are urged to work together to enhance public medical knowledge and pool resources for the PHR system, both of which are essential for improving the popularity of the PHR, public quality of life, and the effectiveness of health management.

  18. A Study of Personal Health Record User’s Behavioral Model Based on the PMT and UTAUT Integrative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Lung; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Chuang, Bi-Kun; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The personal health record (PHR) is a system that enables borderless medical care services by combining technological innovation and human consideration. This study explored factors affecting the adoption of PHR from technical, medical, and social perspectives according to the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. A survey using a structured questionnaire was subsequently conducted, which produced the following results: (1) The PMT and UTAUT were effective at predicting PHR usage behaviors; (2) Perceived ease-of-use was the most decisive factor influencing the use of PHR, followed by self-efficacy and perceived usefulness; and (3) Behavioral intention for PHR was significantly and positively correlated with usage behavior. From the obtained results, this study recommends that health authorities and medical institutions promote self-efficacy in the use of PHR to improve the levels of behavioral intention and usage behavior among the people. Additionally, medical care institutions are recommended to promote health management and preventive healthcare concepts to help improve public acceptance of the PHR system as a means to self-manage their health. Finally, community centers, medical institutions, and health authorities are urged to work together to enhance public medical knowledge and pool resources for the PHR system, both of which are essential for improving the popularity of the PHR, public quality of life, and the effectiveness of health management. PMID:28025557

  19. The effect of education based on the theory of planned behavior on preventive behaviors of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in mothers living in endemic city of Natanz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Baghianimoghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the limited studies conducted on the educational interventions to change the preventive behaviors of cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL as well as mothers' critical role in creating and maintaining these behaviors, this study aimed to determine the impact of education based on theory of planned behavior on preventive behaviors of CL in mothers living in endemic city of Natanz. Methods: In this case experimental study, two health care centers in endemic areas of CL were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. Using list of mothers covered by each center, 80 patients were selected by simple random sampling, who were required to complete a questionnaire that has been designed based on the theory of planned behavior, and its reliability and validity had been confirmed in the previous studies. Then 4 sessions were held for the experimental group mothers and 2 training sessions were held for people who influenced them, whereas control group received no interventions. Two months after training intervention, the study data were collected again and were analyzed using the SPSS software (ver. 18 via independent statistical t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square and Mann Whitney tests. Results: Before the intervention, no significant differences were observed between the mean scores of different constructs of this theory in the two groups (p>0/005. Though after intervention, a significant increase was observed (p<0/005 in the mean score of knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention and action of groups and in control group, only a significant increase was observed in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude (p<0/005. Conclusions: As the findings of the present study revealed, training based on theory of planned behavior can promote preventive behaviors of CL in mothers.

  20. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  1. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.

  2. Improving measurement of injection drug risk behavior using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulis, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Recent research highlights the multiple steps to preparing and injecting drugs and the resultant viral threats faced by drug users. This research suggests that more sensitive measurement of injection drug HIV risk behavior is required. In addition, growing evidence suggests there are gender differences in injection risk behavior. However, the potential for differential item functioning between genders has not been explored. To explore item response theory as an improved measurement modeling technique that provides empirically justified scaling of injection risk behavior and to examine for potential gender-based differential item functioning. Data is used from three studies in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. A two-parameter item response theory model was used to scale injection risk behavior and logistic regression was used to examine for differential item functioning. Item fit statistics suggest that item response theory can be used to scale injection risk behavior and these models can provide more sensitive estimates of risk behavior. Additionally, gender-based differential item functioning is present in the current data. Improved measurement of injection risk behavior using item response theory should be encouraged as these models provide increased congruence between construct measurement and the complexity of injection-related HIV risk. Suggestions are made to further improve injection risk behavior measurement. Furthermore, results suggest direct comparisons of composite scores between males and females may be misleading and future work should account for differential item functioning before comparing levels of injection risk behavior.

  3. Enhancing John Rawls's Theory of Justice to Cover Health and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-11-01

    The vast improvements in medical technology reviled the crucial role of social determinants of health for the etiology, prevalence and prognosis of diseases. This changed the content of the right to health concept from a demand of health services, to a claim of having access to all social determinants of health. Thus, the just allocation of scarce resources of health and social determinants of health became an issue of ethical theories. John Rawls developed a theory of justice. His theory suggests that the principles of justice should be determined by individuals in a hypothetic initial position. In the initial position, individuals agree on principles of justice. Rawls puts forth that the institutions of the society should be structured in compliance with these principles to reach a fair social system. Although Rawls did not justify right to health in his theory, the efforts to enlarge the theory to cover right to health flourished quite fast. In this paper first the basic components of Rawls theory is explained. Then the most outstanding approaches to enlarge his theory to cover right to health is introduced and discussed within the discourse of Rawls theory of justice.

  4. Application of the Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior in Intercity Travel Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestion in intercity corridors of metropolitan area has been increasing steadily. To alleviate congestion, many major investment projects, such as the high speed railway projects, were proposed by agency. To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of these projects, the intercity travel behavior should be analyzed in metropolitan area. The paper constructed a Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC model according to an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB to study the travel behavior of choosing from the choice set of the traditional train, the high speed railway and the coach by demographic and psychological factors. Through empirical data collection and analysis, we found that demographic factors of travelers indeed positively engender the latent variables in MIMIC, and descriptive norm and habit had direct or indirect significant effect on travel behavior and intention. On the basis of the effect of psychological constructors of the expanded TPB on the intercity travel behavior and differentiation of traveler's demographic characteristics, the agency can make reasonable policies and proper information for the intercity transportation. The results will support the basic theory of optimizing the transportation system in metropolitan area. Implications for researchers and suggestions for future research are also addressed in this study.

  5. Behavioral Health Services in the Changing Landscape of Private Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Constance M; Stewart, Maureen T; Reif, Sharon; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Quinn, Amity E

    2016-06-01

    Health plans play a key role in facilitating improvements in population health and may engage in activities that have an impact on access, cost, and quality of behavioral health care. Although behavioral health care is becoming more integrated with general medical care, its delivery system has unique aspects. The study examined how health plans deliver and manage behavioral health care in the context of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA). This is a critical time to examine how health plans manage behavioral health care. A nationally representative survey of private health plans (weighted N=8,431 products; 89% response rate) was conducted in 2010 during the first year of MHPAEA, when plans were subject to the law but before final regulations, and just before the ACA went into effect. The survey addressed behavioral health coverage, cost-sharing, contracting arrangements, medical home innovations, support for technology, and financial incentives to improve behavioral health care. Coverage for inpatient and outpatient behavioral health services was stable between 2003 and 2010. In 2010, health plans were more likely than in 2003 to manage behavioral health care through internal arrangements and to contract for other services. Medical home initiatives were common and almost always included behavioral health, but financial incentives did not. Some plans facilitated providers' use of technology to improve care delivery, but this was not the norm. Health plans are key to mainstreaming and supporting delivery of high-quality behavioral health services. Since 2003, plans have made changes to support delivery of behavioral health services in the context of a rapidly changing environment.

  6. Theory-based explanation as intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Kara; Markman, Ellen M

    2017-10-01

    Cogent explanations are an indispensable means of providing new information and an essential component of effective education. Beyond this, we argue that there is tremendous untapped potential in using explanations to motivate behavior change. In this article we focus on health interventions. We review four case studies that used carefully tailored explanations to address gaps and misconceptions in people's intuitive theories, providing participants with a conceptual framework for understanding how and why some recommended behavior is an effective way of achieving a health goal. These case studies targeted a variety of health-promoting behaviors: (1) children washing their hands to prevent viral epidemics; (2) parents vaccinating their children to stem the resurgence of infectious diseases; (3) adults completing the full course of an antibiotic prescription to reduce antibiotic resistance; and (4) children eating a variety of healthy foods to improve unhealthy diets. Simply telling people to engage in these behaviors has been largely ineffective-if anything, concern about these issues is mounting. But in each case, teaching participants coherent explanatory frameworks for understanding health recommendations has shown great promise, with such theory-based explanations outperforming state-of-the-art interventions from national health authorities. We contrast theory-based explanations both with simply listing facts, information, and advice and with providing a full-blown educational curriculum, and argue for providing the minimum amount of information required to understand the causal link between a target behavior and a health outcome. We argue that such theory-based explanations lend people the motivation and confidence to act on their new understanding.

  7. School promotion of healthful diet and physical activity: impact on learning outcomes and self-reported behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Wilson, B

    1989-01-01

    The Go For Health Program included classroom health education and environmental changes in school lunch and physical education to foster healthful diet and exercise among elementary school children. Interventions were based on social learning theory and implementation was based on an organizational change strategy for school innovations. Two schools were assigned to intervention and two to control conditions. Cognitive measures (behavioral capability, self-efficacy, behavioral expectations) and self-reported diet and exercise behavior were assessed at baseline and following intervention. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the student and then the school as the unit of analysis. Statistically significant changes were observed for diet behavioral capability, self-efficacy, and behavioral expectations, use of salt, and exercise behavioral capability (fourth grade), self-efficacy (fourth grade) and frequency of participation in aerobic activity. The results provide evidence for program impact on learning outcomes and student behavior.

  8. On the theory of behavioral mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzendolet, E

    1999-12-01

    The Theory of Behavioral Mechanics is the behavioral analogue of Newton's laws of motion, with the rate of responding in operant conditioning corresponding to physical velocity. In an earlier work, the basic relation between rate of responding and sessions under two FI schedules and over a range of commonly used session values had been shown to be a power function. Using that basic relation, functions for behavioral acceleration, mass, and momentum are derived here. Data from other laboratories also support the applicability of a power function to VI schedules. A particular numerical value is introduced here to be the standard reference value for the behavioral force under the VI-60-s schedule. This reference allows numerical values to be calculated for the behavioral mass and momentum of individual animals. A comparison of the numerical values of the momenta of two animals can be used to evaluate their relative resistances to change, e.g., to extinction, which is itself viewed as a continuously changing behavioral force being imposed on the animal. This overall numerical approach allows behavioral force-values to be assigned to various experimental conditions such as the evaluation of the behavioral force of a medication dosage.

  9. In Pursuit of Theoretical Ground in Behavior Change Support Systems: Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Communication in a Health-Related Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Research studies involving health-related online communities have focused on examining network structure to understand mechanisms underlying behavior change. Content analysis of the messages exchanged in these communities has been limited to the “social support” perspective. However, existing behavior change theories suggest that message content plays a prominent role reflecting several sociocognitive factors that affect an individual’s efforts to make a lifestyle change. An understanding of these factors is imperative to identify and harness the mechanisms of behavior change in the Health 2.0 era. Objective The objective of this work is two-fold: (1) to harness digital communication data to capture essential meaning of communication and factors affecting a desired behavior change, and (2) to understand the applicability of existing behavior change theories to characterize peer-to-peer communication in online platforms. Methods In this paper, we describe grounded theory–based qualitative analysis of digital communication in QuitNet, an online community promoting smoking cessation. A database of 16,492 de-identified public messages from 1456 users from March 1-April 30, 2007, was used in our study. We analyzed 795 messages using grounded theory techniques to ensure thematic saturation. This analysis enabled identification of key concepts contained in the messages exchanged by QuitNet members, allowing us to understand the sociobehavioral intricacies underlying an individual’s efforts to cease smoking in a group setting. We further ascertained the relevance of the identified themes to theoretical constructs in existing behavior change theories (eg, Health Belief Model) and theoretically linked techniques of behavior change taxonomy. Results We identified 43 different concepts, which were then grouped under 12 themes based on analysis of 795 messages. Examples of concepts include “sleepiness,” “pledge,” “patch,” “spouse,” and

  10. ACADEMIC YOUTH’S HEALTH BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Radzimińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A very important role in the protection of human health is their life style, their habits and patterns of conduct. Early adulthood is the best period to achieve long-term benefits from a selection of healthy living. However, the results of studies on health-related behavior of youth in Poland and in the world are not satisfactory. The purpose of the study: The purpose of the research was to assess the health behaviors of students of higher education in Bydgoszcz. Material: The study involved 272 students (124 women and 148 men Bydgoszcz higher education students in the following fields of study: physiotherapy, nutrition, logistics and national security. The Inventory of Health-Related Behavior by Zygfryd Juczyński has been used in the research. The statistical analysis was performed using the package PQ Stat 1.6.2. Results: Throughout the treatment group an average level of health-related behavior has been shown. The results of the different categories of health-related behavior were lower than the results of the standardization groups. A higher level of health behavior has been shown in a group of medical students compared to non-medical students. The results for women were higher than men's results. Conclusions: The results of personal research and the research findings of other authors demonstrate that there is a need for implementation of programs of health promotion and health education in all fields of study.

  11. The Experiences of Patients´ Close Relatives with Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer and Health-Therapeutic Personnel from the Determinants of Nutritional Behaviors: A Theory-based Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Baghiani Moghadam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancers are one of the most common causes of death at age groups above 50 years old that Life style modification has an important role in prevention of them. Diets are the most important factor at the risk of gastric cancer. The aim of present study was explanation of the Experiences of Patients´ Close Relatives with Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer and Health-Therapeutic Personnel from the Determinants of Nutritional Behaviors based on protection motivation theory. Methods: The present qualitative study was done with content analysis method application at Babol health-therapeutic centers covered by Babol University of Medical Sciences for eight months in 2013. semi-structure d face to face interview were used to collect the data with 9 participants from Patients´ Close Relatives with Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer and 19 participants from Health-Therapeutic Personnel. Data analysis and collection were simultaneously done by using the method of theory-based (directed or conductive content analysis. Results:From data analysis 487initial codes and after integration,186 main codes were extracted .This codes were pasted at 2 pre-determined categories and 7 pre-determined sub-categories related to protection motivation theory(perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, reward, fear, perceived response-efficacy, self-efficacy and perceived cost-benefit. The most main perceived problem, was the low level of awareness, attitude and practice at people about nutritional risk factors related to gastric cancer and a result the low level of disease fear. Conclusion: The findings of present study are the indicator of effective determinants on nutritional behaviors that can help to health-therapeutic policy –makers to provide and approve the most appropriate solutions and strategies with aim of changing these determinants in order to reduce nutritional risk factors related to gastric cancer.

  12. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Thi Vo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957, the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change, and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model – is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  13. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong T.; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model– is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement. PMID:26300811

  14. Mental Health Help-Seeking Intentions among International and African American College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between social-cognitive factors (e.g., attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), psychological distress, and help-seeking intentions for a sample of 111 international and African American college students. The results of this study showed that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)…

  15. The proposition of a general version of the theory of planned behavior: Predicting ecological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, F.G.; Gutscher, H.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper explores whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) must abandon the notion that perceived behavioral control (PBC) has a direct influence on behavior. In a cross-sectional survey of 895 Swiss residents, our hypothesis was tested by means of structural equation models. Applied

  16. Chapter 2: Theoretical Models for Understanding Physical Activity Behavior among Children and Adolescents--Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The study of physical activity behavior in youth generally lacks a sufficient theoretical foundation for examining variables that influence that behavior. This is a major limitation because theory guides the search for determinants of behavior and the subsequent interplay between research findings and application. Theory offers a systematically…

  17. Sharing Health Information and Influencing Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Health Literacy, Information Overload, and the Internet in the Diffusion of Healthy Heart Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Brittani; Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie E; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy remains an extremely common and problematic issue, given that individuals with lower health literacy are more likely to experience health challenges and negative health outcomes. In this study, we use the first three stages of the innovation-decision process found in the theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 2003). We incorporate health literacy into a model explaining how perceived health knowledge, information sharing, attitudes, and behavior are related. Results show that health information sharing explains 33% of the variance in behavioral intentions, indicating that the communicative practice of sharing information can positively impact health outcomes. Further, individuals with high health literacy tend to share less information about heart health than those with lower health literacy. Findings also reveal that perceived heart-health knowledge operates differently than health literacy to predict health outcomes.

  18. How Does Health-Related Advertising with a Regulatory Focus and Goal Framing Affect Attitudes toward Ads and Healthy Behavior Intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen; Yeh, Wei-Ju

    2017-12-04

    The health costs of colorectal cancer have increased over the years in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and the Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan advocate that people have to change their unhealthy behaviors; however, the number of patients of colorectal cancer is increasing annually. This research discussed the effects of healthy diet advocacy advertisements (ads) on healthy diet behavior intentions as influenced by the interactions between regulatory focus theory (RFT) and message framing effects. Both regulatory focus theory and message framing effect were discussed for the relationship between advertisement and behavior change in many fields, such as health-related behavior, pro-environmental behavior, consumer choice, etc. We executed an experiment with four different types of public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (message framing: gain framing vs. loss framing) two-factor experiment was adopted, and 201 valid participants responded to the questionnaire. Results indicated that if the ad's regulatory focus is promotion focus, viewers' attitudes toward the ad and their behavior intentions are more positive when the slogan of the ad is gain framing rather than loss framing via the multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA), and vice versa. Respondents found the communication easier to comprehend when the ads evoked the respondents' regulatory focus and applied the appropriate message framing, thus improving the efficacy of health-related advertising. We offer suggestions regarding the future use of health-related advertising for the MOHW.

  19. Cafeteria factors that influence milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children: grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, P; Bednar, C; Klammer, S

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children in North Texas. Ten focus groups with a total of 41 children aged 6 to 11 years were conducted using a grounded theory approach. Based on the principles of Social Learning Theory, milk preferences and health beliefs were identified as personal factors that influenced drinking. Cafeteria rules, milk flavor, product packaging, modeling by adults, and shared experiences were environmental factors. The data suggest that school cafeterias can capitalize on their unique position to offer milk-drinking opportunities that children can share to combine nutrition education with sensory experience.

  20. Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.

    1977-05-01

    The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given

  1. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication.

