WorldWideScience

Sample records for heads small details

  1. A multi-tissue segmentation of the human head for detailed computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Markus; Narra, Nathaniel; Onnela, Niina; Dastidar, Prasun; Hyttinen, Jari

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of an anatomically detailed high resolution model of the human head based on the Visible Human Female data from the National Library of Medicine archives. Automatic and semi-automatic segmentation algorithms were applied over the 3 image volumes – CT, MRI and anatomical cryo-sections of the cadaver – to label a total of 23 tissues. The results were combined to create a labeled volume of the head with voxel dimensions of 0.33×0.33×0.33 mm. The individual label matrices and their corresponding surface meshes are made available to be used freely. The detailed blood vessel network and ocular tissues will be of interest in computational modelling and simulation studies.

  2. determination of head for small hydropower development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Otuagoma et al [4] and the economic potentials of the river have also been reported .... fluid flow in a closed circular pipe is defined as [6]. = = (1). In (1), ρ is the ..... hydropower is sustainable and renewable energy source. Small hydropower is ...

  3. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Iacono

    Full Text Available Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii magnetic resonance angiography (MRA data to image the vasculature, and iii diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  4. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Maria Ida; Neufeld, Esra; Akinnagbe, Esther; Bower, Kelsey; Wolf, Johanna; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Sharma, Deepika; Lloyd, Bryn; Wilm, Bertram J; Wyss, Michael; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Jakab, Andras; Makris, Nikos; Cohen, Ethan D; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang; Angelone, Leonardo M

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i) structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data to image the vasculature, and iii) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  5. Micro-computed tomography for small animal imaging: Technological details

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Li; Hui Zhang; Zhiwei Tang; Guangshu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The high-resolution micro-computed tomography(micro-CT)system has now become an important tool for biological research.The micro-CT system enables a non-invasive inspection to screen anatomical changes in small animals.The promising advantages include high-spatial resolution,high sensitivity to bone and lung,short scan time and cost-effectiveness.The dose received by the small animal might be a critical concern in the research.In this article,the choice of the components,fundamental physical problems,the image reconstruction algorithm and the representative applications of micro-CT are summarized.Some results from our research group are also presented to show high-resolution images obtained by the micro-CT system.

  6. Organization and Detailed Parcellation of Human Hippocampal Head and Body Regions Based on a Combined Analysis of Cyto- and Chemoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin; Van Hoesen, Gary W

    2015-10-15

    The hippocampal formation (HF) is one of the hottest regions in neuroscience because it is critical to learning, memory, and cognition, while being vulnerable to many neurological and mental disorders. With increasing high-resolution imaging techniques, many scientists have started to use distinct landmarks along the anterior-posterior axis of HF to allow segmentation into individual subfields in order to identify specific functions in both normal and diseased conditions. These studies urgently call for more reliable and accurate segmentation of the HF subfields DG, CA3, CA2, CA1, prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, and parasubiculum. Unfortunately, very limited data are available on detailed parcellation of the HF subfields, especially in the complex, curved hippocampal head region. In this study we revealed detailed organization and parcellation of all subfields of the hippocampal head and body regions on the base of a combined analysis of multiple cyto- and chemoarchitectural stains and dense sequential section sampling. We also correlated these subfields to macro-anatomical landmarks, which are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Furthermore, we created three versions of the detailed anatomic atlas for the hippocampal head region to account for brains with four, three, or two hippocampal digitations. These results will provide a fundamental basis for understanding the organization, parcellation, and anterior-posterior difference of human HF, facilitating accurate segmentation and measurement of HF subfields in the human brain on MRI scans.

  7. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF STARS WITH SMALL PLANETS DISCOVERED BY KEPLER. I. THE FIRST SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A. [University of Tampa, Tampa, FL, 33606 (United States); Santrich, Orlando J. Katime; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V. [Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); King, Jeremy R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Teske, Johanna K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Isaacson, Howard, E-mail: sschuler@ut.edu, E-mail: zachary.vaz@spartans.ut.edu, E-mail: osantrich@on.br, E-mail: kcunha@noao.edu, E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu, E-mail: jking2@clemson.edu, E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: lghezzi@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov, E-mail: hisaacson@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star, save one, has at least one planet with a radius ≤1.6 R{sub ⊕}, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10 m Keck I telescope and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. The metallicities of the seven stars range from −0.32 to +0.13 dex, with an average metallicity that is subsolar, supporting previous suggestions that, unlike Jupiter-type giant planets, small planets do not form preferentially around metal-rich stars. The abundances of elements other than iron are in line with a population of Galactic disk stars, and despite our modest sample size, we find hints that the compositions of stars with small planets are similar to stars without known planets and with Neptune-size planets, but not to those of stars with giant planets. This suggests that the formation of small planets does not require exceptional host-star compositions and that small planets may be ubiquitous in the Galaxy. We compare our derived abundances (which have typical uncertainties of ≲0.04 dex) to the condensation temperature of the elements; a correlation between the two has been suggested as a possible signature of rocky planet formation. None of the stars demonstrate the putative rocky planet signature, despite at least three of the stars having rocky planets estimated to contain enough refractory material to produce the signature, if real. More detailed abundance analyses of stars known to host small planets are needed to verify our results and place ever more stringent constraints on planet formation models.

  8. Small digital recording head has parallel bit channels, minimizes cross talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, E. E.; Laue, E. G.

    1964-01-01

    A small digital recording head consists of closely spaced parallel wires, imbedded in a ferrite block to concentrate the magnetic flux. Parallel-recorded information bits are converted into serial bits on moving magnetic tape and cross talk is suppressed.

  9. Detailed Abundances of Stars with Small Planets Discovered by Kepler. I. The First Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A.; Katime Santrich, Orlando J.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; King, Jeremy R.; Teske, Johanna K.; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard

    2015-12-01

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star, save one, has at least one planet with a radius ≤1.6 R⊕, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10 m Keck I telescope and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. The metallicities of the seven stars range from -0.32 to +0.13 dex, with an average metallicity that is subsolar, supporting previous suggestions that, unlike Jupiter-type giant planets, small planets do not form preferentially around metal-rich stars. The abundances of elements other than iron are in line with a population of Galactic disk stars, and despite our modest sample size, we find hints that the compositions of stars with small planets are similar to stars without known planets and with Neptune-size planets, but not to those of stars with giant planets. This suggests that the formation of small planets does not require exceptional host-star compositions and that small planets may be ubiquitous in the Galaxy. We compare our derived abundances (which have typical uncertainties of ≲0.04 dex) to the condensation temperature of the elements; a correlation between the two has been suggested as a possible signature of rocky planet formation. None of the stars demonstrate the putative rocky planet signature, despite at least three of the stars having rocky planets estimated to contain enough refractory material to produce the signature, if real. More detailed abundance analyses of stars known to host small planets are needed to verify our results and place ever more stringent constraints on planet formation models. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California

  10. Detailed Abundances of Stars with Small Planets Discovered by Kepler I: The First Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, Simon C; Santrich, Orlando J Katime; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V; King, Jeremy R; Teske, Johanna K; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star save one has at least one planet with a radius <= 1.6 R_Earth, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10-m Keck I telescope and HIRES spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. The metallicities of the seven stars range from -0.32 dex to +0.13 dex, with an average metallicity that is subsolar, supporting previous suggestions that, unlike Jupiter-type giant planets, small planets do not form preferentially around metal-rich stars. The abundances of elements other than iron are in line with a population of Galactic disk stars, and despite our modest sample size, we find hints that the compositions of stars with small planets are similar to stars without known planets and with Neptune-size plane...

  11. Risk of dislocation using large- vs. small-diameter femoral heads in total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plate Johannes F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dislocation remains a difficult problem in total hip arthroplasty. Large-diameter femoral heads may lower the incidence of dislocation by enhancing the jump distance and decreasing impingement, but their performance against small-diameter heads has not been assessed. This study compared the mid-term radiographic and functional outcomes of two matched cohorts of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty who had a high pre-operative risk for dislocation and who received either small-diameter (26- or 28-millimeters or large-diameter (≥36-millimeters femoral heads. Methods All patients who received large-diameter heads (≥36-millimeter between 2002 and 2005, and who had pre-operative risk factors for dislocation, were identified in the institution’s joint registry. Forty-one patients (52 hips who received large-diameter heads were identified, and these patients were matched to 48 patients (52 hips in the registry who received small-diameter femoral heads. Results At mean final follow-up of 62 months (range, 49 to 101 months, both groups achieved excellent functional outcomes as measured by Harris Hip scores, with slightly better final scores in the large-diameter group (90 vs. 83 points. No patient showed any radiographic signs of loosening. No patient dislocated in the large-diameter femoral head group; the smaller-diameter group had a greater rate of dislocation (3.8%, 2 out of 52. Conclusions Large-diameter femoral head articulations may reduce dislocation rates in patients who have a high pre-operative risk for dislocation while providing the same functional improvements and safety as small-diameter bearings.

  12. Demonstration of variable speed permanent magnet generator at small, low-head hydro site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown Kinloch, David [Shaker Landing Hydro Associates, Inc., Louisville, KY (United States)

    2015-12-18

    Small hydro developers face a limited set of bad choices when choosing a generator for a small low-head hydro site. Direct drive synchronous generators are expensive and technically complex to install. Simpler induction generators are higher speed, requiring a speed increaser, which results in inefficiencies and maintenance problems. In addition, both induction and synchronous generators turn at a fixed speed, causing the turbine to run off its peak efficiency curve whenever the available head is different than the designed optimum head.The solution to these problems is the variable speed Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG). At the Weisenberger Mill in Midway, KY, a variable speed Permanent Magnet Generator has been installed and demonstrated. This new PMG system replaced an existing induction generator that had a HTD belt drive speed increaser system. Data was taken from the old generator before it was removed and compared to data collected after the PMG system was installed. The new variable speed PMG system is calculated to produce over 96% more energy than the old induction generator system during an average year. This significant increase was primarily due to the PMG generator operating at the correct speed at the maximum head, and the ability for the PMG generator to reduce its speed to lower optimum speeds as the stream flow increased and the net head decreased.This demonstration showed the importance of being able to adjust the speed of fixed blade turbines. All fixed blade turbines with varying net heads could achieve higher efficiencies if the speed can be matched to the optimum speed as the head changes. In addition, this demonstration showed that there are many potential efficiencies that could be realized with variable speed technology at hydro sites where mismatched turbine and generator speeds result in lower power output, even at maximum head. Funding for this project came from the US Dept. of Energy, through Award Number DE-EE0005429.

  13. [Clark's head tent or "small mask"? Value of high oxygen flows administered through a mask].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrieu, J P; Milhaud, A; Brille, P; Hermant, A; Tinturier, F

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of transcutaneous PtcO2 in eight normal adults prove a comparable efficacy of 50 l.min-1 O2 through facial "small mask" (61.5 kPa; 463 mmHg) and 20 l.min-1 O2 through head tent (65.1 kPa; 490 mmHg). First procedure, inexpensive, is very simple to use.

  14. A detector head design for small-animal PET with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrs, Sascha; Del Guerra, Alberto; Herbert, Deborah J; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2006-03-07

    Small-animal PET systems are now striving for sub-millimetre resolution. Current systems based upon PSPMTs and finely pixellated scintillators can be pushed to higher resolution, but at the expense of other performance parameters and a rapidly escalating cost. Moreover, depth of interaction (DOI) information is usually difficult to assess in such systems, even though this information is highly desirable to reduce the parallax error, which is often the dominant error for such high-resolution systems. In this study we propose a high-resolution detector head for a small-animal PET imaging system with intrinsic DOI information. Instead of a pixellated scintillator, our design is based upon the classic Anger camera principle, i.e. the head is constructed of modular layers each consisting of a continuous slab of scintillator, viewed by a new type of compact silicon photodetector. The photodetector is the recently developed silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) that as well as being very compact has many other attractive properties: high gain at low bias voltage, excellent single-photoelectron resolution and fast timing. A detector head of about 4 x 4 cm2 in area is proposed, constructed from three modular layers of the type described above. We perform a simulation study, using the Monte Carlo simulation package Geant4. The simulation results are used to optimize the geometry of the detector head and characterize its performance. Additionally, hit estimation algorithms are studied to determine the interaction position of annihilation photons correctly over the whole detector surface. The resulting detector has a nearly uniform efficiency for 511 keV photons of approximately 70% and an intrinsic spatial resolution of less than approximately 0.4 mm full width at half maximum (fwhm).

  15. Detailed Measurements of Turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm J. Andrews, Ph.D.

    2004-12-14

    This project has two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. Also, studies of multi-layer mixing with the existing water channel facility. Over the last twelve (12) months there has been excellent progress, detailed in this report, with both tasks. As of December 10, 2004, the air/helium facility is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Currently experiments with air/helium up to Atwood numbers of 0.25 (the maximum is 0.75, but the highest Reynolds numbers are at 0.25) are being performed. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget, and we expect this to continue for 2005. With interest expressed from LLNL we have continued with initial condition studies using the water channel. This work has also progressed well, with one of the graduate Research Assistants (Mr. Nick Mueschke) visiting LLNL the past two summers to work with Dr. O. Schilling. Several journal papers are in preparation that describe the work. Two MSc.'s have been completed (Mr. Nick Mueschke, and Mr. Wayne Kraft, 12/1/03). Nick and Wayne are both pursuing Ph.D.s' funded by this DOE Alliances project. Presently three (3) Ph.D. graduate Research Assistants are supported on the project, and two (2) undergraduate Research Assistants. During the year two (2) journal papers and two (2) conference papers have been published, ten (10) presentations made at conferences, and three (3) invited presentations.

  16. Ink-jet printer heads for ultra-small-drop protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E I; Cachau, R E

    2002-12-01

    Mass-produced automated piezoelectric driven picoliter delivery systems (printer heads) are fast, inexpensive, and reliable devices that are capable of delivering a very large range of volumes and are ideally suited for high-throughput protein crystallography studies. We used this technology to set up under-oil crystallization experiments with drop sizes from the 200-nL to 3-microL volume range, commonly used in protein crystallography, and show its application in setting ultra-small (2 nL) drops, the smallest drop volume reported to date for this type of assay.

  17. Analysis of heat-flow data: detailed observations in many holes in a small area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T.J. (Dept. of Energy, Mines, and Resources, Ottawa); Beck, A.E.

    1977-08-03

    Terrestrial heat-flow measurements were made in 71 boreholes distributed over 5 km/sup 2/ near Noranda, Quebec. In nearly 50 percent of the boreholes there was some evidence of water flow along part of their total depth. Across the area the heat-flow values, uncorrected for climatic variation effects, vary systematically from 23 to 36 mW m/sup 2/ (0.55 to 0.85 ..mu..cal cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/). Direct water flow along sections of boreholes cannot account for the heat-flow variation; a system maintained for a few thousand years, in which small quantities of water migrate from the surface down through the volcanic flow contacts and faults under the area of reduced heat flow, can account for the variation.

  18. Recovery of individual head-related transfer functions from a small set of measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo-Sun

    2012-07-01

    Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) vary with individuals, and in practice, measuring HRTFs with high directional resolution for each individual is tiresome. Based on a basis functions representation of HRTFs, the present work proposes a method for recovering individual HRTFs from a small set of measurements. The HRTFs are represented by a combination of a small set of spatial basis functions (SBFs) with frequency- and individual-dependent weights. The SBFs are derived by applying spatial principal component analysis to a baseline HRTF dataset with high directional resolution. The individual weights for any subject outside the dataset are estimated from measurements at a few source directions, and then the HRTFs with high directional resolution are recovered by combining the SBFs and the individual weights. In an illustrative case, the SBFs derived from a baseline dataset that includes 20 subjects are used to recover the HRTF magnitudes for six subjects outside the baseline dataset. Results show that individual HRTF magnitudes can be recovered from measurements at 73 directions with a mean signal-to-distortion ratio of 19 dB. The proposed method is also applicable to recovering head-related impulse responses. The results of psychoacoustic experiments indicate that in most cases the recovered and measured HRTFs are indistinguishable.

  19. morphforge: a toolbox for simulating small networks of biologically detailed neurons in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Hull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad structure of a modelling study can often be explained over a cup of coffee, butconverting this high-level conceptual idea into graphs of the final simulation results may requiremany weeks of sitting at a computer. Although models themselves can be complex, oftenmany mental resources are wasted working around complexities of the software ecosystemsuch as fighting to manage files, interfacing between tools and data formats, finding mistakesin code or working out the units of variables. morphforge is a high-level, Python toolboxfor building and managing simulations of small populations of multicompartmental biophysicalmodel neurons. An entire in silico experiment, including the definition of neuronal morphologies,channel descriptions, stimuli, visualisation and analysis of results can be written within a singleshort Python script using high-level objects. Multiple independent simulations can be createdand run from a single script, allowing parameter spaces to be investigated. Consideration hasbeen given to the reuse of both algorithmic and parameterisable components to allow bothspecific and stochastic parameter variations. Some other features of the toolbox include: theautomatic generation of human-readable documentation (e. g. PDF-files about a simulation; thetransparent handling of different biophysical units; a novel mechanism for plotting simulationresults based on a system of tags; and an architecture that supports both the use of establishedformats for defining channels and synapses (e. g. MODL files, and the possibility to supportother libraries and standards easily. We hope that this toolbox will allow scientists to quicklybuild simulations of multicompartmental model neurons for research and serve as a platform forfurther tool development.

  20. Attitude and Heading Reference System for Small Unmanned Aircraft Collision Avoidance Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrant, Kevin

    This thesis describes the development of an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) to sense three-dimensional orientation for collision avoidance control in small unmanned aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are currently restricted to flight in designated airspace due to safety concerns of collision with manned aircraft. Therefore, collision avoidance is necessary to ensure the safety of both aircraft. Technical challenges, mainly in sensor limitations, restrict AHRS performance in attitude estimation during high-g maneuvers. Using sensor filtering techniques and a robust attitude representation, an AHRS suitable for collision avoidance is developed. Acceleration disturbances are reduced using estimates of non-gravitational accelerations including centripetal acceleration and model-based acceleration to improve gravity vector measurement during aircraft maneuvers. Simulation results with a variety of maneuvers deemed challenging for most AHRS are given showing accurate attitude estimates. Flight data from an existing commercial autopilot is compared with the results of the AHRS to demonstrate the validity of the solution with real flight data.

  1. Interaction of mantle plume heads with the earth's surface and onset of small-scale convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R. W.; Campbell, I. H.

    1991-10-01

    The interaction of a mantle plume head with the earth's surface was examined by studying the behavior of a spherical blob of a buoyant fluid under the effect of gravity which forces it toward either a rigid horizontal boundary or a free surface. In the experiments, buoyant spheres of diapir fluid having no surface tension and extremely small Reynolds numbers but diameters as large as are practical in the laboratory were injected into wide cylindrical tanks filled with viscous (nu = 149 sq cm/sec) glucose syrup. Experimental results are presented for the thinning and lateral spreading of the bouyant fluid and for the thinning of the squeeze layer for both the case of a rigid, nonslip boundary (a rigid Perspex lid) and that of a free surface. These are compared with similarity scaling laws based on a balance between the buoyancy of the diapir and the viscous stresses in the diapir's surroundings.

  2. A highly detailed FEM volume conductor model based on the ICBM152 average head template for EEG source imaging and TCS targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C

    2015-08-01

    In electroencephalographic (EEG) source imaging as well as in transcranial current stimulation (TCS), it is common to model the head using either three-shell boundary element (BEM) or more accurate finite element (FEM) volume conductor models. Since building FEMs is computationally demanding and labor intensive, they are often extensively reused as templates even for subjects with mismatching anatomies. BEMs can in principle be used to efficiently build individual volume conductor models; however, the limiting factor for such individualization are the high acquisition costs of structural magnetic resonance images. Here, we build a highly detailed (0.5mm(3) resolution, 6 tissue type segmentation, 231 electrodes) FEM based on the ICBM152 template, a nonlinear average of 152 adult human heads, which we call ICBM-NY. We show that, through more realistic electrical modeling, our model is similarly accurate as individual BEMs. Moreover, through using an unbiased population average, our model is also more accurate than FEMs built from mismatching individual anatomies. Our model is made available in Matlab format.

  3. The -G1245A IGF1 polymorphism is related with small head size and less brain sparing in small for gestational age born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Wietske A; van Meurs, Joyce B; Arends, Nicolette J; Uitterlinden, André G; de Ridder, Maria A; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C

    2009-04-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) subjects experience pre- and postnatal growth restriction, which might be influenced by polymorphisms in the IGF1 gene. The well-known -841(CA)(n)/192 bp polymorphism has been associated with birth size, cardiovascular disease, and IGF-1 levels, and is in linkage disequilibrium with the -G1245A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs35767). To associate the -G1245A SNP with head circumference (HC) and brain sparing (a greater head compared with height SDS) in short SGA and SGA catch-up subjects. Gene association study. We studied 635 SGA subjects out of which 439 remained short and 196 had a postnatal height >-2.00 SDS. The -G1245A SNP IGF1 gene polymorphism and head size. All SGA subjects had a postnatal head size below the population mean (-1.01 SDS, P<0.001). Whereas SGA catch-up subjects had a head size that was in proportion with their height, short SGA subjects displayed extensive brain sparing (HC - height: SGA CU: 0.01 versus short SGA: 1.75 SDS, P<0.001). The most severely SGA born subjects had a 0.4 SDS smaller postnatal head size and 0.6 SDS less brain sparing when carrying the -1245 A-allele in contrast to G-allele carriers (P=0.03). The association between the -G1245A SNP and head size remained significant after correction for birth weight and postnatal height SDS (P=0.03). Birth weight, birth length and postnatal height SDS were not related with the - G1245A SNP. The -1245 A-allele of the IGF1 promoter SNP is associated with a small head size and less brain sparing in SGA born subjects and particularly those with the lowest birth weight.

  4. Multi-modality image reconstruction for dual-head small-animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chang-Han; Chou, Cheng-Ying [National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-18

    The hybrid positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) or positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) has become routine practice in clinics. The applications of multi-modality imaging can also benefit research advances. Consequently, dedicated small-imaging system like dual-head small-animal PET (DHAPET) that possesses the advantages of high detection sensitivity and high resolution can exploit the structural information from CT or MRI. It should be noted that the special detector arrangement in DHAPET leads to severe data truncation, thereby degrading the image quality. We proposed to take advantage of anatomical priors and total variation (TV) minimization methods to reconstruct PET activity distribution form incomplete measurement data. The objective is to solve the penalized least-squares function consisted of data fidelity term, TV norm and medium root priors. In this work, we employed the splitting-based fast iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm to split smooth and non-smooth functions in the convex optimization problems. Our simulations studies validated that the images reconstructed by use of the proposed method can outperform those obtained by use of conventional expectation maximization algorithms or that without considering the anatomical prior information. Additionally, the convergence rate is also accelerated.

  5. Addressing Head Motion Dependencies for Small-World Topologies in Functional Connectomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Gan eYan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Graph theoretical explorations of functional interactions within the human connectome, are rapidly advancing our understanding of brain architecture. In particular, global and regional topological parameters are increasingly being employed to quantify and characterize inter-individual differences in human brain function. Head motion remains a significant concern in the accurate determination of resting-state fMRI based assessments of the connectome, including those based on graph theoretical analysis (e.g., motion can increase local efficiency, while decreasing global efficiency and small-worldness. This study provides a comprehensive examination of motion correction strategies on the relationship between motion and commonly used topological parameters. At the individual-level, we evaluated different models of head motion regression and scrubbing, as well as the potential benefits of using partial correlation (estimated via graphical lasso instead of full correlation. At the group-level, we investigated the utility of regression of motion and mean intrinsic functional connectivity before topological parameters calculation and/or after. Consistent with prior findings, none of the explicit motion-correction approaches at individual-level were able to remove motion relationships for topological parameters. Global signal regression (GSR emerged as an effective means of mitigating relationships between motion and topological parameters; though at the risk of altering the connectivity structure and topological hub distributions when higher densities graphs are employed (e.g., > 6%. Group-level analysis correction for motion was once again found to be a crucial step. Finally, similar to recent work, we found a constellation of findings suggestive of the possibility that some of the motion-relationships detected may reflect neural or trait signatures of motion, rather than simply motion-induced artifact.

  6. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Oxidation of Four Small Alkyl Esters in Laminar Premixed Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Westmoreland, P R; Dryer, F L; Chaos, M; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K; Cool, T A; Wang, J; Yang, B; Hansen, N; Kasper, T

    2008-02-08

    A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism has been developed for a group of four small alkyl ester fuels, consisting of methyl formate, methyl acetate, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate. This mechanism is validated by comparisons between computed results and recently measured intermediate species mole fractions in fuel-rich, low pressure, premixed laminar flames. The model development employs a principle of similarity of functional groups in constraining the H atom abstraction and unimolecular decomposition reactions in each of these fuels. As a result, the reaction mechanism and formalism for mechanism development are suitable for extension to larger oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, together with an improved kinetic understanding of the structure and chemical kinetics of alkyl ester fuels that can be extended to biodiesel fuels. Variations in concentrations of intermediate species levels in these flames are traced to differences in the molecular structure of the fuel molecules.

  7. Radiotherapy combined with small doses of CDDP and THP for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaguchi, Mamoru; Sakai, Shunichi; Takashima, Hitoshi; Hosokawa, Atsuyuki [Kagawa Medical School, Miki (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    From February 1992 through June 1993, 19 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas were treated with radiotherapy combined with administration of small doses of CDDP and THP. Radiation was administered in a dose of 2 Gy given five times a week combined with CDDP in a dose of 10 mg on day 1 and 3, and THP in a dose of 10 mg on day 5 of each treatment week. Survival was 63 percent at one year and 58 percent at two years. Incidence of the acute complications severer than grade 2 were myelosuppression 12/19 (63%), stomatitis 11/19 (58%), appetite loss 9/19 (47%), and nausea 4/19 (21%). Myelosuppression with grade 3 occurred in 5 patients and could be treated with granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Stomatitis with grade 3 occurred in two patients and they needed a nasogastric feeding tube. The result of this combination therapy with radiation, CDDP and THP was good. However, a new treatment regimen should be necessary to avoid severe stomatitis. (author).

  8. The p53-reactivating small molecule RITA induces senescence in head and neck cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ching Chuang

    Full Text Available TP53 is the most commonly mutated gene in head and neck cancer (HNSCC, with mutations being associated with resistance to conventional therapy. Restoring normal p53 function has previously been investigated via the use of RITA (reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis, a small molecule that induces a conformational change in p53, leading to activation of its downstream targets. In the current study we found that RITA indeed exerts significant effects in HNSCC cells. However, in this model, we found that a significant outcome of RITA treatment was accelerated senescence. RITA-induced senescence in a variety of p53 backgrounds, including p53 null cells. Also, inhibition of p53 expression did not appear to significantly inhibit RITA-induced senescence. Thus, this phenomenon appears to be partially p53-independent. Additionally, RITA-induced senescence appears to be partially mediated by activation of the DNA damage response and SIRT1 (Silent information regulator T1 inhibition, with a synergistic effect seen by combining either ionizing radiation or SIRT1 inhibition with RITA treatment. These data point toward a novel mechanism of RITA function as well as hint to its possible therapeutic benefit in HNSCC.

  9. Multiple Small Diameter Drillings Increase Femoral Neck Stability Compared with Single Large Diameter Femoral Head Core Decompression Technique for Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip J; Mannava, Sandeep; Seyler, Thorsten M; Plate, Johannes F; Van Sikes, Charles; Stitzel, Joel D; Lang, Jason E

    2016-10-26

    Femoral head core decompression is an efficacious joint-preserving procedure for treatment of early stage avascular necrosis. However, postoperative fractures have been described which may be related to the decompression technique used. Femoral head decompressions were performed on 12 matched human cadaveric femora comparing large 8mm single bore versus multiple 3mm small drilling techniques. Ultimate failure strength of the femora was tested using a servo-hydraulic material testing system. Ultimate load to failure was compared between the different decompression techniques using two paired ANCOVA linear regression models. Prior to biomechanical testing and after the intervention, volumetric bone mineral density was determined using quantitative computed tomography to account for variation between cadaveric samples and to assess the amount of bone disruption by the core decompression. Core decompression, using the small diameter bore and multiple drilling technique, withstood significantly greater load prior to failure compared with the single large bore technique after adjustment for bone mineral density (pcore decompression techniques. When considering core decompression for the treatment of early stage avascular necrosis, the multiple small bore technique removed less bone volume, thereby potentially leading to higher load to failure.

  10. Pattern of head injuries in Malta (EU): a small Mediterranean island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Shawn; Ansari, Sohail; Zrinzo, Antoine

    2012-04-01

    We have reviewed all acute neurosurgical admissions between December 2007 and December 2009. Hundred and nine (46.6%) of our admissions were head injuries. A subdural haematoma(SDH) was found in 51.4%(56) of the head injuries. Of these, 50/56 presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS) of 14 to 15, 41.1% (23) of these SDH needed surgery. The commonest mode of injury was falls [67.9%(74) of head injuries]. Risk factors for falls are co-morbidities which are particular to an elderly population, these include osteoarthritis and audio/ visual impairment. Falls are more common in rural areas where elderly are more likely to feel comfortable to walk and sustain trivial falls resulting in chronic subdural heamatomas.

  11. Simulation of folding of a small alpha-helical protein in atomistic detail using worldwide-distributed computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrovic, Bojan; Snow, Christopher D; Shirts, Michael R; Pande, Vijay S

    2002-11-08

    By employing thousands of PCs and new worldwide-distributed computing techniques, we have simulated in atomistic detail the folding of a fast-folding 36-residue alpha-helical protein from the villin headpiece. The total simulated time exceeds 300 micros, orders of magnitude more than previous simulations of a molecule of this size. Starting from an extended state, we obtained an ensemble of folded structures, which is on average 1.7A and 1.9A away from the native state in C(alpha) distance-based root-mean-square deviation (dRMS) and C(beta) dRMS sense, respectively. The folding mechanism of villin is most consistent with the hydrophobic collapse view of folding: the molecule collapses non-specifically very quickly ( approximately 20ns), which greatly reduces the size of the conformational space that needs to be explored in search of the native state. The conformational search in the collapsed state appears to be rate-limited by the formation of the aromatic core: in a significant fraction of our simulations, the C-terminal phenylalanine residue packs improperly with the rest of the hydrophobic core. We suggest that the breaking of this interaction may be the rate-determining step in the course of folding. On the basis of our simulations we estimate the folding rate of villin to be approximately 5micros. By analyzing the average features of the folded ensemble obtained by simulation, we see that the mean folded structure is more similar to the native fold than any individual folded structure. This finding highlights the need for simulating ensembles of molecules and averaging the results in an experiment-like fashion if meaningful comparison between simulation and experiment is to be attempted. Moreover, our results demonstrate that (1) the computational methodology exists to simulate the multi-microsecond regime using distributed computing and (2) that potential sets used to describe interatomic interactions may be sufficiently accurate to reach the folded state

  12. Design of an Attitude and Heading Reference System Based on Distributed Filtering for Small UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A development procedure for a low-cost attitude and heading reference system (AHRS based on the distributed filter has been proposed. The AHRS consists of three single-axis accelerometers, three single-axis gyroscopes, and one 3-axis digital compass. The initial attitude estimation is readily accomplished by using the complementary filtering. The attitude estimation for UAV flying in the real time is realized by using the three low orders EKF. The validation results show that the estimated orientations of the developed AHRS are within the acceptable region, and AHRS can give a stabilized attitude and heading information for a long time.

