Sample records for heady wartime years

  1. Wartime Paris, cirrhosis mortality, and the ceteris paribus assumption. (United States)

    Fillmore, Kaye Middleton; Roizen, Ron; Farrell, Michael; Kerr, William; Lemmens, Paul


    This article critiques the ceteris paribus assumption, which tacitly sustains the epidemiologic literature's inference that the sharp decline in cirrhosis mortality observed in Paris during the Second World War derived from a sharp constriction in wine consumption. Paris's wartime circumstances deviate substantially from the "all else being equal" assumption, and at least three other hypotheses for the cirrhosis decline may be contemplated. Historical and statistical review. Wartime Paris underwent tumultuous changes. Wine consumption did decline, but there were, as well, a myriad of other changes in diet and life experience, many involving new or heightened hardships, nutritional, experiential, institutional, health and mortality risks. Three competing hypotheses are presented: (1) A fraction of the candidates for cirrhosis mortality may have fallen to more sudden forms of death; (2) alcoholics, heavy drinkers and Paris's clochard subpopulation may have been differentially likely to become removed from the city's wartime population, whether by self-initiated departure, arrest and deportation, or death from other causes, even murder; and (3) there was mismeasurement in the cirrhosis mortality decline. The alcohol-cirrhosis connection provided the template for the alcohol research effort (now more than 20 years old) aimed at re-establishing scientific recognition of alcohol's direct alcohol-problems-generating associations and causal responsibilities. In a time given to reports of weaker associations of the alcohol-cirrhosis connection, the place and importance of the Paris curve in the wider literature, as regards that connection, remains. For this reason, the Paris findings should be subjected to as much research scrutiny as they undoubtedly deserve.

  2. Wartime shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabtree, J.A.


    This patent specification relates to a wartime shelter for giving protection against nuclear blast and radiation, comprising a main chamber having a dog leg access passage and preferably a decontamination chamber. The chamber comprises a large diameter (say 21/2 metres) corrugated steel tube and the access passage comprises a small diameter (say 11/4 metres) tube communicating with the main chamber through a shock proof hatch. The main chamber may have a hatch leading to a dog leg escape passage. Connections between the tubes and other fixed structural parts of the shelter are by means of permanent banded and/or welded joints. (author)

  3. Is wartime mobilisation a suitable policy model for rapid national climate mitigation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delina, Laurence L.; Diesendorf, Mark


    Climate science suggests that, to have a high probability of limiting global warming to an average temperature increase of 2 °C, global greenhouse gas emissions must peak by 2020 and be reduced to close to zero by 2040. However, the current trend is heading towards at least 4 °C by 2100 and little effective action is being taken. This paper commences the process of developing contingency plans for a scenario in which a sudden major global climate impact galvanises governments to implement emergency climate mitigation targets and programs. Climate activists assert that rapid mitigation is feasible, invoking the scale and scope of wartime mobilisation strategies. This paper draws upon historical accounts of social, technological and economic restructurings in several countries during World War 2 in order to investigate potential applications of wartime experience to radical, rigorous and rapid climate mitigation strategies. We focus on the energy sector, the biggest single contributor to global climate change, in developed and rapidly developing countries. We find that, while wartime experience suggests some potential strategies for rapid climate mitigation in the areas of finance and labour, it also has severe limitations, resulting from its lack of democratic processes. - Highlights: • The paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of using wartime experience as a model for rapid climate mitigation. • Wartime experience suggests some potential strategies for rapid climate mitigation in the areas of finance and labour. • Wartime experience also has severe limitations, resulting from its lack of democratic processes

  4. Readiness to reconcile and post-traumatic distress in German survivors of wartime rapes in 1945. (United States)

    Eichhorn, S; Stammel, N; Glaesmer, H; Klauer, T; Freyberger, H J; Knaevelsrud, C; Kuwert, P


    Sexual violence and wartime rapes are prevalent crimes in violent conflicts all over the world. Processes of reconciliation are growing challenges in post-conflict settings. Despite this, so far few studies have examined the psychological consequences and their mediating factors. Our study aimed at investigating the degree of longtime readiness to reconcile and its associations with post-traumatic distress within a sample of German women who experienced wartime rapes in 1945. A total of 23 wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched controls with WWII-related non-sexual traumatic experiences. Readiness to reconcile was assessed with the Readiness to Reconcile Inventory (RRI-13). The German version of the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) was used to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Readiness to reconcile in wartime rape survivors was higher in those women who reported less post-traumatic distress, whereas the subscale "openness to interaction" showed the strongest association with post-traumatic symptomatology. Moreover, wartime rape survivors reported fewer feelings of revenge than women who experienced other traumatization in WWII. Our results are in line with previous research, indicating that readiness to reconcile impacts healing processes in the context of conflict-related traumatic experiences. Based on the long-lasting post-traumatic symptomatology we observed that our findings highlight the need for psychological treatment of wartime rape survivors worldwide, whereas future research should continue focusing on reconciliation within the therapeutic process.

  5. A lifelong journey of moving beyond wartime trauma for survivors from Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor. (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro


    This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.

  6. From margins to centre: an oral history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988. (United States)

    Peyrovi, Hamid; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Vosoughi, Mohammad Bagher; Fathyian, Nasrollah; Ghadirian, Fataneh


    The extensive nature of the Iraq-Iran war converted to a human tragedy with large casualties; it has affected nursing discipline dramatically. To analyse the history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in Iran-Iraq War. The current study was conducted with oral history. The study sample consisted of 13 Iranian nurses who served in the war zones during the wartime. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the participants. During the face-to-face interviews, participants were asked to describe their experience in the war zones during the war years. Data collection and analysis took place from April to August 2013, when saturation was reached. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed and then analysed with thematic content analysis. Finally, five themes and 18 subthemes emerged from data analysis of significant statements from 17 interviews. The five emerged themes included (1) 'From margin to centre', (2) 'Development of referral care', (3) 'Personal and professional growth and development', (4) 'The emerging pillar of culture in war nursing' and (5) 'Threats to nursing at the war'. Nursing in Iran at wartime has a difficult path to development. There are powerful implications for clinical practice. It is recommended to continue collection, archiving and analysing the wartime experiences of Iranian nurses.

  7. Moral transgression during the Vietnam War: a path analysis of the psychological impact of veterans' involvement in wartime atrocities. (United States)

    Dennis, Paul A; Dennis, Nora M; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Calhoun, Patrick S; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C


    Involvement in wartime combat often conveys a number of deleterious outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, hostility, aggression, and suicidal ideation. Less studied is the effect of engagement in wartime atrocities, including witnessing and perpetrating abusive violence. This study employed path analysis to examine the direct effects of involvement in wartime atrocities on hostility, aggression, depression, and suicidal ideation independent of combat exposure, as well as the indirect effects via guilt and PTSD symptom severity among 603 help-seeking male Vietnam War veterans. Involvement in wartime atrocities was predictive of increased guilt, PTSD severity, hostility, aggression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation after controlling for overall combat exposure. Combat-related guilt played a minor role in mediating the effect of atrocity involvement on depression and suicidal ideation. PTSD severity had a larger mediational effect. However, it still accounted for less than half of the total effect of involvement in wartime atrocities on hostility, aggression, and suicidal ideation. These findings highlight the heightened risk conveyed by involvement in wartime atrocities and suggest that the psychological sequelae experienced following atrocity involvement may extend well beyond guilt and PTSD.

  8. Making the hard decisions: Ethical care decisions in wartime nursing practice. (United States)

    Agazio, Janice; Goodman, Petra

    Codes of ethics set forth standards of ethical conduct for nurses. However, nurses involved in wartime operations, or disasters, may often have their moral compass challenged by the patient care decisions necessary under adverse conditions. Reverse triage, resource allocation, and promotion of patient autonomy present multiple challenges to meeting commonly applied ethical principles. The purpose of this study was to use the International Council of Nursing code of ethics as a framework to organize the ethical issues emerging from wartime nursing. This article represents a secondary analysis of two studies using thematic analysis to identify ethical issues encountered by military nurses during the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Data were collected from nurses deployed from 2002 to 2015 and from 111 military nurses during focused interviews. Across both studies, issues such as resource allocation, patient triage, cultural differences, and equitable treatment for all emerged as challenges within the wartime environment. Nurses were at a loss at times as to how best to manage the situations and recommended that more education is needed in ethical decision making before, during, and after deployment as a debriefing strategy. Similar issues have been documented in military and disaster literature indicating that such challenges are not limited to the recent conflicts but cross time and location. By better understanding how nurses define, assess, and manage the ethical situations they encounter in wartime nursing practice, military nurses can better prepare for future conflicts, provide mentorship and targeted education to hopefully reducing any feelings of moral distress, and promote ethical decision making that will best promote outcomes in accordance with nursing's ethical codes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Women survivors and their children born of wartime sexual violence in northern Uganda. (United States)

    Atim, Teddy; Mazurana, Dyan; Marshak, Anastasia


    Girls and women who bear children owing to wartime sexual violence committed by armed actors face challenges in gaining acceptance on return to their families and societies. This study analyses the lives of women survivors and their children born of wartime sexual violence in Uganda. It draws on a population-based survey of 1,844 households in the Acholi and Lango sub-regions of northern Uganda, as well as on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted in 2014 and 2015 with 67 purposefully selected women survivors of wartime sexual violence. The study finds that: stigma is linked to broader gender discriminatory sociocultural norms and practices and changes under different circumstances; women's economic agency is essential to reducing stigma; households with members who suffered war-related sexual violence experienced significantly higher rates of violence post conflict than did other households; and the passage of time is less of a determining factor in their acceptance and reintegration than previously thought. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  10. Army nurses in wartime: distinction and pride. (United States)

    Higgins, L P


    Nurses have served with distinction in wartime since Florence Nightingale went to the Crimea. Women often accompanied their husbands to battle during the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, caring for the sick and wounded. Although not officially given officer status until 1920, Army nurses served in the Spanish-American War and World War I. As officers, thousands of nurses served in subsequent wars, distinguishing themselves by their heroism, devotion to duty, and sheer tenacity of spirit.

  11. Japanese American wartime experience, Tamotsu Shibutani and methodological innovation, 1942-1978. (United States)

    Inouye, Karen M


    A case study of how wartime internment reverberated in the life and work of Japanese American intellectuals, this essay discusses the career and interests of Tamotsu Shibutani, a sociologist who began his training as part of Dorothy Swaine Thomas' Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS). Though recent scholarship has noted some of the ethical problems that attended the use of Japanese American participant observers during the war, this essay concentrates instead on how interned intellectuals responded to their double role of both researcher (and intellectual) and object of study. I argue that in the case of Shibutani, his circumstances and identity shaped his scholarship, both as an academic endeavor and a political project. By tracking Shibutani's postwar scholarly activities, I show that his wartime experiences--as an internee, military officer, and participant-observer--reverberated in his sociological publications long after the war's end. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E.; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul


    In 1945-46, representatives of the United States government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the U.S., influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the U.S. played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes. PMID:24534743

  13. Faith and Superstitions in the Frontline and in the Rear in Wartime (1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny F. Krinko


    Full Text Available The article deals with the faith and superstitions of the Soviet citizens in the frontline and in the rear during the Great Patriotic War. The study of the religion history in the USSR in 1941-1945 was significantly influenced by ideology. This theme has been thoroughly studied in recent years, but the attention is mainly attached to its institutional aspects and the role of religion in lives of Soviet citizens is still little-studied. Nevertheless, by the start of war, considerable part of the population maintained its religious beliefs, despite the anti-religious policy of the Soviet authorities. The war increased the faith of Soviet citizens in the frontline, in the rear and within the occupied territory. It was mainly caused by the extreme wartime situation. Different superstitions and omens gained a wide circulation. Despite the fact that they had different content, both rites and prayers, acknowledged by the church and the omens and superstitions, rejected by the church have become the necessary ways of people psychological adaptation to wartime severities and hardships. The conclusions, which were made with the help of different sources, such as official documents, statistical data, both published and collected in the course of work under the theme of participants and eyewitnesses’ recollections, help us to imagine the collective consciousness of the Soviet society during the Great Patriotic War.

  14. Warden’s Five-Ring System Theory: Legitimate Wartime Military Targeting or an Increased Potential to Violate the Law and Norms of Expected Behavior? (United States)


    the five-ring system theory that dramatically improves the warfighters ability to systematically identify wartime targets. However, for all of its...acclaim, little has been written about Warden’s five-ring system theory . Even less has been written about the legal and moral implications of using Warden’s theory to identify wartime targets.

  15. Reading Resistance: The Record of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's Interrogation by Wartime Japan's "Thought Police" (United States)

    Ito, Takao


    This article examines the record of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi's interrogation as a thought criminal following his arrest in July, 1943. By comparing and contrasting his responses and statements against the official government positions, I hope to clarify the nature of his critique of the wartime fascist regime. Makiguchi himself was an educator, and…

  16. Living Space and Its Arrangement in Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana P. Khlynina


    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the housing policy of Soviet state in pre-war and wartime, actualizes authorities’ strategies, concerning housing problem solving, considers the projects of housing construction and its forms. Significant attention is attached to housing interior design and perception of housing conditions by the population of the day. It is stated that despite the efforts, made by the authorities, there was a lack of housing. Extracts from population appeals to the Soviet leadership, quoted in the article, confirm the difficulties in getting the housing. At the same time, the analysis of oral recollections by the participants and eyewitnesses of the Great Patriotic War enables to conclude that the housing was perceived as the necessary sign of wealth, dependent on state’s opportunities.

  17. Does Wartime Captivity Affect Late-life Mental Health? A Study of Vietnam-era Repatriated Prisoners of War. (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A


    Our earlier study of U.S. prisoners of war in Vietnam (King et al., 2011) examined personal and military demographics and aspects of the stressful experience of wartime imprisonment as they related to psychological well-being shortly after homecoming in 1973. Research with repatriated prisoners of war (RPWs) from other military eras suggests that the severity of captivity stressors might predict long-term distress. However, the extent to which effects of the captivity experience persisted for Vietnam-era RPWs is unknown. The present study extended our previous analyses by examining the associations of demographic factors, captivity stressors, and repatriation mental health with subsequent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depressive symptoms (measured nearly 30 years later) in a sample of 292 Vietnam-era RPWs. Results indicated that although most of the men in our sample were within normal limits on anxiety and depressive symptoms, a substantial minority reported experiencing clinically significant levels. Levels of PTSD symptoms were generally low, with only a modest proportion demonstrating elevations. Multiple regression analyses showed that age at capture and posttraumatic stress symptoms at repatriation predicted all three long-term mental health outcomes. In addition, physical torture predicted long-term PTSD symptoms. Findings highlight the potential long-term effects of wartime captivity, and also suggest that most Vietnam-era RPWs demonstrate remarkable resilience to extraordinarily stressful life experiences.

  18. Parents and children in Second World War Germany: an inter-generational perspective on wartime separation. (United States)

    Vaizey, Hester


    This article discusses how the relationship between parents and their children were affected by the second world war in Germany. With fathers away from home for often as long as a decade, many children grew up without a father being physically present. The current historiography suggests that wartime separation caused a crisis in the family. But did the prolonged periods of time apart and the separate experiences of husbands at the Front and wives and children at home really destabilize family relationships? This article questions such a picture of families in ruin. It argues that family relationships were far more resilient in the face of wartime separation than has previously been credited. Indeed, it reveals the importance of children in keeping mothers and fathers focused on getting through the war. It further contends that, even from afar, fathers continued to play an important role in their children’s lives. And this in turn revises our understanding of the situation facing reuniting families.

  19. [Neuropsychological rehabilitation in wartime]. (United States)

    García-Molina, Alberto; Roig-Rovira, Teresa


    The decrease in the rate of mortality due to brain damage during the First World War resulted in a large number of veterans with neurological or neuropsychological sequelae. This situation, which was unknown up until then, called for the development of new therapeutic approaches to help them reach acceptable levels of autonomy. This article reviews the relationship between neuropsychological rehabilitation and warfare, and describes the contributions made by different professionals in this field in the two great conflicts of the 20th century. The First World War was to mark the beginning of neuropsychological rehabilitation as we know it today. Some of the most outstanding contributions in that period were those made by Goldstein and Popplereuter in Germany or Franz in the United States. The Second World War was to consolidate this healthcare discipline, the leading figures at that time being Zangwill in England and Luria in the Soviet Union. Despite being of less importance, geopolitically speaking, the study also includes the Yom Kippur War, which exemplifies how warfare can stimulate the development of neuropsychological intervention programmes. Today's neuropsychological rehabilitation programmes are closely linked to the interventions used in wartime by Goldstein, Zangwill or Luria. The means employed may have changed, but the aims are still the same, i.e. to help people with brain damage manage to adapt to their new lives.

  20. Education in a culture of violence: a critical pedagogy of place in wartime (United States)

    Greenwood, David A.


    What is the role of education in wartime? To what extent should environmental and science educators directly address violent conflict and a culture of prolonged war? This article gestures with empathy toward all educators who are working in wartime. It posits that a critical pedagogy of place provides a theoretical framework that contextualizes all environmental work and all education in the context of cultural politics. I argue that a fundamental component of a critical, place-based inquiry must be acknowledging the contested history of colonization with respect to land (environment) and homeland (culture). I cannot think of a place on the planet where this history is as complex and contested than it is in Israel and Palestine. However, colonization and its legacy is a shared reality around the world, and acknowledging the context of colonization should not be limited to inquiry in places where the bombs are still smoldering and where the rubble has yet to be cleared. Acknowledging colonization may be especially appropriate in the US, where the historical record of militarized colonization remains hidden behind the myths of global "progress" for the world's remaining "superpower."

  1. The perception of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces affects hypothetical voting decisions differently in wartime and peacetime scenarios. (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, S Craig; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M


    Facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. Here we extend these findings by examining the contributions of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces to perceived votability. We first use real faces to show that attractiveness and trustworthiness are positively and independently related to perceptions of good leadership (rating study). We then show that computer graphic manipulations of attractiveness and trustworthiness influence choice of leader (experiments 1 and 2). Finally, we show that changing context from wartime to peacetime can affect which face receives the most votes. Attractive faces were relatively more valued for wartime and trustworthy faces relatively more valued for peacetime (experiments 1 and 2). This pattern suggests that attractiveness, which may indicate health and fitness, is perceived to be a useful attribute in wartime leaders, whereas trustworthiness, which may indicate prosocial traits, is perceived to be more important during peacetime. Our studies highlight the possible role of facial appearance in voting behaviour and the role of attributions of attractiveness and trust. We also show that there may be no general characteristics of faces that make them perceived as the best choice of leader; leaders may be chosen because of characteristics that are perceived as the best for leaders to possess in particular situations.

  2. Wartime stressors and health outcomes: women in the Persian Gulf War. (United States)

    Bell, E A; Roth, M A; Weed, G


    This descriptive correlational study of war time stressors and stress responses of women from the Persian Gulf War examined numerous stressors both physical and psychological. The psychological stressors more directly impacted postwar physical and psychological symptoms than did physical stressors. These findings add to our understanding of women's reactions to wartime stress and the types of stressors affecting women. The study provides more data to support the contention that sexual harassment is widely prevalent in the military. The study did not find data to support concerns about maternal guilt on leaving children, nor any significant evidence of stress symptomology from this situation. The results of this study confirmed the call by Wolfe, Brown, Furey, and Levin (1993) for more precise evaluation of wartime stressors in view of the changing gender composition of military forces and the subsequent increase of women in combat roles. Clinicians should be alerted to recognize gender-specific experiences. Education of military women about stressors and coping mechanisms should be broadened to address the development issue of intimacy versus isolation. Nurses, both military and civilian, must understand the effect of isolation and discrimination on women both in combat and in other high stress situations. The need for continued study of the problem of sexual harassment is confirmed. Understanding the scope of the problem and the health care outcomes strengthens the role of prevention and intervention for nurses and their clients.

  3. Meaning Making in Wartime Bereavement: Lessons Learned From Bereaved Parents and Siblings. (United States)

    Harrington, Christina


    Wartime deaths are traumatic and leave many grieving families in their wake. Yet, the unique, nuanced bereavement needs and experiences of those who remain are largely unknown. This Canadian, qualitative study examined the bereavement experiences of family of origin, bereaved during the mission to Afghanistan. The findings provide rich data on the predominant ways in which family members found and made meaning following the death and the ways in which military culture influenced the meanings made.

  4. 78 FR 66841 - Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2003... (United States)


    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 230 Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the... the Government of Israel on behalf of the State of Israel. Pursuant to the Emergency Wartime... International Development, may issue loan guarantees applicable to sums borrowed by the Government of Israel on...

  5. Under the Gun: Nationalist Military Service and Society in Wartime Sichuan, 1938-1945


    Landdeck, Kevin Paul


    This dissertation examines the state-making and citizenship projects embedded within the Nationalist (KMT) government's mobilization of men to serve in the army during World War Two. My project views wartime conscription as a fundamental break with earlier modes of recruitment, the gentry-led militarization of the late-Qing dynasty and the mercenary armies of the warlords. Nationalist authorities saw compulsory service as a tool for creating genuine citizen-soldiers and yet, while conscript...

  6. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.


    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  7. The World of Insect Metaphors in Zofia Nałkowska’s Dzienniki czasu wojny [Diaries of Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Krupiński


    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is an analysis of entomological motifs in the Nałkowska’s wartime diary. The surprising frequency of these motifs gives an opportunity for a more general discussion: the key context for an explanation of insect metaphors seems to be the tendency, common for modernist authors, to place the concept of humanity in a widely un­derstood philosophy of nature. The rule would also apply for the war, or more generally, for mechanisms of human violence, which Nałkowska subjects in her diary to a peculiar darwinistic representation. Understanding the war as a “naturalistic fact” (Hanna Kirchner’s description results in a gradual blurring of the differences between the violence of nature and the violence of history. The author of the article has identified a similar procedure in Czesław Miłosz’s work, which constitutes a specific counterpoint for Nałkowska’s wartime diary.

  8. Sisterhood's ordeals: shared interests and divided loyalties in Finnish wartime nursing. (United States)

    Henriksson, L


    The aim of this article is to highlight early Finnish nursing in a special wartime context. Occupational development of nursing is envisioned by addressing at a more general level women's mutual relationships and the opportunities and obstacles of the process of occupational development. The article debates two main issues. Establishing occupational domains was a process of selecting suitable labour force and training women morally, as well. The hierarchical order of nursing is manifested especially in the questions of auxiliary labour and the so-called amateur scare. War was still a time of romanticism with visible military and religious models, but women also struggled for their right to have rights.

  9. Media ethics in wartime: the code for the coverage of the colombian armed conflict


    Serrano Yeny


    By analysing the "code for the coverage of the Colombian armed conflict", this paper argues that journalism ethics needs to be understood not only as a matter of journalists. Ethics also depends on the context which journalists do their job. For example, in wartime, the reporting of news is influenced not only by the economic, symbolic and media constraints, but also by the strategic aims of the armed groups. Thus, ethics codes are more than documents in which journalists state...

  10. U.S. responses to Japanese wartime inhuman experimentation after World War II. (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul


    In 1945-46, representatives of the U.S. government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the United States, influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the United States played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and in securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes.

  11. Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom: exploring wartime death and bereavement. (United States)

    Harrington Lamorie, Jill


    Military deaths are often sudden, unanticipated, traumatic, and/or violent in nature and involve the death of a young adult. More than 5,500 service members have died as a result of their service in the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) in combat- or non-combat- related incidences. As the death toll continues to rise, service members and their families struggle with the visible and invisible wounds of war. This article explores wartime death, trauma, and bereavement experienced by those survivors affected by service members who have died as a result of their military service in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). It recognizes the circumstantial and cultural factors of the death as well as the grief and trauma experiences of survivors. Resources and suggested interventions of support are highlighted.

  12. The vestibulocochlear bases for wartime posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations. (United States)

    Tigno, T A; Armonda, R A; Bell, R S; Severson, M A


    Preliminary findings based on earlier retrospective studies of 229 wartime head injuries managed by the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC)/National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) Neurosurgery Service during the period 2003-08 detected a threefold rise in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) manifestations (10.45%) among Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) having concomitant vestibulocochlear injuries compared to 3% for the TBI group without vestibulo-cochlear damage (VCD), prompting the authors to undertake a more focused study of the vestibulo-auditory pathway in explaining the development of posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations among the mostly Blast-exposed head-injured. The subsequent historical review of PTSD pathophysiology studies, the evidence for an expanded vestibular system and of a dominant vestibular system, the vascular vulnerability of the vestibular nerves in stress states as well as the period of cortical imprinting has led to the formation of a coherent hypotheses utilizing the vestibulocochlear pathway in understanding the development of PTSD manifestations. Neuroimaging and neurophysiologic tests to further validate the vestibulocochlear concept on the development of PTSD manifestations are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 1940s: Camping in the War Years. (United States)

    Camping Magazine, 1999


    Camps continued to operate during World War II, but young male counselors, food, and supplies were difficult to obtain. An illustrative article from 1943, "Meal Planning for Summer Camps in Wartime" (Agnes B. Peterson), presents a guide to planning nutritious meals for campers despite shortages caused by wartime rationing, increased food…

  14. Generating Impact Maps from Automatically Detected Bomb Craters in Aerial Wartime Images Using Marked Point Processes (United States)

    Kruse, Christian; Rottensteiner, Franz; Hoberg, Thorsten; Ziems, Marcel; Rebke, Julia; Heipke, Christian


    The aftermath of wartime attacks is often felt long after the war ended, as numerous unexploded bombs may still exist in the ground. Typically, such areas are documented in so-called impact maps which are based on the detection of bomb craters. This paper proposes a method for the automatic detection of bomb craters in aerial wartime images that were taken during the Second World War. The object model for the bomb craters is represented by ellipses. A probabilistic approach based on marked point processes determines the most likely configuration of objects within the scene. Adding and removing new objects to and from the current configuration, respectively, changing their positions and modifying the ellipse parameters randomly creates new object configurations. Each configuration is evaluated using an energy function. High gradient magnitudes along the border of the ellipse are favored and overlapping ellipses are penalized. Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling in combination with simulated annealing provides the global energy optimum, which describes the conformance with a predefined model. For generating the impact map a probability map is defined which is created from the automatic detections via kernel density estimation. By setting a threshold, areas around the detections are classified as contaminated or uncontaminated sites, respectively. Our results show the general potential of the method for the automatic detection of bomb craters and its automated generation of an impact map in a heterogeneous image stock.

  15. Families overcoming under stress: implementing family-centered prevention for military families facing wartime deployments and combat operational stress. (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Mogil, Catherine; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; Nash, William; Leskin, Gregory; Bursch, Brenda; Green, Sara; Pynoos, Robert; Beardslee, William


    The toll of multiple and prolonged deployments on families has become clearer in recent years as military families have seen an increase in childhood anxiety, parental psychological distress, and marital discord. Families overcoming under stress (FOCUS), a family-centered evidence-informed resiliency training program developed at University of California, Los Angeles and Harvard Medical School, is being implemented at military installations through an initiative from Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. The research foundation for FOCUS includes evidence-based preventive interventions that were adapted to meet the specific needs of military families facing combat operational stress associated with wartime deployments. Using a family narrative approach, FOCUS includes a customized approach utilizing core intervention components, including psychoeducation, emotional regulation skills, goal setting and problem solving skills, traumatic stress reminder management techniques, and family communication skills. The purpose of this study is to describe the development and implementation of FOCUS for military families. A case example is also presented.

  16. Women and Body Image in Wartime: Advertisements for Foundation Garments during World War II in the United States


    板橋, 晶子


    This paper examines the images of women war workers in advertisements for foundation garments during World War II in the United States. In wartime America, functional underwear such as brassieres and girdles were sold as a “vital necessity” for women at work, especially those engaged in defense work. \\Advertisements for foundation garments frequently depicted women war workers who were doing man-sized jobs and lauded those women for their contribution to the war effort, and women war workers’...

  17. The unsilencing of military wives: wartime deployment experiences and citizen responsibility. (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer; Ward, David B; Storm, Cheryl


    One of therapists' contemporary moral imperatives is to support American service members and their families regardless of personal position on the Global War on Terrorism. One way therapists can respond to this imperative is by seeking to understand Army wives' experiences during their husbands' wartime deployments. Therefore, this study utilized a combination of individual interviews with Army wives and a reflecting team of military wives and civilians to explore military wives' experiences. Two main themes were identified: the wives' experience was an emotional roller coaster and they felt silenced--and could be unsilenced--in their interactions with civilians. Therapists working with Army wives should (a) normalize the roller-coaster experience; (b) encourage wives to recognize negative and positive influencers and explore their idiosyncratic coping skills; (c) support positive civilian-military connections; and (d) as a civilian and as a therapist, seek to be a positive civilian connection by proactively showing support. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  18. Everyday life in wartime Arkhangelsk: The problem of starvation and death during the Second World War (1939–1945)


    Khatanzeiskaya, Elizaveta


    The article «Everyday Life in Wartime Arkhangelsk: The Problem of Starvation and Death during the Second World War (1939–1945)» is based on primary sources: interviews with eyewitnesses, memoirs, materials of press, diaries and archival documents. During the Second World War more than 40 thousand civilians died in Arkhangelsk (one fourth of its prewar population) because of starvation. This paper is an attempt to explain this phenomenon. 

  19. Wartime Writings, or the Imaginary Lover of Marguerite Duras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Ladimer


    Full Text Available The publication in 2006 of Marguerite Duras’s Cahiers de la guerre , ‘Wartime Writings,’ written between 1943 and 1949, made accessible to the reader the first known versions of the family drama that was to become the material of much of her fiction. As this work now takes its place as chronologically first in the intertext of Duras’s autofictional writings, it sheds considerable light on our understanding of the transformations in these texts that occurred over her lifetime. Whereas L’Amant had been presented and accepted as the disclosure of a real occurrence and the origin of the other works, it presents several significant aspects of Duras’s life at the time, as well as the lover himself, in a way that is not verifiably real. The “Cahiers” help establish the difference between the verifiably real and that which seems most true about herself to the author in later life when she fictionalizes her own coming of age. The first “Cahier” holds the key to understanding the exigencies that led to the invention of the character of the Chinese lover, as it reminds us that there is no moment before legend and story-telling, and that individual memory is always constructed imaginatively.

  20. Growing up in Wartime England—A Selection from "The Rachel Chronicles: A Kind of Memoir"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Furst


    Full Text Available The following contribution is an excerpt from the unpublished memoirs of Austrian Jewish émigrée, Lilian Renée Furst (1931–2009, a pioneer in the field of comparative literature. This journal issue grew out of an April 2011 conference in her memory, held at the National Humanities Center, on “Jewish emigres and the Shaping of Postwar Culture.” The nexus between her innovative intellectual contributions and her experience as a Jewish émigré reflects one of the conference's central concerns: How, why, and in what fashion did the émigrés' dislocations shape innovative intellectual paths and cosmopolitan visions of Europe and European culture. Born in Austria and educated in England, Furst pursued an intellectual career in the United States, hoping it would allow her to break out of narrow national boundaries. The excerpt of her memoir here illuminates how her life's work as a pioneer in the field of comparative literary studies grew out of her experience with language as a German-speaking refugee in wartime England. Her memoir written in the third person about “Rachel” also reflects her dual identity as Jew and European. Part I by Dr. Anabel Aliaga-Buchenau, the literary executor of the memoir and a former graduate student of Furst, places “The Rachel Chronicles: A Kind of Memoir” in relation to Furst's other autobiographical writing. Part II includes Furst's own introduction to “The Rachel Chronicles,” followed by her chapter on “Growing up in wartime England.” (The whole of her unpublished memoir is available to researchers in the "Personal Papers of Lilian R. Furst," Girton College Archives, Cambridge University ( Part III is a bibliography of Furst's writings.

  1. Operation Pied Piper: a geographical reappraisal of the impact of wartime evacuation on scarlet fever and diphtheria rates in England and Wales, 1939-1945. (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, M R; Cliff, A D


    This paper examines the geographical impact of the British Government's wartime evacuation scheme on notified rates of two common acute childhood diseases (scarlet fever and diphtheria) in the 1470 local government districts of England and Wales, 1939-1945. Drawing on the notifications of communicable diseases collated by the General Register Office (GRO), we establish pre-war (baseline) disease rates for the 1470 districts. For the war years, techniques of binary logistic regression analysis are used to assess the associations between (a) above-baseline ('raised') disease rates in evacuation, neutral and reception districts and (b) the major phases of the evacuation scheme. The analysis demonstrates that the evacuation was temporally associated with distinct national and regional effects on notified levels of disease activity. These effects were most pronounced in the early years of the dispersal (1939-1941) and corresponded with initial levels of evacuation-related population change at the regional and district scales.

  2. Fighting Mothers, Suffering Mothers: Wartime Mixed Media and Postwar Female Cinematic Icons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Hyun Kim


    Full Text Available Hikari Hori. Promiscuous Media: Film and Visual Culture in Imperial Japan, 1926-1945. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2018. 312 pp. $55 (cloth. Jennifer Coates. Making Icons: Repetition and the Female Image in Japanese Cinema, 1945-1964. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2017. 244 pages. $65 (cloth. Hori’s analyses and interpretations of the key visual/filmic texts are absolutely riveting and powerfully stimulating, compelling us to seek out the media works in question and reevaluate their meanings with our own eyes. Coates’s sweeping readings are also extremely impressive in their propensity to bring together interdisciplinary insights from sometimes surprising sources, raising some difficult questions about how we have hitherto treated with complacency (and substantively ignored the centrality of women in postwar Japanese cinema. With these new publications, these two scholars have made significant contributions to advancing our understanding of wartime and immediate postwar Japanese culture. Their books should be considered must-reads for any serious student of twentieth-century Japanese cinema and popular culture...

  3. Heady days of early privatisation disappear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, George


    In the early 1990s, western energy companies identified development potential in the newly independent central and eastern European countries. The new governments recognised an opportunity to gain both hard currency and essential expertise in energy concessions and franchises. In the absence of a spirit of partnership in the real sense, however, chaos ensued and projects foundered. By the mid 1990s, both sides were looking for a new approach and privatisation seemed to be the answer. But privatisation has proved to be no more satisfactory as a means of realising the potential of central and eastern European energy resources than the earlier partnership approach. The reasons for this are analysed. There is some movement, though, towards greater realism and a political willingness to think in economic terms as well as social terms with respect to the energy industries, which could ultimately result in a climate in which privatisation will flourish. (UK)

  4. The Society and College of Radiographers - 60 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinloch, J.


    The year 1980 heralded the Diamond Jubilee of the Society and College of Radiographers. A personal review of the history of the Society and College and its aims over the past sixty years is given. The review commences with the formation of the Society in 1920 and follows its testing time throughout the twenties, the expansion of its activities in the period up to the Second World War, its wartime function, its postwar activities particularly in relation to radiographers' conditions of service and salaries and finally the events of the 60's to the present day. (U.K.)

  5. Use of a Minimally Invasive Retractor System for Retrieval of Intracranial Fragments in Wartime Trauma. (United States)

    Rymarczuk, George N; Davidson, Laurence; Severson, Meryl A; Armonda, Rocco A


    Wartime penetrating brain injury can result in deep-seated parenchymal and intraventicular shrapnel, bullets, and bone. Large fragments pose a risk of secondary injury from migration, infection, and metal toxicity. It has been recommended that aggressive removal of fragments be avoided. The goal of this study is to report our technique of minimally invasive removal of select deep-seated fragments using a tubular retractor system. A retrospective review of our database of service members presenting with penetrating traumatic brain injuries incurred during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom and treated at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center and the National Naval Medical Center was performed. Six individuals were identified in which the Vycor ViewSite retractor system (Vycor Medical, Boca Raton, Florida, USA) was used to remove a ventricular or deep intraparenchymal fragment. All patients were male and ranged in age from 21 to 29 years. Fragment location included the foramen of Monro; the atrium of the right lateral ventricle; parasagittally within the right occipital lobe; the occipital horn of the right lateral ventricle; the deep white matter of the dominant temporal lobe; and within the posterior right temporal lobe deep to the junction of the transverse and sigmoid dural venous sinuses. Fragments included in-driven bone, shrapnel from improvised explosive devices, and bullets. In all cases the fragment was successfully removed. No patient had worsening of their neurologic condition following surgery. Deep parenchymal and intraventricular fragments can be safely removed using a tubular retractor system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL] Review, Vol. 25, Nos. 3 and 4, 1992 [The First Fifty Years (United States)

    Krause, C.(ed.)


    In observation of the 50th anniversary of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, this special double issue of the Review contains a history of the Laboratory, complete with photographs, drawings, and short accompanying articles. Table of contents include: Wartime Laboratory; High-flux Years; Accelerating Projects; Olympian Feats; Balancing Act; Responding to Social Needs; Energy Technologies; Diversity and Sharing; Global Outreach; Epilogue

  7. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    concise account of the events leading to the proposal and the discoveries that followed. For biologists, the past fifty years have been truly exciting with fundamental discoveries being made one after another that expanded our understanding of the living world. In the heady excitement generated by these findings, it is easy to ...

  8. Sense of Threat as a Mediator of Peritraumatic Stress Symptom Development During Wartime: An Experience Sampling Study. (United States)

    Lapid Pickman, Liron; Greene, Talya; Gelkopf, Marc


    Exposure and sense of threat have been associated with stress symptoms, yet these relationships have not been clarified during the peritraumatic period. We investigated the mediating role of sense of threat in the link between exposure to rocket warning sirens and stress symptoms during wartime, and the effect of severe mental illness (SMI) status and gender on this mediation. A 30-day twice-daily smartphone-based intensive assessment of exposure to sirens, sense of threat, and peritraumatic stress symptoms was performed during the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict. Participants included 182 highly exposed individuals with or without SMI. Multilevel structural equation modeling analysis was performed, with SMI status and gender as confounders. Exposure affected the level of peritraumatic stress symptoms both directly, b = 1.07, p development during the peritraumatic timeframe. Intervention and prevention efforts should start early and focus on promoting a sense of safety, particularly with people with SMI. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. A Amazônia no imaginário norte-americano em tempo de guerra Amazonia in the U.S. wartime imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Garfield


    Full Text Available Este ensaio delineia a emergência da Amazônia no imaginário norte-americano no período da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Embora a importância geopolítica de diversificação dos mercados fornecedores de borracha e o desenvolvimento da borracha sintética tenham sido discutidos nos Estados Unidos antes do ataque a Pearl Harbor, a subsequente interdição japonesa aos mercados tradicionais do sudeste asiático levou burocratas e cientistas a se apressarem na busca de alternativas. Como em outras regiões da América Latina, as políticas de obtenção e fornecimento, durante a guerra, dividiram os progressistas adeptos do New Deal e os conservadores fiscais. Entretanto, a política de gestão norte-americana também moldou e foi moldada por mitos enraizados acerca das regiões e populações tropicais. Na época, como agora, a Amazônia era muito mais que um lugar: para os norte-americanos, era também uma pedra de toque das ansiedades mais profundas concernentes às questões de raça, classe e nação.This essay traces the emergence of the Amazon in the United States wartime imaginary. Although the geopolitical importance of diversifying rubber markets and developing synthetics had been discussed in the United States before Pearl Harbor, the subsequent Japanese interdiction of traditional Southeast Asian markets sent American government officials and scientists scurrying to find alternatives. As in other regions of Latin America, wartime procurement policies in the Amazon divided New Deal progressives and fiscal conservatives, but these policies also shaped and were shaped by entrenched myths of tropical regions and populations. Then, as now, the Amazon was more than a place, but also a flashpoint for Americans for deeper anxieties concerning questions of race, class, and nation.