  2. The extended Theory of Planned Behavior in explaining exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Ismail, Tengku Alina; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Bakar, Mohd Isa

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to utilize an extended Theory of Planned Behavior in identifying predictors of exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting pregnant womenthrough two-stage cluster sampling. Their exclusive breastfeeding intention, attitude, perceived norm, perceived behavioral control and past behavior were obtained at baseline through interviewer-guided questionnaire. At one month after delivery, another interview was conducted to determine the two additional variables in the extended theory, which were their postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. The behavior, which was the actual duration of exclusive breastfeeding, was obtained from the second follow-up at six months. Pearson correlation and two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. A total of 200 women completed the study follow-up. Their median intended exclusive breastfeeding duration was 4.0 (IQR 5) months, and the median actual duration was 1.0 (IQR 4) month. The Theory of Planned Behavior explained 51.0% of the variance in intention, with perceived behavioral control and attitude were the significant predictors. It also explained 10.0% of the variance in behavior, but the addition of postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty increased the amount of explained variance in behavior by 6.0%. The significant predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior were intention, postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. The extended Theory of Planned Behaviorhad a good predictive ability in explaining exclusive breastfeedingintention and behavior. The women's intention to practice exclusive breastfeeding may be improved by improving their perceived behavioral control and attitude. Providing correct postpartum support and skills to handle breastfeeding difficulties after delivery will improve their exclusive breastfeeding behavior.

  3. A chaotic view of behavior change: a quantum leap for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, Ken; Vaughan, Roger

    2006-09-12

    The study of health behavior change, including nutrition and physical activity behaviors, has been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. Change is conceptualized as a linear, deterministic process where individuals weigh pros and cons, and at the point at which the benefits outweigh the cost change occurs. Consistent with this paradigm, the associated statistical models have almost exclusively assumed a linear relationship between psychosocial predictors and behavior. Such a perspective however, fails to account for non-linear, quantum influences on human thought and action. Consider why after years of false starts and failed attempts, a person succeeds at increasing their physical activity, eating healthier or losing weight. Or, why after years of success a person relapses. This paper discusses a competing view of health behavior change that was presented at the 2006 annual ISBNPA meeting in Boston. Rather than viewing behavior change from a linear perspective it can be viewed as a quantum event that can be understood through the lens of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems. Key principles of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems relevant to understanding health behavior change include: 1) Chaotic systems can be mathematically modeled but are nearly impossible to predict; 2) Chaotic systems are sensitive to initial conditions; 3) Complex Systems involve multiple component parts that interact in a nonlinear fashion; and 4) The results of Complex Systems are often greater than the sum of their parts. Accordingly, small changes in knowledge, attitude, efficacy, etc may dramatically alter motivation and behavioral outcomes. And the interaction of such variables can yield almost infinite potential patterns of motivation and behavior change. In the linear paradigm unaccounted for variance is generally relegated to the catch all "error" term, when in fact such "error" may represent the chaotic component of the process. The linear and chaotic paradigms are

  4. Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring for Health Behavior Change Into the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani Shankar; Cutrona, Sarah L; Kinney, Rebecca L; Marlin, Benjamin M; Mazor, Kathleen M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-03-07

    What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based CTHC with empirical recommender systems could be evaluated as the next frontier for CTHC. The objective of our study was to uncover barriers and challenges to using recommender systems in health promotion. We conducted a focused literature review, interviewed subject experts (n=8), and synthesized the results. We describe (1) limitations of current CTHC systems, (2) advantages of incorporating recommender systems to move CTHC forward, and (3) challenges to incorporating recommender systems into CTHC. Based on the evidence presented, we propose a future research agenda for CTHC systems. We promote discussion of ways to move CTHC into the 21st century by incorporation of recommender systems.

  5. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  6. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed...

  7. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  8. Finding myself: a theory on the maturation of spirituality and its influence on behavior during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a grounded theory research design to develop a theoretical model focused on the maturation of spirituality and its influence on behavior during late adolescence. Quantitative research studies have linked spirituality with decreased health-risk behaviors and increased health-promotion behaviors during late adolescence. Qualitative, theoretical data is proposed to discover the underlying reasons this relationship exists and increase the ability to apply this knowledge to practice. Twenty-one adolescents, age 16-21 years, were e-mail interviewed and transcripts analyzed using a conceptual lens of Blumer's symbolic interactionism. From this analysis, a theoretical model emerged with the core concept, finding myself that represents 5 core process concepts. Implications of this study illustrate that late adolescents are aware of their personal spiritual maturation as well as its influence on behavior. In addition, a distinction between the generic concept of spirituality, personal spirituality, and religion emerged.

  9. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses’ Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun M. Aldiabat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.

  10. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The theory of planned behaviour: reactions and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, Icek

    2011-09-01

    The seven articles in this issue, and the accompanying meta-analysis in Health Psychology Review [McEachan, R.R.C., Conner, M., Taylor, N., & Lawton, R.J. (2011). Prospective prediction of health-related behaviors with the theory of planned behavior: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 5, 97-144], illustrate the wide application of the theory of planned behaviour [Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211] in the health domain. In this editorial, Ajzen reflects on some of the issues raised by the different authors. Among the topics addressed are the nature of intentions and the limits of predictive validity; rationality, affect and emotions; past behaviour and habit; the prototype/willingness model; and the role of such background factors as the big five personality traits and social comparison tendency.

  12. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  13. Can personal health record booklets improve cancer screening behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Sallie Anne; Sanson-Fisher, Rob William; Girgis, Afaf; Davey, Heather Maree

    2002-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of written health education materials as interventions, relatively few studies have adequately evaluated the effectiveness of such materials on changing healthcare behaviors in the general population. The study consisted of ten matched pairs of small rural towns in New South Wales, Australia, with a total combined population of approximately 25,000 in both the intervention and control group towns. A randomized controlled trial was used. Personal Health Record Booklets (PHRBs) that include the latest evidence-based recommendations for reducing risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease were developed using leading behavioral change theories to maximize effectiveness. The booklets included an explanatory letter, a gender-specific Better Health Booklet, and a gender-specific Better Health Diary. Following a media campaign, the PHRBs were mailed to all residents aged 20 to 60 years (about 12,600 people) in the ten intervention towns. Family practitioners in the intervention towns were recruited to support and encourage people to use the PHRBs. Health Insurance Commission data for Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, mammograms, and skin operations were obtained for 5 years before the intervention, and 3 months and 1 year after the intervention. No significant increases in the rates of Pap tests, mammograms, and skin operations were detected in either short- or long-term follow-ups. While PHRBs may represent an inexpensive, easy-to-produce, and time-efficient method of communicating information to the general population, it appears unlikely that any significant behavioral change will result unless such materials are targeted toward high-risk groups or constitute the first intervention for a particular risk factor.

  14. Development of a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life (QOL) among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. To develop a situation-specific theory, three sources were considered: (a) the conceptual model of health promotion and QOL for people with chronic and disabling conditions (an existing theory related to the QOL in patients with chronic diseases); (b) a literature review using multiple databases including Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, PsycINFO, and two Korean databases; and (c) findings from our structural equation modeling study on health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. The proposed situation-specific theory is constructed with six major concepts including barriers, resources, perceptual factors, psychosocial factors, health-promoting behaviors, and health-related QOL. The theory also provides the interrelationships among concepts. Health care providers and nurses could incorporate the proposed situation-specific theory into development of diabetes education programs for improving health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Behavioral health leadership: new directions in occupational mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2014-10-01

    The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.

  16. Behavioral data requirements for translating cognitive theories into computer software algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of cognitive theories and their links to behavioral science and advanced intelligent systems. Cognitive theories model human cognition, perception, and communication. They suggest the human functions the system should have, serve as a philosophical basis for system development, and provide abstract design guidelines. The underlying assumption behind this paper is that if the cognitive theories are to have any value at all, they must be translated into usable systems. A process for testing a cognitive theory in terms of conceptual criteria, behavioral predictions and tests, and software development and tests, is suggested. Criteria for measuring the problem solving success of the advanced system are described. A theory of the system as an intelligent problem solver is presented. (author)

  17. Validation of Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Ramirez LP

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leivy Patricia Gonzalez-Ramirez,1,2 Jose Maria De la Roca-Chiapas,2 Cecilia Colunga-Rodriguez,3,4 Maria de Lourdes Preciado-Serrano,3 Adrian Daneri-Navarro,5 Francisco Javier Pedroza-Cabrera,6 Reyna Jazmin Martinez-Arriaga1 1Department of Health Sciences, University Centre of Tonala, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 2Department of Psychology, Division of Health Sciences, Campus Leon, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, 3Department of Public Health, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, 4Paediatric Hospital, Western National Medical Centre, Mexican Social Security Institute, 5Departament of Physiology, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 6Department of Psychology, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico Background: The transtheoretical model (TTM has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer.Purpose: The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ, which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods: Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative. Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used.Results: Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the

  18. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  19. The Effect of Health Beliefs, Media Perceptions, and Communicative Behaviors on Health Behavioral Intention: An Integrated Health Campaign Model on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sun-Wook; Kim, Jarim; Lee, Yeunjae

    2018-01-01

    Social media have recently gained attention as a potential health campaign tool. This study examines this line of expectation concerning the role social media may play in health campaigns by testing an integrated health campaign model that combines insights from research on social media-specific perceptions and communicative behaviors in order to predict health behaviors. Specifically, this study aims to (a) develop a more holistic social media campaign model for predicting health behaviors in the social media context, (b) investigate how social media channel-related perceptions affect preventive health behaviors, and (c) investigate how communicative behaviors mediate perceptions and behavioral intention. The study conducted an online survey of 498 females who followed the Purple Ribbon Twitter campaign (@pprb), a cervical cancer prevention campaign. The results indicated that information acquisition mediated perceived risk's effect on intention. Information acquisition also mediated the relationships between intention and information selection and information transmission. On the other hand, social media-related perceptions indirectly impacted behavioral intention through communicative behaviors. The findings' theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  20. Falsification of matching theory and confirmation of an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics in a critical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Hackett, Ryan; Klapes, Bryan

    2017-07-01

    Two competing predictions of matching theory and an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics, and one additional prediction of the evolutionary theory, were tested in a critical experiment in which human participants worked on concurrent schedules for money (Dallery et al., 2005). The three predictions concerned the descriptive adequacy of matching theory equations, and of equations describing emergent equilibria of the evolutionary theory. Tests of the predictions falsified matching theory and supported the evolutionary theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Infrared behavior of massless field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapirstein, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Typical infrared effects in several gauge field theories with massless particles are investigated in perturbation theory. It is first shown that divergences occurring in individual Feynman graphs arising from integrations over the long-wavelength modes of the fields cancel when the graphs are grouped together in a particular way, in a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck treatment of QED. As one of the requirements of finiteness is renormalization of the vector propagator off shell, the charge in these theories is not directly related to classical experiment. In an effort to find the meaning of charge the low-energy theorem is considered. Although in lowest order the graphs reproduce the Thompson limit, it is found that loop corrections are singular in the low-energy limit; a simple definition of the charge is thus precluded. Finally, the behavior of the quark color magnetic moment is treated. An apparent infrared singularity of this moment is shown to be due to an improper use of perturbation theory, and is removed and replaced with a finite, field-dependent moment, by use of Furry picture propagators

  2. Health values and prospect theory: a comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann-Schoene, D; Klose, T

    2001-01-01

    In a recent volume of Medical Decision Making, Treadwell and Lenert stated that under prospect theory, community members compared with patients underestimate the utility of health improvements. In this comment, the authors show that this statement holds only for a subset of possible preference functions. Furthermore, the authors provide arguments that, in general, the rater's current health state is not the appropriate reference level if applying prospect theory to health valuations.

  3. Veterans Health Administration Behavioral Health Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with behavioral health measure data. VHA reports data on a set of core performance measures for Hospital-Based Inpatient Psychiatric Services...

  4. Key Theories from Critical Medical Anthropology for Public Health Research. Part II: Medicine in the Social System, Medicine as a Social System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Carroll

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes four significant theoretical concepts from the field of Critical Medical Anthropology in two parts: in the first part, biopower/discipline and explanatory models; in the second, structural violence, and identity politics and biological citizenship. The four subjects reviewed here have been chosen for their importance to our understanding of human behaviors related to health and illness, as well as for the impact that they can have on theory, research, and practice in the field of public health. These critical theories can provide new ways of thinking about professional roles, medical decisions, disease diagnosis and etiology, treatment adherence, prevention messaging, and all sorts of health-related behaviors and systems of understanding. They can also help public health researchers shed light on the human beliefs and activities that shape patterns of disease within and across populations. Whether a research question is being formulated or research findings are being analyzed, the critical social theories outlined here can foster a more holistic understanding of the human element in any public health project.

  5. Benefits Innovations in Employee Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Bruce; Block, Lori

    2017-01-01

    More and more employers recognize the business impact of behavioral health concerns in the workplace. This article provides insights into some of the current innovations in behavioral health benefits, along with their rationale for development. Areas of innovation include conceptual and delivery models, technological advance- ments, tools for engaging employees and ways of quantifying the business value of behavioral health benefits. The rapid growth of innovative behavioral health services should provide employers with confidence that they can tailor a program best suited to their priorities, organizational culture and cost limitations.

  6. Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

  7. Application of the Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior in Intercity Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jing; Zhi-cai, Juan; Lin-jie, Gao

    2014-01-01

    Congestion in intercity corridors of metropolitan area has been increasing steadily. To alleviate congestion, many major investment projects, such as the high speed railway projects, were proposed by agency. To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of these projects, the intercity travel behavior should be analyzed in metropolitan area. The paper constructed a Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model according to an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB) to study the travel beh...

  8. Self-rated health in rural Appalachia: health perceptions are incongruent with health status and health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyle Donald N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.

  9. How Does Health-Related Advertising with a Regulatory Focus and Goal Framing Affect Attitudes toward Ads and Healthy Behavior Intentions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The health costs of colorectal cancer have increased over the years in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI and the Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW in Taiwan advocate that people have to change their unhealthy behaviors; however, the number of patients of colorectal cancer is increasing annually. This research discussed the effects of healthy diet advocacy advertisements (ads on healthy diet behavior intentions as influenced by the interactions between regulatory focus theory (RFT and message framing effects. Both regulatory focus theory and message framing effect were discussed for the relationship between advertisement and behavior change in many fields, such as health-related behavior, pro-environmental behavior, consumer choice, etc. We executed an experiment with four different types of public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention × 2 (message framing: gain framing vs. loss framing two-factor experiment was adopted, and 201 valid participants responded to the questionnaire. Results indicated that if the ad’s regulatory focus is promotion focus, viewers’ attitudes toward the ad and their behavior intentions are more positive when the slogan of the ad is gain framing rather than loss framing via the multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA, and vice versa. Respondents found the communication easier to comprehend when the ads evoked the respondents’ regulatory focus and applied the appropriate message framing, thus improving the efficacy of health-related advertising. We offer suggestions regarding the future use of health-related advertising for the MOHW.

  10. Relationships Between eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Son, Youn-Jung

    2017-02-01

    The Internet is a useful and accessible source for health-related information for modern healthcare consumers. Individuals with adequate eHealth literacy have an incentive to use the Internet to access health-related information, and they consider themselves capable of using Web-based knowledge for health. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the relationship between eHealth literacy and health behaviors. A total of 230 adults aged 18 to 39 years and residing in South Korea participated in the study. The mean (SD) score for eHealth literacy was 25.52 (4.35) of a total possible score of 40. The main source of health information was the Internet. Using hierarchical linear regression, the results showed that eHealth literacy was the strongest predictor of health behaviors after adjusting for general characteristics. These findings indicate that eHealth literacy can be an important factor in promoting individual health behaviors. Further research on eHealth literacy and actual health behaviors including intention and self-reported health behaviors are required to explain the impact of eHealth literacy on overall health status.

  11. Theory of mind in schizophrenia: correlation with clinical symptomatology, emotional recognition and ward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong; Kim, Yong Kyu

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have suggested the presence of a theory of mind (ToM) deficit in schizophrenic disorders. This study examined the relationship of emotion recognition, theory of mind, and ward behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-five patients with chronic schizophrenia completed measures of emotion recognition, ToM, intelligence, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE). Theory of mind sum score correlated significantly with IQ, emotion recognition, and ward behavior. Ward behavior was linked to the duration of the illness, and even more so to theory of mind deficits. Theory of mind contributed a significant proportion of the amount of variance to explain social behavior on the ward. Considering our study results, impaired theory of mind contributes significantly to the understanding of social competence in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Theoretically informed correlates of hepatitis B knowledge among four Asian groups: the health behavior framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Stewart, Susan L; Glenn, Beth A; Wong, Weng Kee; Yasui, Yutaka; Chang, L Cindy; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Chen, Moon S; Bastani, Roshan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined theoretically informed constructs related to hepatitis B (HBV) testing, and comparisons across studies are challenging due to lack of uniformity in constructs assessed. The present analysis examined relationships among Health Behavior Framework factors across four Asian American groups to advance the development of theory-based interventions for HBV testing in at-risk populations. Data were collected from 2007-2010 as part of baseline surveys during four intervention trials promoting HBV testing among Vietnamese-, Hmong-, Korean- and Cambodian-Americans (n = 1,735). Health Behavior Framework constructs assessed included: awareness of HBV, knowledge of transmission routes, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, doctor recommendation, stigma of HBV infection, and perceived efficacy of testing. Within each group we assessed associations between our intermediate outcome of knowledge of HBV transmission and other constructs, to assess the concurrent validity of our model and instruments. While the absolute levels for Health Behavior Framework factors varied across groups, relationships between knowledge and other factors were generally consistent. This suggests similarities rather than differences with respect to posited drivers of HBV-related behavior. Our findings indicate that Health Behavior Framework constructs are applicable to diverse ethnic groups and provide preliminary evidence for the construct validity of the Health Behavior Framework.