  13. Volume-averaged SAR in adult and child head models when using mobile phones: a computational study with detailed CAD-based models of commercial mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvari, Jafar; Heikkilä, Teemu

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies comparing SAR difference in the head of children and adults used highly simplified generic models or half-wave dipole antennas. The objective of this study was to investigate the SAR difference in the head of children and adults using realistic EMF sources based on CAD models of commercial mobile phones. Four MRI-based head phantoms were used in the study. CAD models of Nokia 8310 and 6630 mobile phones were used as exposure sources. Commercially available FDTD software was used for the SAR calculations. SAR values were simulated at frequencies 900 MHz and 1747 MHz for Nokia 8310, and 900 MHz, 1747 MHz and 1950 MHz for Nokia 6630. The main finding of this study was that the SAR distribution/variation in the head models highly depends on the structure of the antenna and phone model, which suggests that the type of the exposure source is the main parameter in EMF exposure studies to be focused on. Although the previous findings regarding significant role of the anatomy of the head, phone position, frequency, local tissue inhomogeneity and tissue composition specifically in the exposed area on SAR difference were confirmed, the SAR values and SAR distributions caused by generic source models cannot be extrapolated to the real device exposures. The general conclusion is that from a volume averaged SAR point of view, no systematic differences between child and adult heads were found.

  14. The Influence of Small Class Size, Duration, Intensity, and Heterogeneity on Head Start Fade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The researcher conducted a nonexperimental study to investigate and analyze the influence of reduced class sizes, intensity (all day and every day), duration (five years), and heterogeneity (random class assignment) on the Head Start Fade effect. The researcher employed retrospective data analysis using a longitudinal explanatory design on data…

  15. Detailed characterization of the posttranscriptional gene-silencing-related small RNA in a GUS gene-silenced tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutvágner, G.; Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene-silencing phenomena such as cosuppression and RNA interference are associated with the occurrence of small, about 21-23 nt short RNA species homologous to the silenced gene. We here show that the small RNA present in silenced transgenic plants can easily be detected in total

  16. Formation of plasma around a small meteoroid: 2. Implications for radar head echo

    CERN Document Server

    Dimant, Y S

    2016-01-01

    This paper calculates the spatial distribution of the plasma responsible for radar head echoes by applying the kinetic theory developed in the companion paper (Dimant and Oppenheim, arXiv:1608.08524). This results in a set of analytic expressions for the plasma density as a function of distance from the meteoroid. It shows that, at distances less than a collisional mean-free-path from the meteoroid surface, the plasma density drops in proportion to $1/R$ where $R$ is the distance from the meteoroid center; and, at distances much longer than the mean-free-path behind the meteoroid, the density diminishes at a rate proportional to $1/R^{2}$. The results of this paper should be used for modeling and analysis of radar head echoes.

  17. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  18. Bolaform surfactants with polyoxometalate head groups and their assembly into ultra-small monolayer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsmann, Steve; Luka, Martin; Polarz, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Surfactants are indispensable in established technologies as detergents or emulsification agents, and also in recent studies for controlling the growth of nanoparticles or for creating nanocarriers. Although the properties of conventional, organic surfactants are thoroughly explored, strong interest persists in surfactants that possess unique features inaccessible for ordinary systems. Here we present dipolar, bolaform surfactants with a head group comprising of 11 tungsten atoms. These novel compounds are characterized by an exceptionally low critical self-organization concentration, which leads to monolayer vesicles with a diameter of only 15 nm, that is, substantially smaller than for any other system. The membrane of the vesicles is impermeable for water-soluble and oil-soluble guests. Control over release kinetics, which can be followed via the quantitative fluorescence quenching of confined fluorophores, is gained by means of pH adjustments.

  19. ‘The Head Carver’: Art Extraordinary and the small spaces of asylum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeachan, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the unique collection of Scottish outsider art, labelled Art Extraordinary, as a window into the often neglected small spaces of asylum care in the early twentieth century. By drawing upon materials from the Art Extraordinary collection and its associated archives, this paper demonstrates the importance of incorporating small and everyday spaces of care – such as gardens, paths, studios and boats – into the broader historical narratives of psychiatric care in Scotland. Examples of experiential memorialization and counterpoints to asylum surveillance culture will be illuminated. The significance of using ‘outsider’ art collections as a valuable source in tracing geographical histories will be highlighted. PMID:27834293

  20. 'The Head Carver': Art Extraordinary and the small spaces of asylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeachan, Cheryl

    2017-03-01

    This paper uses the unique collection of Scottish outsider art, labelled Art Extraordinary, as a window into the often neglected small spaces of asylum care in the early twentieth century. By drawing upon materials from the Art Extraordinary collection and its associated archives, this paper demonstrates the importance of incorporating small and everyday spaces of care - such as gardens, paths, studios and boats - into the broader historical narratives of psychiatric care in Scotland. Examples of experiential memorialization and counterpoints to asylum surveillance culture will be illuminated. The significance of using 'outsider' art collections as a valuable source in tracing geographical histories will be highlighted.

  1. Systematic Analysis of Small RNAs Associated with Human Mitochondria by Deep Sequencing: Detailed Analysis of Mitochondrial Associated miRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Lakshmi; Tomar, Dhanendra; Prajapati, Paresh; Singh, Rochika; Singh, Arun Kumar; Singh, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are one of the central regulators of many cellular processes beyond its well established role in energy metabolism. The inter-organellar crosstalk is critical for the optimal function of mitochondria. Many nuclear encoded proteins and RNA are imported to mitochondria. The translocation of small RNA (sRNA) including miRNA to mitochondria and other sub-cellular organelle is still not clear. We characterized here sRNA including miRNA associated with human mitochondria by cellular fractionation and deep sequencing approach. Mitochondria were purified from HEK293 and HeLa cells for RNA isolation. The sRNA library was generated and sequenced using Illumina system. The analysis showed the presence of unique population of sRNA associated with mitochondria including miRNA. Putative novel miRNAs were characterized from unannotated sRNA sequences. The study showed the association of 428 known, 196 putative novel miRNAs to mitochondria of HEK293 and 327 known, 13 putative novel miRNAs to mitochondria of HeLa cells. The alignment of sRNA to mitochondrial genome was also studied. The targets were analyzed using DAVID to classify them in unique networks using GO and KEGG tools. Analysis of identified targets showed that miRNA associated with mitochondria regulates critical cellular processes like RNA turnover, apoptosis, cell cycle and nucleotide metabolism. The six miRNAs (counts >1000) associated with mitochondria of both HEK293 and HeLa were validated by RT-qPCR. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study demonstrating the associations of sRNA including miRNA with mitochondria that may regulate site-specific turnover of target mRNA important for mitochondrial related functions. PMID:22984580

  2. Small-angle neutron scattering study of aggregate structures of multi-headed pyridinium surfactants in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Haldar; V K Aswal; P S Goyal; S Bhattacharya

    2004-08-01

    The aggregate structures of a set of novel single-chain surfactants bearing one, two and three pyridinium headgroups have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is found that the nature of aggregate structures of these cationic surfactants depend on the number of headgroups present in the surfactants. The single-headed pyridinium surfactant forms the lamellar structure, whereas surfactants with double and triple headgroups form micelles in water. The aggregates shrink in size with increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. The aggregation number () continually decreases and the fractional charge () increases with more number of headgroups on the surfactants. The semimajor axis () and semiminor axis ( = ) of the micelle also decrease with the increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. This indicates that hydrocarbon chains in such micelles prepared from multiheaded surfactants adopt bent conformation and no longer stay in extended conformation.

  3. New camera-based microswitch technology to monitor small head and mouth responses of children with multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Furniss, Fred

    2014-06-01

    Assessing a new camera-based microswitch technology, which did not require the use of color marks on the participants' face. Two children with extensive multiple disabilities participated. The responses selected for them consisted of small, lateral head movements and mouth closing or opening. The intervention was carried out according to a multiple probe design across responses. The technology involved a computer with a CPU using a 2-GHz clock, a USB video camera with a 16-mm lens, a USB cable connecting the camera and the computer, and a special software program written in ISO C++ language. The new technology was satisfactorily used with both children. Large increases in their responding were observed during the intervention periods (i.e. when the responses were followed by preferred stimulation). The new technology may be an important resource for persons with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior.

  4. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Fertilization Rate Does Not-Depend on the Proportion of Round-headed Sperm, Small acrosomal Sperm, or Morphologically Normal Sperm in Patients with Partial Globozoospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Ying Jiang; Ling-Yun Yang; Xiao-Mei Tong; Hai-Yan Zhu; Ya-Mei Xue; Wen-Zhi Xu; Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Generally,intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be the preferable method to treat partial globozoospermia,but whether there exist some correlations between ICSI fertilization rate and the proportion of round-headed sperm or morphologically normal sperm remains open.This study was to explore the correlation between ICSI fertilization rate and the sperm morphology in patients with partial globozoospermia.Methods:Thirty-four patients diagnosed with partial globozoospermia accepted the following assisted fertilization treatments-2 cases accepted in-vitro fertilization (IvF) alone,26 cases accepted ICSI alone,and 6 accepted split IVF/ICSI.Detailed morphological characteristics were described using Diff-Quik rapid staining.Sixty cases accepting IVF or ICSI treatment in our reproductive center were considered as the control group after being matched by relevant criteria.Fertilization rate,embryo quality,embryo implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were calculated.Results:Besides very high proportion of round-headed sperm,partial globozoospermia also showed very high proportion of small-acrosomal sperm and very low proportion of morphologically normal sperm.Fertilization rate of IVF (IVF alone plus split IVF) was very low in partial globozoospermia (25.4% ± 17.4%),but ICSI (ICSI alone plus split ICSI) achieved satisfying fertilization rate compared with the control group (66.2% ± 22.5% vs.68.8% ± 29.4%,P > 0.05).In patients with partial globozoospermia,there were no correlations between ICSI fertilization rate and the proportion of round-headed sperm,small-acrosomal sperm,or morphologically normal sperm.Conclusions:There was high proportion of small-acrosomal sperm in partial globozoospermia.For patients with partial globozoospermia,ICSI is more preferable than IVF.ICSI fertilization rate does not depend on the proportion of round-headed sperm,small-acrosomal sperm,or morphologically normal sperm.

  5. Markerless rat head motion tracking using structured light for brain PET imaging of unrestrained awake small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alan; Staelens, Steven; Stroobants, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Jeroen

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in small animals is generally performed under anesthesia to immobilize the animal during scanning. More recently, for rat brain PET studies, methods to perform scans of unrestrained awake rats are being developed in order to avoid the unwanted effects of anesthesia on the brain response. Here, we investigate the use of a projected structure stereo camera to track the motion of the rat head during the PET scan. The motion information is then used to correct the PET data. The stereo camera calculates a 3D point cloud representation of the scene and the tracking is performed by point cloud matching using the iterative closest point algorithm. The main advantage of the proposed motion tracking is that no intervention, e.g. for marker attachment, is needed. A manually moved microDerenzo phantom experiment and 3 awake rat [18F]FDG experiments were performed to evaluate the proposed tracking method. The tracking accuracy was 0.33 mm rms. After motion correction image reconstruction, the microDerenzo phantom was recovered albeit with some loss of resolution. The reconstructed FWHM of the 2.5 and 3 mm rods increased with 0.94 and 0.51 mm respectively in comparison with the motion-free case. In the rat experiments, the average tracking success rate was 64.7%. The correlation of relative brain regional [18F]FDG uptake between the anesthesia and awake scan reconstructions was increased from on average 0.291 (not significant) before correction to 0.909 (p  <  0.0001) after motion correction. Markerless motion tracking using structured light can be successfully used for tracking of the rat head for motion correction in awake rat PET scans.

  6. Detailed Characterization of the Early Response of Head-Neck Cancer Xenografts to Irradiation Using {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jiayi; Chunta, John L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Amin, Mitual [Department of Pathology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Lee, David Y.; Grills, Inga S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Yan Di; Marples, Brian; Martinez, Alvaro A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Wilson, George D., E-mail: George.Wilson@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the metabolic information provided by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) during the early response of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenografts to radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Low-passage HNSCC cells (UT14) were injected into the rear flanks of female nu/nu mice to generate xenografts. After tumors grew to 400-500 mm{sup 3}, they were treated with either 15 Gy in one fraction (n = 18) or sham RT (n = 12). At various time points after treatment, tumors were assessed with 2-h dynamic FDG-PET and immediately harvested for direct histological correlation. Different analytical parameters were used to process the dynamic PET data: kinetic index (Ki), standard uptake value (SUV), sensitivity factor (SF), and retention index (RI). Tumor growth was assessed using the specific growth rate (SGR) and correlated with PET parameters using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to test PET parameters for their ability to predict for radiation necrosis and radiation change. Results: Tumor growth was arrested for the first 20 days after RT and recovered thereafter. Histologically, radiation change was observed in the peripheral regions of tumors between days 7 and 23 after RT, and radiation necrosis were observed in the central regions of tumors between days 7 and 40. Ki provided the best correlation with SGR (r = 0.51) and was the optimal parameter to predict for early radiation necrosis (AUC = 0.804, p = 0.07). SUV{sub 30min} was the strongest predictor for late radiation necrosis (AUC = 0.959, p = 0.004). Both RI{sub 30-60min} and SF{sub 12-70min} were very accurate in predicting for radiation change (AUC = 0.891 and 0.875, p = 0.009 and 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: Dynamic FDG-PET analysis (such as Ki or SF) may provide informative assessment of early radiation necrosis or radiation change of HNSCC

  7. Detailed optical modelling and light-management of thin-film organic solar cells with consideration of small-area effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovšek, Benjamin; Čampa, Andrej; Guo, Fei; Brabec, Christoph J; Forberich, Karen; Krč, Janez; Topič, Marko

    2017-02-20

    We present detailed numerical and experimental investigation of thin-film organic solar cells with a micro-textured light management foil applied on top of the front glass substrate. We first demonstrate that measurements of small-area laboratory solar cells are susceptible to a significant amount of optical losses that could lead to false interpretation of the measurement results. Using the combined optical model CROWM calibrated with realistic optical properties of organic films and other layers, we identify the origins of these losses and quantify the extent of their influence. Further on, we identify the most important light management mechanisms of the micro-textured foil, among which the prevention of light escaping at the front side of the cell is revealed as the dominant one. Detailed three-dimensional simulations show that the light-management foil applied on top of a large-area organic solar cell can reduce the total reflection losses by nearly 60% and improve the short-circuit current density by almost 20%. Finally, by assuming realistic open-circuit voltage and especially the realistic fill factor that deteriorates as the absorber layer thickness is increased, we determine the optimal absorber layer thickness that would result in the highest power conversion efficiency of the investigated organic solar cells.

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Intra‑Operative Airway Management in Patients with Maxillofacial Trauma having Reduction and ... Clinical Parameters and Challenges of Managing Cervicofacial Necrotizing Fasciitis in a ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... Difficult airway management in a patient with giant malignant goitre scheduled for thyroidectomy - case report ... Airway Management Dilemma in a Patient with Maxillofacial Injury

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ... Sampling Plans for Monitoring Quality Control Process at a Plastic Manufacturing Firm in Nigeria: A Case Study

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head ...

  12. Development and testing of turbines for small-scale low-head hydroelectric power plants; Developpement des turbines a basses chutes. Laboratoire de mini-hydraulique de Montcherand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, V.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents the design, development, construction and test of a turbine suited for small (up to 1 MW) and low-head (water head from 3 to 30 meters) hydroelectric power plants. The ultimate goal is to propose low-cost, simple and low-maintenance small adaptable hydroelectric units. Turbines are of the Kaplan type, axial, and have variable-pitch blades. Numerical simulations were performed to optimize the water flow at the entrance and exit of the turbine by means of appropriate fins. Various technical innovative aspects were approached. A pilot plant was built to serve as a test installation for the successively modified turbines. Measured mechanical power efficiencies are close to 89%. The installation is suitable for detecting possible cavitation and measuring the blade command torque during operation. The report is supplemented with a schematics of the generic installation and several graphics illustrating the simulation results.

  13. Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Henning; Evangelista, Laura; Wirth, Clemens; Beer, Meinrad [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Pabst, Thomas; Machann, Wolfram; Koestler, Herbert; Hahn, Dietbert [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Dick, Anke [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Paediatrics, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 {+-} 3 years (mean {+-} standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition. (orig.)

  14. Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Henning; Pabst, Thomas; Dick, Anke; Machann, Wolfram; Evangelista, Laura; Wirth, Clemens; Köstler, Herbert; Hahn, Dietbert; Beer, Meinrad

    2013-01-01

    Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 ± 3 years (mean ± standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition.

  15. Plasma chromogranin A levels are increased in a small portion of patients with hereditary head and neck paragangliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Nicolette; Kema, Ido P.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.

    2011-01-01

    P>Context The majority of patients with head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGL) have biochemically silent tumours. Chromogranin A (CgA) is a tumour marker for neuroendocrine tumours. Objective To assess the role of CgA as a tumour marker in patients with hereditary HNPGL. Patients and Methods We includ

  16. Catalysis of GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases at atomic detail by integration of X-ray crystallography, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudack, Till; Jenrich, Sarah; Brucker, Sven; Vetter, Ingrid R; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2015-10-02

    Small GTPases regulate key processes in cells. Malfunction of their GTPase reaction by mutations is involved in severe diseases. Here, we compare the GTPase reaction of the slower hydrolyzing GTPase Ran with Ras. By combination of time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy and QM/MM simulations we elucidate that the Mg(2+) coordination by the phosphate groups, which varies largely among the x-ray structures, is the same for Ran and Ras. A new x-ray structure of a Ran·RanBD1 complex with improved resolution confirmed this finding and revealed a general problem with the refinement of Mg(2+) in GTPases. The Mg(2+) coordination is not responsible for the much slower GTPase reaction of Ran. Instead, the location of the Tyr-39 side chain of Ran between the γ-phosphate and Gln-69 prevents the optimal positioning of the attacking water molecule by the Gln-69 relative to the γ-phosphate. This is confirmed in the RanY39A·RanBD1 crystal structure. The QM/MM simulations provide IR spectra of the catalytic center, which agree very nicely with the experimental ones. The combination of both methods can correlate spectra with structure at atomic detail. For example the FTIR difference spectra of RasA18T and RanT25A mutants show that spectral differences are mainly due to the hydrogen bond of Thr-25 to the α-phosphate in Ran. By integration of x-ray structure analysis, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy the catalytic center of the x-ray structural models are further refined to sub-Å resolution, allowing an improved understanding of catalysis.

  17. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  18. Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Andrew J.; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M.; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C.; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J. W.; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Background The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for

  19. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  3. Headed to College the Effects of New York City's Small High Schools of Choice on Postsecondary Enrollment. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of lottery-like features in New York City's high school admissions process, previous MDRC reports have provided rigorous evidence that new small public high schools are narrowing the educational attainment gap and markedly improving high school graduation prospects, particularly for disadvantaged students. The new findings in this…

  4. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept - Part II: modeling HCCI combustion in small scales with detailed homogeneous gas phase chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichlmayr, H.T.; Kittelson, D.B.; Zachariah, M.R. [The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry

    2002-10-01

    Operational maps for crankshaft-equipped miniature homogeneous charge compression ignition engines are established using performance estimation, detailed chemical kinetics, and diffusion models for heat transfer and radical loss. In this study, radical loss was found to be insignificant. In contrast, heat transfer was found to be increasingly significant for 10, 1, and 0.1 W engines, respectively. Also, temperature-pressure trajectories and ignition delay time maps are used to explore relationships between engine operational parameters and HCCI. Lastly, effects of engine operating conditions and design on the indicated fuel conversion efficiency are investigated. (author)

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed ...

  6. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Head and Neck Cancer or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Insular Thyroid Cancer; Metastatic Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IVA Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus

  7. Radar Detectability Studies of Slow and Small Zodiacal Dust Cloud Particles: I. The Case of Arecibo 430 MHz Meteor Head Echo Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Nesvorny, D.; Feng, W.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent model development of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) model (Nesvorny et al. 2010, 2011b) argue that the incoming flux of meteoric material into the Earth's upper atmosphere is mostly undetected by radars because they cannot detect small extraterrestrial particles entering the atmosphere at low velocities due to the relatively small production of electrons. In this paper we present a new methodology utilizing meteor head echo radar observations that aims to constrain the ZDC physical model by ground-based measurements. In particular, for this work, we focus on Arecibo 430 MHz observations since this is the most sensitive radar utilized for this type of observations to date. For this, we integrate and employ existing comprehensive models of meteoroid ablation, ionization and radar detection to enable accurate interpretation of radar observations and show that reasonable agreement in the hourly rates is found between model predictions and Arecibo observations when: 1) we invoke the lower limit of the model predicted flux (approximately 16 t/d) and 2) we estimate the ionization probability of ablating metal atoms using laboratory measurements of the ionization cross sections of high speed metal atom beams, resulting in values up to two orders of magnitude lower than the extensively utilized figure reported by Jones (1997) for low speeds meteors. However, even at this lower limit the model over predicts the slow portion of the Arecibo radial velocity distributions by a factor of 3, suggesting the model requires some revision.

  8. Radar detectability studies of slow and small zodiacal dust cloud particles. I. The case of Arecibo 430 MHz meteor head echo observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janches, D. [Space Weather Laboratory, Mail Code 674, GSFC/NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W. [School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Nesvorný, D. [SouthWest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Vokrouhlický, D. [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Nicolls, M. J., E-mail: diego.janches@nasa.gov, E-mail: j.m.c.plane@leeds.ac.uk, E-mail: w.feng@leeds.ac.uk, E-mail: davidn@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: vokrouhl@cesnet.cz, E-mail: Michael.Nicolls@sri.com [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Recent model development of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) argues that the incoming flux of meteoric material into the Earth's upper atmosphere is mostly undetected by radars because they cannot detect small extraterrestrial particles entering the atmosphere at low velocities due to the relatively small production of electrons. In this paper, we present a new methodology utilizing meteor head echo radar observations that aims to constrain the ZDC physical model by ground-based measurements. In particular, for this work, we focus on Arecibo 430 MHz observations since this is the most sensitive radar utilized for this type of observations to date. For this, we integrate and employ existing comprehensive models of meteoroid ablation, ionization, and radar detection to enable accurate interpretation of radar observations and show that reasonable agreement in the hourly rates is found between model predictions and Arecibo observations when (1) we invoke the lower limit of the model predicted flux (∼16 t d{sup –1}) and (2) we estimate the ionization probability of ablating metal atoms using laboratory measurements of the ionization cross sections of high-speed metal atom beams, resulting in values up to two orders of magnitude lower than the extensively utilized figure reported by Jones for low-speed meteors. However, even at this lower limit, the model overpredicts the slow portion of the Arecibo radial velocity distributions by a factor of three, suggesting that the model requires some revision.

  9. Naphthalene emissions from moth repellents or toilet deodorant blocks determined using head-space and small-chamber tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JO Wan-Kuen; LEE Jong-Hyo; LIM Ho-Jin; JEONG Woo-Sik

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the emissions of naphthalene and other compounds from several different moth repellents (MRs) and one toilet deodorant block (TDB) currently sold in Korea, using a headspace analysis. The emission factors and emission rates of naphthalene were studied using a small-scale environmental chamber. Paper-type products emitted a higher concentration of the total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (normalized to the weight of test piece) than ball-type products, which in turn emitted higher concentration than a gel-type product. In contrast, naphthalene was either the most or the second highest abundant compound for the four ball products, whereas for paper and gel products it was not detected or was detected at much lower levels. The abundance of naphthalene ranged between 18.4% and 37.3% for ball products. The results show that the lower the air changes per hour (ACH) level was, the higher the naphthalene concentrations became. In general, a low ACH level suggests a low ventilation rate. The emission factor for naphthalene was nearly 100 times higher for a ball MR than for a gel or a paper MR. For the ball MR, the lower ACH level was, the higher both emission rate and emission factor became.

  10. Influence of the Head Group Size on the Direction of Tilt in Langmuir Monolayers

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, F

    1996-01-01

    A model of rods with heads of variable size, which are confined to a planar surface, is used to study the influence of the head group size on tilted phases in Langmuir monolayers. Simple free energy considerations as well as exact zero temperature calculations indicate that molecules with small head groups tilt towards next nearest neighbors, and molecules with larger head groups towards nearest neighbors. This provides a possible explanation for recent experimental results, and for details of the generic phase diagram for fatty acid monolayers.

  11. Detailed site effect estimation in the presence of strong velocity reversals within a small-aperture strong-motion array in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Rahpeyma, Sahar

    2016-08-11

    The rock site characterization for earthquake engineering applications in Iceland is common due to the easily exposed older bedrock and more recent volcanic lava rock. The corresponding site amplification is generally assumed to be low but has not been comprehensively quantified, especially for volcanic rock. The earthquake strong-motion of the Mw6.3 Ölfus earthquake on 29 May 2008 and 1705 of its aftershocks recorded on the first small-aperture strong-motion array (ICEARRAY I) in Iceland showed consistent and significant variations in ground motion amplitudes over short distances (<2 km) in an urban area located mostly on lava rock. This study analyses the aftershock recordings to quantify the local site effects using the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) methods. Additionally, microseismic data has been collected at array stations and analyzed using the HVSR method. The results between the methods are consistent and show that while the amplification levels remain relatively low, the predominant frequency varies systematically between stations and is found to correlate with the geological units. In particular, for stations on lava rock the underlying geologic structure is characterized by repeated lava-soil stratigraphy characterized by reversals in the shear wave velocity with depth. As a result, standard modeling of HVSR using vertically incident body waves does not apply. Instead, modeling the soil structure as a two-degree-of-freedom dynamic system is found to capture the observed predominant frequencies of site amplification. The results have important implications for earthquake resistant design of structures on rock sites characterized by velocity reversals. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Mapping hydrogeophysical structures with time--domain electromagnetic methods: Resolving small-scale details with large loops and three--component measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C. J.; Li, Y.; Nabighian, M.

    2004-12-01

    One of the outstanding problems in managing water resources in geologically complex aquifers is to develop improved techniques for mapping compartmentalization due to faulting. And although the role of faults in aquifer dynamics can vary considerably, knowledge of their location is key to understanding aquifer recharge and developing a sensible model for predicting aquifer response due to anthropogenic loads. We have explored the application of time--domain electromagnetic methods for mapping shallow aquifer faults on the western flanks of the Estancia Basin, central New Mexico. The field site is underlain by massive Pennsylvanian limestones (Madera Group) subsequently faulted by Laramide tectonics of the Ancestral Rockies and Neogene extension of the Rio Grande Rift. Two experimental configurations were deployed: a large 50 × 40 m transmitter loop with receiver stations located on a 5 m grid over the loop's interior; and an azimuthal survey consisting of a smaller fixed transmitter with receiver stations at ˜2 m intervals along a 30 m radius circle centered on the transmitter. Three--component transients of magnetic field due to a fast linear ramp--off in the transmitter were recorded at each station. As a rapid reconnaisance tool, the azimuthal experiment is well--suited for identification of subsurface fault planes since symmetry constraints require a vanishing azimuthal ̂ φ component of magnetic field when the electrical strike, or fault plane, lies in the ̂ φ direction. However, each of the experimental configurations revealed that the site's electrical structure is far more three--dimensional than previously believed and is not dominated by the response of a previously identified fault plane. Instead, we have observed spatially coherent transient signals which may indicate compartmentalization over length scales as small as a few tens of meters. Sections of this work were performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multi--program laboratory

  13. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the TIGR japonica Pseudomolecu...les kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  14. Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 in metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurina, G. V.; Kolegova, E. S.; Cheremisina, O. V.; Zavyalov, A. A.; Shishkin, D. A.; Kondakova, I. V.; Choinzonov, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    Progression of tumors and metastasis in particular is one of the main reasons of the high mortality rate among cancer patients. The primary role in developing metastases plays cell locomotion which requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Form, dynamics, localization and mechanical properties of the actin cytoskeleton are regulated by a variety of actin-binding proteins, which include the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1). The study is devoted to the investigation of CAP1 level depending on the presence or absence of metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results show the contribution of CAP1 to SCCHN and NSCLC progression. We detected the connection between the tissue protein CAP1 level and the stage of NSCLC and SCCHN disease. Also the levels of the CAP1 protein in tissues of primary tumors and metastases in lung cancer were different. Our data showed that CAP is important in the development of metastases, which suggests further perspectives in the study of this protein for projecting metastasis of NSCLC and SCCHN.

  15. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  16. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  17. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... the body being imaged, send and receive radio waves, producing signals that are detected by the coils. ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  1. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... object that's stuck in the wound. previous continue Concussions Concussions — the temporary loss of normal brain function due ... also a type of internal head injury. Repeated concussions can permanently damage the brain. In many cases, ...

  2. Head Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... When this happens, the neck muscles go into spasm, causing the head to tilt to one side. ...

  3. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: Baseball Concussions Concussions: Getting Better Sports and Concussions Dealing ...

  4. Head MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart valves Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) implants Kidney disease or dialysis (you may not ... to: Abnormal blood vessels in the brain ( arteriovenous malformations of the head ) Tumor of the nerve that ...

  5. Multiple Heads of Gastrocnemius with Bipennate Fiber Arrangement- A Clinically Significant Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vincent; Nayak, Shivananda

    2016-01-01

    It is common to have additional muscles or muscle slips in the extremities. Some of them may compress the nerves and vessels or restrict the movements, while others may enhance the muscular activity. However, a small number of them may go unnoticed. Knowledge of such variant muscles becomes important for plastic surgeons while performing various reconstructive surgeries and for clinicians while managing the pain. A case of multiple heads of gastrocnemius muscle was observed during routine dissection of the right lower limb of about 70-year-old male cadaver. It was observed that the medial head of gastrocnemius was attached to the femur with 3 thick heads and lateral head was arising from the lateral condyle of femur by 3 thick heads. All the heads of the muscles remained separate till they formed tendocalcaneus. Some of these heads showed bipinnate fiber arrangement. All the heads were innervated by the branches of tibial nerve. As the muscle heads passed down from their origin, they entrapped the sural nerve and sural nerve was seen emerging at the beginning of tendocalcaneus. Further, detailed literature and the clinical and surgical importance of the case are discussed. PMID:27656426

  6. 铸钢连杆小头铸造缺陷分析及工艺改进%Defect Analysis and Process Improvement Research at Small Head Cast of Connecting Rod in Casting Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑朝晖

    2011-01-01

    In view of casting steel of connectingm rod to small head having the shrink hole flaw when casting, the single rising head craft of the erectness cast is originally changed as the lying cast, and using the ratio method three sink heads are designed.Production result has showed that casting when ultrasonic wave inspection does not have one to send waste because of having the shrink hole.The qualified rate of casting is above 95%, and the casting technique product rate is 59%.%针对连杆小头铸钢件铸造时出现缩孔缺陷,将原立浇单个冒口工艺改为卧浇,并采用比例法设计了3个补缩胃口.生产结果,铸件在超声波检查时无一因存在缩孔而致废,铸件合格率95%以上,铸造工艺出品率为59%.

  7. Visual overview, oral detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and with the coordinating nurse, who is the main keeper of the whiteboard. On the basis of observations, we find that coordination is accomplished through a highly intertwined process of technologically mediated visual overview combined with orally communicated details. The oral details serve to clarify and elaborate...

  8. LOCKE Detailed Specification Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Menezo, Lucia G; Gregorio, Jose-Angel

    2012-01-01

    This document shows the detailed specification of LOCKE coherence protocol for each cache controller, using a table-based technique. This representation provides clear, concise visual information yet includes sufficient detail (e.g., transient states) arguably lacking in the traditional, graphical form of state diagrams.

  9. Detail and survey radioautographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Wm.W.

    1949-04-19

    The much used survey or contact type of radioautograph is indispensible for a study of the gross distribution of radioactive materials. A detail radioautograph is equally indispensible. The radioautograph makes possible the determination of plutonium with respect to cells. Outlines of survey and detail techniques are given.

  10. Design of a Small UAV' Heading and Attitude System Based on LPC3250%基于LPC3250的小型无人机航姿系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王化会; 袁冬莉; 范卫刚

    2012-01-01

    航向和姿态是无人机飞行控制系统的重要参数,传感器系统是整个无人机飞行控制系统的核心.采用LPC3250ARM9处理器、MEMS传感器以及存储器设计无人机航姿系统,完成传感器的数据采集与处理,获得无人机的航姿信息,最后进行数据传输.将Linux操作系统嵌入到无人机航姿系统中,实现系统的实时任务调度和进程管理.结果显示,该系统达到了无人机航姿系统的小型化、低功耗、高精度的目标.%Heading and attitude are the important parameter of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) flight control system. The sensor system is the core of the total flight control system. The UAV heading and attitude system, which is designed by LPC3250 processor based on ARM9,MEMS Sensor and memory, can achieve data acquisition,and processing,for get UAV'information of heading and attitude and go on data transmission. Linux operating system is embedded in the UAV heading and attitude system to achieve system' realtime task scheduling and process management. The design achieves the aim of small body, low power consumption, and high precision of the UAV heading and attitude system.