  10. comparative profitability analysis of selected rainfed and irrigated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    KEYWORDS: Rainfed, irrigated, food crops, profitability, Adamawa, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION .... some or all of three motives (Olayide and Heady, 1982). The major resources .... The third stage was the purposive selection of villages based on ...

  11. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.


    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ``flagship`` of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program.

  12. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.


    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ''flagship'' of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program

  13. 50 years of Computing at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    "Where are your Wares" Computing in the broadest sense has a long history, and Babbage (1791-1871), Hollerith (1860-1929) Zuse (1910-1995), many other early pioneers, and the wartime code breakers, all made important breakthroughs. CERN was founded as the first valve-based digital computers were coming onto the market. I will consider 50 years of Computing at CERN from the following viewpoints:- Where did we come from? What happened? Who was involved? Which wares (hardware, software, netware, peopleware and now middleware) were important? Where did computers (not) end up in a physics lab? What has been the impact of computing on particle physics? What about the impact of particle physics computing on other sciences? And the impact of our computing outside the scientific realm? I hope to conclude by looking at where we are going, and by reflecting on why computing is likely to remain challenging for a long time yet. The topic is so vast that my remarks are likely to be either prejudiced o...

  14. Kodud mitme mere ääres / Viivi Variksaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Variksaar, Viivi, 1948-


    Ameerikas Hilton Headis elavatest väliseestlastest Erle ja Elmo H. Sergost, nende korterist Tallinnas Poska tänaval. Seintel olevad pildid on maalinud ja kodu kujundanud Erle Sergo. Kommenteerinud Elmo H. Sergo, Erle Sergo. 8 ill

  15. Epidemiology of nosocomial colonization/infection caused by Acinetobacter spp. in patients of six surgical clinics in war and peacetime. (United States)

    Suljagić, Vesna; Jevtić, Miodrag; Djordjević, Boban; Romić, Predrag; Ilić, Radoje; Stanković, Nebojsa; Milović, Novak; Novaković, Marijan; Kozarski, Jefta; Roganović, Zoran; Popović, Zoran; Jovelić, Aleksandra


    Acinetobacter spp. has emerged as nosocomial pathogen during the past few decades in hospitals all over the world, but it has increasingly been implicated as a serious nosocomial pathogen in military hospitals. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the surveillance data on Acinetobacter nosocomial colonization/infection (NCI) collected during the wartime with the data collected in peacetime. We conducted a prospective study of incidence of Acinetobacter spp. colonization/infection. Also, the two nested case-control studies were conducted. The patients with nosocomial infection (cases) were compared with those with nosocomial colonization (controls) during the two different periods, wartime and peacetime. The patients with NCI by Acinetobacter spp. were identified by the case-based surveillance. The surveillance covered all the patients in 6 surgical clinics. During the study periods a total of 166 patients had cultures that grew Acinetobacter spp. and the pooled rates of Acinetobacter spp. colonization and infection were significantly higher in wartime. When patients with NCI in wartime were compared with those with NCI in peacetime significant differences were observed. In the war year, the patients were more significantly males (p war and peace period.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyers, Mike


    Full Text Available Nearly 20 years have elapsed since the heady days of South Africa’s first democratic elections and the publication of the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP, the document that was intended to chart the country’s future development (ANC, 1994:1. It was soon followed by the White Paper for Social Welfare, which would help “realise the relevant objectives” of the RDP through the use of developmental social welfare (MWPD, 1997:5,68. Developmental social work would constitute the profession’s specific contribution to the developmental approach and, ultimately, to practice (Patel, 2005:206-210.

  17. Action Stations! 100 years of trauma care on maritime and amphibious operations in the Royal Navy. (United States)

    Osborne, M; Smith, J E


    Over the past century trauma care within the Royal Navy (RN) has evolved; wartime experiences and military medical research have combined to allow significant improvement in the care of casualties. This article describes the key maritime and amphibious operations that have seen the Royal Navy Medical Service (RNMS) deliver high levels of support to wherever the Naval Service has deployed in the last 100 years. Key advancements in which progress has led to improved outcomes for injured personnel are highlighted--the control and treatment of blood loss, wound care, and the prevention and management of organ failure with optimal resuscitation. Historians often point out how slowly military medicine progressed for the first few thousand years of its recorded history, and how quickly it has progressed in the last century. This reflective article will show how the RNMS has been an integral part of that story, and how the lessons learnt by our predecessors have shaped our modern day doctrine surrounding trauma care.

  18. That was the web that was

    CERN Multimedia

    Thompson, B


    "Bill Thompson built his first website in 1994 and has never looked back since. We asked him to dig through the archives to find out just how much has changed since those early, heady days of times Roman fonts and grey backgrounds" (1 page)

  19. Trans-Spatial Utopias (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire


    The "trans-" perspectives offered in this special issue are heady stuff. Post-structuralism (philosophy) meets the digital age (electronics), meets globalization (economics), and meets translingual practice (linguistics) to create a perfectly utopian or placeless space for future exploration. I want to first add my voice to the…

  20. Nodding syndrome in Kitgum District, Uganda: association with conflict and internal displacement. (United States)

    Landis, Jesa L; Palmer, Valerie S; Spencer, Peter S


    To test for any temporal association of Nodding syndrome with wartime conflict, casualties and household displacement in Kitgum District, northern Uganda. Data were obtained from publicly available information reported by the Ugandan Ministry of Health (MOH), the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data (ACLED) Project of the University of Sussex in the UK, peer-reviewed publications in professional journals and other sources. Reports of Nodding syndrome began to appear in 1997, with the first recorded cases in Kitgum District in 1998. Cases rapidly increased annually beginning in 2001, with peaks in 2003-2005 and 2008, 5-6 years after peaks in the number of wartime conflicts and deaths. Additionally, peaks of Nodding syndrome cases followed peak influxes 5-7 years earlier of households into internal displacement camps. Peaks of Nodding syndrome reported by the MOH are associated with, but temporally displaced from, peaks of wartime conflicts, deaths and household internment, where infectious disease was rampant and food insecurity rife. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  1. Inside a Blended Learning Environment (United States)

    Chubb, John


    The long awaited and hotly debated "disruption" of public education may finally have begun. Technology, the force that has transformed one industry after another, from the industrial revolution through the information age, is on the cusp of reshaping schools fundamentally. This is heady talk. Historically, schools have been quite adept…

  2. Medical Tourism: Once Ready for Takeoff, Now Stuck at the Gate. (United States)

    Kirkner, Richard Mark


    Consultants predicted it would be a major business. Large employers and insurers were experimenting with it. But medical tourism has not lived up to the heady expectations. The ACA and moderation of increases in health care costs cooled off interest. Besides, who really wants to go to an unfamiliar place for health care?

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory REVIEW, Vol. 25, Nos. 3 and 4, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C. (ed.)


    The titles in the table of contents from this journal are: Wartime Laboratory; High-flux Years; Accelerating Projects; Olympian Feats; Balancing Act; Responding to Social Needs; Energy Technologies; Diversity and Sharing; Global Outreach; Epilogue

  4. The Roosevelt years: crucial milieu for Carl Rogers' innovation. (United States)

    Barrett-Lennard, Godfrey T


    This study explores broad features of political culture and event of the 1930s and World War 2 years, viewed in relation to the emergence and rapid early growth of the new therapy of Carl Rogers. The paper traces Rogers' early professional life and examines distinctive emphases in sociopolitical thought and development during Franklin D. Roosevelt's leadership as President over the prolonged emergency of the Great Depression and the crisis of the War. The study includes a focus on the President's own outlook and style, pertinent New Deal innovations, and wartime needs. Twelve features of this larger context are discriminated as together having vital importance for the new therapy and its founder. The congruent courses of the macrocontext and of Rogers' innovation are followed to the ending of Roosevelt's life. Direct causation is not attributed, but the evidence adduced newly points to particular contours of a larger environment favorable for the expression of Rogers' values and rare ability. In sum, the author concludes that a synergy of highly conducive historical circumstance and individual exceptionality contributed to the philosophical underpinnings, attitudinal values and early momentum of Rogers' client-centered therapy.

  5. The University in Turmoil and Transition. Crisis Decades at the University of New Mexico. (United States)

    Horn, Calvin

    A regent's view of both the dramatic events and daily operations of the University of New Mexico (UNM) from 1960 to 1981 is presented. Following a background chapter that discusses the basic theme of the book and President Popejoy's term of office at UNM, Part Two, "Student Strike," examines: President Heady's immediate trials as…

  6. Military Readiness: Air Transport Capability Falls Short of Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ..., For example, during fiscal years 1997 through 1999, on average only 55 percent of the C-5 fleet, the Air Force's largest cargo aircraft, was mission capable-significantly short of the 75 percent expected for wartime...

  7. Wartime Trigonometry (United States)

    Goetz, Albert


    "Media Clips" appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher," offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. Based on "In All the Light We Cannot See" (2014), by Anthony Doerr, this article provides a brief trigonometry problem that was solved by…

  8. Unesco – to preserve Slovenian medical history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Soban


    Full Text Available Abstract: The beginnings of university studies of medicine in Ljubljana, and wartime interruptions. – One hundred years of anesthesia on the European continent as part of the surgeon’s work and responsibility. – The organization of health service (1942–1945 within the partisan resistance struggle. – Clandestine partisan hospitals. The wounded, the staff, the physicians. – Wartime anesthesia: an overview and perspectives. – SVPB Franja: a description. The efforts invested so far for the recognition of this war memorial as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. – From the 1982 International Symposium on the History of Modern Anesthesia to ISHA – the international society for the history of anesthesia.

  9. Vietnamese infant and childhood mortality in relation to the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Thang, N M; Swenson, I E; Stone, E M


    There is obvious potential for war to adversely affect infant and childhood mortality through direct trauma and disruption of the societal infrastructure. This study examined trends in Vietnam through the period of the war. The 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey collected data on reproductive history and family planning from 4172 women aged 15 through 49 years in 12 selected provinces of Vietnam. The 13,137 births and 737 deaths to children younger than age 6 reported by the respondents were analyzed. For the country as a whole, infant and childhood mortality dropped by 30% to 80% from the prewar period to the wartime period and was stable thereafter. In provinces in which the war was most intense, mortality did not decline from the prewar period to the wartime period but declined after the war, consistent with an adverse effect during the wartime period. The data are limited by assignment of birth location on the basis of mother's current residence and by inadequate information on areas of war activity. Nonetheless, the data do not indicate a widespread, sizable adverse effect of the war on national infant and childhood mortality in Vietnam but suggest detrimental effects in selected provinces.

  10. La traversée médiatique du simple soldat. À partir de l’œuvre de Bertrand Carrière A Soldier’s Journey: Bertrand Carrière’s Photographs and The Wartime Memories Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Villeneuve


    Full Text Available This article deals with the intermediality of the soldier’s experience of war in Normandy, particularly through artistic and non-artistic forms of transmission: from the private gesture of writing embodied in a book, or a Website, to installation art and photography. The starting point for our study is Bertrand Carrière’s installations Jubilee and Caux, both devoted to the death of 1,400 men on the beaches of Dieppe in 1942. Our reading of Carrière’s work leads to some considerations aboutThe Wartime Memories Project,a website collecting memories (stories and photos of the Great War and the Second World War. Our analysis relies on the relationship between mediation, testimony and cults of the dead. On this basis, the mediation of the soldier’s experience of WWII should be understood as a complex testimony, involving legacy as well as memory and remembrance. It reveals a paradoxical interlacing of anonymous death and the singular experience.

  11. Physics in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe


    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology

  12. Physics in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe


    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology.

  13. Unethical practices relating to cattle freedom, care and control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In animal care, 40.0%, 31.3%, 30.0%, 12.5%, 7.5% and 5.0% were of the opinion that cattle could be respectively tired, hungry, sick, heady, injured and being in a strange environment might be the reasons for their refusal to obey the instruction of the handlers. In controlling the cattle for a direction, 85.7%, 10.4% and 3.9% ...

  14. Vietnamese infant and childhood mortality in relation to the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Thang, N M; Swenson, I E; Stone, E M


    OBJECTIVES. There is obvious potential for war to adversely affect infant and childhood mortality through direct trauma and disruption of the societal infrastructure. This study examined trends in Vietnam through the period of the war. METHODS. The 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey collected data on reproductive history and family planning from 4172 women aged 15 through 49 years in 12 selected provinces of Vietnam. The 13,137 births and 737 deaths to children younger than age 6 reported by the respondents were analyzed. RESULTS. For the country as a whole, infant and childhood mortality dropped by 30% to 80% from the prewar period to the wartime period and was stable thereafter. In provinces in which the war was most intense, mortality did not decline from the prewar period to the wartime period but declined after the war, consistent with an adverse effect during the wartime period. CONCLUSIONS. The data are limited by assignment of birth location on the basis of mother's current residence and by inadequate information on areas of war activity. Nonetheless, the data do not indicate a widespread, sizable adverse effect of the war on national infant and childhood mortality in Vietnam but suggest detrimental effects in selected provinces. PMID:8342722

  15. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of radiologist Earl R. Miller, M.D., August 9 and 17, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Dr. Earl R. Miller was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research (OHRE). The interview covers Dr. Miller`s involvement with the Manhattan Engineer District, with total body irradiation, and heavy-ion therapy. Dr. Miller`s remembrances include wartime work on radiation exposure, Joe Hamilton, Neutron Therapy research, means of obtaining isotopes, consent forms, infinite laminograms, invention of a baby holder to alleviate exposure of radiological technicians in diagnostic procedures involving infants, and several personages.

  16. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of radiologist Earl R. Miller, M.D., August 9 and 17, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Dr. Earl R. Miller was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research (OHRE). The interview covers Dr. Miller's involvement with the Manhattan Engineer District, with total body irradiation, and heavy-ion therapy. Dr. Miller's remembrances include wartime work on radiation exposure, Joe Hamilton, Neutron Therapy research, means of obtaining isotopes, consent forms, infinite laminograms, invention of a baby holder to alleviate exposure of radiological technicians in diagnostic procedures involving infants, and several personages

  17. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2010 Annual Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The global power deal market is finally seeing an upward trend in momentum from the lows reached in 2009, with the total deal value in the non-renewable electricity and gas sectors up 19% year on year from USD 97.6bn to USD 116bn in 2010 - a year which also saw an end to the deal stalemate in the US with a renewed deal flow that looks set to continue this year. Compared to the heady mountain of power deals transacted between 2005-2008, deal values remain low but conditions are in place for a return at least to the foothills of these peaks, according to PwC's annual Power Deals review. Globalisation of the power sector is moving forward on a number of fronts with, for example, companies looking at gaining a larger presence in growth markets, acquisitions of global network asset portfolios with strong international interest in infrastructure assets and signs of greater Chinese involvement, not just from grid companies but also independent power producers.

  18. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  19. Ionic liquid gel materials: applications in green and sustainable chemistry


    Marr, Patricia C.; Marr, Andrew C.


    Ionic liquid gel materials offer a way to further utilise ionic liquids in technological applications. Combining the controlled and directed assembly of gels, with the diverse applications of ionic liquids, enables the design of a heady combination of functional tailored materials, leading to the development of task specific / functional ionic liquid gels. This review introduces gels and gel classification, focusing on ionic liquid gels and their potential roles in a more sustainable future. ...

  20. Exploration of the utility of military man in space in the year 2025 (United States)

    Hansen, Daniel L.


    It is absolutely essential for the well being of today's space forces as well as the future space forces of 2025, that DOD develop manned advanced technology space systems in lieu of or in addition to unmannned systems to effectively utilize mulitary man's compelling and aggressive warfighting abilities to accomplish the critical wartime mission elements of space control and force application. National space policy, military space doctrine and common all dictate they should do so if space superiority during future, inevitable conflict with enemy space forces is the paramount objective. Deploying military man in space will provide that space superiority and he will finally become the 'center of gravity' of the U.S. space program.

  1. The Voice of the Innocent: Propaganda and Childhood Testimonies of War (United States)

    de La Ferrière, Alexis Artaud


    Childhood testimonies have become a familiar component of war reporting and peace advocacy through the publication of children's drawings, oral descriptions of wartime trauma and wartime writing. While such practices have the merit of publicising children's experiences, it is also the case that the selection and distribution of these materials is…

  2. A Breakfast for Bonaparte: U.S. National Security Interests from the Heights of Abraham to the Nuclear Age (United States)


    of them try to outdo the Rockefellers in philanthropy . America has been rich in the passion for social betterment-that is, for grace achieved by be heady work. The tiny intellectual and political elite of the frontier community rose to the occasion brilliantly, goaded on by the confrontation...troopers and their elite com- ponent, the S.S., in black uniforms and caps decorated with the skull and crossbones, became familiar in Germany early in the

  3. Workshop experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt


    Full Text Available The setting for the workshop was a heady mix of history, multiculturalism and picturesque riverscapes. Within the group there was, as in many food studies, a preponderance of female scientists (or ethnographers, but the group interacted on lively, non-gendered terms - focusing instead on an appreciation of locals food and enthusiasm for research shared by all, and points of theoretical variance within that.The food provided by our hosts was of the very highest eating and local food qualities...

  4. The Canadian cigar and tobacco journal in the forties: a remembrance. (United States)

    Warsh, Cheryl Krasnick


    This paper is a period snapshot of the life and times of Canadian smoking culture, filtered through "The Canadian Cigar and Tobacco Journal" (the industry's trade paper) from 1943-1949. "The Journal" provided a vivid portrait of neighbourhood tobacconists, travelling salesman, wholesalers and factory workers, homemakers and entrepreneurs. I discuss the role of Jews in the industry, as manufacturers and retailers. "The Journal" evokes the dangers of the retail trade, such as armed robberies, as well as the dangers of wartime. There is also the parallel danger of tobacco smoking, which, although not explicitly defined as risky behaviour by physicians, nonetheless is apparent to consumers. World War II is a dominant feature of "The Journal," and the celebration of wartime tobacco consumption is epitomized by Winston Churchill and other heroic smokers. Women's increased economic participation during the war years, and postwar demobilization, is reflected in "The Journal." Finally I discuss the growing targeting of children as potential consumers of tobacco.

  5. Bedside teaching with unwell patients: Can it ever be appropriate? (United States)

    Jayakumar, Nithish


    Bedside teaching has seen a decline in its popularity since the heady days of Boerhaave and Osler; a number of hurdles have been noted in the literature including time constraints on senior clinicians. While organizing a bedside teaching course for final-year medical students, it was apparent that the availability of suitable patients was also a limiting factor. Often, we would be turned away from patients with physical signs because they were deemed to be too unwell for an examination. However, the benefits to medical students of examining unwell patients with physical signs cannot be underestimated. Identifying the unwell patient, and the associated physical signs relevant to the underlying diagnosis, should be a priority; although simulation is increasingly being used in teaching, it cannot fully replicate the learning experience gained in bedside teaching. As long as the patient is not under duress, bedside teaching with unwell patients should be encouraged.

  6. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Cornelius A. Tobias, Ph.D., January 16, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Dr. Cornelius A. Tobias was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). He was chosen for this interview because of his extensive biophysics and medical physics research activities while he was employed by the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco and at the Donner Laboratory. He discusses his involvement in wartime studies of effects of high altitude on aviators, carbon monoxide with radioactive tracers, blood studies with radioactive iron, human use committees, heavy-ion research with the Bevatron, boron isotope research, classified research involving human subjects, heavy-particle radiography, heavy- particle beams and medical research, and pituitary irradiation studies,

  7. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Cornelius A. Tobias, Ph.D., January 16, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Dr. Cornelius A. Tobias was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). He was chosen for this interview because of his extensive biophysics and medical physics research activities while he was employed by the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco and at the Donner Laboratory. He discusses his involvement in wartime studies of effects of high altitude on aviators, carbon monoxide with radioactive tracers, blood studies with radioactive iron, human use committees, heavy-ion research with the Bevatron, boron isotope research, classified research involving human subjects, heavy-particle radiography, heavy- particle beams and medical research, and pituitary irradiation studies,.

  8. Women's Leadership of "Much Needed National Work" in Wartime Education (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay


    While there is a wealth of feminist research on women's educational leadership and policy-making in the interwar years, this article extends the discussion into the Second World War. My focus is the educational leadership of Dorothy Walker, head teacher of St Peter's Infant School and the youngest head teacher in Birmingham, and Lillian de Lissa,…

  9. Air Force Manpower Requirements and Component Mix: A Focus on Agile Combat Support (United States)


    1 Efforts are underway to revitalize parts of the process, with primary emphasis on a wartime workforce planning model, Strategic Manpower...workforces of the Air Force’s manpower requirements squadrons. xiv • Refine the policies and practices for sizing wartime requirements. A revitalized app /answers/detail/a_id/7759/kw/afocd and app /answers/detail/a_id/7504/kw/afecd, respectively. Access to myPers is

  10. Study on the ethical concepts of the Japanese writer Yukio Mishima, ultra-nationalist. (United States)

    Yamamoto, K


    After WWII, ultra-nationalism, which was the leading ideology of wartime Japan, seemed to have lost its power to inspire the Japanese. In the 1960s, when the Japanese began to enjoy economic prosperity, Yukio Mishima, deploring that the Japanese were losing the traditional spirit and morality of the nation, was one of those citizens who felt a strong nostalgia for wartime Japan. In an attempt to revive the spiritual exaltation of wartime Japan, Mishima took radical action as an ultra-nationalist, and killed himself by Hara-kiri. Mishima's ethical concepts, which center on the ethos of warriors who dedicate themselves to the defense of their commune, have structural similarities to the ethical structure of the Kanun, which may be called the ethics of "blood". Mishima's theory of ultra-nationalism has a paradoxical logic, which seems to be related to the ethical concepts of a society without state power.

  11. The Impact of Deployment on Parental, Family and Child Adjustment in Military Families. (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Aralis, Hilary; Sinclair, Maegan; Kiff, Cara; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Mustillo, Sarah; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid


    Since 9/11, military service in the United States has been characterized by wartime deployments and reintegration challenges that contribute to a context of stress for military families. Research indicates the negative impact of wartime deployment on the well being of service members, military spouses, and children. Yet, few studies have considered how parental deployments may affect adjustment in young children and their families. Using deployment records and parent-reported measures from primary caregiving (N = 680) and military (n = 310) parents, we examined the influence of deployment on adjustment in military families with children ages 0-10 years. Greater deployment exposure was related to impaired family functioning and marital instability. Parental depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with impairments in social emotional adjustment in young children, increased anxiety in early childhood, and adjustment problems in school-age children. Conversely, parental sensitivity was associated with improved social and emotional outcomes across childhood. These findings provide guidance to developing preventive approaches for military families with young children.

  12. Baby boomers nearing retirement: the healthiest generation? (United States)

    Rice, Neil E; Lang, Iain A; Henley, William; Melzer, David


    The baby-boom generation is entering retirement. Having experienced unprecedented prosperity and improved medical technology, they should be the healthiest generation ever. We compared prevalence of disease and risk factors at ages 50-61 years in baby boomers with the preceding generation and attributed differences to period or cohort effects. Data were from the Health Survey for England (HSE) from 1994 to 2007 (n = 48,563). Logistic regression models compared health status between birth cohorts. Age-period-cohort models identified cohort and period effects separately. Compared to the wartime generation, the baby-boomer group was heavier (3.02 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-3.63; p Baby boomers reported fewer heart attacks (OR = 0.61; CI, 0.47-0.79; p baby boomers are moving toward retirement with improved cardiovascular health. However, the baby-boomer cohort has a higher prevalence of mental illness diagnoses and shows no improvement in self-rated health compared to the wartime birth cohort. There remains substantial scope to reduce health risks and future disability.

  13. The Epidemiology of Noncompressible Torso Hemorrhage in the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (United States)


    torso vascular or pulmonary hemorrhage. Recently, Zonies and Eastridge20 reported 10 years of wartime splenic trauma man- agement with a series of 393...benchmark. J Vasc Surg. 2012;56:728Y736. 20. Zonies D, Eastridge B. Combat management of splenic injury: trends during a decade of conflict. J Trauma the leading cause of potentially survivable trauma in the battlefield and has re- cently been defined using anatomic and physiologic criteria

  14. Air Superiority at Red Flag: Mass, Technology, and Winning the Next War (United States)


    REVIEW OF LITERATURE 8 cludes, “It cannot be said that the Lanchester equations have ever constituted a generalizable model of warfare .”3...wartime production rates requires significant warning and years to bring it to fruition. 24. Lanchester , Aircraft in Warfare , 48–50. 25. Keppel and...Zedeck, Data Analysis for Research Designs, 202. 26. Lanchester , Aircraft in Warfare , 55. The author used several terms to describe M over the course

  15. Assessing Australian Attitudes to Japan in the Early Twentieth Century – A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben McInnes


    Full Text Available After living in Japan for almost seventeen years, and being constantly intrigued by the attitudes of the Japanese to Australia, upon my return I was naturally interested to learn about Australian attitudes to Japan. The paucity of news concerning Japan in the press suggested that it was not of major interest to the Australian public, and one tends to presume that, wartime apart, this had always been the case.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Ribeiro-Oliveira


    Full Text Available analyzing the trajectory of forest seed sector, it is widely known the relationship between the studies on native species and the Brazilian Forest Legislation. The Brazilian market for forest seed species is mostly informal and there are only a few species with laboratory tests registered in the Rules for Seed Testing (RAS. However, Law number 10,711, when ruling as to the marketing of seeds and seedlings, granted legal subsidies to promote the formalization of the forest seeds industry. Compliance with this law is conditioned to standardized laboratory methodologies for evaluating seed quality. For this reason, the formulation of a supplement or specific RAS for native forest seeds seems to be near. This fact will certainly consolidate the national seed industry sector. However, what were the paths that native forest seed science had to walk down to reach this standardization? What are the prospects for the future relating to the native forest seed sector? These are just some of the questions this work intends to answer, based on the perspectives of forestry and environmental organizations, such as the Seeds Networks.

  17. Farmer Field Schools: Unexpected outcomes of gendered empowerment in wartime Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, A.M.B.; Visser, L.E.


    This article is the outcome of an empirical study of technical training of women and men through Farmer Field Schools in rural Nepal during the last decade. When the Farmer Field Schools started in Nepal as part of the FAO Integrated Pest Management project in 1997, this was also the year that the

  18. Changes in Scottish suicide rates during the Second World War. (United States)

    Henderson, Rob; Stark, Cameron; Humphry, Roger W; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam


    It is believed that total reported suicide rates tend to decrease during wartime. However, analysis of suicide rates during recent conflicts suggests a more complex picture, with increases in some age groups and changes in method choice. As few age and gender specific analyses of more distant conflicts have been conducted, it is not clear if these findings reflect a change in the epidemiology of suicide in wartime. Therefore, we examined suicide rates in Scotland before, during and after the Second World War to see if similar features were present. Data on deaths in Scotland recorded as suicide during the period 1931-1952, and population estimates for each of these years, were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Using computer spreadsheets, suicide rates by gender, age and method were calculated. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the effect of gender, war and year on suicide rates using SAS V8.2. The all-age suicide rate among both men and women declined during the period studied. However, when this long-term decline is taken into account, the likelihood of suicide during the Second World War was higher than during both the pre-War and post-War periods. Suicide rates among men aged 15-24 years rose during the Second World War, peaking at 148 per million (41 deaths) during 1942 before declining to 39 per million (10 deaths) by 1945, while the rate among men aged 25-34 years reached 199 per million (43 deaths) during 1943 before falling to 66 per million (23 deaths) by 1946. This was accompanied by an increase in male suicides attributable to firearms and explosives during the War years which decreased following its conclusion. All age male and female suicide rates decreased in Scotland during World War II. However, once the general background decrease in suicide rates over the whole period is accounted for, the likelihood of suicide among the entire Scottish population during the Second World War was elevated. The overall

  19. Imagining the absent dead: rituals of bereavement and the place of the war dead in German women's art during the First World War. (United States)

    Siebrecht, Claudia


    Drawing on women's visual responses to the First World War, this article examines female mourning in wartime Germany. The unprecedented death toll on the battlefronts, military burial practices and the physical distance from the remains of the war dead disrupted traditional rituals of bereavement, hindered closure and compounded women's grief on the home front. In response to these novel circumstances, a number of female artists used their images to reimagine funerary customs, overcome the separation from the fallen and express acute emotional distress. This article analyses three images produced during the conflict by the artists Katharina Heise, Martha Schrag and Sella Hasse, and places their work within the civilian experience of bereavement in war. By depicting the pain of loss, female artists contested the historical tradition of proud female mourning in German society and countered wartime codes of conduct that prohibited the public display of emotional pain in response to soldiers’ deaths. As a largely overlooked body of sources, women's art adds to our understanding of the tensions in wartime cultures of mourning that emerged between 1914 and 1918.

  20. Who might realign with OPEC?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djamarani, M.


    Opec's influence has waned since the heady days of the mid to late 1970s when its concerted actions first quadrupled oil prices in the wake of the Yom Kippur war in 1973 and then trebled again in 1979-80 to almost $40/barrel in the aftermath of the Iranian revolution and the start of the first Iran-Iraq war. Today OPEC member states are struggling to prevent oil prices from falling below $14/b spot prices. To boost sagging oil prices and to reassert its control over the world oil market, OPEC has been considering widening its membership or at least developing closer relations with other oil producers. (Author)

  1. The return of the phoenix: the 1963 International Congress of Zoology and American zoologists in the twentieth century. (United States)

    Johnson, Kristin


    This paper examines the International Congress of Zoology held in Washington D.C. in 1963 as a portrait of American zoologists' search for effective and rewarding relationships with both each other and the public. Organizers of the congress envisioned the congress as a last ditch effort to unify the disparate subdisciplines of zoology, overcome the barriers of specialization, and ward off the heady claims of more reductionist biologists. The problems zoologists faced as they worked to fulfill these ambitious goals illuminate some of the challenges faced by members of the naturalist tradition as they worked to establish disciplinary unity while seeking public support in the competitive world of twentieth century science.

  2. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard


    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  3. Local peace and contemporary conflict: Constructing commonality and exclusion during war in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Karell, Daniel


    Despite the "local turn" in international peacekeeping and the emphasis on community-centered development during the recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, it remains poorly understood how local actors-both foreign and indigenous-shape local-level wartime settings. This article explores the processes and consequences of one military unit's efforts to "win hearts and minds" in Afghanistan during 2012-13. The first portion of the analysis examines original textual data with a novel methodological approach depicting the unit's perceptions of commonalities between itself and local actors. The second portion explores the consequences with data from original interviews with residents of southern Afghanistan in 2014-15. The findings suggest that achieving a local peace can be undermined by military and development actors' own perception of the local community. The article concludes with a discussion of how sociological studies of micro-settings between actors can contribute to research on conflict and wartime development, as well as how the sociological study of war can further develop by disaggregating conflict settings and tracing the social construction of wartime socio-political landscapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Correspondence between the Family Members as the Historical Source of the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Khubulova


    Full Text Available The extracts from the personal correspondence of the career soldier of the Russian Army E.I. Denisov and his spouse E.I. Denisova-Gerlih are published for the first time. The information, obtained from the letters, enables to reconstruct some spheres of everyday life of the servicemen of the Russian Army and the wives of combatants, trace back the change of worldview attitudes, individual and social behavioral aspects of the population in the First World War. Modern challenges allow us to raise new, unpublished data, analyze the problems beyond the research survey. Letters of the contemporaries contain the data, concerning new realities in Russian citizens’ worldview formation in wartime. They enable to feel the war through people’s impressions, to see the emotional experience of the ordinary person, to penetrate into his inner world with its worries, thoughts and emotions. Personal correspondence fills the gap in our knowledge of the changes in mass and personal strategy of survival. The letters reflect the full extent of the personal values of wartime period. The study of the wartime letters helps us to get the idea of contemporaries’ inner world, understand the deep origins of selflessness, fortitude, mass heroism.

  5. World War II and other historical influences on the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society. (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick


    Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.

  6. Japanese Modernism at a "Branch Point": On the Museum of Modern Art, Hayama’s "1937" Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Michael Smith


    Full Text Available This article frames the Museum of Modern Art, Hayama’s 2017 exhibition on Japanese modernism during the simultaneously vibrant and tumultuous 1930s through the lens of Japan’s uneven capitalist development and wartime mobilization. The author suggests that the exhibition’s unique international scope, rich selection of figurative and abstract modernist works, and emphasis on the year 1937 as a nexus through which the decade’s competing tendencies can be reevaluated readily disclose the constitutive, dialectical relationships between historical difference, total war, and modernist form in imperial Japan and its colonies. The exhibition’s featured works and curator Asaki Yuka’s direction together emphasized the inseparability of Japanese modernism from the encroaching conditions of world war during the late 1930s, thereby contributing to a growing body of scholarship and series of exhibitions challenging the received oppositions between autonomous modernism, proletarian realism, and wartime propaganda. After introductory remarks on the reassessment of 1930s-era Japanese avant-garde aesthetics, the article provides a series of close readings of significant paintings included in the exhibition, including Murai Masanari’s 1937 Urban, Matsumoto Shunsuke’s 1935 Building, and Uchida Iwao’s 1937 Port. These formal readings explore how the year 1937 marked a pivotal “branch point” for Japanese society, not only in terms of the confluence of various artistic trends but also in terms of the fierce opposition between socialism and fascism that bifurcated potentialities for Japan’s future.

  7. Facial cues to perceived height influence leadership choices in simulated war and peace contexts. (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C; Perrett, David I


    Body size and other signs of physical prowess are associated with leadership hierarchies in many social species. Here we (1) assess whether facial cues associated with perceived height and masculinity have different effects on leadership judgments in simulated wartime and peacetime contexts and (2) test how facial cues associated with perceived height and masculinity influence dominance perceptions. Results indicate that cues associated with perceived height and masculinity in potential leaders‟ faces are valued more in a wartime (vs. peacetime) context. Furthermore, increasing cues of apparent height and masculinity in faces increased perceived dominance. Together, these findings suggest that facial cues of physical stature contribute to establishing leadership hierarchies in humans.

  8. Methodology for the design of Santa Rosa de Cabal sanitary landfill, Risaralda; Metodologia para el diseno del relleno sanitario de Santa Rosa de Cabal, Risaralda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, J; Orozco, J


    In 1987 the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Risaralda, CARDER and the Risaralda Government, they signed a cooperation agreement, in order to endowing from sanitary landfill to the municipalities of the department. In the mark of this agreement it was carried out the design of Santa Rosa's sanitary landfill, that with near 50.000 inhabitants it is constituted in the third city of the department. This city generates some 25 tons/day of garbage that at the present time are heady directly to the waters of San Eugenio River. The present work contains the most important methodological aspects in the design of the sanitary landfill and some comments about the approaches ideal Vs real approaches of selection of places.

  9. Methodology for the design of Santa Rosa de Cabal sanitary landfill, Risaralda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, J; Orozco, J


    In 1987 the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Risaralda, CARDER and the Risaralda Government, they signed a cooperation agreement, in order to endowing from sanitary landfill to the municipalities of the department. In the mark of this agreement it was carried out the design of Santa Rosa's sanitary landfill, that with near 50.000 inhabitants it is constituted in the third city of the department. This city generates some 25 tons/day of garbage that at the present time are heady directly to the waters of San Eugenio River. The present work contains the most important methodological aspects in the design of the sanitary landfill and some comments about the approaches ideal Vs real approaches of selection of places

  10. Wartime Stress: Family Adjustment to Loss (United States)


    head wounds did not usually survive to return. For the most. part in South- east Asia, the food consisted of pumpkin soup and a bit of wormy rice...because of his illness. In Iran, food may have been substandard, but it was adequate to meet basic bodily needs (Hunter, 1981). * The two experiences also

  11. Predicting Wartime Demand for Aircraft Spares

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slay, F


    .... This simple observation raised suspicions that parts fail on the basis of sorties flown, not hours flown, even though Air Force planning systems forecast demands on the basis of projected flying hours...

  12. Deployment of Military Mothers during Wartime (United States)


    they going to get dressed, what to get fed, their school work, and soccer , music, all that. But I kind of had to tell myself that once I’m away I won’t...normalizing. [P26] My two girls are very social. One was in Girl Scouts and the other was in soccer . So the nanny shuttling them around I think helped...risk factors such as HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (); training issues (); nutrition and weight control () health promotion (Agazio Ephraim

  13. Children of Stalingrad: Wartime Food Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryblova Marina Aleksandrovna


    Full Text Available This article gives analysis of food practices of children in Stalingrad during the War, based on an earlier published memories and also results of 264 interviews of Volgograd and Volgograd region citizens, whose childhood took place during the Great Patriotic War. Based on historical and anthropological approach, this study reveals and characterizes dramatic changes, which took place in those children’ dietary ration, methods of getting food, its processing and consumption during their life in the city ruined by bombardments, sieged and later occupied by enemy forces. The conducted analysis revealed that in most cases children of Stalingrad copied the experience of adults in their attempts to get food for themselves and provide it to their relatives. So, in a wide use there were such deviant practices of survival as marauding and stealing; archaic feeding methods as gathering and natural economy revival; and feeding anomalies as eating for such products that have been never used in the past. At the same time experience of previous generations who lived through wars and hunger and who preserved in their collective memory information about folk traditions of survival in the extreme circumstances, has been preserved and actualized in the life support system of all Stalingrad citizens. At the war time food practices of Stalingrad citizens downgraded were often to the level of simple physical satisfaction, traditions of feats settings were curtailed, and rules and restrictions related to the previous had disappeared. But even in difficult conditions of ruined and sieged city Stalingrad citizens and their children widely used methods and ways of hunger and its effects overcoming, that were formed in the Russian national environment, i.e. neighbours mutual aid traditions, caring attitude towards food, and methods of its search and consumption.

  14. Needham at the crossroads: history, politics and international science in wartime China (1942-1946). (United States)

    Mougey, Thomas


    In 1946, the British biochemist Joseph Needham returned from a four-year stay in China. Needham scholars have considered this visit as a revelatory period that paved the way for his famous book series Science and Civilization in China (SCC). Surprisingly, however, Needham's actual time in China has remained largely unstudied over the last seventy years. As director of the Sino-British Scientific Cooperation Office, Needham travelled throughout Free China to promote cooperation between British and Chinese scientists to contain the Japanese invasion during the Second World War. By rediscovering Needham's peregrinations, this paper re-examines the origins of his fascination for China. First, it contests the widely held idea that this Chinese episode is quite separate and different from Needham's first half-life as a leftist scientist. Second, it demonstrates how the political and philosophical commitments he inherited from the social relations of science movement, and his biochemical research, shaped his interest in China's past. Finally, this paper recounts these forgotten years to reveal their implications for his later pursuits as historian of science and as director of the natural-science division of UNESCO. It highlights how, while in China, Needham co-constituted the philosophical tenets of his scientific programme at UNESCO and the conceptual foundations of his SCC.

  15. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton


    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  16. Land Combat Systems Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al Sheybah, Yousef; Atkins, Robert T; Beal, Jean; Caputo, Michael; Cole, William; Farghal, Mohammad; Foskey, Ron; Gilmour, John; Glover, Robert; Hall, David


    .... Funding fluctuations, Berry Amendment requirements, and long lead times contributed to delays in some procurements, leading the study to make recommendations for improvements to wartime acquisition processes...