  13. The Relationship between Health Literacy, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Care Behaviors in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Masoompour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neglecting self-care behaviors is considered an important factor contributing to mortality among diabetic patients. According to Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theory, there is a close relationship between individual performance and self-efficacy. Moreover, access to health-related information or health literacy can affect health status. Aim: To investigate the relationship between health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors in diabetic patients. Method: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 400 patients with diabetes referred to a diabetes clinic during 2015. The participants were selected through convenience sampling. The data collection tools included Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities. To analyze the data, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were run in SPSS, version 19. Results: The mean age of the participants was 55.1±10.1 years and 74.75% of them were male. The mean scores of self-care behaviors, health literacy, and self-efficacy were 61.94±14.35, 63.6±20.7, and 146.3±22.9, respectively. Moreover, the results of Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant direct correlation between health literacy and self-efficacy (P=0.03, r=0.1, as well as health literacy and self-care behaviors (P=0.04, r=0.1. Furthermore, self-efficacy had a significant direct correlation with self-care behaviors (P

  14. Behavioral functionality of mobile apps in health interventions: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-02-26

    Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices.

  15. Behavioral consequences of conflict-oriented health news coverage: the 2009 mammography guideline controversy and online information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Brian E; Friedenberg, Laura M; Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S

    2012-01-01

    Building on channel complementarity theory and media-system dependency theory, this study explores the impact of conflict-oriented news coverage of health issues on information seeking online. Using Google search data as a measure of behavior, we demonstrate that controversial news coverage of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's November 2009 recommendations for changes in breast cancer screening guidelines strongly predicted the volume of same-day online searches for information about mammograms. We also found that this relationship did not exist 1 year prior to the coverage, during which mammography news coverage did not focus on the guideline controversy, suggesting that the controversy frame may have driven search behavior. We discuss the implications of these results for health communication scholars and practitioners.

  16. Development of a dynamic computational model of social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E; Hekler, Eric B; Adams, Marc A; Buman, Matthew P; Pavel, Misha; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is among the most influential theories of behavior change and has been used as the conceptual basis of health behavior interventions for smoking cessation, weight management, and other health behaviors. SCT and other behavior theories were developed primarily to explain differences between individuals, but explanatory theories of within-person behavioral variability are increasingly needed as new technologies allow for intensive longitudinal measures and interventions adapted from these inputs. These within-person explanatory theoretical applications can be modeled as dynamical systems. SCT constructs, such as reciprocal determinism, are inherently dynamical in nature, but SCT has not been modeled as a dynamical system. This paper describes the development of a dynamical system model of SCT using fluid analogies and control systems principles drawn from engineering. Simulations of this model were performed to assess if the model performed as predicted based on theory and empirical studies of SCT. This initial model generates precise and testable quantitative predictions for future intensive longitudinal research. Dynamic modeling approaches provide a rigorous method for advancing health behavior theory development and refinement and for guiding the development of more potent and efficient interventions.

  17. The utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    disease. Objective: To examine the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent condom use intention of HIV .... (24-25), making subjective norms as better predictors of intention ..... Organizational Behavior and Human Decision.

  18. Developing religiously-tailored health messages for behavioral change: Introducing the reframe, reprioritize, and reform ("3R") model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Malik, Sana; Vu, Milkie; Quinn, Michael; Peek, Monica

    2018-05-01

    As community health interventions advance from being faith-placed to authentically faith-based, greater discussion is needed about the theory, practice, and ethics of delivering health messages embedded within a religious worldview. While there is much potential to leverage religion to promote health behaviors and improve health outcomes, there is also a risk of co-opting religious teachings for strictly biomedical ends. To describe the development, implementation, and ethical dimensions of a conceptual model for religiously-tailoring health messages. We used data from 6 focus groups and 19 interviews with women aged 40 and older sampled from diverse Muslim community organizations to map out how religious beliefs and values impact mammography-related behavioral, normative and control beliefs. These beliefs were further grouped into those that enhance mammography intention (facilitators) and those that impede intention (barriers). In concert with a multi-disciplinary advisory board, and by drawing upon leading theories of health behavior change, we developed the "3R" model for crafting religiously-tailored health messages. The 3R model addresses barrier beliefs, which are beliefs that negatively impact adopting a health behavior, by (i) reframing the belief within a relevant religious worldview, (ii) reprioritizing the belief by introducing another religious belief that has greater resonance with participants, and (iii) reforming the belief by uncovering logical flaws and/or theological misinterpretations. These approaches were used to create messages for a peer-led, mosque-based, educational intervention designed to improve mammography intention among Muslim women. There are benefits and potential ethical challenges to using religiously tailored messages to promote health behaviors. Our theoretically driven 3R model aids interventionists in crafting messages that address beliefs that hinder healthy behaviors. It is particularly useful in the context of faith

  19. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  20. Protection motivation theory and adolescent drug trafficking: relationship between health motivation and longitudinal risk involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L

    2005-03-01

    To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.

  1. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain and Predict Behavior Intentions in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to use the theory of planned behavior to verify undergraduates' behavioral intentions regarding their participation in aquatic sports. Undergraduates in Taiwan serve as the research subjects and a survey method employs questionnaires. A total of 200 valid questionnaires were received out of 230, thus giving a valid response rate of…

  2. The Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Theory to Innovative Research and Practice Cultures in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings.

  3. Nonlinear behavior of capacitive micro-beams based on strain gradient theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathalilou, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Morteza; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the size dependent behavior of materials in MEMS structures. This behavior becomes noticeable for a structure when the characteristic size such as thickness or diameter is close to its internal length-scale parameter and is insignificant for the high ratio of the characteristic size to the length-scale parameter, which is the case of the silicon base micro-beams. However, in some types of micro-beams like gold or nickel bases, the size dependent effect cannot be overlooked. In such cases, ignoring this behavior in modeling will lead to incorrect results. Some previous researchers have applied classic beam theory on their models and imposed a considerable hypothetical value of residual stress to match their theoretical results with the experimental ones. The equilibrium positions or fixed points of the gold and nickel micro-beams are obtained and shown that for a given DC voltage, there is a considerable difference between the obtained fixed points using classic beam theory, modified couple stress theory, and modified strain gradient theory. In addition, it is shown that the calculated static and dynamic pull-in voltages using higher order theories are much closer to the experimental results and are higher several times than those obtained by classic beam theory.

  4. Extending the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Predict Hand-Washing among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Minwoong; Lapinski, Maria Knight

    2018-04-10

    The current study tests the predictions of the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) in a hand-washing context in a Korean sample and extends the theory to examine the role of perceived publicness, a variable believed to activate face concerns, as a moderator of the norm-behavior relationship. The findings show substantial main effects for all of the study variables on behavior. In addition, the descriptive norm-behavior relationship is moderated by perceived publicness and outcome expectations, but the nature of the interactions is not consistent with that evidenced in previous literature on US samples. Implications for normative theory and communication campaigns are discussed.

  5. How Settings Change People: Applying Behavior Setting Theory to Consumer-Run Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…

  6. Extending unified-theory-of-reinforcement neural networks to steady-state operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Olivia L; McDowell, J J

    2016-06-01

    The unified theory of reinforcement has been used to develop models of behavior over the last 20 years (Donahoe et al., 1993). Previous research has focused on the theory's concordance with the respondent behavior of humans and animals. In this experiment, neural networks were developed from the theory to extend the unified theory of reinforcement to operant behavior on single-alternative variable-interval schedules. This area of operant research was selected because previously developed neural networks could be applied to it without significant alteration. Previous research with humans and animals indicates that the pattern of their steady-state behavior is hyperbolic when plotted against the obtained rate of reinforcement (Herrnstein, 1970). A genetic algorithm was used in the first part of the experiment to determine parameter values for the neural networks, because values that were used in previous research did not result in a hyperbolic pattern of behavior. After finding these parameters, hyperbolic and other similar functions were fitted to the behavior produced by the neural networks. The form of the neural network's behavior was best described by an exponentiated hyperbola (McDowell, 1986; McLean and White, 1983; Wearden, 1981), which was derived from the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974). In post-hoc analyses the addition of a baseline rate of behavior significantly improved the fit of the exponentiated hyperbola and removed systematic residuals. The form of this function was consistent with human and animal behavior, but the estimated parameter values were not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Active assistance technology for health-related behavior change: an interdisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-06-14

    Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in dialog systems for behavior change, with

  8. Development of a simple 12-item theory-based instrument to assess the impact of continuing professional development on clinical behavioral intentions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Légaré

    Full Text Available Decision-makers in organizations providing continuing professional development (CPD have identified the need for routine assessment of its impact on practice. We sought to develop a theory-based instrument for evaluating the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions.Our multipronged study had four phases. 1 We systematically reviewed the literature for instruments that used socio-cognitive theories to assess healthcare professionals' clinically-oriented behavioral intentions and/or behaviors; we extracted items relating to the theoretical constructs of an integrated model of healthcare professionals' behaviors and removed duplicates. 2 A committee of researchers and CPD decision-makers selected a pool of items relevant to CPD. 3 An international group of experts (n = 70 reached consensus on the most relevant items using electronic Delphi surveys. 4 We created a preliminary instrument with the items found most relevant and assessed its factorial validity, internal consistency and reliability (weighted kappa over a two-week period among 138 physicians attending a CPD activity. Out of 72 potentially relevant instruments, 47 were analyzed. Of the 1218 items extracted from these, 16% were discarded as improperly phrased and 70% discarded as duplicates. Mapping the remaining items onto the constructs of the integrated model of healthcare professionals' behaviors yielded a minimum of 18 and a maximum of 275 items per construct. The partnership committee retained 61 items covering all seven constructs. Two iterations of the Delphi process produced consensus on a provisional 40-item questionnaire. Exploratory factorial analysis following test-retest resulted in a 12-item questionnaire. Cronbach's coefficients for the constructs varied from 0.77 to 0.85.A 12-item theory-based instrument for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions showed adequate validity and

  9. I Sought It, I Reddit: Examining Health Information Engagement Behaviors among Reddit Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Silberman, Will R; Santiago, Joshua E; Ham, Taewook

    2018-01-01

    Given the wide use of social media, these platforms have become important channels for understanding health-related information engagement processes. Reddit is a social media platform dedicated to user-generated content and discourse around the world. However, little research exists regarding use of the platform. Guided by the diffusion of innovation theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze Reddit users' behaviors on the platform related to perceptions of information credibility, health information seeking, and behavioral enactment of information found. Data were collected via survey from Reddit users around the world (n = 389). Data suggest that although Reddit use and perceived information credibility are unrelated to acting on the information found on Reddit, users who are specifically seeking health-related information are more likely to enact the information in their lives. Implications from the findings suggest important considerations for communication scholars, media advocates, and health promotion practitioners.

  10. Pendulating-A grounded theory explaining patients' behavior shortly after having a leg amputated due to vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Hommel, Ami; Bååth, Carina; Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher

    2016-01-01

    Although the group of vascular leg amputated patients constitutes some of the most vulnerable and frail on the orthopedic wards, previous research of amputated patients has focused on patients attending gait training in rehabilitation facilities leaving the patient experience shortly after surgery unexplored. Understanding patients' behavior shortly after amputation could inform health professionals in regard to how these vulnerable patients' needs at hospital can be met as well as how to plan for care post-discharge. To construct a grounded theory (GT) explaining patients' behavior shortly after having a leg amputated as a result of vascular disease. In line with constructivist GT methodology, data from ethnographic observations and interviews were simultaneously collected and analyzed using the constant comparative method covering the patients' experiences during the first 4 weeks post-surgery. Data collection was guided by theoretical sampling and comprised 11 patients. A GT was constructed. Patients went through a three-phased process as they realized they were experiencing a life-changing event. The first phase was "Losing control" and comprised the sub-categories "Being overwhelmed" and "Facing dependency." The second phase was "Digesting the shock" and comprised the sub-categories "Swallowing the life-changing decision," "Detecting the amputated body" and "Struggling dualism." The third phase was "Regaining control" and comprised the sub-categories "Managing consequences" and "Building-up hope and self-motivation." "Pendulating" was identified as the core category describing the general pattern of behavior and illustrated how patients were swinging both cognitively and emotionally throughout the process. The theory of "Pendulating" offers a tool to understand the amputated patients' behavior and underlying concerns and to recognize where they are in the process. Concepts from the theory could be used by health professionals who support patients coping with

  11. A chaotic view of behavior change: a quantum leap for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of health behavior change, including nutrition and physical activity behaviors, has been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. Change is conceptualized as a linear, deterministic process where individuals weigh pros and cons, and at the point at which the benefits outweigh the cost change occurs. Consistent with this paradigm, the associated statistical models have almost exclusively assumed a linear relationship between psychosocial predictors and behavior. Such a perspective however, fails to account for non-linear, quantum influences on human thought and action. Consider why after years of false starts and failed attempts, a person succeeds at increasing their physical activity, eating healthier or losing weight. Or, why after years of success a person relapses. This paper discusses a competing view of health behavior change that was presented at the 2006 annual ISBNPA meeting in Boston. Discussion Rather than viewing behavior change from a linear perspective it can be viewed as a quantum event that can be understood through the lens of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems. Key principles of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems relevant to understanding health behavior change include: 1 Chaotic systems can be mathematically modeled but are nearly impossible to predict; 2 Chaotic systems are sensitive to initial conditions; 3 Complex Systems involve multiple component parts that interact in a nonlinear fashion; and 4 The results of Complex Systems are often greater than the sum of their parts. Accordingly, small changes in knowledge, attitude, efficacy, etc may dramatically alter motivation and behavioral outcomes. And the interaction of such variables can yield almost infinite potential patterns of motivation and behavior change. In the linear paradigm unaccounted for variance is generally relegated to the catch all "error" term, when in fact such "error" may represent the chaotic component of the

  12. An Appraisal of Social Network Theory and Analysis as Applied to Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Pitts, Stephanie R

    2017-03-20

    The use of social network theory and analysis methods as applied to public health has expanded greatly in the past decade, yielding a significant academic literature that spans almost every conceivable health issue. This review identifies several important theoretical challenges that confront the field but also provides opportunities for new research. These challenges include (a) measuring network influences, (b) identifying appropriate influence mechanisms, (c) the impact of social media and computerized communications, (d) the role of networks in evaluating public health interventions, and (e) ethics. Next steps for the field are outlined and the need for funding is emphasized. Recently developed network analysis techniques, technological innovations in communication, and changes in theoretical perspectives to include a focus on social and environmental behavioral influences have created opportunities for new theory and ever broader application of social networks to public health topics.

  13. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  14. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. THEORY OF REASONED ACTION FOR CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT CAPABILITIES: A BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Siegler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of interaction between Operations Management (OM and Human Behavior has been recently re-addressed. This paper introduced the Reasoned Action Theory suggested by Froehle and Roth (2004 to analyze Operational Capabilities exploring the suitability of this model in the context of OM. It also seeks to discuss the behavioral aspects of operational capabilities from the perspective of organizational routines. This theory was operationalized using Fishbein and Ajzen (F/A behavioral model and a multi-case strategy was employed to analyze the Continuous Improvement (CI capability. The results posit that the model explains partially the CI behavior in an operational context and some contingency variables might influence the general relationsamong the variables involved in the F/A model. Thus intention might not be the determinant variable of behavior in this context.

  16. Understanding caregivers' intentions for their child to walk to school: Further application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Lisa; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2016-01-01

    Increases in childhood obesity have coincided with declines in active transportation to school. This research builds on largely atheoretical extant literature examining factors that influence walk-to-school behavior through application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Understanding caregivers' decision for their child to walk to/from school is key to developing interventions to promote this cost-effective and accessible health behavior. The results from an online survey of 512 caregivers provide support for the TPB, highlighting the important role of subjective norms. This suggests marketers should nurture caregivers' perception that important others approve of walking to school.

  17. Evaluating the Theory of Planned Behavior to explain intention to engage in premarital sex amongst Korean college students: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Seok; Doswell, Willa M; Kim, Kevin H; Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Patrick, Thelma E

    2007-09-01

    To reduce risky adolescent sexual behavior, education programs must be tailored to specific cultures and stage of adolescence. This study describes the self-reported sexual behavior of Korean college students and examines the efficiency of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) in explaining intention of engaging in premarital sex in order to provide insights for a potential sex education program designed to reduce risky sexual behavior. A cross-sectional, correlational design using an exploratory survey method was used. Participants were recruited from a university in Korea with a flyer posted at the entrance of the student health service center, and self-referral in 2004. Male and female unmarried college students aged 18 to 25 were included. Foreign students and students with visible physical problems were excluded. Three hundred and twenty of 550 students returned the questionnaire packets. Final data analysis included 298 students after deleting incomplete data. Participants completed six questionnaires: (1) Background and Sexual Behavior Questionnaire, including items related to perceived risk of sexual behavior, (2) Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale, and four scales related to TpB construct: (3) modified Premarital Sexual Attitude Scale, (4) Referent group Approval of Sex Behavior Scale, (5) Sexual Abstinence Efficacy Scale and (6) modified version of Doswell's Intention of Sexual Behavior Scale. Premarital sexual attitude, abstinence self-efficacy and referent group norms were significant predictors of intention of premarital sex for male students with a large effect, but only attitude and norms predicted intention of premarital sex for female students. The TpB may be an effective theory to guide the development of theory-driven sexual abstinence interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior for Korean males, while the Theory of Reasoned Action may be an effective theory for Korean females.