  11. Heading in Soccer: Integral Skill or Grounds for Cognitive Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how purposeful heading of soccer balls and head injuries affect soccer players' cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive deficits may occur for many reasons. Heading cannot be blamed when details of the actual event and impact are unknown. Concussions are the most common head injury in soccer and a factor in cognitive deficits and are probably…

  12. Efficacy of visor and helmet for blast protection assessed using a computational head model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Cronin, D. S.

    2017-06-01

    Head injury resulting from blast exposure has been identified as a challenge that may be addressed, in part, through improved protective systems. Existing detailed head models validated for blast loading were applied to investigate the influence of helmet visor configuration, liner properties, and shell material stiffness. Response metrics including head acceleration and intracranial pressures (ICPs) generated in brain tissue during primary blast exposure were used to assess and compare helmet configurations. The addition of a visor was found to reduce peak head acceleration and positive ICPs. However, negative ICPs associated with a potential for injury were increased when a visor and a foam liner were present. In general, the foam liner material was found to be more significant in affecting the negative ICP response than positive ICP or acceleration. Shell stiffness was found to have relatively small effects on either metric. A strap suspension system, modeled as an air gap between the head and helmet, was more effective in reducing response metrics compared to a foam liner. In cases with a foam liner, lower-density foam offered a greater reduction of negative ICPs. The models demonstrated the "underwash" effect in cases where no foam liner was present; however, the reflected pressures generated between the helmet and head did not translate to significant ICPs in adjacent tissue, when compared to peak ICPs from initial blast wave interaction. This study demonstrated that the efficacy of head protection can be expressed in terms of load transmission pathways when assessed with a detailed computational model.

  13. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  14. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  15. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  16. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter' and ...

  17. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  18. Prognosis in head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, J A; Rimel, R W

    1982-01-01

    The prognosis of head injury when viewed from the perspective of the Glasgow Coma Scale confirms the utility of this measure. In particular, decrease in mortality is associated with an increase in GCS. In addition, the motor score portion of the GCS was of predictive value when taken alone. The outcome of patients in coma (GCS less than 8) was closely related to three preventable or treatable factors, namely, hypoxia, shock, and increased intracranial pressure. These three factors, when considered in combination, powerfully predicted mortality. Of considerable interest was the finding that moderate head injury (GCS 9-12) was associated with a small but perhaps preventable mortality. The morbidity was intermediate between that of severe and minor and was surprisingly high. Minor head injury, while not associated with significant mortality, also resulted in considerable morbidity. Neuropsychological evaluation of the patients and an experimental study suggests that an organic component may be involved even in this group. To deal with head injury, distinctions must be made between grades of severity. The Glasgow Coma Scale is suited for this task. Nonetheless, the recognition of this basic continuity should elicit the further recognition that different health providers may be involved in the case of, say, severe, as opposed to mild, injury, and that different outcome measures are suitable for one group but not another.

  19. Humeral head size in shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaesel, M T; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1998-01-01

    Changes in kinematics after hemiarthroplasty of the glenohumeral joint were investigated in nine cadaveric specimens. During experiments the influence of the humeral head size on glenohumeral kinematics was evaluated. A modular prosthesis with five different head sizes and press-fit stems was used....... Three-dimensional kinematic measurements during abduction and adduction from 0 degree to 70 degrees showed increased external rotation with increasing head size. Small prosthetic heads translated inferiorly and large prosthetic heads superiorly compared with the intact humeral head. During forced...... anterior and posterior translation the mobility is restricted with increasing head size. This study found that when a press-fit prosthesis is used, it takes 1.25 times the volume of the intact humeral head to reconstruct the kinematics of the glenohumeral joint....

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special ... the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  1. Circulating Tumor DNA in Predicting Outcomes in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer or Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  2. 鲁西黑头肉羊与小尾寒羊肉质性状的比较研究%Comparison Study on Meat Quality Traits of Luxi Black Head Mutton Sheep and Small-tail Han Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金文; 崔绪奎; 张果平; 王德芹; 孟宪锋

    2012-01-01

    Four 5-month-old Luxi Black Mutton Sheep and Small-tail Han Sheep were selected respectively , to detect the conventional index as well as the indicators as chemical composition, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral composition and microelements in longissimus thoracis and biceps muscle of thigh. The results showed that the dressing rate of Luxi Black Head Mutton Sheep was 55. 09%, improving by 8. 83% than that of Small-tail Han Sheep. The net meat weight and eye muscle area increased by 32. 48%(P< 0. 01) and 27. 2%(P<0. 05) respectively than that of Small-tail Han Sheep. It was determined that the pH value, muscle shear force, muscle fiber density, crude protein and the total content of 18 amino acids of Luxi Black Head Mutton Sheep were all of insignificant difference than that of Small-tail Han Sheep. The proportion of w-6 and w-3 fatty acid of Luxi Black Head Mutton Sheep was 4. 54-5.17 : 1, and S : M : P in muscle is close to 1 : 1 ; 1 , which reached the standards recommended by WHO and FAO. The comprehensive analysis showed that the muscle of Luxi Black Head Mutton Sheep has lower stearic acid and cho-lesterin (59. 19mg), the mutton quality is good, which is an ideal population for high quality mutton.%分别选4只5月龄鲁西黑头肉羊和小尾寒羊屠宰,测定常规指标,同时取背最长肌和股二头肌测定肌肉中化学成分、氨基酸、脂肪酸、矿物质和微量元素含量.结果表明:鲁西黑头肉羊屠宰率为55.09%,比小尾寒羊提高8.83个百分点,净肉重比小尾寒羊提高32.48% (P<0.01);眼肌面积比小尾寒羊增加27.2%(P<0.05).经测定,鲁西黑头肉羊与小尾寒羊肌肉的pH值,肌肉的剪切力,肌纤维密度,粗蛋白质和18种氨基酸总量等均与小尾寒羊差异不显著.鲁西黑头肉羊ω-6与ω-3脂肪酸的比例为4.54~5.17:1,肌肉中S:M:P比接近1:1:1,达到世界卫生组织和联合国粮农组织推荐标准.综合分析表明,鲁西黑头肉羊肌肉硬脂酸含量低,

  3. Effects of geometric head model perturbations on the EEG forward and inverse problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Muravchik, Carlos H; Nehorai, Arye

    2006-03-01

    We study the effect of geometric head model perturbations on the electroencephalography (EEG) forward and inverse problems. Small magnitude perturbations of the shape of the head could represent uncertainties in the head model due to errors on images or techniques used to construct the model. They could also represent small scale details of the shape of the surfaces not described in a deterministic model, such as the sulci and fissures of the cortical layer. We perform a first-order perturbation analysis, using a meshless method for computing the sensitivity of the solution of the forward problem to the geometry of the head model. The effect on the forward problem solution is treated as noise in the EEG measurements and the Cramér-Rao bound is computed to quantify the effect on the inverse problem performance. Our results show that, for a dipolar source, the effect of the perturbations on the inverse problem performance is under the level of the uncertainties due to the spontaneous brain activity. Thus, the results suggest that an extremely detailed model of the head may be unnecessary when solving the EEG inverse problem.

  4. Comprehensive small animal imaging strategies on a clinical 3 T dedicated head MR-scanner; adapted methods and sequence protocols in CNS pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu R Pillai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small animal models of human diseases are an indispensable aspect of pre-clinical research. Being dynamic, most pathologies demand extensive longitudinal monitoring to understand disease mechanisms, drug efficacy and side effects. These considerations often demand the concomitant development of monitoring systems with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: This study attempts to configure and optimize a clinical 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner to facilitate imaging of small animal central nervous system pathologies. The hardware of the scanner was complemented by a custom-built, 4-channel phased array coil system. Extensive modification of standard sequence protocols was carried out based on tissue relaxometric calculations. Proton density differences between the gray and white matter of the rodent spinal cord along with transverse relaxation due to magnetic susceptibility differences at the cortex and striatum of both rats and mice demonstrated statistically significant differences. The employed parallel imaging reconstruction algorithms had distinct properties dependent on the sequence type and in the presence of the contrast agent. The attempt to morphologically phenotype a normal healthy rat brain in multiple planes delineated a number of anatomical regions, and all the clinically relevant sequels following acute cerebral ischemia could be adequately characterized. Changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability following ischemia-reperfusion were also apparent at a later time. Typical characteristics of intra-cerebral haemorrhage at acute and chronic stages were also visualized up to one month. Two models of rodent spinal cord injury were adequately characterized and closely mimicked the results of histological studies. In the employed rodent animal handling system a mouse model of glioblastoma was also studied with unequivocal results. CONCLUSIONS: The implemented customizations including extensive

  5. Head Position and Internally Headed Relative Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilico, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines "Head Movement" in internally headed relative clauses (IHRCs). The article shows that in some cases, head movement to an external position need not take place and demonstrates that this movement of the head to a sentence-internal position results from the quantificational nature of IHRCs and Diesing's mapping hypothesis (1990, 1992). (56…

  6. Erlotinib and Cetuximab With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Kidney, Colorectal, Head and Neck, Pancreatic, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  7. Combined therapeutic use of AdGFPFasL and small molecule inhibitors of ceramide metabolism in prostate and head and neck cancers: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J S; Bielawska, A; Day, T; El-Zawahri, A; ElOjeimy, S; Hannun, Y; Holman, D; Hyer, M; Landon, C; Lowe, S; Dong, J Y; McKillop, J; Norris, K; Obeid, L; Rubinchik, S; Tavassoli, M; Tomlinson, S; Voelkel-Johnson, C; Liu, X

    2006-12-01

    As of January 2005, there were 1020 gene therapy clinical trials ongoing worldwide with 675 or 66.2% devoted to cancer gene therapy. The majority are occurring in the US and Europe (http://www.wiley.co.uk/genetherapy/clinical/). At the present time, to our knowledge there are no trials that employ gene delivery of Fas Ligand (FasL). As an important note, and in contrast to somatic cell therapy trials, there are no reported deaths due to therapeutic vector administration in any cancer gene therapy trial. That said, from our studies and from the published literature, the issue of gene delivery remains the major obstacle to successfully employing gene therapy for cancer treatment. Numerous laboratories are studying this with many different approaches. My co-workers and I have focused on the delivery issue by using various approaches that address tumor targeting and transgene expression. In addition, we are focusing on enhancing tumor cell killing via the bystander effect and through use of small molecules to enhance bystander activity.

  8. Global detailed gravimetric geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 x 1-deg mean free-air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is plus or minus 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe and Australia.

  9. Consider the details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus; Hertzum, Morten

    2013-01-01

    levels of distance in our study. For revision time, the electronic whiteboard is slower on one subtask but there is no difference on another subtask. Participants prefer the electronic whiteboard. Given the font size of the electronic whiteboard, the inferior reading accuracy is unsurprising......Electronic whiteboards are replacing dry-erase whiteboards in many contexts. In this study we compare electronic and dry-erase whiteboards in emergency departments (EDs) with respect to reading distance and revision time. We find inferior reading accuracy for the electronic whiteboard at all three...... but the reduced possibilities for acquiring information at a glance when clinicians pass the whiteboard may adversely affect their overview. Conversely, the similar revision times for one subtask show that logon may be done quickly. We discuss how details such as font size and logon may impact the high-level...

  10. Talactoferrin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  11. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  12. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  13. 3rd year final contractor report for: U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program Project Title: Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm J. Andrews

    2006-04-14

    This project had two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. This report describes work done in the last twelve (12) months of the project, and also contains a summary of the complete work done over the three (3) life of the project. As of April 1, 2006, the air/helium facility (Task 1) is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Initial condition studies (Task 2) is also comp lete. Detailed experiments with air/helium with Atwood numbers up to 0.1 have been completed, and Atwood numbers of 0.25. Within the last three (3) months we have been able to successfully run the facility at Atwood numbers of 0.5. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget. We have finished the initial condition studies using the water channel, and this work has been accepted for publication on the Journal of Fluid Mechanics (the top fluid mechanics journal). Mr. Nick Mueschke and Mr. Wayne Kraft are continuing with their studies to obtain PhDs in the same field, and will also continue their collaboration visits to LANL and LLNL. Over its three (3) year life the project has supported two(2) Ph.D.’s and three (3) MSc’s, and produced nine (9) international journal publications, twenty four (24) conference publications, and numerous other reports. The highlight of the project has been our close collaboration with LLNL (Dr. Oleg Schilling) and LANL (Drs. Dimonte, Ristorcelli, Gore, and Harlow).

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  16. Head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gean, Alisa D; Fischbein, Nancy J

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 10 million people are affected annually by traumatic brain injury (TBI). More than 5 million Americans currently live with long-term disability as a result of TBI and more than 1.5 million individuals sustain a new TBI each year. It has been predicted that TBI will become the third leading cause of death and disability in the world by the year 2020. This article outlines the classification of TBI, details the types of lesions encountered, and discusses the various imaging modalities available for the evaluation of TBI.

  17. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  18. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  19. How Big of an Effect Do Small Dams Have? Using Geomorphological Footprints to Quantify Spatial Impact of Low-Head Dams and Identify Patterns of Across-Dam Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Jane S; Mather, Martha E; Costigan, Katie H; Daniels, Melinda D

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal connectivity is a fundamental characteristic of rivers that can be disrupted by natural and anthropogenic processes. Dams are significant disruptions to streams. Over 2,000,000 low-head dams (dams on geomorphology and ecology are largely untested. Progress for research and conservation is impaired by not knowing the magnitude of low-head dam impacts. Based on the geomorphic literature, we refined a methodology that allowed us to quantify the spatial extent of low-head dam impacts (herein dam footprint), assessed variation in dam footprints across low-head dams within a river network, and identified select aspects of the context of this variation. Wetted width, depth, and substrate size distributions upstream and downstream of six low-head dams within the Upper Neosho River, Kansas, United States of America were measured. Total dam footprints averaged 7.9 km (3.0-15.3 km) or 287 wetted widths (136-437 wetted widths). Estimates included both upstream (mean: 6.7 km or 243 wetted widths) and downstream footprints (mean: 1.2 km or 44 wetted widths). Altogether the six low-head dams impacted 47.3 km (about 17%) of the mainstem in the river network. Despite differences in age, size, location, and primary function, the sizes of geomorphic footprints of individual low-head dams in the Upper Neosho river network were relatively similar. The number of upstream dams and distance to upstream dams, but not dam height, affected the spatial extent of dam footprints. In summary, ubiquitous low-head dams individually and cumulatively altered lotic ecosystems. Both characteristics of individual dams and the context of neighboring dams affected low-head dam impacts within the river network. For these reasons, low-head dams require a different, more integrative, approach for research and management than the individualistic approach that has been applied to larger dams.

  20. Blowfly flight and optic flow II. Head movements during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, JH; Schilstra, C

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax, The yaw turns of the

  1. Blowfly flight and optic flow II. Head movements during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, JH; Schilstra, C

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax, The yaw turns of the tho

  2. Blowfly Flight and Optic Flow. II. Head Movements during Flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Schilstra, C.

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax. The yaw turns of the tho

  3. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  4. Detailed feasibility study of a small-hydro power plant in Zerni on the municipal drinking water supply; Etude detaillee de faisabilite pour l'installation d'une petite centrale sur l'adduction d'eau potable de Zerni - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reul, B. [MHyLab, Montcherand (Switzerland); Perruchoud, A. [SierreEnergie SA, Sierre (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the municipal drinking water supply of the city of Sierre, Switzerland. The installation is to be made at the site of a new reservoir in Zerni. The report presents details on the hydrological data and the dimensioning of the installation. The hydrological installations and the turbine foreseen are described and discussed, as are the applicable water regulations. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more ... the body being studied. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist begins by positioning ...

  6. Computed tomography:the details.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses ... of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical ...

  8. Phonetic Detail in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray Freeze

    1987-01-01

    @@ In the course of teaching general phonetics and phonological analysis in the psat few years,l have found some phonetic detail which some native speakers as well as non-native speakers were unaware of. This subtle detail will be the focus of this presentation. Som e of this detail many of you will already be aware of because of your experience in learning, teaching, and thinking about English. If anything is new to you, I hope you might enjoy hearing about it even if it turns out not to be useful in your work.

  9. Head protection for horse riders: a cause for concern.

    OpenAIRE

    Muwanga, L C; Dove, A F

    1985-01-01

    We report the frequency with which horse riders with a significant head injury present to a large accident and emergency department. We have also recorded details about the use of headwear and conclude that horse-riding is associated with a serious risk of head injury and 'protective' headwear may not always protect.

  10. Head protection for horse riders: a cause for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwanga, L C; Dove, A F

    1985-06-01

    We report the frequency with which horse riders with a significant head injury present to a large accident and emergency department. We have also recorded details about the use of headwear and conclude that horse-riding is associated with a serious risk of head injury and 'protective' headwear may not always protect.

  11. What are Head Cavities? - A History of Studies on Vertebrate Head Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly.

  12. Review of Ship Structural Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    8 4.3 Knee and Beam Brackets 4-11 4.3.1 Brackets for Girders and Deep Webs 4-11 4.3.2 Brackets Connecting Rolled Sections 4-15 4.4 Tripping...are shell stringers penetrating deep web frames and longitudinal girders penetrating deep transverses. This is not a common detail. If double...34. 3-76 ^"SECTION ’’.’(-K PLAJ iNG * S v *^ 4Fb^:TH»r.KNF.^ SAME AS FLAMGE ► BULKHFADQR DEEP WEB SS- 9 Detail Type: STANCHION END

  13. Detail in architecture: Between arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulencin Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students’ bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its

  14. Transformative Dynamics in Detailed Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Poulsen, Naja; Gustavsson, Ted

    that the translation process relies heavily on integration of impositions in the detailed plan, although this has clear limitations, since some sustainable strategies are more difficult to impose than others. It also shows how strategic navigation may represent an alternative translation strategy to promote more...... difficult sustainable strategies that address the project design more directly. In conclusion, the paper argues that strategic navigation represents a stronger mediator of change compared to the detailed plan, but that especially timing issues in the coordination between formal planning and design processes...

  15. A detailed phylogeny for the Methanomicrobiales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouviere, P.; Mandelco, L.; Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA sequence of twenty archaea, members of the Methanomicrobiales, permits a detailed phylogenetic tree to be inferred for the group. The tree confirms earlier studies, based on far fewer sequences, in showing the group to be divided into two major clusters, temporarily designated the "methanosarcina" group and the "methanogenium" group. The tree also defines phylogenetic relationships within these two groups, which in some cases do not agree with the phylogenetic relationships implied by current taxonomic names--a problem most acute for the genus Methanogenium and its relatives. The present phylogenetic characterization provides the basis for a consistent taxonomic restructuring of this major methanogenic taxon.

  16. A detailed phylogeny for the Methanomicrobiales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouviere, P.; Mandelco, L.; Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA sequence of twenty archaea, members of the Methanomicrobiales, permits a detailed phylogenetic tree to be inferred for the group. The tree confirms earlier studies, based on far fewer sequences, in showing the group to be divided into two major clusters, temporarily designated the "methanosarcina" group and the "methanogenium" group. The tree also defines phylogenetic relationships within these two groups, which in some cases do not agree with the phylogenetic relationships implied by current taxonomic names--a problem most acute for the genus Methanogenium and its relatives. The present phylogenetic characterization provides the basis for a consistent taxonomic restructuring of this major methanogenic taxon.

  17. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  18. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  19. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H

    2016-01-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  20. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  1. Eddy current analysis of thin film recording heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, D.; Cendes, Z. J.

    1984-03-01

    Due to inherently thin pole tips which enhance the sharpness of read/write pulses, thin-film magnetic recording heads provide a unique potential for increasing disk file capacity. However, the very feature of these heads which makes them attractive in the recording process, namely, their small size, also makes thin-film heads difficult to study experimentally. For this reason, a finite element simulation of the thin-film head has been developed to provide the magnetic field distribution and the resistance/inductance characteristics of these heads under a variety of conditions. A study based on a one-step multipath eddy current procedure is reported. This procedure may be used in thin film heads to compute the variation of magnetic field with respect to frequency. Computations with the IBM 3370 head show that a large phase shift occurs due to eddy currents in the frequency range 1-10 MHz.

  2. Examination of the patient with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Rachel; Liu, Jeffrey C

    2015-07-01

    Head and neck cancer typically refers to epithelial malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract and may include neoplasms of the thyroid, salivary glands, and soft tissue, bone sarcomas, and skin cancers. Two-thirds of patients present with advanced disease involving regional lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis. A thorough history and detailed examination are integral to oncologic staging and treatment planning. This article begins with an overview of the head and neck examination (with special attention to detailed findings with clinical implications), followed by a discussion of the major head and neck subsites, and clinical pearls surrounding the examination.

  3. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  4. Regressive language in severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, I V; Skinhoj, E

    1976-09-01

    In a follow-up study of 50 patients with severe head injuries three patients had echolalia. One patient with initially global aphasia had echolalia for some weeks when he started talking. Another patient with severe diffuse brain damage, dementia, and emotional regression had echolalia. The dysfunction was considered a detour performance. In the third patient echolalia and palilalia were details in a total pattern of regression lasting for months. The patient, who had extensive frontal atrophy secondary to a very severe head trauma, presented an extreme state of regression returning to a foetal-body pattern and behaving like a baby.

  5. 75 FR 67233 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Head Restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Positions b. Leadtime for Small Vehicle Manufacturers c. Static Lockout of Active Head Restraints During.... Petitions for Rulemaking a. Discomfort Metric for Non-Use Position and Relaxation Requirement for Gap b... of Active Head Restraints During Backset Retention Testing 1. NHTSA Agrees To Specify the Fixation...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  8. Maneuvering impact boring head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  9. Practical design of magnetic heading sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Although fluxgate magnetometers have been in use for many years, and a number of theoretical studies of these sensors are available, very little information has been published on the engineering choices relating to the detailed design of magnetometers intended for navigational applications in aircraft and other vehicles. This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in the design of the sensing head, the choice of operating mode, and the design of the supporting electronics for a simple low-cost magnetometer system which will produce a digital readout of the magnetic heading of the vehicle in which it is mounted. A major goal of this study has been to develop a design which minimizes circuit complexity, is easy to fabricate and calibrate, and utilizes a minimum of specialized components. Such a magnetometer system is intended either as a stand-alone indicating instrument or as a source of magnetic heading information for a more sophisticated navigational system.

  10. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  12. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work together. Head and neck surgeons also perform craniofacial reconstruction operations. The surgery is done while you are deep asleep and pain-free (under general anesthesia ). The surgery may take ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a stroke, especially with a new technique called Perfusion CT. brain tumors. enlarged brain cavities (ventricles) in ... X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  15. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... hold your breath for short periods. A complete scan usually take only 30 seconds to a few ...

  16. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  18. Head and neck teratomas

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ajaz; Latoo, Suhail; Ahmed, Irshad; Malik, Altaf H

    2009-01-01

    Teratomas are complex lesions composed of diverse tissues from all 3 germinal cell layers and may exhibit variable levels of maturity. Head and neck teratomas are most commonly cervical with the oropharynx (epignathus) being the second commonest location. In this article, clinical presentation, behaviour and associated significance of head and neck teratomas have been highlightened. Because of their obscure origin, bizarre microscopic appearance, unpredictable behaviour and often dramatic cli...

  19. Morphological details in bloodstain particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2015-01-01

    During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from dried bloodstains. The nature of these red particles is easily confirmed using spectroscopic methods. In casework, bloodstain particles showing highly detailed morphological features were observed. These provided a rationale for a series of experiments described in this work. It was found that the "largest" particles are shed from blood deposited on polyester and polyamide woven fabrics. No particles are lost from the stains made on absorbent fabrics and from those made on knitted fabrics. The morphological features observed in bloodstain particles can provide important information on the substrates from which they were lost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  1. A generalized detailed balance relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    2015-01-01

    Given a system $M$ in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio $r=\\pi_\\tau(K\\to J)/\\pi_\\tau(J\\to K)$ of the transition probabilities $M:J\\to K$ and $M:K\\to J$ in time $\\tau$. We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with $M$ and the transition $J\\to K$ occurs through different channels $\\alpha$ involving different reactions with the bath. We find that $r=\\sum p^\\alpha r^\\alpha$, where $p^\\alpha$ is the probability that channel $\\alpha$ occurs, and $r^\\alpha$ depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel $\\alpha$.

  2. Brain size, head size and behaviour of a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2010-03-01

    A recent increase in comparative studies of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of brain size in birds and primates in particular have suggested that cognitive abilities constitute a central link. Surprisingly, there are hardly any intraspecific studies investigating how individuals differing in brain size behave, how such individuals are distributed and how brain size is related to life history and fitness components. Brain mass of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica was strongly predicted by external head volume, explaining 99.5% of the variance, allowing for repeatable estimates of head volume as a reflection of brain size. Repeatability of head volume within and between years was high, suggesting that measurement errors were small. In a 2 years study of 501 individual adult barn swallows, I showed that head volume differed between sexes and age classes, with yearlings having smaller and more variable heads than older individuals, and females having smaller and more variable heads than males. Large head volume was not a consequence of large body size, which was a poor predictor of head volume. Birds with large heads arrived early from spring migration, independent of sex and age, indicating that migratory performance may have an important cognitive component. Head volume significantly predicted capture date and recapture probability, suggesting that head volume is related to learning ability, although morphological traits such as wing length, aspect ratio and wing area were unimportant predictors. Intensity of defence of offspring increased with head volume in females, but not in males. Barn swallows with large heads aggregated in large colonies, suggesting that individuals with large heads were more common in socially complex environments. These results suggest that brain size is currently under natural and sexual selection, and that micro-evolutionary processes affecting brain size can be studied under field conditions.

  3. The validation and application of a finite element human head model for frontal skull fracture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharpour, Z; Baumgartner, D; Willinger, R; Graw, M; Peldschus, S

    2014-05-01

    Traumatic head injuries can result from vehicular accidents, sports, falls or assaults. The current advances in computational methods and the detailed finite element models of the human head provide a significant opportunity for biomechanical study of human head injuries. The biomechanical characteristics of the human head through head impact scenarios can be studied in detail by using the finite element models. Skull fracture is one of the most frequent occurring types of head injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyse the experimental head impacts on cadavers by means of the Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model (SUFEHM). The results of the numerical model and experimental data are compared for validation purpose. The finite element model has also been applied to predict the skull bone fracture in frontal impacts. The head model includes the scalp, the facial bone, the skull, the cerebral spinal fluid, the meninges, the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The model is used to simulate the experimental frontal head impact tests using a cylindrical padded impactor. Results of the computational simulation shows that the model correlated well with a number of experimental data and a global fracture pattern has been predicted well by the model. Therefore the presented numerical model could be used for reconstruction of head impacts in different impact conditions also the forensic application of the head model would provide a tool for investigation of the causes and mechanism of head injuries.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  5. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  7. Economics of head injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Manmohan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Head injuries account for significant proportion of neurosurgical admissions and bed occupancy. Patients with head injuries also consume significant proportions of neurosurgical resources. A prospective 6-month study has been carried out to evaluate the expenditure incurred on head injury patients in a modern neurosurgical center equipped with state of the art infrastructure. Costing areas included wages / salaries of health care personnel, cost of medicines / surgical items / crystalloids, general store items, stationary, all investigation charges, equipment cost, overhead building cost, maintenance cost, electricity and water charges and cost of medical gases, air conditioning and operation theatre expenses. Expenditure in each area was calculated and apportioned to each bed. The statistical analysis was done using X2 test. The cost of stay in ward was found to be Rs. 1062 / bed / day and in neurosurgical ICU Rs. 3082 / bed / day. The operation theatre cost for each surgery was Rs. 11948. The cost of hospital stay per day for minor, moderate and severe head injury group was found to be Rs. 1921, Rs. 2569 and Rs. 2713 respectively. The patients who developed complications, the cost of stay per day in the hospital were Rs. 2867. In the operative group, the cost of hospital stay per day was Rs. 3804. The total expenditure in minor head injury was Rs. 7800 per patient, in moderate head injury was Rs. 22172 per patient, whereas in severe head injury, it was found to be Rs. 32852 per patient. Patients who underwent surgery, the total cost incurred was Rs. 33100 per operated patient.

  8. Kinetic Theory of Meteor Plasma in the Earth's atmosphere: Implications for Radar Head Echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimant, Y. S.; Oppenheim, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Every second millions of tiny meteoroids hit the Earth from space, vast majority too small to be observed visually. However, radars detect the plasma they generate and use the collected data to characterize the incoming meteoroids and the atmosphere in which they disintegrate. This diagnostics requires a detailed quantitative understanding of formation of the meteor plasma and how it interacts with the Earth's atmosphere. Fast-descending meteoroids become detectable to radars after they heat due to collisions with atmospheric molecules sufficiently and start ablating. The ablated material then collides into atmospheric molecules and forms plasma around the meteoroid. Reflection of radar pulses from this plasma produces a localized signal called a head echo often accompanied by a much longer non-specular trail (see the Figure). Using first principles, we have developed a consistent collisional kinetic theory of the near-meteoroid plasma responsible for the radar head echo. This theory produces analytic expressions describing the ion and neutral velocity distributions along with the detailed 3-D spatial structure of the near-meteoroid plasma. These expressions predict a number of unexpected features such as shell-like velocity distributions. This theory shows that the meteoroid plasma develops over a length-scale close to the ion mean free path with a strongly non-Maxwellian velocity distribution. The spatial distribution of the plasma density shows significant deviations from a Gaussian law usually employed in head-echo modeling. This analytical model will serve as a basis for a more accurate quantitative interpretation of radar measurements, estimates of the ionization efficiency, and should help calculate meteoroid and atmosphere parameters from radar head-echo observations. This theory could also help clarify the physical nature of electromagnetic pulses observed during recent meteor showers and associated with the passage of fast-moving meteors through the

  9. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Semelin, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 Mpc/h box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Lyman-alpha self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the pre...

  10. Detailed black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agullo, Ivan; Barbero G., J. Fernando; Borja, Enrique F.; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.

    2010-10-01

    We give a complete and detailed description of the computation of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity by employing the most recently introduced number-theoretic and combinatorial methods. The use of these techniques allows us to perform a detailed analysis of the precise structure of the entropy spectrum for small black holes, showing some relevant features that were not discernible in previous computations. The ability to manipulate and understand the spectrum up to the level of detail that we describe in the paper is a crucial step toward obtaining the behavior of entropy in the asymptotic (large horizon area) regime.

  11. Detailed black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Agullo, Ivan; Borja, Enrique F; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S; 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.084029

    2011-01-01

    We give a complete and detailed description of the computation of black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity by employing the most recently introduced number-theoretic and combinatorial methods. The use of these techniques allows us to perform a detailed analysis of the precise structure of the entropy spectrum for small black holes, showing some relevant features that were not discernible in previous computations. The ability to manipulate and understand the spectrum up to the level of detail that we describe in the paper is a crucial step towards obtaining the behavior of entropy in the asymptotic (large horizon area) regime.

  12. [Bionic model for coordinated head-eye motion control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaobo; Chen, Tiejun

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between eye movements and head movements of the primate during gaze shifts are analyzed in detail in the present paper. Applying the mechanisms of neurophysiology to engineering domain, we have improved the robot eye-head coordination. A bionic control strategy of coordinated head-eye motion was proposed. The processes of gaze shifts are composed of an initial fast phase followed by a slow phase. In the fast phase saccade eye movements and slow head movements were combined, which cooperate to bring gaze from an initial resting position toward the new target rapidly, while in the slow phase the gaze stability and target fixation were ensured by the action of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) where the eyes and head rotate by equal amplitudes in opposite directions. A bionic gaze control model was given. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the model by comparing with the results of neurophysiology experiments.