  17. Proposed underground gasification. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An underground coal gasification experiment which could provide the key to recovering the energy in millions of tonnes of otherwise inaccessible undersea coal reserves is proposed by the NCB. The Board's Headquarters Technical Department hope to carry out a field trial in a six foot thick coal seam about 2000 feet beneath a former wartime airfield near the hamlet of Ossington near Newark, Notts, UK. This paper describes briefly the proposed project, which could cost up to 15 million pounds over five years. It has the backing and financial support of the European Economic Community.

  18. The Symbiosis of Combat Casualty Care and Civilian Trauma Care: 1914-2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pruitt, Jr, Basil A


    .... Treatment refinements developed during wartime and research findings generated during conflict and the interbellum periods have been transferred to the civilian community to improve the care of all trauma patients...

  19. The Awakening of Feminist Consciousness in D. H. Lawrence’s Tickets, Please

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lin-hui


    D. H. Lawrence’s“Tickets, Please”displays a wartime love story between Coddy and Annie. In their love affairs, Cod-dy, the man of impotence deems his freedom much as before while Annie switches back to the traditional female role to consider marriage as the ultimate goal. In“Tickets, Please”, the incidental effects of progress on humanity are shown through the Lawren-tian central theme of the relationship between men and women. Here, the weaker sex and the stronger sex are respectively and ironically embodied by Annie Stone and John Thomas Raynor. This paper analyzes the wartime setting, the tram girls and the love struggle between Annie and Coddy. Through these analyses, the paper reveals the awakening of feminist consciousness in the story.

  20. Posttraumatic stress in aging World War II survivors after a fireworks disaster: a controlled prospective study. (United States)

    Bramsen, Inge; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Boers, Maarten


    Little is known about the effects of cumulative trauma and whether traumatized individuals are more vulnerable. In 2000, a fireworks disaster created the possibility to examine this issue among World War II survivors who were part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Between 1998 and 2000 posttraumatic stress increased in disaster exposed respondents as opposed to the control group. War-related reexperiencing and avoidance also increased. The strongest increase occurred in disaster-exposed respondents who had low levels of wartime stress and a slight decrease occurred in those who had high wartime exposure. This unique controlled observation suggests that disasters do increase the levels of posttraumatic stress, and that reactivation of previous traumatic events generally occurs. However, the vulnerability hypothesis was not supported.

  1. The offshore petroleum industry: The formative years, 1945-1962 (United States)

    Kreidler, Tai Deckner


    This dissertation is the first to examine the offshore oil industry that was born in the calm waters of the Gulf of Mexico. It describes the industry's origins and tracks its development as a consequence of a search for new oil frontiers. In addition, it elaborates how the oil industry moved into the marine province using available technology, and was driven by the economic urgency to compete and develop new territories. Enterprising drilling contractors and operators seized the offshore gamble, finding it possible to lower the economic and technological threshold by drawing directly from wartime research and surplus equipment. Though large oil companies had placed its indelible stamp upon the industry, the smaller, independent oil operators set the pace of early offshore development. As a technological frontier, offshore development depended upon creative and unconventional engineering. Unfamiliar marine conditions tested the imagination of oil industry engineering. The unorthodox methods of John Hayward of Barnsdall Oil and R. G. LeTourneau of LeTourneau, Inc. among others transformed the industry by blending petroleum and marine engineering. Grappling with alien marine conditions and lacking formal training, Hayward and LeTourneau merged a century of practical oil field knowledge and petroleum engineering with 2,000 years of shipbuilding experience. The Gulf of Mexico served as a fertile and protective environment for the development of a fledgling industry. With calm waters, lacking the tempestuous and stormy character of the Atlantic Ocean, with a gradual sea-floor slope and saturated with the highly productive salt dome reservoirs, the Gulf became the birth place of the modern offshore oil industry. Within its protective sphere, companies experimented and developed various technical and business adaptations. Operators used technology and business strategies that increased the opportunity for success. In addition, regional academic research institutes arose as

  2. Redefining the Air Force Medical Service in the New Millennium: Should the AFMS Outsource Physician Training and Residency Education Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Susan


    ... that will greatly impact military readiness. Providing the correct mix of physicians to the Air Expeditionary Forces for contingency and wartime operations will partially determine the effectiveness of the deployed forces...

  3. United States Transportation Command Compliance with DoD Policy on the Use of Commercial Sealift

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Mehlman, Benjamin A; Lippolis, Susan J; Avers, Marc E; Brake, Chrispian M; Lyons, Amber M; Alvarez Torres, Zorayma; Groubert, Christopher S; Milner, Jillisa H


    .... The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether USTRANSCOM was complying with DoD policies in the use of commercial transport during wartime and whether those policies provide optimal...

  4. Long-term outcomes of unilateral transtibial amputations. (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad H; Hariri, Sanaz


    the long-term outcomes of wartime transtibial amputations have not been well documented. The purpose of this case series is to present the long-term functional, social, and psychological outcomes of modern-day military unilateral transtibial amputees. the Iranian Veterans Administration of the Khorasan province invited their Iranian military amputees from the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) to its medical center for evaluation. The patients filled out a detailed questionnaire and were interviewed and examined by each team member. two hundred (77%) of the 260 invited amputees were willing and able to come back for follow-up. Ninety-six of these patients (48%) were unilateral transtibial amputation. The average follow-up was 17.4 years (range 15-22 years). Land mines were the leading cause of war injury necessitating a transtibial amputation (68%). The most common symptoms about their amputated limbs were phantom sensations (54%), phantom pain (17%), and stump pain (42%). Lower back pain, contralateral (nonamputated limb) knee pain, and ipsilateral (amputated limb) knee pain were reported by 44%, 38%, and 13% of subjects, respectively. Sixty-five percent of patients were employed or had been employed for multiple years after their war injury. All patients were married, and 97% had children. Fifty-four percent of amputees reported psychological problems; 26% were currently utilizing psychological support services. at long-term follow-up, most military transtibial amputees experienced phantom sensation or some type of stump pain. More than half had persistent psychiatric problems, but only about half of these patients were receiving psychological treatment. Although this case series reports the status of these amputees, the next step would be to prospectively follow modern wartime amputees using standardized, validated outcome measures. With the goal of optimizing long-term amputee outcomes, researchers should correlate outcomes with demographics, injury characteristics, and

  5. Neighbourship and Friendship among Returnees and Immigrants in the Pre-War, Wartime and Post-War Social Setting of the Brod-Posavina County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić


    migrants were queried: refugees-immigrants, returnees-Croats and returnees-Serbs. A comparison was made of their attitudes in regard to neighbourship and friendship between Croats and Serbs in the pre-war, wartime and post-war periods. Their responses indicated a favourable or mostly favourable level of social interaction between Croats and Serbs in the pre-war period. Amiable coexistence was a very much value in parts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Even during the war, although there was different and also aggressive behaviour among friends and neighbours of the other ethnicity (Croats or Serbs, primary social interaction continued to function at least in small segments. Friends, somewhat more often than neighbours, protected persons of the other ethnicity during the war. Primary social relationships were not destroyed even during the worst war periods. It would be expected that this would be an alleviating factor during the post-war (reconstruction of primary social structures. Yet the post-war situation is burdened with problems. Apart from material and financial difficulties, the most grievous ones are psychological. Memories of the war, of the dead and wounded, aggravate communication or make it impossible. Nevertheless, despite even this, difficult circumstances, communication between the three groups of respondents (especially between Croats and Serbs exists, at least in a nuclear form. Thus, if favourable macro-circumstances prevail (primarily a democratic state policy, one can expect a gradual, although slow, regeneration of primary relationship networks in the local community.

  6. Cosmic noise: a history of early radio astronomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner


    .... The whole of worldwide radio and radar astronomy is covered, beginning with the discoveries by Jansky and Reber of cosmic noise before World War II, through the wartime detections of solar noise...

  7. Guantanamo Bay -- Undermining the Global War on Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fogarty, Gerard P


    Following 9/11, the U.S. Administration invoked extraordinary wartime powers to establish a new forward-leaning system of military justice that it hoped would match a very different type of conflict...

  8. Behind the Scenes, in the Forefront: Vietnamese Women in War and Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Borton


    Full Text Available This essay explores contributions to Vietnamese history by Vi?t Nam’s first historical generals (who were women as well as by women from the Vietnamese Communist Party’s early years through the French-American War (1945–1954 and the American War (1954?1975. It discusses how women used Confucian subservience, gender-determined dress, and traditional roles to supply local soldiers, gather intelligence, and resist the French and American armies. I provide information, documents, and photographs gathered by completing annotated book translations and by engaging in conversations and interviews conducted in Vietnamese over the course of nearly fifty years, including accounts from both famous and ordinary Vietnamese women. Their stories are unique yet representative of the experiences of many wartime participants.

  9. Broadening Student Understanding of Wartime Experience through Original Works of Art and Personal Accounts (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann


    Tracy A. Sugarman served in the U.S. Navy as a lieutenant, junior grade, in the European theater during World War II. During his years of service from 1942-45, in addition to writing letters home, he recorded his experiences through original artwork. His sketches and watercolor paintings, completed before, during, and after D-Day, with titles such…

  10. 设备维修最优化调度策略方法研究%Equipment Repair Optimization Scheduling Strategy Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Under the condition of information technology, wartime equipment repair optimization scheduling problem is a key problem in the process of repair security. In this paper, according to the PSO algorithm based model is proposed for the wartime equipment repair security scheduling strategy, maximize the wartime repair support system effectiveness. Im-proved the PSO algorithm, solved the local optimization algorithm, compared with the FCFS repair security scheduling strat-egy, The simulation experiments show that the POS algorithm to scheduling performance is improved obviously.%信息化条件下,战时装备维修优化调度问题是装备维修保障过程中的关键问题。本文根据PSO算法建立模型提出了战时装备维修保障调度策略,最大限度的提高战时维修保障系统的效能,同时对PSO算法进行改进,解决算法中的局部最优化问题,最后与基于FCFS算法的维修保障调度策略进行对比,通过仿真实验证明PSO算法对调度性能有明显改善。

  11. ‘Left out in the Cold: Village Women and Agricultural Labour in England and Wales during the First World War’. (United States)

    Verdon, Nicola


    The Women’s Land Army (WLA), formed in 1917, has featured prominently in recent academic and popular account of First World War Britain. This interest reflects the attention the WLA drew from politicians, government reporters and contemporary commentators during and immediately after the war itself. Yet, the WLA, which at its peak had 16,000 women working on the land, was just one strand of wartime female agricultural labour, an auxiliary to the thousands of village women who worked throughout the war. Whilst the WLA received numerous plaudits for their participation, village women were ‘left out in the cold’, as one correspondent to The Times put it, in recognition of their wartime service. This article will place the rural woman worker back to centre stage. It will revisit the often-contradictory wartime estimates of the number of women working in agriculture in England and Wales before moving on to examine how regional farming structures and seasonal demands for labour shaped the use of women workers. It will show that even at the very local level, here utilizing records from the Bedfordshire Women’s War Agricultural Committee, demand and supply issues produced a fractured pattern. It will show that concentrating exclusively on the WLA leads to a distorted picture of women’s work on the land during the First World War.

  12. Class VIII Medical Materiel Controls in the U.S. European Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Class VIII medical materiel inventories are maintained as part of the U.S. war reserve stocks to ensure military readiness and to provide needed health care during wartime or contingencies. The U.S...

  13. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best Jr, Richard A


    ... carry out their military missions, and to be prepared to deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides, where space is available, health care services in Department of Defense (DOD...

  14. Positive tertiary appraisals and posttraumatic stress disorder in U.S. male veterans of the war in Vietnam: the roles of positive affirmation, positive reformulation, and defensive denial. (United States)

    Dohrenwend, Bruce P; Neria, Yuval; Turner, J Blake; Turse, Nicholas; Marshall, Randall; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Koenen, Karestan C


    A 70.9% majority of the U.S. male veterans in a nationwide sample appraised the impact of their service in Vietnam on their present lives as mainly positive. A substantial minority, 41.7%, judged the effects to be highly salient. With controls on level of exposure to war-zone stressors measured with data from military records, the valence and salience of these appraisals are investigated in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other indicators of wartime and postwar functioning. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that mainly positive tertiary appraisals are affirmations of successful wartime and postwar adaptation rather than defensive denials related to maladaptive outcomes. The possibility that mainly positive tertiary appraisals also contribute to successful postwar adaptation is discussed. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Transforming Wartime Contracting: Controlling Costs, Reducing Risks (United States)


    conceptual ambiguity lies nestled in the meaning ascribed to “inherent.” The language of the Instruction also serves as an illustration that...other factors to the composite rate to present a fuller accounting of the cost of military personnel. It adds costs for recruitment and advertising ...Defense Adds to above: Costs for recruitment and advertising , training, subsidized groceries (commissaries), education assistance, child-development

  16. Education: A Journal for Its Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Albright


    Full Text Available On the face of it, contemporary educational research is significantly different in order and kind from the period after WWII when the esteemed American education psychologist, Harold H. Abelson (1948 [1], wrote his essay, “The Role of Educational Research in a Democracy.” The current conditions under which educational researchers labor foreground national and global challenges are quite unlike those he outlined in that heady post war period just prior to its descent into the Cold War. Since Abelson’s progressive reading of the upward arch of the first half of the Twentieth Century’s educational research history, unprecedented global movements of people, money and ideas, revolutionary and expanding modes of communication, and expediential growth in knowledge production and dissemination have broadened and complicated educational research, let alone practice and policy. [...

  17. Optimum Route Planning and Scheduling for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonmezocak, Erkan; Kurt, Senol


    .... The route planning of UAVs is the most critical and challenging problem of wartime. This thesis will develop three algorithms to solve a model that produces executable routings in order to dispatch three Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV...

  18. The California Valley grassland (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.


    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  19. Sexual violence by occupational forces during and after World War II: influence of experiencing and witnessing of sexual violence on current mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians. (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Zeilinger, Elisabeth L


    Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians. Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL-C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet). Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses. Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.

  20. Keeping Wartime Memory Alive: An Oral History Project about the Wartime Memories of People with Learning Difficulties in Cumbria (United States)

    Dias, John; Eardley, Malcolm; Harkness, Elizabeth; Townson, Louise; Brownlee-Chapman, Chloe; Chapman, Rohhss


    This article discusses an oral history project funded by the Heritage Lottery. It recorded the memories of eight people with learning difficulties during the Second World War in Cumbria, UK, before their personal histories were lost forever. This qualitative, inclusive research project was supported by various organisations. The process of…

  1. Publications | Page 14 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 131 - 140 of 6340 ... Violence against women rooted in conflict over land ... court has tried and convicted military officers for wartime sexual violence. ... Vehicle-focused street design is limiting space for vendors, children, the elderly, and ...

  2. Will the war for the Croatian Homeland War veterans ever end? (United States)

    Rak, Davor; Matić, Aldenita; Rak, Benedict


    The aim of this paper is to show the psychological consequences of participation in the Homeland War and experienced trauma which can indirectly be seen through drawing even after more than 15 years after the war had ended. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 patients of both genders treated in the Daily Hospital program of University Hospital Dubrava, Psychiatry Clinics. All the tested had trauma in their medical history and all of them met the PTSD diagnostic criteria, 75 examinees participated in the Homeland War and they represent the veteran group, and 50 examinees went through a stressful situation during peacetime and they represent the civilian group. All the examinees had to make two individual drawings, and the task was to portray feelings of term "love" (first drawing) and term "hate" (second drawing). They could choose motifs and colors freely. When portraying the term love, choice of motifs between the civilian and the veteran group wasn't considerably different, and only a small number of male veteran population (6.6%) drawings hinted at the connection with the Homeland War. The results between two groups are completely different in portraying the term hate. As much as 76% examinees from the veteran group have unequivocally and directly decided to portray wartime motifs, unlike the civilian group whose use of wartime motifs was just 10%. When choosing color, nearly 90% of the veteran group used neutral and cool colors to portray the term hate.

  3. Churchill, Moran and the struggle for survival. (United States)

    Beasley, A W


    This paper examines the association between Winston Churchill and Charles McMoran Wilson, later Lord Moran, who was made personal physician to Churchill in 1940 at the instigation of the Cabinet when Churchill became prime minister of wartime Britain.

  4. The Effect of Improving the Logistics Pipeline on Supply Support of Aerospace Expeditionary Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez, Steven


    .... If so, the Air Force should be able to trim its wartime stocks of aircraft spares. This thesis investigated the effect of improving the logistics pipeline on the size and cost of Air Force mobility readiness spares packages (MRSPs...

  5. The birth of nuclear chemistry created opportunities and danger, a pioneer recalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, J.


    An autobiographical account is given of the author's work in the Canadian wartime atomic energy project, and of his post-war work at the University of Saskatchewan on chemical studies with radioisotope tracers and on radiation chemistry. (U.K.)

  6. Progress: Its Glories and Pitfalls. (United States)

    Callahan, Daniel


    Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist and linguist at Harvard and a savant of big ideas, is one of the latest to take on the idea of progress. He does it under the aegis of "enlightenment," which comes down to a kind of holy trinity of reason, science, and humanism. His new book, Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress, is ambitious and cantankerous and heady with hope. On the whole, Pinker makes a good case for the benefits of progress, but with an overdose of feel-good prose. His greatest failure comes in exaggerating the threats to science and in avoiding some problems altogether. He ignores its complexity, its shadows, its creation of new problems raised by its solutions to old ones. Pinker has a particular animus against bioethics, and he misses what has been, I would argue, at the heart of bioethics from its beginning fifty or so years ago. Bioethics was prompted by a new class of medical dilemmas that require a difficult balancing of harms and benefits. Most of them are still with us, and most of them are the result of the progress of postwar medical research and fast-changing clinical practices. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  7. The First World War and Its Implications for Education in British Museums. (United States)

    Kavanagh, Gaynor


    Examines how the First World War prompted British museums to change their educational functions. Discusses museums in pre-war Britain, wartime exhibitions and educational activities, the outcome of the war experience, and First World War's implications for education in museums. (GEA)

  8. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.


    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.

  9. Brief History of a Photograph | Breve historia de una fotografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Espinosa Maestre


    Full Text Available The manipulation and use of photographs for ulterior motives is as old as their history. This is particularly true in wartime, and therefore all historical photographs should be questioned and analysed with extreme care. In war-time, there is no clear boundary between information and propaganda. The task of ascertaining the truth is, indeed, not an easy one. This paper, the fruit of many years of research, traces the history of a photograph over seventy years. The photograph shows a massacre that took place in a village during the advance of Franco’s forces through the south-east of Spain in the summer of 1936. Our research has shown that its caption distorted the reality of events from the very beginning. | La manipulación y el uso interesado de la fotografía son tan antiguos como su propia historia. Esto es especialmente aplicable a la fotografía en tiempo de guerra. Por esta razón cualquier imagen de carácter histórico debe ser por principio puesta en duda y analizada con sumo cuidado. En la guerra no hay límite alguno entre información y propaganda. Sin embargo, esta tarea no es fácil. Este trabajo, fruto de muchos años de investigación, trata de seguir la historia de una fotografía a lo largo de setenta años. La foto refleja una matanza que tuvo lugar en un pueblo coincidiendo con el avance de las fuerzas de Franco por el suroeste en el verano de 1936. La investigación ha demostrado que el pie de foto falseó la realidad desde su mismo origen.

  10. Management Sciences Division Annual Report (9th) (United States)


    41 Actuarial Process Consolidation and Review ....................................... 43 How M alfunction Code Reduction...47 Sun W ork Stations ............................................................................... 48 Actuarial Process Consolidation and...Information System (WSMIS). Dyna-METRIC is used for wartime supply support capability assessments. The Aircraft Sustainability Model ( ASM ) is the

  11. Propaganda to Mobilize Women for World War II. (United States)

    Mathis, Susan


    Describes government efforts to mobilize U.S. women during World War II. Discusses the need for women's participation and the problems confronted by women who joined the wartime labor force. Describes efforts to increase participation by women in the armed forces. (CFR)

  12. Saving Life, Limb, and Eyesight: Assessing the Medical Rules of Eligibility During Armed Conflict. (United States)

    Gross, Michael L


    Medical rules of eligibility permit severely injured Iraqi and Afghan nationals to receive care in Coalition medical facilities only if bed space is available and their injuries result directly from Coalition fire. The first rule favors Coalition soldiers over host-nation nationals and contradicts the principle of impartial, needs-based medical care. To justify preferential care for compatriots, wartime medicine invokes associative obligations of care that favor friends, family, and comrades-in-arms. Associative obligations have little place in peacetime medical care but significantly affect wartime medicine. The second rule suggests liability for collateral harm that is unsupported by international law and military ethics. Absent liability, there are pragmatic reasons to offer medical care to injured local civilians if it quells resentment and cements support for Coalition forces. In contrast to peacetime medicine, military necessity and associative obligations outweigh distributive principles based on medical need during war.

  13. Experience with wound VAC and delayed primary closure of contaminated soft tissue injuries in Iraq. (United States)

    Leininger, Brian E; Rasmussen, Todd E; Smith, David L; Jenkins, Donald H; Coppola, Christopher


    Wartime missile injuries are frequently high-energy wounds that devitalize and contaminate tissue, with high risk for infection and wound complications. Debridement, irrigation, and closure by secondary intention are fundamental principles for the management of these injuries. However, closure by secondary intention was impractical in Iraqi patients. Therefore, wounds were closed definitively before discharge in all Iraqi patients treated for such injures at our hospital. A novel wound management protocol was developed to facilitate this practice, and patient outcomes were tracked. This article describes that protocol and discusses the outcomes in a series of 88 wounds managed with it. High-energy injuries were treated with rapid aggressive debridement and pulsatile lavage, then covered with negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure [VAC]) dressings. Patients underwent serial operative irrigation and debridement until wounds appeared clean to gross inspection, at which time they were closed primarily. Patient treatment and outcome data were recorded in a prospectively updated database. Treatment and outcomes data from September 2004 through May 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 88 high-energy soft tissue wounds identified in 77 patients. Surprisingly, for this cohort of patients the wound infection rate was 0% and the overall wound complication rate was 0%. This series of 88 cases is the first report of the use of a negative pressure dressing (wound VAC) as part of the definitive management of high-energy soft tissue wounds in a deployed wartime environment. Our experience with these patients suggests that conventional wound management doctrine may be improved with the wound VAC, resulting in earlier more reliable primary closure of wartime injuries.

  14. The Economics of Air Force Medical Service Readiness. (United States)

    Graser, John C; Blum, Daniel; Brancato, Kevin; Burks, James J; Chan, Edward W; Nicosia, Nancy; Neumann, Michael J; Ritschard, Hans V; Mundell, Benjamin F


    The prime mission of the Air Force Medical Service (AFMS), like those of the medical departments of its sister services, is to provide medical care during wartime. AFMS currently runs three successful in-theater hospitals that treat severely injured or wounded U.S. personnel from all four services. But this wartime mission depends on capabilities built at home, as critical-care specialists maintain their technical proficiency, as much as peacetime opportunities allow, by meeting health-care needs of Department of Defense beneficiaries at home. These patients have ranged from young, healthy active-duty personnel to aging retirees, historically presenting a broad range of injuries and illnesses for treatment. However, between the demands of deployments creating gaps in staff at home and changes in care plans, some beneficiaries now seek care in the civilian sector. In addition, several AFMS hospitals stateside have been closed, converted to clinics, or combined with those of other services for various reasons. All is problematic for two reasons: First, inpatient workloads in particular represent the best opportunities for critical care providers to prepare for their wartime missions. AFMS will need to increase these opportunities, perhaps working with other services, the Department of Veterans Affairs, or civilian hospitals. Second, AFMS's funding depends, in part, on the workload performed, but current measurement methods do not necessarily do a good job of accounting for the work AFMS practitioners accomplish outside their home stations. Some imminent changes may help resolve this situation, but AFMS should pursue opportunities to create additional workload for its medical personnel and to increase its budgets.

  15. On the Shores of the Revolution: Martín Luis Guzmán in Madrid (1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Quintanilla


    Full Text Available 1915 is considered a decisive year in world history. Underneath wartime plundering, eighteenth-century beliefs in social progress and human civilization collapsed, and other political and philosophical credos sprouted, while aesthetic avant-gardes created new forms of artistic and literary expression. That same year, from his exile in Madrid, Martín Luis Guzmán would define the coordinates that would guide his life, while trying to assimilate his recent experiences during the Mexican Revolution and make way as a writer, under the immediate protection of Alfonso Reyes and the far-away but determining one of Pedro Henríquez Ureña. Without abandoning his political vocation and remaining open to new trends, Guzmán drew up his own path, which would lead him alongside his mentors and to the forefront of literature in Spanish.

  16. 28 CFR 74.3 - Eligibility determinations. (United States)


    ... Residence” card with the Wartime Civil Control Administration; or (3) Individuals ordered by the Navy to... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility determinations. 74.3 Section 74.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT REDRESS PROVISION...

  17. When Teams Break Down: A Study of the Active Army/National Guard Feud of 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Ruth


    Teamwork is at the heart of all that is good and successful about the U.S. Army. Because it is so critical to warfighting and to all other missions, peacetime and wartime, we are taught not to expect anything good when teams break down...

  18. Ever-Widening Horizons: Hemingway’s War Literature, 1923 to 1940 (United States)


    the erroneous merging of his literature and his carefully cultivated public machismo that leads to accusations that he celebrates violence or...conclusion. She views these silences as machismo acts that form "a commentary on the whole self-destructiveness of wartime masculinity. That is, masculinity

  19. 32 CFR 169a.9 - Reviews: Existing in-house commercial activities. (United States)


    ... either government or contractor personnel, whichever is more cost effective. Core logistics activities... review schedules. Existing in-house CAs, once reviewed shall be retained in-house without a cost.... In most cases, application of this criteria shall be made considering the wartime and peacetime...

  20. Slavery, migration and contemporary bondage in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirk, J.; Vigneswaran, D.


    Slavery in Africa is commonly associated with the distant past: images of maritime slavery in the Gold Coast, Biafra, Angola and Zanzibar together with the horrors of the 'Middle Passage' to the Americas. However, widespread evidence of human trafficking, wartime enslavement and other forms of

  1. Babies of the War: Effect of War Exposure Early in Life on Mortality Throughout Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, M.; van Ewijk, R.J.G.


    There is increasing evidence that circumstances very early in our lives, and particularly during pregnancy, can affect our health for the remainder of life. Studies that have looked at this relationship have often used extreme situations, such as famines that occurred during wartime. Here we

  2. Effect of childhood age in foster care on the incidence of divorce in adulthood. (United States)

    Rusby, James S M


    This retrospective study examines the long-term effect of the age at which British children were fostered in World War II on their divorce rate. A total of 859 respondents, aged 62 to 72 years, were recruited who had childhood homes in the county of Kent in southeast England during the war. Of these, 770 had been evacuated and fostered, and the remainder stayed at home. Reflecting the wartime concerns of Bowlby, Miller, and Winnicott (1939) regarding the wisdom of separating young children from their parents for a potentially long period, male and female respondents evacuated between the ages of 4 to 6 years had a significantly higher incidence of divorce compared with those in the 13- to 15-year age group. This association was found to be mediated by attachment style in which the fearful category was predominant. The relevance of these results in the broader developmental context, and to family counseling, are briefly discussed.

  3. Former Military Networks a Threat to Peace? The Demobilisation and Remobilization of Renamo in Central Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkie Wiegink


    Full Text Available Renamo’s recent upsurge against the Mozambican Frelimo-led government after 22 years of relative stability has challenged the country’s often celebrated disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process (1992 to 1994. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Maringue (Sofala province, the location of the rebels’ wartime headquarters and a post-war Renamo stronghold, this paper shows that while the DDR program supposedly ended Renamo’s command and control structure, the former rebel network continued to be a central feature of ex-combatants’ social worlds. Former Renamo combatants spend most of their time in the company of their ‘colleagues of the trenches’ and engaged in relationships of dependency with political Renamo leaders and former commanders. These relationships were not only shaped by the former military structure, but also by friendship, marriage, and patronage dynamics, providing ex-Renamo combatants with physical and economic safety, a sense of belonging and economic possibilities. Recent events in Mozambique suggest that the post-conflict continuation of informal wartime networks is a threat to peace and a failure of demobilization. Nevertheless, the fieldwork conducted in Maringue reveals that the dismantling of the command and control structure is often in vain, as it may be worthwhile for ex-combatants to maintain ties with their former military group for various reasons. Therefore, I argue that it may be useful to consider these networks based on the former armed group in processes of violence reduction, also in the development of DDR programs, as these may offer possibilities for the re-positioning and transformation of (former armed actors.

  4. 22 CFR 231.02 - Definitions. (United States)



  5. 22 CFR 231.14 - Arbitration. (United States)



  6. 22 CFR 231.01 - Purpose. (United States)



  7. 22 CFR 231.04 - Guarantee eligibility. (United States)



  8. Australia's First Prime Ministerial Library: Past and Future (United States)

    Carman-Brown, Lesley; Henderson, Kandy-Jane; Wallace, Lesley


    In creating Australia's first prime ministerial library, a new cultural institution was developed which blends professional practice from the fields of librarianship, education, archives, journalism and museums. The John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library honours the contribution of wartime prime minister John Curtin, works towards the advancement…

  9. 76 FR 81807 - Operational Contract Support (United States)


    ... economy; productivity; competition; jobs; the environment; public health or safety; or State, local, or... publication of this rule has no impact on the extant requirement for contractors to use SPOT. Executive Order... linguist/translator services considered of utmost importance to the U.S. mobilization and wartime mission...

  10. Children of War. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  11. Poesía y poliorcética

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Suárez, Juan Carlos


    The conquest and colonization of a territory entails a series of operations designed to eliminate a whole model of culture. After wartime, the colonization and subsequent disposal of the collective imagination of the conquered space is imposed by the invadors. The operations performed in order to...

  12. The Drone Court And Due Process (United States)


    authority, even during wartime, when it heard Youngstown Tube and Sheet Co. v. Sawyer.68 In 1951, when the United States went to war with Korea , labor...national origin, religion , alienage, and poverty.” See “Strict Scrutiny,” Legal Information Institute, accessed December 9, 2016, https

  13. The Wartime Success of Karl Shapiro's V-Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, D.M.


    The American soldier-poet Karl Shapiro won the Pulitzer Prize for V-Letter and Other Poems (1944), making him an instant celebrity. The volume was written while he was stationed in Australia and New Guinea during World War II. Shaprio sent the completed poems to his fiancée, Evalyn Katz, who edited

  14. Abraham Lincoln: Leadership and Democratic Statesmanship in Wartime (United States)


    Now I can ride,” he exclaimed. “I have a pumpkin in each end of my bag.” The message was clear. If the radicals wanted to get rid of Seward, they...constitutional wherever the public safety required them, whether to prevent the rebellion from spreading , to prevent mischievous interference with raising

  15. Designed for wartime needs, but never actually issued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana


    Full Text Available Seeking funds to finance the war against the Turks which it entered in July 1876, Serbia, ruled by Prince Milan Obrenović, passed the decision on issuing paper banknotes with no backing in precious metals. They were printed at the national printing house in Belgrade. About 1500 pieces of banknotes of the Main National Treasury of the Principality of Serbia were printed in different denominations: 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 dinars. These banknotes were never actually in circulation, being the test prints only, used to check whether the machines and technology for their future printing were working properly. They are extremely rare and popular with collectors. The most interesting ones are the 1-dinar banknotes because they have no reverse side, the 5-dinar banknotes because they were painted by the poet and painter Đura Jakšić, and the 10-dinar ones because they feature the drawings of the painter Đorđe Krstić.

  16. How Wartime Military Service Affects Children and Families (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Flake, Eric


    How are children's lives altered when a parent goes off to war? What aspects of combat deployment are most likely to put children at risk for psychological and other problems, and what resources for resilience can they tap to overcome such hardships and thrive? To answer these questions, Patricia Lester and Lieutenant Colonel Eric Flake first…

  17. Privatisation and outsourcing in wartime: the humanitarian challenges. (United States)

    Carbonnier, Gilles


    The tendency today to privatise many activities hitherto considered the exclusive preserve of the state has given rise to sharp debate. The specific nature of humanitarian emergencies elucidates in particularly stark contrast some of the main challenges connected to the privatisation and outsourcing of essential public services, such as the provision of drinking water and health care. Privatising the realms of defence and security, which are at the very core of state prerogative, raises several legal and humanitarian concerns. This article focuses on the roles and responsibilities of the various parties involved in armed conflicts, especially those of private companies engaged in security, intelligence and interrogation work, and in the provision of water supply and health services. It highlights the need for humanitarian and development actors to grasp better the potential risks and opportunities related to privatisation and outsourcing with a view to supplying effective protection and assistance to communities affected by war.

  18. Soviet Nationalities in German Wartime Strategy, 1941-1945. (United States)


    at War, 1 939-1945, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1966. Steiner , Felix, Die Armee der Geachteten, Plesse Verlag, Gettingen, 1963. -,Die...Baumeister, Rudolf , "Erfahrungen mit Ostfreiwilligen," Wehrkunde, April 1955. Davydov, I. V., "Propaganda idei druzby narodov v period bitvy za Kavkaz

  19. Louis Essen and the Velocity of Light: From Wartime Radar to Unit of Length (United States)

    Essen, Ray


    Louis Essen (1908-1997), working at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, England, was the first scientist to realize that the value for the velocity of light used widely during World War II was incorrect. In 1947 he published his first determination of it, which was 16 kilometers per second higher than the accepted value, causing a great deal of controversy in the scientific community. His new value was not accepted for several years, until it was shown that it improved the precision of range-finding by radar. Essen’s result has remained as the internationally accepted value despite a number of attempts to improve on it. I discuss Essen’s work and also examine other optical and nonoptical determinations that were made in the United States, and their limits of accuracy. I also identify the reasons why it took so long for Essen’s new value to be accepted, and how it led to changes in the definition of the units of length and time.

  20. Famine food of vegetal origin consumed in the Netherlands during World War II. (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Tom; de Zwarte, Ingrid; Duistermaat, Leni; van Andel, Tinde


    Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least 25,000 victims. The Dutch government took action by opening soup kitchens and providing information on wild plants and other famine food sources in "wartime cookbooks." The Dutch wartime diet has never been examined from an ethnobotanical perspective. We interviewed 78 elderly Dutch citizens to verify what they remembered of the consumption of vegetal and fungal famine food during World War II by them and their close surroundings. We asked whether they experienced any adverse effects from consuming famine food plants and how they knew they were edible. We identified plant species mentioned during interviews by their local Dutch names and illustrated field guides and floras. We hypothesized that people living in rural areas consumed more wild species than urban people. A Welch t test was performed to verify whether the number of wild and cultivated species differed between urban and rural citizens. A total number of 38 emergency food species (14 cultivated and 21 wild plants, three wild fungi) were mentioned during interviews. Sugar beets, tulip bulbs, and potato peels were most frequently consumed. Regularly eaten wild species were common nettle, blackberry, and beechnuts. Almost one third of our interviewees explicitly described to have experienced extreme hunger during the war. People from rural areas listed significantly more wild species than urban people. The number of cultivated species consumed by both groups was similar. Negative effects were limited to sore throats and stomachache from the consumption of sugar beets and tulip bulbs. Knowledge on the edibility of famine food was obtained largely by oral transmission; few people remembered the written recipes in wartime

  1. Sexual Harassment and Assault as Predictors of PTSD Symptomatology among U.S. Female Persian Gulf Military Personnel. (United States)

    Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.


    Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…

  2. 22 CFR 231.11 - Subrogation of USAID. (United States)



  3. 22 CFR 231.13 - Change in agreements. (United States)



  4. 22 CFR 231.03 - The Guarantee. (United States)



  5. 22 CFR 231.12 - Prosecution of claims. (United States)



  6. 22 CFR 231.07 - Fiscal Agent obligations. (United States)



  7. 22 CFR 231.05 - Non-impairment of the Guarantee. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-impairment of the Guarantee. 231.05 Section 231.05 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD...

  8. Family Reintegration Difficulties and Couples Therapy for Military Veterans and Their Spouses (United States)

    Sayers, S. L.


    There is compelling evidence that mental health problems complicate the process of family reintegration of military service members after a wartime deployment. Couples in which one spouse has recently returned from military deployment in Iraq or Afghanistan and are experiencing marital problems can present a significant treatment challenge. There…

  9. Food Supply and Nutrition in the Bulgarian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Pavlin


    Full Text Available The main tasks of food logistics in the military formations are to provide the personnel with food, material and nutritional property, to maintain and refresh the stocks, as well as organize the nutrition of the personnel in peacetime and wartime according to the current nutrition norms.

  10. 22 CFR 231.09 - No acceleration of Eligible Notes. (United States)


    ... Section 231.09 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11... have the right to pay any amounts in respect of the Eligible Notes other than in accordance with the...

  11. Political Integration, War and Suicide. The Dutch Paradox?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, F.A. van; Ultee, W.C.


    Contrary to Durkheim’s idea about suicide during wartime, the Netherlands had high suicide rates in 1940 and 1945. To explain these findings, we propose the social integration theory, according to which, people who expect to be excluded from society are more likely to commit suicide. We examine this

  12. Political Integration, War and Suicide : The Dutch Paradox?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Ultee, Wout


    Contrary to Durkheim’s idea about suicide during wartime, the Netherlands had high suicide rates in 1940 and 1945. To explain these findings, we propose the social integration theory, according to which, people who expect to be excluded from society are more likely to commit suicide. We examine this

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder among black Vietnam veterans. (United States)

    Allen, I M


    Because of racism in the military and racial and social upheaval in the United States during the Vietnam War years, as well as limited opportunities for blacks in the postwar period, black veterans of the Vietnam War often harbor conflicting feelings about their wartime experiences and have difficulty rationalizing brutality against the Vietnamese. As a result, black veterans suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a higher rate than white veterans. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in black veterans is complicated by the tendency to misdiagnose black patients, by the varied manifestations of PTSD, and by patients' frequent alcohol and drug abuse and medical, legal, personality, and vocational problems. The author presents his and others' recommendations about ways to treat black veterans with PTSD.

  14. Saudi sands, SCUDS, and survival. (United States)

    Glendon, M P


    SCUD attacks were one of many challenges this pediatric nurse practitioner (NP) and Air Force Reserve flight nurse faced daily during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Providing nursing care to sick and injured patients on board a C141 transport plane en route from Saudi Arabia to Germany was her primary responsibility. Additionally, many hours were spent filling sandbags, attending in-service classes, and practicing putting on a gas mask and protective suit. Although the war has been over for almost 3 years, the effects are long lasting. The author was able to use her wartime experience positively to gain insight into survival in today's violent society. As violence increases, NPs must reshape their focus and educate their clients about survival.

  15. Reading/Writing Women in Myriam Warner-Vieyra's Juletane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Brodzki


    Full Text Available Voicelessness, alienation, confinement, deracination, rupture, exclusion, madness and exile: the thematic preoccupations of Myriam Warner-Vieyra's Juletane are familiar to readers of francophone Caribbean women's writing. The legacy of slavery and 20th century departmentalization have produced a complex politics of identity, whose points of reference and sites of longing—though privileged in a variety of ways in the psyches of Caribbean subjects—are Africa and France. The orphaned protagonist Juletane seeks love in Africa in the heady days before Independence. Warner-Vieyra uses the device of the fictional first-person journal mode to examine Juletane's disillusionment as well as the interplay of colonially-produced cultural differences among Caribbean and West African women in a traditional West African community. One of the effects of this devastating narrative is that Western feminist criticism's universalizing theories about reading and writing appear hopelessly reductive from a contemporary francophone African perspective.

