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Sample records for heads isolated organs

  1. Off with your heads: isolated organs in early Soviet science and fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 1925, a debutant writer, Aleksandr Beliaev, published a ‘scientific-fantastic story’, which depicted the travails of a severed human head living in a laboratory, supported by special machinery. Just a few months later, a young medical researcher, Sergei Briukhonenko, succeeded in reviving the severed head of a dog, using a special apparatus he had devised to keep the head alive. This paper examines the relationship between the literary and the scientific experiments with severed heads in post-revolutionary Russia, which reflected the anxieties about death, revival, and survival in the aftermath of the 1914–1923 ‘reign of death’ in that country. It contrasts the anguished ethical questions raised by the story with the public fascination for ‘science that conquers death’. PMID:19442924

  2. PHENOMENON OF DEMIKHOV. "TRANSPLANTATION OF VITAL ORGANS IN EXPERIMENT" (1960. HOMOPLASTIC ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION: OF AN ISOLATED HEART, ISOLATED LUNG, KIDNEY, HEAD, HALF OF THE TRUNK, AND THE WHOLE TRUNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Glyantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  (the third one of five presents the analysis of the final part  of the third chapter on homoplastic organ transplantation from V.P.  Demikhov's monograph "Transplantation of  vital  organs  in  experiment"  (MedGIz Publ., Moscow,  1960. The article covers the data presented by V.P. Demikhov on his creating the following animal models:  of the isolated  heart  and lung,  kidneys, head, half of the trunk, and the whole  trunk. The isolated  heart  models where  the heart  was positioned in place of the biological one were not successful. The longest  period  of the dog-recipient survival was  15 hours. The  dogs with transplanted lobes of  the  lung  survived up  to 6 days  (there  are no evidence of  a whole lung  transplant in the book; animal-recipients of kidneys survived up to 19 days.  V.P. Demikhov considered that  the graft deaths might be caused  by the biological  tissue  incompatibility between  the donor  and  recipient, and  he stressed the  need  for  its suppression and  the  importance of  choosing the  donor  and  recipient compatible by their  blood group for  successful homoplastic transplantation. By  transplanting the puppies' heads  onto  the cervical  vessels  of  the dogs, starting the experiments from 1954, V.P. Demikhov attempted to prove the role of the central nervous system in the organ engraftment, which was one of the targets  in those experiments. The integration of two bodies, combining their vascular systems, and mixing the blood had two goals: to create the conditions for overcoming the transplantation immunity and to make an animal model  of organ transplant in combination with retaining the organ neurohumoral links. The model of the cross circulation also allowed the formulation and implementation of the organ bank concept in the experiment.

  3. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people, whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  4. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Kesler, Dylan C; Hill, Kim R

    2016-01-01

    At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people), whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  5. Isolated posterior dislocation of the radial head in an adult.

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    Negi A

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated posterior dislocation of the radial head was detected on X-ray in a patient following a vehicular accident. Such a dislocation without an associated fracture is extremely rare in adults. Immobilization of the elbow in full pronation and 90 degrees flexion for 4 weeks normalized the position of the head of the radius.

  6. Isolated traumatic head injury in children: Analysis of 276 observations

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    Bahloul Mabrouk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : To determine predictive factors of mortality among children after isolated traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods : In this retrospective study, we included all consecutive children with isolated traumatic brain injury admitted to the 22-bed intensive care unit (ICU of Habib Bourguiba University Hospital (Sfax, Tunisia. Basic demographic, clinical, biochemical, and radiological data were recorded on admission and during ICU stay. Results : There were 276 patients with 196 boys (71% and 80 girls, with a mean age of 6.7 ± 3.8 years. The main cause of trauma was road traffic accident (58.3%. Mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 ± 2, Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS was 23.3 ± 5.9, Mean Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS was 4.8 ± 2.3, and Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM was 10.8 ± 8. A total of 259 children required mechanical ventilation. Forty-eight children (17.4% died. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with a poor prognosis were PRISM > 24 (OR: 10.98, neurovegetative disorder (OR: 7.1, meningeal hemorrhage (OR: 2.74, and lesion type VI according to Marshall tomographic grading (OR: 13.26. Conclusion : In Tunisia, head injury is a frequent cause of hospital admission and is most often due to road traffic injuries. Short-term prognosis is influenced by demographic, clinical, radiological, and biochemical factors. The need to put preventive measures in place is underscored.

  7. Isolated abducens nerve palsy after closed head trauma: a pediatric case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Karen; Wojciechowski, Marek; Poot, Sandra; De Keyser, Katrien; Ceulemans, Berten

    2008-09-01

    Cranial nerve lessions often accompany head trauma. Nevertheless, isolated involvement of the sixth nerve without any cranial or cervical fracture is rare. Nerve injury could occur at the sites of the dural entry points and at the petrous apex during down- or upward movement of the brain caused by violent linear force to the head. Management is symptomatic. Most cases improve within three months and many resolve by six months, but spontaneous recovery does not always occur. We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy who developed isolated abducens nerve palsy after closed head trauma.

  8. Isolated posterior capsular rupture following blunt head trauma

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    Mansour AM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour, Mahmoud O Jaroudi, Rola N Hamam, Fadi C Maalouf Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: Closed-globe traumatic cataract is not uncommon in males in the pediatric age group. However, there is a relative paucity of literature on isolated posterior lens capsule rupture associated with closed-globe traumatic cataract. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with white cataract 1 day after blunt trauma to the forehead associated with posterior capsular rupture that was detected by B-scan ultrasonography preoperatively. No stigmata of trauma outside the posterior capsule could be detected by slit-lamp exam, funduscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implant was performed 24 hours after trauma, with the patient achieving 6/6 visual acuity 1 week and 6 months after surgery. Our case is unique, being the youngest (amblyogenic age to be reported, with prompt surgical intervention, and with no signs of trauma outside the posterior capsule. Keywords: posterior capsule rupture, forehead trauma, traumatic cataract, pediatric cataract

  9. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)).

  10. Organic fragments from graphene oxide: Isolation, characterization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in water.6 In recent years, several groups have reported ... ticles were termed as base-treated GO (BGO). ... we isolated debris formed from aq-NH3-treated GO .... under aqueous basic conditions (green ball—carbon in GO basal plane; grey.

  11. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis organisms isolated from human lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneshiro, E S; Amit, Z; Chandra, Jan Suresh

    1999-01-01

    in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human...... infections, it is important to determine whether the 24-alkylsterols of organisms found in rats are also present in organisms in humans. In the present study, sterol analyses of P. carinii hominis organisms isolated from cryopreserved human P. carinii-infected lungs and from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were...

  12. Penicillium pedernalense sp. nov., isolated from whiteleg shrimp heads waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laich, Federico; Andrade, Jacinto

    2016-11-01

    Novel Penicillium-like strains were isolated during the characterization of the mycobiota community dynamics associated with shrimp waste composting. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial β-tubulin (BenA) gene and the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences revealed that the novel strains were members of section Lanata-Divaricata and were closely related to Penicillium infrabuccalum DAOMC 250537T. On the basis of morphological and physiological characterization, and phylogenetic analysis, a novel Penicillium species, Penicillium pedernalense sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is F01-11T (=CBS 140770T=CECT 20949T), which was isolated from whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) heads waste compost in the Pedernales region (Manabí province, Ecuador).

  13. Prevalence of Various Microbial Organisms Isolated from Dairy Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six- hundred and thirty (630) apparently normal milk samples from dairy goats in Nyeri district (Kenya) were examined over a three-month period to determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms. Bacteria were isolated in 28.7% of milk samples (181/630) either as a single bacterial organism (92.8%) or mixed bacterial ...

  14. Cluster Head Selection in a Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Ensuring Full Connectivity with Minimum Isolated Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work proposes a cluster head selection algorithm for a wireless sensor network. A node can be a cluster head if it is connected to at least one unique neighbor node where the unique neighbor is the one that is not connected to any other node. If there is no connected unique node then the CH is selected on the basis of residual energy and the number of neighbor nodes. With the increase in number of clusters, the processing energy of the network increases; hence, this algorithm proposes minimum number of clusters which further leads to increased network lifetime. The major novel contribution of the proposed work is an algorithm that ensures a completely connected network with minimum number of isolated nodes. An isolated node will remain only if it is not within the transmission range of any other node. With the maximum connectivity, the coverage of the network is automatically maximized. The superiority of the proposed design is verified by simulation results done in MATLAB, where it clearly depicts that the total numbers of rounds before the network dies out are maximum compared to other existing protocols.

  15. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injury described in this area is tearing of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, sometimes referred to as "tennis leg". We conclude that an isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lump or swelling in the upper medial area of the calf and we recommend ultrasound or MRI as the investigations of choice.

  16. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  17. Isolated partial tear and partial avulsion of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon presenting as posterior medial knee pain

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Ward, Anthony; Harries, William

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of medial head of gastrocnemius tendon tear. The type of injury widely reported in the literature is tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle or ‘tennis leg’. We previously reported an isolated partial tear and longitudinal split of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius at its musculotendinous junction. The case we now present has notable differences; the tear was interstitial and at the proximal (femoral attachment) part of the tendon, the patient’s symptoms...

  18. Streptomyces amphotericinicus sp. nov., an amphotericin-producing actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tingting; Mu, Shan; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2017-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-SSA8 T , was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and was found to produce amphotericin. A polyphasic approach was employed to determine the status of strain 1H-SSA8 T . Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The menaquinones detected were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain 1H-SSA8 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL B-2714 T (99.2 %). Two tree-making algorithms based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a phyletic line with Streptomyces himastatinicus ATCC 53653 T (98.7 %). The MLSA utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB) also supported the position. However, evolutionary distances were higher than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. Moreover, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic differences allowed the novel isolate to be differentiated from its most closely related strain S. ramulosus NRRL B-2714 T and strain S. himastatinicus ATCC 53653 T . It is concluded that the organism can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces amphotericinicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-SSA8 T (=CGMCC 4.7350 T =DSM 103128 T ).

  19. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injur...

  20. SU-F-I-32: Organ Doses from Pediatric Head CT Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H; Liu, Q; Qiu, J; Zhuo, W [Institute of Radiation Medicine Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Majer, M; Knezevic, Z; Miljanic, S [Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Hrsak, H [Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the organ doses of pediatric patients who undergoing head CT scan using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and compare it with measurements in anthropomorphic child phantom.. Methods: A ten years old children voxel phantom was developed from CT images, the voxel size of the phantom was 2mm*2mm*2mm. Organ doses from head CT scan were simulated using MCNPX software, 180 detectors were placed in the voxel phantom to tally the doses of the represented tissues or organs. When performing the simulation, 120 kVp and 88 mA were selected as the scan parameters. The scan range covered from the top of the head to the end of the chain, this protocol was used at CT simulator for radiotherapy. To validate the simulated results, organ doses were measured with radiophotoluminescence (RPL) detectors, placed in the 28 organs of the 10 years old CIRS ATOM phantom. Results: The organ doses results matched well between MC simulation and phantom measurements. The eyes dose was showed to be as expected the highest organ dose: 28.11 mGy by simulation and 27.34 mGy by measurement respectively. Doses for organs not included in the scan volume were much lower than those included in the scan volume, thymus doses were observed more than 10 mGy due the CT protocol for radiotherapy covered more body part than routine head CT scan. Conclusion: As the eyes are superficial organs, they may receive the highest radiation dose during the CT scan. Considering the relatively high radio sensitivity, using shielding material or organ based tube current modulation technique should be encouraged to reduce the eye radiation risks. Scan range was one of the most important factors that affects the organ doses during the CT scan. Use as short as reasonably possible scan range should be helpful to reduce the patient radiation dose. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(11475047)

  1. Theory of the interaction of flat sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root

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    Volodymyr Bulgakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet leaves now are very widely used for livestock feeding, as an organic fertiliser, and also as a raw material for the production of biogas. Therefore the harvest of the sugar beet tops (including leaves can be considered as current task for the sugar beet growing system. Modern technologies involve harvest of the tops of sugar beet in two stages: flat basic cut and collecting of the entire green mass at higher altitude and the subsequent cutting of the heads of root crops from the residues. Therefore, topical issues of the sensing of the heads of sugar beet roots arranged in rows, are related to the majority of the sugar beet toppers, cleaners of the sugar beet heads, leaves cutters and, digging up working bodies of some designs. The aim of this study is theoretical determination the optimum design and kinematic parameters of a new sensing mechanism of the sugar beet heads located in the soil on the basis of the theory of interaction of flat passive swath board sensing organ with the sugar beet heads during their topping when located in the soil. In the study there are used methods of creation of mathematical models of functioning of the agricultural machines and their working bodies with the using of main provisions of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, programming and numerical calculations on the PC. In this paper, there is presented a theoretical study of the interaction of passive sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root when there are located residues of the leaves on a root head spherical surface in the form of short elastic rods. Thus, for such an interaction of the sensing organ and the head of sugar beet root head there is taken into account elastic-damping properties of the sugar beet leaves residues. In the study there was first of all developed a new design of the topper for sugar beet heads with the use of a flat swath board sensing organ, there was developed the equivalent scheme of the interaction of the

  2. A Model of Self-Organizing Head-Centered Visual Responses in Primate Parietal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Bedeho M. W.; Stringer, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a hypothesis for how head-centered visual representations in primate parietal areas could self-organize through visually-guided learning, and test this hypothesis using a neural network model. The model consists of a competitive output layer of neurons that receives afferent synaptic connections from a population of input neurons with eye position gain modulated retinal receptive fields. The synaptic connections in the model are trained with an associative trace learning rule which has the effect of encouraging output neurons to learn to respond to subsets of input patterns that tend to occur close together in time. This network architecture and synaptic learning rule is hypothesized to promote the development of head-centered output neurons during periods of time when the head remains fixed while the eyes move. This hypothesis is demonstrated to be feasible, and each of the core model components described is tested and found to be individually necessary for successful self-organization. PMID:24349064

  3. Admissions for isolated nonoperative mild head injuries: Sharing the burden among trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Mejaddam, Ali Y; Chang, Yuchiao; DeMoya, Marc A; King, David R; Yeh, Daniel D; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Alam, Hasan B; Velmahos, George C

    2016-10-01

    Isolated nonoperative mild head injuries (INOMHI) occur with increasing frequency in an aging population. These patients often have multiple social, discharge, and rehabilitation issues, which far exceed the acute component of their care. This study was aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with INOMHI admitted to three services: trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology. Retrospective case series (January 1, 2009 to August 31, 2013) at an academic Level I trauma center. According to an institutional protocol, INOMHI patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13 to 15 were admitted on a weekly rotational basis to trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology. The three populations were compared, and the primary outcomes were survival rate to discharge, neurological status at hospital discharge as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), and discharge disposition. Four hundred eighty-eight INOMHI patients were admitted (trauma surgery, 172; neurosurgery, 131; neurology, 185). The mean age of the study population was 65.3 years, and 58.8% of patients were male. Seventy-seven percent of patients has a GCS score of 15. Age, sex, mechanism of injury, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale in head and neck, and GCS were similar among the three groups. Patients who were admitted to trauma surgery, neurosurgery and neurology services had similar proportions of survivors (98.8% vs 95.7% vs 94.7%), and discharge disposition (home, 57.0% vs 61.6% vs 55.7%). The proportion of patients with GOS of 4 or 5 on discharge was slightly higher among patients admitted to trauma (97.7% vs 93.0% vs 92.4%). In a logistic regression model adjusting for Charlson Comorbidity Index CCI and Abbreviated Injury Scale head and neck scores, patients who were admitted to neurology or neurosurgery had significantly lower odds being discharged with GOS 4 or 5. While the trauma group had the lowest proportion of repeats of brain computed tomography (61

  4. Isolated Post-Traumatic Radial Head Dislocation, A Rare and Easily Missed Injury-A Case Report

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    V Gupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the head of the radius may be either congenital, an isolated injury or more commonly part of a complex injury to the elbow such as the Monteggia fracturedislocation. Isolated traumatic radial head dislocation without associated injuries in children is a rare and easily missed condition. We report such a case in a 7-year-old boy without any associated injuries or co-morbid conditions. Initially the diagnosis was missed, and 6 weeks later open reduction was performed with annular ligament reconstruction surgery. At the one-year follow up, the patient had returned to most normal activities, showing only slight terminal restriction of pronation. We discuss the injury mechanism and management for the Monteggia fracturedislocation and review the available literature.

  5. Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ye, Lan; Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Ma, Zhaoxu; Yan, Kai; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2016-10-01

    A novel single-spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain 2H-TWYE14T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2H-TWYE14T belongs to the genus Streptomyces, with highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces niveus NRRL 2466T (98.84 %). Analysis based on the gyrB gene also indicated that strain 2H-TWYE14T should be assigned to the genus Streptomyces. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain 2H-TWYE14T were consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 2H-TWYE14T and its phylogenetically closely related strain S. niveus JCM 4251T, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that 2H-TWYE14T could be distinguished from S. niveus. Therefore, it is concluded that strain 2H-TWYE14T can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces camponoticapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2H-TWYE14T (=DSM 100523T=CGMCC 4.7275T).

  6. Segmentation of organs at risk in CT volumes of head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaofei; Ma, Jinfeng; Li, Yan; Li, Meiling; Song, Yanli; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) is a key step in treatment planning system (TPS) of image guided radiation therapy. We are developing three classes of methods to segment 17 organs at risk throughout the whole body, including brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin. The three classes of segmentation methods include (1) threshold-based methods for organs of large contrast with adjacent structures such as lungs, trachea, and skin; (2) context-driven Generalized Hough Transform-based methods combined with graph cut algorithm for robust localization and segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen; and (3) atlas and registration-based methods for segmentation of heart and all organs in CT volumes of head and pelvis. The segmentation accuracy for the seventeen organs was subjectively evaluated by two medical experts in three levels of score: 0, poor (unusable in clinical practice); 1, acceptable (minor revision needed); and 2, good (nearly no revision needed). A database was collected from Ruijin Hospital, Huashan Hospital, and Xuhui Central Hospital in Shanghai, China, including 127 head scans, 203 thoracic scans, 154 abdominal scans, and 73 pelvic scans. The percentages of "good" segmentation results were 97.6%, 92.9%, 81.1%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 78.7%, 94.1%, 91.1%, 81.3%, 86.7%, 82.5%, 86.4%, 79.9%, 72.6%, 68.5%, 93.2%, 96.9% for brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin, respectively. Various organs at risk can be reliably segmented from CT scans by use of the three classes of segmentation methods.

  7. The Modified Risk Factors of Health Heads of the Medical Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study and evaluation of modifiable potential risk factors of health of heads of medical organizations in terms of structural and technological modernization of the health system, the growing need for highly qualified management personnel. Efficiency of activity of medical associations largely due to the level of health managers, allowing to solve problems of activities of medical organizations in the modern fastchanging environmental conditions. Based on international experience and our own research the authors identified features of the state of health of heads of medical organizations, and the degree of exposure to risk factors for no communicable diseases; considered approaches to assess motivation and psychological readiness to promote the health and potential of managerial personnel in the formation of health-saving behavior. Methods: in the present study, the following methods were used: systemic approach, content analysis, methods of social diagnosis (questionnaires, interviews, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, and method of statistical processing of information. Results: reviewed and proposed approaches to use preventive measures prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases healthcare leaders, forming health-preserving behavior. Conclusions and Relevance: in modern scientific studies on the health of medical workers, including heads of medical institutions, defined the modern methodological approaches to formation of health-saving behavior and maintaining healthy lifestyle health care workers. Despite the high awareness of heads of medical organizations in the area of influence of risk factors on health, accessibility of medical care for the diagnosis and correction of risk factors of chronic no communicable diseases, risk factors of health among healthcare leaders have sufficient prevalence. Health-promoting behavior model is not a conscious lifestyle leader and formed as a reaction if you have

  8. Radiation-resistant micro-organisms isolated from textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, H.; Christensen, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Towels from private homes and public offices and underwear contaminated by being used by employees at a public health laboratory were examined for occurrence of radiation-resistant bacteria and fungi. Three different methods were used for isolation of the most resistant organisms, one with multiplication of the microbial population prior to an irradiation used for selection, and two witout this multiplication and with the organisms placed on membrane filters or in situ on the textiles, respectively. A total of 44 different strains were isolated. Differences in the three methods used for selection of the most radiation-resistant microorganisms were not reflected in the results. 16 pigmentproducing Gram-positive cocci, tentatively classified as Micrococcus radiodurans, were the most radiation-resistant and were isolated in about half of the examinations. Other Gram-positive cocci, nonspore forming rods, some Nocardia and Candida parapsilosis strains and two Bacillus strains constituted the rest of the collection. With few exceptions dose-response curves for the strains were upward convex. D-6 values determined to be between 1.5 megarad for the most radiation sensitive, a Candida, and 5.7 megarad for the most resistant, tentatively classified as M. radiodurans. The D-6 values for the Bacillus strains were in both cases 1.8 megarad, consistent with a D-value of 0.3 megarad. The same resistance is reported to be the maximum resistance for B. pumilus, strain E601, commonly used as reference strain in the literature on radiation sterilization of medical devices and supplies. (author)

  9. Radiation-resistant micro-organisms isolated from textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, H; Christensen, E A [Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1981-01-01

    Towels from private homes and public offices and underwear contaminated by being used by employees at a public health laboratory were examined for occurrence of radiation-resistant bacteria and fungi. Three different methods were used for isolation of the most resistant organisms, one with multiplication of the microbial population prior to an irradiation used for selection, and two witout this multiplication and with the organisms placed on membrane filters or in situ on the textiles, respectively. A total of 44 different strains were isolated. Differences in the three methods used for selection of the most radiation-resistant microorganisms were not reflected in the results. 16 pigmentproducing Gram-positive cocci, tentatively classified as Micrococcus radiodurans, were the most radiation-resistant and were isolated in about half of the examinations. Other Gram-positive cocci, nonspore forming rods, some Nocardia and Candida parapsilosis strains and two Bacillus strains constituted the rest of the collection. With few exceptions dose-response curves for the strains were upward convex. D-6 values determined to be between 1.5 megarad for the most radiation sensitive, a Candida, and 5.7 megarad for the most resistant, tentatively classified as M. radiodurans. The D-6 values for the Bacillus strains were in both cases 1.8 megarad, consistent with a D-value of 0.3 megarad. The same resistance is reported to be the maximum resistance for B. pumilus, strain E601, commonly used as reference strain in the literature on radiation sterilization of medical devices and supplies.