  13. Pediatric head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  14. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  15. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  16. Rocket injector head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A high number of liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen orifices per unit area are provided in an injector head designed to give intimate mixing and more thorough combustion. The injector head comprises a main body portion, a cooperating plate member as a flow chamber for one propellant, a cooperating manifold portion for the second propellant, and an annular end plate for enclosing an annular propellant groove formed around the outer edge of the body. All the openings for one propellant are located at the same angle with respect to a radial plane to permit a short combustion chamber.

  17. Epidemiology and management of paediatric head injury in eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children, majority of the head injuries are minor and management of critically ill children depend on a team approach using well-rehearsed, systematic management protocols that can be implemented within hours after injury. This study was carried out to ascertain the epidemiology and management of know the demographic profile and etiology of paediatric head injury in our setting, to know the clinical and radiological characteristics of head injury patients and to know the treatment options and outcome in paediatric head injuries. Patients and Methods: Details of all children (age < 16 years with head injury seen in 1 year from 01.04.2005 to 31.03.2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical details, investigations, treatment offered, and outcome were noted in a proforma. All data were analyzed by appropriate SPSS 11.0 statistical software tools. Results: There were total 43 patients. Young male children were more commonly affected in present series with a mean age of 7.67 years (median - 5.010 years, range 6 months-16 year. Fall (65.11% was the most common mode of injury followed by road traffic accidents (RTAs (25.6%. Mild head injuries (65.11% were most common. Most common complaint was loss of consciousness and all the patients with severe head injury presented loss of consciousness. All patients with mild head showed good recovery; with moderate head injury, nine patients showed good recovery and three patients recovered with moderate disability. Patients with severe head injury (three patients had 100% mortality. Conclusions: In urban areas of Nepal, RTAs like vehicular crashes, motor cycle accidents, and pedestrian hit by moving vehicle are more common and in rural areas fall from height are commoner. We need to develop child safety legislations and risk-specific intervention programs in Nepal.

  18. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  19. Heading in soccer: dangerous play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Soccer is the world's most popular sport and unique in that players use their unprotected heads to intentionally deflect, stop, or redirect the ball for both offensive and defensive strategies. Headed balls travel at high velocity pre- and postimpact. Players, coaches, parents, and physicians are justifiably concerned with soccer heading injury risk. Furthermore, risk of long-term neurocognitive and motor deficits caused by repetitively heading a soccer ball remains unknown. We review the theoretical concerns, the results of biomechanical laboratory experiments, and the available clinical data regarding the effects of chronic, subconcussive head injury during heading in soccer.

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ... RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  1. Head space analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, G.J. van; Koorevaar, G.

    Additional analytical information is given about the method of head space analysis. From the data presented it can be concluded that this technique may be advantageous for enzyme kinetic studies in turbid solutions, provided a volatile organic substance is involved in the chemical reaction. Also

  2. Sculpting Ceramic Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    Clay sculpture is difficult to produce because of the requirements of kiln firing. The problems can be overcome by modeling the original manikin head and making a plaster mold, pressing molding slabs of clay into the plaster mold to form the hollow clay armature, and sculpting on the armature. (IS)

  3. Lubricating the swordfish head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, John J.; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T.; Szabo, Ben G.

    2016-01-01

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using magnet

  4. Head injuries, heading, and the use of headgear in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedfeldt, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Soccer has more than 265 million players around the world and is the only contact sport with purposeful use of the head for controlling and advancing the ball. Head contact in soccer has the potential to cause acute traumatic brain injury including concussion or, potentially, a pattern of chronic brain injury. Although early retrospective research on the effects of soccer heading seemed to suggest that purposeful heading may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment, prospective controlled studies do not support this and, in fact, suggest that purposeful heading may not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Headgear has not been shown to be effective in reducing ball impact but may be helpful in reducing the force of non-ball-related impacts to the head. There are concerns that universal use of headgear may cause more aggressive heading and head challenges, leading to increased risk of injury.

  5. The adult head morphology of the hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberg, Katharina; Polilov, Alexey; Harris, Marion O; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-11-01

    The adult head of the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor was examined and described in detail. Morphological features are evaluated with respect to phylogenetic implications and possible effects of miniaturisation. Preserved groundplan features of Diptera are the orthognathous orientation of the head, the vestiture of small microtrichia (possible autapomorphy), filiform antennae inserted frontally between the compound eyes, the presence of a clypeolabral muscle (possible autapomorphy), the presence of labellae (autapomorphy), and the presence of only one premental retractor. Potential synapomorphies of the groups assigned to Bibionomorpha are the origin of M. tentorioscapalis medialis on the frons and the loss of M. craniolacinialis. Further apomorphies of Cecidomyiidae identified in Mayetiola are the unusually massive anterior tentorial arm, the absence of the labro-epipharyngeal food channel, the absence of the lacinia, and the presence of antennal sensilla connected by a seta, a feature not known from any other group of Diptera. The very large size of the compound eyes (in relation to the entire head surface) and the complete loss of ocelli are possible effects of miniaturization. The large size of the brain (in relation to the cephalic lumen), the unusual shape of the optic lobes, and the absence of the frontal ganglion as a separate structure are probably also linked with size reduction.

  6. A mouse model of weight-drop closed head injury: emphasis on cognitive and neurological deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability in individuals worldwide. Producing a clinically relevant TBI model in small-sized animals remains fairly challenging. For good screening of potential therapeutics, which are effective in the treatment of TBI, animal models of TBI should be established and standardized. In this study, we established mouse models of closed head injury using the Shohami weight-drop method with some modifications concerning cognitive deficiency assessment and provided a detailed description of the severe TBI animal model. We found that 250 g falling weight from 2 cm height produced severe closed head injury in C57BL/6 male mice. Cognitive disorders in mice with severe closed head injury could be detected using passive avoidance test on day 7 after injury. Findings from this study indicate that weight-drop injury animal models are suitable for further screening of brain neuroprotectants and potentially are similar to those seen in human TBI.

  7. Pharmaceutical crystallography: is there a devil in the details?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Modern instruments for small-molecule crystallography continue to become more sophisticated and more automated. This technical progress provides a basis for frontier research in chemical and pharmaceutical crystallography, but it also encourages analytical crystallographers to become more...... are presented for pharmaceutical compounds, and the potential importance of the "details" in pharmaceutical crystallography is discussed....

  8. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  9. Simulating transcranial direct current stimulation with a detailed anisotropic human head model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rampersad, S.M.; Janssen, A.M.; Lucka, F.; Aydin, U.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Wolters, C.H.; Stegeman, D.F.; Oostendorp, T.F.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique able to induce long-lasting changes in cortical excitability that can benefit cognitive functioning and clinical treatment. In order to both better understand the mechanisms behind tDCS and possibly improve t

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

  11. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  12. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to remain perfectly still and follow breath-holding instructions while the images are being recorded. If you ... Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Videos related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... ray, CT and ultrasound. top of page How is the procedure performed? MRI examinations may be performed ...

  15. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oncologist will listen to the history of your problem and perform a physical examination. Consultations with other members of the head and neck team, such as the head and neck surgeon, pathologist, ...

  16. Sports-related Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty expressing words or thoughts; dysarthric speech Head Injury Prevention Tips Buy and use helmets or protective head gear approved by the ASTM for specific sports 100 percent of the time. The ASTM has ...

  17. Preventing head injuries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... Helmets help to prevent head injuries. Your child should wear a ... sports or activities: Playing contact sports, such as lacrosse, ...

  18. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Alejandro Fernández; Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Gonzalez, Juan Martino; Martín, Juan José Acebes

    2010-09-01

    There are no specific studies about cranial nerve (CN) injury following mild head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) in the literature. The aim of this analysis was to document the incidence of CN injury after mild head trauma and to correlate the initial CT findings with the final outcome 1 year after injury. The authors studied 49 consecutive patients affected by minor head trauma and CN lesions between January 2000 and January 2006. Detailed clinical and neurological examinations as well as CT studies using brain and bone windows were performed in all patients. Based on the CT findings the authors distinguished 3 types of traumatic injury: no lesion, skull base fracture, and other CT abnormalities. Patients were followed up for 1 year after head injury. The authors distinguished 3 grades of clinical recovery from CN palsy: no recovery, partial recovery, and complete recovery. Posttraumatic single nerve palsy was observed in 38 patients (77.6%), and multiple nerve injuries were observed in 11 (22.4%). Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII. One year after head trauma, a CN deficit was present in 26 (81.2%) of the 32 cases with a skull base fracture, 12 (60%) of 20 cases with other CT abnormalities, and 3 (30%) of 10 cases without CT abnormalities. Trivial head trauma that causes a minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) can result in CN palsies with a similar distribution to moderate or severe head injuries. The CNs associated with the highest incidence of palsy in this study were the olfactory, facial, and oculomotor nerves. The trigeminal and lower CNs were rarely damaged. Oculomotor nerve injury can have a good prognosis, with a greater chance of recovery if no lesion is demonstrated on the initial CT scan.

  19. Tracking of Head Position Relative to the Screen Using Head Mounted Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper head position locating systems were analyzed. There were reviewed scientific articles with different proposed methods. The chosen system is with the camera located on the user head. The main parameters of the head positioning systems were analyzed. The procedure laid down in what order parameters are found. The diagram of the system and detail block diagram of the algorithm were provided. Realization of the algorithm used: edge detection method (Sobel, the adjustment algorithm (Subpixel. System is realized in Matlab and C# environment. Determine the optimal parameters for the algorithm execution. Execution of the algorithm in Matlab environment is 1.2 s and C # environment – 126 ms. During the examination of the longest executing algorithm segment, it was found that image filtering is carried out in 107 ms. It is noted that the uncertainty of the algorithm can be divided into static and measurement. The maximum static uncertainty while measuring head position parameters is 1.63 mm and orientation parameters – 0.16°. The maximum measurement uncertainty while measuring head position parameters is 4 mm and orientation parameters – 0.11°.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Bird-Headed Dwarf of Seckel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Vardhan B

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is an extremely rare inherited disorder characterized by growth delays prior to birth resulting in low birth weight. Growth delays continue after birth resulting in short stature (dwarfism. This syndrome is associated with an abnormally small head, varying degrees of mental retardation and unusual "beak like" protrusion of nose. Other facial features may include abnormally large eyes, a narrow face, malformed ears and an unusually small jaw. This syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. A case of the Seckel syndrome is presented.

  1. Heading in soccer: is it safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putukian, Margot

    2004-02-01

    Soccer is the world's game, played by 120 million people around the world and 16 million in the United States. It is unique in that it forbids the use of the upper extremity, other than by the goalkeeper or when throwing the ball into play from the sideline. It is also unique in that it is the only sport in which the head is purposefully used to strike the ball. As sports medicine has evolved, so has our curiosity about how certain sport-specific skills or protective equipment might change the injury profile of a sport. For soccer, there has been some concern that heading may be associated with the development of cumulative traumatic brain encephalopathy, or the "punch drunk" syndrome described in boxers. This article discusses this question in detail, with a critical look at the literature and an emphasis on the prospective data.

  2. "Head versus heart"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.

  3. "Head versus heart"

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  4. An unusual case of penetrating head injury in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Tanweer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating head injuries can be the result of numerous intentional or unintentional events, including missile wounds, stab wounds, and motor vehicle or occupational accidents (nails, screw-drivers. Penetrating head injuries in children constitute only a small part of the total number of traumatic head injuries seen in casualty. We report a case of neuro-trauma who was operated in our institution. Patient, 4 years male presented in casualty on 15/01/09 with a iron rod penetrating into the skull.

  5. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2003-01-01

    A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...

  6. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  7. Syntactic-Head-Driven Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, E

    1994-01-01

    The previously proposed semantic-head-driven generation methods run into problems if none of the daughter constituents in the syntacto-semantic rule schemata of a grammar fits the definition of a semantic head given in Shieber et al. 1990. This is the case for the semantic analysis rules of certain constraint-based semantic representations, e.g. Underspecified Discourse Representation Structures (UDRSs) (Frank/Reyle 1992). Since head-driven generation in general has its merits, we simply return to a syntactic definition of `head' and demonstrate the feasibility of syntactic-head-driven generation. In addition to its generality, a syntactic-head-driven algorithm provides a basis for a logically well-defined treatment of the movement of (syntactic) heads, for which only ad-hoc solutions existed, so far.

  8. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the center. You will lie on a narrow examination table that slides into and out of ... software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology ...

  11. Bumblebee Homing: The Fine Structure of Head Turning Movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Boeddeker

    Full Text Available Changes in flight direction in flying insects are largely due to roll, yaw and pitch rotations of their body. Head orientation is stabilized for most of the time by counter rotation. Here, we use high-speed video to analyse head- and body-movements of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris while approaching and departing from a food source located between three landmarks in an indoor flight-arena. The flight paths consist of almost straight flight segments that are interspersed with rapid turns. These short and fast yaw turns ("saccades" are usually accompanied by even faster head yaw turns that change gaze direction. Since a large part of image rotation is thereby reduced to brief instants of time, this behavioural pattern facilitates depth perception from visual motion parallax during the intersaccadic intervals. The detailed analysis of the fine structure of the bees' head turning movements shows that the time course of single head saccades is very stereotypical. We find a consistent relationship between the duration, peak velocity and amplitude of saccadic head movements, which in its main characteristics resembles the so-called "saccadic main sequence" in humans. The fact that bumblebee head saccades are highly stereotyped as in humans, may hint at a common principle, where fast and precise motor control is used to reliably reduce the time during which the retinal images moves.

  12. Using Groups to Change the Department Head Role: An Organization Development Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Sheila; London, Chad; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description and analysis of how one Canadian institution used groups of department heads as change agents to address their most acute department head role tensions. It is demonstrated that this institution's change initiative aligned very closely to the recommendations proposed, in both the literature pertaining to…

  13. Newspaper Headings as a Means of Presenting Priority and Secondary Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdali, Bekzhigit K.; Ashirbekova, Gulmira Sh.; Isaeva, Zhazira; Adieva, Pakizat M.

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the possibility of using headings in periodicals as a functional mechanism for influencing the readers, which has corresponding goals and tasks. The study offers a detailed characterization of headings not as a unit of publishing and printing design, but as a conceptual and informational element in journalistic texts.…

  14. Using Groups to Change the Department Head Role: An Organization Development Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Sheila; London, Chad; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description and analysis of how one Canadian institution used groups of department heads as change agents to address their most acute department head role tensions. It is demonstrated that this institution's change initiative aligned very closely to the recommendations proposed, in both the literature pertaining to…

  15. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  16. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  17. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  18. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  19. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  20. Nabokov's Details: Making Sense of Irrational Standards

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov's passion for detail is well-known, central to our very idea of the "Nabokovian." Yet Nabokov's most important claims for detail pose a challenge for the reader who would take them seriously. Startlingly extreme and deliberately counterintuitive -- Nabokov called them his "irrational standards" -- these claims push the very limits of reason and belief. Nabokov's critics have tended to treat his more extravagant claims for detail -- including his assertion that the "capacity t...

  1. Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the need for Detailed Clinical Models for contemporary Electronic Health Systems, data exchange and data reuse. It starts with an explanation of the components related to Detailed Clinical Models with a brief summary of knowledge representation, including terminologies representing clinic relevant "things" in the real world, and information models that abstract these in order to let computers process data about these things. Next, Detailed Clinical Models are defined and their purpose is described. It builds on existing developments around the world and accumulates in current work to create a technical specification at the level of the International Standards Organization. The core components of properly expressed Detailed Clinical Models are illustrated, including clinical knowledge and context, data element specification, code bindings to terminologies and meta-information about authors, versioning among others. Detailed Clinical Models to date are heavily based on user requirements and specify the conceptual and logical levels of modelling. It is not precise enough for specific implementations, which requires an additional step. However, this allows Detailed Clinical Models to serve as specifications for many different kinds of implementations. Examples of Detailed Clinical Models are presented both in text and in Unified Modelling Language. Detailed Clinical Models can be positioned in health information architectures, where they serve at the most detailed granular level. The chapter ends with examples of projects that create and deploy Detailed Clinical Models. All have in common that they can often reuse materials from earlier projects, and that strict governance of these models is essential to use them safely in health care information and communication technology. Clinical validation is one point of such governance, and model testing another. The Plan Do Check Act cycle can be applied for governance of Detailed Clinical Models

  2. Displaying of Details in Subvoxel Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 陈天洲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Under the volume segmentation in voxel space,a lot of details,some fine and thin objects,are ignored.In order to accurately display these details,this paper has developed a methodology for volume segmentation in subvoxel space.In the subvoxel space,most of the “bridges”between adjacent layers are broken down.Based on the subvoxel space,an automatic segmentation algorithm reserving details is discussed.After segmentation,volume data in subvoxel space are reduced to original voxel space.Thus,the details with width of only one or several voxels are extracted and displayed.

  3. Where Will Russia's Domestic and Foreign Policies Go under the "Medvedev-Putin Tandem"?(detailed abstracts)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lijiu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. The Medvedev-Putin Tandem Is Necessary for Russia's Rejuvenation Why is it called the"Medvedev-Putin Tandem"?Russia's constitution stipulates that president is the head of state who shall be responsible for defining and supervising the implementation of the political,economic,diplomatic,and security guidelines and policies,while prime minister is the head of government who shall be responsible for working out and carrying out these guidelines and policies in detail.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles ... Videos related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored ...

  5. Small-x physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  7. Stiilne detail vanalinnas / Jüri Kuuskemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuskemaa, Jüri, 1942-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus Rotermanni soolalaos "Stiilne detail vanalinnas" esitab detaile, mis on ilmestanud Tallinna siluetti (tuulelipud), tänavapilti (lukusiltidest ja uksekoputitest pühakuorvakujudeni) ja tubasid (akna käepidemest ahjukahlite, põrandaplaatide, toauste, stukk- ja kivireljeefideni). Kuraator J. Kuuskemaa, kujundaja M. Agabush.

  8. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  9. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Marder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  10. Design and Experimental Analyses of Small-flow High-head centrifugal-vortex Pump for Gas-Liquid Two-phase Mixture%小流量高扬程离心漩涡泵气液混输的设计和试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祖超; 谢鹏; 偶国富; 崔宝玲; 李昳

    2008-01-01

    The design method of small-flow high-head centrifugal-vortex pump was presented.This pump,configured with 1nducer,complex-centrifulgal impeller and open-vortex impeller,was put torward to deliver gas-liquid two-phase mixture.An HTB-5/60 type sample pump was developed and tested on a closed-loop test rig.Experimental studies on perfbrmance and cavitation tests tor gas-hquid two-phase mixture were camed out compared With pure-water experimental results.Also the effect of gas phase on pump was analyzed and discussed.The experimental results show that performance and cavitation characteristics of the sample pump deteriorates progressively with increasing volume fraction of gas.When the total capacity QmiS between 4.5 m3·h-1and 6 m3·h-1 and the gas flow rate qg below 0.66 m3·h-1,or qg/Qm is lower than 15%,the characteristic curves are approximately parallel to those in pure water test,but the perforh~deteriorates sharply until an abrupt flow-cutting at a critical volume fraction of gas.This pump is found suitable for transporting gas-liquid two-phase mixture when working around rated capacity of 5 m3·h-1 with qg/Qm below 15%.

  11. HEADS UP: Sensorimotor control of the head-neck system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Head-neck stabilization is inherently challenging even when stationary, requiring constant vigilance to counter the downward pull of gravity. It involves a highly complex biomechanical system comprised of a large mass (the head) balanced on top of seven vertebrae (the neck), that are in turn connect

  12. Printed circuit board for a CCD camera head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Alan D.

    2002-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close (0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  13. Rebuilding the Chalberhoeni small hydro power station in Saanen, Switzerland; Chalberhoeni - Rapport Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavin, G. [Stucky SA, Renens (Switzerland); Wagner, T. [Sigmaplan, Berne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    These two final illustrated reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deal with various aspects of the Chalberhoeni small hydro project in Saanen, Switzerland. The first report presents data on the catchment area involved, available head, residual water quantities, installed power and annual production figures. Investments and operating costs are looked at. The second report describes the project and discusses regional planning aspects, hydrological basics and environmental issues in connection with the renewal project, including details on invertebrates found in the stream and their relevance to fishing and nature protection issues.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aneurysm in a patient with a sudden severe headache. a blood clot or bleeding within the brain ... a few seconds, and even faster in small children. Such speed is beneficial for all patients but ...

  15. Getting to know you: Identification of pygmy killer whales (Feresa attenuata and melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Siciliano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra and Pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata are very poorly known species and are often confused with each other. We examined in detail Figure 3 in MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 who reported that two melon-headed whales were taken in a surface driftnet about 90 nm off Santos, Brazil. We concluded they were in fact pygmy killer whales and explain our reasoning. To aid in future identifications, we illustrate and describe some of the main differences between these two species of small cetaceans. The incident reported by MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 might represent the 'tip of the iceberg' regarding the incidental catches of cetaceans by pelagic drift nets off Brazil. Offshore driftnetting operating along the south-southeastern coast of Brazil may threaten pygmy killer whales.

  16. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  17. NASA head sworn in

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Fletcher was sworn in on May 12, 1986, as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At a news conference after he was sworn in, Fletcher said that NASA would deal with both its technical problems and its procedural problems before the shuttle will fly again. According to press accounts, he stressed that funds should be made available to replace the Challenger orbiter, which was lost in an explosion on January 28.Fletcher, who had also headed the agency from 1971 to 1977, succeeds James M. Beggs, who was indicted in December 1985 for conspiring to defraud the federal government while serving as a senior executive at the General Dynamics Corporation.

  18. Effect of soccer heading ball speed on S100B, sideline concussion assessments and head impact kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorminy, Millie; Hoogeveen, Ashley; Tierney, Ryan T; Higgins, Michael; McDevitt, Jane K; Kretzschmar, Jan

    2015-05-25

    To examine the effect of soccer heading ball speed on S-100B serum concentration, concussion sideline assessments and linear head impact acceleration. Sixteen division I soccer players participated in this pre-test post-test design study. Athletes performed five standing headers over a 10 minute period at 30 (n = 5), 40 (n = 5) or 50 (n = 6) miles per hour (mph) (randomized). S-100B serum concentration (ng mL(-1)) and sideline concussion assessments were measured prior to and post-heading. Peak resultant linear head acceleration (gravitational units; g) was measured during soccer heading. No statistically significant interaction effects were identified between ball velocity groups over time on S100B (effect sizes ranged from 0.03-0.23) or concussion assessments tests. There was a non-significant increase (p = 0.06) in head impact acceleration from the 30 (30.6; SD = 6.2 g) to 50 mph (50.7; SD = 7.7 g) ball speed. In this controlled setting, an acute bout of soccer heading across various ball velocities did not affect S100B or concussion assessment test scores. These findings are preliminary, as the small sample size in each group may have played a role in the lack of significant findings.

  19. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  1. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  3. Clinical trials in head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayan, RK; Michel, ME

    2002-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000,

  4. Small Public Library Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Jane; Nelson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Anyone at the helm of a small public library knows that every little detail counts. But juggling the responsibilities that are part and parcel of the job is far from easy. Finally, here's a handbook that includes everything administrators need to keep a handle on library operations, freeing them up to streamline and improve how the organization…

  5. Radation distribution in head & thorax computerized tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of the exposure levels in the computerized tomography (CT practices is necessary to define the respected national reference levels, quality control of CT centers and the risk assessment for radiation induced cancers. Material and Methods: On the basis of this necessity, the radiation exposure distribution due to common CT practices has been investigated at Razi Hospital CT center in Rasht using tissue-equivalent phantoms and the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD. The Head and Thorax phantoms were used with the standard dimensions incorporating holes at the center and edges for TLD placement. Dosimetry was carried out using LiF Mg, Cu, P small chips due to their relatively tissue equivalence, high sensitivity convenient annealing procedure and the non-complex glow curve. Results: Results showed that CTDI for Head is 52.85 mGy and for Body is 68.15mGy. CTDLW for Head is 13.67 mGy and for Body is 16.94mGy . Conclusion: In comparison with other radiographical procedures, patient absorbed doses in CT imaging are usually very high. Content of dose is increased by increase of mAs.

  6. A mouse model of weight-drop closed head injury:emphasis on cognitive and neurological deifciency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Igor Khalin; Nor Laili Azua Jamari; Nadiawati Bt Abdul Razak; Zubaidah Bt Hasain; Mohd Asri bin Mohd Nor; Mohd Hakimi bin Ahmad Zainudin; Ainsah Bt Omar; Renad Alyautdin

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in individuals worldwide. Produc-ing a clinically relevant TBI model in small-sized animals remains fairly challenging. For good screening of potential therapeutics, which are effective in the treatment of TBI, animal models of TBI should be established and standardized. In this study, we established mouse models of closed head injury using the Shohami weight-drop method with some modiifcations concerning cognitive deifciency assessment and provided a detailed description of the severe TBI animal model. We found that 250 g falling weight from 2 cm height produced severe closed head injury in C57BL/6 male mice. Cognitive disorders in mice with severe closed head injury could be detected using passive avoidance test on day 7 after injury. Findings from this study indicate that weight-drop injury animal models are suitable for further screening of brain neuroprotectants and potentially are similar to those seen in human TBI.

  7. Post Entitlement Management Information - Detail Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains data that supports the detailed and aggregate receipt, pending and clearance data, as well as other strategic and tactical MI for many Title II and Title...

  8. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and more detailed than ... cases. MR images of the brain and other cranial structures are clearer and more detailed than with ...

  12. Optimal Design of Surface Structure of a Magnetic Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yazhen; NIU Rongjun; HUANG Ping

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the surface structure of a magnetic head has been transferred from a positive to a negative model. In order to increase magnetic storage density and to decrease the flight height, the surface structure of a head needs to be optimized continually. In the present paper, the influence of surface structure of a negative magnetic head on its flight attitude is analyzed in brief by both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Firstly, based on theoretical analysis, one-dimensional model of optimal design is built whose results play an important role in guiding for the two-dimensional model. Secondly, to analyze the impacts of different structures of negative pressure heads, the original head structure is divided into five zones;the impacts of different zones on both pressure distribution and load carrying capacity were detailed analyzed by numerical analysis. Thirdly, remain the leading-head structure of the negative head, and optimized tail-end structure can be gained by the regional planning strategy to control the gas film pressure distribution. With layout strategy, three kinds of structures of the head were designed. The results show that the tail-end structure impacts on the flight performances significantly and the middle boss plays a major role on positive pressure, while the bilateral bosses lying in either side play assistant regulating role. The structures of bilateral bosses have slightly impact on pressure distribution. The results also show that an optimum tail structure can meet the needs of a lower flight height and a larger magnetic storage density.

  13. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  14. Simultaneous multi-headed imager geometry calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Vi-Hoa; Meikle, Steven Richard; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2008-02-19

    A method for calibrating multi-headed high sensitivity and high spatial resolution dynamic imaging systems, especially those useful in the acquisition of tomographic images of small animals. The method of the present invention comprises: simultaneously calibrating two or more detectors to the same coordinate system; and functionally correcting for unwanted detector movement due to gantry flexing.

  15. User's guide to Sears List of subject headings

    CERN Document Server

    Satija, Mohinder P

    2008-01-01

    This book is a companion to the 19th edition of the Sears List and a complete course in the theory and practice of the List for practitioners, teachers, and learners. The object of this small, practical introduction is to be simple, clear, and illustrative, assuming the reader has little prior knowledge either of the Sears List or of subject headings work in general.

  16. 48 CFR 719.271-4 - Heads of contracting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heads of contracting activities. 719.271-4 Section 719.271-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... made by SDB; (b) Consulting with SDB in establishing small business and minority business...

  17. Head size and growth in the very preterm infant: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Karla A Lee, Breda C Hayes Rotunda Hospital, Dublin 1, Leinster, Ireland Objective: To review the literature investigating head size and examine head growth in relation to neurodevelopmental outcomes and neuroimaging data in the very preterm infant.Methods: Systematic literature review of studies published in the following databases: PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE. Studies in the English language published between January 2005 and August 2013 were examined. Subjects were infants born at ≤32 weeks of gestation. Main outcome measures included head growth, neurodevelopmental outcomes, and correlation between head size and neuroimaging.Results: Thirty-four articles comprising 9,394 infants met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of these, 31 studies (6,592 subjects report head growth data measured at two or more time points. Neurodevelopmental outcome at ≥2 years was reported by eleven studies (3,817 subjects. Nine studies (2,363 subjects included neuroimaging data. Catch-up head growth was found to occur in the first year after birth. Poor nutrition was linked with poorer head growth. Small head size was associated with poor psychomotor and mental skills, higher rates of cerebral palsy, and autism. However, suboptimal head size at birth was not predictive of poor outcome, unless it persisted. Head size appears to correlate with brain volume at term. Associations between white matter abnormalities have been found by ultrasonography. In contrast, in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies, gray matter seems to be the most susceptible to impairments during postnatal growth.Conclusion: Head growth in early neonatal life is of importance. Avoiding growth impairment during neonatal care may allow for optimal cortical development. Many factors impact upon early head growth, particularly appropriate nutrition. There is no

  18. Myosin head orientation: a structural determinant for the Frank-Starling relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, Gerrie P; Gore, David; Allen, Edward; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Irving, Thomas C; de Tombe, Pieter P

    2011-06-01

    The cellular mechanism underlying the Frank-Starling law of the heart is myofilament length-dependent activation. The mechanism(s) whereby sarcomeres detect changes in length and translate this into increased sensitivity to activating calcium has been elusive. Small-angle X-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the intact myofilament lattice undergoes numerous structural changes upon an increase in sarcomere length (SL): lattice spacing and the I(1,1)/I(1,0) intensity ratio decreases, whereas the M3 meridional reflection intensity (I(M3)) increases, concomitant with increases in diastolic and systolic force. Using a short (∼10 ms) X-ray exposure just before electrical stimulation, we were able to obtain detailed structural information regarding the effects of external osmotic compression (with mannitol) and obtain SL on thin intact electrically stimulated isolated rat right ventricular trabeculae. We show that over the same incremental increases in SL, the relative changes in systolic force track more closely to the relative changes in myosin head orientation (as reported by I(M3)) than to the relative changes in lattice spacing. We conclude that myosin head orientation before activation determines myocardial sarcomere activation levels and that this may be the dominant mechanism for length-dependent activation.

  19. Myosin head orientation: a structural determinant for the Frank-Starling relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Gore, David; Allen, Edward; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Irving, Thomas C.; de Tombe, Pieter P. (IIT); (UIC)

    2011-09-06

    The cellular mechanism underlying the Frank-Starling law of the heart is myofilament length-dependent activation. The mechanism(s) whereby sarcomeres detect changes in length and translate this into increased sensitivity to activating calcium has been elusive. Small-angle X-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the intact myofilament lattice undergoes numerous structural changes upon an increase in sarcomere length (SL): lattice spacing and the I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} intensity ratio decreases, whereas the M3 meridional reflection intensity (I{sub M3}) increases, concomitant with increases in diastolic and systolic force. Using a short ({approx}10 ms) X-ray exposure just before electrical stimulation, we were able to obtain detailed structural information regarding the effects of external osmotic compression (with mannitol) and obtain SL on thin intact electrically stimulated isolated rat right ventricular trabeculae. We show that over the same incremental increases in SL, the relative changes in systolic force track more closely to the relative changes in myosin head orientation (as reported by IM3) than to the relative changes in lattice spacing. We conclude that myosin head orientation before activation determines myocardial sarcomere activation levels and that this may be the dominant mechanism for length-dependent activation.

  20. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  1. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn More about the Brain and How it Works Order Free Copies of CDC's “Heads Up” Educational ... Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS "Heads ...

  2. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kill head lice? Which medicine is best? Is mayonnaise effective for treating head lice? CDC does not ... to determine if suffocation of head lice with mayonnaise, olive oil, margarine, butter, or similar substances is ...