  16. Merchants of Light: The Paris Library School, Internationalism, and the Globalization of a Profession (United States)

    Witt, Steven


    Amid growing isolationism after World War I, the American Library Association transferred its wartime programs to train librarians in Europe and promote the American model of public libraries. Working in collaboration with American philanthropists and members of the French library community, ALA established a permanent library school in Paris that…

  17. Time consuming : women's radio and the reconstruction of national narratives in Western Germany 1945-1948

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badenoch, A.W.


    The question of the proper place of women in German society was one of the most pressing issues of the time immediately after the Second World War. The sheer numerical disproportion of women to men in Germany, combined with the expanded public roles many women had adopted during wartime, meant that

  18. Ambiguous Loss, Family Stress, and Infant Attachment during Times of War (United States)

    Gorman, Lisa A.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.


    This article examines the interdependent nature of infants and their parents who are experiencing wartime deployment and reunion. Research supports the contention that the cumulative effects of stress place families at risk; the experience of ambiguous loss changes as family roles change throughout the cycle of deployment; and parental absence has…

  19. Leveraging Strength: The Pillars of American Grand Strategy in World War II (United States)


    yearning for peace—and doing so in a single, one-page package —was a particular genius of American wartime advertisers. The Anglo-American Relationship...41 Morison explains: ‘‘When Mr. Churchill proposed a peripheral landing, anywhere between Norway and Dakar, Mr. Roosevelt was apt to retort , ‘All

  20. Education and War (United States)

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.


    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people…

  1. The U.S. Zone Constabulary, 1946-1952: Organizational Change in Occupied Germany (United States)


    wartime ally, the Soviet Union, began to sour at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945. Tensions continued to increase after the conference, and were...concerning their new mission he informed them they were about to “get off of [their] beer -soaked asses’ and become soldiers again.” See Michael A

  2. Time Consuming: Women's Radio and the Reconstruction of National Narratives in Western Germany 1945-1948

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badenoch, Alexander


    The question of the proper place of women in German society was one of the most pressing issues of the time immediately after the Second World War. The sheer numerical disproportion of women to men in Germany, combined with the expanded public roles many women had adopted during wartime, meant that

  3. The Propaganda Analysis Movement since World War I. (United States)

    Sproule, J. Michael

    To recount the development of the propaganda analysis movement before and since World War I, this paper reviews the precursors of the movement, traces the propaganda conciousness produced by wartime campaigns and subsequent domestic campaigns, and looks at major obstacles to propaganda analysis produced by social and academic conditions after…

  4. Save Now [Y/N]? Machine Memory at War in Iain Banks' "Look to Windward" (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim


    Creating memory during and after wartime trauma is vexed by state attempts to control public and private discourse. Science fiction author Iain Banks' novel "Look to Windward" proposes different ways of preserving memory and culture, from posthuman memory devices, to artwork, to architecture, to personal, local ways of remembering.…

  5. To Teach the Holocaust in Poland: Understanding Teachers' Motivations to Engage the Painful Past (United States)

    Gross, Magdalena H.


    This article highlights the role of teachers in confronting traumatic, hidden wartime histories in communities traumatized by them. The study illuminates patterns based on field observations, emails, and surveys of 60 teachers who participated in a Holocaust teacher preparation program in Poland during the summer of 2010. The teachers surveyed…

  6. The Great American Divide: The Military-Civilian Gap (United States)


    Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, and Joseph J. Thorndike provide a historical account of America’s war-time fiscal policies for the major American wars...accessed January 16, 2012). 63 Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, Joseph J. Thorndike , War and Taxes (Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 2008

  7. The Vietnam Experience in Perspective. (United States)

    Nurse, Ronald J.; Fleming, Dan B.


    Ten recent editions of secondary school-level United States history textbooks were analyzed to determine coverage and balance of the Vietnam War. Treatment of topics such as Vietnamese culture, the roles of wartime leaders, the aims of the United States government, the antiwar movement, and costs of the war are discussed. (PP)

  8. 47 CFR 214.2 - Scope. (United States)


    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL PROCEDURES FOR THE USE AND... the use of radio frequencies upon proclamation by the President that there exists war, or a threat of war or a state of public peril or other wartime emergency or in order to preserve the neutrality of...

  9. The Impact of Fitness on Senior Leadership (United States)


    life or death concerns of the wartime/peace operations mission and hostile environment with which to contend. Likewise, personal or home-life...gestures are graceful, his walk majestic, and he is a splendid horseman …Had he been born in the forests, …he would have been the fiercest man among the

  10. Social Studies Goes to War: An Analysis of the Pre-Induction Social Studies Curriculum of the Providence Public Schools (United States)

    Blankenship, Whitney G.


    From the moment the United States entered World War II, public schools across the nation bombarded the Office of Education Wartime Commission requesting advice on how to mobilize schools for the war effort. American schools would rise to the occasion, implementing numerous programs including pre-induction training and the Victory Corps. The…

  11. School Shock: A Psychodynamic View of Learning Disability. (United States)

    Zitani, E. Alfredo

    Learning disability is seen to be a dissociative disorder (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime. The shell shock model is explained to focus diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities around the dynamics of the predisposing unconscious conflict, the dynamics in the environment, the mechanism which allows these two conditions to…

  12. 22 CFR 231.15 - Notice. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice. 231.15 Section 231.15 Foreign Relations... WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.15 Notice. Any communication to USAID pursuant to this Guarantee shall be in writing in the English language...

  13. War Coverage: The Case of the Falklands. (United States)

    Bellando, Edourado

    The Falkland-Malvinas conflict is a classic example of how a government can manage news in wartime. The rules of the game as evinced by the British government and Ministry of Defense were simple and effective. They controlled access to the fighting, controlled all communications facilities, excluded all neutral correspondents and carefully…

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Infants and Young Children Exposed to War-Related Trauma (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva


    Objective: Although millions of the world's children are growing up amidst armed conflict, little research has described the specific symptom manifestations and relational behavior in young children exposed to wartime trauma or assessed factors that chart pathways of risk and resilience. Method: Participants included 232 Israeli children 1.5 to 5…

  15. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of...

  16. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth


    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  17. Teach Them to Pray Auntie: "Children's Hour Prayers" at the BBC, 1940-1961 (United States)

    Parker, Stephen G.


    From its inception in 1922 the BBC pioneered a new medium in the education of children. This article traces the origins and development of a particular broadcast, "Children's Hour Prayers," a short worship time for children (appended to "Children's Hour") which began in wartime, and ended, along with the host programme itself,…

  18. the role of the pigeon in the first world war

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Despite a stream of publications acknowledging the war-time role of non- ... discourse on the military or of bridging the “long-existing gap in the larger narrative ... the pigeon memorialisation movement in general and in France and Belgium in ...... a short time: New perspectives on the Anglo-Boer War, Pretoria: Nexus.

  19. Meie oma Aarete saar : [arvustus] / Enn Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Enn, 1933-


    Arvustus: Mats Burström. Minnesgömmor: berättelser om föremål gömda i jorden i Estland under andra världskriget. Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2012 ; Burström, Mats. Treasured Memories: Tales of Buried Belonings in Wartime Estonia. Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2012

  20. Veterans' Transitions to Community College: A Case Study (United States)

    Wheeler, Holly A.


    Veterans on college campuses are not new; however, the recent influx of veterans returning home from war-time service present challenges to the colleges they attend. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the transition process experienced by veterans leaving military service and attending community college for the first time.…

  1. Dorothy's Wars: School Leadership during the Birmingham Blitz (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Kate


    This essay examines the school leadership experiences of an infant school head teacher in Birmingham, England, during the Second World War. Drawing on the letters of Dorothy Walker, the essay offers insights into school leadership wartime deprivations. The impact of an international war on the home front was not head teacher Dorothy Walker's only…

  2. From prowar soldier to antiwar activist: Change and continuity in the narratives of political conversion among Iraq War veterans (United States)

    David Flores


    This study examines conversion narratives of Iraq War military veterans who have become antiwar political activists. I examine how antiwar veterans construct and emplot prewar, wartime, and postwar narrative periods to shape and reclaim their moral identities as patriots fighting for a just cause, and how through a communal antiwar story they work to both...

  3. Newspaper Suppression During the Mexican War, 1846-1848. (United States)

    Reilly, Tom

    A number of scholars have found that wartime conditions often bring about conflict between the press and the military. This study documents the various incidents between the United States Army and various Mexican and United States newspaper editors that led to at least ten cases of newspaper suppression, the occasional use of prior censorship, and…

  4. International conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, P.


    The gravest danger facing mankind is that the superpowers have built a complex technological apparatus of nuclear weaponry without thinking through its purpose or control. In a time of crisis nuclear command systems in both the United States and the USSR are likely to pass rapidly from political to highly fragmented military control, making political direction of a nuclear war virtually impossible. The organization and management of nuclear command systems in both peace and war are analyzed, and potential wartime interactions of the Soviet and American control structures are described. Wartime information gathering is identified as the key problem of command and control because the havoc created in communications and data processing by a nuclear war would result in strong decentralizing tendencies with pathological strategy implications. By focusing on how military organizations actually carry out nuclear strategy, the uncertainty and chaos of nuclear war is shown. While there are no absolute guarantees of security in this perilous age, a full understanding of the opportunities and problems of managing nuclear forces may be the best way to prevent disaster

  5. The plutonium files America's secret medical experiments in the cold war

    CERN Document Server

    Welsome, Eileen


    When the vast wartime factories of the Manhattan Project began producing plutonium in quantities never before seen on earth, scientists working on the top-secret bomb-building program grew apprehensive. Fearful that plutonium might cause a cancer epidemic among workers and desperate to learn more about what it could do to the human body, the Manhattan Project's medical doctors embarked upon an experiment in which eighteen unsuspecting patients in hospital wards throughout the country were secretly injected with the cancer-causing substance. Most of these patients would go to their graves without ever knowing what had been done to them. Now, in The Plutonium Files, Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter Eileen Welsome reveals for the first time the breadth of the extraordinary fifty-year cover-up surrounding the plutonium injections, as well as the deceitful nature of thousands of other experiments conducted on American citizens in the postwar years. Welsome's remarkable investigation spans the 1930s to the 1990...

  6. The world's nuclear future - built on material success (United States)

    Ion, Sue


    In our energy hungry world of the twenty-first century, the future of electricity generation must meet the twin challenges of security of supply and reduced carbon emissions. The expectations for nuclear power programmes to play a part in delivering success on both counts, grows ever higher. The nuclear industry is poised on a renaissance likely to dwarf the heady days of the 1960s and early 1970s. Global supply chain and project management challenges abound, now just as then. The science and engineering of materials will be key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. Understanding and predicting materials performance will be key to achieving life extension of existing assets and underpinning waste disposal options, as well as giving confidence to the designers, their financial backers and governments across the globe, that the next generation of reactors will deliver their full potential.

  7. Shooting Alone: The Pre-Attack Experiences and Behaviors of U.S. Solo Mass Murderers. (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Silver, James; Horgan, John; Corner, Emily


    This paper outlines the sociodemographic, developmental, antecedent attack, attack preparation, and commission properties of 115 mass murderers between 1990 and 2014. The results indicate that mass murderer attacks are usually the culmination of a complex mix of personal, political, and social drivers that crystalize at the same time to drive the individual down the path of violent action. We specifically focus upon areas related to prior criminal engagement, leakage, and attack location familiarity. Whether the violence comes to fruition is usually a combination of the availability and vulnerability of suitable targets that suit the heady mix of personal and political grievances and the individual's capability to engage in an attack from both a psychological and technical capability standpoint. Many individual cases share a mixture of unfortunate personal life circumstances coupled with an intensification of beliefs/grievances that later developed into the idea to engage in violence. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Quantum imaging for underwater arctic navigation (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco


    The precise navigation of underwater vehicles is a difficult task due to the challenges imposed by the variable oceanic environment. It is particularly difficult if the underwater vehicle is trying to navigate under the Arctic ice shelf. Indeed, in this scenario traditional navigation devices such as GPS, compasses and gyrocompasses are unavailable or unreliable. In addition, the shape and thickness of the ice shelf is variable throughout the year. Current Arctic underwater navigation systems include sonar arrays to detect the proximity to the ice. However, these systems are undesirable in a wartime environment, as the sound gives away the position of the underwater vehicle. In this paper we briefly describe the theoretical design of a quantum imaging system that could allow the safe and stealthy navigation of underwater Arctic vehicles.

  9. Lab architecture (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.


    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  10. The pion's pioneers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In 1946, a band of intrepid physicists took a batch of a new kind of photographic emulsion up the Pic du Midi in the French Pyrenees to expose them to cosmic rays. After analysing the results at Bristol, C. M. G. Lattes, H. Muirhead, G. P. S. Occhialini and C. F. Powell were able to announce early the following year that they had seen the long-awaited pi meson, or pion, postulated by Yukawa in 1935 as the carrier of the strong nuclear force. This landmark discovery quickly revitalized particle physics after all its wartime upheavals. At the end of July, the H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory at Bristol was the scene of an unusual and memorable international conference to mark the 40th anniversary of this discovery

  11. The pion's pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1946, a band of intrepid physicists took a batch of a new kind of photographic emulsion up the Pic du Midi in the French Pyrenees to expose them to cosmic rays. After analysing the results at Bristol, C. M. G. Lattes, H. Muirhead, G. P. S. Occhialini and C. F. Powell were able to announce early the following year that they had seen the long-awaited pi meson, or pion, postulated by Yukawa in 1935 as the carrier of the strong nuclear force. This landmark discovery quickly revitalized particle physics after all its wartime upheavals. At the end of July, the H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory at Bristol was the scene of an unusual and memorable international conference to mark the 40th anniversary of this discovery.

  12. Giulio Natta and the Origins of Stereoregular Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the wartime, in military service, he studied mustard gas and its effects. Later ... Natta trained a large number of students and placed them in industries. He was ... In fact, it was this quality that led Natta to see the commercial possibilities of ... offered to him and therefore, agree to such a broad-scoped and open-ended ...

  13. The Unintended Consequences of World War II and the Victory Corps on Austin High School (United States)

    Blankenship, Whitney


    Within two weeks of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. Office of Education Wartime Commission was formed to provide guidance to institutions of higher learning and public schools for the duration of the war. The goals set for the commission included: (1) facilitating the adjustment of education agencies to war needs; (2) informing government…

  14. Progressive Reformers and the Democratic Origins of Citizenship Education in the United States during the First World War (United States)

    Wegner, Kathryn L.


    The birth of formal citizenship education in the United States emerged in the context of mass immigration, the Progressive Movement, and the First World War. Wartime citizenship education has been chastised for its emphasis on patriotism and loyalty, and while this is a trend, historians have minimised the ways in which the democratic goals of the…

  15. The Media and the Image of War. Study Guide. Episode #724. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom. (United States)

    Rizzo, Claudia

    This program examines the series of myths generated by the media about war, peace, and the use of force. This episode explores the emergence of the popular interpretation of violence by "good" citizens who use violence to produce positive results during wartime. The study guide offers questions to use before viewing the video, questions to follow…

  16. 53 Cocoa Export Permit and Quota System In Nigeria During World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Cocoa Export Permit and Qota System in Nigerian during World War II, 1939-45. 54 by the war-time ... The main thesis is to demonstrate that the licencing of cocoa ... hindered or blocked economic growth in Nigeria, in what. Acemoglu and ... literature on the impact of World War II on global produce trade. World War II and ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 71 of 71 ... Vol 3, No 1 (1999), What Women do in Wartime: gender and conflict in Africa, Details. Jennifer Chiriga. Vol 3, No 1 (1999), Whose Honour, Whose Humiliation: Women, Men and the Economic Crisis in South Korea, Details. Soung-ai Choi. Vol 4, No 2 (2000), Women in Politics and Decision Making in ...

  18. Humanitarian Assistance: Adapting the Process to Meet the Military’s Evolving Role in Non-Traditional Missions (United States)


    action to support humanitarian relief and democratic movements " (Towell, 1992, p. 3761). The U.S. 2 led coalition, from December 1992 through May...similar to planning and executing the movement phase of wartime contingencies. Therefore, these activities in humanitarian relief missions also serve...DISASTZR _ CATUGORIZS ORIGINS ZXARPLUS NATURAL METEOROLOGICAL STORMS, DROUGHTS TOPOLOGICAL FLOODS, LANDSLIDES TELLURIC /TECTONIC EARTHQUAKES BIOLOGICAL

  19. Lignocellulose to transportation fuels—historical perspectives and status of worldwide facilities in 2010–2011 (United States)

    John Zerbe; David Nicholls


    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), located in Madison, Wisconsin, celebrated its centennial in 2010, and one of the lab’s signature research areas during this century of achievement has been lignocellulosic transportation fuels. Many of these research advances have occurred either during wartime emergencies or times of economic crisis. Although...

  20. A Roman funerary inscription from Smederevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Péter


    Full Text Available In this short paper the authors publish a Hungarian wartime postcard from Smederevo (Serbia, from 1916. It is reported that a Roman gravestone was found on the banks of the Danube and the text of the lost stone monument was also added. The authors intend to interpret the funerary text that was incorrectly transcribed.

  1. World War II Informational Fact Sheets. (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…




  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 11, No 2 (1981), Warning and Response by Julian Critch. ley. Leo Cooper, 1978. Abstract PDF. Calvin Smit, VC Muller. Vol 25, No 2 (1995), Wartime Christmases in five countries in World War II, Abstract PDF. H Rose-Innes. Vol 8, No 1 (1978), Weer en klimaat as omgewingsfaktore in die militêre situasie, Abstract PDF.

  4. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.


    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  5. “Real” Places in Marguerite Duras’s Wartime Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Willging


    Full Text Available In the four autobiographical narratives in Marguerite Duras’s La Douleur (1985 The War (1994, over one hundred proper place names appear. While these place names all refer to real places, the relationship between these signifiers and their actual geographical referents is mediated, first by their signifieds—the reader’s mental constructs of the places mentioned—and further by their appearance in a text that necessarily creates its own, non-material world. Yet this essay argues that in this uncharacteristically realist text Duras works hard to create the illusion that the Paris there is in fact Occupied Paris, the real city in which she lived out the experiences recounted in her text. She does this, in large part, by indicating the location of each scene with meticulous precision, thus grounding the stories, quite literally, in a geographically and historically situated reality. While many of these sites are among the best-known, and literal, lieux de mémoire ‘sites of memory’ of the Paris of the Second World War, the mention of more obscure places might appear gratuitous. Yet it is precisely in their gratuity, that such details become essential elements of the forceful effet de réel ‘reality effect’ created in the text.

  6. Julius Hallervorden's wartime activities: implications for science under dictatorship. (United States)

    Shevell, M I; Peiffer, J


    The eponym Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome recalls Julius Hallervorden's and Hugo Spatz's original description of this pediatric neurodegenerative disorder. Julius Hallervorden's important contribution to the practice of neuropathology over a long career cannot be underestimated. However, his work as a pathologist during the Third Reich put him in close proximity with the implementation of biologic solutions (i.e., euthanasia) targeting those individuals with significant intellectual or physical disabilities in chronic-care facilities. The Nazi program of active euthanasia provided a scientific opportunity to gain quick access to pathologic materials. This opportunity was recognized and used by Hallervorden to achieve personal scientific objectives and research efforts. These efforts resulted in a number of postwar scientific publications using materials obtained through the euthanasia program. The participation of distinguished academic physicians in such a program provides a cautionary tale of the potential results of ethical compromise and the effects of the abrogation of personal autonomy in the setting of a totalitarian dictatorship.

  7. Norwegians led the way in training wartime weather officers (United States)

    Levin, Sheldon M.

    The physics majors at The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) were fond of “Big Joe,” as he was called behind his back. There was an air of boyishness about him when playing in the annual faculty-student softball game. Yet Dr. Joseph Kaplan (Figure 1) could be formal and imposing when discussing a thesis or a research project. He had been the popular chairman of the Physics Department since 1936, when he was 34. The pipe clenched between his teeth was ever present, even when he was sliding into third base.

  8. Wartime Roles and Capabilities for the Unified Logistic Staffs (United States)


    standard Army ammunition system SAPO Subarea Petroleum Office SCP service control point (fuels) SHAPE Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe SIDATH... SAPOs ). Communication exists between the operations and logistic staffs within the unified, component, Service, and JS levels. But between...daily. The JPOs/ SAPOs receive the short-term requirements and consoli- date them for resupply by submitting slates (how much, when, and where needed

  9. Wartime OPCON Transition and the ROK-U.S. Alliance (United States)


    in May 2009, North Korea is still holding its nuclear program as a negotiating card in its brinkmanship tactics, detonated another nuclear weapon...Agreement ( FTA ) has also helped transform the relationship into an important economic partnership. The ROK has pursued three primary elements of its grand...2009. Also, in July 2010 the ROK and the United States agreed to strengthen cooperation in economic sectors encompassing the ROK-U.S. FTA , low

  10. Analysis of Air Force Wartime Contracted Construction Project Performance (United States)


    KPIs ) identified in current literature. Chan’s meta-analysis of KPIs found that time and cost are the primary objective indicators of a successful...Smith, Currie & Hancock, 2009). 46 Key performance indicators ( KPI ) were also used as input factors to analyze differences between contracts...Chan, et al. (2002) performed a meta-analysis of KPIs , as determined by construction researchers. They found that the most predictive performance

  11. The National Center for Collaboration in Medical Modeling and Simulation (United States)


    being developed that addressed specific procedures including knee surgery, ophthalmology , and sinus surgery (Satava, 2001). One of the important factors...Nirona, 1990). In fact, the general picture for Vietnam data suggested that the prevalence of some types of disease may decrease during wartime...physical models with limited functionality. However, the current breed of medical simulators is quite sophisticated and many have impressive levels

  12. Recruiting Campaigns: How Advertising and Training Target the Millennial Generation (United States)


    youth market through advertising and training. Even though recruiting numbers may wane from time to time, the overall messages are parallel to perceived...or nonmilitary service. This thesis demonstrates that USAREC is leveraging its knowledge of the youth market through advertising and training...current advertising and recruiter training strategies . Background Shortly before and during each major conflict the Army increases its wartime

  13. Combat Medical Modernization: Posturing Low Supply And High Demand Assets To Meet Emerging And Future Capability Requirements (United States)


    Guidance Portal , “Attending An Event Guidance”, 1 January 2013, accessed 1 March 2015 standards of care and federal and state laws. Assesses, plans, implements , and evaluates perioperative nursing care. Plans, directs, and...consists of full spectrum (wartime, peacetime and hostage) captivity training in academic classes and academic role-play laboratory (ARL) training

  14. Powers of Persuasion--Poster Art of World War II. Teaching with Documents. (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare. Words, posters, and films waged a constant battle for the hearts and minds of the U.S. citizenry as military weapons engaged the enemy. Persuading the U.S. public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing…

  15. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Sigmund Tobias (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Fulgham, Susan M.


    Sigmund Tobias came to the United States in 1948, after his family had fled to China from the Holocaust in Europe. His Memoir ("Strange Haven: A Jewish Childhood in Wartime Shanghai") describes that part of his life. He settled in New York, where he completed his B.A. and M.S. in School Psychology from the City College of New York, and a…

  16. The Strategic Failure of UK Defence Reform and What Still Needs to Be Done (United States)


    from the previous Labour Government, see HM Government, “Defence Secretary Balances MoD Budget,” the different levels of strategy required in a modern environment, inclusive of grand strategy...Learning Under Fire: Military Change in Wartime. Lecture to selected JAWS students , Norfolk, VA, March 2015. HM Government. A Strong Britain in an Age

  17. A Database Design for a Unit Status Reporting System. (United States)


    s wl. h i l be co~ivlywnsidered a, __) Do a. &ca tcmh W111111 winng 940r determining a aes training and overall porn " GROW. ’~.*.. .21W ISfsota i Ql...field in which arabic unit~s will not be organized or used solely for A six-position numeric code that signifi nmrls0(eo)esuh a anb e non wartime

  18. Predicting Performance during Chronic Sleep Loss: Identification of Factors Sensitive to Individual Fatigue Resistance (United States)


    fatigue-related performance impairments for a given schedule. However, these models fail to account for individual differences in fatigue susceptibility...Tool, FAST ™ ), yet these models fail to take into account important individual differences in fatigue states and susceptibility to fatigue. However...Venkatraman et al., 2007) and confusion ( Drury et al., 2012). However, sustained or continuous operations in high tempo, wartime operations often

  19. Eesti Rahva Muuseumi strateegiad ja praktikad rahvaga suhtlemisel muuseumi algusaastatel / Estonian National Museum: Public communication strategies and practices in the initial years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Õunapuu


    Full Text Available Until recently the museum phenomenon as the valuator of the indigenous culture in the context of the awakening national consciousness has received little attention. The evolution of the idea of the Estonian National Museum (ENM and its realization reflects the story of the Estonian people maturing into a nation. The museum was founded by a few dedicated persons and it took a long time before the general public recognised it as the museum for the Estonian people. The main purpose of this research is to ascertain how relations developed between the public and the museum in its initial years and what were the museum strategies in declaring its objectives. After the official foundation of the ENM in 1909 the museum narrative can be divided into two main parts. First, work inside the museum, the compilation and arrangement of collections. This was, above all, the work of the collection committee and organizing heritage collection trips. Collections constitute the basis of a museum – therefore the primary and most important task of the established museum was the collection of heritage items. The collections were started immediately after the foundation of the museum; within the first ten years approximately 20,000 items were collected, approximately two thirds of the items in the years 1911–1913. The phenomenon that a museum where people worked mainly without a salary for the benefit of their homeland, with the set aim to empty the whole of Estonia of heritage items parish by parish and succeeded in engaging dozens and dozens of people for this work, is probably exceptional in world history. As a result, the museum acquired not only voluminous but also valuable item collections, which reached the museum before the devastating First World War. The timing was favourable. There were enough old artefacts left, although most collectors complained in their diaries that there was nothing interesting to be found any more. However, the majority of the

  20. Osvrt na djelatnost osposobljavanja osoba za vozače vozila na motorni pogon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Smoljan


    Full Text Available Over the last four years in the Republic of Croatia changes have taken place also in the segment of motorists training and licensing in an atmosphere of significant social, political and economic changes and wartime conditions. Regulations have undergone change in this segment insomuch that it has been structured on a marketing basis, training has been separated from licensing examinations, while the number of Driving Schools has tippled, and the segment has been given the required competitive atmosphere. From the aspect of training/licensing programs and management the segment has almost reached the level of same aspects in individual European countries. It is necessary to pass as soon as possible respective regulations for this segment coordinated with the new Road Traffic Safety Act and to structure the segment of motorists training and licensing in conformance with these regulations.

  1. Review of fire protection in the nuclear facilities of the Atomic Energy Commission, 1947--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, W.W.


    In the 28 years in which it grew from a temporary wartime bomb development program to a federal agency with over $30 billion worth of facilities housing much of the nation's advanced research efforts, the Atomic Energy Commission set many records for safety. Among the best was a cumulative fire loss ratio of 12 cents per $100 of value. A 1969 fire--one of four in its history that exceeded $1 million in loss--incurred damages totaling $26 million and prompted major additions to its fire protection programs. The added programs, encompassing additional fire protection engineers, new protection systems, independent inspection programs, and new performance-based goals, resulted in an order-of-magnitude improvement. The cumulative fire loss ratio after 1969 was 0.06 cents per $100 of value, a record few industries have ever achieved

  2. Cleanout of waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Lasher, L.C.; McDaniel, E.W.


    In 1943, six storage tanks were built at the Clinton Laboratories [later to become Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] to contain wastes generated by wartime research and development operations. During the following years, these tanks became an integral part of the ORNL waste system and accumulated approx. 1.5 x 10 6 L (400,000 gal) of sludge containing radioactive wastes. Recently, over a period of approx. 18 months, these tanks were sluiced, the radioactive sludge resuspended, and the resuspended slurry pumped to the ORNL Hydrofracture Facility for underground disposal. In this paper, a summary of the development work is given, and the process design and constraints are described. The operating difficulties encountered and overcome included grinder blade erosion, malfunctioning instruments, pump suction plugging, and slurry settling. About 90% of the settled sludge (containing approx. 715,000 Ci) was removed from the system

  3. "It's what we're here for:" nurses caring for military personnel during the Persian Gulf Wars. (United States)

    Rushton, Patricia; Scott, Jared E; Callister, Lynn Clark


    Military nursing service during wartime represents significant contributions to a unique type of health care. The purposes of this study were to: (1) generate themes that elucidate combat nursing experiences, (2) honor nurses who served by sharing their stories, and (3) permanently archive accounts of nursing personnel who served during the Persian Gulf Wars during the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Eleven military nurses who provided health care to American troops in the Persian Gulf participated in a historical study as part of the ongoing Nurses at War oral history project documenting the experiences of nurses during times of armed conflict. The overriding theme, "It's what we're here for," demonstrates the commitment of nurses: a commitment to care and to sacrifice. Other themes drawn from the study included lessons learned from their wartime nursing experiences, sacrifices made, and chronicles of caring. During armed conflict in the Persian Gulf Wars, military nurses' personal stories demonstrated the importance of being engaged in making meaningful professional and historical contributions. These nurses displayed professional commitment and hardiness in the face of difficult life circumstances, saying, "We did what we had to do."

  4. The Lavelle Affair: An Air Force Case Study in Ethics (United States)


    THE LAVELLE AFFAIR: AN AIR FORCE CASE STUDY IN ETHICS BY KRISTINA ELLIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF... ethical transgressions. As such, the story of General Lavelle’s wartime command experiences became a case study in ethics and integrity within Air...1 1 THE LIFE AND CAREER OF GENERAL LAVELLE 8 1 VIETNAM 14 2 CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS 25 2 ETHICAL

  5. Family Reintegration Following Guard Deployment (United States)


    Somalia Peacekeepers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(5), 909-913. Haas DM . Pazdernik LA. Olsen CH. A cross-sectional survey of the...relationship between partner deployment and stress in pregnancy during wartime. Haas DM . Pazdernik LA. Partner deployment and stress in pregnant...Identify 3-5 key words relating to the proposal. (Required) I used MESH Headings instead of the CRISP Thesaurus for key

  6. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 11, Edition 1, Winter 2011 (United States)


    encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis (in Asia) or encephalitis from other herpes viruses. Meningitis, especially if caused by tubercu- losis, may have a...recovering from economic depression. He avoided pre-war hype. Following the attack of Japanese forces against U.S. forces at Pearl Harbor,, and in literature and cinema . The focal point of understanding presented by the au- thor offers contemporary readers insight into wartime

  7. Building Combat Strength through Logistics: Translating the New Air Force Logistics Concept of Operations into Action (United States)


    wholesale logistics systems. Rapid reprogramming , priority distribution and repair of critical logistics resources, regional logistics control networks, and...between the id, the ego, and th- superego. Ideals impact conscious and subconscious thoughts and actions that influence our values and shape our conduct...exploited under peace and wartime conditions. Rapid and effective reprogramming actions in response to changing operational needs are the key to high

  8. Chemistry and the development of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphlett, C.B.


    This chapter traces the chemical industry's involvement in the development of the nuclear industry from wartime projects to provide fissile material for bombs to the challenge of producing nuclear power competitively in the post-war period. Skills in the chemical industry have led to the production of new fuels by simpler methods, improvements in reprocessing and advances in the management and storage of radioactive wastes. (UK)

  9. Defense Industrial Base: An Overview of an Emerging Issue (United States)


    supplies it needs to rapidly increase the production of weapons and supporting equipment in wartime. This lack of access is primarily considered a...ommittete on Technology and Securily , ,Joint Econonue Committee, we are attempting Io develop a proposed analytical framework for assessing the national...industry’s continuing ability to develop and produce weapon systems using the most advanced technology. According to recent studies, a growing number

  10. Je Maintiendrai: The Royal Netherlands Army Within the Alliance (United States)


    CHAPTER I Combat History of the Dutch Army The Kir.ngdom of the Netherlands has tended to favor neutrality or abstentionism over involvement in...a small power and the Dutch increasingly favored abstentionism from European conflicts. Subsequently, the wartime organization of the Royal Army was...Netherlands abandoned its traditional policy of abstentionism and became a founding member of the Brussels Treaty (1948) and the North Atlantic

  11. Llewellyn Hilleth Thomas: An appraisal of an under-appreciated polymath (United States)

    Jackson, John David


    Llewellyn Hilleth Thomas was born in 1903 and died in 1992 at the age of 88. His name is known by most for only two things, Thomas precession and the Thomas-Fermi atom. The many other facets of his career - astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, nonlinear problems, accelerator physics, magnetohydrodynamics, computer design principles and software and hardware - are largely unknown or forgotten. I review his whole career - his early schooling, his time at Cambridge, then Copenhagen in 1925-26, and back to Cambridge, his move to the US as an assistant professor at Ohio State University in 1929, his wartime years at the Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, then in 1946 his new career as a unique resource at IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and Columbia University until his first retirement in 1968, and his twilight years at North Carolina State University. Although the Thomas precession and the Thomas-Fermi atom may be the jewels in his crown, his many other accomplishments add to our appreciation of this consummate applied mathematician and physicist. )

  12. China's Memory and Commemoration of the Korean War in the Memorial to Resist America and Aid (North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Sik Jung


    Full Text Available After confronting each other as enemies during the Korean War, South Korea and China established diplomatic relations in 1992, forty years after fighting had ended. Around this time, the Chinese city of Dandong near the northern border of the Korean peninsula erected a memorial to observe the fortieth anniversary of the Korean War. In the twenty years since, China has become South Korea’s primary economic partner and its largest market for exports. In effect, the memory of wartime hostility has coexisted with the reality of economic cooperation. This article examines how the Korean War, known in China as the “War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea,” is commemorated by the war memorials in China, with a specific focus on the memorial in Dandong. It also discusses how North and South Korea have responded to the contrasting perspectives on the war embodied by these memorials, and it concludes with some reflections about how the memory of war can be restructured to convey a message of peace for the future.

  13. Foothold in the heavens the seventies

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben


    April 12, 2011 is the 50th Anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's pioneering journey into space. To commemorate this momentous achievement, Springer-Praxis is producing a mini-series of books that reveals how humanity's knowledge of flying, working, and living in space has grown in the last half century. Foothold in the Heavens focuses on the early 1970s, when we completed our first exploration of the Moon and established a real, long-term presence in orbit with the first space stations. It marked a transitional phrase between the heady days of the 1960s and efforts to make space travel more economical, more frequent and more routine in the later 1970s and 1980s. This book explores the intense competition and bitter rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union - with one side devoting its energies to lunar exploration, the other diverting its attention to near-Earth studies - which eventually brought a pair of Cold War foes away from the nuclear trigger to the negotiating table and opened a new era of cooper...

  14. Computer-Based Training of Cannon Fire Direction Specialists (United States)


    and military knowlge needed to perfor wartime missio (Department of the Army, 1987). These occur "in residence" at Army schools, during on-the-job...not permit detailed analysis of the activities associated with producing and executing a training course. This is a serious problem because many of...and to sustain existing training products. Tracing the changes in support activities is difficult because support activities exist at many different

  15. DARPA Technical Accomplishments. Volume 2. An Historical Review of Selected DARPA Projects (United States)


    without regard to biological realism ). 6 Image understanding is very different from image processing, which studies image- to-in’age transformation, note that Jacobs and Weltnma.’ brought, respectively, radar and cinematic technology orientations to the work through theit family experiences and...eed for realistic battle-engagement simulation as followE: The next issue is thati-.f putting, as well as one can, wartime realism into simulation

  16. Hemorrhaging Her...A Capability Gap Analysis on Why the Air Force Can’t Retain Female Operators (United States)


    gender bias, and geographic instability. Although the AF has attempted to resolve some of these issues , it has not yet found success. This paper...organized to fight, to see if there is a better structure or capability that can be utilized. 5 Leadership and Education: How we prepare our Airmen...Personnel: Examines the availability of qualified people for peace and war-time operations. Policy: Examines any policy issues that may prevent

  17. Transforming from a Service-Centric to a Joint Recruiting Environment (United States)


    stewards, it is paramount that DoD identify cost savings and revaluate the policies of acquiring military manpower in support of the AVF. Military...strategic level there is growing concern of the financial cost associated with an AVF by rising health costs , pay raises, wartime recruiting, and...exists at recruiting events hosted by the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA). Tony Schumacher is a remarkable driver and role model for the United

  18. History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Joint Chiefs of Staff and the War in Vietnam, 1960-1968. Part 2 (United States)


    in Burma, India, Indonesia, Malaysia , Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, and the Republic of Korea, an American defeat would have a severe impact on...COMUSMACV, in complete and total control of all operations" and introduce such wartime measures as news censorship and controlled accreditation of US...and Cambodia likely would shift to the Communist camp and pressure would increase on Thailand and Malaysia Mr. Bundy and Mr. McNaughton observed that

  19. Bioactive lipid coating of bone allografts directs engraftment and fate determination of bone marrow-derived cells in rat GFP chimeras


    Das, Anusuya; Segar, Claire E.; Chu, Yihsuan; Wang, Tiffany W.; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chunxi; Du, Xeujun; Ogle, Roy C.; Cui, Quanjun; Botchwey, Edward A.


    Bone grafting procedures are performed to treat wounds incurred during wartime trauma, accidents, and tumor resections. Endogenous mechanisms of repair are often insufficient to ensure integration between host and donor bone and subsequent restoration of function. We investigated the role that bone marrow-derived cells play in bone regeneration and sought to increase their contributions by functionalizing bone allografts with bioactive lipid coatings. Polymer-coated allografts were used to lo...

  20. Rapid Response Command and Control (R2C2): a systems engineering analysis of scaleable communications for Regional Combatant Commanders


    Sullivan, Lisa; Cannon, Lennard; Reyes, Ronel; Bae, Kitan; Colgary, James; Minerowicz, Nick; Leong, Chris; Lim, Harry; Lim, Hang Sheng; Ng, Chin Chin; Neo, Tiong Tien; Tan, Guan Chye; Ng, Yu Loon; Wong, Eric; Wong, Heng Yue


    Includes supplementary material. Disaster relief operations, such as the 2005 Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina, and wartime operations, such as Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, have identified the need for a standardized command and control system interoperable among Joint, Coalition, and Interagency entities. The Systems Engineering Analysis Cohort 9 (SEA-9) Rapid Response Command and Control (R2C2) integrated project team completed a systems engineering (SE) ...

  1. Art in wartime: The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914. (United States)

    Park, M P; Park, R H R


    John Lavery's The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914 records a memorable event in the First World War. This painting and the archives of the Royal London Hospital provide a fascinating insight into the nursing and medical care of these early war casualties.

  2. 38 CFR 3.304 - Direct service connection; wartime and peacetime. (United States)


    ... anxiety without an identifiable cause; or unexplained economic or social behavior changes. VA will not... clergy. Evidence of behavior changes following the claimed assault is one type of relevant evidence that may be found in these sources. Examples of behavior changes that may constitute credible evidence of...