  18. Models of alcohol use by young adults: an examination of various attitude-behavior theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, F V; Chang, D C; Callan, V J; Baglioni, A

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of various attitude-behavior theories in explaining alcohol use among young adults. The theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior and an extension of the TRA that incorporates past behavior were compared by the method of maximum-likelihood estimation, as implemented in LISREL for Windows 8.12. Respondents consisted of 122 university students (82 female) who were questioned about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, past behavior and intentions relating to drinking behavior. Students received course credit for their participation in the research. Overall, the results suggest that the extension of the theory of reasoned action which incorporates past behavior provides the best fit to the data. For these young adults, their intentions to drink alcohol were predicted by their past behavior as well as their perceptions of what important others think they should do (subjective norm). The main conclusions drawn from the research concern the importance of focusing on normative influences and past behavior in explaining young adult alcohol use. Issues regarding the relative merit of various alternative models and the need for greater clarity in the measure of attitudes are also discussed.

  19. A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  20. Developing a new model for cross-cultural research: synthesizing the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, J E

    2001-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a new model representing the synthesis of two models that are often used to study health behaviors: the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The new model was developed as the theoretic framework for an investigation of the factors affecting participation by Mexican migrant workers in tuberculosis screening. Development of the synthesized model evolved from the concern that models used to investigate health-seeking behaviors of mainstream Anglo groups in the United States might not be appropriate for studying migrant workers or persons from other cultural backgrounds.

  1. Implementation Intention and Reminder Effects on Behavior Change in a Mobile Health System: A Predictive Cognitive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolli, Peter; Mohan, Shiwali; Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Nelson, Les; Silva, Michael; Springer, Aaron

    2017-11-30

    Implementation intentions are mental representations of simple plans to translate goal intentions into behavior under specific conditions. Studies show implementation intentions can produce moderate to large improvements in behavioral goal achievement. Human associative memory mechanisms have been implicated in the processes by which implementation intentions produce effects. On the basis of the adaptive control of thought-rational (ACT-R) theory of cognition, we hypothesized that the strength of implementation intention effect could be manipulated in predictable ways using reminders delivered by a mobile health (mHealth) app. The aim of this experiment was to manipulate the effects of implementation intentions on daily behavioral goal success in ways predicted by the ACT-R theory concerning mHealth reminder scheduling. An incomplete factorial design was used in this mHealth study. All participants were asked to choose a healthy behavior goal associated with eat slowly, walking, or eating more vegetables and were asked to set implementation intentions. N=64 adult participants were in the study for 28 days. Participants were stratified by self-efficacy and assigned to one of two reminder conditions: reminders-presented versus reminders-absent. Self-efficacy and reminder conditions were crossed. Nested within the reminders-presented condition was a crossing of frequency of reminders sent (high, low) by distribution of reminders sent (distributed, massed). Participants in the low frequency condition got 7 reminders over 28 days; those in the high frequency condition were sent 14. Participants in the distributed conditions were sent reminders at uniform intervals. Participants in the massed distribution conditions were sent reminders in clusters. There was a significant overall effect of reminders on achieving a daily behavioral goal (coefficient=2.018, standard error [SE]=0.572, odds ratio [OR]=7.52, 95% CI 0.9037-3.2594, Pbehavioral goals. Computational cognitive

  2. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  3. Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates behavioral economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses behavioral health from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method Firstly, NeM is used as framework...... for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... mechanism. In this case neuroeconomics may serve as an evidence-based public monitoring across specific historical meditation settings. Conclusion Neuroeconomics reveal the action-mechanism of dominant behavioral health interventions as integrated home care for patients suffering from stroke, heart failure...

  4. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  5. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual's processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2-4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  6. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwen Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Implicit theories drastically affect an individual’s processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is fixed (entity theorists and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is malleable (incremental theorists make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE, rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2–4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  7. The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Vlaev, Ivo; McMahon, Laurie; Harvey, Sarah; Mitchell, Andy; Borovoi, Leah; Darzi, Ara

    2017-05-11

    The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice.

  8. Development of a Behavior Change Intervention to Improve Sexual Health Service Use Among University Undergraduate Students: Mixed Methods Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Christine; Steenbeek, Audrey; Langille, Donald; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Curran, Janet

    2017-11-02

    University students are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections and suffering other negative health outcomes. Sexual health services offer preventive and treatment interventions that aim to reduce these infections and associated health consequences. However, university students often delay or avoid seeking sexual health services. An in-depth understanding of the factors that influence student use of sexual health services is needed to underpin effective sexual health interventions. In this study, we aim to design a behavior change intervention to address university undergraduate students' use of sexual health services at two universities in Nova Scotia, Canada. This mixed methods study consists of three phases that follow a systematic approach to intervention design outlined in the Behaviour Change Wheel. In Phase 1, we examine patterns of sexual health service use among university students in Nova Scotia, Canada, using an existing dataset. In Phase 2, we identify the perceived barriers and enablers to students' use of sexual health services. This will include focus groups with university undergraduate students, health care providers, and university administrators using a semistructured guide, informed by the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour Model and Theoretical Domains Framework. In Phase 3, we identify behavior change techniques and intervention components to develop a theory-based intervention to improve students' use of sexual health services. This study will be completed in March 2018. Results from each phase and the finalized intervention design will be reported in 2018. Previous intervention research to improve university students' use of sexual health services lacks a theoretical assessment of barriers. This study will employ a mixed methods research design to examine university students' use of sexual health service and apply behavior change theory to design a theory- and evidence-based sexual health service intervention. Our

  9. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  10. “Please Don’t Send Us Spam!” A Participative, Theory-Based Methodology for Developing an mHealth Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health solutions have the potential of reducing burdens on health systems and empowering patients with important information. However, there is a lack of theory-based mHealth interventions. Objective The purpose of our study was to develop a participative, theory-based, mobile phone, audio messaging intervention attractive to recently circumcised men at voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) clinics in the Cape Town area in South Africa. We aimed to shift some of the tasks related to postoperative counselling on wound management and goal setting on safe sex. We place an emphasis on describing the full method of message generation to allow for replication. Methods We developed an mHealth intervention using a staggered qualitative methodology: (1) focus group discussions with 52 recently circumcised men and their partners to develop initial voice messages they felt were relevant and appropriate, (2) thematic analysis and expert consultation to select the final messages for pilot testing, and (3) cognitive interviews with 12 recent VMMC patients to judge message comprehension and rank the messages. Message content and phasing were guided by the theory of planned behavior and the health action process approach. Results Patients and their partners came up with 245 messages they thought would help men during the wound-healing period. Thematic analysis revealed 42 different themes. Expert review and cognitive interviews with more patients resulted in 42 messages with a clear division in terms of needs and expectations between the initial wound-healing recovery phase (weeks 1–3) and the adjustment phase (weeks 4–6). Discussions with patients also revealed potential barriers to voice messaging, such as lack of technical knowledge of mobile phones and concerns about the invasive nature of the intervention. Patients’ own suggested messages confirmed Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior that if a health promotion intervention can build trust and be

  11. Parental influence on children's oral health-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of children and their parents, and to identify the family-related factors associated with children's poor or good oral health-related behavior. The data were gathered by means of questionnaires from 11-12-year-old schoolchildren and their parents who replied without having knowledge of the answers of the others. Differences between subgroups of children were analyzed by cross-tabulation, and the factors related to children's good or poor oral health-related behavior by logistic regression analyses. Parents of children who reported good oral health-related behavior had better knowledge and more favorable behaviors than those of other parents. Predictors for a child's poor oral health-related behavior were the child's poor knowledge, male gender, the parent's frequent consumption of sweets, and the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. When a less strict threshold for the child's poor oral health-related behavior was used, more predictors entered the model: the parent's unfavorable use of fluoride toothpaste; among girls, the parent's lack of knowledge; and among children whose mother's occupation level was high, the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. The parents of children whose oral health behavior was favorable were more likely to have a high level occupation and favorable oral health-related behaviors. Oral health-related knowledge of children and their parents seems to be associated with children's oral health-related behavior. Parents' behaviors, but not attitudes, were associated with children's oral health behavior.

  12. Undergraduates' intentions to take a second language proficiency test: a comparison of predictions from the theory of planned behavior and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bih-Jiau; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    English competency has become essential for obtaining a better job or succeeding in higher education in Taiwan. Thus, passing the General English Proficiency Test is important for college students in Taiwan. The current study applied Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and the notions of outcome expectancy and self-efficacy from Bandura's social cognitive theory to investigate college students' intentions to take the General English Proficiency Test. The formal sample consisted of 425 undergraduates (217 women, 208 men; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3). The theory of planned behavior showed greater predictive ability (R2 = 33%) of intention than the social cognitive theory (R2 = 7%) in regression analysis and made a unique contribution to prediction of actual test-taking behavior one year later in logistic regression. Within-model analyses indicated that subjective norm in theory of planned behavior and outcome expectancy in social cognitive theory are crucial factors in predicting intention. Implications for enhancing undergraduates' intentions to take the English proficiency test are discussed.

  13. Theoretical domains: a heuristic for teaching behavioral theory in HIV/STD prevention courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcini, M Margaret; Canin, Lisa; Gandelman, Alice; Skolnik, Heidi

    2004-10-01

    The HIV/STD epidemics have broadened the need for better behavioral intervention programs and highlighted the importance of providing training in behavioral theory to frontline program practitioners. However, there is a lack of effective methods for teaching theoretical concepts to people who may not have a background in behavioral science. This article presents a solution to this challenge by introducing a new heuristic for teaching theory and for placing individual theories/models in a broader context. Using a broad framework, we identify five domains that influence behavior: risk appraisal, self-perceptions, emotions and arousal, relationships and social influence, and environmental and structural factors. Each domain is described, and a brief overview of supporting literature is provided. Following the presentation of domains, we discuss course structure and activities.

  14. The role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors in a sample of 365 undergraduate students. Regression analyses were used to test the influence of narcissism on health behaviors. Narcissism was positively predictive of alcohol use, marijuana use, and risky driving behaviors, and it was associated with an increased likelihood of consistently having a healthy eating pattern. Narcissism was also positively predictive of physical activity. Results are discussed with reference to the potential short-term and long-term health implications and the need for future research on the factors involved in the relationship between narcissism and health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Exploring the Role of In-Person Components for Online Health Behavior Change Interventions: Can a Digital Person-to-Person Component Suffice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarossa, Sara; Kane, Deborah; Senn, Charlene Y; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2018-04-11

    The growth of the digital environment provides tremendous opportunities to revolutionize health behavior change efforts. This paper explores the use of Web-based, mobile, and social media health behavior change interventions and determines whether there is a need for a face-to-face or an in-person component. It is further argued that that although in-person components can be beneficial for online interventions, a digital person-to-person component can foster similar results while dealing with challenges faced by traditional intervention approaches. Using a digital person-to-person component is rooted in social and behavioral theories such as the theory of reasoned action, and the social cognitive theory, and further justified by the human support constructs of the model of supportive accountability. Overall, face-to-face and online behavior change interventions have their respective advantages and disadvantages and functions, yet both serve important roles. It appears that it is in fact human support that is the most important component in the effectiveness and adherence of both face-to-face and online behavior change interventions, and thoughtfully introducing a digital person-to-person component, to replace face-to-face interactions, can provide the needed human support while diminishing the barriers of in-person meetings. The digital person-to-person component must create accountability, generate opportunities for tailored feedback, and create social support to successfully create health behavior change. As the popularity of the online world grows, and the interest in using the digital environment for health behavior change interventions continues to be embraced, further research into not only the use of online interventions, but the use of a digital person-to-person component, must be explored. ©Sara Santarossa, Deborah Kane, Charlene Y Senn, Sarah J Woodruff. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.04.2018.

  16. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-08

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  17. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  18. What Factors Affect Health Seeking Behavior?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reducing cost, disability and death from diseases. (2). However, good health ... The Health Belief Model where the concept is the 'perceived susceptibility', which refers ... behavioral intentions and actions (6). ... integrated behavioral model.

  19. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents’ preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Kristin S.; Barker, Judith C.; Shiboski, Stephen; Guzman, Estela Pantoja; Hiatt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program (CCOHEP) for improving low-income, Spanish-speaking parents’ oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children. Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-hour interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators (promotoras). Topics included children’s oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management and parent skill-building activities. Methods Low-income Spanish-speaking parents/caregivers of children aged 0–5 years were recruited through community services in an agricultural city in California. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental tooth brushing for their children (frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance), three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and posttests, and again between post-test and three month follow up consisted of McNemar’s test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Results Overall, 105 caregivers participated in CCOHEP (n= 105 pretest, n=95 posttest, n=79 second posttest). At baseline, all parents self-reported doing at least one aspect of toothbrushing correctly, but only 13% reported performing all five aspects according to professional guidelines. At posttest, 44% of parents

  20. Contrasting the theory of planned behavior with the value-belief-norm model in explaning conservation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, F.G.; Hübner, G.; Bogner, F.X.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we contrast the value-belief-norm (VBN) model and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for the first time regarding their ability to explain conservation behavior. The participants represent a convenience sample of 468 university students. Using survey data and adopting previously

  1. Mathematical Systems Theory : from Behaviors to Nonlinear Control

    CERN Document Server

    Julius, A; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Rapisarda, Paolo; Scherpen, Jacquelien

    2015-01-01

    This treatment of modern topics related to mathematical systems theory forms the proceedings of a workshop, Mathematical Systems Theory: From Behaviors to Nonlinear Control, held at the University of Groningen in July 2015. The workshop celebrated the work of Professors Arjan van der Schaft and Harry Trentelman, honouring their 60th Birthdays. The first volume of this two-volume work covers a variety of topics related to nonlinear and hybrid control systems. After giving a detailed account of the state of the art in the related topic, each chapter presents new results and discusses new directions. As such, this volume provides a broad picture of the theory of nonlinear and hybrid control systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participants’ ideas on exciting new approaches to control and system theory and their predictions of future directions for the subject that were discussed at the worksho...

  2. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  3. Electronic health records: eliciting behavioral health providers' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Nancy; Willborn, Elizabeth; Pytlikzillig, Lisa; Noel, Harmonijoie

    2012-04-01

    Interviews with 32 community behavioral health providers elicited perceived benefits and barriers of using electronic health records. Themes identified were (a) quality of care, (b) privacy and security, and (c) delivery of services. Benefits to quality of care were mentioned by 100% of the providers, and barriers by 59% of providers. Barriers involving privacy and security concerns were mentioned by 100% of providers, and benefits by 22%. Barriers to delivery of services were mentioned by 97% of providers, and benefits by 66%. Most providers (81%) expressed overall positive support for electronic behavioral health records.

  4. Causality and superluminal behavior in classical field theories: Applications to k-essence theories and modified-Newtonian-dynamics-like theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Field theories with Lorentz (or diffeomorphism invariant) action can exhibit superluminal behavior through the breaking of local Lorentz invariance. Quantum induced superluminal velocities are well-known examples of this effect. The issue of the causal behavior of such propagation is somewhat controversial in the literature and we intend to clarify it. We provide a careful analysis of the meaning of causality in classical relativistic field theories and stress the role played by the Cauchy problem and the notion of chronology. We show that, in general, superluminal behavior threatens causality only if one assumes that a prior chronology in spacetime exists. In the case where superluminal propagation occurs, however, there are at least two nonconformally related metrics in spacetime and thus two available notions of chronology. These two chronologies are on equal footing, and it would thus be misleading to choose ab initio one of them to define causality. Rather, we provide a formulation of causality in which no prior chronology is assumed. We argue that this is the only way to deal with the issue of causality in the case where some degrees of freedom propagate faster than others. In that framework, then, it is shown that superluminal propagation is not necessarily noncausal, the final answer depending on the existence of an initial data formulation. This also depends on global properties of spacetime that we discuss in detail. As an illustration of these conceptual issues, we consider two field theories, namely, k-essence scalar fields and bimetric theories of gravity, and we derive the conditions imposed by causality. We discuss various applications such as the dark energy problem, modified-Newtonian-dynamics-like theories of gravity, and varying speed of light theories

  5. Predicting Participation in Dual Language Immersion Using Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Andrea; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M.; Vázquez, Alejandro L.; Corralejo, Samantha M.

    2018-01-01

    Dual language immersion programs are increasing in popularity. Yet little is known about what motivates parents to enroll their children in dual language immersion. The theory of planned behavior posits that behavior is based on attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The current study was an exploratory evaluation of the…

  6. Association of health professional leadership behaviors on health promotion practice beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jacqueline D; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Attoh, Prince; D'Abundo, Michelle; Gong, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Leadership is a process by which an individual influences a group or individual to achieve a common goal, in this case health promotion for individuals with disabilities. (1) To examine the association between the transformational leadership behaviors of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) network professionals and their practice beliefs about health promotion activities, specifically cardiovascular fitness and healthy weight, for people with disabilities. (2) To determine if discipline and/or years of practice moderate the association between transformational leadership behaviors and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. There is a positive association between transformational leadership behaviors and health professionals practice beliefs regarding health promotion activities for persons with disabilities. A quantitative cross-sectional web-based survey design was used to determine the association between leadership behaviors and practices beliefs regarding health promotion for people with disabilities. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and an adapted version of the Role of Health Promotion in Physical Therapy Survey were used to measure leadership and practice beliefs, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the association of leadership behaviors with health promotion practice beliefs variables. Transformational leadership behaviors of the AUCD network professionals were positively associated with health promotion practice beliefs about cardiovascular fitness for people with disabilities. Years post licensure and discipline did not moderate the association between transformational leadership and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. Transformational leadership may facilitate health professionals' health promotion practices for people with disabilities. Further research and training in leadership is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Women Infant and Children program participants' beliefs and consumption of soy milk : Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Ashley; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables predict soy milk intake in a sample of WIC participants in 2 Illinois counties (n = 380). A cross-sectional survey was used, which examined soy foods intake, behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, motivation, and intention. Soy product intake was low at both sites, and many participants (40%) did not know that soy milk was WIC approved. Most (> 70%) wanted to comply with their health care providers, but di...