  10. Organ preservation in stage II and III head and neck cancer utilizing alternate week concomitant chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, David B.; Vokes, Everett; Mittal, Bharat B.; Stenson, Kerstin; Kies, M.; Pelzer, H.; Nautiyal, Jaishanker; Kozloff, Mark; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Haraf, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective phase II trial was conducted to determine the efficacy and rate of organ preservation of alternate week concomitant chemoradiotherapy in stage II and III head and neck cancer. Methods: Forty-nine patients (10 stage II and 39 stage III) with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region have been entered into a prospective phase II trial. Pretreatment evaluation included history and physical examination, computed tomography of the neck, bone scan, chest x-ray, panendoscopy and biopsy confirmation of malignancy. Therapy is given in 2 week cycles consisting of 5 days of concomitant chemoradiotherapy followed by a nine day break during which no treatment is given. Each cycle of treatment consists of 1.0 gm hydroxyurea P.O. every 12 hours for 6 days (11 doses per cycle) and 800mg/m 2 /d continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil along with concomitant radiation therapy (RT) administered in 1.8-2.0 Gy daily fractions for five days. This alternate week (week on/week off) schedule is continued for a total of 7 cycles resulting in an overall treatment time of 13 weeks and a total RT dose of 70 Gy. Extent of initial surgery included biopsy only (59.2%), minimal laser debulking (12.2%), and resection with or without neck dissection (28.6%). Results: The majority of patients are male (71.4%), with a median age of 61.3 years. Primary sites included oral cavity (16.3%), oropharynx (12.2%), larynx (57.1%), hypopharynx (8.1%), and nasopharynx (4.1%). T stage included T3 (32 patients, 65.3%), T2 (16 patients, 32.7%), and T1 (1 patient). N stage included N1 (17 patients, 34.7%), and N0 (32 patients, 65.3%). With a median follow-up of 27 months, the overall response rate is 100% (91.7 complete response, and 8.3% partial response). The 5 year actuarial local control, disease free survival, and overall survival is 90.1%, 88.3%, and 65.0%, respectively. One patient has failed with distant disease alone. Four patients had isolated local failures and (3(4)) were

  11. Evaluation of Radiocapitellar Arthritis in Patients with a Second Radiograph at Least 2 Years after Nonoperative Treatment of an Isolated Radial Head Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Kachooei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study if patients that have a second radiograph 2 or more years after nonoperative treatment of an isolated radial head fracture have radiocapitellar osteoarthritis (RC OA. Methods: We used the database of 3 academic hospitals in one health system from 1988 to 2013 to find patients with isolated radial head fractures (no associated ligament injury or fracture that had a second elbow radiograph after more than 2 years from the initial injury. Of 887 patients with isolated radial head fractures, 54 (6% had an accessible second radiograph for reasons of a second injury (57%, pain (30%, or follow-up visit (13%. Two orthopedic surgeons independently classified the radial head fractures on the initial radiographs using the Broberg and Morrey modified Mason classification, and assessed the development of RC OA on the final radiograph using a binary system (yes/no. Results: Four out of 54 (7.5% patients had RC OA, one with isolated RC arthrosis that seemed related to capitellar cartilage injury, and 3 that presented with pain and had global OA (likely primary osteoarthritis. Conclusion: With the caveat that some percentage of patients may have left our health system during the study period, about 1 in 887 patients (0.1% returns with isolated radiocapitellar arthritis after an isolated radial head fracture, and this may relate to capitellar injury rather than attrition. Patients with isolated radial head fractures can consider post-traumatic radiocapitellar arthritis a negligible risk.

  12. From Head-hunter to Organ-thief: Verisimilitude, Doubt and Plausible Worlds in Indonesia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    their victims and using the human heads in construction rituals as they used to do, head-hunters are now allegedly harvesting the victims’ organs for sale on the international organ market. Based on a comparison of ethnographic material from North Maluku, a province in the eastern part of Indonesia, and news...... reports I trace the shift from head-hunting to organ theft and suggest that this plasticity is not merely a symbolic representation of changing political and economic realities. Rather, I argue, the organ-stealing head-hunters are part of a global travelling package that includes and entangles organ...... trafficking practices, media accounts, political imaginaries, and social anxieties within the same field of reality and possibility, a field of verisimilitude in which fiction and fact, rumour and reality, are fundamentally blurred. The article proposes a ‘more-than-representational’ approach to the organ...

  13. Self-organizing path integration using a linked continuous attractor and competitive network: path integration of head direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Simon M; Rolls, Edmund T

    2006-12-01

    A key issue is how networks in the brain learn to perform path integration, that is update a represented position using a velocity signal. Using head direction cells as an example, we show that a competitive network could self-organize to learn to respond to combinations of head direction and angular head rotation velocity. These combination cells can then be used to drive a continuous attractor network to the next head direction based on the incoming rotation signal. An associative synaptic modification rule with a short term memory trace enables preceding combination cell activity during training to be associated with the next position in the continuous attractor network. The network accounts for the presence of neurons found in the brain that respond to combinations of head direction and angular head rotation velocity. Analogous networks in the hippocampal system could self-organize to perform path integration of place and spatial view representations.

  14. One Stage Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy  for Isolated Injury to Pancreatic Head Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Major pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma by itself is a relatively rare occurrence, and in vast majority of cases (95%) it is associated with injury to adjacent major vessels and organs; thus making isolated major pancreatic injury even rarer. While most pancreatic injuries are managed by simple measures like debridement and drainage, complex proximal injury poses surgical challenge regarding surgical skill and judgement. Disproportionate approach at any stage of management can contribute  to high mortality and morbidity. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy plays a limited but important role in managing serious trauma to proximal pancreas and duodenum. Author presents a case where isolated injury to head of pancreas required emergency pancreatoduodenectomy. After a bizarre road accident, a middle aged male underwent emergency laparotomy for intraperitoneal bleeding and during exploration a deep transverse laceration with ampullary disruption was found in the head of the organ. Duodenum in all its part was intact and there was no other injury. The nature and site of injury made emergency pancreatoduodenectomy the only viable option. Leaking pancreatojejunostomy enhances infective complications that lead to late mortality. To circumvent this problem there is enthusiasm for staged surgery with resection and tube pancreatostomy in first stage, leaving the difficult anastomosis for a later date, However, if the patient is haemodynamically stable and operated reasonably early, one stage pancreatoduodenectomy gives good result and avoids repeating surgery with inherent problems and reduces hospital stay. For successful management of pancreatic trauma it is essential to make early diagnosis of duct disruption, with sound application of operative skill and judgement by treating surgeon.

  15. ''Dropped-head'' syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna

    2006-01-01

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings. (orig.)

  16. Diagnosis of oral fungal infection in patients undergoing head and neck cancer radiation. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulacio, L.; Paz, M.; Ramadan, S.; Ramos, L.; Marozzi, M.L.; Sortino, M.; Escovich, L.; Lopez, C.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy adverse effects are very common, they contribute to development of opportunistic infections. Genus Candida is often associated with oral diseases in susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to study the presence of yeast in oral lesions, in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and to evaluate antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Swabs of oral mucosal lesions of 76 patients were studied. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was evaluated, with ATB Fungus-3 method, which tests 5-fluorcitosine (5-FC), amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC); and allows the estimation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Yeasts were isolated in 74% of samples, being Candida albicans, most frequent specie (53%), followed by C.tropicalis (24%), C.parapsilosis (14%), C.krusei (5%), C.dubliniensis (2%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2%). All strains were susceptible to VRC. For other antifungals, there were resistant or dose-dependent-susceptible strains. Only C.krusei was resistant to the FCA. About AMB, 2 isolates of C. tropicalis presented a value of 2 mg/l MIC, dose with high incidence of adverse effects. These studies are important to establish early and suitable therapy, wich contribute to achieve lowers rates of disseminated forms of candidiasis, and to reduce the difficulties in food intake that carries the presence of oral lesions. (authors)

  17. The effect of perfusion and irrigation flow rate variations on NaCl efflux from the isolated, perfused head of the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, J.B.; Evans, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    In vivo branchial blood pressure and unidirectional efflux values for NaCl were determined in the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. Utilizing an isolated, perfused head preparation, perfused at in vivo pressure levels, NaCl efflux was measured and compared to in vivo values. The effect of variations in perfusion or irrigation rates on the ion efflux across the gills of the isolated head was also studied. The efflux of 22 Na from the isolated, perfused head was found to be similar to in vivo values and dependent on perfusion flow and pressure. In vitro 36 Cl efflux was lower than the efflux from intact animals and was determined to be flow/pressure independent. Irrigation rate changes at all rates tested did not affect the unidirectional efflux of either ion. (Auth.)

  18. Effect of perfusion and irrigation flow rate variations on NaCl efflux from the isolated, perfused head of the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, J.B. (Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (USA)); Evans, D.H. (Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salsbury Cove, ME, USA)

    1981-06-01

    In vivo branchial blood pressure and unidirectional efflux values for NaCl were determined in the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. Utilizing an isolated, perfused head preparation, perfused at in vivo pressure levels, NaCl efflux was measured and compared to in vivo values. The effect of variations in perfusion or irrigation rates on the ion efflux across the gills of the isolated head was also studied. The efflux of /sup 22/Na from the isolated, perfused head was found to be similar to in vivo values and dependent on perfusion flow and pressure. In vitro /sup 36/Cl efflux was lower than the efflux from intact animals and was determined to be flow/pressure independent. Irrigation rate changes at all rates tested did not affect the unidirectional efflux of either ion.

  19. Head direction cell activity in mice: robust directional signal depends on intact otolith organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Ryan M.; Taube, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The head direction (HD) cell signal is a representation of an animal's perceived directional heading with respect to its environment. This signal appears to originate in the vestibular system, which includes the semicircular canals and otolith organs. Preliminary studies indicate the semicircular canals provide a necessary component of the HD signal, but involvement of otolithic information in the HD signal has not been tested. The present study was designed to determine the otolithic contribution to the HD signal, as well as to compare HD cell activity of mice to that of rats. HD cell activity in the anterodorsal thalamus was assessed in wild-type C57BL/6J and otoconia-deficient tilted mice during locomotion within a cylinder containing a prominent visual landmark. HD cell firing properties in C57BL/6J mice were generally similar to those in rats. However, in C57BL/6J mice, landmark rotation failed to demonstrate dominant control of the HD signal in 36% of the sessions. In darkness, directional firing became unstable during 42% of the sessions, but landmark control was not associated with HD signal stability in darkness. HD cells were identified in tilted mice, but directional firing properties were not as robust as those of C57BL/6J mice. Most HD cells in tilted mice were controlled by landmark rotation, but showed substantial signal degradation across trials. These results support current models that suggest otolithic information is involved in the perception of directional heading. Furthermore, compared to rats, the HD signal in mice appears to be less reliably anchored to prominent environmental cues. PMID:19176815

  20. Morfologic anomalies in the spermatozoid heads caused by isolated and combined effects of external ionizing radiation and chemical factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shopova, V.; Nechev, Khr.; Sylovski, P.

    1985-01-01

    The test for recording morphologic anomalies in the spermatozoid heads and the genotoxic effect of isolated and combined treatment with the preparation chloracetophone and external ionizing radiation was applied on of mice line C 57 Bl. Evaluation of the morphologic anomalies in the spermatozoa rested upon two staining method, one of which helped to distinguish the acrosome. It was demonstrated that chloracetophone given in a single high dose (1/2 and 1/4 LD 50 ) was genotoxic. Ionizing radiation induced the expected positive effect. After combined application of 5x1/5 LD 50 chloracetophone and 1 and 4 Gy irradiation dose, it was the effect of radiation that was recorded. Only in the group in which both noxious agents were combined in effective doses (1/2 LD 50 chloracetophone and 1 Gy) there was a tendency toward additive effect

  1. Air Versus Ground Transportation in Isolated Severe Head Trauma: A National Trauma Data Bank Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiolfi, Alberto; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Recinos, Gustavo; De Leon Castro, Alejandro; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-03-01

    The effect of prehospital helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) on mortality has been analyzed previously in polytrauma patients with discordant results. Our aim was to compare outcomes in patients with isolated severe blunt traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) transported by HEMS or ground emergency medical services (GEMS). We conducted a National Trauma Data Bank study (2007-2014). All adult patients (≥16 years old) who sustained an isolated severe blunt TBI and were transported by HEMS or GEMS were included in the study. There were 145,559 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 116,391 (80%) patients were transported via GEMS and 29,168 (20%) via HEMS. Median transportation time was longer for HEMS patients (41 vs. 25 min; p transportation was independently associated with improved survival (odds ratio [OR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.67; p transport was an independent predictor of survival (AIS 3: OR 0.35; p transport time was not an independent predictor of mortality. Helicopter transport, in adult patients with isolated severe TBI, is associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  3. One Stage Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy for Isolated Injury to Pancreatic Head Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanta Kumar Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Major pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma by itself is a relatively rare occurrence, and in vast majority of cases (95%) it is associated with injury to adjacent major vessels and organs; thus making isolated major pancreatic injury even rarer. While most pancreatic injuries are managed by simple measures like debridement and drainage, complex proximal injury poses surgical challenge regarding surgical skill and judgement. Disproportionate approach at any stage of management ...

  4. Evaluation of an automatic segmentation algorithm for definition of head and neck organs at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David; Boylan, Chris; Liptrot, Tom; Aitkenhead, Adam; Lee, Lip; Yap, Beng; Sykes, Andrew; Rowbottom, Carl; Slevin, Nicholas

    2014-08-03

    The accurate definition of organs at risk (OARs) is required to fully exploit the benefits of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. However, manual delineation is time-consuming and there is considerable inter-observer variability. This is pertinent as function-sparing and adaptive IMRT have increased the number and frequency of delineation of OARs. We evaluated accuracy and potential time-saving of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) automatic segmentation to define OARs for salivary-, swallowing- and cochlea-sparing IMRT. Five clinicians recorded the time to delineate five organs at risk (parotid glands, submandibular glands, larynx, pharyngeal constrictor muscles and cochleae) for each of 10 CT scans. SPICE was then used to define these structures. The acceptability of SPICE contours was initially determined by visual inspection and the total time to modify them recorded per scan. The Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm created a reference standard from all clinician contours. Clinician, SPICE and modified contours were compared against STAPLE by the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean/maximum distance to agreement (DTA). For all investigated structures, SPICE contours were less accurate than manual contours. However, for parotid/submandibular glands they were acceptable (median DSC: 0.79/0.80; mean, maximum DTA: 1.5 mm, 14.8 mm/0.6 mm, 5.7 mm). Modified SPICE contours were also less accurate than manual contours. The utilisation of SPICE did not result in time-saving/improve efficiency. Improvements in accuracy of automatic segmentation for head and neck OARs would be worthwhile and are required before its routine clinical implementation.

  5. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Kalman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™ and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™ from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA. Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA. After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  6. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  7. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M G; Brinkman, P; Escobar Salazar, Natalia; Bos, L D; de Heer, K; Meijer, M; Janssen, H-G; de Cock, H; Wösten, H A B; Visser, C.E.; van Oers, M H J; Sterk, P J

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  8. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  9. Method for the detection and isolation of traces of organic fluorine compounds in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, R H; Ross, J M; Benedict, H M

    1964-01-01

    A method for the detection and isolation of sub-microgram quantities of organic fluorine compounds from plant materials in the presence of much larger amounts of inorganic fluoride is presented. The procedure consists first of a rapid screening step for use with large numbers of vegetable samples and extracts and, second, of a chromatographic step to isolate and characterize any fluoro-organics found. These methods are developed in light of specific chemical characteristics of organic fluorine compounds as a general class. A modification of SOEP's quantitative sub-micro fluoride analytical method is presented as applicable to these isolation methods. Microgram quantities of organic fluorine compounds were found in the plant materials investigated but at a level too low for isolation and identification.

  10. Anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of siraitia grosvenorii on the spoilage bacteria isolated from sauced pork head meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xu, L. Y.; Cui, Y. Q.; Pang, M. X.; Wang, F.; Qi, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that optimum extraction condition of active ingredients extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii were described as follows: ethanol concentrations of sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction; the active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus sp, Serratia sp and MIC was 0.125g/mL, 0.0625g/mL, 0.125g/mL and 0.125g/mL. The active constituent of Siraitia grosvenorii has obvious anti-bacteria effect on the spoilage bacteria isolated from Sauced pork head meat and can be used as a new natural food preservation to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.

  11. Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov., an actinomycete that produces kanchanamycin, isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lan; Zhao, Shanshan; Li, Yao; Jiang, Shanwen; Zhao, Yue; Li, Jinmeng; Yan, Kai; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2017-05-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a kanchanamycin-producing actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 3H-HV17(2)T, was isolated from the head of an ant (Lasius fuliginosus L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 3H-HV17(2)T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarities to Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424T (98.90 %, with which it phylogenetically clustered, Streptomyces alboflavus NRRL B-2373T (98.65 %) and Streptomyces flavofungini NBRC 13371T (98.36 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene also supported the close relationship of these strains. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain are also consistent with those members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 3H-HV17(2)T and its phylogenetically closely related strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 3H-HV17(2)T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, strain 3H-HV17(2)T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lasiicapitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3H-HV17(2)T (=CGMCC 4.7349T=DSM 103124T).

  12. Streptomyces capitiformicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete producing angucyclinone antibiotics isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanwen; Piao, Chenyu; Yu, Yang; Cao, Peng; Li, Chenxu; Yang, Fan; Li, Mutong; Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi

    2018-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-SSA4 T , was isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicus Mayr) and was found to produce angucyclinone antibiotics. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic status of strain 1H-SSA4 T . The DNA G+C content of the draft genome sequence, consisting of 11.4 Mbp, was 70.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-SSA4 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with the highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ossamyceticus NBRC 13983 T (98.9 %), and phylogenetically clustered with this species, Streptomyces torulosus LMG 20305 T (98.8 %), Streptomyces ipomoeae NBRC 13050 T (98.5 %) and Streptomyces decoyicus NRRL 2666 T (98.4 %). The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain were also consistent with those members of the genus Streptomyces. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-SSA4 T and the above-mentioned strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-SSA4 T could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces capitiformicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-SSA4 T (=CGMCC 4.7403 T =DSM 104537 T ).

  13. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  14. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin; Wu, Hui Xian; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang Lun; Wang, Chang Yun; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  15. Directional Charge Separation in Isolated Organic Semiconductor Crystalline Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Michael; Labastide, Joelle; Bond-Thompson, Hilary; Briseno, Alejandro; Collela, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    In the conventional view of organic photovoltaics (OPV), localized electronic excitations (excitons) formed in the active layer are transported by random 3D diffusion to an interface where charge separation and extraction take place. Because radiative de-excitation is usually strongly allowed in organic semiconductors, efficient charge separation requires high exciton mobility, with much of the diffusive motion ‘wasted’ in directions that don’t result in an interface encounter. Our research efforts are focused on ways to enforce a preferred directionality in energy and/or charge transport using ordered crystalline nanowires in which the intermolecular interactions that facilitate transport along, for example, the pi-stacking axis, can be made several orders of magnitude stronger than those in a transverse direction. The results presented in our recent work (Nature Communications) is a first step towards realizing the goal of directional control of both energy transport and charge separation, where excitons shared between adjacent molecules dissociate exclusively along the pi-stacking direction.

  16. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria on organic flours and application of isolates in sourdough fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Stanzer, Damir; Ivanuša, Ines; Kazazić, Snježana; Hanousek Čiča, Karla; Mrvčić, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming preserves biodiversity and organic products can be the source of many microbial species. The species diversity in organically grown wheat, spelt and rye was investigated in order to find strains suitable for sourdough fermentation. Colonies representing various morphological appearances were isolated and catalase-negative colonies were identified by mass spectrometer Microflex LT ™ MALDI-TOF. The fermentation products (lactic, acetic, formic and phenyllactic acid) were determi...

  17. Organization of the cpe locus in CPE-positive clostridium perfringens type C and D isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (encoded by the cpe gene contributes to several important human, and possibly veterinary, enteric diseases. The current study investigated whether cpe locus organization in type C or D isolates resembles one of the three (one chromosomal and two plasmid-borne cpe loci commonly found amongst type A isolates. Multiplex PCR assays capable of detecting sequences in those type A cpe loci failed to amplify products from cpe-positive type C and D isolates, indicating these isolates possess different cpe locus arrangements. Therefore, restriction fragments containing the cpe gene were cloned and sequenced from two type C isolates and one type D isolate. The obtained cpe locus sequences were then used to construct an overlapping PCR assay to assess cpe locus diversity amongst other cpe-positive type C and D isolates. All seven surveyed cpe-positive type C isolates had a plasmid-borne cpe locus partially resembling the cpe locus of type A isolates carrying a chromosomal cpe gene. In contrast, all eight type D isolates shared the same plasmid-borne cpe locus, which differed substantially from the cpe locus present in other C. perfringens by containing two copies of an ORF with 67% identity to a transposase gene (COG4644 found in Tn1546, but not previously associated with the cpe gene. These results identify greater diversity amongst cpe locus organization than previously appreciated, providing new insights into cpe locus evolution. Finally, evidence for cpe gene mobilization was found for both type C and D isolates, which could explain their cpe plasmid diversity.