  3. Bombsights and Adding Machines: Translating Wartime Technology into Peacetime Sales (United States)

    Tremblay, Michael


    On 10 February 1947, A.C. Buehler, the president of the Victor Adding Machine Company presented Norden Bombsight #4120 to the Smithsonian Institute. This sight was in service on board the Enola Gay when it dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Through this public presentation, Buehler forever linked his company to the Norden Bombsight, the…

  4. Doctors and nurses: gender relations, jealousy, and maladministration in wartime. (United States)

    Tyquin, Michael


    This article challenges a popular stereotype of Australian military history through the microcosm of a military hospital in 1915. It shows that interstate rivalries had survived federalism intact and explores how parochialism and a breakdown of relations between the health professions brought about an unseemly row. It revisits a scandal that is largely ignored in the public 'memory' of Australia's military and medical contribution to World War I.

  5. Wartime Construction Project Outcomes as a Function of Contract Type (United States)


    contract types has been well established. The theory of contractual incentives promulgated by Sherer (1964) established expected contractor...behaviors using a max- imization problem. The theory focuses on expected contractor behaviors in incentive contracts (cf. Federal Acquisition Regulation...Scherer, F. M. (1964). The theory of contractual incentives for cost reduction. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 78, 257–280. Tawazuh Commercial and

  6. The emergence of vitamins as bio-political objects during World War I. (United States)

    Smith, Robyn


    Biochemists investigating the problem of the vitamins in the early years of the twentieth century were working without an object, as such. Although they had developed a fairly elaborate idea of the character of the 'vitamine' and its role in metabolism, vitamins were not yet biochemical objects, but rather 'functional ascriptions' and 'explanatory devices'. I suggest that an early instance of the changing status of the object of the 'vitamins' can be found in their stabilization, through the course of World War I, as bio-political objects for the British and Allied war effort. Vitamins emerged as players, active agents, in Britain's wartime bio-political problems of food distribution and population health and because of this they became increasingly real as bio-political objects, even prior to their isolation as bio-chemical molecules. I suggest that the materiality of our biology has agency in the development of political regimes and schemes.

  7. “This fabulous flotsam”: Michael Moorcock’s Urban Anthropology in “London under London”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houswitschka Christoph


    Full Text Available Michael Moorcock is often described as “one of the most prolific and varied writers working in Britain” (Malcolm 146. His success as a writer and editor of science fiction and fantasy literature is well established, but he is also the author of two novels about London, Mother London (1988 and King of the City (2000. Hardly known, Mother London by Michael Moorcock, offers itself to a variety of approaches that have been widely discussed in the context of studies on English literature during the Thatcher years, post-modernism, and psycho-geography. The novel resonates with the author’s own childhood in war-time London without being autobiographical. It tells the story of three Londoners who were traumatised during the Blitz. The following article focuses on the mysteries of subterranean London that represents the hidden and unconscious identities of its inhabitants in the post-war period.

  8. Reading, Trauma and Literary Caregiving 1914-1918: Helen Mary Gaskell and the War Library. (United States)

    Haslam, Sara


    This article is about the relationship between reading, trauma and responsive literary caregiving in Britain during the First World War. Its analysis of two little-known documents describing the history of the War Library, begun by Helen Mary Gaskell in 1914, exposes a gap in the scholarship of war-time reading; generates a new narrative of "how," "when," and "why" books went to war; and foregrounds gender in its analysis of the historiography. The Library of Congress's T. W. Koch discovered Gaskell's ground-breaking work in 1917 and reported its successes to the American Library Association. The British Times also covered Gaskell's library, yet researchers working on reading during the war have routinely neglected her distinct model and method, skewing the research base on war-time reading and its association with trauma and caregiving. In the article's second half, a literary case study of a popular war novel demonstrates the extent of the "bitter cry for books." The success of Gaskell's intervention is examined alongside H. G. Wells's representation of textual healing. Reading is shown to offer sick, traumatized and recovering combatants emotional and psychological caregiving in ways that she could not always have predicted and that are not visible in the literary/historical record.

  9. From war service to domestic service: ex-servicewomen and the Free Passage Scheme 1919-22. (United States)

    Noakes, Lucy


    At the end of the First World War, the British government put into operation a Free Passage Scheme for ex-servicemen, ex-servicewomen and their dependants to emigrate to the colonies and dominions of the Empire. This scheme was driven by a complex network of interlinked beliefs and policies concerning both the relationship between the metropole and the Empire, and the perceived necessity for social stability in Britain and in the dominions and colonies. This article examines the Free Passage Scheme, paying particular attention to the ways in which it was envisaged as a means of restoring a gendered balance of the population in Britain, where young women outnumbered young men at the end of the war, and in the dominions, where men outnumbered women, and was also seen as a way of emigrating women whose wartime work experiences were understood to be in conflict with gendered identities in the post-war period. The article argues that the Free Passage Scheme needs to be understood as gendered, as it envisaged the transformation of female members of the auxiliary wartime services into domestic servants for the Dominions. The scheme's failure, it is argued, prefigures the failure of the far larger Empire Settlement Act of 1922 to emigrate large numbers of British women as domestic servants.

  10. Bringing Class and Indigeneity In, but Leaving Japaneseness Out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moorehead


    Full Text Available Jeffrey Paul Bayliss. On the Margins of Empire: Buraku and Korean Identity in Prewar and Wartime Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013. 454 pp. $45 (cloth. Mark K. Watson. Japan's Ainu Minority in Tokyo: Diasporic Indigeneity and Cultural Politics. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2014. 190 pp. $145 (cloth. Buoyed by waves of labor migration into Japan from Asia and Latin America, the field of Japan studies has seen a renewed interest in Japan’s minority groups. Much of the new scholarship has focused on debunking notions of Japanese uniqueness found in political discourse about the nation, known as Nihonjinron. In particular, this work has focused on Japan’s supposed ethnic, racial, and class homogeneity, examining the experiences of newcomers, oldcomers, and native others in Japan. From this academic work, two key analytical foci—social class and indigeneity—have tended to be missing. On the Margins of Empire: Buraku and Korean Identity in Prewar and Wartime Japan, by Jeffrey Paul Bayliss, and Japan’s Ainu Minority in Tokyo: Diasporic Indigeneity and Urban Politics, by Mark K. Watson, address this shortcoming in their respective analyses of Burakumin and Koreans from the Meiji Restoration to the end of World War II, and of present-day Ainu residing in Tokyo...

  11. JPRS Report, West Europe. (United States)


    sometimes differing nuances of princi- ple, seems virtually boundless. For enlightened Leninist Leo Molenaar , a chemist in Delft, the executive of the...discredited their wartime past in "Rood boekje" [Little Red Book ]—were rehabil- itated in November 1982. At the same time ties with the fraternal...colleague, Leo Molenaar , he does not in the least view glasnost as posthumously proving the "reformers" in his own party right. That would be

  12. Gulf War Women’s Health Cohort (United States)


    of 92% (n=484) and 87% (n=456), respectively (5). Measures included items concerning general physical health and gender-specific health items. In...for which medical treatment or health services were sought. Multiple statistical analyses were used to describe women’s physical and emotional health ...Women’s physical and mental health sequellae of wartime service. Nurs Clin N Am 2004;39:53- 68. 2. Coughlin SS, McNeil RB, Provenzale DT, Dursa EK

  13. Report of the Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger to the Congress on the FY 1988/FY 1989 Budget and FY 1988-92 Defense Programs, January 12, 1987. (United States)


    the praise It won from the great English statesman, William Gladstone, as the "most wonderful work ever struck off at a given time by the brain and...enough to sustain one wartime station overseas as well as satisfy training and maintenance needs. Advanced TacticalAir Reconnaissance System ( ATARS ...The ATARS is an umbrella concept for a series of upgrades in tactical reconnaissance capabilities. Major elements of the program include the Tactical

  14. Naval Law Review. Volume 58, 2009 (United States)


    docs/445063/when-is-a-cyberconflict-an-armed-conflict). 5 See discussion infra part II.B. 6 See D. Jean Veta & Rochelle E . Rubin, Network and...Lieutenant Lena E . Whitehead, JAGC, USN RESOLVING TOMORROW’S CONFLICTS TODAY: HOW NEW DEVELOPMENTS WITHIN THE U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL CAN BE...prior to the outbreak of hostilities was swept away in wartime. As “[ e ]very individual of the one nation must acknowledge every individual of the

  15. The Welfare Effects of Farm Household Activity Choices in Post-War Mozambique


    Brück, Tilman


    This paper analyses the effects of activity choices on farm household income and consumption in a war-affected developing country. The study uses household survey data from Mozambique and controls for the endogeneity of activity choices with instrumental variables. War-time activity choices (such as subsistence farming) are shown to enhance welfare in the post-war period. Market and social exchange induce only limited welfare gains. Cotton adoption reduces household welfare, which contradicts...

  16. TSAR User’s Manual: A Program for Assessing the Effects of Conventional and Chemical Attacks on Sortie Generation. Volume 1. Program Features, Logic, and Interactions (United States)


    continuous recycling of aircraft in wartime are the requirements for adequate launching surfaces; the availability of aircrews, munitions, and fuel; and the...enccuntered in the CEPRTY array ( Cr39 ). When resources arc exhausted, and when a central repair facility (CIRF) has been idex’ified, one final Lask...determined from TSARINA CT140 input) and the losses to indirect effects (for accidents, accidental exposure, etc., from Cr39 /99) to produce the total loss

  17. Lost Unconventional Warfare Lessons from the Yugoslav Front (United States)


    James D. Kiras, Special Operations and Strategy: From World War II to the War on Terror (NY: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2006), 93. 74 Walter...77 James D. Kiras, Special Operations and Strategy: From World War II to the War on Terror (NY: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2006), 94...79 Nigel West, Secret War: The Story of SOE, Britain’s Wartime Sabotage Organization (UK: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd., 1992), 189. 80

  18. Phil Wallace and Theoretical Physics at McGill in the 1950's: A Personal Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, John David


    In 1946 Philip (Phil) Russell Wallace joined the Mathematics Department of McGill University as an Associate Professor of Applied Mathematics, apparently because A. H. S. Gillson, Dean of Arts and Science, wanted theoretical physicists to be in the Mathematics Department. He came with the dream of creating a theoretical physics group at McGill. By the spring of 1949, Phil was authorized to recruit two junior faculty in Mathematics. He hired Theodore (Ted) F. Morris from U. Toronto, who joined in September 1949, and me, who came in January 1950. The group had begun. Phil Wallace was born in Toronto in 1915 and grew up there. He entered the University of Toronto in 1933, earned a B.A. in mathematics in 1937, a M.A. in 1938, and a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1940 under Leopold Infeld. His Ph.D. thesis in general relativity was entitled 'On the relativistic equations of motion in electromagnetic theory.' In 1940 World War II had engulfed Europe and was having its effect on Canada, but the US was still at peace. L. J. Synge, Head of the Applied Mathematics Department at Toronto, told Wallace that people such as he would be needed in war work, but things were not ready quite yet. Hold yourself ready. Phil took a two-year position as lecturer in mathematics at the University of Cincinnati (1940-42); in the fall of 1942 he became a lecturer in mathematics at M.I.T. It was from there that he was recruited by Synge to join the war effort from 1943 to 1946 at N.R.C.'s Montreal Laboratory, the genesis of the Canadian Atomic Energy Project. Phil has described those heady wartime years in these pages. Much of the effort of the theoretical physicists was on nuclear reactor theory and the properties of relevant materials, such as graphite, under long and intense neutron bombardment. In late 1945 Phil was sent for four months to Bristol to learn about the properties of graphite from the esteemed N. F. Mott. This exposure led Phil to a life-long interest in

  19. Phil Wallace and Theoretical Physics at McGill in the 1950's: A Personal Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, John David


    In 1946 Philip (Phil) Russell Wallace joined the Mathematics Department of McGill University as an Associate Professor of Applied Mathematics, apparently because A. H. S. Gillson, Dean of Arts and Science, wanted theoretical physicists to be in the Mathematics Department. He came with the dream of creating a theoretical physics group at McGill. By the spring of 1949, Phil was authorized to recruit two junior faculty in Mathematics. He hired Theodore (Ted) F. Morris from U. Toronto, who joined in September 1949, and me, who came in January 1950. The group had begun. Phil Wallace was born in Toronto in 1915 and grew up there. He entered the University of Toronto in 1933, earned a B.A. in mathematics in 1937, a M.A. in 1938, and a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1940 under Leopold Infeld. His Ph.D. thesis in general relativity was entitled 'On the relativistic equations of motion in electromagnetic theory.' In 1940 World War II had engulfed Europe and was having its effect on Canada, but the US was still at peace. L. J. Synge, Head of the Applied Mathematics Department at Toronto, told Wallace that people such as he would be needed in war work, but things were not ready quite yet. Hold yourself ready. Phil took a two-year position as lecturer in mathematics at the University of Cincinnati (1940-42); in the fall of 1942 he became a lecturer in mathematics at M.I.T. It was from there that he was recruited by Synge to join the war effort from 1943 to 1946 at N.R.C.'s Montreal Laboratory, the genesis of the Canadian Atomic Energy Project. Phil has described those heady wartime years in these pages. Much of the effort of the theoretical physicists was on nuclear reactor theory and the properties of relevant materials, such as graphite, under long and intense neutron bombardment. In late 1945 Phil was sent for four months to Bristol to learn about the properties of graphite from the esteemed N. F. Mott. This exposure led Phil to a life-long interest in graphite and in

  20. Social Status of Working Youth at Enterprises of the RSFSR in 1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramonov Vyacheslav Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a relatively little-known problem in historical science – the social situation of young workers in industrial enterprises of the RSFSR during the Great Patriotic War. In the period under review socialization of boys and girls was accelerated. The shortage of youth labor force has become a major source of replenishment of the workforce of the industrial enterprises. In wartime the state faced the task of compensating the effects of adverse social conditions, the elimination of obstacles to the normal socialization of youth, its full entry into adulthood. It has been associated with the work of the Komsomol party, trade union organizations of patriotic, international, labor education of young people, for the prevention of youth crime, to ensure the adaptation of young people in enterprises meeting minimum social requirements. During the war years social hierarchy rendered inverted young commanded older age. Big shortage of staff led to the fact that the Komsomol party, trade union organizations have promoted young workers through the ranks, even against their own will and the lack of education. This urged part of the youth to support the government and actively participate in the implementation of government objectives. The social situation of young workers during the Great Patriotic War, reflected in their content of the negative impact of extreme conditions of war: the weakening of family ties and the continuity of generations, limited access to education, forced migration, forced character of labor, progressive increase in prices, falling living standards, reducing the degree of social protection. Rigid administrative consolidation of the Soviet population residing in settlements and businesses made it impossible to the natural migration of young people. A characteristic is limited and often complete absence, to meet the most urgent needs of material and social nature. The extreme deterioration of working and living

  1. The Macalister archive: records from the Queen's Hospital, Sidcup, 1917-1921. (United States)

    Bamji, A N


    The Queen's Hospital opened in 1917 to care for soldiers receiving facial injuries in Western Front trenches, usually as a result of a gunshot wound. Some 8000 patients were treated by the medical teams of the UK, the Dominions and the USA. The wartime records were removed by their respective sections in 1921, but Queen Mary's Hospital has recently reacquired those of the New Zealand section, rescued from imminent destruction by Professor A.D. Macalister, late Dean of the Dental School at Dunedin, and kindly donated by him. There are 282 sets of case-notes containing typescript summaries, clinical photographs and radiographs, drawings, 77 watercolor paintings and a life-size wax model of head and upper torso illustrating some of the surgical techniques. The archive is a fine example of medical illustration 75 years ago, and provides invaluable detail on the plastic surgery and dental reconstructive methods that were developed at Sidcup.

  2. První světová válka a obyvatelstvo českých zemí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Fialová


    Full Text Available Approximately 100 thousand men of Czech origin died during the wartime operations in the years 1914 to 1918. The majority were aged between 23 and 35. The reproductive losses have been estimated at another 610 thousand (550 thousand children that were never born due to the absence of a man in the household and another 60 thousand civilian dead. In 1914 the population in the Czech territories numbered 10 million 283 thousand, in 1919 this number decreased to 9 million 921 thousand. The ratio of men to women decreased (in 1920 there were 92.5 men to every 100 women. This imbalance in age frequency, a result of the low birth rate, had a long term effect firstly on the number of marriages, then on the birth rate and eventually on the mortality rate. These long term effects were evidently still present at the close of the 20th Century.

  3. Wartime rugby and football: sports elites, French military teams and international meets during the First World War. (United States)

    Waquet, Arnaud; Vincent, Joris


    The First World War is traditionally considered in history as a temporary halt for cultural and sporting activities. If the Olympic Games and the Tour de France were actually cancelled, football and rugby were in fact stimulated by the circumstances of war. Indeed, the gathering of allied nations behind the Western Front emerged as the main factor in the development of these two sports. Reading the sporting press and military archives shows that international sporting exchanges were stimulated during the Great War. To be specific, France benefited from the golden opportunity provided by the presence of the masters of the game to strengthen its practices and affirm its status as a sporting nation. Inter-allied sporting exchanges were primarily characterised by informal encounters between military selections. Then, following the recognition of these sports by the military authorities, the number of exchanges increased. At the end of 1917, the official status acquired by sport within the military forces created the conditions for the structuring of the French sporting elite. From that point, we can witness the birth of the first French military rugby and football teams, as they demonstrate, through their good performances during the demobilisation period, the progressive build-up of the international dimension of French sport during the war years.

  4. 第二次世界大戦とハリウッド・ミュージカル映画ー現実逃避かプロパガンダか


    笹川, 慶子


    This paper focuses on how the wartime conditions in Hollywood influenced the development of Hollywood musicals and other films during 1939-1945. The goal is to foreground a historical process in which the musicals had been incorporating the different ideologies of the times,by tracting the relationships between the studios and the political and the economical situations. Under the strong influence of the F.D.Roosevelt's Administration, the Office of War Information attempted to imbue the movi...

  5. Naval Law Review. Volume 58 (United States)

    2009-01-01 5 See discussion infra part II.B. 6 See D. Jean Veta & Rochelle E . Rubin...Kisor NO PORT IN A STORM – A REVIEW OF RECENT HISTORY AND LEGAL CONCEPTS RESULTING IN THE EXTINCTION OF PORTS OF REFUGE 65 Lieutenant Lena E ...goods purchased prior to the outbreak of hostilities was swept away in wartime. As “[ e ]very individual of the one nation must acknowledge every

  6. France: Nukes Stuck between NATO and EU (United States)


    motives as reflecting an underlying animosity toward the ‘ Anglo - Saxon ’ Powers, coupled with a desire to line up the FRG [Federal...wanted to play a larger role in the decisions to be made with the European defense, but with the Anglo - Saxons being considered the main players...weapons were “motivated both by prestige and by a desire to become less dependent upon the U.S.”16 De Gaulle’s wartime experience with the Anglo

  7. Resource Letter MP-2: The Manhattan project and related nuclear research (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron


    This Resource Letter is a supplement to my earlier Resource Letter MP-1 and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: General works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime programs and allied intelligence, technical papers of historical interest, and postwar policy and technical developments. I also give a list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues.

  8. Potential Effects of Permanent Neutrality on Mongolia’s Defense Foreign Cooperation (United States)


    provide basic fundamental rights to bear and duties to carry out in wartime for the neutral states. In other words, the Hague Conventions deal with...ed., (New York: Routledge, 2012), 209. 164 Ankit Panda , “A First: China Sends Troops to US-Mongolia-Led Khaan Quest Exercise,” The Diplomat, June...Contemporary History (2015): 1–29. doi: 10.1177/0022009414564804. Panda , Ankit. “A First: China Sends Troops to US-Mongolia-Led Khaan Quest Exercise

  9. Mother Love and Mental Illness: An Emotional History


    Harrington, Anne


    This essay aims to illuminate the historical origins of psychiatric concern with mother love – and especially mother love gone wrong. It looks particularly at ways in which a combination of wartime research, postwar social concerns and new tensions between psychoanalysis and hospital psychiatry worked together to create a range of theories and practices predicated on the idea that specific forms of pathological mother love could lead to specific forms of mental disorder, including (and perhap...

  10. The Threshold of the State: Civil Defence, the Blackout and the Home in Second World War Britain. (United States)

    Greenhalgh, James


    This article reconsiders the way that the British state extended its control of the home during the Second World War, using the implementation of air raid precautions and the blackout as a lens through which to view the state's developing attitudes to domestic space. Presented here is not the familiar story of pitch-dark, dangerous streets or altered cityscapes of fear and destruction; instead, by examining personal testimony the article inverts traditional treatments of the blackout to look at the interior of dwellings, demonstrating how the realities of total warfare impinged upon the psychological elements that constituted the home. What emerges not only expands historical understandings of the wartime experience of civilians, it also shows civil defence measures as highly visible points on an often antagonistic trajectory of state interactions with citizens concerning the privacy and security of the dwelling in the modern city. The requirements of civil defence, I argue, were not merely the product of exceptional wartime circumstances, but symptomatic of long-standing attempts to open up dwellings to state scrutiny. These attempts had both a significant pre-war lineage and, crucially, implications beyond the end of the war in private homes and on social housing estates. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. From Late-Onset Stress Symptomatology to Later-Adulthood Trauma Reengagement in Aging Combat Veterans: Taking a Broader View. (United States)

    Davison, Eve H; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moye, Jennifer; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W


    About a decade ago we proposed the notion of late-onset stress symptomatology, to characterize the later-life emergence of symptoms related to early-life warzone trauma among aging combat Veterans. We hypothesized that aging-related challenges (role transition and loss, death of family members and friends, physical and cognitive decline) might lead to increased reminiscence, and possibly distress, among Veterans who had previously dealt successfully with earlier traumatic events. Recently, we have reexamined our earlier ideas, to better reflect our developing understanding of this phenomenon, and to incorporate more contemporary perspectives on posttraumatic growth and resilience. As a result, we have broadened our conceptualization to later-adulthood trauma reengagement (LATR). We suggest that in later life many combat Veterans confront and rework their wartime memories in an effort to find meaning and build coherence. Through reminiscence, life review, and wrestling with issues such as integrity versus despair, they intentionally reengage with experiences they avoided or managed successfully earlier in life, perhaps without resolution or integration. This article links LATR to classic gerontologic notions, and elaborates how the LATR process can lead positively to personal growth or negatively to increased symptomatology. We also address the role of preventive intervention in enhancing positive outcomes for Veterans who reengage with their wartime memories in later life. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2015.

  12. The Great War: Cinema, Propaganda, and The Emancipation of Film Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanova Christina


    Full Text Available The relation between war and cinema, propaganda and cinema is a most intriguing area, located at the intersection of media studies, history and film aesthetics. A truly tragic moment in human history, the First World War was also the first to be fought before film cameras. And while in the field, airborne reconnaissance became cinematic (Virilio, domestic propaganda occupied the screen of the newly emergent national cinemas, only to see its lucid message challenged and even subverted by the fast-evolving language of cinema. Part one of this paper looks at three non-fiction films, released in 1916: Battle of Somme, With Our Heroes at the Somme (Bei unseren Helden an der Somme and Battle of Somme (La Bataille de la Somme, as paradigmatic propaganda takes on the eponymous historical battle from British, German and French points of view. Part two analyses two war-time Hollywood melodramas, David Wark Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918 and Allen Holubar’s The Heart of Humanity (1919, and explains the longevity of the former with the powerful “text effect” of the authentic wartime footage included. Thus, while these WWI propaganda works do validate Virilio’s ideas of the integral connections between technology, war and cinema, and between cinema and propaganda, they also herald the emancipation of post-WWI film language.

  13. [Blood transfusion in emergency settings: French military health service experience]. (United States)

    Sailliol, A; Ausset, S; Peytel, E


    Blood transfusion is required in a number of emergency settings and the French military health service (FMHS) has issued specific guidelines for the treatment of war casualties. These guidelines take into account European standards and laws, NATO standards, and also public sentiment regarding transfusion. These guidelines reflect a determination to control the process and to avoid the improvisation frequently associated with wartime transfusion. The evolution in warfare (terrorism and bombing more frequent than gunshot) and the wide use of body armor have deeply changed the clinical presentation of war injuries. These now involve the extremities in 80% of cases, with extensive tissue damage and heavy blood loss. The FMHS recommends that war casualties with hemorrhagic shock be brought quickly to a medical treatment facility (MTF) after first-line treatment applied through buddy aid or by medics. In the MTF, before an early Medevac, a damage control surgery will be performed, with resuscitation using freeze-dried plasma, red blood cells and fresh whole blood. The French military blood bank is responsible for blood product supply, training and medical advice regarding transfusion therapy during wartime, as well as hemovigilance. All transfusion therapy practices are periodically assessed but research on whole blood pathogen reduction is being conducted in order to reduce the residual infectious risk associated with this product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. War Remembered, Revolution Forgotten: Recasting the Sino-North Korean Alliance in China’s Post-Socialist Media State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ma


    Full Text Available From October 1950 to July 1953, the nascent Chinese state entered into a strategic alliance with North Korea; hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers shed blood on the Korean peninsula in defense of the socialist homeland and advancing Communist internationalism. But since the end of the Korean War, China has moved from revolutionary idealism and political radicalism in Mao’s era to the current post-socialist pragmatism and materialism. As the ideological winds shift, China’s contemporary propaganda apparatus must redefine the Korean War in order to reconcile the complexity of the war and wartime alliance with contemporary political concerns and popular views. By focusing on a documentary film, The Unforgettable Victory, produced by China’s leading state-run film studio in 2013, this article explores the ways in which the official media of the post-socialist era presents the past revolutionary war. The new film celebrates the splendid valor of Chinese soldiers, civilians’ heroic sacrifices, and the war’s nationalist legacy; however, it purposefully forgets the revolutionary fervor and internationalist sentiments that once forged the Sino–North Korean alliance and empowered wartime mobilization. This article examines the process of remembering and forgetting, and reveals government propaganda’s latest efforts to demobilize contemporary viewers while infusing the past revolutionary war with ideological clarity and political certainty in post-socialist China.

  15. Health Care in Mozambique: Wartime clinics confront shortages, parasites, and terror


    Williams, Betsy


    Mozambique has been in a state of near civil war since 1980, which has prevented the country from providing any health care at all to most of its rural citizens. Medications are scarce, and the range of diagnostic tools is limited. The health clinics treat illnesses that include severe anemia, tuberculosis, malnutrition, sexually transmitted diseases, and injuries that are a result of the war, but the biggest killer of all remains malaria.

  16. My Wartime Self: Meaning Construction in Narratives of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Wiest


    Full Text Available We are all storytellers. We tell stories in a variety of settings, to a variety of audiences, and for a variety of reasons. We tell structured stories about personal experiences—narratives—as a means of understanding the past, constructing identities, and communicating ourselves to others. Drawing on social psychological literature on narratives, identities, and autobiographical memories, this study examines the construction, recitation, and evaluation of 28 World War II veterans’ narratives. Findings indicate cultural influences in the ways these veterans constructed their war stories, the ways they constructed meanings about their war experiences, and the ways they constructed their identities in relation to those experiences.

  17. Wartime Christmases in five countries in World War II | Rose-Innes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 2 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file ...

  18. Reshaping Reality: Hemingway's Wartime Fable of "The Butterfly and the Tank." (United States)

    Plath, James


    Considers how the idea of Hemingway's famous "iceberg" theory of fiction continues to find currency--especially among students of creative writing. Discusses the use of "truth" in fiction. Concludes that in Hemingway's short story, "The Butterfly and the Tank," more than anything else, truth lies submerged. (SG)

  19. Winner of Young Writer's Competition: How loud is the unquiet mind? William Sargant (1907-88) and British psychiatry in the mid-20th century. (United States)

    Li Shen Ooi, Joanne


    William Walters Sargant (1907-1988) is credited, for better or for worse, with putting physicalist psychiatry on the map--at the expense of the dictum 'primum non nocere' (first do no harm). He was an outspoken supporter and practitioner of what he termed the 'practical rather than philosophical approaches' to the treatment of mental illness. This paper examines Sargant's fascinating career, beginning with the reasons behind lifelong passion for radical psychiatry, then discusses the various physical treatments he pioneered and publicized during his three decades at St Thomas' including prolonged electroconvulsive therapy, insulin coma therapy, dangerous combinations of antidepressants and, most notably, prefrontal leucotomy. His heady mix of dogma and charisma enabled him to get away with flying in the face of evidence-based medicine--but not without courting the considerable controversy and contempt that was to so blacken his reputation posthumously. This paper ends with comments on misguided and misplaced enthusiasm in the history of therapeutics, acknowledgement of Sargant's positive contributions to psychiatry and finally a reminder not to be tempted to pass post hoc judgement on the man or his legacy all too quickly.

  20. The Role of Public Organizations of Kursk Province in Provision of Assistance to the Front Line in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor A. Gavrikov


    Full Text Available The First World War caused great changes in the everyday life of the Russian province. It was forced to adapt to the wartime and the shortage of resources. The current situation promoted local authorities to establish and develop charity committees and public organizations, which rendered assistance to the Kursk Province in complex circumstances. The charitable work, organized by local authorities enabled to render material assistance to the front line and lift the spirit of the Russian soldiers.

  1. A passion for physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Joan.


    This is an account of the initial struggles and subsequently successful career of a young woman growing up in prewar Australia with the overriding desire to become a physicist despite various problems and prejudices. The book provides first-hand accounts of wartime radar research and development in Australia; the immediately post-war era in nuclear physics at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge; and work in the Nuclear Physics Division at AERE Harwell in the period from the 1950s onwards. (UK)

  2. War in former Yugoslavia: Coping with Nutritional Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; James, W. Philip. T.


    of food supply; anthropometric measures; in search of the most vulnerable; assessing food security; assessing nutritional deficiencies-protein and micronutrient issues; public health issues in former Yugoslavia-infant feeding practices, developing nutrition expertise in modern public health......This chapter in the text book "Essentials of Human Nutrition" published by OUP explores war in former Yugoslavia and the accompanying nutritional issues. Areas of focus include: emergency food aid; how much energy?; nutritional surveillance-a re-evaluation of its role in wartime; the quality...

  3. Racialized Bodies and Phantom Limb Citizenship: The Case of the Filipino World War II Veterans


    Valiente-Neighbours, Jimiliz Maramba


    The United States recruited more than half a million Filipino soldiers and guerrillas in the Philippines during World War II with the promise of American citizenship in return for their wartime service. Even after the official victory of the United States and its allies in 1945, the United States government continued to recruit Filipinos to serve under the American flag for post-war reconstruction and the development of American military bases in the Pacific. But in February 1946, the United ...

  4. A Policy Analysis of U.S. Army Professional Filler System (PROFIS) Sourcing Management at the Regional Medical Command Level in Support of an Expeditionary Army at War (United States)


    many personnel had little knowledge or understanding of their wartime units and jobs and met for the very first time when they arrived at the...this handbook useful in teaching an undergraduate introduction to public policy and for executive education groups" (Bardach, 1996, Foreword,). The...FY04 Budget ($M) (includes $76.8 GWOT) D...cM F F A 47% Percent Residency wf, 9.. Ft . TX Ci 0 Programs of Army Total El P-.TX GPk * ft C.- Cb, X PROFIS

  5. The politics of economic distress in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution, 1689-1702


    Waddell, Brodie


    The economic problems of the 1690s spurred an extraordinary surge in politicised debates and complaints about commercial, financial and other material affairs. This article begins by examining the magnitude of the shift in economic fortunes between the reigns of James II (1685-88) and William III (1689-1702), highlighting the main sources of concern: wartime disruption to trade, rising taxes, the currency crisis associated with the recoinage of 1696, and the high food prices of 1693-9. More s...

  6. Counsellors in primary care in Southampton: a questionnaire survey of their qualifications, working arrangements, and casemix. (United States)

    Clark, A; Hook, J; Stein, K


    BACKGROUND: There has been an upsurge of interest in counselling in primary care over the past five years. This has been stimulated by a growing demand for non-drug treatment of emotional disorders and by the extension of reimbursement for the costs of counsellors. Continued calls for careful evaluation have been largely unheeded in the face of heady growth. AIM: To establish the prevalence of counselling services in the 67 general practices in the Southampton and South West Hampshire Health District, and to describe in detail their qualifications, working arrangements, and casemix. METHOD: A questionnaire enquiring about counselling services was sent to all the general practices in the district. A second questionnaire was then posted to all the counsellors identified as working in these practices. RESULTS: Twenty-six (39%) practices employed one or more counsellors. Fundholding practices were four times more likely than non-fundholders to employ a counsellor. Most of the counselling work was short term (4-20 sessions). The most common presenting complaints were relationship problems, depression, anxiety, and bereavement. CONCLUSION: This descriptive study highlights the wide variation in the qualifications and training of counsellors. Until the issue of effectiveness is resolved through further research, the best safeguard of quality is to ensure that counsellors meet the appropriate training standards laid down by the British Association of Counsellors. Monitoring standards is a legitimate task for those commissioning health care who are increasingly responsible for reimbursement of a counsellor's salary. Counsellors who meet appropriate training criteria should be encouraged to pursue accreditation with the British Association of Counsellors. Those who do not meet these criteria should be encouraged to undergo additional training. PMID:9474822

  7. The ministry of environment: advanced measures to handle wastes and combat pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartouni, Talal


    Lebanon is facing environmental problems that stem from wartime chaos, negligence and lack of governmental control. Since the end of the war, environmental protection and getting rid of pollution factors and hazardous waste introduced to Lebanon during the war have become a main concern to the government and the people. The author as an adviser to the environment minister, presents the environment ministry's plan to fight pollution and remove hazardous waste and reveals the steps already executed and the ones to be taken in the future

  8. Heroes or Health Victims?: Exploring How the Elite Media Frames Veterans on Veterans Day. (United States)

    Rhidenour, Kayla B; Barrett, Ashley K; Blackburn, Kate G


    We examine the frames the elite news media uses to portray veterans on and surrounding Veterans Day 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. We use mental health illness and media framing literature to explore how, why, and to what extent Veterans Day news coverage uses different media frames across the four consecutive years. We compiled a Media Coverage Corpora for each year, which contains the quotes and paraphrased remarks used in all veterans news stories for that year. In our primary study, we applied the meaning extraction method (MEM) to extract emergent media frames for Veterans Day 2014 and compiled a word frequency list, which captures the words most commonly used within the corpora. In post hoc analyses, we collected news stories and compiled word frequency lists for Veterans Day 2012, 2013, and 2015. Our findings reveal dissenting frames across 2012, 2013, and 2014 Veterans Day media coverage. Word frequency results suggest the 2012 and 2013 media frames largely celebrate Veterans as heroes, but the 2014 coverage depicts veterans as victimized by their wartime experiences. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how the prevailing 2015 media frames could be a reaction to 2014 frames that portrayed veterans as health victims. We consider the ramifications of this binary portrayal of veterans as either health victims or heroes and discuss the implications of these dueling frames for veterans' access to healthcare resources.

  9. Mortality among workers at the Mound Facility: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Tietjen, G.L.; Wiggs, L.D.; Galke, W.A.


    Mortality among 4,697 white males who were employed at the Mound Facility between 1943 and 1979 was compared with expected mortality based on US white male death rates. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of 96 were observed for both all causes and all cancers. SMRs for digestive cancers and unintentional injuries were significantly less than 100. No SMR was significantly greater than 100 for these workers. A significantly elevated lung cancer SMR was observed for the subcohort of workers employed from 1943--1959, a period during which polonium-210 was processed at the plant. To determine the potential impact of wartime selection factors, this time period was further divided into two periods, 1943--1945 and 1946--1959. In the 1943--1945 period, the SMR for lung cancer was 204 (90% CI = 140, 290), while in the later period the lung cancer SMR was 105 (90% CI = 77, 140). Similar results were observed for all causes, all cancers, cancers of the rectum, nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and all injuries for which the SMRs were elevated during the wartime period but were not elevated after the war. Additional analyses considering workers hired in the period 1960--1979, during which plutonium-238 was processed at the facility, yielded little information. Generally, a strong healthy worker effect was observed and was attributed to the limited follow-up time and small numbers of deaths among this subcohort. 22 refs., 9 tabs

  10. War, Medicine, and Cultural Diplomacy in the Americas: Frank Wilson and Brazilian cardiology. (United States)

    Kropf, Simone P; Howell, Joel D


    American cultural diplomacy played a key role in the institutionalization of Brazilian cardiology. In 1942, Frank Wilson, an internationally recognized pioneer in electrocardiography, made an extended wartime visit to Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The visit was sponsored by the United States Department of State as part of Roosevelt's Good Neighbor Policy and brought Wilson together with a group of physicians who would establish the specialty of cardiology in Brazil. This US cultural and diplomatic initiative strengthened an academic network that was already evolving and would eventually prove to be of benefit to both sides. Latin American physicians began in the 1920s to visit Wilson's laboratory at the University of Michigan, where they established the relationships on which Wilson would build. While affiliation with the "Wilson school" advanced the cause of Brazilian cardiologists who sought to establish themselves as specialists, cooperation with Latin American physicians benefitted Wilson in his pursuit of wider recognition for his innovations in the use of electrocardiography (ECG). Wilson's identity as a scientific ambassador to Latin America helped in legitimating his approach to the clinical application of the ECG. A close examination of Wilson's relationship to Brazilian cardiology demonstrates the role played by science and medicine as a part of wartime cultural diplomacy, as well as the dynamics of the transnational circulation of scientific knowledge and practices. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  11. Costs of war: excess health care burdens during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (relative to the health care experience pre-war). (United States)


    This report estimates the health care burden related to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan by calculating the difference between the total health care delivered to U.S. military members during wartime (October 2001 to June 2012) and that which would have been delivered if pre-war (January 1998 to August 2001) rates of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and hospital bed days of active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces had persisted during the war. Overall, there were estimated excesses of 17,023,491 ambulatory visits, 66,768 hospitalizations, and 634,720 hospital bed days during the war period relative to that expected based on pre-war experience. Army and Marine Corps members and service members older than 30 accounted for the majority of excess medical care during the war period. The illness/injury-specific category of mental disorders was the single largest contributor to the total estimated excesses of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and bed days. The total health care burdens associated with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are undoubtedly greater than those enumerated in this report because this analysis did not address care delivered in deployment locations or at sea, care rendered by civilian providers to reserve component members in their home communities, care of veterans by the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, preventive care for the sake of force health protection, and future health care associated with wartime injuries and illnesses.

  12. Covert radar and signals interception the secret career of Eric Ackermann

    CERN Document Server

    Hayson, David


    Of German stock dating back to 1530 in Saxony, Eric George Ackermann GM was born on the Isle of Wight in 1919 and became a leading figure in the world of signals and electronic intelligence. As a Junior Scientific Officer at the Telecommunication Research Establishment, Boscombe Down, with an honorary commission in the Royal Air Force, he made numerous flights over occupied territory searching for, monitoring and destroying Germany's Wuerzburg, Knickebein and X Band radar systems. Much of his research was passed to the highest levels of wartime government, and was highly prized, ensuring that

  13. Nationalist political culture in the maelstrom of the Great War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Tato


    Full Text Available Nationalist political culture is based on a transverse and versatile substratum of ideas, beliefs and attitudes that can be combined with different political traditions. During the First World War, some of its basic components burst into the Argentine public debate and were shared and, at the same time, disputed by diverse social and political sectors. Furthermore, they nourished the ideological and political polarizations of the wartime. Through the analysis of these issues, this article aims to contribute to the knowledge of a period scarcely explored in the study of nationalism in Argentina.