  8. Charting the future course of rural health and remote health in Australia: Why we need theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Humphreys, John S; Wakerman, John; Taylor, Judy

    2010-04-01

    This paper argues that rural and remote health is in need of theoretical development. Based on the authors' discussions, reflections and critical analyses of literature, this paper proposes key reasons why rural and remote health warrants the development of theoretical frameworks. The paper cites five reasons why theory is needed: (i) theory provides an approach for how a topic is studied; (ii) theory articulates key assumptions in knowledge development; (iii) theory systematises knowledge, enabling it to be transferable; (iv) theory provides predictability; and (v) theory enables comprehensive understanding. This paper concludes with a call for theoretical development in both rural and remote health to expand its knowledge and be more relevant to improving health care for rural Australians.

  9. Temporal Immediacy: A Two-System Theory of Mind for Understanding and Changing Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Paul F; Schmiege, Sarah J; Reeder, Blaine; Horton-Deutsch, Sara; Lowe, Nancy K; Meek, Paula

    Health promotion and chronic disease management both require behavior change, but people find it hard to change behavior despite having good intentions. The problem arises because patients' narratives about experiences and intentions are filtered through memory and language. These narratives inaccurately reflect intuitive decision-making or actual behaviors. We propose a principle-temporal immediacy-as a moderator variable that explains which of two mental systems (narrative or intuitive) will be activated in any given situation. We reviewed multiple scientific areas to test temporal immediacy as an explanation for findings. In an iterative process, we used evidence from philosophy, cognitive neuroscience, behavioral economics, symptom science, and ecological momentary assessment to develop our theoretical perspective. These perspectives each suggest two cognitive systems that differ in their level of temporal immediacy: an intuitive system that produces behavior in response to everyday states and a narrative system that interprets and explains these experiences after the fact. Writers from Plato onward describe two competing influences on behavior-often with moral overtones. People tend to identify with the language-based narrative system and blame unhelpful results on the less accessible intuitive system, but neither is completely rational, and the intuitive system has strengths based on speed and serial processing. The systems differ based on temporal immediacy-the description of an experience as either "now" or "usually"-with the intuitive system generating behaviors automatically in real time and the narrative system producing beliefs about the past or future. The principle of temporal immediacy is a tool to integrate nursing science with other disciplinary traditions and to improve research and practice. Interventions should build on each system's strengths, rather than treating the intuitive system as a barrier for the narrative system to overcome. Nursing

  10. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health.

  11. Effectiveness of training on preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the female adolescents: Examination of theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Farzaneh; Hosseini Nodeh, Zahra; Rahnavard, Zahra; Arab, Masoume

    2016-01-01

    Since type-2 diabetes is the most common chronic disease among Iranian female adolescents, we applied theory of planned behavior to examine the effect of training to intention to preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among female adolescents. In this experimental study 200 (11-14 year old) girls from 8 schools of Tehran city (100 in each intervention and control group) were recruited based on cluster sampling method during two stages. For intervention group, an educational program was designed based on the theory of planned behavior and presented in 6 workshop sessions to prevent type-2 diabetes. The data were collected before and two months after the workshops using a valid and reliable (α=0.72 and r=0.80) authormade questionnaire based on Ajzens TPB questionnaire manual. The data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test and analysis of covariance. Findings indicate that the two groups were homogeneous regarding the demographic characteristics before education, but the mean score of the theory components (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) was higher in the control group. Also, results showed all of the theory components significantly increased after the education in the intervention group (p=0.000). Training based on the theory of planned behavior enhances the intention to adherence preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the studied female adolescents.

  12. A constructivist grounded theory of generalist health professionals and their mental health work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunero, Scott; Ramjan, Lucie M; Salamonson, Yenna; Nicholls, Daniel

    2018-05-30

    Generalist health professionals, often without formal mental health training, provide treatment and care to people with serious mental illness who present with physical health problems in general hospital settings. This article will present findings from a constructivist grounded theory study of the work delivered by generalist health staff to consumers with mental illness on the general medical/surgical wards of two metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The results analysed included three participant observations, two focus groups, and 21 interviews and hospital policy and protocol documents. A substantive theory of mental health work in general hospital settings is illustrated which conceptualizes the following categories: (i) the experience: conflicting realities and ideals; (ii) The Context: facilitating social distancing; and (iii) the social processes: invisibility affecting confidence. The categories are understood through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism with the theory providing insights into how the generalist health professionals understand their sense of self or identity. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating.

  14. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Cheating Justifications to Predict Academic Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas H.; Jawahar, I. M.; Kisamore, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that academic misconduct appears to be on the rise; some research has linked academic misconduct to unethical workplace behaviors. Unlike previous empirically-driven research, this theory-based study seeks to examine the usefulness of a modification of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior to predict…

  15. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  16. Oral health related knowledge and health behavior of parents and school children

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...

  17. Nativity, Chronic Health Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayog, Maria L G; Waters, Catherine M

    2018-05-01

    Nearly half of Americans have a chronic health condition related to unhealthful behavior. One in four Americans is an immigrant; yet immigrants' health has been studied little, particularly among Asian American subpopulations. Years lived in United States, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, walking, adiposity, and fruit/vegetable variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed to examine the influence of nativity on chronic health conditions and health behaviors in 555 adult Filipinos, the second largest Asian American immigrant subpopulation. Recent and long-term immigrant Filipinos had higher odds of having hypertension and diabetes, but lower odds of smoking and overweight/obesity compared with second-generation Filipinos. Being born in the United States may be protective against chronic health conditions, but not for healthful behaviors among Filipinos. Chronic disease prevention and health promotion strategies should consider nativity/length of residence, which may be a more consequential health determinant than other immigration and acculturation characteristics.

  18. Bringing loyalty to e-Health: theory validation using three internet-delivered interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Cyr, Dianne; de Vries, Nanne K

    2011-09-24

    Internet-delivered interventions can effectively change health risk behaviors, but the actual use of these interventions by the target group once they access the website is often very low (high attrition, low adherence). Therefore, it is relevant and necessary to focus on factors related to use of an intervention once people arrive at the intervention website. We focused on user perceptions resulting in e-loyalty (ie, intention to visit an intervention again and to recommend it to others). A background theory for e-loyalty, however, is still lacking for Internet-delivered interventions. The objective of our study was to propose and validate a conceptual model regarding user perceptions and e-loyalty within the field of eHealth. We presented at random 3 primary prevention interventions aimed at the general public and, subsequently, participants completed validated measures regarding user perceptions and e-loyalty. Time on each intervention website was assessed by means of server registrations. Of the 592 people who were invited to participate, 397 initiated the study (response rate: 67%) and 351 (48% female, mean age 43 years, varying in educational level) finished the study (retention rate: 88%). Internal consistency of all measures was high (Cronbach alpha > .87). The findings demonstrate that the user perceptions regarding effectiveness (beta(range) .21-.41) and enjoyment (beta(range) .14-.24) both had a positive effect on e-loyalty, which was mediated by active trust (beta(range) .27-.60). User perceptions and e-loyalty had low correlations with time on the website (r(range) .04-.18). The consistent pattern of findings speaks in favor of their robustness and contributes to theory validation regarding e-loyalty. The importance of a theory-driven solution to a practice-based problem (ie, low actual use) needs to be stressed in view of the importance of the Internet in terms of intervention development. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether people

  19. Towards a Unified Theory of Health-Disease: I. Health as a complex model-object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomar Almeida-Filho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory building is one of the most crucial challenges faced by basic, clinical and population research, which form the scientific foundations of health practices in contemporary societies. The objective of the study is to propose a Unified Theory of Health-Disease as a conceptual tool for modeling health-disease-care in the light of complexity approaches. With this aim, the epistemological basis of theoretical work in the health field and concepts related to complexity theory as concerned to health problems are discussed. Secondly, the concepts of model-object, multi-planes of occurrence, modes of health and disease-illness-sickness complex are introduced and integrated into a unified theoretical framework. Finally, in the light of recent epistemological developments, the concept of Health-Disease-Care Integrals is updated as a complex reference object fit for modeling health-related processes and phenomena.

  20. Comparing the utility of the theory of planned behavior between boys and girls for predicting snack food consumption: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the theory of planned behavior to explain two types of snack food consumption among boys and girls (girls n = 98; boys n = 69), which may have implications for future theory-based health promotion interventions. Between genders, there was a significant difference for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks (p = .002), but no difference for fruit and vegetable snacks. Using stepwise multiple regression, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms accounted for a large amount of the variance of intentions (girls = 43.3%; boys = 55.9%); however, for girls, subjective norms accounted for the most variance, whereas for boys, attitudes accounted for the most variance. Calories from calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks and fruit and vegetable snacks were also predicted by intentions. For boys, intentions predicted 6.4% of the variance for fruit and vegetable snacks (p = .03) but was not significant for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks, whereas for girls, intentions predicted 6.0% of the variance for fruit and vegetable snacks (p = .007), and 7.2% of the variance for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks (p = .004). Results suggest that the theory of planned behavior is a useful framework for predicting snack foods among children; however, there are important differences between genders that should be considered in future health promotion interventions.

  1. Self-regulation of health behavior: social psychological approaches to goal setting and goal striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Traci; de Ridder, Denise; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this article is to review and highlight the relevance of social psychological research on self-regulation for health-related theory and practice. We first review research on goal setting, or determining which goals to pursue and the criteria to determine whether one has succeeded. We discuss when and why people adopt goals, what properties of goals increase the likelihood of their attainment, and why people abandon goals. We then review research on goal striving, which includes the planning and execution of actions that lead to goal attainment, and the processes that people use to shield their goals from being disrupted by other competing goals, temptations, or distractions. We describe four types of strategies that people use when pursuing goals. We find that self-regulation entails the operation of a number of psychological mechanisms, and that there is no single solution that will help all people in all situations. We recommend a number of strategies that can help people to more effectively set and attain health-related goals. We conclude that enhancing health behavior requires a nuanced understanding and sensitivity to the varied, dynamic psychological processes involved in self-regulation, and that health is a prototypical and central domain in which to examine the relevance of these theoretical models for real behavior. We discuss the implications of this research for theory and practice in health-related domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. High peer popularity longitudinally predicts adolescent health risk behavior, or does it?: an examination of linear and quadratic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia C; Helms, Sarah W; Brechwald, Whitney A; Rancourt, Diana

    2011-10-01

    In contrast to prior work, recent theory suggests that high, not low, levels of adolescent peer popularity may be associated with health risk behavior. This study examined (a) whether popularity may be uniquely associated with cigarette use, marijuana use, and sexual risk behavior, beyond the predictive effects of aggression; (b) whether the longitudinal association between popularity and health risk behavior may be curvilinear; and (c) gender moderation. A total of 336 adolescents, initially in 10-11th grades, reported cigarette use, marijuana use, and number of sexual intercourse partners at two time points 18 months apart. Sociometric peer nominations were used to examine popularity and aggression. Longitudinal quadratic effects and gender moderation suggest that both high and low levels of popularity predict some, but not all, health risk behaviors. New theoretical models can be useful for understanding the complex manner in which health risk behaviors may be reinforced within the peer context.

  3. Life without TV? cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework.

  4. Integrating psychological theory into the design of an online intervention for sexual health: the sexunzipped website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Kenneth; McCarthy, Ona; Murray, Elizabeth; Bailey, Julia V

    2012-11-19

    The Internet can provide a confidential and convenient medium for sexual health promotion for young people. This paper describes the development of an interactive, theory-based website (Sexunzipped) aimed at increasing safe sexual behavior of young people, as well as an outline of the evaluation protocol. The website focuses on safer sex, relationships, and sexual pleasure. An overview of the site is provided, including a description of the theoretical constructs which form the basis of the site development. An integrated behavioral model was chosen as the guiding theory for the Sexunzipped intervention. A randomized trial design will be used to evaluate the site quantitatively. The content of the site is described in detail with examples of the main content types: information pages, quizzes, and decision-making activities. We describe the protocol for quantitative evaluation of the website using a randomized trial design and discuss the principal challenges involved in developing the site, including the challenge of balancing the requirements of theory with young people's views on website content and design. Considerations for future interventions are discussed. Developing an online behavior-change intervention is costly and time consuming. Given the large public health potential, the cost involved in developing online interventions, and the need for attractive design, future interventions may benefit from collaborating with established sites that already have a user base, a brand, and a strong Internet presence. It is vital to involve users in decisions about intervention content, design, and features, paying attention to aspects that will attract and retain users' interest. A central challenge in developing effective Internet-based interventions for young people is to find effective ways to operationalize theory in ways that address the views and perspectives of young people.

  5. Time series clustering analysis of health-promoting behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.

  6. An Attempt to Extend Taylor-Spence Drive Theory to Vocational Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    1972-01-01

    Predictions were made from Taylor-Spence drive theory about vocational choice behavior. Although the results did not specifically support the predictions made from Taylor-Spence theory, they indicated the potential usefulness of certain concepts in this theory and suggested several lines of inquiry for further research. (Author)

  7. The role of Compensatory Health Beliefs in eating behavior change: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Melanie A; Rackow, Pamela; Inauen, Jennifer; Radtke, Theda; Scholz, Urte

    2017-09-01

    Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs), defined as beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated for by engaging in another healthy behavior, are assumed to hinder health behavior change. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CHBs for two distinct eating behaviors (increased fruit and vegetable consumption and eating fewer unhealthy snacks) with a mixed method approach. Participants (N = 232, mean age = 27.3 years, 76.3% women) were randomly assigned to a fruit and vegetable or an unhealthy snack condition. For the quantitative approach, path models were fitted to analyze the role of CHBs within a social-cognitive theory of health behavior change, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). With a content analysis, the qualitative approach investigated the occurrence of CHBs in smartphone chat groups when pursuing an eating goal. Both analyses were conducted for each eating behavior separately. Path models showed that CHBs added predictive value for intention, but not behavior over and above HAPA variables only in the unhealthy snack condition. CHBs were significantly negatively associated with intention and action planning. Content analysis revealed that people generated only a few CHB messages. However, CHBs were more likely to be present and were also more diverse in the unhealthy snack condition compared to the fruit and vegetable condition. Based on a mixed method approach, this study suggests that CHBs play a more important role for eating unhealthy snacks than for fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future oral healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita D; Severson, Herbert H; Cragun, Deborah L; Gau, Jeff M; Merrell, Laura K; Bleck, Jennifer R; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William

    2013-06-01

    Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51-0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed.

  9. Predictors of Prosthodontic Treatment-Related Behavior Using the Theory of Planned Behavior Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Antonio Helio; Castro e Silva, Donizete; Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to assess subjects' intentions and behavior to predict willingness to undergo prosthodontic care. A questionnaire was administered to 225 adults with history of teeth loss who currently were not under prosthodontic treatment. The questionnaire comprised TPB components (attitude toward behaviour [ATB], subjective norm [SN], and perceived behavioral control [PBC]) containing items with potential influence on the intentions and behavior of individuals toward prosthodontic care. Clinical and socioeconomic data were also assessed. A path regression model was constructed explaining two dependent variables simultaneously: one explained the influence of PBC on intention (R2=0.04) and another explained the influence of dental arch, position of lost teeth, socioeconomic status, and PBC on behavior (R2=0.31). It was concluded that PBC was a relevant TPB component that encompasses perception of costs, opportunity cost, perceived need, and access to dental care. Clinical and socioeconomic factors were also major determinants of behavior toward prosthodontic treatment.

  10. Transformational leadership behaviors in allied health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, David A; Gallagher, Helen L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore self-reported transformational leadership behavior profiles within the six largest allied health profession groups in the National Health Service in Scotland and to determine whether factors such as seniority of grade, locus of employment, and/or leadership training have a positive influence on transformational leadership behaviors. A postal survey comprising the shorter version of the Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and contextual demographic information was completed by 753 allied health professionals from four Health Board areas across Scotland who were randomly selected through a modified cluster sampling technique. The MLQ contains 36 items that measure nine identified leadership factors; however, only the responses to the five transformational leadership factors are reported here. The study identified significant differences in transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions. Radiographers and podiatrists scored consistently lower than the other professional groups across the range of transformational behaviors. Seniority of grade significantly influenced the scores, with higher-graded staff reporting greater leadership behaviors (p leadership training also positively influenced transformational behaviors (p transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions, indicating that some professional groups are inherently advantaged in embracing the modernization agenda. This highlights an as-yet missed opportunity for effectively targeting and evaluating multidisciplinary leadership training programs across the allied health professions.

  11. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  12. Cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior for predicting healthy food choice in secondary school students of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Bao, Hugejiletu; Deli, Geer; Uechi, Hiroaki; Lee, Ying-Hua; Miura, Kayo; Takenaka, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Unhealthy eating behavior is a serious health concern among secondary school students in Inner Mongolia. To predict their healthy food choices and devise methods of correcting unhealthy choices, we sought to confirm the cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior among Inner Mongolian students. A cross-sectional study, conducted between November and December 2014. Overall, 3047 students were enrolled. We devised a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior to measure its components (intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) in relation to healthy food choices; we also assessed their current engagement in healthy food choices. A principal component analysis revealed high contribution rates for the components (69.32%-88.77%). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the components of the questionnaire had adequate model fit (goodness of fit index=0.997, adjusted goodness of fit index=0.984, comparative fit index=0.998, and root mean square error of approximation=0.049). Notably, data from participants within the suburbs did not support the theory of planned behavior construction. Several paths did not predict the hypothesis variables. However, attitudes toward healthy food choices strongly predicted behavioral intention (path coefficients 0.49-0.77, ptheory of planned behavior can apply to secondary school students in urban areas. Furthermore, attitudes towards healthy food choices were the best predictor of behavioral intentions to engage in such choices in Inner Mongolian students. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study of Driver’s Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers’ route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver’s route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver’s route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  14. Predicting entrepreneurial career intentions: Values and the theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); U. Stephan (Ute); M. Laguna (Mariola); J.A. Moriano (Juan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntegrating predictions from the theory of human values with the theory of planned behavior (TPB), our primary goal is to investigate mechanisms through which individual values are related to entrepreneurial career intentions using a sample of 823 students from four European countries.