  3. Understanding How Headings Influence Text Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemarié

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titles and headings are commonly used signaling devices in expository texts. Researchers in cognitive and educational psychology have demonstrated several important effects of headings and titles on text processing: headings improve memory for text organization; headings influence text comprehension by activating readers’ prior knowledge; and titles can bias text comprehension by their emphasis on a particular text topic. However, the lack of precise linguistic analyses of titles/headings has limited both the scope of empirical research and the precision of conclusions. We present a theory of signaling devices that provides a detailed analysis of variation in titles and headings and generates predictions concerning their effects. We discuss the implications of our analyses for research on titles and headings and summarize recent research findings that illustrate the validity of a central component of our analyses. Finally, we propose some future research directions integrating insights from linguistics for the study of how headings and titles affect text processing.Les titres et intertitres sont des dispositifs de signalisation fréquemment utilisés dans les textes expositifs. De nombreuses recherches réalisées en psychologie cognitive et psychologie des apprentissages ont mis en évidence leurs effets sur le traitement du texte par le lecteur : les intertitres améliorent la représentation mnésique de l’organisation du texte et influencent la compréhension du texte par un mécanisme d’activation des connaissances antérieures du lecteur. Les titres généraux, lorsqu’ils mettent en avant un des thèmes du texte, biaisent la compréhension du texte. Cependant, l’absence d’analyse linguistique approfondie des titres et intertitres a limité la portée de ces travaux et a mené à des conclusions méritant d’être affinées. Nous présentons une théorie générale de la signalisation des textes qui propose un cadre d

  4. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  5. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The present article suggests that the brief history of Western television news dramaturgy can be expounded as three major waves: from the early days of the talking heads in the studio, over the narrativization of the field report to a (re-)current studio- and field-based talking heads format....... In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...

  6. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  7. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  8. Hydrothermal Formation of the Head-to-Head Coalesced Szaibelyite MgBO2(OH Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wancheng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The significant effect of the feeding mode on the morphology and size distribution of the hydrothermal synthesized MgBO2(OH is investigated, which indicates that, slow dropping rate (0.5 drop s−1 and small droplet size (0.02 mL d−1 of the dropwise added NaOH solution are favorable for promoting the one-dimensional (1D preferential growth and thus enlarging the aspect ratio of the 1D MgBO2(OH nanostructures. The joint effect of the low concentration of the reactants and feeding mode on the hydrothermal product results in the head-to-head coalesced MgBO2(OH nanowires with a length of 0.5–9.0 μm, a diameter of 20–70 nm, and an aspect ratio of 20–300 in absence of any capping reagents/surfactants or seeds.

  9. Fatigue-Prone Details in Steel Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Heshmati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of a comprehensive investigation including more than 100 fatigue damage cases, reported for steel and composite bridges. The damage cases are categorized according to types of detail. The mechanisms behind fatigue damage in each category are identified and studied. It was found that more than 90% of all reported damage cases are of deformation-induced type and generated by some kind of unintentional or otherwise overlooked interaction between different load-carrying members or systems in the bridge. Poor detailing, with unstiffened gaps and abrupt changes in stiffness at the connections between different members were also found to contribute to fatigue cracking in many details.

  10. Memory for details with self-referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbun, Sarah J; Shih, Joanne Y; Gutchess, Angela H

    2011-11-01

    Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or whether they also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgements in reference to the self, a close other (one's mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). The results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can also disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details.

  11. The helical turbine: A new idea for low-head hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlov, A.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Substantial potential exists at small hydro sites where heads are too low for conventional hydraulic turbines. A spiral-bladed turbine may offer a new alternative for tapping that potential in a cost-efficient manner.

  12. Averaging hydraulic head, pressure head, and gravitational head in subsurface hydrology, and implications for averaged fluxes, and hydraulic conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. de Rooij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current theories for water flow in porous media are valid for scales much smaller than those at which problem of public interest manifest themselves. This provides a drive for upscaled flow equations with their associated upscaled parameters. Upscaling is often achieved through volume averaging, but the solution to the resulting closure problem imposes severe restrictions to the flow conditions that limit the practical applicability. Here, the derivation of a closed expression of the effective hydraulic conductivity is forfeited to circumvent the closure problem. Thus, more limited but practical results can be derived. At the Representative Elementary Volume scale and larger scales, the gravitational potential and fluid pressure are treated as additive potentials. The necessary requirement that the superposition be maintained across scales is combined with conservation of energy during volume integration to establish consistent upscaling equations for the various heads. The power of these upscaling equations is demonstrated by the derivation of upscaled water content-matric head relationships and the resolution of an apparent paradox reported in the literature that is shown to have arisen from a violation of the superposition principle. Applying the upscaling procedure to Darcy's Law leads to the general definition of an upscaled hydraulic conductivity. By examining this definition in detail for porous media with different degrees of heterogeneity, a series of criteria is derived that must be satisfied for Darcy's Law to remain valid at a larger scale.

  13. Detail in architecture: Between arts & crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulencin, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students' bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its economic cost, an

  14. Changes in Parents’ Spanking and Reading as Mechanisms for Head Start Impacts on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M.; Sexton, Holly R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether Head Start, the nation’s main two-generation program for low-income families, benefits children in part through positive changes in parents’ use of spanking and reading to children. Data were drawn from the 3-year-old cohort of the national evaluation of the Head Start program known as the Head Start Impact Study (N = 2,063). Results indicated that Head Start had small indirect effects on children’s spelling ability at age 4 and their aggression at age 4 through an...

  15. Small cell carcinoma of the submandibular gland: a rare small round blue cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David M; Little, Stewart C; Hessler, Richard B; Gourin, Christine G

    2007-01-01

    The presence of small cell carcinoma within the submandibular gland is an uncommon clinical entity. However, other small round blue cell tumors are encountered in the head and neck with greater frequency. These include lymphoma, Ewing's sarcoma, melanoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, and neuroblastoma. A basic knowledge of the immunohistochemical studies available to distinguish each these tumors from one another significantly improves the frequency of accurate and timely initial diagnosis. We report a case of small cell carcinoma of the submandibular gland and review the other common small round blue cell tumors that occur within the head and neck. We utilize an acronym, LEMONS, to organize our review and facilitate improved retention of the differential diagnosis for small round blue cell tumors of the head and neck.

  16. Zero torque gear head wrench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... copied to a CD. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the ...

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bright light and a mirror: Remove any dentures Look and feel inside the lips and the ... Early treatment may well be the key to complete recovery. Head, Neck & Oral Cancer Facts The information ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. Because they can interfere with the magnetic field ...

  5. New Russian science head named

    CERN Multimedia

    Levitin, C

    2000-01-01

    Ilya Klebanov, a deputy prime minister, has been appointed the country's new head of industrial and scientific policy. He will control the new Ministry for Industry, Science and Technologies (4 paragraphs).

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before ... imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or potentially pose a risk, depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many ... is positioned around the head. If a contrast material will be used in the MRI exam, a ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... head is performed for a number of abrupt onset or long-standing symptoms. It can help diagnose ... often within less than 30 minutes from the onset of symptoms. Risks The MRI examination poses almost ...

  9. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  10. Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symmetrical, but for a variety of reasons the asymmetry becomes less apparent as well. For example, in ... a flattened head does not affect a child's brain growth or cause developmental delays or brain damage. ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) ... contrast material in patients with very poor kidney function. Careful assessment of kidney function before considering a ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  14. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  15. challenges facing child headed households

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    This research employed qualitative methods to establish the daily experiences ... family support systems that view children as society's future and as an .... children's decision-making in 30 child-headed .... fetching water from nearby boreholes.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  18. Second Approximation Model for Optical Head in Super High Density Storage Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents second approximation model for optical head in super high-density storage technology firstly and it is an important part for three grades approximate model of ultra-small-size quantum well corn-shaped laser and simulative calculations. It supplies the important and useful results for the NFOD optical head design with ultra thin active layer and ultra small spot laser.

  19. New details emerge from the Einstein files

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, D

    2002-01-01

    For many years the FBI spied on Einstein. New details of this surveilance are emerging in "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist," by Fred Jerome, who sued the government with the help of the Public Citizen Litigation Group to obtain a less censored version of the file (1 page).

  20. Detailed Balancing and the Structure of Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y Z

    2001-01-01

    The protons are taken as an ensemble of Fock states. Using detailed balancing principle, ensemble density metrix on the basis of the number of partons is calculated, and so some information about intrinsic gluons and intrinsic sea quarks are gained without any parameter.

  1. Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.

    2001-01-01

    We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.

  2. Constructing Overview + Detail Dendrogram-Matrix Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; MacEachren, Alan M.; Peuquet, Donna J.

    2011-01-01

    A dendrogram that visualizes a clustering hierarchy is often integrated with a reorderable matrix for pattern identification. The method is widely used in many research fields including biology, geography, statistics, and data mining. However, most dendrograms do not scale up well, particularly with respect to problems of graphical and cognitive information overload. This research proposes a strategy that links an overview dendrogram and a detail-view dendrogram, each integrated with a re-orderable matrix. The overview displays only a user-controlled, limited number of nodes that represent the “skeleton” of a hierarchy. The detail view displays the sub-tree represented by a selected meta-node in the overview. The research presented here focuses on constructing a concise overview dendrogram and its coordination with a detail view. The proposed method has the following benefits: dramatic alleviation of information overload, enhanced scalability and data abstraction quality on the dendrogram, and the support of data exploration at arbitrary levels of detail. The contribution of the paper includes a new metric to measure the “importance” of nodes in a dendrogram; the method to construct the concise overview dendrogram from the dynamically-identified, important nodes; and measure for evaluating the data abstraction quality for dendrograms. We evaluate and compare the proposed method to some related existing methods, and demonstrating how the proposed method can help users find interesting patterns through a case study on county-level U.S. cervical cancer mortality and demographic data. PMID:19834151

  3. Analytical modelling of soccer heading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zahari Taha; Mohd Hasnun Arif Hassan; Iskandar Hasanuddin

    2015-08-01

    Heading occur frequently in soccer games and studies have shown that repetitive heading of the soccer ball could result in degeneration of brain cells and lead to mild traumatic brain injury. This study proposes a two degree-of-freedom linear mathematical model to study the impact of the soccer ball on the brain. The model consists of a mass–spring–damper system, in which the skull, the brain and the soccer ball are modelled as a mass and the neck modelled as a spring–damper system. The proposed model was compared with previous dynamic model for soccer ball-to-head impact. Moreover, it was also validated against drop ball experiment on an instrumented dummy skull and also compared with head acceleration data from previous studies. Comparison shows that our proposed model is capable of describing both the skull and brain accelerations qualitatively and quantitatively. This study shows that a simple linear mathematical model can be useful in giving a preliminary insight on the kinematics of human skull and brain during a ball-to-head impact. The model can be used to investigate the important parameters during soccer heading that affect the brain displacement and acceleration, thus providing better understanding of the mechanics behind it.

  4. Photodynamic therapy in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil H Nelke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a special type of treatment involving the use of a photosensitizer or a photosensitizing agent along with a special type of light, which, combined together, induces production of a form of oxygen that is used to kill surrounding cells in different areas of the human body. Specification of the head and neck region requires different approaches due to the surrounding of vital structures. PDT can also be used to treat cells invaded with infections such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. The light beam placed in tumor sites activates locally applied drugs and kills the cancer cells. Many studies are taking place in order to invent better photosensitizers, working on a larger scale and to treat deeply placed and larger tumors. It seems that PDT could be used as an alternative surgical treatment in some tumor types; however, all clinicians should be aware that the surgical approach is still the treatment of choice. PDT is a very accurate and effective therapy, especially in early stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC, and can greatly affect surgical outcomes in cancerous patients. We present a detailed review about photosensitizers, their use, and therapeutic advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Photodynamic therapy in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil H Nelke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a special type of treatment involving the use of a photosensitizer or a photosensitizing agent along with a special type of light, which, combined together, induces production of a form of oxygen that is used to kill surrounding cells in different areas of the human body. Specification of the head and neck region requires different approaches due to the surrounding of vital structures. PDT can also be used to treat cells invaded with infections such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. The light beam placed in tumor sites activates locally applied drugs and kills the cancer cells. Many studies are taking place in order to invent better photosensitizers, working on a larger scale and to treat deeply placed and larger tumors. It seems that PDT could be used as an alternative surgical treatment in some tumor types; however, all clinicians should be aware that the surgical approach is still the treatment of choice. PDT is a very accurate and effective therapy, especially in early stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC, and can greatly affect surgical outcomes in cancerous patients. We present a detailed review about photosensitizers, their use, and therapeutic advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Evnin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  7. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Jai-akson, Puttarak [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-04-11

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  8. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

  9. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  10. A proposed scheme for classifying pediatric rib head fractures using case examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Deborrah C; Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Greeley, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric rib head fractures are typically described as "posterior" or "costovertebral," terms lacking specificity. To resolve this issue, a scheme was developed to describe the location of rib head fractures observed in a pediatric forensic population. The scheme uses three anatomical landmarks, terminus (tip), tubercle, and costovertebral articular surface to divide the rib head into two subregions, costovertebral and costotransverse. Examples of five cases of infants with rib head fractures are presented using this scheme. Forty-eight rib head fractures were observed in these infants with the following frequencies: 56% (three infants) at the terminus; 21% (three infants) in the costovertebral subregion; 21% (one infant) at the costovertebral articular facet; and 2% (one infant) in the costotransverse subregion. Due to the small number of cases assessed, statistical analyses could not be performed; however, the data demonstrate the variation in distribution of pediatric rib head fractures. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 - Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF STEREOSCOPIC HEAD- MOUNTED DISPLAYS...disparity. This paper details the psychometric validation of the stereoscopic rendering of a virtual environment using game-based simulation software...mounted display, near eye display, stereo display, stereo HMD, psychometric assessment, stereoscopic performance, eye-limited stereo vision. 16

  12. [Illustrations of visceral referred pain. "Head-less" Head's zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, C; Beissner, F

    2011-04-01

    Reviewing anatomical, physiological and neurological standard literature for illustrations of referred visceral pain only one type of illustration can frequently be found, which is referred to as Treves and Keith. In fact, the original illustration as a model for most current pictures stems from the German edition of Sir Frederick Treves' famous book "Surgical Applied Anatomy" from 1914, which was reillustrated for didactical reasons for the German readership. While neither Treves and Keith nor the German illustrator Otto Kleinschmidt ever published any work on referred pain this illustration must have been adapted or copied from older sources by the illustrator. Therefore the comprehensive systematic original works before 1914 were reviewed, namely those of Sir Henry Head and Sir James Mackenzie. Due to the name of the phenomenon in the German literature of Head's zones, the illustrations were expected to be based mainly on Head's work. However, a comparison of all available illustrations led to the conclusion that Kleinschmidt chiefly used information from Mackenzie as a model for his illustration. Due to the inexact reproduction of Mackenzie's work by the illustrator some important features were lost that had been reported by the original authors. These include the phenomenon of Head's maximum points, which nowadays has fallen into oblivion.Therefore current charts, based on the illustration by Kleinschmidt from 1914, lack experimental evidence and appear to be a simplification of the observational results of both Head's and Mackenzie's original systematic works.

  13. Exploration of networks using overview+detail with constraint-based cooperative layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Schreiber, Falk; Stuckey, Peter; Woodward, Michael; Wybrow, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A standard approach to large network visualization is to provide an overview of the network and a detailed view of a small component of the graph centred around a focal node. The user explores the network by changing the focal node in the detailed view or by changing the level of detail of a node or cluster. For scalability, fast force-based layout algorithms are used for the overview and the detailed view. However, using the same layout algorithm in both views is problematic since layout for the detailed view has different requirements to that in the overview. Here we present a model in which constrained graph layout algorithms are used for layout in the detailed view. This means the detailed view has high-quality layout including sophisticated edge routing and is customisable by the user who can add placement constraints on the layout. Scalability is still ensured since the slower layout techniques are only applied to the small subgraph shown in the detailed view. The main technical innovations are techniques to ensure that the overview and detailed view remain synchronized, and modifying constrained graph layout algorithms to support smooth, stable layout. The key innovation supporting stability are new dynamic graph layout algorithms that preserve the topology or structure of the network when the user changes the focus node or the level of detail by in situ semantic zooming. We have built a prototype tool and demonstrate its use in two application domains, UML class diagrams and biological networks.

  14. Use of Head Guards in AIBA Boxing Tournaments-A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Michael P; Butler, Charles F; Khadri, Abdelhamid; McDonagh, David; Patel, Vimal A; Bailes, Julian E

    2017-01-01

    This study looks at the changes in injuries after the implementation of a new rule by the International Boxing Association (AIBA) to remove head guards from its competitions. A cross-sectional observational study performed prospectively. This brief report examines the removal of head guards in 2 different ways. The first was to examine the stoppages due to blows to the head by comparing World Series Boxing (WSB), without head guards, to other AIBA competitions with head guards. Secondly, we examined the last 3 world championships: 2009 and 2011 (with head guards) and 2013 (without head guards). World Series Boxing and AIBA world championship boxing. Boxers from WSB and AIBA world championships. The information was recorded by ringside medical physicians. Stoppages per 10 000 rounds; stoppages per 1000 hours. Both studies show that the number of stoppages due to head blows was significantly decreased without head guards. The studies also showed that there was a notable increase in cuts. Removing head guards may reduce the already small risk of acute brain injury in amateur boxing.

  15. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries ... in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries ...

  16. Detailed gravimetric geoid computations in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Chang, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed for the Eastern United States and the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-8 earth gravity model with the available 15 x 15 arcmin and 1 x 1 deg mean free air surface gravity observations. The short wavelength undulations were computed by applying Stokes' formula to the 15 x 15 arcmin and 1 x 1 deg surface data. The long wavelength undulations were provided by the GEM-8 model. The gravimetric geoid has been compared with Geoceiver derived and astrogeodetically determined geoid heights in the United States and the rms agreement is on the order of 1.5 meters. Excellent agreement in shape has been found between the detailed geoid and geoidal profiles derived from GEOS-III altimeter data in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  18. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  19. Metastability for Markov processes with detailed balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Hernán; Leyvraz, François

    2005-04-29

    We present a definition for metastable states applicable to arbitrary finite state Markov processes satisfying detailed balance. In particular, we identify a crucial condition that distinguishes metastable states from other slow decaying modes and which allows us to show that our definition has several desirable properties similar to those postulated in the restricted ensemble approach. The intuitive physical meaning of this condition is simply that the total equilibrium probability of finding the system in the metastable state is negligible.

  20. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  1. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  2. Preliminary Sensitivity Study of Upper Head Nodalization for LBLOCA in APR-1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Yoo, Seung Hun; Cho, Dae-Hyung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the key-way bypass was determined to be - 0.3 %. The steady state condition which is the initial condition for LBLOCA was obtained by MARS-KS calculation. Up to now, it was assumed that the temperature of the upper dome in APR-1400 was close to that of the cold leg. However, it was found that the temperature of the upper head/dome might be a little lower than or similar to that of the hot leg through the evaluation of the detailed design data. Since the higher upper head temperature affects blowdown quenching and peak cladding temperature in the reflood phase, the nodalization for upper head should be modified. In this study, the preliminary sensitivity study of original and modified nodalization for LBLOCA was performed, and the effect of upper head nodalization and temperature was evaluated qualitatively. In this study, the preliminary sensitivity study of original and modified nodalization for upper head in APR-1400 was performed, and the effect of upper head nodalization and temperature on LBLOCA PCT was evaluated qualitatively. Through the transient calculation, it was confirmed that the upper head temperature affects the water inventory in the upper head at the early stage of LBLOCA so it does the blowdown quenching and following reflood PCT significantly. The results in this study were caused by very conservative upper head temperature determination.

  3. Small Business Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of QASE RT is to enable system analysts and software engineers to evaluate performance and reliability implications of design alternatives. The program resulted from two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. After receiving a description of the system architecture and workload from the user, QASE RT translates the system description into simulation models and executes them. Simulation provides detailed performance evaluation. The results of the evaluations are service and response times, offered load and device utilizations and functional availability.

  4. Unilateral hypoxic-ischemic injury in young children from abusive head trauma, lacking craniocervical vascular dissection or cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Alexander M.; Thompson, Linda R.; Truwit, Charles L.; Velders, Scott; Karagulle, Ayse; Kiragu, Andrew [University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) in young children usually has a severe outcome when associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), which is best characterized by MRI in the acute or subacute phase utilizing diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). HIE in this setting has been hypothesized to result from stretching of the spinal cord, brainstem, or vasculature. To provide clinical correlation in patients with unilateral HIE and to postulate a mechanism in the setting of suspected AHT. IRB approval was obtained. Over a 5-year period, the medical records and images were reviewed of the 53 children {<=}3 years of age who presented with acute head trauma according to the hospital registry. The children were subselected in order to determine how many suffered either HIE or AHT, and to detect those with unilateral HIE. In 11 of the 53 children, the etiology of the head trauma was highly suspicious for abuse. In 38 the head trauma was accidental and in 4 the trauma was of unknown etiology and at the time of this report was unresolved legally. Of the 53, 4 suffered HIE confirmed by CT or MRI. In three of these four with HIE the trauma was considered highly suspicious for AHT. Two of these three were the only patients with unilateral HIE, and both (7 months and 14 months of age) presented with early subacute phase HIE seen on DW MRI (range 4-7 days) and are described in detail with clinical correlation. The third child with AHT and HIE had bilateral findings. In the fourth patient the HIE was bilateral and was considered accidental. The work-up for both patients with unilateral HIE included head CT, craniocervical MRI, and craniocervical MR angiography (MRA). In both, there was mostly unilateral, deep white matter restricted diffusion, with subdural hematomas that were small compared to the extent of hypoxic-ischemic insult, and no skull fracture. Craniocervical MRA and axial thin-section fat-saturation images were negative for dissection, brainstem, or cord injury. Legal

  5. Small Beginnings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Emerging Sino-Japanese defense cooperation could have far-reaching implications for the two countries and the region at large,despite the largely symbolic start History was made when a Chinese mis- sile destroyer sailed into Tokyo har- bor on November 28.Shenzhen,with 345 officials and crew onboard,head- ed by Rear Admiral Xiao Xinnian, Vice Chief of Staff of the South China Sea Fleet,became the first warship of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to visit Japan.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  9. Magnetic head having a wear-resistant layer, and method of manufacturing such a magnetic head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirne, F.W.A.; Zieren, V.; Broese van Groenou, A.; Oorschot, L.F.M. van; Lasinski, P.; Jongh, M. de; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic head having a head face (5) and comprising a head structure composed of thin layers and provided with a transducing element (E11), in which different materials occurring in different areas are present in the head face. The head face is provided with a first layer (31) of a material which is

  10. Variations in the Presentation of Aphasia in Patients with Closed Head Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Oliver Kavanagh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature review on the topic. In a busy acute surgical unit one can dismiss aphasia following head injury as behaviour related to intoxication. Early recognition with prolonged and intensive speech and language rehabilitation therapy yields a favourable outcome as highlighted in our experience. These may serve as a reference for clinicians faced with this unusual outcome.

  11. Variations in the presentation of aphasia in patients with closed head injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara Oliver

    2012-01-31

    Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature review on the topic. In a busy acute surgical unit one can dismiss aphasia following head injury as behaviour related to intoxication. Early recognition with prolonged and intensive speech and language rehabilitation therapy yields a favourable outcome as highlighted in our experience. These may serve as a reference for clinicians faced with this unusual outcome.

  12. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  13. Towards a detailed soot model for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbach, Sebastian; Celnik, Matthew S.; Raj, Abhijeet; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Zhang, Hongzhi R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, 1495 East 100 South, Kennecott Research Building, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kubo, Shuichi [Frontier Research Center, Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Kim, Kyoung-Oh [Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, Mishuku 1200, Susono, Shizuoka 480-1193 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, we present a detailed model for the formation of soot in internal combustion engines describing not only bulk quantities such as soot mass, number density, volume fraction, and surface area but also the morphology and chemical composition of soot aggregates. The new model is based on the Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) engine code, which uses detailed chemistry and takes into account convective heat transfer and turbulent mixing, and the soot formation is accounted for by SWEEP, a population balance solver based on a Monte Carlo method. In order to couple the gas-phase to the particulate phase, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism describing the combustion of Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) is extended to include small Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as pyrene, which function as soot precursor species for particle inception in the soot model. Apart from providing averaged quantities as functions of crank angle like soot mass, volume fraction, aggregate diameter, and the number of primary particles per aggregate for example, the integrated model also gives detailed information such as aggregate and primary particle size distribution functions. In addition, specifics about aggregate structure and composition, including C/H ratio and PAH ring count distributions, and images similar to those produced with Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs), can be obtained. The new model is applied to simulate an n-heptane fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine which is operated at an equivalence ratio of 1.93. In-cylinder pressure and heat release predictions show satisfactory agreement with measurements. Furthermore, simulated aggregate size distributions as well as their time evolution are found to qualitatively agree with those obtained experimentally through snatch sampling. It is also observed both in the experiment as well as in the simulation that aggregates in the trapped residual gases play a vital role in the soot

  14. Detailed modeling of mountain wave PSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play a key role in polar ozone depletion. In the Arctic, PSCs can occur on the mesoscale due to orographically induced gravity waves. Here we present a detailed study of a mountain wave PSC event on 25-27 January 2000 over Scandinavia. The mountain wave PSCs were intensively observed by in-situ and remote-sensing techniques during the second phase of the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic campaign. We use these excellent data of PSC observations on 3 successive days to analyze the PSCs and to perform a detailed comparison with modeled clouds. We simulated the 3-dimensional PSC structure on all 3 days with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model and a microphysical box model (using best available nucleation rates for ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles. We show that the combined mesoscale/microphysical model is capable of reproducing the PSC measurements within the uncertainty of data interpretation with respect to spatial dimensions, temporal development and microphysical properties, without manipulating temperatures or using other tuning parameters. In contrast, microphysical modeling based upon coarser scale global NWP data, e.g. current ECMWF analysis data, cannot reproduce observations, in particular the occurrence of ice and nitric acid trihydrate clouds. Combined mesoscale/microphysical modeling may be used for detailed a posteriori PSC analysis and for future Arctic campaign flight and mission planning. The fact that remote sensing alone cannot further constrain model results due to uncertainities in the interpretation of measurements, underlines the need for synchronous in-situ PSC observations in campaigns.

  15. Detailed measurement on a HESCO diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Holm, Dorte; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2007-01-01

    the inlet velocity is a very important boundary condition both in CFD calculation and general flow measurements. If only the volume flow and the geometrical area are used, a relatively large error in the inlet velocity may result. From the detailed measurements it was possible to establish an expression......This paper focuses on measuring the inlet velocity from a HESCO diffuser used in the IEA Annex 20 work as a function of the volume flow it provides. The aim of the present work is to establish a relation between the inlet velocity, the effective area and the airflow. This is important because...

  16. Academic detailing to teach aging and geriatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Ashley; Cuoco, Theresa; Pride, Pamela; Wiley, Kathy; Iverson, Patty J; Marsden, Justin; Moran, William; Caton, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric education is a required component of internal medicine training. Work hour rules and hectic schedules have challenged residency training programs to develop and utilize innovative teaching methods. In this study, the authors examined the use of academic detailing as a teaching intervention in their residents' clinic and on the general medicine inpatient wards to improve clinical knowledge and skills in geriatric care. The authors found that this teaching method enables efficient, directed education without disrupting patient care. We were able to show improvements in medical knowledge as well as self-efficacy across multiple geriatric topics.

  17. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  18. The Video Head Impulse Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Halmagyi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, we introduced impulsive testing of semicircular canal (SCC function measured with scleral search coils and showed that it could accurately and reliably detect impaired function even of a single lateral canal. Later we showed that it was also possible to test individual vertical canal function in peripheral and also in central vestibular disorders and proposed a physiological mechanism for why this might be so. For the next 20 years, between 1988 and 2008, impulsive testing of individual SCC function could only be accurately done by a few aficionados with the time and money to support scleral search-coil systems—an expensive, complicated and cumbersome, semi-invasive technique that never made the transition from the research lab to the dizzy clinic. Then, in 2009 and 2013, we introduced a video method of testing function of each of the six canals individually. Since 2009, the method has been taken up by most dizzy clinics around the world, with now close to 100 refereed articles in PubMed. In many dizzy clinics around the world, video Head Impulse Testing has supplanted caloric testing as the initial and in some cases the final test of choice in patients with suspected vestibular disorders. Here, we consider seven current, interesting, and controversial aspects of video Head Impulse Testing: (1 introduction to the test; (2 the progress from the head impulse protocol (HIMPs to the new variant—suppression head impulse protocol (SHIMPs; (3 the physiological basis for head impulse testing; (4 practical aspects and potential pitfalls of video head impulse testing; (5 problems of vestibulo-ocular reflex gain calculations; (6 head impulse testing in central vestibular disorders; and (7 to stay right up-to-date—new clinical disease patterns emerging from video head impulse testing. With thanks and appreciation we dedicate this article to our friend, colleague, and mentor, Dr Bernard Cohen of Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, who

  19. Head kinematics during shaking associated with abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, T O; Puhulwelle Gamage, N T; Bloomfield, F H; Kelly, P; Finch, M C; Taberner, A J; Nash, M P; Nielsen, P M F

    2015-09-18

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a potentially fatal result of child abuse but the mechanisms of injury are controversial. To address the hypothesis that shaking alone is sufficient to elicit the injuries observed, effective computational and experimental models are necessary. This paper investigates the use of a coupled rigid-body computational modelling framework to reproduce in vivo shaking kinematics in AHT. A sagittal plane OpenSim computational model of a lamb was developed and used to interpret biomechanical data from in vivo shaking experiments. The acceleration of the head during shaking was used to provide in vivo validation of the associated computational model. Results of this study demonstrated that peak accelerations occurred when the head impacted the torso and produced acceleration magnitudes exceeding 200ms(-)(2). The computational model demonstrated good agreement with the experimental measurements and was shown to be able to reproduce the high accelerations that occur during impact. The biomechanical results obtained with the computational model demonstrate the utility of using a coupled rigid-body modelling framework to describe infant head kinematics in AHT.

  20. Comparison of realistic head modeling methods in EEG source imaging - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, F; Meneghini, F; Esposito, F; Mininel, S; Disalle, F

    2010-01-01

    EEG inverse source imaging aims at reconstructing the underlying current distribution in the human brain using potential differences measured non-invasively from the head surface. A critical component of source reconstruction is the head volume conductor model used to reach an accurate solution of the associated forward problem, i.e., the simulation of the EEG for a known current source in the brain. The volume conductor model contains both the geometry and the electrical conduction properties of the head tissues and the accuracy of both parameters has direct impact on the accuracy of the source analysis. This was examined in detail with two different human head models. Two realistic head models derived from an averaged T1-weighted MRI dataset of the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) were used for this study. These models were: (1) BEM Model: a four-shell surface-based Boundary Elements (BEM) head model; (2) FDM Model: a volume-based Finite Difference (FDM) model, which allows better modeling accuracy than BEM as it better represents the cortical structures, such as, sulci and gyri in the brain in a three-dimensional head model. How model accuracy description influences the EEG source localizations was studied with the above realistic models of the head. We present here a detailed computer simulation study in which the performances of the two realistic four-shell head models are compared, the realistic MNI-based BEM Model and the FDM Model. As figures of merit for the comparative analysis, the point spread function (PSF) maps and the lead field (LF) correlation coefficients are used. The obtained results demonstrate that a better description of realistic geometry can provide a factor of improvement particularly important when considering sources placed in the temporal or in the occipital cortex. In these situations, using a more refined realistic head model will allow a better spatial discrimination of neural sources.

  1. Head injury management guidelines for general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Ganz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete examination of a head injured patient in the hospital requires a number of instruments. These include a stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, ophthalmoscope, otoscope, cotton wool, safety pin, tuning fork, reflex hammer and a small key to test the plantar response. Few of these are required at the accident scene. This is because, in the hospital, the aim is optimal definitive treatment. At the accident scene, the aim is prevention of secondary injury, rapid recording of the most important findings and safe efficient transport to the hospital. This short paper reviews how the local doctor should undertake a neurosurgical assessment of traumatic brain injury patients. Moreover, the primary management at accident scenes is described and the rationale behind the approach is outlined

  2. Head injury management guidelines for general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2011-07-01

    A complete examination of a head injured patient in the hospital requires a number of instruments. These include a stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, ophthalmoscope, otoscope, cotton wool, safety pin, tuning fork, reflex hammer and a small key to test the plantar response. Few of these are required at the accident scene. This is because, in the hospital, the aim is optimal definitive treatment. At the accident scene, the aim is prevention of secondary injury, rapid recording of the most important findings and safe efficient transport to the hospital. This short paper reviews how the local doctor should undertake a neurosurgical assessment of traumatic brain injury patients. Moreover, the primary management at accident scenes is described and the rationale behind the approach is outlined.