  14. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, R.W.


    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  15. Early days in the MET lab: Organization and planning in scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.J.


    The scientific exploits of Section C-1 of the war-time Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago in devising and implementing methods for the isolation and purification of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel elements have been widely recognized. Not so widely appreciated is the planning required for the success of this extraordinarily complex research effort. This talk will consider such matters as staffing, allocation of resources, and management techniques as viewed by one of the staff. Section C-1 continues to provide a model for the organization of research

  16. Negotiating Colonial Korean Cinema in the Japanese Empire: From the Silent Era to the Talkies, 1923-1939


    Chonghwa Chung


    This article examines what I call a “system of cooperation” (K. hyŏp’ŏp, J. kyōgyō, 協業) in the colonial Korean film industry from 1923, when silent films appeared, to the late 1930s, when colonial cinema was restructured within an imperial wartime system. In other words, this article examines the interworking of colonial Korean and imperial Japanese cinema from Yun Hae-dong’s “colonial modern” perspective in order to go beyond the long established lens on colonial Korean film and film histori...

  17. Review Article: Inventing Historical Myths—Deborah S. Cornelius. Hungary in World War II. Caught in the Cauldron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pastor


    Full Text Available This article questions the validity of Deborah S. Cornelius’s claims which she presents in her recently published book on interwar and World War II Hungary. These exonerate the revisionist, anti-Semitic and war-time policies of the Horthy regime. The monograph also presents the Hungarian leaders in an undeservedly positive light. The author of the review demonstrates that Cornelius’s representation of the past was accomplished by the selective reading of primary and secondary sources. Cornelius also commits too many factual errors in order to justify some of her assertions.

  18. Resource Letter MP-3: The Manhattan Project and Related Nuclear Research (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron


    This Resource Letter is a supplement to the earlier Resource Letters MP-1 and MP-2, and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related research. Books, review papers, journal articles, videos, and websites are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime nuclear programs and related allied intelligence, the use of the bombs against Hiroshima and Nagasaki, technical papers of historical interest, postwar policy and technical developments, and educational materials. Together, these three Resource Letters describe nearly 400 sources of information on the Manhattan Project.

  19. Mercenaries of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maya Mynster; Utas, Mats


    motives behind ex-combatants' choice to join the political campaigning and the alternatives (such as 'watermelon politics'), and we also examine the deep mistrust between politicians and ex-combatants. Focusing on politics as the domestication of violence, we shed light on the continuation of pre......-war and war-time mobilization of youth into politics and demonstrate how electoral moments can legitimize violence. In hindsight, the 2007 elections strengthened the democratic process in Sierra Leone, but this article shows on what fragile ground this success was built. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  20. [Viral biosafety, biosecurity, and bioterrorism]. (United States)

    Garin, D


    Intentional release of infectious agents has always been considered as a possible weapon. Today this risk has expanded from use for wartime mass destruction to small-scale terrorist acts. Viruses, some of tropical origin, constitute a special biological hazard for several reasons: great infectious potential, adaptability to the host, difficulty for diagnosis in the hospital, and absence of specific treatment for the main agents involved. Handling of the dangerous biological agents requires special biocontainment laboratories equipped and classified according to increasing risk up to level 4. This article discusses the modalities of classification.

  1. After Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Jane White


    Full Text Available 5 June 192312 June 192317 June 192319 June 192319 June 1923Marina Tsvetaeva was born in Moscow in 1892 and began to publish in her teens, to multiple good reviews by Russian literary critics. She was a working contemporary of Anna Akhmatova, Osip Mandelstam, Boris Pasternak and Rainer Maria Rilke, all of whom were important to her as rival, lover, correspondent and mentor, respectively, and as they should have been, in her view, from time to time, as her views of their roles in her life were changeable.Tsvetaeva left the Soviet Union in 1922 to reunite with her husband after a four-year wartime separation during the Russian Revolution. She lived as an exile in Berlin, Prague and Paris through 1939. The period of exile in Prague, lasting from August of 1922 to May of 1925, was a very productive period, with new poems arriving every other day or so, or sometimes two poems a day, until her son Georgy (nicknamed Mur was born in 1924, when the poems slowed to a relative trickle.

  2. The management century. (United States)

    Kiechel, Walter


    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  3. Growing up in wartime: Evidence from the era of two world wars. (United States)

    Havari, Enkelejda; Peracchi, Franco


    We document the association between war-related shocks in childhood and adult outcomes for Europeans born during the first half of the twentieth century. Using a variety of data, at both the macro- and the micro-level, we address the following questions: What are the patterns of mortality among Europeans born during this period? Do war-related shocks in childhood and adolescence help predict adult health, human capital and wellbeing of the survivors? Are there differences by sex, socio-economic status in childhood, and age when the shocks occurred? At the macro-level, we show that the secular trend towards lower mortality was interrupted by dramatic increases in mortality during World War I, the Spanish Flu, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, and we quantify the size of these mortality shocks. Different patterns characterize these high-mortality episodes, with substantial variation by country, sex and age group. At the micro-level, we show that war-related hardship in childhood or adolescence, in particular exposure to war events and experience of hunger, is associated with worse physical and mental health, education, cognitive ability and subjective wellbeing at older ages. The strength of the association differs by sex and type of hardship, with war exposure being more important for females and experience of hunger for males. We also show that hardships matter more if experienced in childhood, and have stronger consequences if they last longer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ritual and reconciliation in Mozambique: Culture as a mediator in wartime experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilundi Cabral


    Full Text Available Based on Mozambique’s post-independence armed conflict (1976-1992, this paper examines several issues linked with culture’s role as a mediator in the experience of war and post-war, paying particular attention to spiritual purification rituals. The author argues that these rituals played an important role in the process of the rehabilitation, reintegration and social reconciliation of combatants returning from the war, as well as for Mozambique’s societies in general. The paper also explores the potentials and limitations of these rituals.

  5. Outbreak of Q-fever in a Yugoslav army unit in wartime conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekanac Radovan


    Full Text Available In an outbreak of Q-fever in an Army unit lasting 9 days, 20 (13.4% soldiers had contracted a disease. The outbreak occurred due to the entry of the unit into the focus originated by lambing and pasture of infected sheep. The source of the infection was the contaminated dust from the grassland where the soldiers were training, and they were infected by aerogenic way. In 11 (55% patients, the disease was manifested as pneumonia that was radiological confirmed in 7 (35% patients, while the rest were with the symptoms of influenza and upper airways infection. As soon as tetracycline was administered, health state of the patients was significantly improved and all were released as cured after the treatment. Finding of the antibodies to coxiella burnetii in 66.6% of the patients confirmed the etiology of the disease in this outbreak.

  6. Two decades on[Research into high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)


    Research into high-temperature superconductors should focus on experiment, not theory. While the world looked on in horror at the events unfolding at the Chernobyl nuclear-power plant in the Soviet Union 20 years ago this month, another significant - but far less reported - development in the world of physics had just taken place. On 17 April 1986 a short paper by Georg Bednorz and Alexander Mueller arrived at the offices of Zeitschrift fuer Physik in Heidelberg, Germany. The two physicists, based at IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory in Switzerland, announced they had made a material from barium, lanthanum, copper and oxygen that could conduct electricity without resistance when cooled below a transition temperature, T{sub c}, of about 30 K. It was the world's first 'high-temperature' superconductor. Driven by the dream of materials that can superconduct at room temperature, experimentalists scurried back to their labs. Within a year, a T{sub c} of 90 K in another material had been reported and by October 1987 Bednorz and Mueller had been crowned with a Nobel prize. While papers on high-temperature superconductivity have continued to stream out since those heady days, progress has been slower than expected. Applications like levitating trains and resistance-free power cables are only now starting to come to market. Scientists have been unable to make superconducting wires that work much above 130 K, while a reliable theory of high-temperature superconductivity remains elusive. Even if we had such a theory, it is not clear that it would predict which materials might superconduct at room temperature. After all, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, which explains the behaviour of low-temperature superconductors with admirable success, said nothing about the superconducting properties of Bednorz and Mueller's copper-oxide ceramics. What successes there have been over the last 20 years - such as the recent discoveries that iron, single crystals

  7. The state of research after 25 years of Nanotechnology (United States)

    Demming, Anna


    In 1990 the transistor was big—not just hugely prevalent in day-to-day devices but literally large in size compared with present day counterparts. Still, as Christoph Gerber describes in our latest Nanotechnology Discussions podcast [1], with transistor footprints decreasing every two years as described in Moore's law, by 1990 the electronics industry saw itself broaching new territory: nanotechnology. Atoms had made their debut as real-world observables with the first scanning probe microscopes only a few years previously, prompted by efforts to understand how physical systems behave at this scale. And in this heady climate of burgeoning nanoscale innovations Nanotechnology published its first issue, the world's first academic journal dedicated to nanoscale science and technology. This year the journal publishes its 25th volume and to celebrate we have commissioned a special issue presenting a snapshot of developments leading some of the most active areas in the field today [2]. As nanotechnology has matured both device-focused and fundamental research have placed high demands on improving fabrication processes to generate structures cheaply, efficiently and reliably. Since its discovery graphene has been under close scrutiny for the potential to exploit its optical transparency, mechanical flexibility and high carrier mobility. 'However', point out Ho Cho, Jong-Hyun Ahn and colleagues in Korea, 'it is still significantly challenging to develop clean and simple fabrication procedures'. They demonstrate how photo-curable ion gel gate dielectrics can be used to produce self-aligned flexible graphene transistors and inverters [3] simply without extra graphene-patterning steps. Sang Ouk Kim and colleagues at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology demonstrate another method for avoiding complex fabrication techniques, creating highly aligned graphene nanoribbon with their mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography and directed self-assembly [4

  8. First-year seminar intervention: Enhancing first- year mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year Seminar and the mathematics performance of first-year students in Science? .... generation students enter the new higher education environment (Briggs, Clark ..... institution-wide approaches to enact the FYE as “everybody's business”.

  9. Militantly Well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman


    futures that transcend conflict engagement and wartime suffering for young militiamen. It clarifies the positive prospects that are expected to lie beyond the known horrors of war. Though conflict and warfare may provide strange points of departure for talking about well-being, imaginaries of happiness...... stand out from a background of hardship and are talked about in both a quite concrete way, as a lack of insecurity, as well as in an abstract way, as realization of social being. However, for most of the people I talk to, happiness remains elusive and evades their desperate attempts to grasp it...

  10. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir


    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  11. Richard Feynman a life in science

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John


    This text is a portrayal of one of the greatest scientists of the late 20th-century, which also provides a picture of the significant physics of the period. It combines personal anecdotes, writings and recollections with narrative. Richard Feynman's career included: war-time work on the atomic bomb at Los Alamos; a theory of quantum mechanics for which he won the Nobel prize; and major contributions to the sciences of gravity, nuclear physics and particle theory. In 1986, he was able to show that the Challenger disaster was due to the effect of cold on the booster rocket rubber sealings.

  12. Amersham's high radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulkin, S


    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples.

  13. Publicly Accessible Art Collections in Copenhagen during the Napoleonic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Jesper


    collections of Old Masters, the Moltke Gallery opened in 1804 as the first fully accessible collection of this kind. Though this happened almost by coincidence, as Count Moltke had simply found himself unable to dispose of his father’s collection and decided to put it on show, his initiative soon found...... ideological backing in a period of wartime nationalism. In this climate, the exhibiting of private art collections was increasingly represented as an act of patriotism and charity. The foremost representative of this movement was the idealist collector Hans West, whose own gallery ultimately came to play...

  14. Accounting for the contribution of vitamin B to Canada's WWII effort. (United States)

    Braun, Robyn


    Canada began to fortify its flour and bread with vitamin B when it entered the Second World War. The decision was informed by the biology of vitamin B and therefore I suggest that the complexity of this political maneuver can best be understood by considering the specificity of the biochemistry of vitamin B. In this paper I will show that the specific biology of vitamin B allowed the Canadian government the possibility of a healthier population under wartime conditions but also allowed the government a variety of means by which to develop and organize food processing practices to this end.

  15. Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, B Jack


    The mathematical genius Alan Turing (1912-1954) was one of the greatest scientists and thinkers of the 20th century. Now well known for his crucial wartime role in breaking the ENIGMA code, he was the first to conceive of the fundamental principle of the modern computer-the idea of controlling a computing machine's operations by means of a program of coded instructions, stored in the machine's 'memory'. In 1945 Turing drew up his revolutionary design for an electronic computingmachine-his Automatic Computing Engine ('ACE'). A pilot model of the ACE ran its first program in 1950 and the product

  16. Norris Bradbury and Edward Teller: A Fission-Fusion Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    On a bright, sunny day in October 1945, a boisterous and jubilant crowd assembled in front of Fuller Lodge to watch as the Army-Navy “E” Award, a prestigious national honor given for “Excellence in Production” during World War II, was presented to the Los Alamos Laboratory. Major General Leslie Groves, the commanding officer of the Manhattan Project; Navy Commodore William S. (Deak) Parsons, the wartime leader of the Laboratory’s Ordnance Division; Robert Sproul, the President of the University of California; and J. Robert Oppenheimer accepted the award on behalf of the Laboratory.

  17. Código Postal 9409 y la Guerra de las Malvinas. Entre la correspondencia de los soldados-hijos y la carta a un soldado desconocido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Orellana Guarello


    Full Text Available This article examines the letters exchanged between young conscripts and their parents during the Falklands War and those that people anonymously wrote "to an Argentine soldier." The wartime separation generated an extraor­dinary amount of letter-writing in order to, on a personal level, record and recompose the relationships suspended by distance, and, at the national level, to reestablish spaces of consensus and horizontality. In this way, we describe how individual actors and their private accounts were giving shape to a microscopic history that has its dissentions and accords with the history generally written in capital letters.

  18. Amersham's high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulkin, S.


    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples. (U.K.)

  19. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, L.E.


    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program

  20. International Year of Pulses 2016 | 2016 International Year of Pulses (United States)

    the Year in collaboration with Governments, relevant organizations, non-governmental organizations and the composition of pulses Image 4 Wrapping up the International Year of Pulses The 5 key messages to food security Infographic Pulses and climate change International Year of Pulses 2016 The 68th UN

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Institutionalized World War II Veterans. (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran


    Relatively little is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II (WWII) veterans, despite the significant number of studies on this problem in Vietnam veterans. The authors document the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and investigate the etiological correlates of the syndrome in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans. Sixty-two cognitively intact subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residents in a veterans' long-term care facility, were assessed for past and present psychopathology. A second investigator, blind to patients' psychiatric status, determined the degree of combat exposure and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 23%. Of those veterans with PTSD, 57% experienced chronic symptoms. The lifetime prevalence of other diagnoses was also high, including 3 7% for major depression and 53% for alcohol abuse. There was a strong correlation between the severity of the combat stressor and the development of PTSD. Significant correlations between PTSD and some pre-war variables were also found: more family histories of alcohol abuse, more deaths of close family members in early life, and less likelihood of having held a job for more than 1 year prior to the war. PTSD in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans is a common, serious problem that is often unrecognized. Copyright © 1994 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alignment and referencing of maps and aerial photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hoshi, Masaharu; Egbert, Stephen D.; Kerr, George D.


    Documentation of survivor locations as well as sample collection sites for dosimetry-related measurements requires reference to suitable maps. The maps traditionally used at RERF for these purposes are the U.S. Army maps that date from circa 1945 (see Chapter 1). In later years, some use has been made of Japanese city plan maps, which are much newer (1979 in Hiroshima and 1981 in Nagasaki) and of larger scale (1:2,500 vs. 1:12,500 for the U.S. Army maps). Even before the publication of DS86, efforts were made to reconcile the locations of buildings and other features of interest on these two sets of maps. Beyond the simple desire to compare two different sources of map information, it was thought that a better standard of accuracy for technical reasons could be achieved with the use of the newer maps. The U.S. Army maps were compiled under wartime conditions from an assortment of older Japanese maps and other sources, including aerial photographs of limited quality, using the best methods available at the time. The newer Japanese maps had the benefit of 34 years of improvement in cartographic methods and were made with extensive new survey information. Because of their larger scale, they are also more detailed than the U.S. Army maps. (J.P.N.)

  3. Remembering Wartime Schooling...Catholic Education, Teacher Memory and World War II in Belgium (United States)

    Van Ruyskensvelde, Sarah


    Power over education and the upcoming generations has always been an important instrument in shaping religious and secular values. As a consequence, control over schools, pupils and teachers was, particularly in periods of war, an important means for bringing about acceptance of the new regime. The aim of this paper is to discuss priest-teachers'…

  4. Models for Comparing Air-Only and Sea/Air Transportation of Wartime Deployment Cargo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theres, Michael


    ...) to an overseas Port of Debarkation (POD). This thesis evaluates a proposal to load air-transportable cargo aboard vessels at CONUS seaports and to ship that cargo to an appropriately located sea-air-interface (SAI...

  5. A State Cinematographic Practice in Wartime. The Belgian Army Film Unit 1916-1922

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochet, Bénédicte


    abstractMass media widely disseminated iconographic representations of the war. In this profusion of images, the behaviour of state authorities changed, while they had previously looked down on these two types of media. The alleged power of images led belligerents to take control of war pictures

  6. Results of the first 5 years of a study on year-to-year variations of radon concentration in Italian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F.; Ampollini, M.; Antignani, S.; Bruni, B.; Quarto, M.; Venoso, G.


    Radon concentration in air is subject to significant variations at different time scales, owing to several factors. In general, the shorter the time period considered, the larger the variations in radon concentration, e.g., day-to-day variations are usually higher than month-to-month variations. An average over 12 consecutive months is generally considered the best estimate of the long-term average radon concentration. Due to practical reasons, however, very few data are available on year-to-year variations. Year-to-year variations can have quite a relevant impact on radon policies and on the assessment of health risks from exposures to radon. Therefore, a project was started in 1996 aimed to evaluate year-to-year variations in a sample of dwellings. Systematic radon measurements have been made with LR 115 based radon detectors (closed type) in the living room and one bedroom of a sample of dwellings in Rome (Italy). The analysis of the results of the first five consecutive years of measurements, regarding the 76 dwellings included in the final analysis, showed relatively low year-to-year variations, with a median coefficient of variation of 14% (range 3%-42%), smaller than that observed in studies from other European countries. Therefore, in the analyzed sample, 12-month measurements can be considered a good estimate of the average radon concentration, at least within a 5-year period. This is quite important for radon regulations and policies, e.g. annual measurements could be recommended and repetition of radon measurements could not be necessary within periods of 5 years. Moreover, the impact of the observed year-to-year variations on the lung cancer risk estimated in the Italian epidemiological study is expected to be not high, if variations on periods up to about 30 years can be assumed similar to those observed in this study.

  7. Warning against nuclear war. Documentation of the 5th medical congress to prevent a nuclear war. Wir warnen vor dem Atomkrieg. Dokumentation zum 5. medizinischen Kongress zur Verhinderung des Atomkrieges in Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastian, T [ed.


    The 5th medical congress to prevent a nuclear war of November 1985 was to give an outline of the current knowledge concerning the status of the nuclear arms race and the chances for preventing a nuclear war. The documentation comprises 20 papers by medical experts and members of the Peace Movement, e.g. on space wars, the nuclear winter, a stop of nuclear weapons tests as the world's only chance, benefits and dangers of the Act Concerning the Protection of the Civilian Population, civil disobedience, dioxin in wartime and peace, the young and the nuclear age. The central issue of the congress, 40 years after Hiroshima, was an attempt to get the so-called 'security policy' out of its deadlock. The dream of nuclear disarmament is still far from realisation, and the arms race is still going on. Both sides have by now reached a level of dozenfold overkill, so that a stop to nuclear weappons tests would not threaten the security of either party. Technical supervision would be no great problem. If the attempted nuclear weapons test stop were to fail, a great historical chance for terminating the nuclear arms race would have been missed. (orig./HSCH).

  8. US military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James J.


    Analyses of the full social cost of motor vehicle use in the US often estimate an 'oil import premium' that includes the military cost of defending oil supplies from the Persian Gulf. Estimates of this cost have ranged from essentially zero to upwards of a $1 per gallon (about $0.25 per liter). In this paper, we attempt to narrow this range, by carefully answering the question: 'If the US highway transportation sector did not use oil, how much would the US federal government reduce its military commitment in the Persian Gulf?' We work towards our answer in five steps, accounting for interests not related to oil, the interests of other oil-consuming countries, the interests of producers apart from the interests of consumers, and the interests of non-highway users of oil. We estimate that were there no oil in the Persian Gulf, then US combined peacetime and wartime defense expenditures might be reduced in the long run by roughly $27-$73 billion per year (in 2004 dollars), of which roughly $6-$25 billion annually ($0.03-$0.15 per gallon or $0.01-$0.04 per liter) is attributable to motor-vehicle use

  9. Afişul propagandistic sovietic din perioada celui de-al Doilea Război Mondial din patrimoniul Muzeului Naţional de Istorie a Moldovei / Soviet propaganda posters of the Second World War in collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Stavilă


    Full Text Available This article is the result of studying the collection of Soviet propaganda posters of the Second World War from NMHM. During the research it was found that they are very different in content, format and design. Typologically they can be divided into two categories: posters made by using a stencil technique and printed posters. The number of stencil posters in the museum's collection is small - 50 objects; their theme is dedicated to the events of 1945 - the last year of the war. Most of the collection consists of printed posters. There are originals and copies multiplied during the war and after its end by tens of thousands of exemplars. It was found that the informative message of the posters varied depending on the situation at the front and in the rear. In wartime, the sole purpose of the posters was a justification for the war and denigrating the enemy. Their role has resulted in the mobilization of society against the enemy. At the same time the posters were a form of manipulation of citizens by the Soviet authorities; they concealed crimes and ugly phenomena that accompanied the Soviet policy throughout its existence.

  10. One each year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.


    Later this year or early next year site construction work is due to start on two new nuclear power projects in Britain. There has been a gap of ten years since the last start of construction on a nuclear project in the country. Coupled with this is a, long overdue, rationalisation of the complicated management structure of the National Nuclear Corporation and its operating subsidary, the Nuclear Power Company, with a new Chairman, Denis Rooney, taking up his duties on July 1. At the end of last year the Government announced a program of nuclear power plant construction which will involve the ordering of at least one new station per year for a ten year period starting in 1982 and both nationally and internationally the Prime Minister, Margret Thatcher, has declared her conviction in the need for the industrialised nations of the world to develop further the use of nuclear energy as an alternative to oil. (orig.) [de

  11. En estos tiempos de Guerra: Enfermeras ante los conflictos internacionales In this "war-time": Nurses facing International conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Liliana Palacios García


    Full Text Available La guerra o los conflictos son situaciones que se han presentado desde la existencia de la misma humanidad. La búsqueda de mejores oportunidades, ampliación de territorios o la retaliación de venganzas tribales son algunos de los motivos que han llevado a su presencia y que aún hoy se presentan en el mundo. Se podría decir que a escala mundial, el contexto o panorama para algunos países es claramente de enfrentamiento. Colombia no se escapa de ello y no lo ha hecho hace casi 50 años que lleva en esta situación. Quiérase o no, esto afecta a la salud de múltiples formas con consecuencias directas o indirectas. De esta manera, mal que bien a los que somos profesionales de salud nos ha tocado de alguna forma enfrentar o desenvolvernos trabajando en un contexto un tanto diferente al estandarizado. Hace unos meses cuando estuve de nuevo en "casa", me surgieron varias inquietudes: ¿Cuántos de nosotros realmente conocemos acerca de esta situación, en el mundo o en nuestros países? ¿Qué tanto se afecta el ejercicio de la enfermería en estos contextos difíciles? ¿Cuál podría ser nuestro papel? Si bien, este podría ser un tema de investigación, aquí es desarrollado como una revisión de tema y actualidad, aterrizado a la realidad de mi país, Colombia.The war or conflicts have been present since the beginning of the humanity. The search of better chances, gaining of lands or tribal revenges are some causes of it and they are still present in the world. Nowadays the landscape for some countries is conflict. Colombia is one of them and it has taken around 50 years of its existence. One or other way, it affects the health in different way with either direct and no-direct consequences. Those who are health professionals have been exposed to work in this kind of context, a little bit different to the standard one. Some months ago, when I arrived home, some doubts and questions arose about this topic: How many of us (health professionals

  12. World War II, post-war reconstruction and British women chemists. (United States)

    Horrocks, Sally


    This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.

  13. PTSD of rape after IS ("Islamic State") captivity. (United States)

    Kizilhan, Jan Ilhan


    Research into the psychological consequences of rape on women in war and warlike situations is limited. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence and the nature of PTSD symptoms among Yazidi women reporting rape during IS captivity, (b) to describe comorbidity of other psychological disorders, and (c) to examine the risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.The study included 296 Yazidi women survivors of rape and has been conducted in Germany since January 2016 as part of a special-quota project in the German region of Baden-Wuerttemberg, designed to support the women and children who have escaped after being held hostage by IS.The survivors were recruited into a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Interviews in Germany were done through trained personnel to evaluate the mental health status of raped women.All the investigated women had been raped many times during IS captivity. About 82% of the women were also physically tortured. Of the sample, 67% suffered from somatoform disorder, 53% suffered from depression, 39% from anxiety, and 28% from dissociation. The prevalence of PTSD in those with rape events of more than 20 times was 57% (95% CI = 35.1-65.9%), less than 20 times was 41% (95%, CI = 28.7-4.8% and less than 10 times 39% [95% CI = 28.2-41.8%], respectively.The IS captivity and wartime rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women survivors. The high prevalence of PTSD emphasizes the need for culturally sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic services to address the intermediate and long-term consequences of wartime rape.

  14. Military and mental health correlates of unemployment in a national sample of women veterans. (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison B; Williams, Lindsay; Washington, Donna L


    The unemployment rate is currently higher among women Veterans than among male Veterans and civilian women. Employment is a key social determinant of health, with unemployment being strongly associated with adverse health. To identify military-related and health-related characteristics associated with unemployment in women Veterans. Secondary analysis of workforce participants (n=1605) in the National Survey of Women Veterans telephone survey. Demographics, mental health conditions, health care utilization, and military experiences and effects. Unemployment was defined as being in the labor force but unemployed and looking for work. The χ analyses to identify characteristics of unemployed women Veterans; logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with unemployment. Ten percent of women Veterans were unemployed. Independent correlates of unemployment were screening positive for depression [odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-12.4], military service during wartime (OR=2.9; 95%, CI 1.1-7.3), and service in the regular military (vs. in the National Guards/Reserves only) (OR=6.8; 95% CI, 2.2-20.5). Two postactive duty perceptions related to not being respected and understood as a Veteran were each independently associated with unemployment. Whether depression underlies unemployment, is exacerbated by unemployment, or both, it is critical to identify and treat depression among women Veterans, and also to investigate women Veterans' experiences and identities in civilian life. Community-based employers may need education regarding women Veterans' unique histories and strengths. Women who served in the regular military and during wartime may benefit from job assistance before and after they leave the military. Gender-specific adaptation of employment services may be warranted.

  15. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia


    -79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000...... were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations......BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60...

  16. Remembering the early days of the Met Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.J.


    The Met Lab was set up by the war-time Manhattan District, US Corp of Engineers to (i) find a system using normal uranium in which a chain reaction would occur; (ii) to show that if such a chain reaction did occur, it would be possible to separate plutonium chemically from the uranium matrix and the fission products formed in the chain reactions; and (iii) to prepare plans for the large-scale production of plutonium. Chemistry Section C-1 of the Met Lab was assigned the responsibility for developing separation methods for plutonium production on the industrial scale. This report describes some aspects of daily life in Section C-1

  17. Thinking through war: the social thought of Richard T. Ely, John R. Commons, and Edward A. Ross during the First World War. (United States)

    Herzberg, D L


    This paper examines the social thought of University of Wisconsin professors Richard T. Ely, John R. Commons, and Edward A. Ross during World War I. Like many of their fellow scholars, these three were actively involved in the pro-war effort. Although their support for the war was strongly conditioned by personal and occupational considerations, the impact of their wartime service was not restricted to those realms. Their social thought, which they impressed into service explaining and justifying the war, was itself altered in subtle and sometimes surprising ways by the forceful positions they took on the political, economic, and racial significance of the conflict. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Review of Collection of Documents “Krasnoyarsk Region during the Great Patriotic War. 1941-1945 (On the documents by Archive Agency of Krasnoyarsk Region, 2010. 497 p.”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii A. Malyutin


    Full Text Available The paper presents the review of the collection of documents, including the data on social and economic situation in Krasnoyarsk Region during the Great Patriotic War, the activity of party and Soviet authorities, deeds by Krasnoyarsk natives in the frontline and labor achievements in the rear. The collection contains the documents, describing the daily life in wartime, the public mood, the living conditions, social security, the status of disabled veterans. The presented data, concerning patriotic activity of the orthodox church, camps of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, facts of desertion, speculation, criminality in the region prove weight and objective approach of the composite author to the documents selection.

  19. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łotysz Sławomir


    Full Text Available The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank’s headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  20. Bodily Pain, Combat, and the Politics of Memoirs: Between the American Civil War and the War in Vietnam. (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna


    This article analyses the languages of wartime pain as seen in British and American memoirs from the American Civil War to the present. How did the rhetoric of wounding in these war memoirs change over time? One of the central shifts lies in the way that wounded men presented themselves as stoic in spite of severe wounding. From 1939, and in an even more dramatic fashion by the war in Vietnam, physical suffering remained a test of manliness, but the tone was defiant and aggressive rather than stoic or resigned. The article also looks at the role of individual publishers and the introduction of psychological dimensions of wounding in latter memoirs.

  1. Book Review: The future of spacetime. Stephen William Hawking (ed.); Kip S. Thorne, Igor Novikov, Timothy Ferris, Alan Lightman, and Richard Price, W.W. Norton & Company, 2002, 224 pp., US 25.95, ISBN 0393020223 (United States)

    Smeenk, Chris


    The study of Einstein's theory of general relativity experienced a renaissance beginning in the early 1960s. Prior to this resurgence of interest, general relativity was isolated from mainstream physics-admired for its elegance, perhaps, but only from a distance. The generation of students who risked their careers by entering this neglected field has now reached the age of festschrifts. In June of 2000, Caltech hosted ;Kipfest,; a conference in honor of Kip Thorne's 60th birthday. Thorne started graduate school at Princeton in 1962 and began research in general relativity under John Wheeler's guidance in the heady early days of the renaissance. Since then, he has played a prominent role in general relativity: as co-author of the influential textbook Gravitation, as a leader in research regarding astrophysical applications of Einstein's theory, and as a co-founder and chief advocate for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), to mention a few aspects of his far-reaching work. ;Kipfest; included 14 speakers discussing fields to which Thorne has contributed. But the conference also reflected Thorne's long-standing commitment to communicating science to a general audience: Igor Novikov, Stephen Hawking, Timothy Ferris, and Alan Lightman gave popular talks at ;Kipfest,; with Thorne himself tricked into delivering a fifth. The Future of Spacetime gathers adaptations of these five lectures, along with a lengthy introductory essay by Richard Price.

  2. X-rays of inner worlds: the mid-twentieth-century American projective test movement. (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca


    This essay begins to tell the neglected history of the projective test movement in the U.S. behavioral sciences from approximately 1941 to 1968. This cross-disciplinary enterprise attempted to use projective techniques as "X-ray" machines to see into the psyches of subjects tested around the world. The aim was to gather subjective materials en masse, pursuing data on a scope, scale, and manner rarely hazarded before in any science. In particular, the targeted data included the traces of the inner life and elusive aspects of subjective experience including dreams, life stories, and myriad test results from a battery of tests. This essay explores how the movement and the experimental data bank that resulted were unlikely yet telling sites for the practice and pursuit of the Cold War human sciences. To look closely at the encounters that resulted is to show how the most out-of-the-way places and seemingly insignificant moments played a role in heady scientific ambitions and global geopolitical projects. At times, the projective test movement became a mirror of Cold War rationality itself, as tests were employed at the very limits of their possible extension. The essay argues for an off-kilter centrality in the movement itself, shedding light on the would-be unified social sciences after World War II and the "subjective turn" they took. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Good year, bad year: changing strategies, changing networks? A two-year study on seed acquisition in northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Violon


    Full Text Available Analysis of seed exchange networks at a single point in time may reify sporadic relations into apparently fixed and long-lasting ones. In northern Cameroon, where environment is not only strongly seasonal but also shows unpredictable interannual variation, farmers' social networks are flexible from year to year. When adjusting their strategies, Tupuri farmers do not systematically solicit the same partners to acquire the desired propagules. Seed acquisitions documented during a single cropping season may thus not accurately reflect the underlying larger social network that can be mobilized at the local level. To test this hypothesis, we documented, at the outset of two cropping seasons (2010 and 2011, the relationships through which seeds were acquired by the members of 16 households in a Tupuri community. In 2011, farmers faced sudden failure of the rains and had to solicit distant relatives, highlighting their ability to quickly trigger specific social relations to acquire necessary seeding material. Observing the same set of individuals during two successive years and the seed sources they solicited in each year enabled us to discriminate repeated relations from sporadic ones. Although farmers did not acquire seeds from the same individuals from one year to the next, they relied on quite similar relational categories of people. However, the worse weather conditions during the second year led to (1 a shift from red sorghum seeds to pearl millet seeds, (2 a geographical extension of the network, and (3 an increased participation of women in seed acquisitions. In critical situations, women mobilized their own kin almost exclusively. We suggest that studying the seed acquisition network over a single year provides a misrepresentation of the underlying social network. Depending on the difficulties farmers face, they may occasionally call on relationships that transcend the local relationships used each year.

  4. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  5. World War II never ended in my house: interviews of 12 Office of Strategic Services veterans of wartime espionage on the 50th anniversary of WW II. (United States)

    Cavin, Susan


    The author conducted sociological interviews of 12 OSS spies (7 male, 5 female) who were operatives in France during World War II (WW II). The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) existed from 1941 to 1945 and was later renamed the CIA in 1947. This paper includes family studies of six close relatives of OSS vets and observation of 400 OSS veterans at the 50th anniversary of WW II. Three of the 12 OSS veterans who had been tortured by the Gestapo still suffered from PTSD-startle symptoms after 50 years; those three also suffered massive strokes in later life. The majority of OSS vets, regardless of gender, exhibited "war excitement" when talking about the war 50 years later. Most saw the war as the highpoint of their lives. War excitement needs more careful study within PTSD circles.

  6. Yearly refinery construction indexes listed for 68 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.


    Yearly values are presented for the Nelson-Farrar refinery inflation cost index since 1926. They are based on 1946 as 100, since that was the date of index inception. Values from 1926 to 1945 were back calculated. Data are presented on indexed cost of materials, labor, and miscellaneous equipment for 1926 through 1994. A second table of itemized refining cost indexes for the years 1954, 1972, 1992--1994, and the first eight months of 1995 is also presented. This table subdivides materials, labor, and equipment into component costs

  7. Year-to-year correlation, record length, and overconfidence in wind resource assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bodini


    Full Text Available Interannual variability of wind speeds presents a fundamental source of uncertainty in preconstruction energy estimates. Our analysis of one of the longest and geographically most widespread extant sets of instrumental wind-speed observations (62-year records from 60 stations in Canada shows that deviations from mean resource levels persist over many decades, substantially increasing uncertainty. As a result of this persistence, the performance of each site's last 20 years diverges more widely than expected from the P50 level estimated from its first 42 years: half the sites have either fewer than 5 or more than 15 years exceeding the P50 estimate. In contrast to this 10-year-wide interquartile range, a 4-year-wide range (2.5 times narrower was found for "control" records where statistical independence was enforced by randomly permuting each station's historical values. Similarly, for sites with capacity factor of 0.35 and interannual variability of 6  %, one would expect 9 years in 10 to fall in the range 0.32–0.38; we find the actual 90  % range to be 0.27–0.43, or three times wider. The previously un-quantified effect of serial correlations favors a shift in resource-assessment thinking from a climatology-focused approach to a persistence-focused approach: for this data set, no improvement in P50 error is gained by using records longer than 4–5 years, and use of records longer than 20 years actually degrades accuracy.