  18. The Influence of Water Circulation on Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Bald Head Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrasse, M. C.; Osburn, C. L.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; He, R.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles in estuaries such as tidal creeks draining coastal wetlands such as salt marshes. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the quantity and quality of the DOM that tidally exchanges between salt marshes and their adjacent estuaries. Tidal movements play a central role in lateral exchanges of materials and bidirectional flow results in the mixing of DOM from marsh plants and estuarine DOM. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of water circulation on the distribution and quality of DOM in Bald Head Creek, a tributary to the Cape Fear River estuary in eastern North Carolina. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, stable carbon isotopes, and chromophoric DOM (CDOM) absorbance at 254 nm (a254) were used to distinguish between DOM quantity and quality at three locations along the creek: Site 3 (upstream), Site 2 (middle stream), and Site 1 (near the creek mouth). Samples were collected over four tidal cycles between March-August 2016 and compared to time series data collected approximately weekly from 2014-2016. DOM characteristics differed substantially over the tidal cycle. Higher CDOM and DOC concentration were observed at low tide than at high tide at all three sites, suggesting greater export of carbon from the marsh into the creek as the tides recede. Analysis of CDOM quality based on specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (SR) showed that the marsh end-member (Site 3) source of DOM had greater aromaticity and higher molecular weight. Site 1 showed greater variability over the tidal cycle most likely due to a greater tidal influence, being closer to the mouth. Additionally, an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and a hydrodynamic model were used to map water circulation and DOC concentration along the creek to compute exchanges with the adjacent estuary. Results suggest that estuarine OM dynamics are strongly controlled by

  19. An investigation into the effect of protective devices on the dose to radiosensitive organs in the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N.W.; Faulkner, K.; Clarke, P.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed to determine the dose reduction afforded to radiosensitive organs in the head and neck by various protective devices. These included spectacles with plastic, standard glass, photochromic and lead-glass lenses, a thyroid collar and a lead-acrylic face mask. The measurements were performed using an anthropomorphic phantom loaded with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters, in conditions realistic of clinical practice. Irradiations were performed using scattered radiation produced by a pelvic phantom, for X-ray beams generated at 80 kVp and 110 KVp. Also presented is the ratio of organ dose to dose to the bridge of the nose for thyroid, oesophagus, brain and sinuses, as measured for the case of no head or neck protection. (author)

  20. Large-scale isolation and fractionation of organs of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweidler, A; Cohen, L H

    1971-10-01

    Methods for the mass isolation of diverse organs from small animals are described. They involve novel devices: a mechanical dissecting system, a centrifugal agitator for the separation of fibrillar from globular particles, and a settling chamber for the fractionation at unit gravity of particles with sedimentation velocities above the useful range for centrifugation. The application of these methods to the isolation of polytene and nonpolytene nuclei from Drosophila melanogaster larvae is described.

  1. Novel lineages of Giardia intestinalis identified by genetic analysis of organisms isolated from dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monis, P T; Andrews, R H; Mayrhofer, G; Mackrill, J; Kulda, J; Isaac-Renton, J L; Ey, P L

    1998-01-01

    Infection of suckling mice with Giardia trophozoites recovered from the intestines of 11 dogs autopsied in Central and Southern Australia in each case produced an established isolate. In contrast, only 1 isolate was obtained by inoculation of faecal cysts. The organisms grew poorly in comparison with isolates from humans or non-canine animal hosts. Light microscopy revealed that the trophozoites had median bodies with the 'claw hammer' appearance typical of G. intestinalis (syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) but that they differed in shape and nuclear morphology from axenic isolates of human or canine origin. Allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data representing 26 loci and phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained from DNA amplified from the glutamate dehydrogenase locus showed that the 11 isolates examined from Australian dogs were genetically distinct from all isolates of G. intestinalis that have been established previously from humans and animals, and also from G. muris. Both analytical methods placed 10 of the Australian canine isolates into a unique genetic lineage (designated Assemblage C) and the eleventh into a deep-rooted second branch (designated Assemblage D), each well separated from the 2 lineages (Assemblages A and B) of G. intestinalis that encompass all the genotypes known to infect humans. In contrast, 4 axenic isolates derived from dogs in Canada and Europe (the only other isolates to have been established from dogs) have genotypes characteristic of genetic Assemblages A or B. The findings indicate that the novel Giardia identified in these rural Australian dogs have a restricted host range, possibly confined to canine species. The poor success rate in establishing Giardia from dogs in vitro suggests, further, that similar genotypes may predominate as canine parasites world-wide. The absence of such organisms among isolates of Giardia that have been established from humans by propagation in suckling mice indicates that they are

  2. Radiation-induced transformations of isolated organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The studies of radiation-chemical behaviour of isolated organic molecules in rigid inert media are of considerable interest for radiation chemistry and general structural chemistry. Previous efforts were limited to the ESR studies of radicals resulting from some small hydrocarbon molecules in frozen rare gas solutions. Recently, we developed an approach to the radiation chemistry of isolated organic molecules using classic matrix isolation procedure for sample preparation and a combination of ESR and IR spectroscopy for characterization of paramagnetic and diamagnetic species resulting form electron irradiation or organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices at 10-15 K. The results obtained reveal high efficiency of energy transfer from rare gas matrix to organic molecules. The total radiation-chemical yields of degradation of organic molecules in argon and xenon matrices were measured directly by IR spectroscopy. The studies of the effect of electron scavengers on the radiolysis of organic molecules in solid rare gases show that the main primary process is positive hole transfer from matrix to additive molecule. ESR spectra of a number of radical cations (alkanes, ethers, arenes) were first characterized in a low-disturbing environment. It was found that the electronic characteristics (IP, polarizability) of the matrix used had crucial effect on trapping and degradation of primary organic radical cations. Using matrices with various IP provides an unique possibility to examine the chemical meaning of excess energy resulting from exothermic positive hole transfer, that is, to follow the fate of excited cations in condensed phase

  3. ISOLATION STUDIES ON THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLAE IN CHICKEN ORGANS, EGGS AND FEED COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Saraj-Uddin; Sajid, Mahum; Hashmi, Ramiz Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide.

  4. Long-term results of positron emission tomography-directed management of the neck in node-positive head and neck cancer after organ preservation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, Johanna; Chua, Benjamin; Pryor, David; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Foote, Matthew C; Panizza, Benedict; Burmeister, Bryan H; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2015-03-01

    The current study presents the long-term results from a study designed to evaluate a restaging positron emission tomography (PET) directed policy whereby neck dissections were omitted in all node positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (N+HNSCC) patients with PET-negative lymph nodes after definitive radiotherapy (RT), with or without chemotherapy. A post-therapy nodal response assessment with PET and computed tomography (CT) was performed in patients who achieved a complete response at the primary site after definitive radiotherapy. Patients with PET-negative lymph nodes were observed regardless of residual CT abnormalities. One hundred and twelve patients, the majority of whom (83 patients, 74%) had oropharyngeal primaries, were treated on protocol. Median follow-up was 62months. Negative and positive predictive values for the restaging PET was 97.1% and 77.8% respectively, with only one patient who was PET-negative after treatment experiencing an isolated nodal relapse. PET-guided management of the neck following organ preservation therapy effectively spares neck dissections in patients with N+HNSCC without compromising isolated nodal control or overall survival. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and Toxin Characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Organic Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Choi, Ok-Kyung; Kwon, Sun-Mok; Cho, Seung-Hak; Park, Byung-Jae; Jin, Na Young; Yu, Yong Man; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2017-08-28

    The prevalence and toxin characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from 39 organic vegetables were investigated. B. thuringiensis was detected in 30 out of the 39 organic vegetables (76.9%) with a mean value of 2.60 log CFU/g. Twenty-five out of the 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (83.3%) showed insecticidal toxicity against Spodoptera exigua . The hblCDA, nheABC , and entFM genes were found to be the major toxin genes, but the ces gene was not detected in any of the tested B. thuringiensis isolates. The hemolysin BL enterotoxin was detected in all 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (100%). The non-hemolytic enterotoxin complex was found in 27 out of 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (90.0%). The B. thuringiensis tested in this study had similar toxin gene characteristics to B. cereus , which possessed more than one toxin gene. B. thuringiensis could have the potential risk of foodborne illness based on the toxin genes and toxin-producing ability.

  6. Assessment of bone quality in the isolated femoral head for intracapsular fractures of the femoral head. Analysis of bone architecture using micro-CT and pQCT, and comparison with extracapsular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sando, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    Block sections were prepared from the five locations, central portion, superior portion, inferior portion, anterior portion, and posterior portion, of the region around the fracture of the femoral head isolated from 21 patients (16 patients with intracapsular fracture, 5 patients with extracapsular fracture). Cancellous bone microstructure, cortical bone thickness, and bone density were evaluated and analyzed for differences in the mechanism from which intracapsular versus extracapsular fracture and fragility developed. The method of evaluating the bone architecture differed from conventional bone histomorphometry of hard tissues and involved non-invasive micro-CT measurements, while the bone density was measured by peripheral quantitative computed topography (pQCT). The results indicate that in comparison to patients with extracapsular fractures, patients with intracapsular fractures showed significant decreases in the trabecular thickness of superior and posterior portions in the cancellous bone. The cortical bone thickness was significantly decreased in the superior portion. Bone density was significantly decreased in the superior portion, while in the extracapsular fracture group density tended to be lower in the inferior, anterior, and posterior portions, although this was not statistically significant. Although there have been previous studies on the bone quality of the femoral head isolated from intracapsular fracture of the femoral head, most reports are of two-dimensional analysis of coronal sections. As far as we are aware, there have been no previous reports comparing individual locations to extracapsular fractures. In view of the various reports that bone density is lower in the extracapsular fracture compared to the intracapsular fracture, we speculate that extracapsular fracture results from the effects of external forces on decreased bone density, while in the intracapsular fracture type, thinning of the superior portion of the cortical bone creates

  7. No boundaries: genomes, organisms, and ecological interactions responsible for divergence and reproductive isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J

    2014-01-01

    Revealing the genetic basis of traits that cause reproductive isolation, particularly premating or sexual isolation, usually involves the same challenges as most attempts at genotype-phenotype mapping and so requires knowledge of how these traits are expressed in different individuals, populations, and environments, particularly under natural conditions. Genetic dissection of speciation phenotypes thus requires understanding of the internal and external contexts in which underlying genetic elements are expressed. Gene expression is a product of complex interacting factors internal and external to the organism including developmental programs, the genetic background including nuclear-cytotype interactions, epistatic relationships, interactions among individuals or social effects, stochasticity, and prevailing variation in ecological conditions. Understanding of genomic divergence associated with reproductive isolation will be facilitated by functional expression analysis of annotated genomes in organisms with well-studied evolutionary histories, phylogenetic affinities, and known patterns of ecological variation throughout their life cycles. I review progress and prospects for understanding the pervasive role of host plant use on genetic and phenotypic expression of reproductive isolating mechanisms in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis and suggest how this system can be used as a model for revealing the genetic basis for species formation in organisms where speciation phenotypes are under the joint influences of genetic and environmental factors. © The American Genetic Association. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. SU-F-SPS-03: Direct Measurement of Organ Doses Resulting From Head and Cervical Spine Trauma CT Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, C; Lipnharski, I; Quails, N; Correa, N; Rill, L; Arreola, M [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study analyzes the exposure history of emergency department (ED) patients undergoing head and cervical spine trauma computed tomography (CT) studies. This study investigated dose levels received by trauma patients and addressed any potential concerns regarding radiation dose issues. Methods: Under proper IRB approval, a cohort of 300 trauma cases of head and cervical spine trauma CT scans received in the ED was studied. The radiological image viewing software of the hospital was used to view patient images and image data. The following parameters were extracted: the imaging history of patients, the reported dose metrics from the scanner including the volumetric CT Dose Index (CTDIvol) and Dose Length Product (DLP). A postmortem subject was scanned using the same scan techniques utilized in a standard clinical head and cervical spine trauma CT protocol with 120 kVp and 280 mAs. The CTDIvol was recorded for the subject and the organ doses were measured using optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters. Typical organ doses to the brain, thyroid, lens, salivary glands, and skin, based on the cadaver studies, were then calculated and reported for the cohort. Results: The CTDIvol reported by the CT scanner was 25.5 mGy for the postmortem subject. The average CTDIvol from the patient cohort was 34.1 mGy. From these metrics, typical average organ doses in mGy were found to be: Brain (44.57), Thyroid (33.40), Lens (82.45), Salivary Glands (61.29), Skin (47.50). The imaging history of the cohort showed that on average trauma patients received 26.1 scans over a lifetime. Conclusion: The average number of scans received on average by trauma ED patients shows that radiation doses in trauma patients may be a concern. Available dose tracking software would be helpful to track doses in trauma ED patients, highlighting the importance of minimizing unnecessary scans and keeping doses ALARA.

  9. The Isolation of Rubber from Milkweed Leaves. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volaric, Lisa; Hagen, John P.

    2002-01-01

    We present an introductory organic chemistry lab in which students isolate rubber from the leaves of milkweed plants (Asclepias syriaca). Students isolated rubber with a recovery of 2.4 ± 1.8% and 1.8 ± 0.7% for the microscale and macroscale procedures, respectively. Infrared spectra of their products were compared with the spectrum of synthetic rubber, cis-polyisoprene. Students tested for elasticity of their product by twisting it on a spatula and pulling; all students found some degree of elasticity.

  10. Atlas-based automatic segmentation of head and neck organs at risk and nodal target volumes: a clinical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisne, Jean-François; Blumhofer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer necessitates accurate definition of organs at risk (OAR) and clinical target volumes (CTV). This crucial step is time consuming and prone to inter- and intra-observer variations. Automatic segmentation by atlas deformable registration may help to reduce time and variations. We aim to test a new commercial atlas algorithm for automatic segmentation of OAR and CTV in both ideal and clinical conditions. The updated Brainlab automatic head and neck atlas segmentation was tested on 20 patients: 10 cN0-stages (ideal population) and 10 unselected N-stages (clinical population). Following manual delineation of OAR and CTV, automatic segmentation of the same set of structures was performed and afterwards manually corrected. Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Average Surface Distance (ASD) and Maximal Surface Distance (MSD) were calculated for “manual to automatic” and “manual to corrected” volumes comparisons. In both groups, automatic segmentation saved about 40% of the corresponding manual segmentation time. This effect was more pronounced for OAR than for CTV. The edition of the automatically obtained contours significantly improved DSC, ASD and MSD. Large distortions of normal anatomy or lack of iodine contrast were the limiting factors. The updated Brainlab atlas-based automatic segmentation tool for head and neck Cancer patients is timesaving but still necessitates review and corrections by an expert

  11. Atlas-based automatic segmentation of head and neck organs at risk and nodal target volumes: a clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisne, Jean-François; Blumhofer, Andreas

    2013-06-26

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer necessitates accurate definition of organs at risk (OAR) and clinical target volumes (CTV). This crucial step is time consuming and prone to inter- and intra-observer variations. Automatic segmentation by atlas deformable registration may help to reduce time and variations. We aim to test a new commercial atlas algorithm for automatic segmentation of OAR and CTV in both ideal and clinical conditions. The updated Brainlab automatic head and neck atlas segmentation was tested on 20 patients: 10 cN0-stages (ideal population) and 10 unselected N-stages (clinical population). Following manual delineation of OAR and CTV, automatic segmentation of the same set of structures was performed and afterwards manually corrected. Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Average Surface Distance (ASD) and Maximal Surface Distance (MSD) were calculated for "manual to automatic" and "manual to corrected" volumes comparisons. In both groups, automatic segmentation saved about 40% of the corresponding manual segmentation time. This effect was more pronounced for OAR than for CTV. The edition of the automatically obtained contours significantly improved DSC, ASD and MSD. Large distortions of normal anatomy or lack of iodine contrast were the limiting factors. The updated Brainlab atlas-based automatic segmentation tool for head and neck Cancer patients is timesaving but still necessitates review and corrections by an expert.

  12. Social isolation, survey nonresponse, and nonresponse bias: An empirical evaluation using social network data within an organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Megumi; Olson, Kristen; Falci, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Survey researchers have long hypothesized that social isolation negatively affects the probability of survey participation and biases survey estimates. Previous research, however, has relied on proxy measures of isolation, such as being a marginalized group member within a population. We re-examine the relationship between social isolation and survey participation using direct measures of social isolation derived from social network data; specifically, instrumental research and expressive friendship connections among faculty within academic departments. Using a reconceptualization of social isolation, we find that social network isolation is negatively associated with unit response. Among women (a numerical minority group within the organization), we further find that social group isolation (i.e., lacking instrumental network connections to men, the majority group in the organization) is negatively associated with survey participation. Finally, we show that some survey estimates are systematically biased due to nonparticipation from socially isolated people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic anisotropy and organization of nanoparticles in heads and antennae of neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Odivaldo C; Srygley, Robert B; Riveros, Andre J; Barbosa, Marcia A; Esquivel, Darci M S; Wajnberg, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    Oriented magnetic nanoparticles have been suggested as a good candidate for a magnetic sensor in ants. Behavioural evidence for a magnetic compass in neotropical leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica (Formicidae: Attini), motivated a study of the arrangement of magnetic particles in the ants’ four major body parts by measuring the angular dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance spectra at room temperature. Spectra of the thoraces and those of the abdomens showed no significant angular dependence, while those of the antennae and those of the heads exhibited a periodic dependence relative to the magnetic field. Fitting of the angular dependence of the resonant field resulted in an unexpected magnetic anisotropy with uniaxial symmetry. High values of the first order anisotropy constant were observed for the magnetic material in antennae (−2.9  ×  10 5  erg cm −3 ) and heads (−1  ×  10 6  erg   cm −3 ) as compared to body parts of other social insects. In addition, the magnitude of the anisotropy in the heads was comparable to that observed in magnetite nanoparticles of 4–5 nm diameter. For the antennae, the mean angle of the particles’ easy magnetization axis (EA) was estimated to be 41° relative to the straightened antenna’s long axis. For the heads, EA was approximately 60° relative to the head’s axis running from midway between the spines to the clypeus. These physical characteristics indicate organized magnetic nanoparticles with a potential for directional sensitivity, which is an important feature of magnetic compasses. (paper)

  14. Evaluation of absorbed dose in organs far from the target volume for different therapies of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletsch, Cristiana

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in radiotherapy are the result of innovations in technology and engineering as well as the information technology revolution applied to the treatment planning of patients. The intensity modulated radiation therapy (lMRT) is a sophisticated treatment technique that allows the concentration of the dose prescribed by radiotherapist in tumor volume, while sparing healthy tissues that surround it. However, the disadvantage of the technique is a potential induction of secondary cancers in distant organs related to the target volume due to leakage and scattered radiation, which generate these higher doses to the distant organs when compared to those measured in conventional treatments. These higher doses are is due to the greater use of monitor units and a larger amount of treatment fields. In this study the absorbed dose values in distant organs from the head and neck region were assessed, comparing conventional treatments and treatments using the IMRT techniques. The evaluation was made considering the assessment of dose in radiological significant organs distant from the treatment area. All measurements were performed using the RANDO Alderson anthropomorphic phantom that has internal components equivalent to muscle, bones and lungs and is sliced for placing thermoluminescent detectors in appropriate holes existing in the slices. This phantom, tilled with TLD-100 dosimeters, was submitted to a head and neck treatment with a cobalt-60 irradiator and a Trilogy linear accelerator. Three treatments were carried out with the accelerator, namely a conventional one and two treatments of IMRT with different complexities, all treatments using the 6MV beam. The results show that IMRT techniques generate large doses in distant organs when compared to those generated due to the conventional 6 MV beam treatment. However, these doses are not very different from those measured in the case of 60 Co treatment. (author)

  15. ''Dropped-head'' syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo [University of Messina, Department of Radiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna [University of Messina, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatry and Anaesthesiology, Messina (Italy)

    2006-02-15

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings. (orig.)

  16. Isolation studies on the prevalance of salmonellae in chicken organs, eggs and feed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, S.; Sajid, M.; Hashmi, R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. Methods: A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. Results: The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Conclusions: Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide. (author)

  17. Effect of isolated hepatic ischemia on organic anion clearance and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, G; Bynoe, R; Wood, G C; Fabian, T C; Croce, M; Kudsk, K A

    1992-04-01

    Hepatic failure is frequently seen following severe hemorrhagic shock, sepsis, and trauma. Clearance of various drugs has been used to evaluate hepatocellular dysfunction, including indocyanine green (ICG), an organic anionic dye that is transported similarly to bilirubin, and antipyrine (AP), a marker of oxidative phosphorylation. Previous investigators have noted a decrease in ICG excretion following systemic hemorrhage. The effect of isolated hepatic ischemia on the clearances of ICG and AP was studied in 16 pigs after 90 minutes of vascular occlusion to the liver. Antipyrine clearance decreased almost 50% from baseline values at 24 and 72 hours after the ischemia procedure, indicating a significant depression in the cytochrome P-450 system. On the other hand, ICG clearance did not change significantly. In conclusion, ICG clearance is not depressed after isolated hepatic ischemia in pigs. Changes in organic anion clearance after systemic hemorrhage may be because of release of toxic products from ischemic peripheral tissue.

  18. Equivalent dose, effective dose and risk assessment from panoramic radiography to the critical organs of head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo; Lee, Ae Ryeon

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalent and effective dose, and estimate radiation risk to the critical organs of head and neck region from the use of adult and child mode in panoramic radiography. The results were as follows. 1. The salivary glands showed the highest equivalent and effective dose in adult and child mode. The equivalent and effective dose in adult mode were 837 μSv and 20.93 μSv, those in child mode were 462 μSv and 11.54 μSv, respectively. 2. Total effective doses to the critical head and neck organs were estimated 34.2l μSv in adult mode, 20.14 μSv in child mode. From these data, the probabilities of stochastic effect from adult and child mode were 2.50xl0 -6 and 1.47x10 -6 3. The other remainder showed the greatest risk of fatal cancer. The risk estimate were 4.5 and 2.7 fatal malignancies in adult and child mode from million examinations. The bone marrow and thyroid gland showed about 0.1 fatal cancer in adult. and child mode from these examinations.