  3. Varying chromaticity: A damping mechanism for the transverse head-tail instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, W.; Wurtele, J.S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sessler, A.M.; Wurtele, J.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A detailed analytical and numerical study of the suppression of the transverse head-tail instability by modulating the chromaticity over a synchrotron period is presented. We find that a threshold can be developed, and it can be increased to a value larger than the strong head-tail instability threshold. The stability criterion derived agrees very well with the simulations. The underlying physical mechanisms of the damping scheme are rotation of the head-tail phase such that the instability does not occur, and Landau damping due to the incoherent betatron tune spread generated by the varying chromaticity. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. 重型颅脑损伤对小鼠小肠平滑肌自主节律运动和Cajal间质细胞的影响%Influence of severe head injury on spontaneous rhythmic contraction of small intestinal smooth muscle and interstitial cells of Cajal in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽梅; 朱京慈; 梅峰; 方欢

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the spontaneous rhythmic contraction of in vitro small intestinal smooth muscle and the number and function change of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in mice after severe head injury (SHI), and to study the possible mechanism of intestinal motility disturbance (IMD) induced by SHI. Methods Thirty-six 6- to 8-week-old clean healthy male Kunming mice with body weight 35 ± 5 g were randomly and evenly divided into an SHI group (which underwent an operation using the modified Feeney' s method) and a control group (which underwent a sham operation, opening skull but avoiding brain injury). The movement pattern, amplitude, and frequency of in vitro terminal ileum smooth muscle strips, and the num ber of terminal ileum ICCs were detected at 1,3, and 7 d after SHI. Results ( 1 ) Compared with the control group, the spontaneous rhythmic contraction amplitude of smooth muscle was significantly reduced at 1 d (0. 16±0.04 g vs 0.31 ±0.05 g), 3 d (0.16 ±0.04 g vs 0.23 ±0.06 g), and 7 d (0.22 ±0.07 g vs 0. 27 ±0.05 g) after SHI in the SHI group (P < 0. 05 ). The spontaneous rhythmic contraction frequency of smooth muscle was significantly reduced at 1 d (30.23 ±3.71 times/min vs 34.55 ± 1.99 times/min) and 7 d (30.34 ±4.56 times/min vs 33.10 ±0.81 times/min) after SHI (P <0.05), but not at 3 d (31.46 ±4.64 times/min vs 33.39 ± 2.17 times/min, P > 0. 05 ) after SHI. The muscle strip movement pattern became disor dered and irregular. (2) Compared with the control group, the cell number of ICCs significantly decreased at 1 d (189 ±41 cells/mm2 vs 303 ±10 cells/mm2) , 3 d (156 ±39 cells/mm2 vs 305 ±9 cells/mm2) , and 7 d (215 ±28 cells/mm2 vs 325 ±42 cells/mm2) after SHI in the SHI group (P <0. 05). The network of ICCs was obviously damaged and became thinner. Conclusion Severe damage of ICCs and spontaneous rhythmic con traction disorder of smooth muscle in small intestine emerge after SHI and result in IMD.%目的 通

  5. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  6. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model for TNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for 2,4,6-tri-nitrotoluene (TNT) has been developed to explore problems of explosive performance and soot formation during the destruction of munitions. The TNT mechanism treats only gas-phase reactions. Reactions for the decomposition of TNT and for the consumption of intermediate products formed from TNT are assembled based on information from the literature and on current understanding of aromatic chemistry. Thermodynamic properties of intermediate and radical species are estimated by group additivity. Reaction paths are developed based on similar paths for aromatic hydrocarbons. Reaction-rate constant expressions are estimated from the literature and from analogous reactions where the rate constants are available. The detailed reaction mechanism for TNT is added to existing reaction mechanisms for RDX and for hydrocarbons. Computed results show the effect of oxygen concentration on the amount of soot precursors that are formed in the combustion of RDX and TNT mixtures in N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures.

  7. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  8. Preliminary Requirement of Hot Pool Free Surface Level from PGSFR Reactor Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeonghoi; Joo, Hyeongkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The sensitivity study on structural integrity evaluations are carried out to make a decision of a hot pool free surface location from the reactor head for a preliminary designed reactor enclosure system. To do this, the thermal stress evaluations for a reactor vessel are carried out for a steady state normal operating condition with detailed heat transfer analyses through the reactor enclosure system. From these results, the preliminary design requirement of a hot pool free surface location from the reactor head is established to be 2.0m. From the sensitivity studies on the structural integrity evaluations for a steady state condition, the preliminary distance from the hot pool free surface to the reactor head is determined to be 2.0m same as a conceptual design. More detailed structural analyses for a reactor enclosure system will be carried out as a PGSFR structural design goes forward in detail.

  9. Head and neck pain review: traditional and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M H; Nelson, A J

    1996-10-01

    A variety of conditions are frequently associated with the occurrence of head and neck pain. The purposes of this review are: to describe the characteristics of several musculoskeletal, neurological, and systemic conditions frequently cited as possible causes of head and neck pain and to suggest a new technique for treating head and neck pain. The characteristics of musculoskeletal conditions, such as muscle spasm, tendinitis, trigger points, and joint inflammation, and their relationship to head and neck pain are considered. The features and clinical implications of neurologic conditions, such as atypical facial pain, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and neurogenic inflammation, are also described. The distinguishing characteristics of headaches, including cluster, tension, chronic daily, rebound, posttraumatic, and postlumbar puncture, are detailed. This review also addresses the contributions of systemic disorders, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and the variants, and rheumatoid-related conditions, like dermatomyositis, temporal arteritis, Lyme's disease, and fibromyalgia, to head and neck pain. The results of a recent pilot study of the effectiveness of intraoral circulating ice water for resolving symptoms related to head and neck pain secondary to neurogenic inflammation are presented in this work. Ice water circulating through hollow metal tubes was placed intraorally for 15 minutes in the posterior maxillary area on 12 individuals with cervical pain and muscle spasm. In nine of these individuals, reduced cervical pain perception, upper trapezius electromyography signal reduction, and increased cervical range of motion was produced. Six out of 12 individuals had accompanying headache, which was reduced or eliminated in four cases. These findings suggest a strong trigemino-cervical relationship to neck pain and headache.

  10. Risk factors for head injury events in professional rugby union: a video analysis of 464 head injury events to inform proposed injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Kemp, Simon; Brown, James; Fuller, Gordon; Hester, Ben; Cross, Matthew; Quarrie, Ken

    2017-08-01

    The tackle is responsible for the majority of head injuries during rugby union. In order to address head injury risk, risk factors during the tackle must first be identified. This study analysed tackle characteristics in the professional game in order to inform potential interventions. 464 tackles resulting in a head injury assessment (HIA) were analysed in detail, with tackle type, direction, speed, acceleration, nature of head contact and player body position the characteristics of interest. Propensity to cause an HIA was significantly greater for active shoulder tackles, front-on tackles, high speeder tackles and an accelerating tackler. Head contact between a tackler's head and ball carrier's head or shoulder was significantly more likely to cause an HIA than contact below the level of the shoulder (incident rate ratio (IRR) 4.25, 95%-CI 3.38 to 5.35). The tackler experiences the majority (78%) of HIAs when head-to-head contact occurs. An upright tackler was 1.5 times more likely to experience an HIA than a bent at the waist tackler (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.76). This study confirms that energy transfer in the tackle is a risk factor for head injury, since direction, type and speed all influence HIA propensity. The study provides evidence that body position and the height of tackles should be a focus for interventions, since lowering height and adopting a bent at the waist body position is associated with reduced risk for both tacklers and ball carriers. To this end, World Rugby has implemented law change based on the present data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Modular small hydro configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  12. The Animal Without A Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万钧

    2002-01-01

    Have you ever seen an animal with out a head?there is such an animal! it has no tail or legs ,its body is full of holes it eats and breathes but never moves,it lives under water,the water brings the animal air.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform than other imaging modalities. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  14. Pediatric head injuries from earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lage, Juan F; Almagro, María-José; López-Guerrero, Antonio López; Martínez-Lage Azorín, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    By means of some illustrations, the authors briefly report the effects of some accidental head injuries caused by diverse mechanisms occurring in children. Many of these accidents seem to be preventable, but others are completely unavoidable and escape prevention as the one that is depicted in the cover of this issue.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  16. Neuroelectromagnetic Forward Head Modeling Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Zeynep Akalin; Makeig, Scott

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Neuroelectromagnetic Forward Head Modeling Toolbox (NFT) running under MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc.) for generating realistic head models from available data (MRI and/or electrode locations) and for computing numerical solutions for the forward problem of electromagnetic source imaging. The NFT includes tools for segmenting scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used for the numerical solution of the forward problem. After extracting segmented tissue volumes, surface BEM meshes can be generated. When a subject MR image is not available, a template head model can be warped to measured electrode locations to obtain an individualized head model. Toolbox functions may be called either from a graphic user interface compatible with EEGLAB (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab), or from the MATLAB command line. Function help messages and a user tutorial are included. The toolbox is freely available under the GNU Public License for noncommercial use and open source development. PMID:20457183

  17. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  1. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...... out at a range of ac perturbation amplitudes in order to investigate linearity of the response and the signal-to-noise ratio. Separation of the measured impedance into series and polarisation resistances was possible....

  2. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  3. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera. The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  4. A meaningful expansion around detailed balance

    CERN Document Server

    Colangeli, Matteo; Wynants, Bram

    2011-01-01

    We consider Markovian dynamics modeling open mesoscopic systems which are driven away from detailed balance by a nonconservative force. A systematic expansion is obtained of the stationary distribution around an equilibrium reference, in orders of the nonequilibrium forcing. The first order around equilibrium has been known since the work of McLennan (1959), and involves the transient irreversible entropy flux. The expansion generalizes the McLennan formula to higher orders, complementing the entropy flux with the dynamical activity. The latter is more kinetic than thermodynamic and is a possible realization of Landauer's insight (1975) that, for nonequilibrium, the relative occupation of states also depends on the noise along possible escape routes. In that way nonlinear response around equilibrium can be meaningfully discussed in terms of two main quantities only, the entropy flux and the dynamical activity. The expansion makes mathematical sense as shown in the simplest cases from exponential ergodicity.

  5. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  6. Detailed Chromospheric Activity Nature of KIC 9641031

    CERN Document Server

    Yoldaş, Ezgi

    2016-01-01

    This study depends on KIC 9641031 eclipsing binary system with a chromospherically active component. There are three type variations, such as geometrical variations due to eclipses, sinusoidal variations due to the rotational modulations and also flares, in the light curves obtained with the data taken from the Kepler Mission Database. Taking into account results obtained from KIC 9641031's observations in the Kepler Mission Database, we present and discuss the details of chromospheric activity. The sinusoidal light variations due to rotational modulation and the flare events were modelled separately. 92 different data subsets separated using the analytic models described in the literature were modelled separately to obtain the cool spot configuration. It is seen that just one component of the system is chromospherically active star. On this component, there are two active regions separated by about 180 deg longitudinally between the latitudes of +50 deg and +100 deg, whose locations and forms are rapidly cha...

  7. Report Details Solar Radiation Alert and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staedter, Tracy

    2006-06-01

    High-energy particles from the Sun and from regions beyond the solar system constantly bombard Earth. Thanks to the planet's atmosphere and magnetic field, comsic radiation is not a significant threat to those rooted on terra firma. But airline crew and passengers flying at high altitudes, or over the poles where the Earth's magnetic field provides no protection, are particularly vulnerable to unpredictable flares on the Sun's surface that launch streams of sub-atomic particles toward Earth. The report, ``Solar Radiation Alert System,'' published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in July 2005 (www.faa.gov/library/reports/medical/oamtechreports/2000s/media/0514.pdf) details in alert system designed to estimate the ionizing radiation at aircraft flight altitudes and, depending on the resulting dose rate, issue a warning.

  8. Detailed Design of Intelligent Object Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Savicand Hao Shi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of Intelligent Object Framework(IOF aims to unite the communication and device management through a platform independent ma nagement protocol in conjunction with a management application. The Core Framework is devel oped using Microsoft Visual Studio, Microsoft’s .NET Framework and Microsoft’s Windows Mobile SDK. Secondary Intelligent Object is developed using Tibbo Integrated Development Environment (TIDE and T-BASIC programming language that is loaded on an EM1026 Embedded Device Platform running Tibbo Op erating System (TiOS. The backend database is based on Microsoft’s SQL Server.In this paper, prot ocols associated with Smart Living are first reviewed.The system architecture and intelligent ob ject management studio are presented. Then device application design and database design are detailed . Finally conclusions are drawn and future work is addressed.

  9. Detailed Chemical Abundances of Extragalactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, R A

    2005-01-01

    We outline a method to measure the detailed chemical composition of extragalactic (unresolved) globular clusters (GCs) from echelle spectra of their integrated light. Our goal is to use this method to measure abundance patterns of GCs in distant spiral and elliptical galaxies to constrain their formation histories. To develop this technique we have obtained a ``training set'' of integrated-light spectra of resolved GCs in the Milky Way and LMC by scanning across the clusters during exposures. Our training set also include spectra of individual stars in those GCs from which abundances can be obtained in the normal way to provide a check on our integrated-light results. We present here the preliminary integrated-light analysis of one GC in our training set, NGC 104 (47 Tuc), and outline some of the techniques utilized and problems encountered in that analysis.

  10. Regular Small-World Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zhi-Yun; MAO Bao-Hua; HAO Hai-Ming; GAO Jian-Zhi; YANG Jie-Jiao

    2009-01-01

    According to the deficiencies in Watts and Strogatz's small-world network model, we present a new regular model to establish the small-world network. Besides the property of the small-world, this model has other properties such as accuracy in controlling the average shortest path length L, and the average clustering coefficient C, also regular network topology as well as enhanced network robustness. This method improves the construction of the small-world network essentially, so that the regular small-world network closely resembles the actual network. We also present studies on the relationships among the quantities of a variety of edges, L and C in regular small-world network in detail. This research lays the foundation for the establishment of the regular small-world network and acts as a good guidance for further research of this model and its applications.

  11. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  12. Head Injury by Pneumatic Nail Gun: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Woo; Shim, Yu Shik; Oh, Se Yang; Hyun, Dong Keun; Park, Hyeon Seon; Kim, Eun Young

    2014-10-01

    A 56-year-old man had five nail gun-shots on his skull due to attempted suicide and was transferred to the emergency room. Because the nail head played a role as a brake, the launched nail made a hole in the skull but did not entirely pass through it. If major artery or sinuses are not involved, cautious retrieval after a small scalp incision can be performed and prophylactic antibiotics be administered for treatment.

  13. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    magnitude filter was applied to the images. Bones with small articular spaces (such as cervical vertebra ) were manually separated. The polygon surfaces...the neck. Cervical vertebrae 1 through 7, the hyoid bone, the C2 cartilage, spinal cord, 52 muscles of the neck (listed in Figure 12 and Figure 13...studies of the cervical spine is provided in place the head supported mass analysis (Task 2.1/2.2), as agreed upon with USAARL. Task 3 includes the finite

  14. Neurofibromatosis of the head and neck: classification and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Kerry; Buchanan, Edward P; Suver, Daniel; Gruss, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis is common and presents with variable penetrance and manifestations in one in 2500 to one in 3000 live births. The management of these patients is often multidisciplinary because of the complexity of the disease. Plastic surgeons are frequently involved in the surgical management of patients with head and neck involvement. A 20-year retrospective review of patients treated surgically for head and neck neurofibroma was performed. Patients were identified according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for neurofibromatosis and from the senior author's database. A total of 59 patients with head and neck neurofibroma were identified. These patients were categorized into five distinct, but not exclusive, categories to assist with diagnosis and surgical management. These categories included plexiform, cranioorbital, facial, neck, and parotid/auricular neurofibromatosis. A surgical classification system and clinical characteristics of head and neck neurofibromatosis is presented to assist practitioners with diagnosis and surgical management of this complex disease. The surgical management of the cranioorbital type is discussed in detail in 24 patients. The importance and safety of facial nerve dissection and preservation using intraoperative nerve monitoring were validated in 16 dissections in 15 patients. Massive involvement of the neck extending from the skull base to the mediastinum, frequently considered inoperable, has been safely resected by the use of access osteotomies of the clavicle and sternum, muscle takedown, and brachial plexus dissection and preservation using intraoperative nerve monitoring. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. The pearls and pitfalls of skull trephination as described in the Hippocratic treatise "On Head Wounds".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Vassilios G; Robinson, Joe Sam; Fountas, Kostas N

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of our current study is to describe the guidelines regarding trephination as suggested in the Hippocratic writer's book, "Peri ton en cephali traumaton" ("On Head Wounds"). The ancient Greek text was reviewed as well as two English translations. The Hippocratic author described the indications, timing, and techniques of trephination for patients with head injury. He emphasized that attention should be paid to the details of the employed technique. He also commented on the difference of skull thickness at different anatomical sites and also between different age groups. The Hippocratic recommendations provided details for the performance of trephination by the ancient Greek physicians that are still considered important in modern neurosurgery.

  16. Investigation of electromagnetic interference effects by ESD simulator on test parameters of tunneling magnetic recording heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruesubthaworn, A.; Khunkitti, P.; Siritaratiwat, A.; Kaewrawang, A.; Mewes, T.; Mewes, C. K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) has been an important issue in the manufacturing processes of hard disk drive. It can also generate electromagnetic interference (EMI) which could possibly damage magnetic recording heads. The aims of this work are to measure the EMI from ESD events and to examine the effects of EMI on the heads. The discharge current and the EMI generated by an ESD simulator were experimentally measured. Also, the EMI was applied to the heads to determine if this can cause changes of head parameters. Our results show that the discharge current waveform is consistent with the theoretical waveform of the IEC ESD standard. Additionally, we found that the EMI applied due to ESD at distances greater than 2 cm does not have any significant effect on the head parameters. Hence, further detailed experiments are proposed to evaluate the EMI effects on recording head parameters in order to improve the measurement methodologies to prevent the degradation of the heads performance and to increase the robustness of the heads.

  17. The Detailed Chemical Abundance Patterns of M31 Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, J E; Cohen, J

    2012-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances for $>$20 elements in $\\sim$30 globular clusters in M31. These results have been obtained using high resolution ($\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda\\sim$24,000) spectra of their integrated light and analyzed using our original method. The globular clusters have galactocentric radii between 2.5 kpc and 117 kpc, and therefore provide abundance patterns for different phases of galaxy formation recorded in the inner and outer halo of M31. We find that the clusters in our survey have a range in metallicity of $-2.2$20 kpc have a small range in abundance of [Fe/H]$=-1.6 \\pm 0.10$. We also measure abundances of alpha, r- and s-process elements. These results constitute the first abundance pattern constraints for old populations in M31 that are comparable to those known for the Milky Way halo.

  18. Thermal and mechanical analysis for the detailed model using submodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuh, Jung Eui; Kang, Chul Hyung; Park, Jeong Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    A very big model is required for the TM analysis for HLRW repository, and also very small size of mesh is needed to simulate precisely main parts of analysis, e.g., canister, buffer, etc. However, it is practically impossible due to high memory size and computing time. In this report, a submodel concept in ABAQUS is used to handle this difficulty. A submodel concept is the part interested only is performed detailed modelling and this result is used as a boundary condition of full scale model. To follow this kind of computation procedure temperature distribution in buffer and canister could be computed precisely. This approach can be applied to TM analysis of buffer and canister, or a finite size of repository. 12 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  19. Soccer heading frequency predicts neuropsychological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witol, Adrienne D; Webbe, Frank M

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated the presence of neuropsychological deficits associated with hitting the ball with one's head (heading) during soccer play. A neuro-cognitive test battery was administered to 60 male soccer players, high school, amateur and professional level, and 12 nonplaying control participants. The effects of currently reported heading behavior as well as that of estimated lifetime heading experience on neuropsychological test performance were examined. Players with the highest lifetime estimates of heading had poorer scores on scales measuring attention, concentration, cognitive flexibility and general intellectual functioning. Players' current level of heading was less predictive of neuro-cognitive level. Comparison of individual scores to age-appropriate norms revealed higher probabilities of clinical levels of impairment in players who reported greater lifetime frequencies of heading. Because of the worldwide popularity of the game, continued research is needed to assess the interaction between heading and soccer experience in the development of neuropsychological deficits associated with soccer play.

  20. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  1. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this? Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How ... Disease Control and Prevention , Â National Center for Injury Prevention and Control , Â Division of Unintentional Injury ...

  2. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Concussion in Youth Sports Training course: This page ... Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS ...

  3. Sakonnet Harbor, Little Compton, Rhode Island, Small Navigation Project: Detailed Project Report. Main Report & Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    59 5 December 1980 United States Fish and Wildlife Service 3-62 9 December 1980 Mr. Orson L. St. John 3-63 9 December 1980 Rhode Island Statwide...date should be corrected to May 15, 1969. Sincerely yours, %/ Gordon E. Beckett Supervisor L ___ _ ST. JOHN. PARK & SCOTT ATTOFNCYG AT LAW i WEST ELM...STREI O1 SON L. ST. JOHN Nm.rORo w. PARK MAIL ADDRE45 P.O, OX 697 !10) 166*330 OtOROI W. SCOTT . JR. GRtrENWICH, CONNeCTICUT 06630 December 9, A190

  4. Weymouth Fore River, Weymouth, Braintree, Massachusetts, Small Navigation Project. Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Mysid shrimp exposed to liquid and suspended particulate phases of dredged material were fed live 48-hr-old Artemia ( brine shrimp ) nauplii at a rate of...dishes. Animals were fed live 48-hr-old Artemia ( brine shrimp ) nauplii at a rate of .1 ml of culture/dish/day. A 14-hr light (%1200 Uw/cm2 at surface...Animals were fed live 48-hr-old Artemia ( brine shrimp ) nauplii at a rate of %l ml of culture/dish/day. A 14-hr light (1200 uw/cm 2 at surface of

  5. "One of the Small Details That Got Overlooked": School Meals as Response to Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Hazel

    1992-01-01

    Study examined responses to cultural diversity at three British primary schools with Muslim students. At two schools, Muslim students received different meals when meat was served. Interviews with personnel, parents, and students uncovered undesirable, covert, stereotyping effects from the effort. Policies to avoid such effects and increase…

  6. Attitude Heading Reference System Using MEMS Inertial Sensors with Dual-Axis Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table’s frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition.

  7. Attitude heading reference system using MEMS inertial sensors with dual-axis rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li; Ye, Lingyun; Song, Kaichen; Zhou, Yang

    2014-09-29

    This paper proposes a low cost and small size attitude and heading reference system based on MEMS inertial sensors. A dual-axis rotation structure with a proper rotary scheme according to the design principles is applied in the system to compensate for the attitude and heading drift caused by the large gyroscope biases. An optimization algorithm is applied to compensate for the installation angle error between the body frame and the rotation table's frame. Simulations and experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the AHRS. The results show that the proper rotation could significantly reduce the attitude and heading drifts. Moreover, the new AHRS is not affected by magnetic interference. After the rotation, the attitude and heading are almost just oscillating in a range. The attitude error is about 3° and the heading error is less than 3° which are at least 5 times better than the non-rotation condition.

  8. Changes in parents' spanking and reading as mechanisms for Head Start impacts on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M; Sexton, Holly R

    2016-06-01

    This study examined whether Head Start, the nation's main two-generation program for low-income families, benefits children in part through positive changes in parents' use of spanking and reading to children. Data were drawn from the 3-year-old cohort of the national evaluation of the Head Start program known as the Head Start Impact Study (N = 2,063). Results indicated that Head Start had small, indirect effects on children's spelling ability at Age 4 and their aggression at Age 4 through an increase in parents' reading to their children. Taken together, the results suggest that parents play a role in sustaining positive benefits of the Head Start program for children's behavior and literacy skills, one that could be enhanced with a greater emphasis on parent involvement and education. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Towards a detailed soot model for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Markus; Mosbach, Sebastian; Celnik, Matthew S. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zhang, Hongzhi R. [Univ. of Utah (United States); Kubo, Shuichi; Kim, Kyoung-Oh [Toyota (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we integrate previously developed models for engine combustion and soot formation. Namely, we combine the stochastic reactor model (SRM) engine code, which uses detailed chemistry and takes into account convective heat transfer and turbulent mixing, with SWEEP, a population balance solver based on a Monte Carlo method. In order to couple the two codes, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism describing the combustion of primary reference fuels (PRFs) is extended to include small Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as pyrene, which function as soot precursor species for particle inception in the soot model. The integrated model provides not only averaged quantities as functions of crank angle like soot mass, volume fraction, aggregate diameter, and the number of primary particles per aggregate for example, but also more detailed information such as aggregate and primary particle size distribution functions. In addition, specifics about aggregate structure and composition, including C/H ratio and PAH ring count distributions, and images similar to those produced with transmission electron microscopes (TEMs), can be obtained. The combined model is applied to simulate an n-heptane fuelled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine which is operated at an equivalence ratio of 1.93. In-cylinder pressure and heat release predictions show satisfactory agreement with measurements. Furthermore, simulated aggregate size distributions as well as their time evolution are found to qualitatively agree with those obtained experimentally through snatch sampling. It is also seen both in the experiment as well as in the simulation that aggregates in the trapped residual gases play a vital role in the soot formation process. (orig.)

  10. Detailed analysis of Balmer lines in cool dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Barklem, P S; Allende-Prieto, C; Kochukhov, O P; Piskunov, N; O'Mara, B J

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of H alpha and H beta spectra in a sample of 30 cool dwarf and subgiant stars is presented using MARCS model atmospheres based on the most recent calculations of the line opacities. A detailed quantitative comparison of the solar flux spectra with model spectra shows that Balmer line profile shapes, and therefore the temperature structure in the line formation region, are best represented under the mixing length theory by any combination of a low mixing-length parameter alpha and a low convective structure parameter y. A slightly lower effective temperature is obtained for the sun than the accepted value, which we attribute to errors in models and line opacities. The programme stars span temperatures from 4800 to 7100 K and include a small number of population II stars. Effective temperatures have been derived using a quantitative fitting method with a detailed error analysis. Our temperatures find good agreement with those from the Infrared Flux Method (IRFM) near solar metallicity but show diffe...

  11. Detailed computation of hot-plasma atomic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe; Blenski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We present recent evolutions of the detailed opacity code SCO-RCG which combines statistical modelings of levels and lines with fine-structure calculations. The code now includes the Partially-Resolved-Transition-Array model, which allows one to replace a complex transition array by a small-scale detailed calculation preserving energy and variance of the genuine transition array and yielding improved high-order moments. An approximate method for studying the impact of strong magnetic field on opacity and emissivity was also recently implemented. The Zeeman line profile is modeled by fourth-order Gram-Charlier expansion series, which is a Gaussian multiplied by a linear combination of Hermite polynomials. Electron collisional line broadening is often modeled by a Lorentzian function and one has to calculate the convolution of a Lorentzian with Gram-Charlier distribution for a huge number of spectral lines. Since the numerical cost of the direct convolution would be prohibitive, we propose, in order to obtain t...

  12. Head stabilization in whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, M.R.; Cronin, T.W.; Olsen, G.H.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is the tallest bird in North America, yet not much is known about its visual ecology. How these birds overcome their unusual height to identify, locate, track, and capture prey items is not well understood. There have been many studies on head and eye stabilization in large wading birds (herons and egrets), but the pattern of head movement and stabilization during foraging is unclear. Patterns of head movement and stabilization during walking were examined in whooping cranes at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland USA. Four whooping cranes (1 male and 3 females) were videotaped for this study. All birds were already acclimated to the presence of people and to food rewards. Whooping cranes were videotaped using both digital and Hi-8 Sony video cameras (Sony Corporation, 7-35 Kitashinagawa, 6-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan), placed on a tripod and set at bird height in the cranes' home pens. The cranes were videotaped repeatedly, at different locations in the pens and while walking (or running) at different speeds. Rewards (meal worms, smelt, crickets and corn) were used to entice the cranes to walk across the camera's view plane. The resulting videotape was analyzed at the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. Briefly, we used a computerized reduced graphic model of a crane superimposed over each frame of analyzed tape segments by means of a custom written program (T. W. Cronin, using C++) with the ability to combine video and computer graphic input. The speed of the birds in analyzed segments ranged from 0.30 m/s to 2.64 m/s, and the proportion of time the head was stabilized ranged from 79% to 0%, respectively. The speed at which the proportion reached 0% was 1.83 m/s. The analyses suggest that the proportion of time the head is stable decreases as speed of the bird increases. In all cases, birds were able to reach their target prey with little difficulty. Thus when cranes are walking searching for food

  13. Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...

  14. Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aljabab, A. S.; Nason, R. W.; Kazi, R; Pathak, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcomas are malignant neoplasms originating from mesodermal tissues and constitute less than 1% of body’s tumors, including those of the head and neck region. 5–15% of adult sarcomas are in the head and neck region (20% from bones and cartilages and 80% in soft tissues). Commonly encountered sarcomas in the head and neck region are - osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, fibrosarcoma and angiosarcoma. This article reviews the available literature on head and neck sa...

  15. The morphological details of globular keratohyalin granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, W; Dingemans, K P

    1986-10-01

    In quickly dividing epithelia such as that of the tongue, keratohyalin formation takes place in globular keratohyalin granules (KHG). This is in contrast with the irregular KHG as seen in normal, slowly dividing epidermis. The morphogenesis of the globular KHG is explained in this study. In small KHG, dense aggregates of ribosomes can be seen at the site of blebs. It is suggested that these blebs framed with ribosomes are internalized giving rise to "dense homogeneous deposits" or "single granules". Lipid droplets occur in the upper spinous and horny layer. Globular KHG also contain variable amounts of lipids, and the lipid content seems to be inversely related to the protein content, dependent on the degree of cell differentiation or on the rate of cell turnover. It is suggested that in epithelia with a high cell turnover few rigid keratohyalin components are dispersed in lipids, which maintain a globular shape due to the surface tension.

  16. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Cyclohexane Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silke, E J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Ribaucour, M

    2006-11-10

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of cyclohexane at both low and high temperatures. Reaction rate constant rules are developed for the low temperature combustion of cyclohexane. These rules can be used for in chemical kinetic mechanisms for other cycloalkanes. Since cyclohexane produces only one type of cyclohexyl radical, much of the low temperature chemistry of cyclohexane is described in terms of one potential energy diagram showing the reaction of cyclohexyl radical + O{sub 2} through five, six and seven membered ring transition states. The direct elimination of cyclohexene and HO{sub 2} from RO{sub 2} is included in the treatment using a modified rate constant of Cavallotti et al. Published and unpublished data from the Lille rapid compression machine, as well as jet-stirred reactor data are used to validate the mechanism. The effect of heat loss is included in the simulations, an improvement on previous studies on cyclohexane. Calculations indicated that the production of 1,2-epoxycyclohexane observed in the experiments can not be simulated based on the current understanding of low temperature chemistry. Possible 'alternative' H-atom isomerizations leading to different products from the parent O{sub 2}QOOH radical were included in the low temperature chemical kinetic mechanism and were found to play a significant role.

  17. Details of tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg; Gorman, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    We have implemented tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation using the local operations of coarsening, swapping, refinement and smoothing in MATLAB without the use of any for- N loops, i.e. the script is fully vectorised. In the process of doing so, we have made three observations related to details of the implementation: 1. restricting refinement to a single edge split per element not only simplifies the code, it also improves mesh quality, 2. face to edge swapping is unnecessary, and 3. optimising for the Vassilevski functional tends to give a little higher value for the mean condition number functional than optimising for the condition number functional directly. These observations have been made for a uniform and a radial shock metric field, both starting from a structured mesh in a cube. Finally, we compare two coarsening techniques and demonstrate the importance of applying smoothing in the mesh adaptation loop. The results pertain to a unit cube geometry, but we also show the effect of corners and edges by applying the implementation in a spherical geometry.