  8. Environmental restoration and waste management five year plan, fiscal years 1994--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In March 1989, Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins outlined his vision for a changed Department of Energy (DOE) culture. This culture is one of envirorunental responsibility, increased knowledge and involvement in environmental management, a new openness to public input, and overall accountability to the Nation for its actions. Secretary Watkins also requested all the near-term activities necessary to bring DOEactivities into compliance with all applicable environmental requirements to be detailed in one plan. The Five-Year Plan was to be based on a ''bottom up'' approach to planning by using Activity Data Sheets to collect financial and technical information at the installation level. Over the past three years, the Five-Year Plan has evolved into the primary planning tool for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, looking beyond the current three-year Federal budget horizon. The FY 1994--1998 Five-Year Plan demonstrates DOE's commitment to a culture based on the principles of openness, responsiveness, and accountability; reports on the progress made in carrying out DOE's environmental mission; identifies what must be accomplished during a five-year planning period; and describes strategies for achieving critical program objectives. This plan represents another step towards the implementation of the culture change Secretary Watkins envisioned. The Five-Year Plan is not exclusively focused on near-term activities. Italso expresses the DOE commitment to a 30-year goal for the cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites. The FY 1994--1998 Five-Year Plan reiterates the DOE commitment to meeting this and other important environmental goals

  9. Environmental restoration and waste management five-year plan, Fiscal years 1994--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In March 1989, Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins outlined his vision for a changed Department of Energy (DOE) culture. This culture is one of environmental responsibility, increased knowledge and involvement in environmental management, a new openness to public input, and overall accountability to the Nation for its actions. Over the past three years, the Five Year Plan has evolved into the primary planning tool for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, looking beyond the current three-year Federal budget horizon. The FY 1994--1998 Five-Year Plan demonstrates DOE's commitment to a culture based on the principles of openness, responsiveness, and accountability; reports on the progress made in carrying out DOE's environmental mission; identifies what must be accomplished during a five-year planning period; and describes strategies for achieving critical program objectives. The Five-Year Plan is not exclusively focused on near-term activities. It also expresses the DOE commitment to a 30-year goal for the cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites. This goal was established in response to recommendations from the State and Tribal Government Working Group (STGWG) that DOE define a specific end point for completing necessary remediation and restoration activities. The FY 1994--1998 Five-Year Plan reiterates the DOE commitment to meeting this and other important environmental goals

  10. Analytical Services Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-year Program Plan Fiscal Year Work Plan WBS 1.5.1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Work Plan and Multi-Year Program Plan for the Analytical Services Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Analytical Services Program provides vital support to the Hanford Site mission and provides technically sound, defensible, cost effective, high quality analytical chemistry data for the site programs. This report describes the goals and strategies for continuance of the Analytical Services Program through fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

  11. Analytical Services Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-year Program Plan Fiscal Year Work Plan WBS 1.5.1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Work Plan and Multi-Year Program Plan for the Analytical Services Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Analytical Services Program provides vital support to the Hanford Site mission and provides technically sound, defensible, cost effective, high quality analytical chemistry data for the site programs. This report describes the goals and strategies for continuance of the Analytical Services Program through fiscal year 1996 and beyond

  12. Knowledge mapping visualization analysis of the military health and medicine papers published in the web of science over the past 10 years. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan-Ming; Zhang, Xuan; Luo, Xu; Guo, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Li-Qun; Guo, Ji-Wei


    Military medicine is a research field that seeks to solve the medical problems that occur in modern war conditions based on public medicine theory. We explore the main research topics of military health and medical research in the web of science™ core collection (WoSCC) from 2007 to 2016, and the goal of this work is to serve as a reference for orientation and development in military health and medicine. Based on CiteSpace III, a reference co-citation analysis is performed for 7921 papers published in the WoSCC from 2007 to 2016. In addition, a cluster analysis of research topics is performed with a comprehensive analysis of high-yield authors, outstanding research institutions and their cooperative networks. Currently, the research topics in military health and medicine mainly focus on the following seven aspects: mental health diagnoses and interventions, an army study to assess risk and resilience in service members (STARRS), large-scale military action, brain science, veterans, soldier parents and children of wartime, and wound infection. We also observed that the annual publication rate increased with time. Wessely S, Greenberg N, Fear NT, Smith TC, Smith B, Jones N, Ryan MAK, Boyko EJ, Hull L, and Rona RJ were the top 10 authors in military health and medicine research. The top 10 institutes were the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the United States Army, the United States Navy, Kings College London, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Boston University, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Naval Health Research Center, and the VA Boston Healthcare System. We are able to perform a comprehensive analysis of studies in military health and medicine research and summarize the current research climate and the developmental trends in the WoSCC. However, further studies and collaborations are needed worldwide. Overall, our findings provide valuable information and new perspectives and shape

  13. Hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress in the 2011 Libyan war. (United States)

    Etwel, Fatma; Russell, Evan; Rieder, Michael J; Van Uum, Stan H; Koren, Gideon


    There is a substantial body of research that utilizes saliva cortisol levels to examine wartime stress; however, there is a paucity of literature that utilizes hair cortisol levels, which allows for long-term assessment of chronic stress, to investigate the stress of war. The present study aimed to evaluate changes in hair cortisol concentrations before, during, and after the 2011 Libyan war. This study examined hair cortisol concentrations of young adult women who were living in Tripoli, Libya during the 2011 war. The participants were recruited at the campus of Tripoli University. Participants needed to have at least 24 cm of hair and to have resided in Tripoli before, during and after the 2011 Libyan war. Hair was sectioned to reflect 3 month windows of cortisol exposure corresponding to periods before, during and after the war. Hair cortisol concentrations were quantified using a modified salivary ELISA test. The women were also asked to complete the Perceived Stress Scale pertaining to the post-war period. Median hair cortisol concentrations in the post-war period (226.11 ng/g; range 122.95-519.85 ng/g) were significantly higher than both the pre-war (180.07 ng/g; 47.13-937.85 ng/g) and wartime (186.65 ng/g; 62.97-771.79 ng/g) periods (Pwar period appears to have been more stressful than the war itself. This is consistent with the fact that during the war the civilian participants were not directly involved with warfare, nor were they targeted by the international coalition fighting Gaddafi. In contrast, the post-war period was characterized by chaos and total lack of authority, with the participants exposed to injury, lack of food and destruction. This study documents the utility of hair cortisol levels to retrospectively assess stress before, during, and after an armed conflict.

  14. Review of the gas centrifuge until 1962. Part I: Principles of separation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, S.


    There are two sets of principles involved in the development of the gas centrifuge, the internal separation physics and the external means of spinning a rotor at very high speeds. Only the first aspect is discussed in this part of the review. First, the industrial requirement for the separation of the uranium isotopes is defined so that the separation history can be put in a modern perspective. The history of separation physics itself is then traced back to the theory of centrifugal force by Huygens and the equivalence of this force to that of gravity. The barometric equation giving the variation of atmospheric pressure with height and the law of partial pressures can then be adapted to the centrifuge to give the steady-state theory of separation. This work was completed in the last century but was not confirmed in its application to isotope separation until 1936. The detailed separation physics for non-steady-state conditions required for a production centrifuge was developed during the American wartime Manhattan Project. During this work the theory giving the maximum output of a centrifuge was developed by Dirac, and soon afterwards Cohen and Kaplan showed that the best method of operation for a production centrifuge is in a countercurrent mode of operation. This method gives a large separation factor at relatively small flow rates through the rotor. The theory of how to set up an internal countercurrent was given by Martin during an equivalent wartime German project, and refinements to the theory, showing how the countercurrent persists along a centrifuge rotor, was given by Dirac and Steenbeck, the latter during a postwar Russian project. This theory was extended by Parker, Ging, and Mayo of the University of Virginia, whose work was completed by 1962, the limit of this review

  15. First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First Seven Years. (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane


    Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, age 4½, and first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as economics and sociology, we address three main questions. First, what associations exist between first-year maternal employment and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children over the first seven years of life? Second, to what extent do any such associations vary by the child's gender and temperament, or the mother's occupation? Third, to what extent do mother's earnings, the home environment (maternal depressive symptoms, sensitivity, and HOME scores), and the type and quality of child care mediate or offset any associations between first-year employment and child outcomes, and what is the net effect of first-year maternal employment once these factors are taken into account? We compare families in which mothers worked full time (55%), part time (23%), or did not work (22%) in the first year for non-Hispanic white children (N=900) and for African-American children (N=113). Comparisons are also made taking into account the timing of mothers' employment within the first year. A rich set of control variables are included. OLS and SEM analyses are constructed. With regard to cognitive outcomes, first, we find that full-time maternal employment in the first 12 months of life (but not part-time employment) is associated with significantly lower scores on some, but not all, measures of cognitive development at age 3, 4 ½, and first grade for non-Hispanic white children, but with no significant associations for the small sample of African-American children Part-time employment in the first year is associated with higher scores than full-time employment for some measures. Employment in the second and third year of life is not associated

  16. The Pros and Cons of Two-Year Versus Four-Year Degrees. (United States)

    Urbaniak, Anthony


    Reports results of a research survey conducted to determine what differences (job titles, income, relevance of courses, satisfaction, suitability) exist between two-year (Associate of Science) graduates and four-year (Bachelor of Science) graduates in business. Statistical tables are included. (CT)

  17. State and food in South Korea : moulding the national diet in wartime and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Kyoung-Hee


    This dissertation examines the governmental policies through which people’s food practices were intervened in, controlled and modified in twentieth-century South Korea. The main focus is on the wars that occurred in twentieth-century Korea, as it acted as an important stimulus in increasing state

  18. Attributions of Academic Performance among Third Year and Fourth Year Biology Major Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick John B. Solar


    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the attributions of academic performance of third year and fourth year biology major students in the College of Education, West Visayas State University, School Year 2013-2014. The academic performance were categorized or measured in terms of test, projects, workbooks, and laboratory experiments, class participation, and attendance. The Attributions in academic performance were evaluated using the closed-form questionnairechecklist,categorized intoin termsof ability, effort, luck, or task difficulty. Mean frequency, mean percentage, Mann-Whitney U-test, two-sampled test set at 0.05 level of significance were used to determine if there were significant difference in the attribution when the students were taken according to their year level. The result of the study revealed that the Third Year biology majors attributed their academic performance to effort which is shown to have the highest percentage attribution in overall rank. There was no significant difference in the attributions of academic performance for third year and fourth year biology major students in termsof test, whilethe result forprojects, workbooks, and laboratory experiment and class participation and attendance categories,was found out to havea significant difference in the attributionfor the third and fourth years biology Major students’ academic performances.

  19. Fiscal year 1990 Rocky Flats Plant environmental restoration program current-year work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, T.; Waage, E.; Miller, D.


    This paper reports on the FY90 Current Year Work Plan (CYWP), intended to serve as a guiding document with which the Environmental Restoration and RCRA Compliance programs will be implemented at the Rocky Flats Plant, The Current Year Work Plan document serves to provide in one single document any cross-references necessary to understand how the DOE Five Year Plan, Site Specific Plan, or any other related documents fit into the Current Year Work Plan for the Rocky Flats Environmental Restoration. The scope of this paper will compare the planned Fiscal Year 1990 environmental restoration activities to those actually achieved at the end of the fiscal year. The DOE Headquarters (HQ) issued the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Five-Year Plan (FYP). The purpose of the FYP is to establish an agenda for compliance and cleanup against which progress will be measured. The Five Year Plan has been updated to include the Colorado Department of Health (CDH), Evironmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Department of Energy (DOE) Inter Agency Agreement Environmental Restoration activities. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. It also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in the management of those wastes

  20. Social Security, Cash Payments and Awards to Servicemen of the Red Army Air Force in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Abramov


    Full Text Available On the basis of the historical and sociological material presented materials about the Soviet state measures during the Great Patriotic War for the implementation of social policy in respect of the military air force of the Red Army, expressed in monetary incentives, rewards and social guarantees. The author notes that the implementation of social management practices at each stage of warfare timely adjustments depending on acquired combat experience and the strategic objectives of war. Existing wartime monetary awards system and social guarantees in respect of the personnel of the Red Army Air Force was not a major, but significant moral incentive for both pilots, as for representatives of other arms and services.

  1. The effects of war losses on mortality estimates for Italy: A first attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bruzzone


    Full Text Available For countries that experience substantial war losses in a given time period, the exclusion of military deaths can have an important impact on estimates of mortality and life expectancy. In this paper, we start by reviewing Vallin's work in accounting for French war losses. We then attempt to apply comparable methods to Italy in order to account for the effects of war. The results indicate that estimates currently available from the Human Mortality Database (HMD greatly underestimate period mortality during wartime among all Italian males, and may even underestimate mortality among civilian males. Finally, we discuss how failing to account for war mortality presents problems in making inter-country mortality comparisons.

  2. Modernization of the Ural Metallurgy during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Zaparii


    Full Text Available The article characterizes the Ural industry modernization in war footing, shows the significance of evacuation of enterprises from the Western areas of the country to the region, reveals their role in the formation of a new metallurgical center of modern metallurgy in terms of human resources and manufacture. Innovations in metallurgy, the role of human factor in solving industrial restructuring problem are examined. Forms and methods of science use for the industrial modernization are considered. Solving of human resources problem is shown. The author touches upon the problem of metallurgical sector management in wartime. The role of people’s heroism in this difficult period of Russian history is discussed.

  3. The voices of neurosurgeons: doctors' non-medical writing. (United States)

    Bernstein, Mark


    Biomedical publishing is an integral part of medicine--both to those who produce it and those who consume it to improve the care of their patients. Non-medical writing by surgeons usually takes the form of creative non-fiction, generally reflective essays on moving and emotionally charged situations such as working in the trenches in war-time or in natural disasters, or dealing with individual patients. Such writing is both creative and cathartic for neurosurgeons, and can help educate patients thus improving the doctor-patient relationship. The purpose of this article is to encourage fellow neurosurgeons to pursue this enjoyable and valuable endeavour, to utter a call to arms so to speak.

  4. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.


    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs

  5. Fallout radiation protection provided by transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burson, Z.G.


    Fallout radiation protection factors (PF's) were estimated for a variety of civilian transportation vehicles using measurements of the natural terrain radiation as a source. The PF values are below 2 in light vehicles, truck beds, or trailers; from 2.5 to 3 in the cabs of heavy trucks and in a railway guard car; and from 3.0 to 3.5 in the engineer's seat of heavy locomotives. This information can be useful in planning the possible movement of personnel from or through areas contaminated either by a wartime incident or a peacetime accident. The information may also be useful for studying the reduction of exposure to the natural terrestrial radiation environment provided by vehicles.

  6. 'Where is the damned collection?' Charles Davies Sherborn's listing of named natural science collections and its successors. (United States)

    Taylor, Michael A


    C. D. Sherborn published in 1940, under the imprint of Cambridge University Press but at his own expense, Where is the - Collection? This idiosyncratic listing of named natural science collections, and their fates, was useful, but incomplete, and uneven in its accuracy. It is argued that those defects were inevitable, given Sherborn's age and wartime conditions, and that what might seem one of Sherborn's less impressive works was in fact a pioneering work highly influential in stimulating the production of successor works now much used in curation, and in systematic and descriptive biology and palaeontology. The book also contributed to the development of collections research in the natural sciences, and the history of collections and of museums.

  7. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students (United States)

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.


    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  8. Engaging Beyond the First College Year: Exploring the Needs of Second-year Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Black


    Full Text Available This article makes the case for librarians to engage with second-year students as part of the burgeoning movement in higher education to provide dedicated programming and experiences for second-year students. Grounded in development theories and transition theory, the article describes the special needs characteristic of typical second-year students and how librarians can build on the excellent work in first-year programs to collaborate with campus colleagues to further information literacy instruction.

  9. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  10. Saturn's Ring: Pre-Cassini Status and Mission Goals (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeff N.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    In November 1980, and again in August 1981, identical Voyager spacecraft flew through the Saturn system, changing forever the way we think about planetary rings. Although Saturn's rings had been the only known ring system for three centuries, a ring system around Uranus had been discovered by stellar occultations from Earth in 1977, and the nearly transparent ring of Jupiter was imaged by Voyager in 1979 (the presence of material there had been inferred from charged particle experiments on Pioneer 10 and 11 several years earlier). While Saturn had thus temporarily lost its uniqueness as having the only ring system, with Voyager it handily recaptured the role of having the most fascinating one. The Voyager breakthroughs included spiral density and bending waves such as cause galactic structure; ubiquitous fine-scale radial 'irregular' structure, with the appearance of record-grooves; regional and local variations in particle color; complex, azimuthally variable ring structure; empty gaps in the rings, some containing very regular, sharp-edged, elliptical rings and one containing both a small moonlet and incomplete arcs of dusty material; and shadowy 'spokes' that flicker across the main rings. One of the paradigm shifts of this period was the realization that many aspects of planetary rings, and even the ring systems themselves, could be 'recent' on geological timescales. These early results are reviewed and summarized in the Arizona Space Science series volumes 'Saturn'. (An excellent review of ring dynamics at a formative stage is by Goldreich and Tremaine.) From the mid 1980's to the time of this writing, progress has been steady, while at a less heady pace, and some of the novel ring properties revealed by Voyager 1 and 2 are beginning to be better understood. It is clearly impossible to cite, much less review, every advance over the last decade; however, below we summarize the main advances in understanding of Saturn's rings since the mid 1980's, in the context

  11. Influence of year-on-year performance on final degree classification in a chiropractic master's degree program. (United States)

    Dewhurst, Philip; Rix, Jacqueline; Newell, David


    We explored if any predictors of success could be identified from end-of-year grades in a chiropractic master's program and whether these grades could predict final-year grade performance and year-on-year performance. End-of-year average grades and module grades for a single cohort of students covering all academic results for years 1-4 of the 2013 graduating class were used for this analysis. Analysis consisted of within-year correlations of module grades with end-of-year average grades, linear regression models for continuous data, and logistic regression models for predicting final degree classifications. In year 1, 140 students were enrolled; 85.7% of students completed the program 4 years later. End-of-year average grades for years 1-3 were correlated (Pearson r values ranging from .75 to .87), but the end-of-year grades for years 1-3 were poorly correlated with clinic internship performance. In linear regression, several modules were predictive of end-of-year average grades for each year. For year 1, logistic regression showed that the modules Physiology and Pharmacology and Investigative Imaging were predictive of year 1 performance (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15 and 0.9, respectively). In year 3, the modules Anatomy and Histopathology 3 and Problem Solving were predictors of the difference between a pass/merit or distinction final degree classification (OR = 1.06 and 1.12, respectively). Early academic performance is weakly correlated with final-year clinic internship performance. The modules of Anatomy and Histopathology year 3 and Problem Solving year 3 emerged more consistently than other modules as being associated with final-year classifications.

  12. Analyzing Four-Year Public University and Two-Year College Graduation Rates (United States)

    Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.


    This paper examines the graduation rates between 2000 and 2015 of United States colleges and universities at the national, state, and institutional levels. This research focuses on two-year and four-year programs. Rates are investigated longitudinally along with variables that distinguish between public/private institutions, percentages of…

  13. Four-Year Itch (United States)

    Pierce, Dennis


    Ohio's decision to let community colleges award four-year degrees is part of a growing national trend. When this article went to press, more than 90 community colleges across 19 states offered active four-year degree programs. Counting New York's Fashion Institute of Technology, which technically is a community college, but offers degrees as high…

  14. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years: the international landscape. (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; DeLeo, Diego; Erlangsen, Annette


    There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 85-89 years age-bands, and then declined slightly for the 90-94 years and 95-99 years age-bands. The overall global suicide rates for each of the eight five-year age-bands are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. This is especially important given the ongoing rise in the elderly population size and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in the five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years.

  15. US military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delucchi, Mark A. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Murphy, James J. [Department of Economics, University of Alaska-Anchorage, Anchorage, AK 99501 (United States)


    Analyses of the full social cost of motor vehicle use in the US often estimate an 'oil import premium' that includes the military cost of defending oil supplies from the Persian Gulf. Estimates of this cost have ranged from essentially zero to upwards of a $1 per gallon (about $0.25 per liter). In this paper, we attempt to narrow this range, by carefully answering the question: ''If the US highway transportation sector did not use oil, how much would the US federal government reduce its military commitment in the Persian Gulf?'' We work towards our answer in five steps, accounting for interests not related to oil, the interests of other oil-consuming countries, the interests of producers apart from the interests of consumers, and the interests of non-highway users of oil. We estimate that were there no oil in the Persian Gulf, then US combined peacetime and wartime defense expenditures might be reduced in the long run by roughly $27-$73 billion per year (in 2004 dollars), of which roughly $6-$25 billion annually ($0.03-$0.15 per gallon or $0.01-$0.04 per liter) is attributable to motor-vehicle use. (author)

  16. Microcosms of democracy: imagining the city neighborhood in World War II-era America. (United States)

    Looker, Benjamin


    This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved.

  17. Impact of long-term civil disorders and wars on the trajectory of HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Gisselquist, David


    From the mid-1970s, seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa have experienced civil disorders and wars lasting for at least 10 years. In two-- Sierra Leone during 1991-2002, and Somalia from 1988 and continuing--adult HIV prevalence remained below 1%. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, HIV prevalence appears to have stabilised during post-1991 civil disorder and war. Limited information from Angola (civil war 1975 -2002) and Liberia (civil disorder and war from 1989 and continuing) suggests low HIV prevalence. Mozambique's HIV prevalence was near 1% after its 1975 - 1992 civil war, but increased dramatically in the first post-war decade. Across African countries with long-term wars, HIV seems to have spread more slowly than in most neighbouring countries at peace. This evidence contributes to the ongoing debate about the factors that explain differential epidemic trajectories, a debate which is crucial to the design of HIV prevention programmes. One possible explanation for slow epidemic growth in wartime is that unsterile health care accounts for an important proportion of HIV transmission during peacetime, but much less when wars disrupt health services. However, other explanations are also possible. The roles of sex and blood exposures in HIV epidemics in war and peace await empirical determination.

  18. Shell shock, trauma, and the First World War: the making of a diagnosis and its histories. (United States)

    Loughran, Tracey


    During the First World War, thousands of soldiers were treated for "shell shock," a condition which encompassed a range of physical and psychological symptoms. Shell shock has most often been located within a "genealogy of trauma," and identified as an important marker in the gradual recognition of the psychological afflictions caused by combat. In recent years, shell shock has increasingly been viewed as a powerful emblem of the suffering of war. This article, which focuses on Britain, extends scholarly analyses which question characterizations of shell shock as an early form of post-traumatic stress disorder. It also considers some of the methodological problems raised by recasting shell shock as a wartime medical construction rather than an essentially timeless manifestation of trauma. It argues that shell shock must be analyzed as a diagnosis shaped by a specific set of contemporary concerns, knowledges, and practices. Such an analysis challenges accepted understandings of what shell shock "meant" in the First World War, and also offers new perspectives on the role of shell shock in shaping the emergence of psychology and psychiatry in the early part of the twentieth century. The article also considers what relation, if any, might exist between intellectual and other histories, literary approaches, and perceptions of trauma as timeless and unchanging.

  19. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories (United States)

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.


    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Malaysia’s various ethnic groups make interesting study both sociologically and culturally. With such a heady mix of cultural elements to explore, it is often natural that the many groups stumble upon ‘rare gems’ that reflect their ‘Malaysianess’. Have Malaysians really ever appreciated the many and varied aspects of culture that they are seemingly suddenly thrown into? Do we embrace these happily or are we constantly rejecting them? Fortunately, through the medium of film, we are, from time to time, allowed to reflect on our obvious similarities and even more apparent disparities. In this paper, we explore the culture and perceptions of people from the major ethnic groups that are the human base of this very country. When was it we have last laughed at ourselves … heartily? Nasi Lemak 2.0 provides an interesting, if not disturbing insight into the workings of the Malaysian ‘mind’. Nasi Lemak 2.0 was released on 8th September 2011 and impacted a whole generation of Malaysians. The characters have been well chosen and have done a wonderful job of being representations of the various communities in this nation. Ethnocentrism is a reality and often rears its head, ‘ugly’ or otherwise in several situations. Are we able to grapple with the levels of ethnocentrism that we encounter? These are some of the issues that will trigger much debate and discussion among ourselves and perhaps also reflect our cores.

  1. 2007 - The Year of Turn?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hroch, A.


    The year 2007 was the fi rst one after the privatisation of Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (SE). It was the first year after the shutdown of V1 Unit 1. It was a year of big challenges, which got into budget (BDG), however, not everything happened as scheduled, so SE production (including V1 and HPPG) resulted in net supply amounting to 21,242.4 GWh, which means 99.35 % plan performance with year-to-year index 0.90. (author)

  2. Lessons learned from 15 years of KIMS and 5 years of ACROSTUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luger, Anton; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Abs, Roger


    -deficient adults for 15 years. Approximately 5 years ago, the ACROSTUDY database was established to monitor the long-term safety and effectiveness of pegvisomant in patients with acromegaly. CONCLUSIONS: By collecting data on the treatment of relatively rare conditions in routine clinical practice...

  3. 2 years versus 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer (HERA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldhirsch, Aron; Gelber, Richard D; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J


    Trastuzumab has established efficacy against breast cancer with overexpression or amplification of the HER2 oncogene. The standard of care is 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab, but the optimum duration of treatment is unknown. We compared 2 years of treatment with trastuzumab with 1 year of treatment......, and updated the comparison of 1 year of trastuzumab versus observation at a median follow-up of 8 years, for patients enrolled in the HERceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial....

  4. 9+ The Year-Round School. (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The 9-month school year with a 3-month summer vacation had its origin in our earlier agrarian life. Today's teacher shortages, overcrowded schools, and pressures to learn demand extensions of the school year. This publication analyzes five programs: (1) a staggered-vacation school year for all, (2) a full 48-week school year for all, (3) a…

  5. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C


    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  6. Year book Australia 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R J


    The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all aspects of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence and repatriation services and international relations. The first Official Year Book was published in 1908. This is the sixty-ninth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However, chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1983 or 1984. More detailed, and in many cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications. The more significant of these publications are listed at the end of the relevant chapters of the Year book; the ABS Catalogue of Publications (1101.0) lists all current publications of the ABS.

  7. 49 CFR 537.7 - Pre-model year and mid-model year reports. (United States)


    ... accordance with subpart D of 40 CFR part 600, (2) Body style, (3) Beginning model year 2010, base tire as...) Passenger-carrying volume, (2) Cargo-carrying volume, (3) Beginning model year 2008, base tire as defined in...; (ii) Departure angle; (iii) Breakover angle; (iv) Axle clearance; (v) Minimum running clearance; and...

  8. Race, Late Bloomers and First-Year GPA: Predicting beyond the Freshman Year (United States)

    Gayles, Jonathan


    First-year grade point average (FYGPA) is an oft-referenced outcome criterion for assessments of the predictive validity of a variety of admissions mechanisms. Unfortunately, few studies examine the relationship between FYGPA and long-term outcomes such as graduating grade point average and six-year graduation. Influenced by Wilson's (1980)…

  9. Mathematics year 5 answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena; Poggo, Tammy


    Features the complete set of answers to the exercises in Mathematics Year 5, to save you time marking work and enable you to identify areas requiring further attention. The book includes diagrams and workings where necessary, to ensure pupils understand how to present their answers. Also available from Galore Park :. - Mathematics Year 5. - Mathematics Year 6. - 11+ Maths Practice Exercises. - 11+ Maths Revision Guide. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 8-10. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 9-11. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Age 8-10. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Ag

  10. Seven years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwicki, R.


    The paper contains information of the WHO about the state of public health in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus seven years after the Chernobyl accident. The results of medical investigations obtained after two years run of IPHECA project have been also presented

  11. Planning integration FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP)/Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Planning Integration Program, Work Breakdown structure (WBS) Element 1.8.2, is the primary management tool to document the technical, schedule, and cost baseline for work directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL). As an approved document, it establishes a binding agreement between RL and the performing contractors for the work to be performed. It was prepared by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This MYPP provides a picture from fiscal year 1995 through FY 2001 for the Planning Integration Program. The MYPP provides a window of detailed information for the first three years. It also provides 'execution year' work plans. The MYPP provides summary information for the next four years, documenting the same period as the Activity Data Sheets

  12. Planning integration FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP)/Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Planning Integration Program, Work Breakdown structure (WBS) Element 1.8.2, is the primary management tool to document the technical, schedule, and cost baseline for work directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL). As an approved document, it establishes a binding agreement between RL and the performing contractors for the work to be performed. It was prepared by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This MYPP provides a picture from fiscal year 1995 through FY 2001 for the Planning Integration Program. The MYPP provides a window of detailed information for the first three years. It also provides `execution year` work plans. The MYPP provides summary information for the next four years, documenting the same period as the Activity Data Sheets.

  13. [A 43-year-old woman with 18 years history of parkinsonism]. (United States)

    Sugita, Y; Yokochi, M; Ida, A; Mori, H; Shirai, T; Imai, H; Mizuno, Y


    We report a 43-year-old woman who died after 18 years history of parkinsonism. She was well until 25 years of the age (1976) when she noted a difficulty in stepping her feet. In the next year, she started to drag her feet. She was treated with levodopa with good response, however, she developed dyskinesia when she was 33 years of the age. She was evaluated in another hospital in 1984. She showed normal intelligence, normal ocular movement, masked face, small voice, small step gait, stooped posture, freezing of the gait, retropulsion, and cogwheel rigidity in limbs. No tremor or ataxia was noted. She received left ventrolateral thalamotomy at that time. Rigidity on the right side markedly reduced, however, she continued to show bradykinesia and motor fluctuations. On August 1 of 1994, she developed fever of 40 degrees C and dyspnea. On the next day, she expired from acute respiratory distress. She was able to walk unsupported until just before her last admission. The patient was discussed in a neurological CPC. The chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that this patient had Lewy body-positive young onset Parkinson's disease. Opinions were divided into two groups, i.e., young onset Lewy-body positive Parkinson's disease and Lewy-body negative young onset parkinsonism. Post-mortem examination revealed moderate loss of pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra more in the ventro-lateral part. Lewy bodies were found in the remaining neurons. Lewy bodies were more frequently seen in the locus coeruleus, although neuronal loss was less prominent in the locus coeruleus. The dorsal vagal motor nucleus showed moderate loss of neurons. Otherwise, the central nervous system was unremarkable. To our knowledge, this patient had the second youngest age of the onset so far reported in the literature for Lewy-body positive typical Parkinson's disease.

  14. Aspects of neutrality: two Dutch ambulances at the eastern front in the First World War. (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo


    The paper looks at two First World War ambulance teams which distinctly differed from each other, both in the way they perceived the war and the places at the front where they worked. The first was working on the Serbian side and the second on the Austrian-Hungarian. The questions raised are: how was medical neutrality defined (was it defined at all)? Was neutrality maintained, and if so how? The writings of several protagonists are closely examined, and placed in context, to show that total neutrality was not adhered to by the physicians and nurses of these ambulances. Apparently neutrality in wartime is difficult, even for men and women coming from a neutral country with an occupation seen as essentially neutral.

  15. National emergency plan for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The national emergency plan for nuclear accidents is a plan of action designed to provide a response to accidents involving the release or potential release of radioactive substances into the environment, which could give rise to radiation exposure to the public. The plan outlines the measures which are in place to assess and mitigate the effects of nuclear accidents which might pose a radiological hazard in ireland. It shows how accident management will operate, how technical information and monitoring data will be collected, how public information will be provided and what measures may be taken for the protection of the public in the short and long term. The plan can be integrated with the Department of Defence arrangements for wartime emergencies

  16. ‘Where is the damned collection?’ Charles Davies Sherborn’s listing of named natural science collections and its successors (United States)

    Taylor, Michael A.


    Abstract C. D. Sherborn published in 1940, under the imprint of Cambridge University Press but at his own expense, Where is the – Collection? This idiosyncratic listing of named natural science collections, and their fates, was useful, but incomplete, and uneven in its accuracy. It is argued that those defects were inevitable, given Sherborn’s age and wartime conditions, and that what might seem one of Sherborn’s less impressive works was in fact a pioneering work highly influential in stimulating the production of successor works now much used in curation, and in systematic and descriptive biology and palaeontology. The book also contributed to the development of collections research in the natural sciences, and the history of collections and of museums. PMID:26877654

  17. International Year of Planet Earth Cooperating with Other Years in 2007-2009 (United States)

    de Mulder, E. F.


    After its inception in 2001, the International Year of Planet Earth was proclaimed for 2008 by the UN General Assembly in December 2005. The UN Year will be in the core of a triennium, starting in January 2007 and closing by the end of 2009. Through UN proclamation, it has gained the political support by 191 UN nations. The International Year of Planet Earth was initiated by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) finding UNESCO's Earth Sciences Division ready as co-initiator. It enjoys the backing of all relevant IUGS's sister unions in ICSU, including IUGG, IGU, IUSS, ISPRS and INQUA among its 12 Founding Partners and AGI, AAPG and AIPG as major USA based international geoscientific organizations. Moreover, the initiative is supported by 26 more geoscientific and other relevant bodies. The aim of the Year, encapsulated in its subtitle Earth sciences for Society, is to build awareness of the relationship between humankind and Planet Earth, and to demonstrate that geoscientists are key players in creating a balanced, sustainable future for both. In this respect it aims to convince politicians to apply the wealth of geodata and information in day-to-day policy making. The International Year includes a Science and an Outreach Programme, both of equal financial size. The ten Science Themes (Groundwater, Hazards, Health, Climate, Resources, Deep Earth, Ocean, Megacities, Soils, and Life) in the Science Programme were selected for their societal impact, their potential for outreach, as well as their multidisciplinary nature and high scientific potential. Brochures with key questions and invitations for scientists to submit project proposals have been printed for each Theme and can be downloaded from The same bottom-up mode is applied for the Outreach Programme which will operate as a funding body, receiving bids for financial support - for anything from web-based educational resources to commissioning works of art that will help

  18. 2008: An Exciting Year of Physics

    CERN Multimedia


    The year 2005 was celebrated throughout the world as the International year of physics as a tribute to Einstein and his works. That year Einstein's special theory of relativity was 100 years old. The year 2008 shall also be a special year for physics. NASA is launching the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) to look for sources of high energy gamma-rays.

  19. Forecasting the summer rainfall in North China using the year-to-year increment approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new approach to forecasting the year-to-year increment of rainfall in North China in July-August (JA) is proposed. DY is defined as the difference of a variable between the current year and the preceding year (year-to-year increment). NR denotes the seasonal mean precipitation rate over North China in JA. After analyzing the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with the DY of NR, five key predictors for the DY of NR have been identified. The prediction model for the DY of NR is established by using multi-linear regression method and the NR is obtained (the current forecasted DY of NR added to the preceding observed NR). The prediction model shows a high correlation coefficient (0.8) between the simulated and the observed DY of NR throughout period 1965-1999, with an average relative root mean square error of 19% for the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China. The prediction model makes a hindcast for 2000-2007, with an average relative root mean square error of 21% for the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China. The model reproduces the downward trend of the percentage of precipitation rate anomaly over North China during 1965-2006. Because the current operational prediction models of the summer precipitation have average forecast scores of 60%-70%, it has been more difficult to forecast the summer rainfall over North China. Thus this new approach for predicting the year-to-year increment of the summer precipitation (and hence the summer precipitation itself) has the potential to significantly improve operational forecasting skill for summer precipitation.

  20. Validating year 2000 compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); P. Klint (Paul); M.P.A. Sellink


    textabstractValidating year 2000 compliance involves the assessment of the correctness and quality of a year 2000 conversion. This entails inspecting both the quality of the conversion emph{process followed, and of the emph{result obtained, i.e., the converted system. This document provides an

  1. Multi-year and reference year weather data for building energy labelling in north Italy climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernigotto, G.; Prada, A.; Costola, D.; Gasparella, A.; Hensen, J.L.M.


    Representative weather information is essential for a reliable building energy performance evaluation. Even if detailed energy analyses can be carried out considering the multi-year weather data, generally a single reference year is adopted. Thus, this artificial year has to correctly approximate

  2. Foreword: War-Time Mentalities. 20th Century | Presentación: Mentalidades en guerra. Siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Alcalde


    Full Text Available Mucho antes de que los historiadores hablaran de “brutalización” o de “desmovilización cultural”, por mencionar sólo dos nociones muy empleadas internacionalmente en los últimos años, ya los contemporáneos eran conscientes del impacto de la guerra en la psicología humana, y de los efectos de las experiencias bélicas en lo que podemos seguir denominando “mentalidades” (mentalités, por desempolvar la vieja categoría de la escuela de Annales en el amplio marco de historia cultural. En la historiografía española, los últimos diez años han presenciado un vivo interés por las perspectivas culturales sobre la historia de la guerra y las posguerras, que se han aplicado en mayor o menor medida al estudio de la Guerra Civil española y otras experiencias bélicas de nuestra contemporaneidad. Esta ha sido una oleada historiográfica relativamente tardía y no particularmente prolija en publicaciones, en comparación con lo investigado y publicado en otros países e idiomas. De hecho, el estudio de las “mentalidades en guerra” en la España contemporánea, al que este dossier indirectamente pretende dar un empujón a través de la observación de casos históricos europeos que invitan a la reflexión comparativa y transnacional, creemos que tiene todavía un largo camino por recorrer.

  3. Wartime Women Rape: A Means of Moral Attack and Emasculation in Lynn Nottage’s Ruined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaff Ganim Salih


    Full Text Available Women rape at warfare was considered a consequence of war in the social, literary and political world for a long period of time. Some criminals of rape escaped justice and others were persecuted on the basis that they were involved in mass rape because it was a natural consequence of war. But, women are targeted with rape in time of war because they are the symbolic representation of a culture, ethnicity, and the unifying fabric of their people and nation. The objective of this paper is to show that war rape is not a result of war; instead it is a means of human destruction through moral attack and emasculation. It aims to show that women rape in warfare is neither a misogynist act nor a sexual violence but it is a pre-planned weapon used strategically and systematically to fulfill certain political and military agenda. The study focuses on the sexual abuse of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo in time of war in Lynn Nottage’s Pulitzer Prize play, Ruined (2007. The study applies Jonathan Gottschall’s Strategic Rape theory, which highlights war rape as a pre-planned military strategy. The enemy emasculates men and attacks them morally by raping their women. Consequently, men’s failure to protect their women causes them to give up resistance, leave their lands and families because of shame and humiliation. The study concludes that women rape in time of war is a tactic followed by conquerors intentionally to facilitate and guarantee the achievement of certain pre-planned goals as was the case of mass rape in the DRC.

  4. Building the Plane Inflight: Observations from Case Studies in Wartime Flight Training for Partner Nations (United States)


    Indigenous Forces Governments have provided training, advice, and assistance to the militaries of partner nations since the days of Sun - Tzu . The emergence...83 Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………...85 v... Bibliography

  5. Street Theater and Subject Formation in Wartime China: Toward a New Form of Public Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Tang


    Full Text Available Based on archival research, this article presents a succinct history of the street theater movement in China through the 1930s. It examines how complex discourses and competing visions, as well as historical events and practices—in particular the War of Resistance against Japan—both shaped and propelled the movement. The author focuses on theoretical and practical issues that promoters and practitioners of street theater dealt with and reflected on in three succeeding stages. Observing that the street theater movement hastened the formation of a modern national imagination, the author argues that the movement presented a paradigmatic development as it foregrounded the imperative to engage rural China as well as the need for participants to acquire new subject positions.

  6. Wartime Transitions: Historical Case Analyses Applied to the US Campaign in Afghanistan (2001 to Present) (United States)


    population and host nation govemment.9 Stability operations recognize the importance of establishing functional economic , societal and host nation...Arnold, 189-190. 75 Vadas, 71. 76 Daddis, 58. 77 Arnold, 183. 22 economic contraction followed that led to significant social instability in South...achieve a full transition. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Local Security Forces Development; Transition; Stability ; Security Dilemma; Afghanistan; British


    Babić, Rade Radomir; Stanković Babić, Gordana


    Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver (1862-1915), a Jew from Poland, was a pioneer of radiology in Serbia. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in Warsaw (1887), but lived and worked in abac (the Kingdom of Serbia) since 1890. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - Career Development. He procured the first X-ray machine and developed radiological service in Sabac five years after the discovery of X-rays. These were the beginnings of radiology in Serbia. He introduced the application of artesian wells. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - a Participant at the First Congress of Serbian Physicians and Naturalists, Belgrade 1904. "The diagnostic importance of X-rays in lung disease, especially in initial tuberculosis" and "Five Years of Treatment by X-Ray Machines" were the first works in the field of radiology in Serbia by this author. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver - Reserve Medical Officer in the Serbian Army. During the Balkan Wars, he was a volunteer with the rank of major engaged in military corps and he participated in the First World War as well. He died of malaria in 1915 in Gevgelija. "Dr Avram Vinaver"- Stanislav Vinarev. His dedication to work during the typhus epidemics was put into verses of a poem by his son Stanislav Vinarev. Dr Avram Vinaver Joseph was a noble man with a great heart, who selflessly sacrificed himself for the Serbian people and Serbia. He gave his contribution to the development of health services in Serbia, both in peacetime and wartime conditions. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver laid the foundations for today's radiology in Serbia.

  8. War-related extremity injuries in children: 89 cases managed in a combat support hospital in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Bertani, A; Mathieu, L; Dahan, J-L; Launay, F; Rongiéras, F; Rigal, S


    Meeting paediatric needs is among the priorities of western healthcare providers working in Afghanistan. Insufficient information is available on paediatric wartime injuries to the extremities. Our objective here was to describe these injuries and their management on the field. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive cases of injuries to the extremities in children (< 16 years of age) due to weapons and managed at the Kabul International Airport (KaIA) Combat Support Hospital between June 2009 and April 2013. We identified 89 patients with a mean age of 10.2 ± 3.5 years and a total of 137 elemental lesions. Explosive devices accounted for most injuries (78.6%) and carried a significantly higher risk of multiple lesions. There were 54 bone lesions (traumatic amputations and fractures) and 83 soft-tissue lesions. The amputation rate was 18%. Presence of bone lesions was associated with a higher risk of injury to blood vessels and nerves. Of the 89 patients, four (4.5%) died and eight (9%) were transferred elsewhere. Of the 77 remaining patients, at last follow-up (median, one month; range, 0.1-16 months), 73 (95%) had achieved a full recovery (healed wound and/or fracture) or were recovering with no expectation that further surgery would be needed. Despite the absence of paediatric surgeons, the combat support hospital provided appropriate care at the limb salvage and reconstruction phases. The highly specialised treatments needed to manage sequelae were very rarely provided. These treatments probably deserve to be developed in combat support hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [SOS-repair--60 years]. (United States)

    Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B


    This review integrates 60 years of research on SOS-repair and SOS-mutagenesis in procaryotes and eucaryotes, from Jean Weigle experiment in 1953 year (mutagenesis of lambda bacteriophage in UV-irradiated bacteria) to the latest achievements in studying SOS-mutagenesis on all living organisms--Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria. A key role in establishing of a biochemical basis for SOS-mutagenesis belonges to the finding in 1998-1999 years that specific error-prone DNA polymerases (PolV and others) catalysed translesion synthesis on damaged DNA. This review focuses on recent studies addressing the new models for SOS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Home sapiens cells.