  15. Hagedorn Behavior of Little String Theories from string corrections to NS5-branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the Hagedorn behavior of little string theory using its conjectured duality with near-horizon NS5-branes. In particular, by studying the string-corrected NS5-brane supergravity solution, it is shown that tree-level corrections to the temperature vanish, while the leading one-loop string...... correction generates the correct temperature dependence of the entropy near the Hagedorn temperature. Finally, the Hagedorn behavior of ODp-brane theories, which are deformed versions of little string theory, is considered via their supergravity duals....

  16. The role of health-related behaviors in the socioeconomic disparities in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic disparities in health-related behaviors and to assess if behaviors eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health in a nationally representative sample of adult Americans. Data are from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Behaviors were indicated by smoking, dental visits, frequency of eating fresh fruits and vegetables and extent of calculus, used as a marker for oral hygiene. Oral health outcomes were gingival bleeding, loss of periodontal attachment, tooth loss and perceived oral health. Education and income indicated socioeconomic position. Sex, age, ethnicity, dental insurance and diabetes were adjusted for in the regression analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess socioeconomic disparities in behaviors. Regression models adjusting and not adjusting for behaviors were compared to assess the change in socioeconomic disparities in oral health. The results showed clear socioeconomic disparities in all behaviors. After adjusting for behaviors, the association between oral health and socioeconomic indicators attenuated but did not disappear. These findings imply that improvement in health-related behaviors may lessen, but not eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health, and suggest the presence of more complex determinants of these disparities which should be addressed by oral health preventive policies.

  17. Effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes in survivors of colorectal cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Anna L; Chambers, Suzanne K; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Patrao, Tania A; Baade, Peter D; Lynch, Brigid M; Aitken, Joanne F; Meng, Xingqiong; Courneya, Kerry S

    2013-06-20

    Colorectal cancer survivors are at risk for poor health outcomes because of unhealthy lifestyles, but few studies have developed translatable health behavior change interventions. This study aimed to determine the effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes among colorectal cancer survivors. In this two-group randomized controlled trial, 410 colorectal cancer survivors were randomly assigned to the health coaching intervention (11 theory-based telephone-delivered health coaching sessions delivered over 6 months focusing on physical activity, weight management, dietary habits, alcohol, and smoking) or usual care. Assessment of primary (ie, physical activity [Godin Leisure Time Index], health-related quality of life [HRQoL; Short Form-36], and cancer-related fatigue [Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale]) and secondary outcomes (ie, body mass index [kg/m(2)], diet and alcohol intake [Food Frequency Questionnaire], and smoking) were conducted at baseline and 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, significant intervention effects were observed for moderate physical activity (28.5 minutes; P = .003), body mass index (-0.9 kg/m(2); P = .001), energy from total fat (-7.0%; P = .006), and energy from saturated fat (-2.8%; P = .016). A significant intervention effect was reported for vegetable intake (0.4 servings per day; P = .001) at 6 months. No significant group differences were found at 6 or 12 months for HRQoL, cancer-related fatigue, fruit, fiber, or alcohol intake, or smoking. The CanChange intervention was effective for improving physical activity, dietary habits, and body mass index in colorectal cancer survivors. The intervention is translatable through existing telephone cancer support and information services in Australia and other countries.

  18. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and nutrition (χ(2) 1=3.5; P=.04, for N

  19. Migration Theories and Mental Health in Toni Morrison's Jazz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Tafreshi Motalgh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to elaborate the relationship between migration and mental health problems that are evident in migrant women in Toni Morrison's Jazz (1992. To this end, pre-migration, migration and post-migration stress factors are identified in the novel based on Danish Bhugra's theory of migration. It seems that pre-migration stress factors and traumas are associated with the push theory of migration, while post-migration stresses are associated with the pull theory of migration. Despite post-migration stresses, the main female characters who encounter pre-migration stress factors and traumas are more likely to develop mental health problems like Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Although there is extensive literary criticism of Jazz (1992, no theoretical criticism exists that simultaneously covers migration theories and the mental health problems evident in Toni Morrison's female characters. It is worth highlighting that gender is a variable that correlates positively with migration and mental health. This article attempts to fill a gap in literary criticism and contribute to the body of research on mental health problems associated with gender and migration. Keywords: Push-Pull Theory, Great Migration, Black Studies, Gender, Trauma, PTSD

  20. Burnout and health behaviors in health professionals from seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova-Karamanova, Anna; Todorova, Irina; Montgomery, Anthony; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Costa, Patricia; Baban, Adriana; Davas, Asli; Milosevic, Milan; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2016-10-01

    Within an underlying health-impairing process, work stressors exhaust employees' mental and physical resources and lead to exhaustion/burnout and to health problems, with health-impairing behaviors being one of the potential mechanisms, linking burnout to ill health. The study aims to explore the associations between burnout and fast food consumption, exercise, alcohol consumption and painkiller use in a multinational sample of 2623 doctors, nurses and residents from Greece, Portugal, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Croatia and Macedonia, adopting a cross-national approach. Data are part of the international cross-sectional quantitative ORCAB survey. The measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Health Behaviors Questionnaire. Burnout was significantly positively associated with higher fast food consumption, infrequent exercise, higher alcohol consumption and more frequent painkiller use in the full sample, and these associations remained significant after the inclusion of individual differences factors and country of residence. Cross-national comparisons showed significant differences in burnout and health behaviors, and some differences in the statistical significance and magnitude (but not the direction) of the associations between them. Health professionals from Turkey, Greece and Bulgaria reported the most unfavorable experiences. Burnout and risk health behaviors among health professionals are important both in the context of health professionals' health and well-being and as factors contributing to medical errors and inadequate patient safety. Organizational interventions should incorporate early identification of such behaviors together with programs promoting health and aimed at the reduction of burnout and work-related stress.

  1. Understanding persuasion contexts in health gamification: A systematic analysis of gamified health behavior change support systems literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahäivälä, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2016-12-01

    Gamification is increasingly used as a design strategy when developing behavior change support systems in the healthcare domain. It is commonly agreed that understanding the contextual factors is critical for successful gamification, but systematic analyses of the persuasive contexts have been lacking so far within gamified health intervention studies. Through a persuasion context analysis of the gamified health behavior change support systems (hBCSSs) literature, we inspect how the contextual factors have been addressed in the prior gamified health BCSS studies. The implications of this study are to provide the practitioners and researchers examples of how to conduct a systematic analysis to help guide the design and research on gamified health BCSSs. The ideas derived from the analysis of the included studies will help identify potential pitfalls and shortcomings in both the research and implementations of gamified health behavior change support systems. We systematically analyzed the persuasion contexts of 15 gamified health intervention studies. According to our results, gamified hBCSSs are implemented under different facets of lifestyle change and treatments compliance, and use a multitude of technologies and methods. We present a set of ideas and concepts to help improve endeavors in studying gamified health intervention through comprehensive understanding of the persuasive contextual factors. Future research on gamified hBCSSs should systematically compare the different combinations of contextual factors, related theories, chosen gamification strategies, and the study of outcomes to help understand how to achieve the most efficient use of gamification on the different aspects of healthcare. Analyzing the persuasion context is essential to achieve this. With the attained knowledge, those planning health interventions can choose the 'tried-and-tested' approaches for each particular situation, rather than develop solutions in an ad-hoc manner. Copyright © 2016

  2. Finite-temperature behavior of mass hierarchies in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's mechanism for producing a large gauge hierarchy in supersymmetric theories leads to a novel symmetry behavior at finite temperature. The exponentially large expectation value in such models develops at a critical temperature of order of the small (supersymmetry-breaking) scale. The phase transition can proceed without need of vacuum tunnelling. Models based on Witten's mechanism thus require a reexamination of the standard cosmological treatment of grand unified theories. (orig.)

  3. Pendulating—A grounded theory explaining patients’ behavior shortly after having a leg amputated due to vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Hommel, Ami; Bååth, Carina; Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although the group of vascular leg amputated patients constitutes some of the most vulnerable and frail on the orthopedic wards, previous research of amputated patients has focused on patients attending gait training in rehabilitation facilities leaving the patient experience shortly after surgery unexplored. Understanding patients’ behavior shortly after amputation could inform health professionals in regard to how these vulnerable patients’ needs at hospital can be met as well as how to plan for care post-discharge. Aim To construct a grounded theory (GT) explaining patients’ behavior shortly after having a leg amputated as a result of vascular disease. Method In line with constructivist GT methodology, data from ethnographic observations and interviews were simultaneously collected and analyzed using the constant comparative method covering the patients’ experiences during the first 4 weeks post-surgery. Data collection was guided by theoretical sampling and comprised 11 patients. A GT was constructed. Results Patients went through a three-phased process as they realized they were experiencing a life-changing event. The first phase was “Losing control” and comprised the sub-categories “Being overwhelmed” and “Facing dependency.” The second phase was “Digesting the shock” and comprised the sub-categories “Swallowing the life-changing decision,” “Detecting the amputated body” and “Struggling dualism.” The third phase was “Regaining control” and comprised the sub-categories “Managing consequences” and “Building-up hope and self-motivation.” “Pendulating” was identified as the core category describing the general pattern of behavior and illustrated how patients were swinging both cognitively and emotionally throughout the process. Conclusion The theory of “Pendulating” offers a tool to understand the amputated patients’ behavior and underlying concerns and to recognize where they are in the

  4. Turbulent times: effects of turbulence and violence exposure in adolescence on high school completion, health risk behavior, and mental health in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Hair, Elizabeth; Zuckerman, Barry

    2013-10-01

    Turbulent social environments are associated with health and developmental risk, yet mechanisms have been understudied. Guided by a life course framework and stress theory, this study examined the association between turbulent life transitions (including frequent residential mobility, school transitions, family structure disruptions, and homelessness) and exposure to violence during adolescence and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors in young adulthood. Participants (n = 4834) from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort were followed prospectively from age 12-14 years for 10 years. We used structural equation models to investigate pathways between turbulence and cumulative exposure to violence (CEV), and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors, while accounting for early life socio-demographics, family processes, and individual characteristics. Results indicated that turbulence index was associated with cumulative exposure to violence in adolescence. Both turbulence index and cumulative exposure to violence were positively associated with higher health risk behavior, poorer mental health, and inversely associated with high school completion. These findings highlight the importance of considering the cumulative impact of turbulent and adverse social environments when developing interventions to optimize health and developmental trajectory for adolescents transitioning into adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Right to Health, negate theories , Lottery and Minimum Decent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Maria Barbosa Ramos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It approaches the theory that deny the right to health in order to highlight the fragility of arguments and demonstrate the ability to build a ethical justification for gua- ranteeing the right to health. Highlights the complexity of the right to health and the universality of their ownership, as well as discusses the identification of the right to health with the right to social assistance. It analyzes the theories of denial of the right to health from a proposal that presents libertarian. Noteworthy is the discussion on the relations proposed by this theory, between the right to health and the right to property, in order to justify the setting of a minimal state. We put in evidence the idea of  n atural and social lotteries, the duty of beneficence and the idea of   decent minimum, to introduce a reflec- tion on the health market.

  6. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents' preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, K S; Barker, J C; Shiboski, S; Pantoja-Guzman, E; Hiatt, R A

    2016-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program (CCOHEP) for improving low-income, Spanish-speaking parents' oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children. Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-h interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators (promotoras). Topics included children's oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management, and parent skill-building activities. Low-income Spanish-speaking parents/caregivers of children aged 0-5 years were recruited through community services in an agricultural city in California. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health-related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental toothbrushing for their children (frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance), three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and post-tests and again between post-test and 3-month follow-up consisted of McNemar's test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Overall, 105 caregivers participated in CCOHEP (n = 105 pretest, n = 95 post-test, n = 79 second post-test). At baseline, all parents self-reported doing at least one aspect of toothbrushing correctly, but only 13% reported performing all five aspects according to professional guidelines. At post-test, 44% of parents reported completing all aspects of

  7. Development and validation of the Alzheimer's prevention beliefs measure in a multi-ethnic cohort-a behavioral theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Alon; Ganzer, Christine A; Vermeylen, Francoise; Parry, Stephen; Zhu, Jifeng; Lyons, Abigail; Isaacson, Richard; Kim, Sarang

    2017-12-01

    Understanding health beliefs and how they influence willingness will enable the development of targeted curricula that maximize public engagement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk reduction behaviors. Literature on behavioral theory and community input was used to develop and validate a health beliefs survey about AD risk reduction among 428 community-dwelling adults. Principal component analysis was performed to assess internal consistency. Linear regression was performed to identify key predictors of Willingness to engage in AD risk reduction behaviors. The measure as well as the individual scales (Benefits, Barriers, Severity, Susceptibility and Social Norm) were found to be internally consistent. Overall, as Benefits and Barriers scores increased, Willingness scores also increased. Those without prior AD experience or family history had lower willingness scores. Finally, we observed an interaction between age and norms, suggesting that social factors related to AD prevention may differentially affect people of different ages. The Alzheimer Prevention Beliefs Measure provides assessment of several health belief factors related to AD prevention. Age, Family History, Logistical Barriers and total Benefits are significant determinants of willingness to engage in AD risk reduction behaviors, such as seeing a doctor or making a lifestyle change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  9. Behavioral health and health care reform models: patient-centered medical home, health home, and accountable care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools-accountability measures and payment designs-to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs.

  10. Development and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Theory-Based Determinants of Monitoring Obesogenic Behaviors of Pre-Schoolers among Hispanic Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Branscum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions are greatly needed for obesity prevention, and planning for such strategies should include community participation. The study’s purpose was to develop and validate a theory-based instrument with low-income, Hispanic mothers of preschoolers, to assess theory-based determinants of maternal monitoring of child’s consumption of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB. Nine focus groups with mothers were conducted to determine nutrition-related behaviors that mothers found as most obesogenic for their children. Next, behaviors were operationally defined and rated for importance and changeability. Two behaviors were selected for investigation (fruits and vegetable and SSB. Twenty semi-structured interviews with mothers were conducted next to develop culturally appropriate items for the instrument. Afterwards, face and content validity were established using a panel of six experts. Finally, the instrument was tested with a sample of 238 mothers. Psychometric properties evaluated included construct validity (using the maximum likelihood extraction method of factor analysis, and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha. Results suggested that all scales on the instrument were valid and reliable, except for the autonomy scales. Researchers and community planners working with Hispanic families can use this instrument to measure theory-based determinants of parenting behaviors related to preschoolers’ consumption of fruits and vegetables, and SSB.

  11. Application of the health belief model and social cognitive theory for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in a sample of Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the health belief model (HBM) and social cognitive theory (SCT) for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in women. In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients who were women and registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran were selected. A questionnaire consisting of HBM constructs and the constructs of self-regulation and social support from SCT was used to measure nutrition performance. Bone mineral density was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur. The intervention for the experimental group included 10 educational sessions of 55-60 min of speech, group discussion, questions and answers, as well as posters and educational pamphlets, film screenings, and PowerPoint displays. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 via Chi-square test, independent t-test, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. After intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the HBM constructs, self-regulation, social support, and nutrition performance, compared to the control group. Six months after the intervention, the value of lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score increased to 0.127 in the experimental group, while it reduced to -0.043 in the control group. The value of the hip BMD T-score increased to 0.125 in the intervention group, but it decreased to -0.028 in the control group. This study showed the effectiveness of HBM and constructs of self-regulation and social support on adoption of nutrition behaviors and increase in the bone density to prevent osteoporosis.

  12. From theory to practice: improving the impact of health services research

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    Levine Robert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While significant strides have been made in health research, the incorporation of research evidence into healthcare decision-making has been marginal. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of how the utility of health services research can be improved through the use of theory. Integrating theory into health services research can improve research methodology and encourage stronger collaboration with decision-makers. Discussion Recognizing the importance of theory calls for new expectations in the practice of health services research. These include: the formation of interdisciplinary research teams; broadening the training for those who will practice health services research; and supportive organizational conditions that promote collaboration between researchers and decision makers. Further, funding bodies can provide a significant role in guiding and supporting the use of theory in the practice of health services research. Summary Institutions and researchers should incorporate the use of theory if health services research is to fulfill its potential for improving the delivery of health care.

  13. From Foucault to Freire Through Facebook: Toward an Integrated Theory of mHealth.

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    Bull, Sheana; Ezeanochie, Nnamdi

    2016-08-01

    To document the integration of social science theory in literature on mHealth (mobile health) and consider opportunities for integration of classic theory, health communication theory, and social networking to generate a relevant theory for mHealth program design. A secondary review of research syntheses and meta-analyses published between 2005 and 2014 related to mHealth, using the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) methodology for assessment of the quality of each review. High-quality articles from those reviews using a randomized controlled design and integrating social science theory in program design, implementation, or evaluation were reviewed. Results There were 1,749 articles among the 170 reviews with a high AMSTAR score (≥30). Only 13 were published from 2005 to 2014, used a randomized controlled design and made explicit mention of theory in any aspect of their mHealth program. All 13 included theoretical perspectives focused on psychological and/or psychosocial theories and constructs. Conclusions There is a very limited use of social science theory in mHealth despite demonstrated benefits in doing so. We propose an integrated theory of mHealth that incorporates classic theory, health communication theory, and social networking to guide development and evaluation of mHealth programs. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Associations of eHealth Literacy With Health Behavior Among Adult Internet Users.