  19. Reproducible insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Asuka; Ouchi, Motoshi; Terada, Misao; Kon, Hiroe; Kishimoto, Satoko; Satoh, Keitaro; Otani, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Keitaro; Fujita, Tomoe; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Anzai, Naohiko

    2018-02-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of isolated rat pancreas preparations using the organ bath technique in the quantitative analysis of insulin secretion from β-cells. We found that insulin secretion significantly declined during incubation in the organ bath, whereas it was maintained in the presence of 1 µM GLP-1. Conversely, amylase secretion exhibited a modest increase during incubation and was not altered in the presence of GLP-1. These results demonstrate that the pancreatic organ bath preparation is a sensitive and reproducible method for the ex vivo assessment of the pharmacological properties of hypoglycemic agents.

  20. The molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter isolated from Murchison carbonaceous chondrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F.; Derenne, S.

    2009-04-01

    During these last 10 years, our group has characterized the various molecular moieties of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from carbonaceous meteorites with the aim of reconstructing its overall molecular structure. Indeed, a precise knowledge of the structure of an organic macromolecule contains irreplaceable information that traces its mechanisms of synthesis and its conditions of formation. Such a modelled structure will be presented. Carbonaceous chondrites contain up to 3 wt % of carbon that is under the form of soluble and insoluble fractions. The IOM, which constitutes more than 75 wt% of the bulk organic matter, was isolated from the bulk rock through successive acid dissolutions. The chemical structure of the isolated IOM has been studied by both (1) destructive and (2) non destructive methods. Methods include thermal and chemical degradations followed by GC/MS, spectroscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy; X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance) along with high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Although each technique alone cannot provide definite information on the chemical structure of such a complex material, the combination of the results can be used to reconstruct the molecular structure of the IOM. The proposed structure accounts for all these measured parameters. The details of this structure reveal information of the conditions of its formation in space and allow to discuss the mechanisms of organo-synthesis in the cosmochemical context of the formation of the solar system.

  1. Spatially isolated palladium in porous organic polymers by direct knitting for versatile organic transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo

    2017-10-03

    We report here a direct knitting Method for preparation of highly robust, effective while air- and moisture-tolerant, and readily recyclable three-dimensional (3D) porous polymer-Pd network (PPPd) from the widely used Pd(PPh3)4. Electro-beam induced Pd atom crystallization was observed for the first time in organic polymer and revealed the ultrafine dispersion of palladium atoms. Challenging types of Suzuki-Miyaura couplings, reductive coupling of aryl halides and oxidative coupling of arylboronic acid were successively catalyzed by PPPd in aqueous media. Also catalytically selective CH functionalization reactions were achieved with orders of magnitude more efficient than conventional Pd homogeneous catalysts. The strategy developed here provides a practical method for easy-to-make yet highly efficient heterogeneous catalysis.

  2. Spatially isolated palladium in porous organic polymers by direct knitting for versatile organic transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo; Min, Shixiong; Das, Swapan Kumar; Fan, Wei; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Lai, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    We report here a direct knitting Method for preparation of highly robust, effective while air- and moisture-tolerant, and readily recyclable three-dimensional (3D) porous polymer-Pd network (PPPd) from the widely used Pd(PPh3)4. Electro-beam induced Pd atom crystallization was observed for the first time in organic polymer and revealed the ultrafine dispersion of palladium atoms. Challenging types of Suzuki-Miyaura couplings, reductive coupling of aryl halides and oxidative coupling of arylboronic acid were successively catalyzed by PPPd in aqueous media. Also catalytically selective CH functionalization reactions were achieved with orders of magnitude more efficient than conventional Pd homogeneous catalysts. The strategy developed here provides a practical method for easy-to-make yet highly efficient heterogeneous catalysis.

  3. An intercomparison of three methods for the large-scale isolation of oceanic dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nelson W.; Perdue, E. Michael; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Chen, Hongmei; Dittmar, Thorsten; Niggemann, Jutta; Stubbins, Aron

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from large volumes of deep (674 m) and surface (21 m) ocean water via reverse osmosis/electrodialysis (RO/ED) and two solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods (XAD-8/4 and PPL) at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA). By applying the three methods to common water samples, the efficiencies of XAD, PPL and RO/ED DOM isolation were compared. XAD recovered 42% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from deep water (25% with XAD-8; 17% with XAD-4) and 30% from surface water (16% with XAD-8; 14% with XAD-4). PPL recovered 61 ± 3% of DOC from deep water and 61% from surface water. RO/ED recovered 82 ± 3% of DOC from deep water, 14 ± 3% of which was recovered in a sodium hydroxide rinse, and 75 ± 5% of DOC from surface water, with 12 ± 2% in the sodium hydroxide rinse. The highest recoveries of all were achieved by the sequential isolation of DOC, first with PPL and then via RO/ED. This combined technique recovered 98% of DOC from a deep water sample and 101% of DOC from a surface water sample. In total, 1.9, 10.3 and 1.6 g-C of DOC were collected via XAD, PPL and RO/ED, respectively. Rates of DOC recovery using the XAD, PPL and RO/ED methods were 10, 33 and 10 mg-C h− 1, respectively. Based upon C/N ratios, XAD isolates were heavily C-enriched compared with water column DOM, whereas RO/ED and PPL ➔ RO/ED isolate C/N values were most representative of the original DOM. All techniques are suitable for the isolation of large amounts of DOM with purities suitable for most advanced analytical techniques. Coupling PPL and RO/ED techniques may provide substantial progress in the search for a method to quantitatively isolate oceanic DOC, bringing the entirety of the DOM pool within the marine chemist's analytical window.

  4. Effects of Isolate and Social Toys on the Social Interactions of Preschoolers in an Inclusive Head Start Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shannon Renee; Vail, Cynthia O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of manipulating toy sets on the social verbal interaction that occurs between preschool-age children with disabilities and their typically developing peers. A single-subject alternating-treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of manipulating social toy sets and isolate toy sets on…

  5. Isolation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from artichoke and expression analysis in wounded artichoke heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Angela; Mita, Giovanni; Durante, Miriana; Arlorio, Marco; De Paolis, Angelo

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme, which can catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, has been reported to be involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. This phenomenon is particularly severe in artichoke heads wounded during the manufacturing process. A full-length cDNA encoding for a putative polyphenol oxidase (designated as CsPPO) along with a 1432 bp sequence upstream of the starting ATG codon was characterized for the first time from [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. The 1764 bp CsPPO sequence encodes a putative protein of 587 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 65,327 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.50. Analysis of the promoter region revealed the presence of cis-acting elements, some of which are putatively involved in the response to light and wounds. Expression analysis of the gene in wounded capitula indicated that CsPPO was significantly induced after 48 h, even though the browning process had started earlier. This suggests that the early browning event observed in artichoke heads was not directly related to de novo mRNA synthesis. Finally, we provide the complete gene sequence encoding for polyphenol oxidase and the upstream regulative region in artichoke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of organ-specific dose reduction on the image quality of head and neck CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmoeller, L.; Lanzman, R.S.; Heusch, P.; Dietrich, S.; Miese, F.; Aissa, J.; Heusner, T.A.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P.

    2013-01-01

    Organ-specific dose reduction (OSDR) algorithms can reduce radiation on radiosensitive organs up to 59 %. This study evaluates the influence of a new OSDR algorithm on image quality of head and neck computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in clinical routine. Sixty-two consecutive patients (68 ± 13 years) were randomised into two groups and imaged using 128-row multidetector CT. Group A (n = 31) underwent conventional CTA and group B (n = 31) CTA with a novel OSDR algorithm. Subjective and objective image quality were statistically compared. Subjective image quality was rated on a five-point scale. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated with region-of-interest measurements. The SNR of the common carotid artery and middle cerebral artery was 53.6 ± 22.7 and 43.3 ± 15.3 (group A) versus 54.1 ± 20.5 and 46.2 ± 14.6 (group B). The CNR was 40.0 ± 19.3 and 29.7 ± 12.0 (group A) compared with 40.7 ± 16.8 and 32.9 ± 10.9 (group B), respectively. Subjective image quality was excellent in both groups (mean score 4.4 ± 0.7 versus 4.4 ± 0.6). Differences between the two groups were not significant. The novel OSDR algorithm does not compromise image quality of head and neck CTA. Its application can be recommended for CTA in clinical routine to protect the thyroid gland and ocular lenses from unnecessary high radiation. (orig.)

  7. A comparison of surface water natural organic matter in raw filtered water samples, XAD, and reverse osmosis isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, P.A.; Pullin, M.J.; Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Namjesnik-Dejanovic, K.; Aiken, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    This research compared raw filtered waters (RFWs), XAD resin isolates (XAD-8 and XAD-4), and reverse osmosis (RO) isolates of several surface water samples from McDonalds Branch, a small freshwater fen in the New Jersey Pine Barrens (USA). RO and XAD-8 are two of the most common techniques used to isolate natural organic matter (NOM) for studies of composition and reactivity; therefore, it is important to understand how the isolates differ from bulk (unisolated) samples and from one another. Although, any comparison between the isolation methods needs to consider that XAD-8 is specifically designed to isolate the humic fraction, whereas RO concentrates a broad range of organic matter and is not specific to humics. The comparison included for all samples: weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity (??), absorbance at 280nm normalized to moles C (??280) (RFW and isolates); and for isolates only: elemental analysis, % carbon distribution by 13C NMR, and aqueous FTIR spectra. As expected, RO isolation gave higher yield of NOM than XAD-8, but also higher ash content, especially Si and S. Mw decreased in the order: RO>XAD-8>RFW>XAD-4. The Mw differences of isolates compared with RFW may be due to selective isolation (fractionation), or possibly in the case of RO to condensation or coagulation during isolation. 13C NMR results were roughly similar for the two methods, but the XAD-8 isolate was slightly higher in 'aromatic' C and the RO isolate was slightly higher in heteroaliphatic and carbonyl C. Infrared spectra indicated a higher carboxyl content for the XAD-8 isolates and a higher ester:carboxyl ratio for the RO isolates. The spectroscopic data thus are consistent with selective isolation of more hydrophobic compounds by XAD-8, and also with potential ester hydrolysis during that process, although further study is needed to determine whether ester hydrolysis does indeed occur. Researchers choosing between XAD and RO

  8. Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the assessment of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636 using methyl and ethyl ricinoleate, ricinoleic acid and castor oil as precursors. The analysis of the volatile organic compounds was carried out using Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME. Factorial experimental design was used for investigating extraction conditions, verifying stirring rate (0-400 rpm, temperature (25-60 ºC, extraction time (10-30 minutes, and sample volume (2-3 mL. The identification of volatile organic compounds was carried out by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrum Detector (GC/MSD. The conditions that resulted in maximum extraction were: 60 ºC, 10 minutes extraction, no stirring, sample volume of 2.0 mL, and addition of saturated KCl (1:10 v/v. In the bio-production of volatile organic compounds the effect of stirring rate (120-200 rpm, temperature (23-33 ºC, pH (4.0-8.0, precursor concentration (0.02-0.1%, mannitol (0-6%, and asparagine concentration (0-0.2% was investigated. The bio-production at 28 ºC, 160 rpm, pH 6,0 and with the addition of 0.02% ricinoleic acid to the medium yielded the highest production of VOCs, identified as 1,4-butanediol, 1,2,2-trimethylciclopropilamine, beta-ionone; 2,3-butanodione, pentanal, tetradecane, 2-isononenal, 4-octen-3-one, propanoic acid, and octadecane.

  9. Isolated Fe sites in Metal Organic Framework catalyze the direct conversion of methane to methanol

    KAUST Repository

    Osadchii, Dmitrii

    2018-05-10

    Hybrid materials bearing organic and inorganic motives have been extensively discussed as playgrounds for the implementation of atomically resolved inorganic sites within a confined environment, with an exciting similarity to enzymes. Here, we present the successful design of a site-isolated mixed-metal Metal Organic Framework that mimics the reactivity of soluble methane monooxygenase enzyme reactivity and demonstrates the potential of this strategy to overcome current challenges in selective methane oxidation. We describe the synthesis and characterisation of an Fe-containing MOF that comprises the desired antiferromagnetically cou-pled high spin species in a coordination environment closely resembling that of the enzyme. An electrochemi-cal synthesis method is used to build the microporous MOF matrix while integrating, with an exquisite con-trol, the atomically dispersed Fe active sites in the crystalline scaffold. The model mimics the catalytic C-H activation behaviour of the enzyme to produce methanol, and shows that the key to this reactivity is the for-mation of isolated oxo-bridged Fe units.

  10. Isolated Fe sites in Metal Organic Framework catalyze the direct conversion of methane to methanol

    KAUST Repository

    Osadchii, Dmitrii; Olivos Suarez, Alma Itzel; Szé csé nyi, Á gnes; Li, Guanna; Nasalevich, Maxim A.; Dugulan, A Iulian; Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Veber, Sergey L.; Fedin, Matvey V.; Sankar, Gopinathan; Pidko, Evgeny A; Gascon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid materials bearing organic and inorganic motives have been extensively discussed as playgrounds for the implementation of atomically resolved inorganic sites within a confined environment, with an exciting similarity to enzymes. Here, we present the successful design of a site-isolated mixed-metal Metal Organic Framework that mimics the reactivity of soluble methane monooxygenase enzyme reactivity and demonstrates the potential of this strategy to overcome current challenges in selective methane oxidation. We describe the synthesis and characterisation of an Fe-containing MOF that comprises the desired antiferromagnetically cou-pled high spin species in a coordination environment closely resembling that of the enzyme. An electrochemi-cal synthesis method is used to build the microporous MOF matrix while integrating, with an exquisite con-trol, the atomically dispersed Fe active sites in the crystalline scaffold. The model mimics the catalytic C-H activation behaviour of the enzyme to produce methanol, and shows that the key to this reactivity is the for-mation of isolated oxo-bridged Fe units.

  11. Superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancers. Evaluation of preservation of organ function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akisada, Takeshi; Harada, Tamotsu; Imai, Shigeki; Gyoten, Masayuki; Hiraoka, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate preservation of organ function in the treatment of superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancers. Among 96 patients receiving concomitant radiation and intra-arterial docetaxel, systemic cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (FU) chemotherapy, we identified laryngeal preservation rate, studied tracheostomy cases and gastrostomy cases, and evaluated videofluoroscopic examination and videoendoscopy. Laryngeal preservation rate of hypopharyngeal cancer is very high at 96.2%, and that of laryngeal cancer is high at 71.4%. Videofluoroscopic examination revealed improved swallowing function in 2 of 12, no change in 3, slightly worse in 5, and worse in 2 patients. Following treatment, the incidence of aspiration increased to 4 patients. Videoendoscopy revealed residual vallecula in a few cases. Only 7 patients (7.3%) required a tracheostomy and 4 patients (4.2%) required a gastrostomy. Most of the patients are able to swallow after chemoradiation. Our new chemoradiation protocol is as good as other treatment modalities for maintaining organ preservation and function. (author)

  12. The syntactic organization of pasta-eating and the structure of reach movements in the head-fixed mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whishaw, Ian Q; Faraji, Jamshid; Kuntz, Jessica R; Mirza Agha, Behroo; Metz, Gerlinde A S; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-09-08

    Mice are adept in the use of their hands for activities such as feeding, which has led to their use in investigations of the neural basis of skilled-movements. We describe the syntactic organization of pasta-eating and the structure of hand movements used for pasta manipulation by the head-fixed mouse. An ethogram of mice consuming pieces of spaghetti reveals that they eat in bite/chew bouts. A bout begins with pasta lifted to the mouth and then manipulated with hand movements into a preferred orientation for biting. Manipulation involves many hand release-reach movements, each with a similar structure. A hand is advanced from a digit closed and flexed (collect) position to a digit extended and open position (overgrasp) and then to a digit closed and flexed (grasp) position. Reach distance, hand shaping, and grasp patterns featuring precision grasps or whole hand grasps are related. To bite, mice display hand preference and asymmetric grasps; one hand (guide grasp) directs food into the mouth and the other stabilizes the pasta for biting. When chewing after biting, the hands hold the pasta in a symmetric resting position. Pasta-eating is organized and features structured hand movements and so lends itself to the neural investigation of skilled-movements.

  13. Pretreatment organ function in patients with advanced head and neck cancer: clinical outcome measures and patients' views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasch Coen RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this study is to thoroughly assess pretreatment organ function in advanced head and neck cancer through various clinical outcome measures and patients' views. Methods A comprehensive, multidimensional assessment was used, that included quality of life, swallowing, mouth opening, and weight changes. Fifty-five patients with stage III-IV disease were entered in this study prior to organ preserving (chemoradiation treatment. Results All patients showed pretreatment abnormalities or problems, identified by one or more of the outcome measures. Most frequent problems concerned swallowing, pain, and weight loss. Interestingly, clinical outcome measures and patients' perception did no always concur. E.g. videofluoroscopy identified aspiration and laryngeal penetration in 18% of the patients, whereas only 7 patients (13% perceived this as problematic; only 2 out of 7 patients with objective trismus actually perceived trismus. Conclusion The assessment identified several problems already pre-treatment, in this patient population. A thorough assessment of both clinical measures and patients' views appears to be necessary to gain insight in all (perceived pre-existing functional and quality of life problems.

  14. Rapid isolation of gene homologs across taxa: Efficient identification and isolation of gene orthologs from non-model organism genomes, a technical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffer Alison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tremendous progress has been made in the field of evo-devo through comparisons of related genes from diverse taxa. While the vast number of species in nature precludes a complete analysis of the molecular evolution of even one single gene family, this would not be necessary to understand fundamental mechanisms underlying gene evolution if experiments could be designed to systematically sample representative points along the path of established phylogenies to trace changes in regulatory and coding gene sequence. This isolation of homologous genes from phylogenetically diverse, representative species can be challenging, especially if the gene is under weak selective pressure and evolving rapidly. Results Here we present an approach - Rapid Isolation of Gene Homologs across Taxa (RIGHT - to efficiently isolate specific members of gene families. RIGHT is based upon modification and a combination of degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR and gene-specific amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. It allows targeted isolation of specific gene family members from any organism, only requiring genomic DNA. We describe this approach and how we used it to isolate members of several different gene families from diverse arthropods spanning millions of years of evolution. Conclusions RIGHT facilitates systematic isolation of one gene from large gene families. It allows for efficient gene isolation without whole genome sequencing, RNA extraction, or culturing of non-model organisms. RIGHT will be a generally useful method for isolation of orthologs from both distant and closely related species, increasing sample size and facilitating the tracking of molecular evolution of gene families and regulatory networks across the tree of life.

  15. Comparison of PCT, CRP, D-Dimer, Lactate, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and lL-10 in Development of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis on Patients with Isolated Head Trauma and Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Dağlı

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the relationship between Glasgow Coma Scale (GKS, ISS values, PCT, CRP, D-Dimer, laktat, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 in patients with polytrauma and isolated head trauma in conjunction with SIRS and sepsis. Material and Method: Total of 68 patients (32 polytrauma, 36 isolated head trauma aged between 18-65 years were enrolled in the study. For 7 days of follow up, the biochemical parameters were analysed on the days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and the ISS, GCS score and growth rates of SIRS and sepsis were recorded. Results: It was demonstrated that for patients with isolated head trauma, SIRS (80.6%, sepsis (38.9% and mortality values (71.4% were higher and there is a statistically important linear and inverse relationship between ISS and GCS values (p<0.05. During sepsis and SIRS phases, CRP elevated in both groups, whereas PCT only in the polytrauma group. D-Dimer values were investigated high in both groups, but atypically decreased on day 3 in isolated head trauma group. Lactate, TNF-α and, IL-1β were within reference values, IL-6 and IL-10 values were elevated in both groups but were higher in the polytrauma group. Conclusion: Although multiple variations were detected in serum markers of pro-inflamatory and acute phase proteins, we thought that these are inadequate in predicting mortality and complications such as SIRS and sepsis.

  16. Compositions and constituents of freshwater dissolved organic matter isolated by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Huang, Wen; Ran, Yong; Mao, Jingdong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concentration factor controls sorption of DOM and thus yields of reverse osmosis. • Solid-state 13 C NMR was used to characterize RO-isolated DOM from freshwater. • C distribution of freshwater RO-DOM differs from that of reported marine DOM. • The compositions of DOM were transformed during transport from rivers to oceans. - Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from riverine and lacustrine water was isolated using a reverse osmosis (RO) system. Solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) was used to quantitatively evaluate the compositions and constituents of DOM, which are compared with previous investigations on marine DOM. Results indicated that concentration factor (CF) was a key metric controlling yield and sorption of DOM on the RO system. The sorption was likely non-selective, based on the 13 C NMR and δ 13 C analyses. Carbohydrates and lipids accounted for 25.0–41.5% and 30.2–46.3% of the identifiable DOM, followed by proteins (18.2–19.8%) and lignin (7.17–12.8%). The freshwater DOM contained much higher alkyl and aromatic C but lower alkoxyl and carboxyl C than marine DOM. The structural difference was not completely accounted for by using structure of high molecular weight (HMW) DOM, suggesting a size change involved in transformations of DOM during the transport from rivers to oceans

  17. A Novel Peptide from Soybean Protein Isolate Significantly Enhances Resistance of the Organism under Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Ma

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that protein hydrolysates have broad biological effects. In the current study we describe a novel antioxidative peptide, FDPAL, from soybean protein isolate (SPI. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize an antioxidative peptide from SPI and determine its antioxidative mechanism. LC-MS/MS was used to isolate and identify the peptide from SPI. The sequence of the peptide was determined to be Phe-Asp-Pro-Ala-Leu (FDPAL, 561 Da. FDPAL can cause significant enhancement of resistance to oxidative stress both in cells as well as simple organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, FDPAL can up-regulate the expression of certain genes associated with resistance. The antioxidant activity of this peptide can be attributed to the presence of a specific amino acid sequence. Results from our work suggest that FDPAL can facilitate potential applications of proteins carrying this sequence in the nutraceutical, bioactive material and clinical medicine areas, as well as in cosmetics and health care products.