  10. Final Year Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University


    In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

  11. An evaluation of vocational high schools in Indonesia: A comparison between four-year and three-year programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenarto Soenarto


    Full Text Available The research aimed to gain insights into the quality of four-year program vocational high school (VHS in Indonesia compared to four-year program VHS. This research was conducted based on the school graduate standard, business sector and industrial sector (or Dunia Usaha dan Dunia Industri (DUDI – or the performance of the graduates and alumni (the graduates’ satisfaction. The research was conducted using Discrepancy Evaluation Model using 16 VHSs (eight four-year program VHSs and eight three-year program VHSs. The result shows that from the standpoint of the school, the graduates of the four-year program VHS are higher in quality than those of the three-year program VHS. The four-year program VHS graduates are more qualified in seven aspects: teamwork, discipline, tenacity, theoretical knowledge, confidence, creativity, and leadership. Meanwhile, using DUDI standpoint, the four-year program VHS graduates are also higher in quality than the three-year program VHS graduates. In addition, the four-year program VHS graduates are better in the quality of their discipline, tenacity, theoretical knowledge, practical skills, confidence, carefulness, creativity, and leadership. The four-year program VHS graduates have a higher level of satisfaction in terms of income than the three-year program VHS graduates. The higher quality of the four-year program VHS graduates has resulted from longer duration of the internship program (PKL that provides them with reliable experience and skills concerning work-related problem-solving activities.

  12. Emergent technologies: 25 years (United States)

    Rising, Hawley K.


    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  13. Celebrating nine years together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinico Giuseppe


    Full Text Available Perspectives on Federalism starts off its ninth year with this issue which gathers, as usual, a series of multi-disciplinary pieces. Almost two years have passed since we started our collaboration with De Gruyter, and our journal has since then enjoyed continued growth and has been acquiring international visibility. 2017 is going to be rich in surprises for our readers, with a wealth of interesting projects and special issues which will increase the already high standard of the journal. 2016 was also a very challenging year for scholars interested in federalism; the start of the Trump Presidency and the results of the referendum on Brexit held on 23 June 2016 are just two examples.

  14. Engaging beyond the First College Year: Exploring the Needs of Second-Year Students (United States)

    Black, Elizabeth L.


    This article makes the case for librarians to engage with second-year students as part of the burgeoning movement in higher education to provide dedicated programming and experiences for second-year students. Grounded in development theories and transition theory, the article describes the special needs characteristic of typical second-year…

  15. EDITORIAL: Special issue in honour of J E Allen's 75th birthday (United States)

    Franklin, R. N.


    This issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is dedicated to Professor John Allen who has spent most of his professional life in the Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, working on problems in gas discharges and plasma physics. His first degrees and doctorate were taken at Liverpool University in the 1950s where at the time there was an internationally renowned group led by Meek, Craggs and Edels. He then spent some time at Frascati in Italy on secondment from Harwell, helping to build up expertise there. He returned to England in the mid-1960s, first to Cambridge, but he soon migrated to Oxford to University College and the Department of Engineering Science to strengthen a team that already included von Engel, Motz and Woods with more recent reinforcement by Howatson and myself. Thus there was built up both a post-graduate MSc course and what amounted to a graduate school producing many scientists who have since distinguished themselves in all parts of the world. The prospects for success in the quest for fusion and the proximity of Culham Laboratory produced a heady mix. But the timescales lengthened and fashions changed. However, John moved with the times and he and his research students made notable contributions to the understanding of dusty plasmas and to radio-frequency plasmas used in the processing of microchips. The structure at Oxford was such that the recognition of a professorship came late in his career, but his international reputation was well established much earlier. Being freed of tutorial duties he has travelled much in recent years and has been Chairman of the International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (ICPIG) 1999-2001 and directly involved in the international effort to carry out dusty plasma experiments in space under micro-gravity conditions. For my part, having known John as a colleague over the past forty years, he has been a valuable point of reference when one needed someone to comment on new ideas, a

  16. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote


    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  17. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.


    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  18. Advanced reactors transition fiscal year 1995 multi-year program plan WBS 7.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loika, E.F.


    This document describes in detail the work to be accomplished in FY-1995 and the out years for the Advanced Reactors Transition (WBS 7.3). This document describes specific milestones and funding profiles. Based upon the Fiscal Year 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan, DOE will provide authorization to perform the work outlined in the FY 1995 MYPP. Following direction given by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on December 15, 1993, Advanced Reactors Transition (ART), previously known as Advanced Reactors, will provide the planning and perform the necessary activities for placing the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition. The DOE goal is to accomplish the shutdown in approximately five years. The Advanced Reactors Transition Multi-Year Program Plan, and the supporting documents; i.e., the FFTF Shutdown Program Plan and the FFTF Shutdown Project Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS), are defined for the life of the Program. During the transition period to achieve the Shutdown end-state, the facilities and systems will continue to be maintained in a safe and environmentally sound condition. Additionally, facilities that were associated with the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Programs, and are no longer required to support the Liquid Metal Reactor Program will be deactivated and transferred to an alternate sponsor or the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program for final disposition, as appropriate

  19. A longitudinal study of grapheme-colour synaesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSimner


    Full Text Available Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a condition characterised by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colours. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner, Harrold, Creed, Monro and Foulkes (2009 which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 years and 7/8 years. We identified the child synaesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of nonsynaesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synaesthetic associations (e.g. A = red mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synaesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synaesthetes’ inventories of grapheme-colour associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 year and 7/8 years to examine how synaesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-colour synaesthesia emerges with a protracted lineal trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synaesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synaesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synaesthetes.

  20. Association of parents' and children's physical activity and sedentary time in Year 4 (8-9) and change between Year 1 (5-6) and Year 4: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Thompson, Janice L; Lawlor, Deborah A; Sebire, Simon J


    Parents could be important influences on child physical activity and parents are often encouraged to be more active with their child. This paper examined the association between parent and child physical activity and sedentary time in a UK cohort of children assessed when the children were in Year 1 (5-6 years old) and in Year 4 (8-9 years old). One thousand two hundred twenty three children and parents provided data in Year 4 and of these 685 participated in Year 1. Children and parents wore an accelerometer for five days including a weekend. Mean minutes of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) were derived. Multiple imputation was used to impute all missing data and create complete datasets. Linear regression models examined whether parent MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4 and at Year 1 predicted child MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4. Change in parent MVPA and sedentary time was used to predict change in child MVPA and sedentary time between Year 1 and Year 4. Imputed data showed that at Year 4, female parent sedentary time was associated with child sedentary time (0.13, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.27 mins/day), with a similar association for male parents (0.15, 95% CI = -0.02 to 0.32 mins/day). Female parent and child MVPA at Year 4 were associated (0.16, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.23 mins/day) with a smaller association for male parents (0.08, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.17 mins/day). There was little evidence that either male or female parent MVPA at Year 1 predicted child MVPA at Year 4 with similar associations for sedentary time. There was little evidence that change in parent MVPA or sedentary time predicted change in child MVPA or sedentary time respectively. Parents who were more physically active when their child was 8-9 years old had a child who was more active, but the magnitude of association was generally small. There was little evidence that parental activity from three years earlier predicted child activity at age 8-9, or

  1. New Year's res-illusions: food shopping in the new year competes with healthy intentions. (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Wansink, Brian


    How do the holidays--and the possible New Year's resolutions that follow--influence a household's purchase patterns of healthier foods versus less healthy foods? This has important implications for both holiday food shopping and post-holiday shopping. 207 households were recruited to participate in a randomized-controlled trial conducted at two regional-grocery chain locations in upstate New York. Item-level transaction records were tracked over a seven-month period (July 2010 to March 2011). The cooperating grocer's proprietary nutrient-rating system was used to designate "healthy," and "less healthy" items. Calorie data were extracted from online nutritional databases. Expenditures and calories purchased for the holiday period (Thanksgiving-New Year's), and the post-holiday period (New Year's-March), were compared to baseline (July-Thanksgiving) amounts. During the holiday season, household food expenditures increased 15% compared to baseline ($105.74 to $121.83; p<0.001), with 75% of additional expenditures accounted for by less-healthy items. Consistent with what one would expect from New Year's resolutions, sales of healthy foods increased 29.4% ($13.24/week) after the holiday season compared to baseline, and 18.9% ($9.26/week) compared to the holiday period. Unfortunately, sales of less-healthy foods remained at holiday levels ($72.85/week holiday period vs. $72.52/week post-holiday). Calories purchased each week increased 9.3% (450 calories per serving/week) after the New Year compared to the holiday period, and increased 20.2% (890 calories per serving/week) compared to baseline. Despite resolutions to eat more healthfully after New Year's, consumers may adjust to a new "status quo" of increased less-healthy food purchasing during the holidays, and dubiously fulfill their New Year's resolutions by spending more on healthy foods. Encouraging consumers to substitute healthy items for less-healthy items may be one way for practitioners and public health

  2. First-Year Residents Outperform Third-Year Residents after Simulation-Based Education in Critical Care Medicine (United States)

    Singer, Benjamin D.; Corbridge, Thomas C.; Schroedl, Clara J.; Wilcox, Jane E.; Cohen, Elaine R.; McGaghie, William C.; Wayne, Diane B.


    Introduction Prior research shows that gaps exist in internal medicine residents’ critical care knowledge and skills. The purpose of this study was to compare the bedside critical care competency of first-year residents who received a simulation-based educational intervention plus clinical training to third-year residents who received clinical training alone. Methods During their first three months of residency, a group of first-year residents completed a simulation-based educational intervention. A group of traditionally-trained third-year residents who did not receive simulation-based training served as a comparison group. Both groups were evaluated using a 20-item clinical skills assessment at the bedside of a patient receiving mechanical ventilation at the end of their medical intensive care unit rotation. Scores on the skills assessment were compared between groups. Results Simulator-trained first-year residents (n=40) scored significantly higher compared to traditionally-trained third-year residents (n=27) on the bedside assessment, 91.3% (95% CI 88.2% to 94.3%) vs. 80.9% (95% CI 76.8% to 85.0%), P = simulation-based educational intervention demonstrated higher clinical competency than third-year residents who did not undergo simulation training. Critical care competency cannot be assumed after clinical ICU rotations; simulation-based curricula can help ensure residents are proficient to care for critically ill patients. PMID:23222546

  3. Building energy simulation using multi-years and typical meteorological years in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu Jiaping; Tsang, C.L.


    Detailed hourly energy simulation was conducted for office buildings in the five major climate zones - severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild and hot summer and warm winter - in China using multi-year (1971-2000) weather databases as well as typical meteorological years (TMY). The primary aim was to compare the energy simulation results from the TMY with those from individual years and their long term means. A total of 154 simulation runs were performed. Building heating and cooling loads, their components and energy use for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning were analysed. Predicted monthly load and energy consumption profiles from the TMY tended to follow the long term mean quite closely. Mean bias errors ranged from -4.3% in Guangzhou to 0% in Beijing and root-mean-square errors from 3% in Harbin to 5.4% in Guangzhou. These percentages were not always the smallest compared with the 30 individual years, however, they are at the lower end of the percentage error ranges. This paper presents the work and its findings

  4. The year of encroaching genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Manfredi-Romanini


    Full Text Available The year 2000 has been called “The year of the genome”. Perhaps better would have been to call it “The year of encroaching genomics” (Einarson and Golemis, 2000 intending by this vivid term the torrents of information pouring out of multiorganizational genome sequence projects, large research groups, consortia and industries into the field of active biological research. This is bound to have a strong impact on how research strategies will be designed from now on and it is our expectation that the year 2001 will be the year in which the small academic laboratories now at the forefront of research will have to cope with this new situation if they are to remain at the cutting edge. They will have to show granting institutions how their new research project proposals involve collaboration with large scientific groups and industries such as those mentioned above in order to win financial backing.

  5. Half of 12-15-year-olds with knee pain still have pain after one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Camilla Rams; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard; Roos, Ewa M.


    knee pain after one year. Funding: Danish Rheumatism Association, The Association of Danish Physiotherapists Research Fund and The Obel Family Foundation. None of the funders have any role in the study other than to provide funding. Trial registration: Ethical approval was obtained from the local...... adolescents with and without self-reported knee pain, 2) investigate how many adolescents still have knee pain after one year and 3) identify risk factors for one-year persistence of knee pain. Material and methods: The design was a prospective cohort study and a nested case-control study. In September 2011......, a total of 768 adolescents between 12-15 years of age from schools in the municipality of Aalborg answered a questionnaire on demographics, sports participation, current pain and HRQoL. After one year, adolescents who reported knee pain at first contact were again contacted by telephone and asked...

  6. Annals of the International Geophysical Year solar radio emission during the International Geophysical Year

    CERN Document Server

    Smerd, S F


    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 34: Solar Radio Emission During the International Geophysical Year covers the significant solar radio emission events observed during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). This book is composed of six chapters, and begins with a summary of tabulated quantities describing solar radio emission during the IGY. The tabulated figures illustrate the method of recording the position of radio sources on the sun, the use of symbols in describing the structure of bursts observed at single frequencies, and the different types used in a spectral

  7. The Karakoram/Western Tibetan vortex: seasonal and year-to-year variability (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fowler, Hayley J.; Forsythe, Nathan; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Pritchard, David


    The "Karakoram Vortex" (KV), hereafter also referred to as the "Western Tibetan Vortex" (WTV), has recently been recognized as a large-scale atmospheric circulation system related to warmer (cooler) near-surface and mid-lower troposphere temperatures above the Karakoram in the western Tibetan Plateau (TP). It is characterized by a deep, anti-cyclonic (cyclonic) wind anomaly associated with higher (lower) geopotential height in the troposphere, during winter and summer seasons. In this study, we further investigate the seasonality and basic features of the WTV in all four seasons, and explore its year-to-year variability and influence on regional climate. We find the WTV accounts for the majority of year-to-year circulation variability over the WTP as it can explain over 50% ({R^2} ≥slant 0.5 ) variance of the WTP circulation on multiple levels throughout the troposphere, which declines towards the eastern side of the TP in most seasons. The WTV is not only more (less) active but also has a bigger (smaller) domain area, with a deeper (shallower) structure, in winter and spring (summer and autumn). We find that the WTV is sensitive to both the location and intensity of the Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), but the relationship is highly dependent on the climatological mean location of SWJ axes relative to the TP in different seasons. We also show that the WTV significantly modulates surface and stratospheric air temperatures, north-south precipitation patterns and total column ozone surrounding the western TP. As such, the WTV has important implications for the understanding of atmospheric, hydrological and glaciological variability over the TP.

  8. Toward the year 2000. (United States)


    If the world population continues to grow at its present rate, in only about 35 more years there will be an additional 3.5 billion people. Although it is likely that the growth rate will slow down in the future, there will be an increase of between 2.3-3.5 billion people by the year 2000. At that time the Asian, African, and Latin American regions of the world will account for between 81-84% of world population, regardless of whether there is a fertility decline. Simultaneously, the populations of Europe and North America will decrease from 26 to between 16-19%. The People's Republic of China is now working to contain population increase, but despite the efforts for every 10 Chinese alive in 1970 there will be 15 in the year 2000. For the other 9 most populous less developed countries, there will be nearly 20 persons for every 10. As this figure is 12 in the year 2000 for every 10 Russians or Americans in 1970, a significant reduction in the growth rate of population in the 10 largest less developed countries would do much to reduce the world's population problems. The number of children born between now and the year 2000 depends on the fertility of all women in the childbearing ages during that period. Finally, as the population of the world continues to increase, there will be a marked concentration of the world's children in the poorer nations, and this will be a major problem in these developing countries.

  9. Cultivar and year-to-year variation of phytosterol content in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, M.; Hansen, H.B.; Jørgensen, J.R.


    on phytosterol content in the different cultivars. The studied cultivars had all the lowest phytosterol contents in the dry and warm harvest season of 1999. Although there were statistically significant cultivar and year-to-year variations in the sterol composition (p

  10. Chernobyl ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The accident in the fourth reactor plant in Chernobyl in Ukraine occurred ten years years ago, caused the death of 31 people while the health consequences have turned out to be difficult to assess. This review describes the accident, its consequences and effects to health, studies carried out at the present state as well as the comparison with the other accidents and disaster. (author)

  11. 20-Year Risks of Breast-Cancer Recurrence after Stopping Endocrine Therapy at 5 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Hongchao; Gray, Richard; Braybrooke, Jeremy; Davies, Christina; Taylor, Carolyn; McGale, Paul; Peto, Richard; Pritchard, Kathleen I.; Bergh, Jonas; Dowsett, Mitch; Hayes, Daniel F.; Albain, K.; Anderson, S.; Arriagada, R.; Barlow, W.; Bartlett, J.; Bergsten‐Nordström, E.; Bliss, J.; Boccardo, F.; Bradley, R.; Brain, E.; Cameron, D.; Clarke, M.; Coates, A.; Coleman, R.; Correa, C.; Costantino, J.; Cuzick, J.; Davidson, N.; Dodwell, D.; Di Leo, A.; Ewertz, M.; Forbes, J.; Gelber, R.; Gnant, M.; Goldhirsch, A.; Goodwin, P.; Hill, C.; Ingle, J.; Jagsi, R.; Janni, W.; Loibl, S.; MacKinnon, E.; Martin, M.; Mukai, H.; Norton, L.; Ohashi, Y.; Paik, S.; Perez, E.; Bijker, N.


    The administration of endocrine therapy for 5 years substantially reduces recurrence rates during and after treatment in women with early-stage, estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Extending such therapy beyond 5 years offers further protection but has additional side effects. Obtaining

  12. [Reimbursed health expenditures during the last year of life, in France, in the year 2008]. (United States)

    Ricci, P; Mezzarobba, M; Blotière, P O; Polton, D


    To measure the reimbursed health expenditures in the last year of life and the proportion it represents in total reimbursement costs in 2008, to analyse the structure of such expenditures and to identify costs by cause of death. Data were obtained from the French national insurance information system (SNIIRAM). Data from the national hospital discharge database were linked to the outpatient reimbursement database for patients covered by the general health insurance scheme (n=49 million persons). The cost of the last year of life was calculated for the exhaustive population (361,328 deaths in 2008). The supposed cause of death was mainly derived from the primary diagnosis of the last hospital stay during which the patient died. The average reimbursed expenses during the last year of life were estimated at 22,000 € per person in 2008, with 12,500 € accounting for public hospital costs. Reimbursed health expenditures varied according to different medical causes of death: 52,300 € for HIV disease and about 40,000 € for tumors. A negative effect of age on the expenditure during the last year of life was observed. Health care spending increased with shorter time before death, the last month of life corresponding to 28% of reimbursed expenditures during the last year of life. Health care use in the last year of life represented 10.5% of the total health expenditures in 2008. This study found results similar to those observed in the past or in other countries. Our results show in particular that the weight of health expenditures during the last year of life on total health expenditures remains stable over the years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Peer to peer mentoring: Outcomes of third-year midwifery students mentoring first-year students. (United States)

    Hogan, Rosemarie; Fox, Deborah; Barratt-See, Georgina


    Undergraduate midwifery students commonly experience anxiety in relation to their first clinical placement. A peer mentoring program for midwifery students was implemented in an urban Australian university. The participants were first-year mentee and third-year mentor students studying a three-year Bachelor degree in midwifery. The program offered peer support to first-year midwifery students who had little or no previous exposure to hospital clinical settings. Mentors received the opportunity to develop mentoring and leadership skills. The aim was to explore the benefits, if any, of a peer mentoring program for midwifery students. The peer mentoring program was implemented in 2012. Sixty-three peer mentors and 170 mentees participated over three academic years. Surveys were distributed at the end of each academic year. Quantitative survey data were analysed descriptively and qualitative survey data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10 software. Over 80% of mentors and mentees felt that the program helped mentees adjust to their midwifery clinical placement. At least 75% of mentors benefited, in developing their communication, mentoring and leadership skills. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data, including 'Receiving start-up advice'; 'Knowing she was there' and 'Wanting more face to face time'. There is a paucity of literature on midwifery student peer mentoring. The findings of this program demonstrate the value of peer support for mentees and adds knowledge about the mentor experience for undergraduate midwifery students. The peer mentor program was of benefit to the majority of midwifery students. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 25 years at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Towards the end of October 1964, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) came formally into being in Trieste. With less than 200 scientific visitors in its first year, the Centre, under the inspired Directorship of Abdus Salam and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNESCO, and Italian national and regional authorities, has grown into a veritable world centre of scientific excellence, attracting over 4000 active researchers each year.

  15. 25 years at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Towards the end of October 1964, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) came formally into being in Trieste. With less than 200 scientific visitors in its first year, the Centre, under the inspired Directorship of Abdus Salam and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNESCO, and Italian national and regional authorities, has grown into a veritable world centre of scientific excellence, attracting over 4000 active researchers each year.

  16. ["A decision meaning a new foundation...": from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics to the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics]. (United States)

    Sachse, Carola


    The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG) in Berlin-Dahlem dates its establishment to 1964. Its homepage makes no mention of its predecessor institutes, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics (KWIA) and the subsequent MPI for Comparative Genetics and Hereditary Pathology (MPIVEE). This article traces the two critical phases of transition regarding the constellations of academic staff, institutional and epistemic ruptures and continuities specific to the era. Only one of the five department heads from the final war years, Hans Nachtsheim, remained a researcher within the Max Planck Society (MPG); he nevertheless continued to advocate the pre-war and wartime eugenic agenda in the life sciences and social policy. The generational change of 1959/60 became a massive struggle within the institute, in which microbial genetics (with Fritz Kaudewitz) was pitted against human genetics (with Friedrich Vogel) and managed to establish itself after a fresh change in personnel in 1964/65. For the Dahlem institute, this involved a far-reaching reorientation of its research, but for the genetically oriented life sciences in the Max Planck Society as a whole it only meant that molecular biology, which was already being pursued in the West German institutes, gained an additional facility. With this realignment of research traditions, the Society was able to draw a line under the Nazi past without having to address it head-on.

  17. Organization of Sisters of Mercy During World War One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribnaia Anna


    Full Text Available The article examines the labour organization of Russian sisters of mercy during World War One. The author indicates two periods which took place before and after the February Revolution. Based on archive documents and offi cial publications the article describes general structure of Russian Red Cross Society institutions and basic principles of sisters of mercy communities’ work. It examines the rules of new sisters’ employment, their training, service assignment and professional duties. The emphasis is put on nurses’ work in wartime. During first years of war sisters’ position was stable. Due to specifi c hierarchy in the managing structure sisters’ work was productive and demanded. After the February Revolution the managing system changed drastically as well as the status of sisters of mercy and their reception in society. The author gives a thorough examination of sisters’ position after reorganization of Russian Red Cross Society. In time of political instability Russian sisters of mercy were able to organize themselves into one big organization thus creating All-Russian Union of Sisters of Mercy. This article for the first time ever implements into scientific research a huge amount of documents which allowed a signifi cant extension of views on Bolsheviks’ political approaches to Russian Red Cross Society and institution of sisters of mercy.

  18. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun


    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  19. A töredezett (kulturális test írása Polcz Alaine "Asszony a fronton" című művében

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O. Vasvári


    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss Alaine Polcz’s Asszony a fronton (1991 ‘ Woman on the Front,’ subtitled Egy fejezet az életemb?l ‘A Chapter from My Life,’ as an extreme example of self-contradictory life writing, offering a fragmented self-representation of the author’s subjectivity through the narrative itineraries of both her privatized and publicized body through the last year of the Second World War. The term life writing is a particularly useful categorization for this text, since Hungarian critics have referred to it variously, sometimes in the same article, as ‘memoir, novel, autobiographical novel, documentary novel, memorial records’(memoár, regény, önéletrajzi regény, dokumentum regény, emlékiratok. I will consider how Polcz narrativizes her identity in the two parts of her story. In the first, writing about her young married life with an abusive alcoholic husband during wartime Transylvania in 1944-45 she is unable to step outside the conventional romance plot, narrating her life in terms of the most conservative conceptualization of heterosexual femininity and wifehood, premised on self-renunciation. At the same time, she subverts her surface story of masochistic other-centeredness with manipulation of gaps and secrets, creating an ongoing tension between the concealed and revealed.

  20. Changes in nutrition among residents and refugees in Sarajevo during the war. (United States)

    Smaijkic, A; Zec, S; Telebak, B; Filipovic-Hadziomeragic, A


    To assess how food shortage has been reflected in changes in nutritional status and dietary intake of resident and refugee populations in wartime Sarajevo. Longitudinal observations were carried out on residents (who stayed in their homes) and refugees (living in collective centres). Three out of four municipal areas of Sarajevo were covered in the sample and households and collective centres in close proximity to the homes of fieldworkers were selected. The same households were visited in October 1992-March 1993 and November 1993-January 1994. The study took place in besieged Sarajevo. In the first round 362 households (170 resident and 192 refugee) were visited and in the second round 324 households (146 resident and 178 refugee) were visited. Nutritional information was gathered through anthropometric measurements, medical examination and questionnaires which included a seven day dietary recall. Nutritional status was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) (weight/height2) in adults and weight for age percentiles in children (2-18 years of age). Undernutrition in adults was defined as BMI war which is deficient both in quantity and quality. Nevertheless the nutritional status of the resident and refugee populations has been maintained. Dietary intake was found to be low but this may have been partly due to under-reporting. The accuracy of data obtained through dietary intake surveys in emergency conditions may be questionable.

  1. Year 2000 awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, C.


    This report contains viewgraphs on the challenges business face with the year 2000 software problem. Estimates, roadmaps, virtual factory software, current awareness, and world wide web references are given.

  2. Clinical Decision Support: a 25 Year Retrospective and a 25 Year Vision. (United States)

    Middleton, B; Sittig, D F; Wright, A


    The objective of this review is to summarize the state of the art of clinical decision support (CDS) circa 1990, review progress in the 25 year interval from that time, and provide a vision of what CDS might look like 25 years hence, or circa 2040. Informal review of the medical literature with iterative review and discussion among the authors to arrive at six axes (data, knowledge, inference, architecture and technology, implementation and integration, and users) to frame the review and discussion of selected barriers and facilitators to the effective use of CDS. In each of the six axes, significant progress has been made. Key advances in structuring and encoding standardized data with an increased availability of data, development of knowledge bases for CDS, and improvement of capabilities to share knowledge artifacts, explosion of methods analyzing and inferring from clinical data, evolution of information technologies and architectures to facilitate the broad application of CDS, improvement of methods to implement CDS and integrate CDS into the clinical workflow, and increasing sophistication of the end-user, all have played a role in improving the effective use of CDS in healthcare delivery. CDS has evolved dramatically over the past 25 years and will likely evolve just as dramatically or more so over the next 25 years. Increasingly, the clinical encounter between a clinician and a patient will be supported by a wide variety of cognitive aides to support diagnosis, treatment, care-coordination, surveillance and prevention, and health maintenance or wellness.

  3. Inventory and sources of transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In the past, solid radioactive waste has often been buried in the most accessible and convenient vacant place, without a great deal of thought for the long-term consequences. The transuranium (TRU) elements were very strictly conserved and, at first, solid waste containing separated fission products was not a serious land burial problem. Wartime pressures for production and lack of knowledge or understanding led to siting and operational practices that, in many situations, are unsatisfactory by present day standards. Purpose of this report is to support the development of standards and criteria which will specifically address the problem of TRU contaminated waste generated by Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear programs and commercial application of nuclear technology. This report covers: DOE facilities, commercial disposal sites, commercial nuclear industry, TRU-contaminated waste inventory, and waste projections

  4. Nuclear chemistry, the MET Lab, and Nathan Sugarman - A retrospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, E.P.


    The evolution of nuclear chemistry will be traced briefly, with special emphasis on the exciting and highly productive period of the war-time Metallurgical Laboratory from 1942 to 1946. In particular, the Fission Product Radiochemistry section at The University of Chicago, which underwent sequential fissions of its own to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos, will provide a major focus. The post-war spread of nuclear chemistry throughout the country and the establishment of the National Laboratories provided the setting for the Golden Age of the field. Throughout this period, the personality and character of Nathan Sugarman was clearly evident. Whether as teacher, researcher, colleague, critic, counselor, friend, or acquaintance, Sug's intelligence, warmth, humor, high standards, and quiet leadership make a lasting impression on a generation of nuclear chemists

  5. Whither Confucian Family Values? New Research on Marriage, Trafficking, and the Things People Do to Survive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Theiss


    Full Text Available Matthew Sommer. Polyandry and Wife-Selling in Qing Dynasty China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015. 499 pp. $80 (cloth/ebook. Zhao Ma. Runaway Wives, Urban Crimes, and Survival Tactics in Wartime Beijing, 1937–1949. Cambridge, MA: Harvard East Asia Monographs, Harvard University Press, 2015. 380 pp. $50 (cloth. These two eagerly awaited studies of marriage and family practice among the poor radically alter our understanding of the Chinese family system in late imperial and early twentieth-century China. Read together, these richly documented monographs by Matthew Sommer and Zhao Ma create a provocative and nuanced picture of diverse modes of family formation among the poor that raise profound questions about the reach of state-defined norms—Confucian or modern—and the state’s impact on family life...

  6. Design of a search and rescue terminal based on the dual-mode satellite and CDMA network (United States)

    Zhao, Junping; Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Bing; Zhou, Yubin; Song, Hao; Song, Wei; Zhang, Meikui; Liu, Tongze; Zhou, Li


    The current goal is to create a set of portable terminals with GPS/BD2 dual-mode satellite positioning, vital signs monitoring and wireless transmission functions. The terminal depends on an ARM processor to collect and combine data related to vital signs and GPS/BD2 location information, and sends the message to headquarters through the military CDMA network. It integrates multiple functions as a whole. The satellite positioning and wireless transmission capabilities are integrated into the motherboard, and the vital signs sensors used in the form of belts communicate with the board through Bluetooth. It can be adjusted according to the headquarters' instructions. This kind of device is of great practical significance for operations during disaster relief, search and rescue of the wounded in wartime, non-war military operations and other special circumstances.

  7. Secrecy, simultaneous discovery, and the theory of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, S.


    The history of nuclear reactors gives us a singular opportunity to study what happens when the world's leading physicists, faced with the same problem, find solutions in complete isolation from one another. This paper takes as an example an elementary part of reactor theory, the four-factor formula. It was discovered independently at least six times (in France, Germany, the Soviet Union, and the United States). But the groups, separated by wartime secrecy, used the formula in very different ways. Usually it was simply ignored. In only two cases was the formula integrated with experimental work: by the French and, in an entirely different way, by Fermi's team in Chicago. Thus even though simultaneous discovery occurred, we need not conclude that the physics developed inevitably in a unique pattern

  8. Genius in the shadows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanouette, W.; Silard, B.


    This book is a well-researched, anecdote-rich biography of Leo Szilard, the inventive Hungarian physicist who pressed Einstein in 1939 to alert President Roosevelt to the possible wartime uses of atomic energy. Withdrawing from nuclear physics after the bombing of Hiroshima, Szilard studied biology, advocated international arms control, and wrote, among other things, open-quotes The Voice of the Dolphinsclose quotes, a utopian novel offering his ideas for reducing Cold War tensions. Based on research in the Leo Szilard papers, extensive interviews with Szilard's colleagues and friends, and on material and recollections provided by Szilard's younger brother, Bela Szilard, the book offers a detailed picture of the physicist. The book provides a record of Szilard's life before 1939 and a thorough, readable account of a significant historical figure

  9. Race to the Top. Hawaii Report. Year 3: School Year 2012-2013. [State-Specific Summary Report (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2014


    This State-specific summary report serves as an assessment of Hawaii's Year 3 Race to the Top implementation. The Year 3 report for Phase 1 and 2 grantees highlights successes and accomplishments, identifies challenges, and provides lessons learned from implementation from approximately September 2012 through September 2013; the Year 2 report for…

  10. Chernobyl: a year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzaniga, R.; Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.; Sangalli, E.


    The radioactivity measurements in the year after the Chernobyl accident, carried out by the Radioprotection Division of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, are reported. Air at ground level and in grass, milk, wheat, meat, fishes and man have been measured. The evaluation of the 1987 individual dose equivalent due to the exposure of the population living in N.W. Italy is compared with the dose equivalent absorbed in the year following the accident

  11. Yearly energy balance sheets 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The total supply of energy during the year 2001 rose by 7 per cent compared with the year 2000, from 588 TWh to 630 TWh. The supply of nuclear power increased by 27 per cent, whereas electricity from waterpower has remained still at approximately 80 TWh. During the year 2001 Sweden exported 18,5 TWh electricity and the import was 11,1 TWh. The use of petroleum products for electricity production was nearly the same, 3,5 TWh during 2001 compared with 3,6 TWh during 2000. The production of heat from petroleum products increased from 3,2 TWh 2000 to 4,3 TWh 2001. The explanation to that is mainly the large increasing of heavy fuel oil in district heating plants. The use of energy during the year 2001 increased by nearly 1 per cent compared with the year 2000, from 391 TWh to 394 TWh. The use of coal, coke, biomass fuels and petroleum products decreased a little between the years, whereas the use of gases, district heating and electricity rises. The industrial sectors energy use decreases a bit from 156 TWh for the year 2000 to 152 TWh the year 2001. An increasing use of gases and district heating can nevertheless be seen. The energy use within transport sector rises from 87 TWh to 88 TWh. Within the household sector there is an increasing use of energy between the years with a total of 3 TWh, from 91 TWh to 94 TWh. The households continue to reduce their use of petroleum products. The use of electricity and district heating increases, by 6 per cent and 15 per cent respectively, between year 2000 and 2001

  12. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years. (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E


    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  13. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend


    the construction of two test reference years of Greenland used in the work of establishing new energy frame for the coming building code of Greenland. The first test reference year is constructed using measurements of climatic parameters from the town Nuuk located in the southwestern part of Greenland. The second...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...... temperature, global radiation, relative humidity and mean wind speed. To construct the test reference years a program called REFYEAR was developed in MatLab. REFYEAR automatically constructs the test reference year using an input file containing the climatic measurements. The two constructed test reference...

  14. Estimation of the year-on-year volatility and the unpredictability of the United States energy system (United States)

    Sherwin, Evan D.; Henrion, Max; Azevedo, Inês M. L.


    Long-term projections of energy consumption, supply and prices heavily influence decisions regarding long-lived energy infrastructure. Predicting the evolution of these quantities over multiple years to decades is a difficult task. Here, we estimate year-on-year volatility and unpredictability over multi-decade time frames for many quantities in the US energy system using historical projections. We determine the distribution over time of the most extreme projection errors (unpredictability) from 1985 to 2014, and the largest year-over-year changes (volatility) in the quantities themselves from 1949 to 2014. Our results show that both volatility and unpredictability have increased in the past decade, compared to the three and two decades before it. These findings may be useful for energy decision-makers to consider as they invest in and regulate long-lived energy infrastructure in a deeply uncertain world.

  15. Retrospective Evaluation of the Five-Year and Ten-Year CSEP-Italy Earthquake Forecasts


    Werner, M. J.; Zechar, J. D.; Marzocchi, W.; Wiemer, S.


    On 1 August 2009, the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) launched a prospective and comparative earthquake predictability experiment in Italy. The goal of the CSEP-Italy experiment is to test earthquake occurrence hypotheses that have been formalized as probabilistic earthquake forecasts over temporal scales that range from days to years. In the first round of forecast submissions, members of the CSEP-Italy Working Group presented eighteen five-year and ten...

  16. [Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases: long term results of five year long preventive intervention in 12-year old boys (ten year prospective study)]. (United States)

    Rozanov, V B; Aleksandov, A A; Shugaeva, E N; Perova, N V; Maslennikova, G Ia; Smirnova, S G; Olfer'ev, A M


    In a longitudinal cohort (prevention group, n=213, comparison group, n=163) of 10-year prospective follow-up we addressed efficacy of 5-year-long multifactor preventive intervention, conducted in a sample of population of 12 year old boys. Preventive intervention was carried out both at populational level and among persons with risk factors of development of cardiovascular diseases with the use of group, individual, and partly family approaches, and was directed at rationalization of nutrition, elevation of physical activity and prevention of harmful habits. During first 3 years of prevention we succeeded to achieve stable statistically significant lowering of mean levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and atherogeneity index, as well as to affect fatty component of body mass (skinfold thickness). Long term effect of 5-year long preventive intervention manifested as significantly lower level of systolic blood pressure, lower prevalence of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, smaller increment of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and index of atherogeneity in the prevention group. These results evidence that prevention of main factors of risk of development of cardiovascular diseases (obesity, arterial hypertension, disorders of lipid composition of the blood, and low physical activity) in child and adolescent age in the period of active growth and development is feasible, effective, safe and is able to lead to decrease of levels of these factors in adults, but should last uninterruptedly until formation of stable habits of healthy life style.

  17. The ~ 2400-year cycle in atmospheric radiocarbon concentration: bispectrum of 14C data over the last 8000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Vasiliev


    Full Text Available We have carried out power spectrum, time-spectrum and bispectrum analyses of the long-term series of the radiocarbon concentrations deduced from measurements of the radiocarbon content in tree rings for the last 8000 years. Classical harmonic analysis of this time series shows a number of periods: 2400, 940, 710, 570, 500, 420, 360, 230, 210 and 190 years. A principle feature of the time series is the long period of ~ 2400 years, which is well known. The lines with periods of 710, 420 and 210 years are found to be the primary secular components of power spectrum. The complicated structure of the observed power spectrum is the result of ~ 2400-year modulation of primary secular components. The modulation induces the appearance of two side lines for every primary one, namely lines with periods of 940 and 570 years, of 500 and 360 years, and 230 and 190 years. The bispectral analysis shows that the parameters of carbon exchange system varied with the ~ 2400-year period during the last 8000 years. Variations of these parameters appear to be a climate effect on the rate of transfer of 14C between the atmosphere and the the ocean.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; ocean-atmosphere interaction; paleoclimatology

  18. Environmental restoration and waste management five-year plan, Fiscal years 1994--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) understands that cleaning up the Nation's nuclear-related sites and facilities affects many different segments of the public, ranging from communities near DOE facilities to engineers concerned with developing new technologies to clean up the environment. In an effort to make the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan for Fiscal Years (FY) 1994--1998 more responsive to your concerns, DOE invites your comments on the plan. Volume II contains 37 Installation Summaries that provide a synopsis of past, present and future activities of each major installation, and Progress Charts

  19. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst


    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  20. 7 CFR 984.7 - Marketing year. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 984.7 Section 984.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.7 Marketing year. Marketing year means the twelve months from September...