  18. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  19. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  20. Level of detail technique for plant models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng ZHANG; Qingqiong DENG; Marc JAEGER

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modelling and interactive rendering of forestry and landscape is a challenge in computer graphics and virtual reality. Recent new developments in plant growth modelling and simulation lead to plant models faithful to botanical structure and development, not only representing the complex architecture of a real plant but also its functioning in interaction with its environment. Complex geometry and material of a large group of plants is a big burden even for high performances computers, and they often overwhelm the numerical calculation power and graphic rendering power. Thus, in order to accelerate the rendering speed of a group of plants, software techniques are often developed. In this paper, we focus on plant organs, i.e. leaves, flowers, fruits and inter-nodes. Our approach is a simplification process of all sparse organs at the same time, i. e. , Level of Detail (LOD) , and multi-resolution models for plants. We do explain here the principle and construction of plant simplification. They are used to construct LOD and multi-resolution models of sparse organs and branches of big trees. These approaches take benefit from basic knowledge of plant architecture, clustering tree organs according to biological structures. We illustrate the potential of our approach on several big virtual plants for geometrical compression or LOD model definition. Finally we prove the efficiency of the proposed LOD models for realistic rendering with a virtual scene composed by 184 mature trees.

  1. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  2. Newspaper Indexing Handbook for Small Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald R.

    This presentation of a simplified procedure for indexing local newspapers at a small library includes a brief discussion of 23 guidelines and rules for subject heading selection and use, indexing, and filing; a group of sample cards in the prescribed filing order; and a bibliography on newspaper indexing. (SW)

  3. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  4. Horizontal plane head stabilization during locomotor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R L; Newton, R A; Carlton, L G

    2001-03-01

    Frequency characteristics of head stabilization were examined during locomotor tasks in healthy young adults(N = 8) who performed normal walking and 3 walking tasks designed to produce perturbations primarily in the horizontal plane. In the 3 walking tasks, the arms moved in phase with leg movement, with abnormally large amplitude, and at twice the frequency of leg movement. Head-in-space angular velocity was examined at the predominant frequencies of trunk motion. Head movements in space occurred at low frequencies ( 4.0 Hz) when the arms moved at twice the frequency of the legs. Head stabilization strategies were determined from head-on-trunk with respect to trunk frequency profiles derived from angular velocity data. During natural walking at low frequencies (head-on-trunk movement was less than trunk movement. At frequencies 3.0 Hz or greater, equal and opposite compensatory movement ensured head stability. When arm swing was altered, compensatory movement guaranteed head stability at all frequencies. Head stabilization was successful for frequencies up to 10.0 Hz during locomotor tasks. Maintaining head stability at high frequencies during voluntary tasks suggests that participants used feedforward mechanisms to coordinate head and trunk movements. Maintenance of head stability during dynamic tasks allows optimal conditions for vestibulo-ocular reflex function.

  5. Head movements while steering around bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Oving, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the determinants of head motions (rotations) when driving around bends were investigated when drivers viewed the scene through a head-mounted display. The scene camera was either fixed or coupled to head motions along 2 or 3 axes of rotation. Eight participants drove around a

  6. Target position relative to the head is essential for predicting head movement during head-free gaze pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Pallus, Adam; G Freedman, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Gaze pursuit is the coordinated movement of the eyes and head that allows humans and other foveate animals to track moving objects. The control of smooth pursuit eye movements when the head is restrained is relatively well understood, but how the eyes coordinate with concurrent head movements when the head is free remains unresolved. In this study, we describe behavioral tasks that dissociate head and gaze velocity during head-free pursuit in monkeys. Existing models of gaze pursuit propose that both eye and head movements are driven only by the perceived velocity of the visual target and are therefore unable to account for these data. We show that in addition to target velocity, the positions of the eyes in the orbits and the retinal position of the target are important factors for predicting head movement during pursuit. When the eyes are already near their limits, further pursuit in that direction will be accompanied by more head movement than when the eyes are centered in the orbits, even when target velocity is the same. The step-ramp paradigm, often used in pursuit tasks, produces larger or smaller head movements, depending on the direction of the position step, while gaze pursuit velocity is insensitive to this manipulation. Using these tasks, we can reliably evoke head movements with peak velocities much faster than the target's velocity. Under these circumstances, the compensatory eye movements, which are often called counterproductive since they rotate the eyes in the opposite direction, are essential to maintaining accurate gaze velocity.

  7. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian A

    2010-01-01

    The biceps brachii muscle and the musculocutaneous nerve of arm are frequent in their variations. A third head of biceps brachii was noted unilaterally during routine anatomy dissection. Variation in musculocutaneous nerve was also seen on the same arm. The evolutionary and functional basis of such variations are discussed. Such variations become relevant during surgical intervention of the arm, especially after humeral fracture with subsequent unusual bone displacements.

  8. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The biceps brachii muscle and the musculocutaneous nerve of arm are frequent in their variations. A third head of biceps brachii was noted unilaterally during routine anatomy dissection. Variation in musculocutaneous nerve was also seen on the same arm. The evolutionary and functional basis of such variations are discussed. Such variations become relevant during surgical intervention of the arm, especially after humeral fracture with subsequent unusual bone displacements.

  9. A Detailed Modeling Study of Propane Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Jayaweera, T M; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2004-03-19

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been used to simulate ignition delay times recorded by a number of experimental shock tube studies over the temperature range 900 {le} T {le} 1800 K, in the pressure range 0.75-40 atm and in the equivalence ratio range 0.5 {le} {phi} {le} 2.0. Flame speed measurements at 1 atm in the equivalence ratio range 0.4 {le} {phi} {le} 1.8 have also been simulated. Both of these data sets, particularly those recorded at high pressure, are of particular importance in validating a kinetic mechanism, as internal combustion engines operate at elevated pressures and temperatures and rates of fuel oxidation are critical to efficient system operation. Experiments in which reactant, intermediate and product species were quantitatively recorded, versus temperature in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) and versus time in a flow reactor are also simulated. This data provide a stringent test of the kinetic mechanism as it must reproduce accurate quantitative profiles for all reactant, intermediate and product species. The JSR experiments were performed in the temperature range 1000-1110 K, in the equivalence ratio range 0.5 {le} {phi} {le} 4.0, at a pressure of 5 atm. These experiments are complemented by those carried out in a flow reactor in the temperature range 660-820 K, at 10 atm and at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. In addition, burner stabilized flames were simulated, where chemical species profiles were measured at atmospheric pressure for two propane-air flat flames. Overall, reasonably good agreement is observed between the model simulations and the experimental results.

  10. Verification of the Mechanism of the Head-Positioning Error Caused by Disk Flutter and Slider Supporting Structure for Reducing Head-Positioning Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Satomitsu

    In magnetic disk drives, the disk flutter due to high-rotational speed causes the increase of the head-positioning error. It is important to clear the mechanism of the head-positioning error caused by the disk flutter. This paper conducts the experiments to verify the mechanism proposed in the former report. The experiment was conducted by comparing the head-positioning error predicted by the proposed mechanism with the measured head-positioning error signal. It is confirmed that the proposed mechanism can predict the head-positioning error within the 10% error. The former reports also said that the flutter transfer ratio defined in the report could decrease the head-positioning error without reducing the amplitude of the disk flutter. This paper also verifies it experimentally. In the experiment, the thickness of the slider was changed to make the flutter transfer ratio small. This paper also proposes the method of making the beam angle of the gimbal slant to make the flutter transfer ratio small. The effectiveness was confirmed by the simulation.

  11. Preventing head and neck injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

    2005-06-01

    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  12. Numerical Study of Head/Helmet Interaction Due to Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    in our calculation. The skull is connected to the body through seven cervical vertebrae and six cervical disks. Only the head/neck is modeled with...into a cylinder, as shown in Figure 2. The skull, lower jaw and the cervical vertebrae are modeled as a single bone material, which is shown in green...appropriate boundary conditions. Within short time period (~5 ), the head movement is small and the complex cervical geometries are simplified

  13. Is Heading in Youth Soccer Dangerous Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.

  14. Employing UAVs to Acquire Detailed Vegetation and Bare Ground Data for Assessing Rangeland Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Herrick, J. E.; Winters, C.

    2007-12-01

    Because of its value as a historical record (extending back to the mid 1930s), aerial photography is an important tool used in many rangeland studies. However, these historical photos are not very useful for detailed analysis of rangeland health because of inadequate spatial resolution and scheduling limitations. These issues are now being resolved by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) over rangeland study areas. Spatial resolution improvements have been rapid in the last 10 years from the QuickBird satellite through improved aerial photography to the new UAV coverage and have utilized improved sensors and the more simplistic approach of low altitude flights. Our rangeland health experiments have shown that the low altitude UAV digital photography is preferred by rangeland scientists because it allows, for the first time, their identification of vegetation and land surface patterns and patches, gap sizes, bare soil percentages, and vegetation type. This hyperspatial imagery (imagery with a resolution finer than the object of interest) is obtained at about 5cm resolution by flying at an altitude of 150m above the surface of the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico. Additionally, the UAV provides improved temporal flexibility, such as flights immediately following fires, floods, and other catastrophic disturbances, because the flight capability is located near the study area and the vehicles are under the direct control of the users, eliminating the additional steps associated with budgets and contracts. There are significant challenges to improve the data to make them useful for operational agencies, namely, image distortion with inexpensive, consumer grade digital cameras, difficulty in detecting sufficient ground control points in small scenes (152m by 114m), accuracy of exterior UAV information on X,Y, Z, roll, pitch, and heading, the sheer number of images collected, and developing reliable relationships with ground-based data across a broad

  15. A depth-based head-mounted visual display to aid navigation in partially sighted individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Hicks

    Full Text Available Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals.

  16. Effects of First-Order Approximations on Head and Specific Discharge Covariances in High-Contrast Log Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Thomas; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    1996-05-01

    The hydraulic head and the specific discharge fluctuations depend nonlinearly on the hydraulic conductivity. However, the methods most commonly used in the stochastic analysis of groundwater flow are based upon the linearization of these relations. In this paper we apply a numerical spectral approach to investigate the range of validity of the small perturbation approximation for head and specific discharge moments in two-dimensional finite domains. We find that the small perturbation approximation tends to underestimate the variance of large-scale head and specific discharge fluctuations and error increases with increasing log-conductivity variance and increasing domain size. The head fluctuations do not appear ergodic even when the small perturbation approximation predicts they will be ergodic. The specific discharge fluctuations, on the other hand, do appear ergodic. The small perturbation approximation performs well in estimating specific discharge variance in the longitudinal direction but significantly underestimates transverse specific discharge variance.

  17. Thrust and Torque Characteristics Based on a New cutter-head Load Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianqin; REN Jiabao; GUO Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full face rock tunnel boring machine(TBM) has been widely used in hard rock tunnels, however, there are few published theory about cutter-head design, and the design criteria of cutter-head under complex geological is not clear yet. To deal with the complex relationship among geological parameters, cutter parameters, and operating parameters during tunneling processes, a cutter-head load model is established by using CSM(Colorado school of mines) prediction model. Force distribution on cutter-head under a certain geology is calculated with the new established load model, and result shows that inner cutters bear more force than outer cutters, combining with disc cutters abrasion; a general principle of disc cutters’ layout design is proposed. Within the model, the relationship among rock uniaxial compressive strength(UCS), penetration and thrust on cutter-head are analyzed, and the results shows that with increasing penetration, cutter thrust increases, but the growth rate slows and higher penetration makes lower special energy(SE). Finally, a fitting mathematical model of ZT(ratio of cutter-head torque and thrust) and penetration is established, and verified by TB880E, which can be used to direct how to set thrust and torque on cutter-head. When penetration is small, the cutter-head thrust is the main limiting factor in tunneling;when the penetration is large, cutter-head torque is the major limiting factor in tunneling. Based on the new cutter-head load model, thrust and torque characteristics of TBM further are researched and a new way for cutter-head layout design and TBM tunneling operations is proposed.

  18. Paroxysmal eye-head movements in Glut1 deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Toni S; Pons, Roser; Engelstad, Kristin; Kane, Steven A; Goldberg, Michael E; De Vivo, Darryl C

    2017-04-25

    To describe a characteristic paroxysmal eye-head movement disorder that occurs in infants with Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 101 patients with Glut1 DS to obtain clinical data about episodic abnormal eye movements and analyzed video recordings of 18 eye movement episodes from 10 patients. A documented history of paroxysmal abnormal eye movements was found in 32/101 patients (32%), and a detailed description was available in 18 patients, presented here. Episodes started before age 6 months in 15/18 patients (83%), and preceded the onset of seizures in 10/16 patients (63%) who experienced both types of episodes. Eye movement episodes resolved, with or without treatment, by 6 years of age in 7/8 patients with documented long-term course. Episodes were brief (usually <5 minutes). Video analysis revealed that the eye movements were rapid, multidirectional, and often accompanied by a head movement in the same direction. Eye movements were separated by clear intervals of fixation, usually ranging from 200 to 800 ms. The movements were consistent with eye-head gaze saccades. These movements can be distinguished from opsoclonus by the presence of a clear intermovement fixation interval and the association of a same-direction head movement. Paroxysmal eye-head movements, for which we suggest the term aberrant gaze saccades, are an early symptom of Glut1 DS in infancy. Recognition of the episodes will facilitate prompt diagnosis of this treatable neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Person-Independent Head Pose Estimation Using Biased Manifold Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Panchanathan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Head pose estimation has been an integral problem in the study of face recognition systems and human-computer interfaces, as part of biometric applications. A fine estimate of the head pose angle is necessary and useful for several face analysis applications. To determine the head pose, face images with varying pose angles can be considered to be lying on a smooth low-dimensional manifold in high-dimensional image feature space. However, when there are face images of multiple individuals with varying pose angles, manifold learning techniques often do not give accurate results. In this work, we propose a framework for a supervised form of manifold learning called Biased Manifold Embedding to obtain improved performance in head pose angle estimation. This framework goes beyond pose estimation, and can be applied to all regression applications. This framework, although formulated for a regression scenario, unifies other supervised approaches to manifold learning that have been proposed so far. Detailed studies of the proposed method are carried out on the FacePix database, which contains 181 face images each of 30 individuals with pose angle variations at a granularity of 1∘. Since biometric applications in the real world may not contain this level of granularity in training data, an analysis of the methodology is performed on sparsely sampled data to validate its effectiveness. We obtained up to 2∘ average pose angle estimation error in the results from our experiments, which matched the best results obtained for head pose estimation using related approaches.

  20. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  1. Neuropsychiatric sequelae of head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, T W

    1992-06-01

    Based on the above review several general points can be highlighted: Head injuries are extremely common, affecting probably close to 2,000,000 people in this country each year. The most common are nonmissile, closed-head injuries, the majority of which occur in association with motor vehicle accidents. Virtually all studies of head injury suggest a peak incidence in the 15 to 24 years of age group. Coarse measures of outcome suggest that the very young and the elderly have poorer outcomes. Because of improved acute care, however, a large number of young, otherwise healthy patients are surviving head injuries with a variety of profound neuropsychiatric sequelae. Because of the mechanics of brain injury in acceleration-deceleration injuries, certain brain injury profiles are common including orbitofrontal, anterior and inferior temporal contusions, and diffuse axonal injury. The latter particularly affects the corpus callosum, superior cerebellar peduncle, basal ganglia, and periventricular white matter. The neuropsychiatric sequelae follow from the above injury profiles. Cognitive impairment is often diffuse with more prominent deficits in rate of information processing, attention, memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem solving. Prominent impulsivity, affective instability, and disinhibition are seen frequently, secondary to injury to frontal, temporal, and limbic areas. In association with the typical cognitive deficits, these sequelae characterize the frequently noted "personality changes" in TBI patients. In addition, these changes can exacerbate premorbid problems with impulse control. Marked difficulties with substance use, sexual expression, and aggression often result. The constellation of symptoms, which make up the postconcussive syndrome, are seen across the whole spectrum of brain injury severity. Even in so-called mild or minor head injury, these symptoms are likely to have an underlying neuropathologic, neurochemical, or neurophysiologic cause

  2. Expressiveness of multiple heads in CHR

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giusto, Cinzia; Meo, Maria Chiara

    2008-01-01

    Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are a committed-choice declarative language which has been designed for writing constraint solvers. A CHR program consists of multi-headed guarded rules which allow one to rewrite constraints into simpler ones until a solved form is reached. Many examples in the vast literature on the subject show that multiple heads are important in order to write programs which solve specific problems. On the other hand, the presence of multiples heads complicates considerably the semantics. Therefore, since restricting to single head rules does not affect the Turing completeness of the language, one can legitimately ask whether multiple heads do indeed augment the expressive power of the language. In this paper we answer positively to this question by showing that, under certain reasonable assumptions, it is not possible to encode the CHR language (with multi-headed rules) into a single head language while preserving the intended meaning of programs.

  3. Report details poverty-population-environment link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This summary reports on the state of environmental conditions in 1993 and is a reprint from an ICPD publication. This summary refers to a Roundtable Meeting held in November 1993, preliminary to the 1994 UN Conference on the Environment and Development, and an environmental report by Mary Berberis. The report identifies five regions with serious environmental degradation and resource depletion (the Bay of Bengal; the former forested uplands of Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand; the forests of Central America; the arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa; and the small South Pacific island states). These regions are not just beset with environmental problems, but those problems are exacerbated by problems with land supply and use, poverty, waste, and lack of technology. The report emphasizes that a focus solely on population growth issues obscures the urgent demand for dealing with poverty alleviation, land reform, waste reduction, and improved technologies. Environmental degradation is also caused to a great extent by unsustainable patterns of consumption by affluent groups and by the processes of urban expansion, deforestation, and cultivation of marginal lands in both developed and developing countries. Mary Barberis in her summary of the literature on the causes of environmental conditions considers that the most serious environmental damage is generated by conditions of poverty and population pressure. Environmentally unsound practices are supported by inappropriate farming and soil management techniques, unequal access to resources, and government policies. The example of Bangladesh illustrates that urban population growth has occurred mostly in poor areas, and the problems of water supply, drainage, solid waste disposal, and sanitation are compounded by population growth. Rivers and marine fisheries is contaminated by urban discharges, untreated industrial waste, and fertilizers. Increased salinization degrades the land. Harvesting of wood depletes

  4. Late neuropsychologic status after childhood head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeff, H; Abraham, E; Brenner, T; Horowitz, I; Apter, N; Sadan, N; Najenson, T

    1988-01-01

    A neurologic and neuropsychologic test battery was administered to a sample of 35 children drawn from all those in a defined geographic area who had been hospitalized for head trauma before age 7 during the years 1970-1976. Examination was performed 3 1/2 to 10 years after injury, at age 6-15. Twelve subjects had been diagnosed at the time of injury as suffering moderate insult and had been referred to the metropolitan neurosurgical center, while twenty-three with only mild injury had been retained for observation in a local pediatric ward. The twelve with more severe insult were significantly inferior to the other subjects on the Block Design and Coding subtests of the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Koppitz score of the Bender Test, the WISC-R scatter, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the GATB Motor Speed Test and the Bourdon-Wiersma Vigilance Test showed less diagnostic power and failed to distinguish between the group with more severe injury and that with less. A detailed and carefully scored neurologic examination also failed to distinguish between the two groups. The findings suggest that relatively common traumatic injury may be associated with detectable late cognitive deficit, and that some WISC-R subtests may be among the best measures for detecting such deficit.

  5. Evaluation of Head Trauma Cases in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Cokuk

    2013-02-01

    hospital was traffic accident. The most common finding of cerebral CT was SAH. Even though traffic accidents are the most common causes of death, gunshot wounds have higher death rate. This study will help emergency physicians to approach with head trauma patients and contribute to their clinical experiences. Our country-specific emergency trauma protocols can be created after more detailed studies. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 63-71

  6. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  7. Post-mortem cooling of the human head: an infrared thermology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, A; Williams, R W

    1991-01-01

    The post-mortem cooling of the human head, over the first fifteen hours after death, was measured by infrared thermology. A detailed temperature map of the head and face was obtained by the use of image processing techniques and the cooling behaviour of twelve preselected facial features was observed. The two main findings of the study were a difference in cooling pattern between the upper and the lower part of the head, and a consistency in the cooling pattern of the lower part of the head in all the cases studied. A comparison of various model fits to the raw data was undertaken and the "best" bodies, models and features were determined on a statistical basis. The formula that best fitted the raw data was a novel double application of Newton's law. The features with the least error in data fitting were the chin and zygoma; that with the most error was the mouth.

  8. Detailed Burnup Calculations for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, F. [Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA), 8400 S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    A general method (RRMCQ) has been developed by introducing a microscopic burn up scheme which uses the Monte Carlo calculated spatial power distribution of a research reactor core and a depletion code for burn up calculations, as a basis for solving nuclide material balance equations for each spatial region in which the system is divided. Continuous energy dependent cross-section libraries and full 3D geometry of the system is input for the calculations. The resulting predictions for the system at successive burn up time steps are thus based on a calculation route where both geometry and cross-sections are accurately represented, without geometry simplifications and with continuous energy data. The main advantage of this method over the classical deterministic methods currently used is that RRMCQ System is a direct 3D method without the limitations and errors introduced on the homogenization of geometry and condensation of energy of deterministic methods. The Monte Carlo and burn up codes adopted until now are the widely used MCNP5 and ORIGEN2 codes, but other codes can be used also. For using this method, there is a need of a well-known set of nuclear data for isotopes involved in burn up chains, including burnable poisons, fission products and actinides. For fixing the data to be included on this set, a study of the present status of nuclear data is performed, as part of the development of RRMCQ method. This study begins with a review of the available cross-section data of isotopes involved in burn up chains for research nuclear reactors. The main data needs for burn up calculations are neutron cross-sections, decay constants, branching ratios, fission energy and yields. The present work includes results of selected experimental benchmarks and conclusions about the sensitivity of different sets of cross-section data for burn up calculations, using some of the main available evaluated nuclear data files. Basically, the RRMCQ detailed burn up method includes four

  9. Small-Sized, Flat-Type Invasive Branch Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Shindo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent improvements in diagnostic modalities are increasing the frequency of detection of small-sized branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs. International consensus guidelines for IPMN recommend surveillance without immediate resection for small-sized (<3 cm BD-IPMNs without malignant features on imaging. Our patient is the first to have undergone resection of a small-sized BD-IPMN containing invasive cancer, but without malignant features on imaging. We herein report a case involving a 70-year-old man with a small cystic lesion in the pancreas head detected by health screening ultrasonography. Detailed examination revealed that the cystic lesion was a BD-IPMN measuring about 2 cm, with no malignant features. However, cytological examination of the pancreatic juice showed atypical cells with high-grade dysplasia storing intracytoplasmic mucin, indicating malignant BD-IPMN. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a BD-IPMN measuring 16 mm with an associated invasive carcinoma that invaded the pancreatic parenchyma over a distance of 11 mm. In this patient, invasive cancer was present within a small BD-IPMN with no high-risk stigmata on imaging. Cytological examination of the pancreatic juice allowed for the detection of pancreatic cancer in such a small-sized IPMN. Although routine endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP with cytology is not recommended in all patients with BD-IPMNs, ERCP may contribute to the detection of small pancreatic cancers in select cases. Accumulation of cases of pancreatic cancer within small BD-IPMNs may help establish the indications for ERCP with cytological examination for the purpose of early detection of small pancreatic cancer.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... MR angiography (MRA) provides detailed images of blood vessels in the brain—often without the need for ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and may require an injection of a contrast ... internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... with claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams. Older ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  14. Radial head dislocation during proximal radial shaft osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Antony; Bindra, Randy R

    2014-03-01

    The following case report describes a 48-year-old female patient with a longstanding both-bone forearm malunion, who underwent osteotomies of both the radius and ulna to improve symptoms of pain and lack of rotation at the wrist. The osteotomies were templated preoperatively. During surgery, after performing the planned radial shaft osteotomy, the authors recognized that the radial head was subluxated. The osteotomy was then revised from an opening wedge to a closing wedge with improvement of alignment and rotation. The case report discusses the details of the operation, as well as ways in which to avoid similar shortcomings in the future.

  15. Devil in the Details? Developmental Dyslexia and Visual Long-Term Memory for Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn eHuestegge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories on causes of developmental dyslexia can be divided into language-specific and general accounts. While the former assume that words are special in that associated processing problems are rooted in language-related cognition (e.g., phonology deficits, the latter propose that dyslexia is rather rooted in a general impairment of cognitive (e.g., visual and/or auditory processing streams. In the present study, we examined to what extent dyslexia (typically characterized by poor orthographic representations may be associated with a general deficit in visual long-term memory for details. We compared object- and detail-related visual long-term memory performance (and phonological skills between dyslexic primary school children and IQ-, age- and gender-matched controls. The results revealed that while the overall amount of long-term memory errors was comparable between groups, dyslexic children exhibited a greater portion of detail-related errors. The results suggest that not only phonological, but also general visual resolution deficits in long-term memory may play an important role in developmental dyslexia.

  16. Nutritional Status of New Orleans, Mississippi and Alabama Head Start Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jack L.

    Three purposes guided compilation of this final report on the nutritional status of New Orleans, Mississippi, and Alabama Head Start children: (1) to evaluate the causes of anemia through detailed studies of urban New Orleans preschool children and their mothers, (2) to study the effect of dietary supplementation of school feeding programs upon…

  17. Intra-tendinous ganglion in the long head of the biceps humeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Kenta; Akisue, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Takuya; Kawamoto, Teruya; Hara, Hitomi; Kurosaka, Masahiro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe (Japan); Hitora, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Tetuji [Kagawa University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kita-gun, Kagawa (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We present details of a case of intra-tendinous ganglion arising from the long head of the biceps at an unusual location. MRI scans have important implications for surgical planning and treatment. After excision of the ganglion, the tendon remaining could be repaired. Five months after surgery, there was no sign of recurrence. (orig.)

  18. Writing an article for the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery: rights and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, O; Tran Ba Huy, P; Dubreuil, C; Blumen, M; Guerrier, B; Martin, C

    2010-06-01

    Based on a review of the literature published on medical writing, the authors discuss the rules to respect in terms of both structure and substance to facilitate publication of studies in the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. The main errors leading to an article's being rejected are detailed and analyzed.

  19. [Cosmus Conrad Cuno (1652-1745) on a human ectoparasite: the head louse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, G H

    1979-07-01

    Cosmus Conrad Cuno, a less well known optician and inventor of microscopes from the second half of the 17th century, published in 1734 at Augsburg his Observationes durch dessen verfertigte Microscopia where along with various observations he communicated salient details pertaining to the biology of the head louse.

  20. Identifying Head Start and Public Pre-K Participation in NSECE Data on Center-Based ECE Programs. NSECE Technical Report Supplement. OPRE Report 2015-92b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerge, Robert; Datta, A. Rupa; Xia, Kanru; Witte, Ann D.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Milesi, Carolina; Brandon, Richard; Guzman, Lina; Zanoni, Wladimir

    2015-01-01

    The analyses presented in the Technical Report, "Which Centers Participate in Head Start or Public Pre-Kindergarten" characterize centers that have at least one child whose enrollment is funded through Head Start or Public Pre-K funds. This supplement to the technical report provides interested readers with technical details of the…

  1. Head color and caruncles of sympatric Cathartes vultures (Aves Cathartidae) in Guyana and their possible function in intra- and interspecific signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    signaling. These integumentary characters have been difficult to study because of extensive postmortem color fading and shrinkage in museum specimens. Here I provide the first detailed description of head color and caruncles of the Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (C. melambrotus) from freshly collected...

  2. Persistence of Performance Details in Music and Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Jungers, Melissa K.

    2004-01-01

    What aspects of music and speech are retained in memory? How do remembered performance details influence future performances? This paper focuses on memory for performance details in music and speech and the influence of these elements from perception to performance. Listeners form a memory for a sentence or melody that includes timing and intensity details. These details then influence performance. Musicians persist in the tempo of a melody they have just heard. They also incorporate details ...

  3. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, A.; Botti, F. M.; Panichi, R.; Barmack, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5–5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, “open loop.” Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during “closed loop” HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement. PMID:21735244

  4. Head/tail Breaks for Visualization of City Structure and Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The things surrounding us vary dramatically, which implies that there are far more small things than large ones, e.g., far more small cities than large ones in the world. This dramatic variation is often referred to as fractal or scaling. To better reveal the fractal or scaling structure, a new classification scheme, namely head/tail breaks, has been developed to recursively derive different classes or hierarchical levels. The head/tail breaks works as such: divide things into a few large ones in the head (those above the average) and many small ones (those below the average) in the tail, and recursively continue the dividing process for the large ones (or the head) until the notion of far more small things than large ones has been violated. This paper attempts to argue that head/tail breaks can be a powerful visualization tool for illustrating structure and dynamics of natural cities. Natural cities refer to naturally or objectively defined human settlements based on a meaningful cutoff averaged from a massi...

  5. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...... is dissolving and transforming into an evaluative present- and future-oriented update format that resembles the 24-hour newsonly channels. Production time merges with broadcast time so that the uncertainty of live spreads to the dramaturgy....

  6. Head First jQuery

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Want to add more interactivity and polish to your websites? Discover how jQuery can help you build complex scripting functionality in just a few lines of code. With Head First jQuery, you'll quickly get up to speed on this amazing JavaScript library by learning how to navigate HTML documents while handling events, effects, callbacks, and animations. By the time you've completed the book, you'll be incorporating Ajax apps, working seamlessly with HTML and CSS, and handling data with PHP, MySQL and JSON. If you want to learn-and understand-how to create interactive web pages, unobtrusive scrip

  7. The Meielsgrund and Turbach small hydro power stations in Saanen, Switzerland; PCH du Meielsgrund et PCH de Turbach - Rapports finaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavin, G. [Stucky SA, Renens (Switzerland); Wagner, T. [Sigmaplan, Berne (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    These four final illustrated reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deal with various aspects of two small hydro projects on two affluents of the river Saane in Switzerland. The first report presents two variants for the enhancement of the existing Meielsgrund installation as well as a new, parallel installation. The catchment area involved, available head, residual water quantities, installed power and annual production figures are discussed. Investments, operating costs and financial viability are also looked at. The second report describes the project and discusses regional planning aspects, hydrological basics and environmental issues in connection with the renewal project, including details on invertebrates found in the stream and their relevance to fishing and nature protection issues. The third and fourth reports concern the Turbach small hydro installation. The topics discussed in these two reports are basically similar to those considered for the Meielsgrund installation.

  8. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role.

  9. The Heads and Tails of Buoyant Autocatalytic Balls

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    Buoyancy produced by autocatalytic reaction fronts can produce fluid flows that advect the front position, giving rise to interesting feedback between chemical and hydrodynamic effects. In a large diameter, extended cylinder that is relatively free of boundary constraints, localized initiation of an iodate-arsenous acid (IAA) reaction front on the bottom boundary generates a rising autocatalytic plume. Such plumes have several differences from their non-reactive counterparts. Using numerical simulation, we have found that if reaction is initiated using a spherical ball of product solution well above the bottom boundary, the subsequent flow can evolve much like an autocatalytic plume: the ball develops a reacting head and tail that is akin to the head and conduit of an autocatalytic plume, except that the tail is disconnected from the boundary. In the limit of large initial autocatalytic balls, however, growth of a reacting tail is suppressed and the resemblance to plumes disappears. Conversely, very small bal...

  10. SYNTHESIS OF POLY(VINYLIDENE FLUORIDE) WITH LOW CONTENTS OF HEAD-TO-HEAD CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Youlu; YU Xiuying; XUE Ying; ZENG Miaoying; JI Shanrong

    1983-01-01

    The relations between polymerization conditions of vinylidene fluorideand contents of head-to-head chain in the polymer have been studied. It shows that the contents of head-to-head chain of the polymer are related to its polymerization temperature, but are not related with the kinds of initiators used. Therefore, poly(vinylidene fluoride) with low contents of head-to-head chain (ca. 3%)can be prepared under lower polymerization temperature. Plot of the contents of A chains against melting points of the polymer is linear, which can be expressed by an equation:A = 24.8 + 0.362 Tm(%).