  18. Effect of molecular structure on fragmentation of isolated organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarenko, A.V.; Sukhov, F.F.; Orlov, A.Yu.; Kovalev, G.V.; Baranova, I.A.; Feldman, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of excess energy on the primary radical cations of bifunctional carbonyl compounds and aliphatic alkynes was simulated by matrix isolation method using rare gas matrices with various ionization potentials. The formation of fragmentation products was monitored by EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. It was shown that the radical cations of bifunctional compounds (CH 3 OCH 2 COCH 3 and CH 3 COCOCH 3 ) dissociated effectively yielding · CH 3 radicals upon irradiation in solid argon matrix at T≤16 K. In addition to isolated methyl radicals, the radical pairs consisting of two methyl radicals separated by two CO molecules were detected in the case of diacetyl. The probability of fragmentation decreases with the decreasing excess energy by switching from Ar to Xe. In general, bifunctional molecules were found to be less stable to “hot” ionic fragmentation in low-temperature solids in comparison with simple prototype compounds. In the case of alkynes of the R--C≡CH type, a noticeable yield of fragmentation products was observed when R=–C(CH 3 ) 3 , but it was negligible for R=–CH 3 . The mechanisms of “hot” reactions and excess energy relaxation are discussed. - Highlights: ► Radiolysis of bifunctional organic compounds and alkynes. ► Dependence of “hot” fragmentation probability from molecular structure. ► Ions of bifunctional compounds are less stable than those of monofunctional ones. ► Alkynes are rather stable to “hot” fragmentation.

  19. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Air Monitoring Program design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Monitoring Program has been developed as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) No-Migration Variance petition submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The program is designed to demonstrate that there will be no migration of hazardous chemicals past the unit boundary in concentrations which exceed any health-based standards. The monitoring program will use EPA compendium Method TO-14. Both air and carbon sorption media samples will be collected as part of the program. Eleven separate monitoring sites have been selected where both 24-hour integrated and 1-hour grab samples will be collected and analyzed for five target compounds. The bin-scale experimental test rooms will be configured with a gas collection manifold and an activated carbon sorption bed to remove VOCs before they can be emitted into the WIPP underground atmosphere. 10 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Isolation and characterization of dissolved organic matter from the Callovo-Oxfordian formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courdouan, Amandine; Christl, Iso; Meylan, Sebastien; Wersin, Paul; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    Characterizing dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the pore water of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, a potential host rock for the disposal of radioactive waste, is important to estimate its potential influence on the mobility of radionuclides in the rock. To isolate DOM, crushed rock material was extracted under anoxic conditions with deionized water, 0.1 M NaOH and synthetic pore water (SPW, water containing all major ions at pore water concentrations but no organic matter), respectively. The effects of extraction parameters on the extracted DOM including the solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction time, exposure to O 2 and acid pretreatment of the rock material prior to the anoxic extraction were evaluated. In addition, DOM in one of the first pore water samples collected in the underground rock laboratory at Bure (France) was characterized for comparison. The size distribution and the low molecular weight organic acid contents of the extracts and pore water DOM were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with an organic C detector (LC-OCD) and by ion chromatography. The results revealed that only a fraction of less than 1.2% of the total organic C present in the rock was extractable. Maximum dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations in the anoxic extracts ranged from 5.5 ± 0.3 mg/L for SPW extracts to 14.2 ± 1.1 mg/L for 0.1 M NaOH extracts. The major portion of the DOC in the anoxic extracts consisted of hydrophilic compounds (48-78%) having a molecular weight of less than 500 Da. Up to 21% of DOC in the anoxic extracts was identified as acetate, formate, lactate and malate. The short-term exposure of rock material to O 2 during rock crushing strongly increased DOC concentrations and led to a shift towards smaller molecular weight compounds and to a higher low molecular weight organic acid (LMWOA) content as compared to the strictly anoxic extraction. The pore water sampled from a packed-off borehole exhibited a higher DOC concentration (56.7 mg/L) than the

  1. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  2. Clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure compared to other forms of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougol, Amir; Dugum, Mohannad; Dudekula, Anwar; Greer, Phil; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2017-08-07

    To assess differences in clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure (RF) compared to other forms of organ failure (OF) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Using a prospectively maintained database of patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to a tertiary medical center between 2003 and 2016, those with evidence of persistent OF were classified to renal, respiratory, cardiovascular, or multi-organ (2 or more organs). Data regarding demographics, comorbidities, etiology of acute pancreatitis, and clinical outcomes were prospectively recorded. Differences in clinical outcomes after development of isolated RF in comparison to other forms of OF were determined using independent t and Mann-Whitney U tests for continues variables, and χ 2 test for discrete variables. Among 500 patients with acute pancreatitis, 111 patients developed persistent OF: mean age was 54 years, and 75 (67.6%) were male. Forty-three patients had isolated OF: 17 (15.3%) renal, 25 (21.6%) respiratory, and 1 (0.9%) patient with cardiovascular failure. No differences in demographics, etiology of acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome scores, or development of pancreatic necrosis were seen between patients with isolated RF vs isolated respiratory failure. Patients with isolated RF were less likely to require nutritional support (76.5% vs 96%, P = 0.001), ICU admission (58.8% vs 100%, P = 0.001), and had shorter mean ICU stay (2.4 d vs 15.7 d, P pancreatitis.

  3. Purification and Characterization of Haloalkaline, Organic Solvent Stable Xylanase from Newly Isolated Halophilic Bacterium-OKH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Gaurav; Jivrajani, Mehul; Patel, Nirav; Jivrajani, Heta; Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Patel, Shivani

    2014-01-01

    A novel, alkali-tolerant halophilic bacterium-OKH with an ability to produce extracellular halophilic, alkali-tolerant, organic solvent stable, and moderately thermostable xylanase was isolated from salt salterns of Mithapur region, Gujarat, India. Identification of the bacterium was done based upon biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence. Maximum xylanase production was achieved at pH 9.0 and 37°C temperature in the medium containing 15% NaCl and 1% (w/v) corn cobs. Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw also induce xylanase production when used as carbon source. The enzyme was active over a range of 0–25% sodium chloride examined in culture broth. The optimum xylanase activity was observed at 5% sodium chloride. Xylanase was purified with 25.81%-fold purification and 17.1% yield. Kinetic properties such as Km and Vmax were 4.2 mg/mL and 0.31 μmol/min/mL, respectively. The enzyme was stable at pH 6.0 and 50°C with 60% activity after 8 hours of incubation. Enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ but strongly inhibited by heavy metals such as Hg2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Xylanase was found to be stable in organic solvents like glutaraldehyde and isopropanol. The purified enzyme hydrolysed lignocellulosic substrates. Xylanase, purified from the halophilic bacterium-OKH, has potential biotechnological applications. PMID:27350996

  4. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Niklas; Stenroth, Patrik; Berglund, Olof; Nystroem, Per; Olsson, Karin; Jellyman, Don; McIntosh, Angus R.; Larsson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use

  5. Influence of Zinc Supplementation in Acute Diarrhea Differs by the Isolated Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. We aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. We used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (ISRCTN85071383 of zinc and copper supplementation. Using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, and stepwise logistic regression for tests of interactions, we found that the influence of zinc on the risk of diarrhea for more than 3 days depended on the isolated organism—beneficial in Klebsiella, neutral in Esherichia coli and parasitic infections, and detrimental in rotavirus coinfections. Although we found similar results for the outcome of high stool volume, the results did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the current strategy of zinc supplementation in all cases of acute diarrheas in children may need appropriate fine tuning to optimize the therapeutic benefit based on the causative organism, but further studies need to confirm and extend our findings.

  6. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the Organic Geochemistry of Deep Groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenster, D.F.; Brookins, D.G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled The Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this

  7. Whole-organ isolation approach as a basis for tissue-specific analyses in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Hahnel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide, second only to malaria. Schistosomes exhibit an exceptional reproductive biology since the sexual maturation of the female, which includes the differentiation of the reproductive organs, is controlled by pairing. Pathogenicity originates from eggs, which cause severe inflammation in their hosts. Elucidation of processes contributing to female maturation is not only of interest to basic science but also considering novel concepts combating schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To get direct access to the reproductive organs, we established a novel protocol using a combined detergent/protease-treatment removing the tegument and the musculature of adult Schistosoma mansoni. All steps were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and bright-field microscopy (BF. We focused on the gonads of adult schistosomes and demonstrated that isolated and purified testes and ovaries can be used for morphological and structural studies as well as sources for RNA and protein of sufficient amounts for subsequent analyses such as RT-PCR and immunoblotting. To this end, first exemplary evidence was obtained for tissue-specific transcription within the gonads (axonemal dynein intermediate chain gene SmAxDynIC; aquaporin gene SmAQP as well as for post-transcriptional regulation (SmAQP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presented method provides a new way of getting access to tissue-specific material of S. mansoni. With regard to many still unanswered questions of schistosome biology, such as elucidating the molecular processes involved in schistosome reproduction, this protocol provides opportunities for, e.g., sub-transcriptomics and sub-proteomics at the organ level. This will promote the characterisation of gene-expression profiles, or more specifically to complete knowledge of signalling pathways contributing to differentiation processes, so discovering involved

  8. Characterization of micro-organisms isolated from dairy industry after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine and peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, E; Langsrud, S

    2005-01-01

    To characterize micro-organisms isolated from Norwegian dairy production plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine/peracetic acid and to indicate reasons for survival. Microbial samples were collected from five dairy plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Isolates from two of these production plants, which used fogging with alkylamino acetate (plant A), and peracetic acid (plant B), were chosen for further characterization. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA, fatty acid analysis and biochemical characteristics were used to identify isolates. Three isolates identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, Methylobacterium rhodesianum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were isolated from plant A and one Sphingomonas sp. and two M. extorquens from plant B. Different patterns of resistance to seven disinfectants in a bactericidal suspension test and variable degree of attachment to stainless steel were found. The strains with higher disinfectant resistance showed lower degree of attachment than susceptible strains. The study identifies and characterizes micro-organisms present after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Both surface attachment and resistance were shown as possible reasons for the presence of the isolates after cleaning and disinfection. These results contribute to the awareness of disinfectant resistance as well as attachment as mechanisms of survival in dairy industry. It also strengthens the argument of frequent alternation of disinfectants in the food processing industry to avoid the establishment of resistant house strains.

  9. Isolation and characterization of biochar-derived organic matter fractions and their phenanthrene sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jie; Sun, Ke; Liu, Wei; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Xianqiang; Yang, Yan; Han, Lanfang; Du, Ziwen; Wang, Xiangke

    2018-05-01

    Chemical composition and pollutant sorption of biochar-derived organic matter fractions (BDOMs) are critical for understanding the long-term environmental significance of biochar. Phenanthrene (PHE) sorption by the humic acid-like (HAL) fractions isolated from plant straw- (PLABs) and animal manure-based (ANIBs) biochars, and the residue materials (RES) after HAL extraction was investigated. The HAL fraction comprised approximately 50% of organic carbon (OC) of the original biochars. Results of XPS and 13 C NMR demonstrated that the biochar-derived HAL fractions mainly consisted of aromatic clusters substituted by carboxylic groups. The CO 2 cumulative surface area of BDOMs excluding PLAB-derived RES fractions was obviously lower than that of corresponding biochars. The sorption nonlinearity of PHE by the fresh biochars was significantly stronger than that of the BDOM fractions, implying that the BDOM fractions were more chemically homogeneous. The BDOMs generally exhibited comparable or higher OC-normalized distribution coefficients (K oc ) of PHE than the original biochars. The PHE logK oc values of the fresh biochars correlated negatively with the micropore volumes due to steric hindrance effect. In contrast, a positive relationship between the sorption coefficients (K d ) of BDOMs and the micropore volumes was observed in this study, suggesting that pore filling could dominate PHE sorption by the BDOMs. The positive correlation between the PHE logK oc values of the HAL fractions and the aromatic C contents indicates that PHE sorption by the HAL fractions was regulated by aromatic domains. The findings of this study improve our knowledge of the evolution of biochar properties after application and its potential environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of molecular structure on fragmentation of isolated organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrazenko, A.V.; Sukhov, F.F.; Orlov, A.Yu.; Kovalev, G.V.; Baranova, I.A.; Feldman, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Elucidation of high-energy reaction pathways in the condensed phase is an important issue for basic understanding of the radiation stability of complex organic molecules. As was shown previously, organic radical cations (RC) may undergo fragmentation or rearrangement in solid matrices due to excess energy. The probability of this process depends on both ionization potential (IP) of the molecule and molecular structure. In the present work we have studied the role of 'hot' ionic reaction channels for RC of some bifunctional compounds and alkynes. The effect of excess energy was simulated by matrix isolation method as described in detail earlier. The formation of fragmentation products was monitored by EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. In the present work it was shown that the RC of bifunctional compounds (CH 3 OCH 2 COCH 3 , CH 3 CO(CH 2 ) n COCH 3 , n 0/2) dissociated efficiently producing · CH 3 radicals upon irradiation in solid argon matrix at T ≤ 16 K. The probability of fragmentation decreases with decrease of excess energy by switching from Ar to Xe. It is worth noting that acetone RC does not show fragmentation under these conditions. Thus, bifunctional molecules were found to be less stable to 'hot' ionic fragmentation in low-temperature solids in comparison with simple prototype carbonyl compounds. In the case of alkynes of the R-C ≡ CH type, a noticeable yield of fragmentation products was observed when R = -C(CH 3 ) 3 , but it was negligible for R = -CH 3 . It means that the presence of triple bond stabilizes the molecular skeleton of linear alkynes toward 'hot' fragmentation, similarly as it was shown for alkenes. The mechanisms of 'hot' reactions and excess energy relaxation are discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 09-03-00848a).

  11. Isolation, purification and analysis of dissolved organic carbon from Gohagoda uncontrolled open dumpsite leachate, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, Meththika; Wijesekara, Hasintha; Mayakaduwa, S S

    2017-07-01

    Extract and analysis of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) fractions were analyzed from the leachate of an uncontrolled dumpsite at Gohagoda, Sri Lanka. DOC fractions, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and the hydrophilic (Hyd) fractions were isolated and purified with the resin techniques. Spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis were performed to characterize DOCs. Maximum TOC and DOC values recorded were 56,955 and 28,493 mg/L, respectively. Based on the total amount of DOC fractionation, Hyd dominated accounting for ∼60%, and HA and FA constituted ∼22% and ∼17%, respectively, exhibiting the mature phase of the dumpsite. The elemental analysis of DOCs revealed carbon variation following HA > FA > Hyd, while hydrogen and nitrogen were similar in each fraction. The N/C ratio for HA was recorded as 0.18, following a similar trend in old dumpsite leachate elsewhere. The O/C ratios for HA and FA were recorded higher as much as 1.0 and 9.3, respectively, indicating high degree of carbon mineralization in the leachates. High content of carboxylic, phenolic and lactone groups in all DOCs was observed disclosing their potential for toxic substances transportation. The results strongly suggest the risk associated with DOCs in dumpsite leachate to the aquatic and terrestrial environment.

  12. Dermabacter hominis: a usually daptomycin-resistant gram-positive organism infrequently isolated from human clinical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Natal, I; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Medina-Pascual, M J; Albersmeier, A; Valdezate, S; Guerra-Laso, J M; Rodríguez, H; Marrodán, T; Parras, T; Tauch, A; Soriano, F

    2013-01-01

    During a 12-year period, Dermabacter hominis was isolated from 21 clinical samples belonging to 14 patients attending a tertiary hospital in León, Spain. Samples included blood cultures (14), peritoneal dialysis catheter exit sites (three), cutaneous abscesses (two), an infected vascular catheter (one) and a wound swab (one). Identification was made by API Coryne™ V2.0, Biolog™ GP2 and 16S rRNA gene amplification. Six febrile patients had positive blood cultures (one, two or three sets) and all of them were treated with teicoplanin (two patients), vancomycin, ampicillin plus gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin (one each). An additional patient with a single positive blood culture was not treated, the finding being considered non-significant. In the remaining seven patients the organism was isolated from a single specimen and three of them received antimicrobial treatment (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone plus vancomycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). At least ten patients had several underlying diseases and conditions, and no direct mortality was observed in relation to the isolated organism. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, rifampin and linezolid. Resistance to other antibiotics varied: erythromycin (100%), clindamycin (78.5%), ciprofloxacin (21.4%) and gentamicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, benzylpenicillin and imipenem 7.1% each. Thirteen isolates were highly resistant to daptomycin with MICs ranging from 8 to 48 (MIC90 = 32 mg/L); only one was daptomycin-sensitive (MIC = 0.19 mg/L). PMID:25356327

  13. Hydrolyzed fish proteins modulates both inflammatory and antioxidant gene expression as well as protein expression in a co culture model of liver and head kidney cells isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Elisabeth; He, Juyun; Araujo, Pedro; Seliussen, Jørgen; Espe, Marit

    2016-07-01

    Hydrolyzed fish proteins (H-pro) contain high concentrations of free amino acids and low molecular peptides that potentially may benefit fish health. The following study aimed to test whether the water-soluble phase of H-pro could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provoked inflammation in liver cells and head kidney cells isolated from Atlantic salmon. Cells were grown as mono cultures or co cultures to assess possible crosstalk between immune cells and metabolic cells during treatments. Cells were added media with or without H-pro for 2 days before LPS exposure and harvested 24 h post LPS exposure. Respective cells without H-pro and LPS were used as controls. H-pro alone could affect expression of proteins directly as H-pro increased catalase protein expression in head kidney- and liver cells, regardless of culturing methods and LPS treatment. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production was also increased by H-pro in head kidney cells co cultured with liver cells. H-pro increased LPS induced interleukin 1β (IL-1β) transcription in liver cells co cultured with head kidney cells. All cultures of head kidney cells showed a significant increase in IL-1β transcription when treated with H-pro + LPS. H-pro decreased caspase-3 transcription in liver cells cultured co cultured with head kidney cells. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) was upregulated, regardless of treatment, in liver cells co cultured with head kidney cells clearly showing that culturing method alone affected gene transcription. H-pro alone and together with LPS as an inflammation inducer, affect both antioxidant and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  15. [Dynamics of the amino acid composition of the medium during cultivation of isolated organs by the directed perfusion method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, V A; Gitel'zon, I I; Nefedov, V P; Trubachev, I N

    1975-07-01

    The dynamics of the amino acid composition of the medium under conditions of adequate perfusion of the isolated organs of a dog (sternum, kidney and liver) was studied. It was found that after a 6-hour perfusion of the complex of organs the amount in the perfusion medium of such amino acids as histidine, lysine, alanine, considerably increased, whereas the amount of arginine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine with glutamine, isoleucine, proline, leucine and valine decreased as compared with their initial concentration. The dynamics of the amino acid medium composition during a 4-hour perfusion was studied in experiments with the isolated sternum. The concentration of alanine, lysine and histidine increased in the medium. At the same time there was seen a decrease in the concentration of serine, aspartic acid, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenyl-alanine.

  16. Effect of venlafaxine hydrochloride in different preparations of isolated guinea-pig and rat organ tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A; Arruza, A; Maroto, M; Carvajal, A; Fernández del Busto, E; García del Pozo, J

    1999-04-01

    A study was undertaken to know better the effects of venlafaxine hydrochloride on the responses of isolated rat vas deferens to noradrenaline and dopamine, those of isolated rat uterus to serotonin and histamine, and those of isolated guinea-pig ileum to acetylcholine and histamine. Venlafaxine hydrochloride increased the response of rat vas deferens to noradrenaline but not to dopamine. Venlafaxine did not alter the response of rat isolated uterus to serotonin. In rat uterus, venlafaxine did not modify the response to histamine but was able to increase it in guinea-pig ileum. An anticholinergic effect was observed with the lowest concentration tested. Although venlafaxine is a selective serotonine reuptake inhibitor in the central nervous system, serotonin uptake was not seen in the rat uterus. The anticholinergic effects observed in the present study might be consistent with some of the side-effects associated with venlafaxine.

  17. Biological activities of organic extracts of four Aureobasidium pullulans varieties isolated from extreme marine and terrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botić, Tanja; Kralj-Kunčič, Marjetka; Sepčić, Kristina; Batista, Urška; Zalar, Polona; Knez, Željko; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2014-01-01

    We report on the screening for biological activities of organic extracts from seven strains that represent four varieties of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, that is A. pullulans var. melanogenum, A. pullulans var. pullulans, A. pullulans var. subglaciale and A. pullulans var. namibiae. We monitored haemolysis, cytotoxicity, antioxidant capacity and growth inhibition against three bacterial species. The haemolytic activity of A. pullulans var. pullulans EXF-150 strain was due to five different haemolytically active fractions. Extracts from all of the other varieties contained at least one haemolytically active fraction. Short-term exposure of cell lines to these haemolytically active organic extracts resulted in more than 95% cytotoxicity. Strong antioxidant capacity, corresponding to 163.88 μg ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of total solid, was measured in the organic extract of the strain EXF-3382, obtained from A. pullulans var. melanogenum, isolated from the deep sea. Organic extracts from selected varieties of A. pullulans exhibited weak antibacterial activities.