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    Mitsutake, Seigo; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-07-18

    In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy-having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet-has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with high eHealth

  15. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Sheng, Hong; Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen; Ye, Yinjiao

    2017-12-18

    With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals' intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China's three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  16. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  17. A theory-based computer mediated communication intervention to promote mental health and reduce high-risk behaviors in the LGBT population.

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    DiNapoli, Jean Marie; Garcia-Dia, Mary Joy; Garcia-Ona, Leila; O'Flaherty, Deirdre; Siller, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    The Healthy People 2020 (2012) report has identified that isolation, lack of social services, and a shortage of culturally competent providers serve as barriers to the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who have HIV/AIDS. Self-transcendence theory proposes that individuals who face increased vulnerability or mortality may acquire an increased capacity for self-transcendence and its positive influence on mental health and well-being. The use of technology-enabled social and community support and group interventions through computer mediated self-help (CMSH) with LGBT individuals may help meet mental health needs of this group, and support healthy lifestyle practices. This article presents an overview of steps taken to propose a theory-based CMSH intervention for testing in research and eventual application in practice. © 2013.

  18. eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors Affecting Modern College Students: A Pilot Study of Issues Identified by the American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William Bart; Wilson, Kari; Linnemeier, Georgiann; Englebert, Andrew Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) has been widely adopted by researchers to understand how eHealth literacy can be put into context. eHealth researchers need to know how to promote positive health behavior changes across college students, given the importance of the Internet to acquire and use health information. The American College Health Association identified a set of key health issues that affect college students today. By understanding how eHEALS might be related to college students’ maintenance of their health and their use of online health resources, researchers will be provided with a better understanding of eHealth literacy and its pragmatic implications for health campaigns and future interventions. Objective The goal of the study was to examine what eHEALS reveals about college student health behaviors identified by the American College Health Association. To understand college student current health maintenance and their intentions to maintain their health and use online resources, the theory of planned behavior was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Data were collected via a survey of 422 college students that included the eHEALS measure and questions about health issues based on the recommendations of the American College Health Association. These questions asked about college student current health, subsequent use of online health resources, and their intention to maintain their health and make use of such resources in the future. Results eHEALS was positively and significantly associated with all 8 areas of health issues identified by the American College Health Association for college student current maintenance of health and use of online health resources and for future intention of health maintenance and use of online resources. Key issues that emerged with eHealth literacy were maintaining safe sex practices and seeking out related information, seeking out information on an exercise regime, information on

  19. Perceived health competence predicts health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiovascular disease.

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    Bachmann, Justin M; Goggins, Kathryn M; Nwosu, Samuel K; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Kripalani, Sunil; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-12-01

    Evaluate the effect of perceived health competence, a patient's belief in his or her ability to achieve health-related goals, on health behavior and health-related quality of life. We analyzed 2063 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome and/or congestive heart failure at a large academic hospital in the United States. Multivariable linear regression models investigated associations between the two-item perceived health competence scale (PHCS-2) and positive health behaviors such as medication adherence and exercise (Health Behavior Index) as well as health-related quality of life (5-item Patient Reported Outcome Information Measurement System Global Health Scale). After multivariable adjustment, perceived health competence was highly associated with health behaviors (pperceived health competence was associated with a decrease in health-related quality of life between hospitalization and 90days after discharge (pPerceived health competence predicts health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disease as well as change in health-related quality of life after discharge. Patients with low perceived health competence may be at risk for a decline in health-related quality of life after hospitalization and thus a potential target for counseling and other behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  1. Beyond the usual suspects: target group- and behavior-specific factors add to a theory-based sun protection intervention for teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Natalie; Eid, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Sun protection standards among teenagers are low while sun exposure peaks in this age group. Study 1 explores predictors of adolescent protection intentions and exposure behavior. Study 2 tests the effectiveness of an intervention based on these predictors. Study 1(cross-sectional, N = 207, ages 15-18) and Study 2 (RCT, N = 253, ages 13-19) were conducted in schools. Path models were used to analyze data. Self-efficacy (β = .26, p motivation (β = .54, p motivation (β = .29, p health behavior theories.

  2. Checking the determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in the housewives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Fatemeh; Shanazi, Hossein; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sedentary life has been recognized as a serious problem in today's Iranian society. Promoting the lifestyle with increased physical activity and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is imperative. The purpose of this study was identifying the determinants of physical activity in the housewives of Nain city in 2012 based on the theory of planned behavior. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 housewives were selected by simple random sampling method. Data collection tool was a questionnaire designed based on a standardized and fabricated questionnaire and consisted of four parts. The questionnaire included awareness variables, theory of structures, planned behavior, and physical activity. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 18 and associated statistical tests. Findings: The 120 housewives under study had a mean age of 34.58 ± 6.86 years. The mean scores of awareness, attitude, motivation to perform, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control variables were 74.1 ± 18.5, 82.6 ± 12.1, 59.4 ± 21.7, 63.2 ± 21.2, and 48.1 ± 12.9 respectively. There was a significant relationship between the motivation for physical activity among women and knowledge (P = 0.02) attitude (P = 0.04) subjective norms (P = 0.002) perceived behavioral control (P = 0.001), and physical activity (P = 0.04). Conclusions: It seems that the housewives, despite being aware of and having a positive attitude on the benefits of physical activity, had a poor lifestyle. Perhaps further studies can help in finding the causes of this issue and the barriers to physical activity such as the conditions and plan for greater measures for improving physical activity, in order to promote women's health which has a significant role in family and community health. PMID:25250360

  3. Effect of Education by Text Messaging Based on Health Belief Model on Food Handling Behaviors in Health Volunteers\\' Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Morowatisharifabad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The text message can be presented as a way to change patterns of behavior-based prevention programs, such as the theory of planned behavior and health belief model to be used., And as an alternative approach to the individual and group training programs should be considered. The present study examined the effectiveness of this new method in promoting food handling behavior of a team of health volunteers on health belief model was based. Methods: This study was an evaluation of an intervention in which 16 health centers, 200 health volunteers who were actively involved Yazd city who were randomly divided into two groups. After the initial test, chi-square test, t test were analyzed. The intervention group received an educational package on the SMS regarding  food handling behavior on health Belief Model was designed for codification; wantonly within a month and a half a day and after 8 weeks of the last SMS sent from any intervention and control groups was performed in a secondary assessment. Tool for data gathering questionnaire consisting of structures of health belief model including demographic variables, respectively. Data were using 18spss and employing applied, statistical tests of non-parametric Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and correlation coefficient the analysis was. Results: The overall food handling behavior, after training significantly increased in the intervention group (p =0/01, while the control group was not significant (p=0/21. Cooling behavior after training in the experimental group and the control group was significantly increased (p =0/00. Cooking behavior, after training in the intervention group (p =0/11 and control group( p =0/17 was not significantly increased. Individual health behavior, after training in the intervention group (p =0/13 and control group (p =0/07 was not significantly increased. Separation behavior after training has not significantly increased in the

  4. Workplace social capital, mental health and health behaviors among Brazilian female workers.

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    Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have investigated the relationship between workplace social capital and mental health, yet few have sought to examine the mediating mechanisms. We sought to explore the role of workplace social capital on health related behaviors and on mental health among female employees in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 553 women aged 28-50 years working in the production line of a poultry processing plant. We assessed workplace social capital, common mental disorders, stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and health related behaviors (physical activity, healthy eating habits and co-occurrence of risk behaviors). We used structural equation modeling to clarify relationships between exposures, outcomes, and mediating variables. Our model demonstrated a direct effect of social capital on the outcomes studied. Higher workplace social capital was associated with lower stress and common mental disorders as well as more favorable health-related behaviors. Our model also showed an indirect effect of social capital on mental health and on behaviors that was mediated by lower levels of perceived stress. Workplace social cohesion may play an important role in the promotion of mental health and healthy behaviors among women employees.

  5. The theory of music, mood and movement to improve health outcomes.

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    Murrock, Carolyn J; Higgins, Patricia A

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the development of a middle-range nursing theory of the effects of music on physical activity and improved health outcomes. Due to the high rate of physical inactivity and the associated negative health outcomes worldwide, nurses need new evidence-based theories and interventions to increase physical activity. The theory of music, mood and movement (MMM) was developed from physical activity guidelines and music theory using the principles of statement and theory synthesis. The concepts of music, physical activity and health outcomes were searched using the CINAHL, MEDLINE, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases covering the years 1975-2008. The theory of MMM was synthesized by combining the psychological and physiological responses of music to increase physical activity and improve health outcomes. It proposes that music alters mood, is a cue for movement, and makes physical activity more enjoyable leading to improved health outcomes of weight, blood pressure, blood sugar and cardiovascular risk factor management, and improved quality of life. As it was developed from the physical activity guidelines, the middle-range theory is prescriptive, produces testable hypotheses, and can guide nursing research and practice. The middle-range theory needs to be tested to determine its usefulness for nurses to develop physical activity programmes to improve health outcomes across various cultures.

  6. Parental Involvement and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Deborah; Corts, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The "Theory of Planned Behavior" provided a specific theoretical framework to evaluate the impact of attitudes, norms, and controls on parental involvement in a local school district. The "new knowledge" that resulted from the measurement of these constructs affirmed that regardless of the perceived level of parental involvement, virtually all…

  7. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Dedicated pediatric behavioral health unit: serving the unique and individual needs of children in behavioral health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Purva; Lee, Timothy

    2013-02-01

    Pediatric mental health emergencies are an increasing part of emergency medical practice because emergency departments have become the safety net for a fragmented mental health infrastructure that is experiencing critical shortages in services in all sectors. The emergency services for behavioral health unit at Akron Children's Hospital is an innovative model for delivering care to pediatric patients with mental health emergencies. A multidisciplinary team using the expertise of emergency services, psychiatry, social work, parent advisory counsel, security services, and engineering/architecture developed the emergency services for behavioral health unit blueprint, process, and staffing model.

  9. The influence of social networking sites on health behavior change: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Liliana; Arguel, Amaël; Neves, Ana L; Gallagher, Aideen M; Kaplan, Ruth; Mortimer, Nathan; Mendes, Guilherme A; Lau, Annie Y S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of interventions using social networking sites (SNSs) to change health behaviors. Materials and methods Five databases were scanned using a predefined search strategy. Studies were included if they focused on patients/consumers, involved an SNS intervention, had an outcome related to health behavior change, and were prospective. Studies were screened by independent investigators, and assessed using Cochrane's ‘risk of bias’ tool. Randomized controlled trials were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results The database search retrieved 4656 citations; 12 studies (7411 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Facebook was the most utilized SNS, followed by health-specific SNSs, and Twitter. Eight randomized controlled trials were combined in a meta-analysis. A positive effect of SNS interventions on health behavior outcomes was found (Hedges’ g 0.24; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.43). There was considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 84.0%; T2 = 0.058) and no evidence of publication bias. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of SNS interventions in changing health-related behaviors. Most studies evaluated multi-component interventions, posing problems in isolating the specific effect of the SNS. Health behavior change theories were seldom mentioned in the included articles, but two particularly innovative studies used ‘network alteration’, showing a positive effect. Overall, SNS interventions appeared to be effective in promoting changes in health-related behaviors, and further research regarding the application of these promising tools is warranted. Conclusions Our study showed a positive effect of SNS interventions on health behavior-related outcomes, but there was considerable heterogeneity. Protocol registration The protocol for this systematic review is registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO with the number CRD42013004140. PMID:25005606

  10. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. Renée Umstattd; Wu, Cindy; Walsh, Shana M.

    2016-01-01

    Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change). Experience sampling methodology (ESM), 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work) for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday), was used to assess employees' standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84), norms (α = 0.83), perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77), and intention (α = 0.78) were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11), 88.2% in full-time staff positions) with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day) participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p deviance approach to enhance perceived behavioral control, in addition to implementing environmental changes like installing standing desks. PMID:29546189

  11. Self-Determination Theory and Risk Behavior in a Collectivistic Society: Preventing Reckless Driving in Urban Nepal.

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    Ranjit, Yerina S; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark A; Rimal, Rajiv N

    2017-08-01

    Traffic road accidents are one of the leading causes of mortality in Nepal and around the world. Drivers in Nepal are not adequately educated about road safety rules. Road conditions are chaotic as traffic regulations are also not strictly enforced. Public safety campaigns may be able to alter drivers' attitudes and behaviors; however, little is known about which persuasive strategies may be most effective. Drawing on self-determination theory and the Health Belief Model, the current study used a post-only experimental design to test the impact of a short video message. The video included collective vs. individual appeals, and messages emphasizing one's ability to make the right choice (autonomy support) vs. directive language. Participants were Nepali college students (mean age 20, N = 199). Using structural equation modeling, the study found that directive messages rather than autonomy support influenced an individual seeing value in the recommended behavior (identified regulation), which in turn influenced perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and behavioral intention. The study also proposed a behavior change model by incorporating the stage of identification with the message upon exposure. This model aims to expand the model proposed by the Health Belief Model, to include a stage of value identification before cues to action influence perception of threat. Further implications are discussed.

  12. Why are there social gradients in preventative health behavior? A perspective from behavioral ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Within affluent populations, there are marked socioeconomic gradients in health behavior, with people of lower socioeconomic position smoking more, exercising less, having poorer diets, complying less well with therapy, using medical services less, ignoring health and safety advice more, and being less health-conscious overall, than their more affluent peers. Whilst the proximate mechanisms underlying these behavioral differences have been investigated, the ultimate causes have not.This paper presents a theoretical model of why socioeconomic gradients in health behavior might be found. I conjecture that lower socioeconomic position is associated with greater exposure to extrinsic mortality risks (that is, risks that cannot be mitigated through behavior, and that health behavior competes for people's time and energy against other activities which contribute to their fitness. Under these two assumptions, the model shows that the optimal amount of health behavior to perform is indeed less for people of lower socioeconomic position.The model predicts an exacerbatory dynamic of poverty, whereby the greater exposure of poor people to unavoidable harms engenders a disinvestment in health behavior, resulting in a final inequality in health outcomes which is greater than the initial inequality in material conditions. I discuss the assumptions of the model, and its implications for strategies for the reduction of health inequalities.

  13. The effects of interventions targeting multiple health behaviors on smoking cessation outcomes: a rapid realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; deRuiter, Wayne K; Lingam, Mathangee; Corrin, Tricia; Dragonetti, Rosa; Manson, Heather; Taylor, Valerie H; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ebnahmady, Arezoo; Melamed, Osnat C; Rodak, Terri; Hahn, Margaret; Selby, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Health behaviors directly impact the health of individuals, and populations. Since individuals tend to engage in multiple unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, and eating an unhealthy diet simultaneously, many large community-based interventions have been implemented to reduce the burden of disease through the modification of multiple health behaviors. Smoking cessation can be particularly challenging as the odds of becoming dependent on nicotine increase with every unhealthy behavior a smoker exhibits. This paper presents a protocol for a rapid realist review which aims to identify factors associated with effectively changing tobacco use and target two or more additional unhealthy behaviors. An electronic literature search will be conducted using the following bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, Social Science Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Web of Science. Two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts for relevant research, and the selected full papers will be used to extract data and assess the quality of evidence. Throughout this process, the rapid realist approach proposed by Saul et al., 2013 will be used to refine our initial program theory and identify contextual factors and mechanisms that are associated with successful multiple health behavior change. This review will provide evidence-based research on the context and mechanisms that may drive the success or failure of interventions designed to support multiple health behavior change. This information will be used to guide curriculum and program development for a government funded project on improving smoking cessation by addressing multiple health behaviors in people in Canada. PROSPERO CRD42017064430.

  14. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. Objective It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). Methods In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). Results The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and

  15. Factors Associated with Milk Consumption among College Students of Yazd University of Medical Sciences Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Daily milk consumption can be introduced as a healthy dietary pattern associated with a range of health benefits. This study aimed to determine factors associated with milk consumption among students of Yazd university of medical sciences based on the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 385 students in 2014, who were selected via stratified random sampling. The study data was collected from a questionnaire based on the indirect construct of theory of planned behavior. Finally, the study data were analyzed using the T-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. Results: In the present study, 64% of the students consumed milk daily. The behavioral intention, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs, and perceived power were significantly associated with the milk consumption (p<0.05. Conclusion: Educating the students in regard with the importance of receiving enough amount of milk, modifying their misconceptions as well as reinforcing positive beliefs can be effective in increasing milk consumption. In addition, increasing access to milk in university campuses should be taken into consideration.

  16. Predicting healthy and unhealthy behaviors through physical education: A self-determination theory-based longitudinal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriz, R; González-Cutre, D; Sicilia, Á; Hagger, M S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between three dimensions of the structured teaching environment (promotion of theoretical knowledge, physical learning, and health improvement) in physical education (PE) and the adoption of health-related behaviors by students. The study adopted a two-occasion longitudinal design based on self-determination theory (SDT). PE students (N = 654, mean age = 16.13, SD = .77) completed measures of perceived structured teaching environment, satisfaction of basic psychological needs and motivation for PE, and healthy (physical activity, sport participation, and healthy eating) and unhealthy (consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs) behaviors at the beginning and end of the first year of post-compulsory secondary education. Path analysis of the proposed relations among variables supported SDT tenets and showed positive relations between the three dimensions of the structured teaching environment, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and autonomous motivation in PE. Autonomous motivation contributed to an explanation of variance in two healthy behaviors, physical activity and sport participation. However, no relation was found among motivation in PE, healthy eating, and consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. These results show negligible trans-contextual influence of SDT motivational factors in PE on other healthy behaviors beyond physical activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Does the perception that God controls health outcomes matter for health behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Carr, Lucas J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between God Locus of Health Control, health behaviors, and beliefs utilizing a cross-sectional online survey (N = 549). Results indicated that God Locus of Health Control was correlated with alcohol use, physical activity, perceived risk of chronic disease, and beliefs that poor health behaviors contribute to chronic disease (all p values God Locus of Health Control was only an independent correlate of the belief that physical inactivity contributed to chronic disease. Insights from this study may be important for future faith-based health behavior change interventions.