  11. Scatter estimation and removal of anti-scatter grid-line artifacts from anthropomorphic head phantom images taken with a high resolution image detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, R.; Jain, A.; Shankar, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2016-03-01

    In radiography, one of the best methods to eliminate image-degrading scatter radiation is the use of anti-scatter grids. However, with high-resolution dynamic imaging detectors, stationary anti-scatter grids can leave grid-line shadows and moiré patterns on the image, depending upon the line density of the grid and the sampling frequency of the x-ray detector. Such artifacts degrade the image quality and may mask small but important details such as small vessels and interventional device features. Appearance of these artifacts becomes increasingly severe as the detector spatial resolution is improved. We have previously demonstrated that, to remove these artifacts by dividing out a reference grid image, one must first subtract the residual scatter that penetrates the grid; however, for objects with anatomic structure, scatter varies throughout the FOV and a spatially differing amount of scatter must be subtracted. In this study, a standard stationary Smit-Rontgen X-ray grid (line density - 70 lines/cm, grid ratio - 13:1) was used with a high-resolution CMOS detector, the Dexela 1207 (pixel size - 75 micron) to image anthropomorphic head phantoms. For a 15 x 15cm FOV, scatter profiles of the anthropomorphic head phantoms were estimated then iteratively modified to minimize the structured noise due to the varying grid-line artifacts across the FOV. Images of the anthropomorphic head phantoms taken with the grid, before and after the corrections, were compared demonstrating almost total elimination of the artifact over the full FOV. Hence, with proper computational tools, antiscatter grid artifacts can be corrected, even during dynamic sequences.

  12. Restaging following radical radiotherapy for head and neck cancer using [{sup 18}F]- Fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannah, A.; Scott, A.M.; Pathmaraj, K.; Akhurst, T.; Berlangieri, H.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Chan, G.; McKay, W.J.; Sizeland, A. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, (Australia). Nuclear Medicine Department]|[Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, (Australia). Centre for PET and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research

    1997-09-01

    Full text: Previous studies have suggested that FDG-PET may be useful in monitoring disease activity in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment, however its accuracy in comparison to a histological reference standard is not clear. We assess the use of FDG-PET in a pilot group of nine patients with histologically proved carcinoma of the head and neck (eight squamous cell carcinoma and one adenocarcinoma), six of which had a known primary site. All underwent radical radiotherapy (average of 13 weeks before PET, range 4 - 47 weeks) followed by neck dissection after the FDG-PET study. Image data were reconstructed using conventional back-projection as well as ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM). Blinded and unblinded (with access to details of radiotherapy timing, site of original primary and metastases) interpretation of back-projected and blinded interpretation of OSEM image sets were compared with histological reference standard data. For Iymph node analysis, the neck was divided into five regions bilaterally encompassing regional node groups. Histological material from the primary site was only available in three cases and PET was true negative (TN) in two and true positive (TP) in one. A total of 47 regions were dissected, 13 of which contained viable tumour histologically (13/105 nodes) in four patients. On a regional basis, with blinded interpretation of studies, PET was TP in two, TN in 38, false positive (FP) in one and false negative (FN) in six. OSEM gave identical results. In only one case did unblinded interpretation give different results, converting the FP region into a TN. Two FN regions lay near a viable primary site and two other FN regions contained only small amounts of disease histologically. FDG-PET shows promising specificity for residual disease, but sensitivity is hampered by small volume disease and poor spatial delineation where a large amount of disease is present. Clinical information may also

  13. A pre-Hispanic head.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Bianucci

    Full Text Available This report on a male head revealed biologic rhythms, as gleaned from hydrogen isotope ratios in hair, consistent with a South-American origin and Atomic Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS compatible with the last pre-Hispanic period (1418-1491 AD, 95.4% probability. Biopsies showed exceptionally well-preserved tissues. The hair contained high levels of toxic elements (lead, arsenic and mercury incompatible with life. There was no evidence for lead deposition in bone consistent with post-mortem accumulation of this toxic element in the hair. We propose that the high content of metals in hair was the result of metabolic activity of bacteria leading to metal complexation in extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS. This is a recognized protective mechanism for bacteria that thrive in toxic environments. This mechanism may account for the tissues preservation and gives a hint at soil composition where the head was presumably buried. Our results have implications for forensic toxicology which has, hitherto, relied on hair analyses as one means to reconstruct pre-mortem metabolism and for detecting toxic elements accumulated during life. Our finding also has implications for other archaeological specimens where similar circumstances may distort the results of toxicological studies.

  14. Emergency management of head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimel, R W; Jane, J A; Tyson, G W

    1981-03-01

    Sophisticated care of the head injury patient in the emergency department does not demand sophisticated knowledge of neurosurgery. Instead it depends upon: (1) Meticulous attention to the fundamental principles of resuscitation; (B) Prevention of secondary cardiopulmonary abnormalities which can further injure the traumatized brain; (C) Performance of serial neurologic examinations. (In the case of acute head injury, a simple neurologic examination performed repeatedly usually provides the physician with more useful information than a more elaborate examination performed only once). (D) Consultation with the neurosurgeon. If there is any possibility that neurosurgical consultation might enhance the emergency department management of the patient, one should not hesitate to contact him. There is no question that protocols for any phase of emergency management of central nervous system (CNA) trauma are of no values unless there is a high degree of compliance. This can only be achieved through persons dedicated to training emergency medical technicians, nurses and physicians in the optimal care that can be afforded these patients. If advances are to be made in decreasing the morbidity and mortality of the CNS trauma patient, those actively involved in emergency medicine are going to have to take an active role in training programs, seminars and clinical practice for physicians, emergency department nurses, and emergency medical technicians.

  15. 48 CFR 619.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration recommendations. The Procurement Executive is the agency head for the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 619.505 Section 619.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  16. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  17. Modeling heading in adult soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Ernesto; Ponce, Daniel; Andresen, Max

    2014-01-01

    Heading soccer balls can generate mild brain injuries and in the long run can lead to difficulty in solving problems, memory deficits, and language difficulties. Researchers evaluated the effects on the head for both correct and incorrect heading techniques. They based the head's geometry on medical images. They determined the injury's magnitude by comparing the neurological tissue's resistance with predictions of the generated stresses. The evaluation examined fast playing conditions in adult soccer, taking into account the ball's speed and the type of impact. Mathematical simulations using the finite element method indicated that correctly heading balls arriving at moderate speed presents a low risk of brain injury. However, damage can happen around the third cervical vertebra. These results coincide with medical studies. Incorrect heading greatly increases the brain injury risk and can alter the parietal area.

  18. Does soccer ball heading cause retinal bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, William F; Feldman, Kenneth W; Weiss, Avery H; Tencer, Alan F

    2002-04-01

    To define forces of youth soccer ball heading (headers) and determine whether heading causes retinal hemorrhage. Regional Children's Hospital, youth soccer camp. Male and female soccer players, 13 to 16 years old, who regularly head soccer balls. Dilated retinal examination, after 2-week header diary, and accelerometer measurement of heading a lofted soccer ball. Twenty-one youth soccer players, averaging 79 headers in the prior 2 weeks, and 3 players who did not submit header diaries lacked retinal hemorrhage. Thirty control subjects also lacked retinal hemorrhage. Seven subjects heading the ball experienced linear cranial accelerations of 3.7 +/- 1.3g. Rotational accelerations were negligible. Headers, not associated with globe impact, are unlikely to cause retinal hemorrhage. Correctly executed headers did not cause significant rotational acceleration of the head, but incorrectly executed headers might.

  19. Evaluation of the Small Hydropower Potential of River Ethiope Using the RETScreen Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O.Otuagoma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available :In this study, the River Ethiope was critically studied as a source of renewable energy for small hydropower development. The aim was to carry out detailed evaluation of the river’s hydropower generation potential using RETScreen software.Data on daily flow that was used for flow duration curve was obtained from the Benin Owena River Basin Authority’s hydrological year book for a period of six years (1989 – 1994. Also in this study, meteorological data on rainfall, temperature, wind evaporation and humidity were obtained from the Meteorological Weather Station at the Geography Department, Delta State University, Abraka. These data were used to observe the seasonal variations and how this variation affects the flow rate.RETScreen clean energy analysis software was used for the evaluation of the energy output from the River Ethiope. Four alternative project formulations were evaluated using the RETScreen software. The results of the four alternative project formulations using the RETScreen Software are as follows: Case 1(for a flow rate of Q = 9.6 m3 /s, with a head of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m, the output power P are: 357, 753,1142 and 1,526 kW respectively, Case 2 (for a flow rate of Q = 10.8 m3 /s, with a head of 5,10, 15 and 20 m, the output power P are: 402, 848,1,286, 1,719 kW respectively, Case 3 (for a flow rate of Q = 13.8 m3 /s, with a head of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m, the output power P are: 516, 1,086, 1,646, 2,200 kW respectively, Case 4 ( for a flow rate of Q = 31.73 m3 /s, with a head of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m, the output power P are: 1,195, 2,509, 3,800 and 5,079 kW respectively. The results of the evaluations showed that the River Ethiope is capable of generating 1.20 MW on a design flow of 31.73 m3 /s and a head of 5 m. While on a design flow of 31.73 m3 /s and a head of 15 m, 3.8 MW of electricity could be generated if properly harnessed. It can therefore be concluded that the River Ethiope when fully utilised could generate electric

  20. Fusobacterial head and neck infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2015-07-01

    Fusobacterium species are increasingly recognized as a cause of head and neck infections in children. These infections include acute and chronic otitis, sinusitis, mastoiditis, and tonsillitis; peritonsillar and retropharyngeal abscesses; Lemierre syndrome; post-anginal cervical lymphadenitis; and periodontitis. They can also be involved in brain abscess and bacteremia associated with head and neck infections. This review describes the clinical spectrum of head and neck fusobacterial infection in children and their management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Imaging of the head and neck. 2. rev. and enl. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafee, M.F.; Valvassori, G.E. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Becker, M. [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    Remarkable advances in medical diagnostic imaging have been made during the past three decades. The development of new imaging techniques and continuous improvements in the display of digital images have opened new horizons in the study of head and neck anatomy and pathology. The American Society of Head and Neck Radiology (ASHNR) and its European and Asiatic counterparts evolved because of the emerging awareness of the roles that head and neck radiologists play in the diagnosis and management of head and neck, base of the skull, neuro-ophthalmologic and neuro-otologic diseases. This edition continues the tradition of excellence set by the first edition of Valvassori's Head and Neck Imaging (which was also the first textbook in head and neck radiology), and provides a comprehensive review of the most pertinent and up-to-date knowledge in the field of head and neck imaging. The content of this edition has been organized into 12 chapters according to anatomic regions. It now includes new material on the temporomandibular joint, the lacrimal drainage system, dental scanning, fibro-osseous and cartilaginous lesions of the head and neck, MRI sialography, MR interventional technique, and thyroid and parathyroid glands. All chapters have been expanded to address new developments in the field and to stress the importance of imaging anatomy, pathologic correlation, and pertinent clinical data. For each anatomic region, the embryology and anatomy are introduced, followed by congenital and developmental disorders, inflammatory processes, benign and malignant neoplastic diseases, trauma, and postoperative changes. The detailed reference lists in each chapter include key references and are as recent as possible. Care has been taken to include exquisitely reproduced illustrations that provide the maximum of pertinent information. It is our hope that this textbook will be useful to students and physicians in the fields of radiology, otolaryngology, neurootology, rhinology

  2. Moving your head reduces perisaccadic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziridi, Maria; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2016-10-01

    Flashes presented around the time of a saccade appear to be closer to the saccade endpoint than they really are. The resulting compression of perceived positions has been found to increase with the amplitude of the saccade. In most studies on perisaccadic compression the head is static, so the eye-in-head movement is equal to the change in gaze. What if moving the head causes part of the change in gaze? Does decreasing the eye-in-head rotation by moving the head decrease the compression of perceived positions? To find out, we asked participants to shift their gaze between two positions, either without moving their head or with the head contributing to the change in gaze. Around the time of the saccades we flashed bars that participants had to localize. When the head contributed to the change in gaze, the duration of the saccade was shorter and compression was reduced. We interpret this reduction in compression as being caused by a reduction in uncertainty about gaze position at the time of the flash. We conclude that moving one's head can reduce the systematic mislocalization of flashes presented around the time of saccades.

  3. Eye-head coordination in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, D; Douglas, R M; Volle, M

    1984-12-01

    Gaze is the position of the visual axis in space and is the sum of the eye movement relative to the head plus head movement relative to space. In monkeys, a gaze shift is programmed with a single saccade that will, by itself, take the eye to a target, irrespective of whether the head moves. If the head turns simultaneously, the saccade is correctly reduced in size (to prevent gaze overshoot) by the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). Cats have an oculomotor range (OMR) of only about +/- 25 degrees, but their field of view extends to about +/- 70 degrees. The use of the monkey's motor strategy to acquire targets lying beyond +/- 25 degrees requires the programming of saccades that cannot be physically made. We have studied, in cats, rapid horizontal gaze shifts to visual targets within and beyond the OMR. Heads were either totally unrestrained or attached to an apparatus that permitted short unexpected perturbations of the head trajectory. Qualitatively, similar rapid gaze shifts of all sizes up to at least 70 degrees could be accomplished with the classic single-eye saccade and a saccade-like head movement. For gaze shifts greater than 30 degrees, this classic pattern frequently was not observed, and gaze shifts were accomplished with a series of rapid eye movements whose time separation decreased, frequently until they blended into each other, as head velocity increased. Between discrete rapid eye movements, gaze continued in constant velocity ramps, controlled by signals added to the VOR-induced compensatory phase that followed a saccade. When the head was braked just prior to its onset in a 10 degrees gaze shift, the eye attained the target. This motor strategy is the same as that reported for monkeys. However, for larger target eccentricities (e.g., 50 degrees), the gaze shift was interrupted by the brake and the average saccade amplitude was 12-15 degrees, well short of the target and the OMR. Gaze shifts were completed by vestibularly driven eye movements when the

  4. Research on genetics of rice heading date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Heading date is one of the most important traits for rice adaptation to cultivation area and crop seasons, and it is mainly determined by photoperiod, basic vegetative growth, and temperature of cultivars. The diversity of combinations of photo-sensitive varieties and the basic vegetative, makes the heading date varied. On one hand, this supplies abundant resources for different ecotypes breeding; on the other hand, it complicates the inheritance of heading date. In recent years, transgression of late maturity has often been encountered, especially between indica and japonica subspecies, this had inhabited the use of hybrid vigor. Therefore, understanding the inheritance basis of heading date is very important for breeding practices.

  5. Investigation of nanoscale structures by small-angle X-ray scattering in a radiochromic dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyt, Peter Sandegaard; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Wahlstedt, Isak Hannes

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the nanoscale structures in a radiochromic dosimeter that was based on leuco-malachite-green dye and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) suspended in a gelatin matrix. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to investigate the structures of a range of compositions...... of the dosimeter. When omitting gelatin, ellipsoidal micelles of SDS were formed with a core radius near 15 Å, an eccentricity of 1.6, and a head-group shell thickness near 7 Å. Gelatin significantly changed the micelles to a cylindrical shape with around three times lower core radius and four times larger shell...... thickness, which shows that the gelatin is present in the shell and the outer part of the core. Insight into the detailed structure might help to improve the dosimeter performance and increase the dose response to clinically relevant dose levels....

  6. Detailed characterization of welding fumes in personal exposure samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quémerais, B.; Mino, James; Amin, M. R.; Golshahi, H.; Izadi, H.

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the project was to develop a method allowing for detailed characterization of welding particles including particle number concentration, size distribution, surface chemistry and chemical composition of individual particles, as well as metal concentration of various welding fumes in personal exposure samples using regular sampling equipment. A sample strategy was developed to evaluate the variation of the collection methods on mass concentration. Samples were collected with various samplers and filters at two different locations using our collection system. The first location was using a robotic welding system while the second was manual welding. Collected samples were analysed for mass concentration using gravimetryand metal concentration using ICP/OES. More advanced analysis was performed on selected filters using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to determine surface composition of the particles, and X-Ray Diffraction to determine chemical composition of the fumes. Results showed that the robotic system had a lot of variation in space when the collection system was located close to the weld. Collection efficiency was found to be quite variable depending upon the type of filter. As well, metal concentrations in blank filters were dependent upon the type of filter with MCE presenting with the highest blank values. Results obtained with the XRD and XPS systems showed that it was possible to analyse a small of powdered welding fume sample but results on filters were not conclusive.

  7. Flow effects on jet energy loss with detailed balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Luan; LIU Jia; WANG EnKe

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential.The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD.It turns out,considering the collective flow with velocity vz along the jet direction,the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium.The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium.The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption,however,decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation,which is (1-vz) times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity.In the presence of collective flow,the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order.So that the total effective energy loss is decreased.The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high PT hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter v2 in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  8. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kee Jeong [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ''Buttonholing'' of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. (orig.)

  9. Office of Head Start (OHS) Head Start Center Locations Search Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) web based search tool for finding Head Start program office contact information. Searchable by location, grant number or center type....

  10. Facilitation of visual perception in head direction: visual attention modulation based on head direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Nakashima

    Full Text Available People usually see things using frontal viewing, and avoid lateral viewing (or eccentric gaze where the directions of the head and eyes are largely different. Lateral viewing interferes with attentive visual search performance, probably because the head is directed away from the target and/or because the head and eyes are misaligned. In this study, we examined which of these factors is the primary one for interference by conducting a visual identification experiment where a target was presented in the peripheral visual field. The critical manipulation was the participants' head direction and fixation position: the head was directed to the fixation location, the target position, or the opposite side of the fixation. The performance was highest when the head was directed to the target position even when there was misalignment of the head and eye, suggesting that visual perception can be influenced by both head direction and fixation position.

  11. Image data rate converter having a drum with a fixed head and a rotatable head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A data-rate converter is disclosed comprising a rotatable data-storing drum with at least one fixed read/record head and a rotatable read/record head. The latter is rotatable in a circular path about the drum axis of rotation. The drum is positionable in any one of a plurality of axial positions with respect to the heads, so that at least one drum track is aligned with the fixed head in one drum position and with the rotatable head in another drum position. When a track is aligned with the fixed head, data may be recorded therin or read out therefrom at a rate which is a function of drum rotation, while when aligned with the rotatable head, data may be recorded or read out at a rate which is a function of the rates and directions of rotation of both the drum and the head.

  12. www.detail.de/english - the research and service platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    DETAIL Archive and Download Centre Every year, DETAIL magazine publishes more than 120 outstanding buildings from all over the world, along with interviews, critiques and articles written by authors from different disciplines.

  13. A Neonatal Bimodal MR-CT Head Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasebi, Mehrana; Abrishami Moghaddam, Hamid; Grebe, Reinhard; Gity, Masoumeh; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal MR templates are appropriate for brain structural analysis and spatial normalization. However, they do not provide the essential accurate details of cranial bones and fontanels-sutures. Distinctly, CT images provide the best contrast for bone definition and fontanels-sutures. In this paper, we present, for the first time, an approach to create a fully registered bimodal MR-CT head template for neonates with a gestational age of 39 to 42 weeks. Such a template is essential for structural and functional brain studies, which require precise geometry of the head including cranial bones and fontanels-sutures. Due to the special characteristics of the problem (which requires inter-subject inter-modality registration), a two-step intensity-based registration method is proposed to globally and locally align CT images with an available MR template. By applying groupwise registration, the new neonatal CT template is then created in full alignment with the MR template to build a bimodal MR-CT template. The mutual information value between the CT and the MR template is 1.17 which shows their perfect correspondence in the bimodal template. Moreover, the average mutual information value between normalized images and the CT template proposed in this study is 1.24±0.07. Comparing this value with the one reported in a previously published approach (0.63±0.07) demonstrates the better generalization properties of the new created template and the superiority of the proposed method for the creation of CT template in the standard space provided by MR neonatal head template. The neonatal bimodal MR-CT head template is freely downloadable from https://www.u-picardie.fr/labo/GRAMFC. PMID:28129340

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a very small chance of irritation of your skin at the site of the IV tube insertion. Some patients may sense a temporary metallic taste in their mouth after the contrast injection. If you do not require ...

  15. Laboratory developments of a diagonal turbine for medium head small hydro power plants (25 - 100 m). Final report; Turbines diagonales. Programme de developpement d'une turbine hydraulique diagonale destinee a equiper les petites centrales a moyenne chute (25 a 100 m) - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choulot, A.; Denis, V.

    2009-11-15

    The first result of the project was the mechanical design of the diagonal turbine and, in particular, the runner and the adjustable blade driving system. The system was designed for the 12-blade runner and is thus suitable for any lower number of blades. With a reference runner diameter of 329.4 mm, the laboratory test model corresponds approximately to the smallest size for a prototype of Diagonal turbine. The mechanical design is thus available for any larger prototype. The complementary use of numerical simulations and laboratory tests provided a deep understanding of the hydraulic behaviour of the Diagonal turbine. Based on this extensive knowledge, the mechanical set-up and hydraulic design was significantly improved. The developments showed that the effect of the gap between the discharge ring and the blades on both the efficiency and cavitation behaviour was significantly enhanced compared to Kaplan turbines. The optimization of this gap together with improvements of the geometry enabled to raise the maximum efficiency from 86.5% with the initial configuration to more than 92%, and to significantly reduce the development of cavitation. The first developed configuration was the 8-blade runner. Various guide vane configurations were tested. The analysis of numerical and experimental results led to the development of an optimal configuration with a maximum efficiency of 92% and a satisfactory cavitation behaviour suitable for heads up to 50 m. The development of the 12-blade runner fully profited from the knowledge gained with the 8 blade configuration. The improved blade design process significantly fastened the development phase necessary to obtain high performances. The maximum efficiency is above 92% and the cavitation behaviour allows 80 m heads. Based on these good results, a first demonstration project was launched to equip the Montsalvens site (Switzerland). The objective is to install a turbine at the foot of the Montsalvens dam of the existing hydro

  16. Tolerance of the Head and Neck to -Gx Inertial Loading of the Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-09

    0.270 ms depen- ding on head-neck orientation , On the other hand, field collision data indi-, caes insignificant head-neck injuries of belted...ms depending on head-neck orientation . On the other hand, field collision data indicates insignificant head-- neck injuries of belted passengers from...C2 on the medio - ventral surface of the cervical spinal cord. They attributed the mechanism to a sharp flexion of the cord around the odontoid

  17. Small Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A; Rubens, W

    2012-01-01

    We study both the "large" and "small" U-duality charge orbits of extremal black holes appearing in D = 5 and D = 4 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds. We exploit a formalism based on cubic Jordan algebras and their associated Freudenthal triple systems, in order to derive the minimal charge representatives, their stabilizers and the associated "moduli spaces". After recalling N = 8 maximal supergravity, we consider N = 2 and N = 4 theories coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets, as well as N = 2 magic, STU, ST^2 and T^3 models. While the STU model may be considered as part of the general N = 2 sequence, albeit with an additional triality symmetry, the ST^2 and T^3 models demand a separate treatment, since their representative Jordan algebras are Euclidean or only admit non-zero elements of rank 3, respectively. Finally, we also consider minimally coupled N = 2, matter coupled N = 3, and "pure" N = 5 theories.

  18. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  19. Natural head position: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, N; Tamizharasi, S; Senthilkumar, K P; Janardhanan, K

    2015-08-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario.

  20. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance with...

  1. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1... Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details relative to... 40 feet in length will be found in subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  2. 46 CFR 188.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 188.25-1 Section 188.25... GENERAL PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 188.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) The electrical engineering details shall be in accordance with subchapter J (Electrical...

  3. 46 CFR 70.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 70.25-1 Section 70.25-1... General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 70.25-1 Electrical engineering details. All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance with subchapter J...

  4. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details such as piping, valves, fittings, boilers, pressure vessels, etc., and their appurtenances...

  5. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. ...

  6. 20 CFR 422.604 - Request for detailed information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for detailed information. 422.604... whom you have premium responsibility, you may request detailed information as to the work histories of any of the listed miners and the basis for the assignment. Your request for detailed information must...

  7. 14 CFR 23.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 23.685 Section 23... Control Systems § 23.685 Control system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed... cables or tubes against other parts. (d) Each element of the flight control system must have...

  8. 14 CFR 29.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 29.685 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.685 Control system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed to prevent jamming, chafing, and...

  9. 14 CFR 25.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 25.685 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.685 Control system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed and installed to prevent jamming...

  10. Eye-head coordination abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eye-movement abnormalities in schizophrenia are a well-established phenomenon that has been observed in many studies. In such studies, visual targets are usually presented in the center of the visual field, and the subject's head remains fixed. However, in every-day life, targets may also appear in the periphery. This study is among the first to investigate eye and head movements in schizophrenia by presenting targets in the periphery of the visual field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two different visual recognition tasks, color recognition and Landolt orientation tasks, were presented at the periphery (at a visual angle of 55° from the center of the field of view. Each subject viewed 96 trials, and all eye and head movements were simultaneously recorded using video-based oculography and magnetic motion tracking of the head. Data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were considered. The patients had similar saccadic latencies in both tasks, whereas controls had shorter saccadic latencies in the Landolt task. Patients performed more head movements, and had increased eye-head offsets during combined eye-head shifts than controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with schizophrenia may not be able to adapt to the two different tasks to the same extent as controls, as seen by the former's task-specific saccadic latency pattern. This can be interpreted as a specific oculomotoric attentional dysfunction and may support the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have difficulties determining the relevance of stimuli. Patients may also show an uneconomic over-performance of head-movements, which is possibly caused by alterations in frontal executive function that impair the inhibition of head shifts. In addition, a model was created explaining 93% of the variance of the response times as a function of eye and head amplitude, which was only observed in the controls, indicating abnormal eye-head coordination in patients

  11. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  12. A novel detachable head-mounted device for simultaneous EEG and photoacoustic monitoring of epilepsy in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-02-01

    The study of neuro-hemodynamic changes in freely moving animals provides for a better understanding of brain dynamics in normal and disease states. While it has been shown that hemodynamic changes are closely related to seizures, methods for detection in freely moving animals are limited. In this work, we integrate photoacoustic sensor technology and electroencephalography into a small portable device that can be attached on the head of wake freely moving animals. We demonstrate chronic simultaneous monitoring of photoacoustic and electroencephalographic signals in an acute seizure model of epilepsy. Our results demonstrate that both the neural and vascular responses during seizures in freely moving rats have characteristics which are observed to be different and more diverse from that of anesthetized rats. This implies that the neurovascular coupling in seizure in free moving animals are more complicated, which calls for more detailed study in future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time for hemodynamic monitoring of seizure in free moving animals. This technology also promises for other hemodynamic related research study in freely moving small animals.

  13. Multicystic encephalopathy in abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Bela; Bilo, Rob A C; van Rijn, Rick R

    2014-01-01

    The proof of abusive head trauma (AHT) in infants is difficult, especially in cases with a long posttraumatic survival period. In the acute phase, injury to the cranio-cervical junction causes disturbances in respiratory and cardiac control, leading to apnea and bradycardia. Infants who survive the acute phase may subsequently develop multicystic encephalopathy. Because some types of changes are age-dependent, examination of the patterns of brain damage in these cases could provide information about the time in which they were inflicted. In particular, this could apply to the extent of the cystic changes, namely that the severity thereof may decrease with older age upon infliction of the trauma. This could potentially date the injury and thereby help to identify the perpetrator. We present an analysis of the patterns of brain damage in cases of AHT-induced multicystic encephalopathy and comment on the possible etiology and the implications thereof. Nine archival cases of trauma-induced multicystic encephalopathy, originating between the years 2005 and 2011, were identified. In 8 of these cases, hematoxilin-eosin-stained whole-hemisphere histologic slides, as well as small histologic slides of cerebellar hemispheres, were available for the evaluation of the topographic distribution of the macroscopic and microscopic changes. The cerebral hemispheres were more affected than the cerebellum. The magnitude of the cystic changes did not correlate with the age at which the trauma had occurred, nor the surviva period. All cases showed asymmetrical affection of the cerebral hemispheres, which in 3 cases was very pronounced. The analysis revealed both ischemia- and hypoperfusion-induced injury patterns. Analysis of the magnitude and the distribution of the damage do not assist in the estimation of the period at which the trauma had occurred. The evaluation showed that ischemia, and to a lesser extent, hypoperfusion, were the major mechanisms of brain injury in these cases

  14. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  15. Real-world adjustments of driver seat and head restraint in Saab 9-3 vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anna; Pipkorn, Linda; Kullgren, Anders; Svensson, Mats

    2017-05-19

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), commonly denoted whiplash injury, is a worldwide problem. These injuries occur at relatively low changes of velocity (typically Saab Active Head Restraint (SAHR) being one of the most prominent. The SAHR-which is height adjustable-is mounted to a pressure plate in the seatback by means of a spring-resisted link mechanism.  Nevertheless, studies have shown that seats equipped with reactive head restraints (such as the SAHR) have a very high injury-reducing effect for males (∼60-70%) but very low or no reduction effect for females. One influencing factor could be the position of the head restraint relative to the head, because a number of studies have reported that adjustable head restraints often are incorrectly positioned by drivers.  The aim was to investigate how female and male Saab drivers adjust the seat in the car they drive the most. The seated positions of drivers in stationary conditions have been investigated in a total of 76 volunteers (34 females, 42 males) who participated in the study. Inclusion criteria incorporated driving a Saab 9-3 on a regularly basis. The majority of the volunteers (89%) adjusted the head restraint to any of the 3 uppermost positions and as many as 59% in the top position.  The average vertical distance between the top of the head and the top of the head restraint (offset) increase linearly with increasing statures, from an average of -26 mm (head below the head restraint) for small females to an average of 82 mm (head above the head restraint) for large males. On average, the offset was 23 mm for females, which is within a satisfactory range and in accordance with recommendations; the corresponding value for males was 72 mm.  The backset tended to be shorter among female volunteers (on average 27 mm) compared to the male volunteers (on average 44 mm). Moreover, the backset tended to increase with increasing statures. Incorrect adjustment of the head restraint cannot explain

  16. Fatigue behaviour of fine-grained alumina hip-joint heads under normal walking conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Basu

    2003-06-01

    In prosthetic applications, the reliability of implant materials over a period of thirty years is absolutely essential. Calculation of the lifetimes of alumina ceramic heads is generally made on the basis of experimental fatigue and slow crack growth tests using finite element analysis. This investigation is aimed at understanding the fatigue behaviour of fine-grained alumina heads of hip joints. The service conditions of cyclic stress experienced by hip joints during walking are used in evaluating the fatigue behaviour of alumina femoral heads. These femoral heads have successfully withstood 107 cycles at a maximum walking stress of 17.2 kN, which is equivalent to a body weight of 400 kg. The femoral heads did not exhibit any sub-critical crack growth at the maximum walking load of 10 kN, indicating the quasi-infinite performance life in patients up to a body weight of 250 kg. The details of proof testing designed for evaluating the performance of femoral heads over 40 years are also presented.

  17. The Role of the Primary School Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lester

    1987-01-01

    This study uses Henry Mintzberg's structural observation method to examine British primary school head teachers' work patterns and determine the nature of their role. Head teachers' days were characterized by brevity, variety, and fragmentation similar to those discussed in findings of other empirical managerial studies. Leadership roles stressed…

  18. Evaluation of head and neck postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delleman, N.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the literature and two experiments on the evaluation of head and neck postures. It is concluded that health and safety professiona1s and ergonomists during posture evaluation should consider neck flexion/extension (head vs. trunk), besides the traditionally used inclination of t

  19. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes] Heads Up! [Podcast: 0:59 seconds]; in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard ... minutes] Heads Up! [Podcast: 0:59 seconds]; in Spanish [Podcast: 1:27 minutes] Send a Health eCard ...

  20. Achieving Consensus Through Professionalized Head Nods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    While the interactional functions of head nodding in everyday Japanese conversation have been frequently studied, a discourse on head nodding as a professional communicative practice has yet to be explored. With the method of multimodal conversation analysis, the current study examines the role o...