  18. Isolation and Identification of The Causative Organisms of Conjunctivitis in Healthy Subject and Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation concerning the isolation of bacterial flora from healthy and patient eyes was carried out. Micrococcus lylae and Moraxella lacunata represent the normal strains while Acinetobacter baumanni, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella cuniculi, M. ovis, Neisseria lactamica and Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated from infected eyes only. NaCl of concentration 7.5% (w/v) can inhibit the growth of all isolated strains. The action of UV on population of bacteria was varied according to the species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to rifampcin, erythromycin, fucidin and bacitracin. Some bacterial strains have a capsule containing carbohydrate and many have carbohydrate and amino acids containing capsules. The detected predominant chemical subunits in capsule structure were glucose in Moraxella ovis, and fructose and mannose in M. cuniculi.

  19. Evaluation of supercritical fluid extraction/gas chromatography/matrix isolation-infrared spectrometry for analysis of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopari, A.S.; Bierma, D.R.; Applegate, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of soil samples for organic compounds typically first requires Soxhlet extraction or sonication. These processes are time consuming and generate large amounts of waste solvent. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which uses a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide, has recently been shown to extract organic compounds from soil samples in good yields. Moreover, SFE does not generate waste solvent and can be performed rapidly. Gas Chromatography/Matrix Isolation-Infrared Spectrometry (GC/MI-IR) has been used in our laboratories for determining organic compounds present in extracts from various matrices. The authors have interfaced an SFE extraction apparatus to GC/MI-IR instruments. In this paper the utility of SPE/GC/MI-IR instrumentation is discussed

  20. Characterization of clay minerals and organic matter in shales: Application to high-level nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueven, N.; Landis, C.R.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to conduct investigations to assess the potential for shale to serve as a host medium for the isolation of high-level nuclear wastes. The emphasis on shale is a result of screening major sedimentary rock types (shale, sandstone, carbonate , anhydrite, and chalk) for a variety of attributes that affect the performance of repositories. The retardation of radionuclides was recognized as one of the potentially favorable features of shale. Because shale contains both clay minerals and organic matter, phases that may provide significant sorption of radioelement, the characterization of these phases is essential. In addition, the organic matter in shale has been identified as a critical area for study because of its potential to play either a favorable (reductant) or deleterious (organic ligands) role in the performance of a repository sited in shale. 36 refs., 36 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Inhibition of p38 MAPK during cellular activation modulate gene expression of head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed soy bean oil or fish oil based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, E; Winterthun, S; Du, Z-Y; Krøvel, A V

    2011-01-01

    Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signalling in the head kidney leukocytes. The results show that LPS up regulate IL-1β, TNF-α, Cox2 expression in leukocytes isolated from fish fed either diet. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, reduced the LPS induced expression of these genes in both dietary groups. In LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from VO fed fish, SB202190 showed a clear dose dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and Cox2 expression. This effect was also observed for Cox2 in leukocytes isolated from FO fed fish. Furthermore, there was a stronger mean induction of Cox2 in LPS stimulated leucocytes isolated from the VO-group compared to LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from the FO-group. In both dietary groups, LPS stimulation of salmon head kidney leukocytes increased the induction of CD83, a dendrite cell marker, while the inhibitor reduced CD83 expression in the VO fed fish only. The inhibitor also clearly reduced hsp27 expression in VO fed fish. Indicating a p38 MAPK feedback loop, LPS significantly inhibited the expression of p38MAPK itself in both diets, while SB202190 increased p38MAPK expression especially in the VO diet group. hsp70 expression was not affected by any treatment or feed composition. There were also differences in p38MAPK protein phosphorylation comparing treatment groups but no obvious difference comparing the two dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary fatty acids have the ability to modify signalling through p38 MAPK which may have consequences for the fish's ability to handle infections and stress. Signalling through p38MAPK is ligand dependent and affects gene and protein expression differently

  2. [Explantation method of isolating a persistent tick-borne encephalitis virus from the organs of infected monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, L S; Pogodina, V V

    1981-01-01

    The method of explantation was used to examine 63 organs from M. rhesus monkeys 92-783 days after intracerebral and subcutaneous inoculation with the Vasilchenko, Aina/1448 and 41/65 strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus. The optimal time for examination of the explants by tests of the hemagglutinating, cytopathogenic activity of the virus and its pathogenicity for mice was found to be the 15th day of cultivation. A comparative study of the properties of 3 isolates obtained from explants of the spleen, liver and subcortical cerebral ganglia 202 and 307 days after inoculation of monkeys was carried out. The isolates differed from the parental TBE virus strains by their capacity to form small plaques in PEKV cell cultures (pig embryo kidney cells in versen medium).

  3. Discrepancy of target sites between clinician and cytopathological reports in head neck fine needle aspiration: Did I miss the target or did the clinician mistake the organ site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanlari, Mahsa; Daneshbod, Yahya; Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Hanieh; Shirian, Sadegh; Negahban, Shahrzad; Aledavood, Azita; Oryan, Ahmad; Khademi, Bijan; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Field, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of head and neck lesions is relatively high, but cytologic interpretation might be confusing if the sample is lacking typical cytologic features according to labeled site by physician. These errors may have an impact on pathology search engines, healthcare costs or even adverse outcomes. The cytology archive database of multiple institutions in southern Iran and Australia covering the period 2001–2011, were searched using keywords: salivary gland, head, neck, FNAC, and cytology. All the extracted reports were reviewed. The reports which showed discordance between the clinician's impression of the organ involved and subsequent fine needle biopsy request, and the eventual cytological diagnosis were selected. The cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histology or cell block, with assistance from imaging, clinical outcome, physical examination, molecular studies, or microbiological culture. The total number of 10,200 head and neck superficial FNAC were included in the study, from which 48 cases showed discordance between the clinicians request and the actual site of pathology. Apart from the histopathology, the imaging, clinical history, physical examination, immunohistochemical study, microbiologic culture and molecular testing helped to finalize the target organ of pathology in 23, 6, 7, 8, 2, and 1 cases respectively. The commonest discrepancies were for FNAC of “salivary gland” [total: 20 with actual final pathology in: bone (7), soft tissue (5), lymph node (3), odontogenic (3) and skin (2)], “lymph node” [total: 12 with final pathology in: soft tissue (3), skin (3), bone (1) and brain (1)], “soft tissue” [total: 11 with final pathology in: bone (5), skin (2), salivary gland (1), and ocular region (1)] and “skin” [total: 5 with final pathology in: lymph node (2), bone (1), soft tissue (1) and salivary gland (1)]. The primary physician requesting FNAC of head and neck lesions

  4. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  5. Anthelmintic-resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from an organic sheep and goat farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thansborg, Stig M.

    2013-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance (AR) was investigated in an organic dairy sheep and goat farm. The herd was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from a number of other farms. Selection for the study was based on history of anthelmintic-treatment failure. Forty-eight lambs and 48......) or 10 mg/kg closantel (CLO). Kids were treated with 10 mg/kg FBZ, 0.3 mg/kg MOX, 14 mg/kg LEV, 0.2 mg/kg IVM or 10 mg/kg CLO. FECs were performed at day of treatment and 14 days post treatment. In a subsequent investigation, faeces from adult goats were cultured to obtain 3rd-stage nematode larvae (L3...... %. This is the first isolation of BZ-resistant H. contortus and T. colubriformis in Denmark and highlights the need for continuous surveillance of AR in conventional and organic farms....

  6. [Importance of preservation of biophysical organization of isolated mitochondria for revealing physiological regulation of their functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, M V; Khunderiakova, N V; Kondrashova, M N

    2011-01-01

    A method has been elaborated that preserves the mitochondrial-reticular network in lymphocytes in composition to the physiological one. Physiologicalby the immobilization of a blood smear on glass and its subsequent incubation in a medium closeresponses of respiration to excitation in the ition of early responses of ions. The recogn organism are well pronounced on these preparat mitochondria to pathogenic agents in the organism is a timely problem of basic and medicinal e- investigations since they play a leading role in the development of pathological states.

  7. Effect of Propafenone on the Contractile Activity of Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Isolated in an Organ Chamber: Experimental Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Simões

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of propafenone on the contractile function of latissimus dorsi muscle isolated from rats in an organ chamber. METHODS: We studied 20 latissimus dorsi muscles of Wistar rats and divided them into 2 groups: group I (n=10, or control group - we studied the feasibility of muscle contractility; group II (n=10, in which the contralateral muscles were grouped - we analyzed the effect of propafenone on muscle contractility. After building a muscle ring, 8 periods of sequential 2-minute baths were performed, with intervals of preprogrammed electrical stimulation using a pacemaker of 50 stimuli/min. In group II, propafenone, at the concentration of 9.8 µg/mL, was added to the bath in period 2 and withdrawn in period 4. RESULTS: In group I, no significant depression in muscle contraction occurred up to period 5 (p>0.05. In group II, a significant depression occurred in all periods, except between the last 2 periods (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Propafenone had a depressing effect on the contractile function of latissimus dorsi muscle isolated from rats and studied in an organ chamber.

  8. Summary of major radiation fractionation and chemotherapy trials for organ preservation therapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, James T; Greene, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    To review radiation fractionation and chemotherapy trials for patients undergoing organ preservation therapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Radiation therapy fractionation and chemotherapy trial results as well as historical evidence are systematically reviewed. Trial results, which involve nearly 30,000 patients, have been interpreted, compared, and presented in a structured manner to demonstrate the changing approaches in treatment over the years from the 1960s to the present. The review includes data from the split-course radiation therapy era, meta-analyses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy fractionation trials, cetuximab trials, "triple-drug trials," and modern trials of induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This summary will be useful to clinicians making treatment decisions today and to investigators designing trials in the future. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Heads and tails: both sides of the coin: an analysis of hybrid organizations in the Dutch waste management sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karré, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, Philip Marcel Karré argues that hybridity can only be fully understood and managed when one considers both sides of the coin, and sees benefits and risks as each other’s flipsides. By analyzing hybrid organizations in the Dutch waste management sector, he develops a perspective on

  10. The role of the safety analysis organization in steam generators replacement and reactor vessel head replacement evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Whee G.; Boatwright, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    When a major component in a nuclear power plant is replaced, especially the steam generators, the plant operator is presented a rare opportunity to learn from operating experience and significantly improve the performance, reliability and robustness of the plant. In addition to the use of improved materials, improved design margins can be built into the component specification that can later be used to provide meaningful operating margins. A Safety Analysis organization that is well-integrated with other plant organizations and possesses a detailed knowledge of the plant design and licensing bases can effectively balance the wants and needs of each organization to optimize the benefits realized by the plant as a whole. Knowledge of the assumptions, limitations, and available margins, both analytical and operating, can be used to specify a replacement steam generator design that optimizes costs and operating improvements. The work scope required to support the new design can be controlled through carefully selected and evaluated restrictions in operations, development of alternate operating strategies, and imposition of appropriate limitations. The important point is that the effective Safety Analysis organization must possess both the breadth and depth of knowledge of the plant design and operations and proactively use this information to support the replacement steam generator project. (author)

  11. Organic acids production by rhizosphere microorganisms isolated from a Typic Melanudands and its effects on the inorganic phosphates solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Serna Posso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that organic acid secretion by rhizosphere microorganisms is one of the mechanisms to solubilize the phosphorus (P attached to insoluble mineral compounds in soil. This action is an important biotechnological alternative, especially in those soils where high fixation of this nutrient occurs, a very common situation in the tropics. This research evaluated the ability performed by five bacterial and five fungal isolates from Typic Melanudands soil to produce organic acids and generate available phosphorus from insoluble P sources. Given these concerns, the selected microorganisms were replicated for 7 days in liquid medium Pikovskaya (PVK modified sources tricalcium phosphate (P-Ca, aluminum phosphate (P-Al and iron phosphate (P-Fe. The results indicated that phosphorus availability in the media, correlates positively with the organic acids production in each of the sources used (P-Ca (0.63, P-Al (0.67 and P-Fe (0.63. In turn, the chemical processes linked to the phosphates solubilization (e.g., Ca availability affected the development of the microorganisms tested. Both, fungi and bacteria varied in their ability production and type of metabolized organic acids, the most frequent were as follows: citric and gluconic acid.

  12. Coupling reverse osmosis with electrodialysis to isolate natural organic matter from fresh waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to solve the problem of removal of sulfate and silica from solutions of natural organic matter (NOM) that have been pre-concentrated by reverse osmosis. The goal is the development of a method by which NOM can be concentrated and desalted to obtain a low...

  13. Isolation, identification and characterization of organic solvent tolerant protease from Bacillus sp. DAF-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arastoo Badoei-Dalfard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvent-tolerant bacteria are relatively novel extermophilic microorganisms, which can produce organic tolerant protease with capacity of being used in industrial biotechnology for producing high-value compounds. Therefore, finding of these bacteria has drawn much researchers attention nowadays. Materials and Methods: In this project, samples were collected from a hot spring, located in Jiroft. Samples were incubated in medium supplemented with cyclohexane and toluene for 3 days. Screening of protease producing bacteria was performed on the specific media, SKM (Skim milk agar, based on clear area diameter. The best bacterium was identified based on 16s rDNA gene. Protease activity was considered in different temperatures, pH and organic solvents.Results: Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results showed that this bacteria was closely related to Bacillus niacini, with 97% homology. Enzymatic studies showed that, this enzyme was active at a wide range of temperatures, 20-90 °C and it,s optimal activity was in 60 °C. In addition, maximum protease activity was obtained in the 8-9 range of pH, and optimal stability was also at pH 9.0. Protease activity in the presence of methanol, toluene, isopropanol, cyclohexane and DMF ‏showed that, remaining activity was at least 80% compared to the control (without organic solvent Discussion and Conclusion: Thermopilic capacity, being active in alkaline protease and high protease stability in the presence of organic solvents all herald a remarkable application for using in different industries.

  14. Bacterial Agents Andantibiogram of Most Common Isolated Organisms from Hands of Surgical Team Members after Scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Mohseni- Meybodi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many post-surgical wound infections in hospitals cause morbidity and morality of patients and these are usually transmitted via hands of surgical personnel. The aim of the present study was to detect and antibiogram the bacterial agents following scrubbing of hands of surgical personnel before operation. Methods: Hands of 134 personnels of operation room were swabbed following scrubbing with antiseptic Betadine solution. Swab samples were inoculated on selective and differential media such as blood ager, McConky and manitol salt agar(MSA. Following incubation of media at 37c° for 24hr, bacterial species were identified using differential related tests. The isolated species were than antibiogramed and the results together with other data was analysed by SPSS software program. Results: Of the total of 134 cases, 81(60.4% were male and 53(39.6% female. The mean scrub time for each person was (206.1+/-103.2 seconds; 6 to 60 seconds base change. Increasing time of scrub was significantly correlated with decreasing rate of bacteria (P=0.003, (R=-0.254. Contamination was present in 129(96.3% cases following scrubbing. Maximum contamination was observed in nails (92.5%. Average number of bacteria for each individual was between 0 and 159. 62.6% of isolated bacteria were non- staphylococci and 7.7% were S. aureus. Vancomycin and ceftizoxim were the most sensitive, while penicillin was the least sensitive antibiotic. Conclusion: Results revealed that hand contamination was more than the expected standard level. Therefore, regarding the critical task of surgical personnel, training of all operation room staff is highly recommended to minimize the rate of contamination.

  15. Functional changes of the gustatory organ caused by local radiation exposure during radiotherapy of the head-and-neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamprad, F.; Hildebrandt, G.; Ranft, D.; Weber, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate how often and at which dose levels gustatory disturbances appear during radiotherapy of the tongue and to which extent permanent gustatory deficiencies occur. Patients and Methods: The study included 44 patients treated by definitive irradiation for malignant head-and-neck tumors. In 22 patients the posterior two thirds of the tongue (group 1), and in the other 22 patients the entire tongue (group 2) were exposed to radiation. The control group comprised 30 patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving definitive radiation therapy (group 3). The dose distribution in the tongue area was calculated using CT-based three-dimensional planning. Before, during and after irradiation the gustatory function was determined by means of gustometry and correlated with the corresponding results of enoral inspection and the patients' subjective statements on gustatory function. Results: The gustatory ability of the control group was not affected, whereas patients in the locally irradiated groups in parallel with enoral mucositis suffered from loss of gustatory function after a total dose of 20 Gy with a maximum between 40 and 60 Gy. Supportive measures had little influence on acute side effects. The gustatory disturbances regressed within 8 weeks after radiotherapy in patients with partial-tongue irradiation and almost completely after 6 months in patients with entire-tongue irradiation. Conclusion: The severity of gustatory disturbances and the longer recovery time in patients with entire-tongue irradiation suggest an influence of the volume exposed. Therefore, reduction of the highly exposed tongue volume by intensity-modulated radiotherapy opens up possibilities for a reduction of this undesirable side effect. (orig.)

  16. Functional changes of the gustatory organ caused by local radiation exposure during radiotherapy of the head-and-neck region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamprad, F.; Hildebrandt, G. [University Hospital Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Ranft, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald GmbH (Germany). MVZ-Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum; Weber, A. [Sana Klinikum Remscheid (Germany). ENT Dept.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate how often and at which dose levels gustatory disturbances appear during radiotherapy of the tongue and to which extent permanent gustatory deficiencies occur. Patients and Methods: The study included 44 patients treated by definitive irradiation for malignant head-and-neck tumors. In 22 patients the posterior two thirds of the tongue (group 1), and in the other 22 patients the entire tongue (group 2) were exposed to radiation. The control group comprised 30 patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving definitive radiation therapy (group 3). The dose distribution in the tongue area was calculated using CT-based three-dimensional planning. Before, during and after irradiation the gustatory function was determined by means of gustometry and correlated with the corresponding results of enoral inspection and the patients' subjective statements on gustatory function. Results: The gustatory ability of the control group was not affected, whereas patients in the locally irradiated groups in parallel with enoral mucositis suffered from loss of gustatory function after a total dose of 20 Gy with a maximum between 40 and 60 Gy. Supportive measures had little influence on acute side effects. The gustatory disturbances regressed within 8 weeks after radiotherapy in patients with partial-tongue irradiation and almost completely after 6 months in patients with entire-tongue irradiation. Conclusion: The severity of gustatory disturbances and the longer recovery time in patients with entire-tongue irradiation suggest an influence of the volume exposed. Therefore, reduction of the highly exposed tongue volume by intensity-modulated radiotherapy opens up possibilities for a reduction of this undesirable side effect. (orig.)

  17. High-grade acute organ toxicity as positive prognostic factor in primary radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Bosch, Jan; Hennies, Steffen; Hess, Clemens F.; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Jung, Klaus [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Overbeck, Tobias [Dept. of Haematology and Oncology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Matthias, Christoph; Roedel, Ralph M. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radio(chemo)therapy and treatment outcome in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients and methods: from 05/1994 to 01/2009, 216 HNSCC patients were treated with radio(chemo)therapy in primary approach. They received normofractionated (2 Gy/fraction) irradiation including associated nodal drainage sites to a cumulative dose of 70 Gy. 151 patients received additional concomitant chemotherapy (111 patients 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C, 40 patients cisplatin-based). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), and any toxicity grade CTC {>=} 3 of mucositis, dysphagia or skin reaction was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: a statistically significant coherency between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival as well as locoregional control was found: patients with CTC {>=} 3 acute organ toxicity had a 5-year overall survival rate of 4% compared to 8% in patients without (p < 0.01). Thereby, multivariate analyses revealed that the correlation was independent of other possible prognostic factors or factors that may influence treatment toxicity, especially concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy technique or treatment-planning procedure. Conclusion: these data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, as high-grade acute organ toxicity during radio(chemo)therapy showed to be an independent prognostic marker in the own patient population. However, the authors are aware of the fact that a multivariate analysis in a retrospective study generally has statistical limitations. Therefore, their hypothesis should be further analyzed on biomolecular and clinical levels and other tumor entities in prospective trials. (orig.)

  18. Estimation of skin, organ and effective doses of patients who undertake head CT scan in 4 medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.T.; Khalilpour, M.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. CT was first introduced into clinical practice in 1972, and has since grown into one of the predominant diagnostic procedures. In this work we have estimated patient dose arising from CT examination of brain in four hospitals in Mashhad. Organ and effective doses were estimated for 123 patients who underwent CT examination of brain. 'ImPACT' version 0.99w was used to estimate organ and effective dose. ESD of same patients were measured by TLD-100. Brain examinations were performed with fixed kV, mA and T (slice thickness) for each scanner. The CT Scanners investigated in this study were GE HiLight, Siemens Somatom AR-T, Somatom Balance and Shimadzu SCT. Summary of our findings are as follows: Application of 'ImPACT' software enabled us to compute Bone marrow (red), Brain, Thyroid and effective doses of all patients. Table 1 shows the average organ dose (Brain, Bone marrow (red), Thyroid), mean effective dose and mean ESD were measured by TLD for each patients. Patients, who were scanned by Siemens Somatom AR-T, received maximum organ dose (brain) equal to 25.64 mGy and minimum organ dose equal to 0.21 mGy was delivered to thyroid of patients who were scanned by GE HiLight Scanner. Our average effective dose (0.54 ± 0.02 mSv) is smaller than the corresponding value (0.75 ± 0.03 mSv) obtained by Peter F. Caracappa (M.Sc dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York April 2004). Scanning by Siemens Somatom AR-T, gave rise to maximum ESD (equal to 16.22 mGy). On the other hand minimum ESD (5.51 mGy) was achieved when patients were scanned by GE HiLight machine. ESD values and organ doses acquired in this work by two different methods, TLD measurement and computing by 'ImPACT' software; are in good agreement and this is an indication of the accuracy and validity of both sets of results.