  18. Developing and Evaluating Digital Interventions to Promote Behavior Change in Health and Health Care: Recommendations Resulting From an International Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Yardley, Lucy; West, Robert; Patrick, Kevin; Greaves, Felix

    2017-06-29

    Devices and programs using digital technology to foster or support behavior change (digital interventions) are increasingly ubiquitous, being adopted for use in patient diagnosis and treatment, self-management of chronic diseases, and in primary prevention. They have been heralded as potentially revolutionizing the ways in which individuals can monitor and improve their health behaviors and health care by improving outcomes, reducing costs, and improving the patient experience. However, we are still mainly in the age of promise rather than delivery. Developing and evaluating these digital interventions presents new challenges and new versions of old challenges that require use of improved and perhaps entirely new methods for research and evaluation. This article discusses these challenges and provides recommendations aimed at accelerating the rate of progress in digital behavior intervention research and practice. Areas addressed include intervention development in a rapidly changing technological landscape, promoting user engagement, advancing the underpinning science and theory, evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and addressing issues of regulatory, ethical, and information governance. This article is the result of a two-day international workshop on how to create, evaluate, and implement effective digital interventions in relation to health behaviors. It was held in London in September 2015 and was supported by the United Kingdom's Medical Research Council (MRC), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the Methodology Research Programme (PI Susan Michie), and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation of the United States (PI Kevin Patrick). Important recommendations to manage the rapid pace of change include considering using emerging techniques from data science, machine learning, and Bayesian approaches and learning from other disciplines including computer science and engineering. With regard to assessing and promoting engagement, a key

  19. Developing and Evaluating Digital Interventions to Promote Behavior Change in Health and Health Care: Recommendations Resulting From an International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; West, Robert; Patrick, Kevin; Greaves, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Devices and programs using digital technology to foster or support behavior change (digital interventions) are increasingly ubiquitous, being adopted for use in patient diagnosis and treatment, self-management of chronic diseases, and in primary prevention. They have been heralded as potentially revolutionizing the ways in which individuals can monitor and improve their health behaviors and health care by improving outcomes, reducing costs, and improving the patient experience. However, we are still mainly in the age of promise rather than delivery. Developing and evaluating these digital interventions presents new challenges and new versions of old challenges that require use of improved and perhaps entirely new methods for research and evaluation. This article discusses these challenges and provides recommendations aimed at accelerating the rate of progress in digital behavior intervention research and practice. Areas addressed include intervention development in a rapidly changing technological landscape, promoting user engagement, advancing the underpinning science and theory, evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and addressing issues of regulatory, ethical, and information governance. This article is the result of a two-day international workshop on how to create, evaluate, and implement effective digital interventions in relation to health behaviors. It was held in London in September 2015 and was supported by the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council (MRC), the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the Methodology Research Programme (PI Susan Michie), and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation of the United States (PI Kevin Patrick). Important recommendations to manage the rapid pace of change include considering using emerging techniques from data science, machine learning, and Bayesian approaches and learning from other disciplines including computer science and engineering. With regard to assessing and promoting engagement, a key

  20. Influencing organizations to promote health: applying stakeholder theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2015-04-01

    Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more central in the network, the stronger the influence. As stakeholders, health promoters may use communicative, compromise, deinstitutionalization, or coercive methods through an ally or a coalition. A hypothetical case study, involving adolescent use of harmful legal products, illustrates the process of applying stakeholder theory to strategic decision making. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL CAPITAL THEORY EXPRESSION OF ELECTRONIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Vedlūga

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of e-health is a very difficult and complex process in terms of health policy that requires both organizational ability to meet market requirements and well-managed internal communication, which is carried out through organizational capital and high organizational culture and philosophy. This process requires a change in the organizational processes of health care institutions, ensuring the management and use of health information in order to improve the functioning of health care institutions. Scientists emphasize that health care institutions, with a high organizational capital can effectively promote the development of e-health, by consistently improving the quality of health care services and increasing the confidence and sense of security by enhancing the individual‘s ability to become more involved in the health care system. Nevertheless, in Lithuania, the progress of health care institutions in the field of e-health varies significantly, therefore, different tendencies of e-health care indicators tend to be related to organizational capital. Organizational capital covering the various dimensions of social context analysis, and organizational capital theory is a paradigm that attempts to explain the e-health inequalities at the level of organizations. This paper has evaluated the organizational capital theory expression of the e-health level, to identify and analyze organizational capital assessment indices in the field of e-health and modeled organizational capital assessment scheme.

  2. The effect of education based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Barfi

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, Education based on the theory of planned behavior has a positive impact on smoking behavior, Therefore, it is recommended that the above educational model is used to modify the behavior of smokers.

  3. Infrared behavior of the Reggeon field theory for the pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.; Dash, J.W.; Pinsky, S.S.; Rabl, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared structure of Reggeon field theory is investigated using renormalization group methods. The infrared fixed point where only the phi 3 interaction is nontrivial is shown to be stable with respect to all higher order interactions within the context of perturbation theory both at D = 2 and in the epsilon-expansion. This may imply that the asymptotic behavior of the total cross section is model independent

  4. Work stress and health risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Rödel, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    This contribution discusses current knowledge of associations between psychosocial stress at work and health risk behavior, in particular cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight, by reviewing findings from major studies in the field published between 1989 and 2006. Psychosocial stress at work is measured by the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Health risk behavior was analyzed in the broader context of a health-related Western lifestyle with socially and economically patterned practices of consumption. Overall, the review, based on 46 studies, only modestly supports the hypothesis of a consistent association between work stress and health risk behavior. The relatively strongest relationships have been found with regard to heavy alcohol consumption among men, overweight, and the co-manifestation of several risks. Suggestions for further research are given, and the need to reduce stressful experience in the framework of worksite health promotion programs is emphasized.

  5. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306

  6. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  7. [Oral health related knowledge and health behavior of parents and school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalić, Maja; Aleksić, Ema; Gajić, Mihajlo; Malesević, Doka

    2013-01-01

    The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children's oral health. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent--child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and nutrition of parents and their children were collected by questionnaires. The parental dental health was assessed according to self-reported data on tooth loss and prosthodontic rehabilitation, while the dental status of children was determined by clinical examination. The parents reported the use of dental floss (p knowledge on fluorides. Approximately one third of parents thought they should not control sugar consumption of their child. There was a statistically significant correlation between parental oral hygiene and their habit to control the child in brushing with the child's oral health status. Oral health education activities directed towards the prevention of risk factors for developing caries should involve both parents and their children, because parental behavior is a significant predictor of children's oral health.

  8. Application of Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Factors of Substance Abuse in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Bashirian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence is the most critical period of life as regards commencing drug abuse. The social cost and damage caused by drug abuse in adolescence are enormous, necessitating interventional programs to prevent this behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB is perhaps the most influential theory for the prediction of social and health behaviors such as drug abuse.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from male students in four high schools in different regions of Hamedan. The survey was carried out via random cluster sampling of 650 students. Data were collected using the standard self-report questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS16, chi-squared test, correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis.Results: Among the adolescents participating in this study, 11.1% had the experience of cigarette smoking, 3.4% had the experience of drug abuse, and 12% had the experience of intention to abuse drugs. There was a significant relationship between drug abuse and the following variables: smoking experience (p value =0.001, OR=27.238; having drug user parents (p value =0.001, OR=8.630; having friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value =0.001, OR=11.060; having best friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=11.931; family with drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=4.311; and having a sibling who abused drugs (p value=0.001, OR=15.815. According to the logistic regression analysis, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control were the most influential predictors of intention to abuse drugs.Conclusion: The use of TPB is beneficial in the predicting and planning for high-risk behaviors. TPB can be used for planning and implementing drug abuse prevention programs in adolescents.

  9. [Effects of Group Counseling Program Based on Goal Attainment Theory for Middle School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In Ju; Kim, Soo Jin

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group counseling program based on goal attainment theory on self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and school adjustment of middle school students with emotional and behavioral problems. Forty-four middle school students with emotional and behavioral problems (22 in the experimental group and 22 in the control group) from G city participated in this study. Data were collected from July 30 to September 24, 2015. The experimental group received the 8-session program, scheduled once a week, with each session lasting 45 minutes. Outcome variables included self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, and school adjustment. There were significant increases for self-esteem (t=3.69, p=.001), interpersonal relationship (t=8.88, pgroup compared to the control group. These results indicate that the group counseling program based on goal attainment theory is very effective in increasing self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, and school adjustment for middle school students with emotional and behavioral problems. Therefore, it is recommended that the group counseling program based on goal attainment theory be used as an effective psychiatric nursing intervention for mental health promotion and the prevention of mental illness in adolescents. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  10. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  11. Risky music-listening behaviors and associated health-risk behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vogel (Ineke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. Burdorf (Alex); F. de Waart (Frouwkje)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes,

  12. Understanding Youth's Health-Compromising Behaviors in Germany: An Application of the Risk-Behavior Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Barbara P.; Lee, Che-Fu

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed the health-compromising behaviors of German youth using responses of 2,330 seventh, eighth, and ninth graders from the German Youth Study. Smoking and drinking are not seen by these students as health-threatening behaviors, but as socially appealing behaviors. Discusses implications for health education. (SLD)

  13. Behavioral Finance in Brazil: applying the prospect theory to potential investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Emiko Yoshinaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The premise of unbounded rationality defended by the Efficient Market Hypothesis is challenged by the theoretical framework that involves Behavioral Finance, whose basis, Kahneman and Tversky’s Prospect Theory (1979, questions the Expected Utility Theory, an important element of Neoclassical Economics, as basis for decisionmaking. This research aims to replicate the empirical research of Kahneman and Tversky’s seminal article (1979 to evaluate the decisionmaking process of employees (potential investors from a major national financial institution. The results of this study were compared to those obtained in the original article and to other similar studies. The questionnaire employed was an adaptation of the one originally used, so that we could test, in the studied sample, the applicability of the Prospect Theory, more specifically with regard to Certainty, Reflection and Isolation Effects. We also analyzed differences in the decision-making process considering respondents’ attributes (gender, age and income. The results confirmed that behavioral effects do exist, and proved that a large portion of the sample presented significant inconsistency in their choices according to Expected Utility Theory principles, highlighting that their decisions were not made according to strictly rational behavior. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between violations and investor characteristics by estimating a linear model. Results indicate that both age and level of income were negatively related to total violations.

  14. The development and codesign of the PATHway intervention: a theory-driven eHealth platform for the self-management of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Deirdre M J; Moran, Kieran; Cornelissen, Veronique; Buys, Roselien; Claes, Jomme; Zampognaro, Paolo; Melillo, Fabio; Maglaveras, Nicos; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Triantafyllidis, Andreas; Filos, Dimitris; Woods, Catherine B

    2018-03-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of premature death worldwide. International guidelines recommend routine delivery of all phases of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Uptake of traditional CR remains suboptimal, as attendance at formal hospital-based CR programs is low, with community-based CR rates and individual long-term exercise maintenance even lower. Home-based CR programs have been shown to be equally effective in clinical and health-related quality of life outcomes and yet are not readily available. The aim of the current study was to develop the PATHway intervention (physical activity toward health) for the self-management of CVD. Increasing physical activity in individuals with CVD was the primary behavior. The PATHway intervention was theoretically informed by the behavior change wheel and social cognitive theory. All relevant intervention functions, behavior change techniques, and policy categories were identified and translated into intervention content. Furthermore, a person-centered approach was adopted involving an iterative codesign process and extensive user testing. Education, enablement, modeling, persuasion, training, and social restructuring were selected as appropriate intervention functions. Twenty-two behavior change techniques, linked to the six intervention functions and three policy categories, were identified for inclusion and translated into PATHway intervention content. This paper details the use of the behavior change wheel and social cognitive theory to develop an eHealth intervention for the self-management of CVD. The systematic and transparent development of the PATHway intervention will facilitate the evaluation of intervention effectiveness and future replication.

  15. From Foucault to Freire through Facebook: Toward an Integrated Theory of mHealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana; Ezeanochie, Nnamdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document the integration of social science theory in literature on mHealth (mobile health) and consider opportunities for integration of classic theory, health communication theory, and social networking to generate a relevant theory for mHealth program design. Method: A secondary review of research syntheses and meta-analyses…

  16. Derivative Trade Optimizing Model Utilizing GP Based on Behavioral Finance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Koki; Kawamoto, Masaru

    This paper proposed a new technique which makes the strategy trees for the derivative (option) trading investment decision based on the behavioral finance theory and optimizes it using evolutionary computation, in order to achieve high profitability. The strategy tree uses a technical analysis based on a statistical, experienced technique for the investment decision. The trading model is represented by various technical indexes, and the strategy tree is optimized by the genetic programming(GP) which is one of the evolutionary computations. Moreover, this paper proposed a method using the prospect theory based on the behavioral finance theory to set psychological bias for profit and deficit and attempted to select the appropriate strike price of option for the higher investment efficiency. As a result, this technique produced a good result and found the effectiveness of this trading model by the optimized dealings strategy.

  17. Worksite Health Program Promoting Changes in Eating Behavior and Health Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Jensen, Sarah; Jahn, Reimo; Steudtner, Mirko; Ochsmann, Elke; Preuß, Geraldine

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite multicomponent health promotion intervention on eating behavior and attitudes, changes in body weight, and readiness to make eating behavior changes among workers over a 12-month intervention period. A total of 3,095 workers of a logistic company participated in a quasi-experimental comparison group study design. The intervention group received a multicomponent health training. Two of the main elements of the multicomponent intervention were physical exercise training and nutrition counseling/training. During the pilot year, participants completed a survey at baseline and again after 12 months to assess physical activity-, health-, and diet-related factors. Results showed that participants' body weight did not significantly decrease in the intervention group. Mean weight loss in the intervention groups was 0.5 kg (body mass index = 0.1 kg/m(2)). Eating behaviors in the intervention group improved more than in the comparison group. Some positive intervention effects were observed for the cognitive factors (e.g., changes in eating attitudes). Baseline readiness to change eating behavior was significantly improved over time. We demonstrated initial results of a long-term multicomponent worksite health promotion program with regard to changes in body weight, eating behavior, and attitudes. This evaluation of a 12-month pilot study suggests that a worksite health promotion program may lead to improvements in nutritional health behaviors for a number of workers. An investigation of long-term effects of this multicomponent intervention is strongly recommended. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Improving and Maintaining Physical Activity and Anthropometric Indices in females from Tehran: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Gholamnia-shirvani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The amount of physical activity as an essential determinant of healthy lifestyle in females is less than is required. Theory-driven health education interventions, particularly Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, are effective in promoting and sustaining physical activity. This research evaluated the TPB-based educational intervention on exercise behavior and anthropometric indices in females residing in organizational houses in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was performed on 130 females residing in institutional houses in Tehran (2014. Participants were randomly chosen with multi-stage cluster sampling. The instructional sessions were carried out applying modified methods of the TPB structure (instrumental and affective attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention and behavior. The TPB constructs, physical activity level and intensity, Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR were analyzed using the SPSS 16software in baseline, three and six months post-education. Results: Conducting the educational program led to a rise and maintained the mean of the TPB constructs and mean rank of the physical activity level and intensity, three and six months post-intervention in the case group (P0.05 Conclusions: Implementing the TPB-directed instructional sessions resulted in ameliorating and sustaining exercise behavior and anthropometric indices in females.

  19. Changing health behaviors with social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Almazor, M E

    2011-08-01

    Social marketing uses marketing techniques to promote healthy attitudes and behaviors. As in traditional marketing, the development and implementation of social marketing programs is based on the four P's: product, price, place, and promotion, but it also incorporates the partnership and participation of stakeholders to enhance public health and engage policy makers. The "product" in social marketing is generally a behavior, such as a change in lifestyle (e.g., diet) or an increase in a desired health practice (e.g., screening). In order for people to desire this product, it must offer a solution to a problem that is weighed with respect to the price to pay. The price is not just monetary, and it often involves giving something up, such as time (e.g., exercising) or a wanted, satisfying behavior (e.g., smoking). In its development phase, social marketing incorporates qualitative methods to create messages that are powerful and potentially effective. The implementation of the programs commonly involves mass campaigns with advertisement in various media. There have been a few social media campaigns targeting bone health that have been disseminated with substantial outreach. However, these have not been systematically evaluated, specifically with respect to change in behavior and health outcomes. Future campaigns should identify target behaviors that are amenable to change such as bone mass measurement screening or exercise. Audience segmentation will be crucial, since a message for young women to increase peak bone mass would be very different from a message for older individuals who have just experienced a fracture. Campaigns should involve key stakeholders, including policy makers, health providers, and the public. Finally, success must be carefully evaluated, not just by the outreach of the campaign, but also by a change in relevant behaviors and a decrease in deleterious health outcomes.

  20. Applications of operant learning theory to the management of challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rodger Ll; Alderman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, interventions derived from learning theory have been delivered within a neurobehavioral framework to manage challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury with the aim of promoting engagement in the rehabilitation process and ameliorating social handicap. Learning theory provides a conceptual structure that facilitates our ability to understand the relationship between challenging behavior and environmental contingencies, while accommoda