  19. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m−3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  20. Characterization of isolated fractions of dissolved organic matter derived from municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minda; He, Xiaosong; Liu, Jiaomei; Wang, Yuefeng; Xi, Beidou; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Chao

    2018-04-14

    Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting. The high-MW humic substances and building blocks in the HA fraction degraded faster during composting than polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. Similarly, the low MW acid FA factions transformed faster than the low weight neutral fractions, followed by building blocks, and finally polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. The evolutions of HyI fractions during composting occurred first for building blocks, followed by low MW acids, and finally low weight neutrals. With the progress of composting, the hydrophobic properties of the HA and FA fractions were enhanced. The degradation/humification process of the hydrophilic and transphilic components was faster than that of the hydrophobic component. Compared with the FA and HyI fractions, the HA fraction exhibited a higher MW and increased hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  2. Cloning and Genomic Organization of a Rhamnogalacturonase Gene from Locally Isolated Strain of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damak, Naourez; Abdeljalil, Salma; Taeib, Noomen Hadj; Gargouri, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The rhg gene encoding a rhamnogalacturonase was isolated from the novel strain A1 of Aspergillus niger. It consists of an ORF of 1.505 kb encoding a putative protein of 446 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47 kDa, belonging to the family 28 of glycosyl hydrolases. The nature and position of amino acids comprising the active site as well as the three-dimensional structure were well conserved between the A. niger CTM10548 and fungal rhamnogalacturonases. The coding region of the rhg gene is interrupted by three short introns of 56 (introns 1 and 3) and 52 (intron 2) bp in length. The comparison of the peptide sequence with A. niger rhg sequences revealed that the A1 rhg should be an endo-rhamnogalacturonases, more homologous to rhg A than rhg B A. niger known enzymes. The comparison of rhg nucleotide sequence from A. niger A1 with rhg A from A. niger shows several base changes. Most of these changes (59 %) are located at the third base of codons suggesting maintaining the same enzyme function. We used the rhamnogalacturonase A from Aspergillus aculeatus as a template to build a structural model of rhg A1 that adopted a right-handed parallel β-helix.

  3. Structural and thermal characterization of hemicelluloses isolated by organic solvents and alkaline solutions from Tamarix austromongolica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong-Chang; Wen, Jia-Long; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2011-05-01

    Three organosolv and three alkaline hemicellulosic fractions were prepared from lignocellulosic biomass of the fast-growing shrub Tamarix austromongolica (Tamarix Linn.). Sugar analysis revealed that the organosolv-soluble fractions contained a higher content of glucose (33.7-6.5%) and arabinose (14.8-5.6%), and a lower content of xylose (62.2-54.8%) than the hemicellulosic fractions isolated with aqueous alkali solutions. A relatively high concentration of alkali resulted in a decreasing trend of the xylose/4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid ratio in the alkali-soluble fractions. The results of NMR analysis supported a major substituted structure based on a linear polymer of β-(1→4)-linked d-xylopyranosyl residues, having ramifications of α-L-arabinofuranose and 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid residues monosubstituted at O-3 and O-2, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that one step of major mass loss occurred between 200-400°C, as hemicelluloses devolatilized with total volatile yield of about 55%. It was found that organosolv-soluble fractions are more highly ramified, and showed a higher thermal stability than the alkali-soluble fractions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TH-CD-206-05: Machine-Learning Based Segmentation of Organs at Risks for Head and Neck Radiotherapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Pernus, F [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Strojan, P; Xing, L [Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate and efficient delineation of tumor target and organs-at-risks is essential for the success of radiotherapy. In reality, despite of decades of intense research efforts, auto-segmentation has not yet become clinical practice. In this study, we present, for the first time, a deep learning-based classification algorithm for autonomous segmentation in head and neck (HaN) treatment planning. Methods: Fifteen HN datasets of CT, MR and PET images with manual annotation of organs-at-risk (OARs) including spinal cord, brainstem, optic nerves, chiasm, eyes, mandible, tongue, parotid glands were collected and saved in a library of plans. We also have ten super-resolution MR images of the tongue area, where the genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles are defined as organs of interest. We applied the concepts of random forest- and deep learning-based object classification for automated image annotation with the aim of using machine learning to facilitate head and neck radiotherapy planning process. In this new paradigm of segmentation, random forests were used for landmark-assisted segmentation of super-resolution MR images. Alternatively to auto-segmentation with random forest-based landmark detection, deep convolutional neural networks were developed for voxel-wise segmentation of OARs in single and multi-modal images. The network consisted of three pairs of convolution and pooing layer, one RuLU layer and a softmax layer. Results: We present a comprehensive study on using machine learning concepts for auto-segmentation of OARs and tongue muscles for the HaN radiotherapy planning. An accuracy of 81.8% in terms of Dice coefficient was achieved for segmentation of genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles. Preliminary results of OARs regimentation also indicate that deep-learning afforded an unprecedented opportunities to improve the accuracy and robustness of radiotherapy planning. Conclusion: A novel machine learning framework

  5. TH-CD-206-05: Machine-Learning Based Segmentation of Organs at Risks for Head and Neck Radiotherapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, B; Pernus, F; Strojan, P; Xing, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate and efficient delineation of tumor target and organs-at-risks is essential for the success of radiotherapy. In reality, despite of decades of intense research efforts, auto-segmentation has not yet become clinical practice. In this study, we present, for the first time, a deep learning-based classification algorithm for autonomous segmentation in head and neck (HaN) treatment planning. Methods: Fifteen HN datasets of CT, MR and PET images with manual annotation of organs-at-risk (OARs) including spinal cord, brainstem, optic nerves, chiasm, eyes, mandible, tongue, parotid glands were collected and saved in a library of plans. We also have ten super-resolution MR images of the tongue area, where the genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles are defined as organs of interest. We applied the concepts of random forest- and deep learning-based object classification for automated image annotation with the aim of using machine learning to facilitate head and neck radiotherapy planning process. In this new paradigm of segmentation, random forests were used for landmark-assisted segmentation of super-resolution MR images. Alternatively to auto-segmentation with random forest-based landmark detection, deep convolutional neural networks were developed for voxel-wise segmentation of OARs in single and multi-modal images. The network consisted of three pairs of convolution and pooing layer, one RuLU layer and a softmax layer. Results: We present a comprehensive study on using machine learning concepts for auto-segmentation of OARs and tongue muscles for the HaN radiotherapy planning. An accuracy of 81.8% in terms of Dice coefficient was achieved for segmentation of genioglossus and inferior longitudinalis tongue muscles. Preliminary results of OARs regimentation also indicate that deep-learning afforded an unprecedented opportunities to improve the accuracy and robustness of radiotherapy planning. Conclusion: A novel machine learning framework

  6. Influence of organic nitrogen amendment, containing amino acids on the cellulase and xylanase, produced by Trichoderma spp. isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Draganova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cellulases and hemicellulases are amount the main hydrolytic enzymes, involved in the bioconversion of lignocellulose material by microorganisms. Filamentous fungi of the genus Trichoderma are one of the most studied and good producer of cellulases and hemicellulases. The nutrients balance, especially carbon to nitrogen ratio, is one of the main factors of the biodegradation. The ability of 37 local isolates of Trichoderma sp. to produce cellulases and xylanase were tested in solid state cultivation on wheat straw as a substrate whit two variants: 1. the straw was only moistured with destilated water (CN 80:1; 2. the C:N ratio of the straw was adjusted to 30:1 using organic nitrogen amendment. There is a significant difference in the enzymatic activity of the isolates in their cultivation on straw with CN 80 and CN 30. The highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase activity at CN 80 showed T1T (110.19U/ml, and in the variant at CN 30 - TD (369.07U/ml. The highest β-glucosidase activity on both variants CN 80 and CN 30 was established for TG (2743.1U/ml - 12679.9U/ml. The highest xylanase activity at CN 80 and CN 30 was measured on T4I (21311.5U/ml – 47937.5U/ml. After ONA addition, all enzymes activities have increased several times, indicating the enhancing effect of the additive. The average activity of CMCase increased 6.1 times, the average β - glucosidase activity increased 5.1 times, while the xylanase activity increased 4.9 times for all tested isolates. The increase in activity of the investigated enzymes showed different patterns.

  7. Bioprinting of a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional dual cell-laden construct for osteochondral tissue engineering using a multi-head tissue/organ building system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kim, Jong Young

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted construct containing two different cell types for osteochondral tissue regeneration. Recently, the production of 3D cell-laden structures using various scaffold-free cell printing technologies has opened up new possibilities. However, ideal 3D complex tissues or organs have not yet been printed because gel-state hydrogels have been used as the principal material and are unable to maintain the desired 3D structure due to their poor mechanical strength. In this study, thermoplastic biomaterial polycaprolactone (PCL), which shows relatively high mechanical properties as compared with hydrogel, was used as a framework for enhancing the mechanical stability of the bioprinted construct. Two different alginate solutions were then infused into the previously prepared framework consisting of PCL to create the 3D construct for osteochondral printing. For this work, a multi-head tissue/organ building system (MtoBS), which was particularly designed to dispense thermoplastic biomaterial and hydrogel having completely different rheology properties, was newly developed and used to bioprint osteochondral tissue. It was confirmed that the line width, position and volume control of PCL and alginate solutions were adjustable in the MtoBS. Most importantly, dual cell-laden 3D constructs consisting of osteoblasts and chondrocytes were successfully fabricated. Further, the separately dispensed osteoblasts and chondrocytes not only retained their initial position and viability, but also proliferated up to 7 days after being dispensed. (paper)

  8. Bioprinting of a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional dual cell-laden construct for osteochondral tissue engineering using a multi-head tissue/organ building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Seob; Kim, Jong Young; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to build a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted construct containing two different cell types for osteochondral tissue regeneration. Recently, the production of 3D cell-laden structures using various scaffold-free cell printing technologies has opened up new possibilities. However, ideal 3D complex tissues or organs have not yet been printed because gel-state hydrogels have been used as the principal material and are unable to maintain the desired 3D structure due to their poor mechanical strength. In this study, thermoplastic biomaterial polycaprolactone (PCL), which shows relatively high mechanical properties as compared with hydrogel, was used as a framework for enhancing the mechanical stability of the bioprinted construct. Two different alginate solutions were then infused into the previously prepared framework consisting of PCL to create the 3D construct for osteochondral printing. For this work, a multi-head tissue/organ building system (MtoBS), which was particularly designed to dispense thermoplastic biomaterial and hydrogel having completely different rheology properties, was newly developed and used to bioprint osteochondral tissue. It was confirmed that the line width, position and volume control of PCL and alginate solutions were adjustable in the MtoBS. Most importantly, dual cell-laden 3D constructs consisting of osteoblasts and chondrocytes were successfully fabricated. Further, the separately dispensed osteoblasts and chondrocytes not only retained their initial position and viability, but also proliferated up to 7 days after being dispensed.

  9. Validation of clinical acceptability of an atlas-based segmentation algorithm for the delineation of organs at risk in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Duc, Albert K., E-mail: albert.hoangduc.ucl@gmail.com; McClelland, Jamie; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Mendelson, Alex F. [Center for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Eminowicz, Gemma; Mendes, Ruheena; Wong, Swee-Ling; D’Souza, Derek [Radiotherapy Department, University College London Hospitals, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Veiga, Catarina [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kadir, Timor [Mirada Medical UK, Oxford Center for Innovation, New Road, Oxford OX1 1BY (United Kingdom); Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess whether clinically acceptable segmentations of organs at risk (OARs) in head and neck cancer can be obtained automatically and efficiently using the novel “similarity and truth estimation for propagated segmentations” (STEPS) compared to the traditional “simultaneous truth and performance level estimation” (STAPLE) algorithm. Methods: First, 6 OARs were contoured by 2 radiation oncologists in a dataset of 100 patients with head and neck cancer on planning computed tomography images. Each image in the dataset was then automatically segmented with STAPLE and STEPS using those manual contours. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was then used to compare the accuracy of these automatic methods. Second, in a blind experiment, three separate and distinct trained physicians graded manual and automatic segmentations into one of the following three grades: clinically acceptable as determined by universal delineation guidelines (grade A), reasonably acceptable for clinical practice upon manual editing (grade B), and not acceptable (grade C). Finally, STEPS segmentations graded B were selected and one of the physicians manually edited them to grade A. Editing time was recorded. Results: Significant improvements in DSC can be seen when using the STEPS algorithm on large structures such as the brainstem, spinal canal, and left/right parotid compared to the STAPLE algorithm (all p < 0.001). In addition, across all three trained physicians, manual and STEPS segmentation grades were not significantly different for the brainstem, spinal canal, parotid (right/left), and optic chiasm (all p > 0.100). In contrast, STEPS segmentation grades were lower for the eyes (p < 0.001). Across all OARs and all physicians, STEPS produced segmentations graded as well as manual contouring at a rate of 83%, giving a lower bound on this rate of 80% with 95% confidence. Reduction in manual interaction time was on average 61% and 93% when automatic

  10. Antimicrobial activity of organic extracts isolated from Aplysina fistularis (Demospongiae: Aplysinidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Teobaldo; Cubero, Juan; Lanz, Zorina; Gomez-Guinan, Yrma; Segnini-Bravo, M. I.

    2000-01-01

    Organic extracts of the sponge Aplysina fistularis (Pallas 1766), were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and toxic activity of bioactive extract were determined. Susceptibility trials of organic fractions obtained by VLC. Hexane, EtOAc and CHCl 3 showed that EtOAc fraction has antibacterial activity against E. coli, while CHCl 3 fraction inhibited E. coli and S. aureus growth. The later refractioning of EtOAc fraction and the biodirected assays showed that fractions F12 and F13 of EtOAc/Hex and EtOAc F14 were bioactive against E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Only EtOAc/MeOH Sf 2 from subfractioning of EtOAc F14 produced inhibition for E. coli and S. aureus. In Sf2 EtOAc/MeOH, MIC was moderate for S. aureus (MIC > 256 μg/ml). F4 CHCl 3 /MeOH produced a high inhibition in S. aureus (MIC = 0.125 μg/ml) and for E. coli (MIC > 16 μg/ml). F10 CHCl 3 /MeOH showed a moderate activity against S. aureus (MIC > 128 μg/ml) and low activity against E. coli (MIC = 512 μg/ml). F10 CHCI 3 /MeOH did no present toxic activity against Artemia salina. The fractiorts F4 CHCI 3 /MeOH and Sf2 EtOAc/MeOH were toxic for this organism when the concentration was higher than 100 μg/ml. LC50 in both cases was 548.4 and 243.4 μg/ml respectively. The conclusion is that secondary metabolites of medium polarity obtained from A. fistularis have a wide spectrum of anti bacterial activity. Toxicity analysis suggests that only F10 CHCI 3 /MeOH has potential as an antimicrobial agent for clinical use. (author) [es

  11. High-pressure size exclusion chromatography analysis of dissolved organic matter isolated by tangential-flow ultra filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, C.R.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    A 1,000-Dalton tangential-flow ultrafiltration (TFUF) membrane was used to isolate dissolved organic matter (DOM) from several freshwater environments. The TFUF unit used in this study was able to completely retain a polystyrene sulfonate 1,800-Dalton standard. Unaltered and TFUF-fractionated DOM molecular weights were assayed by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The weight-averaged molecular weights of the retentates were larger than those of the raw water samples, whereas the filtrates were all significantly smaller and approximately the same size or smaller than the manufacturer-specified pore size of the membrane. Moreover, at 280 nm the molar absorptivity of the DOM retained by the ultrafilter is significantly larger than the material in the filtrate. This observation suggests that most of the chromophoric components are associated with the higher molecular weight fraction of the DOM pool. Multivalent metals in the aqueous matrix also affected the molecular weights of the DOM molecules. Typically, proton-exchanged DOM retentates were smaller than untreated samples. This TFUF system appears to be an effective means of isolating aquatic DOM by size, but the ultimate size of the retentates may be affected by the presence of metals and by configurational properties unique to the DOM phase.

  12. Isolation of the contagious equine metritis organism from colts and fillies in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, P J; Powell, D G

    1982-11-20

    Between January 1978 and August 1982 the streptomycin resistant strain of the contagious equine metritis organism (CEMO) was isolated from 15 colts and two fillies in the United Kingdom and Ireland. A first season stallion was also suspected of having initiated an outbreak of contagious equine metritis (CEM) at the beginning of the 1982 breeding season. A detailed investigation of the breeding history of the dams and sires of each positive individual indicated that in a number of cases the CEMO was acquired either in utero or following transmission at the time of parturition. In several other cases the retrospective evidence suggested that the genital tract of colt foals became contaminated with vaginal discharge from mares showing clinical signs of the disease during the nursing period. The findings emphasise the need for a thorough examination of the genital tract of colts and fillies as recommended in the code of practice for the control of CEM when they begin their breeding career.

  13. Heads Up to High School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit" value="Submit" /> HEADS UP to School Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To help ... organizations, developed the HEADS UP: Concussion in School Sports initiative and materials. Specific Concussion Information for... Coaches ...

  14. STUDY OF THE ISOLATES OF SUSPECTED VAP, PREVALENCE OF THE DIFFERENT ORGANISMS AND MIC PATTERNS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagnik Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The development of nosocomial infections mostly ventilator-associated pneumonia due to prolonged stay in the ICUs varies grossly in different outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality. The American Thoracic Society (ATS guidelines recommend that quantitative cultures can be performed on ETA or samples collected either bronchoscopically or nonbronchosopically. 1 More importantly, recent small trials have repeatedly shown that there is no advantage of bronchoscopic cultures over quantitative endotracheal aspirate. 2,3,4 Detection of causative organisms and their antibiotic MIC determination is absolutely necessary to initiate the specific antibiotic with appropriate dose thereby reducing the adverse effects of inadequate antibiotic treatment on the patient prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prospective study was carried out during the period from August 2012 to January 2015 in Department of Microbiology from the samples those were received as a routine culture from VAP suspected patients from the ICU. There were 373 samples from which 123 were culture positives. Inclusion criteria were all the patients 18 years and more age group who were intubated in mechanical ventilator and others were excluded in the study. Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS was given to each patient included in the study on daily basis. CPIS of greater than six was used as diagnostic criteria for VAP. 5 Clinically diagnosed ventilator-associated pneumonia were observed and clinical parameters were recorded from their medical records and bedside charts. All patients with clinical and radiological signs suggestive of pneumonia on admission. Endotracheal aspirate was collected by using a 22-inch Romsons suction catheter. Chest vibration or percussion for 10 mins. was used. Only 1 ETA sample was collected from each patient and was immediately taken to the laboratory for processing. RESULTS Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated 39.02%, Pseudomonas

  15. A multi-institution evaluation of deformable image registration algorithms for automatic organ delineation in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Kumar, Prashant; Oechsner, Markus; Richter, Anne; Song, Shiyu; Myers, Michael; Polat, Bülent; Bzdusek, Karl; Tomé, Wolfgang A; Cannon, Donald M; Brouwer, Charlotte L; Wittendorp, Paul WH; Dogan, Nesrin; Guckenberger, Matthias; Allaire, Stéphane; Mallya, Yogish

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive Radiotherapy aims to identify anatomical deviations during a radiotherapy course and modify the treatment plan to maintain treatment objectives. This requires regions of interest (ROIs) to be defined using the most recent imaging data. This study investigates the clinical utility of using deformable image registration (DIR) to automatically propagate ROIs. Target (GTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) ROIs were non-rigidly propagated from a planning CT scan to a per-treatment CT scan for 22 patients. Propagated ROIs were quantitatively compared with expert physician-drawn ROIs on the per-treatment scan using Dice scores and mean slicewise Hausdorff distances, and center of mass distances for GTVs. The propagated ROIs were qualitatively examined by experts and scored based on their clinical utility. Good agreement between the DIR-propagated ROIs and expert-drawn ROIs was observed based on the metrics used. 94% of all ROIs generated using DIR were scored as being clinically useful, requiring minimal or no edits. However, 27% (12/44) of the GTVs required major edits. DIR was successfully used on 22 patients to propagate target and OAR structures for ART with good anatomical agreement for OARs. It is recommended that propagated target structures be thoroughly reviewed by the treating physician

  16. Model of molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter isolated from Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2010-09-01

    The molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) from Murchison meteorite has been investigated by our group for several years using a large set of analytical methods including various spectroscopies (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy), high resolution electron microscopy, and thermal (pyrolyses in the presence or not of tetramethylammonium hydroxide) and chemical (RuO4 oxidation) degradations. Taken together, these techniques provided a wealth of qualitative and quantitative information, from which we derived 11 elemental and molecular parameters on the same IOM residue. In addition to the basic elemental composition, these parameters describe the distribution of the different types of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur atoms as well as the size of the polyaromatic units. For this molecular structure, we therefore propose a model which fits with these 11 molecular quantitative parameters. Several cosmochemical implications are derived from this structure. Based on the fact that aromatic moieties are highly substituted and aliphatic chains highly branched, it can be anticipated that the synthesis of this IOM occurred through successive additions of single carbon units in the gas-phase ending by a spontaneous cyclization for chain length ≥7 C. As a whole, these observations favor an organosynthesis in the solar T-Tauri disk.

  17. Novel rod-shaped viruses isolated from garlic, Allium sativum, possessing a unique genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S; Tsuneyoshi, T; Furutani, H

    1993-09-01

    Rod-shaped flexuous viruses were partially purified from garlic plants (Allium sativum) showing typical mosaic symptoms. The genome was shown to be composed of RNA with a poly(A) tail of an estimated size of 10 kb as shown by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. We constructed cDNA libraries and screened four independent clones, which were designated GV-A, GV-B, GV-C and GV-D, using Northern and Southern blot hybridization. Nucleotide sequence determination of the cDNAs, two of which correspond to nearly one-third of the virus genomic RNA, shows that all of these viruses possess an identical genomic structure and that also at least four proteins are encoded in the viral cDNA, their M(r)s being estimated to be 15K, 27K, 40K and 11K. The 15K open reading frame (ORF) encodes the core-like sequence of a zinc finger protein preceded by a cluster of basic amino acid residues. The 27K ORF probably encodes the viral coat protein (CP), based on both the existence of some conserved sequences observed in many other rod-shaped or flexuous virus CPs and an overall amino acid sequence similarity to potexvirus and carlavirus CPs. The 11K ORF shows significant amino acid sequence similarities to the corresponding 12K proteins of the potexviruses and carlaviruses. On the other hand, the 40K ORF product does not resemble any other plant virus gene products reported so far. The genomic organization in the 3' region of the garlic viruses resembles, but clearly differs from, that of carlaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis based upon the amino acid sequence of the viral capsid protein also indicates that the garlic viruses have a unique and distinct domain different from those of the potexvirus and carlavirus groups. The results suggest that the garlic viruses described here belong to an unclassified and new virus group closely related to the carlaviruses.

  18. Abundance, genetic diversity and sensitivity to demethylation inhibitor fungicides of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from organic substrates with special emphasis on compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Matić, Slavica; Gisi, Ulrich; Spadaro, Davide; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria L

    2017-12-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a widespread fungus that colonizes dead organic substrates but it can also cause fatal human diseases. Aspergilloses are treated with demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides; however, resistant isolates appeared recently in the medical and also environmental area. The present study aims at molecular characterizing and quantifying A. fumigatus in major environmental habitats and determining its sensitivity to medical and agricultural DMI fungicides. A. fumigatus was isolated only rarely from soil and meadow/forest organic matter but high concentrations (10 3 to 10 7  cfu/g) were detected in substrates subjected to elevated temperatures, such as compost and silage. High genetic diversity of A. fumigatus from compost was found based on SSR markers, distinguishing among fungal isolates even when coming from the same substrate sample, while subclustering was observed based on mutations in cyp51A gene. Several cyp51A amino acid substitutions were found in 15 isolates, although all isolates were fully sensitive to the tested DMI fungicides, with exception of one isolate in combination with one fungicide. This study suggests that the tested A. fumigatus isolates collected in Italy, Spain and Hungary from the fungus' major living habitats (compost) and commercial growing substrates are not potential carriers for DMI resistance in the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  20. Isolation of a halophilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain NY-6 for organic contaminants removal in saline wastewater on ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Yu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Dan; Zhao, Fangbo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this research was to examine if certain strains of Bacillus bacteria, could survive in dry powder products and if so, could the bacteria degrade organic contaminants in saline wastewater on a ship. As part of the study, we isolated 7 domesticated strains named NY1, NY2,..., and NY7, the strain NY6 showed to have the best performance for organic matter degradation and could survive in dry powder more than 3 months. NY6 was identified as Bacillus aerius, based on the morphological and physic-chemical properties. Its optimal growth conditions were as follows: salinity was 2%; temperature was 37°C; pH was in 6.5-7.0; best ratio of C: N: P was 100:5:1. The capability of its dry powder for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was 800mg COD/g in synthesized marine wastewater with 2% salinity. The spores in the dry powder were 1.972×108 g -1.

  1. Dissolved organic phosphorus utilization and alkaline phosphatase activity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum isolated from the South Sea of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok Jin; Kwon, Hyeong Kyu; Noh, Il Hyeon; Yang, Han-Soeb

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity and dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus utilization by the harmful dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum (Fraga et Bravo) Hansen et Moestrup isolated from the South Sea of Korea. Under conditions of limited phosphorus, observation of growth kinetics in batch culture yielded a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.41 /day and a half saturation constant (Ks) of 0.71 μM. In time-course experiments, APase was induced as dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations fell below 0.83 μM, a threshold near the estimated Ks; APase activity increased with further DIP depletion to a maximum of 0.70 pmol/cell/h in the senescent phase. Thus, Ks may be an important index of the threshold DIP concentration for APase induction. G. impudicum utilizes a wide variety of dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in addition to DIP. These results suggest that DIP limitation in the Southern Sea of Korea may have led to the spread of G. impudicum along with the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in recent years.

  2. First Report of a Case of Pneumococcal Meningitis Which Did Not Respond to the Ceftriaxone Therapy despite the Isolated Organism Being Sensitive to This Antibiotic In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mojtabavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old man presented with pneumococcal meningitis which did not respond to the ceftriaxone therapy, in spite of in-vitro susceptibility (minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.016 μg/dLit of the isolated organism to this antibacterial agent, although ceftriaxone is still the drug of choice for such pneumococcal meningitis. Review of published articles revealed no report of clinical resistance in organisms which were susceptible to the same antimicrobial agent in vitro. This alarming emergence of isolates with in vivo resistance should be considered and even could lead to a shift in the empirical antibiotic therapy for pneumococcal infections.

  3. Effect of midazolam versus propofol sedation on markers of neurological injury and outcome after isolated severe head injury: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ghori, Kamran A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam and propofol are sedative agents commonly administered to patients with brain injury. We compared plasma concentrations of glial cell S100beta protein and nitric oxide (NO) between patients who received midazolam and those who received propofol sedation after severe brain injury, and investigated the association between S100beta and NO concentrations and neurological outcome. DESIGN: 28 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Score <9) who required sedation and ventilation were randomly assigned to receive midazolam (n =15) or propofol (n = 13) based sedation. Blood samples were drawn daily for 5 days for estimation of S100beta and NO concentrations. Neurological outcome was assessed 3 months later as good (Glasgow Outcome Score [GOS], 4-5) or poor (GOS, 1-3). RESULTS: A good neurological outcome was observed in 8\\/15 patients (53%) in the midazolam group and 7\\/13 patients (54%) in the propofol group. Patients with a poor outcome had higher serum S100beta concentrations on ICU admission and on Days 1-4 in the ICU than those with a good outcome (mean [SD] on Day 1, 0.99 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.4] microg\\/L; Day 2, 0.80 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.24] microg\\/L; Day 3, 0.52 [0.55] v 0.24 [0.25] microg\\/L; and Day 4, 0.54 [0.43] v 0.24 [0.35] microg\\/L; P<0.05). There was no significant difference on Day 5. Plasma NO concentrations were not associated with outcome. In subgroup analysis, there was no difference in S100beta and NO concentrations between patients with a good outcome versus those with a poor outcome in either the midazolam or propofol group. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma concentrations of markers of neurological injury in patients with severe head injury were similar in those who received midazolam sedation and those who received propofol. Patients who had a poor neurological outcome at 3 months had consistently higher serum S100beta concentrations during the initial 4 days after injury than patients who had a good outcome.

  4. Acid-base and copper-binding properties of three organic matter fractions isolated from a forest floor soil solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Joris W. J.; Kleja, Dan B.; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2010-02-01

    Vast amounts of knowledge about the proton- and metal-binding properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters have been obtained in studies on isolated humic and fulvic (hydrophobic) acids. Although macromolecular hydrophilic acids normally make up about one-third of DOM, their proton- and metal-binding properties are poorly known. Here, we investigated the acid-base and Cu-binding properties of the hydrophobic (fulvic) acid fraction and two hydrophilic fractions isolated from a soil solution. Proton titrations revealed a higher total charge for the hydrophilic acid fractions than for the hydrophobic acid fraction. The most hydrophilic fraction appeared to be dominated by weak acid sites, as evidenced by increased slope of the curve of surface charge versus pH at pH values above 6. The titration curves were poorly predicted by both Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) and NICA-Donnan model calculations using generic parameter values, but could be modelled accurately after optimisation of the proton-binding parameters (pH ⩽ 9). Cu-binding isotherms for the three fractions were determined at pH values of 4, 6 and 9. With the optimised proton-binding parameters, the SHM model predictions for Cu binding improved, whereas the NICA-Donnan predictions deteriorated. After optimisation of Cu-binding parameters, both models described the experimental data satisfactorily. Iron(III) and aluminium competed strongly with Cu for binding sites at both pH 4 and pH 6. The SHM model predicted this competition reasonably well, but the NICA-Donnan model underestimated the effects significantly at pH 6. Overall, the Cu-binding behaviour of the two hydrophilic acid fractions was very similar to that of the hydrophobic acid fraction, despite the differences observed in proton-binding characteristics. These results show that for modelling purposes, it is essential to include the hydrophilic acid fraction in the pool of 'active' humic substances.

  5. Volatile organic compounds emitted by filamentous fungi isolated from flooded homes after Hurricane Sandy show toxicity in a Drosophila bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Yin, G; Inamdar, A A; Luo, J; Zhang, N; Yang, I; Buckley, B; Bennett, J W

    2017-05-01

    Superstorm Sandy provided an opportunity to study filamentous fungi (molds) associated with winter storm damage. We collected 36 morphologically distinct fungal isolates from flooded buildings. By combining traditional morphological and cultural characters with an analysis of ITS sequences (the fungal DNA barcode), we identified 24 fungal species that belong to eight genera: Penicillium (11 species), Fusarium (four species), Aspergillus (three species), Trichoderma (two species), and one species each of Metarhizium, Mucor, Pestalotiopsis, and Umbelopsis. Then, we used a Drosophila larval assay to assess possible toxicity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by these molds. When cultured in a shared atmosphere with growing cultures of molds isolated after Hurricane Sandy, larval toxicity ranged from 15 to 80%. VOCs from Aspergillus niger 129B were the most toxic yielding 80% mortality to Drosophila after 12 days. The VOCs from Trichoderma longibrachiatum 117, Mucor racemosus 138a, and Metarhizium anisopliae 124 were relatively non-toxigenic. A preliminary analysis of VOCs was conducted using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from two of the most toxic, two of the least toxic, and two species of intermediate toxicity. The more toxic molds produced higher concentrations of 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 2-octen-1-ol, and 2-nonanone; while the less toxic molds produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol, or an overall lower amount of volatiles. Our data support the hypothesis that at certain concentrations, some VOCs emitted by indoor molds are toxigenic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Isolation, production, purification and characterization of an organic-solvent-thermostable alkalophilic cellulase from Bacillus vallismortis RG-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rajeeva; Tiwari, Soni

    2015-03-19

    The rising concerns about the scarcity of fossil fuels, the emission of green house gasses and air pollution by incomplete combustion of fossil fuel have also resulted in an increasing focus on the use of cellulases to perform enzymatic hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic materials for the generation of bioethanol. The aim of this study was to isolate a potential thermo-solvent tolerant cellulase producing bacterium from natural resources, and then applied for purification and characterization. The purified enzyme was to be accessible for the bioethanol production as well as industrial exploitation (discuss in our next study). It is the first instance when thermo-solvent tolerant cellulase producing bacterium was isolated from soil sample. The culture was identified as Bacillus vallismortis RG-07 by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Bacillus vallismortis RG-07 reported maximum cellulase production from sugarcane baggase (4105 U ml(-1)) used as agro-waste carbon source. The cellulase enzyme produced by the Bacillus sp. was purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, with overall recovery of 28.8%. The molecular weight of purified cellulase was 80 kDa as revealed by SDS-PAGE and activity gel analysis. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity was determined as 65°C and 7.0 and it retained 95 and 75% of activity even at 95°C, and 9.0 respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of organic solvents (30%) n-dodecane, iso-octane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-haxane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, after prolonged incubation (7 days). The enzyme activity was also stimulated by Ca(2+), mercaptoethanol, Tween-60, and Sodium hypochloride whereas strongly inhibited by Hg. Kinetic analysis of purified enzyme showed the Km and Vmax to be 1.923 mg ml(-1) and 769.230 μg ml(-1) min(-1), respectively. The unique property of solvent-thermostable-alkalophilic, nature proves the potential candidature of this isolate for

  7. Synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica and from the central nervous system of Mus musculus contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huinan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic vesicles (SVs are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS of Mus musculus (mouse contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤50 nucleotides (Scientific Reports, 5:1–14(14918 Li et al. (2015 [1]. Our previous publication provided the five most abundant sequences associated with the T. californica SVs, and the ten most abundant sequences associated with the mouse SVs, representing 59% and 39% of the total sRNA reads sequenced, respectively. We provide here a full repository of the SV sRNAs sequenced from T. californica and the mouse deposited in the NCBI as biosamples. Three data studies are included: SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques, SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques with an additional affinity purification step, and finally, SVs isolated from the CNS of mouse. The three biosamples are available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample/ SRS1523467, SRS1523466, and SRS1523472 respectively.

  8. Head circumference in untreated and IGF-I treated patients with Laron syndrome: comparison with untreated and hGH-treated children with isolated growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi; Iluz, Moshe; Kauli, Rivka

    2012-04-01

    Head circumference (HC) is a simple and practical measure of brain size, development and longitudinal measurements of the HC in childhood are an index of brain growth. To determine the effects of long IGF-I deficiency and treatment on HC in patients with Laron syndrome (LS). 20 untreated adult LS patients, aged 48.4±11.2 years and 13 LS patients treated between ages of 5.6±4 to 11.3±3 years were studied. 15 patients with congenital IGHD treated between age 6.1±4 and 13±4 by hGH served as controls. HC was expressed as standard deviation (SD) and Ht as SDS. HC was measured and plotted on Nellhaus charts. Linear height (Ht) was measured by a Harpenden Stadiometer. The mean HC deficit of the adult untreated LS males was -2.9±0.6 SD compared to a Ht deficit of -7.0±1.7 SDS. The HC of the LS adult females was -3.6±1 SD compared to a Ht SDS of -6.9±1.5 (pdeficit decreased only by 1.5 SDS. hGH treatment of cIGHD children increased the HC from -2.0±1.8 to 0.3±1.2 SD and the Ht SDS from -4.8±1.6 to 1.6±1.0. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative analysis on antibiotic resistance characteristics of Listeria spp. and Enterococcus spp. isolated from laying hens and eggs in conventional and organic keeping systems in Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Schmied, E-M V; Bauer, J

    2010-05-01

    By investigating the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Gram-positive bacteria from organic and conventional keeping systems of laying hens, it was to be determined to what extent these properties are influenced by the different systems. For this purpose, a total of 799 cloacal swabs and 800 egg samples were examined. Prevalences for all selected bacteria from cloacal swabs were much the same for both organic and caged birds: Listeria spp.1.3%[org] versus 1.6%[con]; Enterococcus spp. 95.5%[org] versus 97.5%[con]. Egg contents and eggshells were generally contaminated to a lesser extent, primarily with Enterococcus spp. Listeria isolates were susceptible to almost all tested antibiotics, only three Listeria innocua from conventional keepings were resistant to clindamycin; one isolate additionally to imipenem. High percentages of Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to doxycycline and macrolides. Enterococcus faecium proved to have high resistance rates to clindamycin, fosfomycin and erythromycin; 9.1% were even resistant to the reserve antibiotic synercid. Further, Enterococcus spp. showed higher resistance rates to doxycycline, erythromycin, fosfomycin and rifampicin. No glycopeptide resistant enterococci were detected. A correlation between keeping system and resistance/susceptibility rates could be demonstrated. In detail, E. faecalis from organic laying hen husbandries showed significant lower resistance prevalences to tylosin, streptomycin and doxycycline; susceptibility rates were higher for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Rifampicin and imipenem were more effective in isolates from conventional keepings (P < 0.05). The amounts of resistant isolates of the Enterococcus raffinosus from organic farms were significantly lower, the amounts of sensitive isolates were significantly higher than from conventional farms concerning eight antibiotics (P < 0.05). When comparing the susceptibility/resistance rates, as well as the mean minimum

  10. Contribution of effluent organic matter (EfOM) to ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling: Isolation, characterization, and fouling effect of EfOM fractions

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing; Khan, Muhammad; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    EfOM has been regarded as a major organic foulant resulting in UF membrane fouling in wastewater reclamation. To investigate fouling potential of different EfOM fractions, the present study isolated EfOM into hydrophobic neutrals (HPO-N), colloids

  11. Characterization of lecithin isolated from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) residues deoiled by supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Mi; Asaduzzaman, A K M; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2012-07-01

    Lecithin was isolated and characterized from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) deoiled residues using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) at a semibatch flow extraction process and an organic solvent (hexane) extraction. SC-CO(2) extraction was carried out to extract oil from anchovy at different temperatures (35 to 45 °C) and pressures (15 to 25 MPa). Extraction yield of oil was influenced by physical properties of SC-CO(2) with temperature and pressure changes. The major phospholipids of anchovy lecithin were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) (68%± 1.00%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (29%± 0.50%) were the main phospholipids. Thin layer chromatography was performed to purify the individual phospholipids. The fatty acid compositions of lecithin, PC, and PE were analyzed by gas chromatography. A significant amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were present in both phospholipids of PC and PE. Emulsions of lecithin in water were prepared through the use of a homogenizer. Oxidative stability of anchovy lecithin was high in spite of its high concentration of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lecithin can be totally metabolized by humans, so is well tolerated by humans and nontoxic when ingested. Lecithin from anchovy contain higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids especially EPA and DHA, it may have positive outcome to use in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  13. New tumour entities in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck tumours: odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Paul M; Takata, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    The latest (4th) edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck tumours has recently been published with a number of significant changes across all tumour sites. In particular, there has been a major attempt to simplify classifications and to use defining criteria which can be used globally in all situations, avoiding wherever possible the use of complex molecular techniques which may not be affordable or widely available. This review summarises the changes in Chapter 8: Odontogenic and maxillofacial bone lesions. The most significant change is the re-introduction of the classification of the odontogenic cysts, restoring this books status as the only text which classifies and defines the full range of lesions of the odontogenic tissues. The consensus group considered carefully the terminology of lesions and were concerned to ensure that the names used properly reflected the best evidence regarding the true nature of specific entities. For this reason, this new edition restores the odontogenic keratocyst and calcifying odontogenic cyst to the classification of odontogenic cysts and rejects the previous terminology (keratocystic odontogenic tumour and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour) which were intended to suggest that they are true neoplasms. New entities which have been introduced include the sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma and primordial odontogenic tumour. In addition, some previously poorly defined lesions have been removed, including the ameloblastic fibrodentinoma, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, which are probably developing odontomas, and the odontoameloblastoma, which is not regarded as an entity. Finally, the terminology "cemento" has been restored to cemento-ossifying fibroma and cemento-osseous dysplasias, to properly reflect that they are of odontogenic origin and are found in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws.

  14. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  15. Production and Characterization of Organic Solvent-Tolerant Cellulase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AK9 Isolated from Hot Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Tayyab, Ammara; Hasan, Fariha; Khan, Samiullah; Badshah, Malik; Shah, Aamer Ali

    2017-08-01

    A cellulase-producing bacterium, designated as strain AK9, was isolated from a hot spring of Tatta Pani, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The bacterium was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens through 16S rRNA sequencing. Cellulase from strain AK9 was able to liberate glucose from soluble cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Enzyme was purified through size exclusion chromatography and a single band of ∼47 kDa was observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was purified with recovery of 35.5%, 3.6-fold purity with specific activity of 31 U mg -1 . The purified cellulase retained its activity over a wide range of temperature (50-70 °C) and pH (3-7) with maximum stability at 60 °C and pH 5.0. The activity inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), suggested that it was metalloenzyme. Diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) and β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited cellulase activity that revealed the essentiality of histidine residues and disulfide bonds for its catalytic function. It was stable in non-ionic surfactants, in the presence of various metal ions, and in water-insoluble organic solvents. Approximately 9.1% of reducing sugar was released after enzymatic saccharification of DAP-pretreated agro-residue, compared to a very low percentage by autohydrolysis treatment. Hence, it is concluded that cellulase from B. amyloliquefaciens AK9 can potentially be used in bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars.

  16. Hygroscopic growth of water soluble organic carbon isolated from atmospheric aerosol collected at US national parks and Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nathan F.; Collins, Don R.; Lowenthal, Douglas H.; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Kumar, Naresh; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.

    2017-02-01

    Due to the atmospheric abundance and chemical complexity of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), its contribution to the hydration behavior of atmospheric aerosol is both significant and difficult to assess. For the present study, the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of isolated atmospheric WSOC particulate matter was measured without the compounding effects of common, soluble inorganic aerosol constituents. WSOC was extracted with high purity water from daily high-volume PM2.5 filter samples and separated from water soluble inorganic constituents using solid-phase extraction. The WSOC filter extracts were concentrated and combined to provide sufficient mass for continuous generation of the WSOC-only aerosol over the combined measurement time of the tandem differential mobility analyzer and coupled scanning mobility particle sizer-CCN counter used for the analysis. Aerosol samples were taken at Great Smoky Mountains National Park during the summer of 2006 and fall-winter of 2007-2008; Mount Rainier National Park during the summer of 2009; Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, during the summer of 2010; and Acadia National Park during the summer of 2011. Across all sampling locations and seasons, the hygroscopic growth of WSOC samples at 90 % RH, expressed in terms of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ranged from 0.05 to 0.15. Comparisons between the hygroscopicity of WSOC and that of samples containing all soluble materials extracted from the filters implied a significant modification of the hydration behavior of inorganic components, including decreased hysteresis separating efflorescence and deliquescence and enhanced water uptake between 30 and 70 % RH.

  17. Short communication: Prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Belomestnykh, N; Gamroth, M; Ruegg, P L; Tikofsky, L; Schukken, Y H

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon from March 2009 to May 2011. Due to recent publications reporting the presence mecC (a mecA homolog not detected by traditional mecA-based PCR methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery of methicillin-resistant organisms from bulk tank milk. In total, 13 isolates were identified as methicillin resistant: Staph. aureus (n=1), Staphylococcus sciuri (n=5), Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=3), Staphylococcus agnetis (n=1), and Macrococcus caseolyticus (n=1). The single methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus isolate was identified from an organic farm in New York, for an observed 0.3% prevalence at the farm level. The methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci prevalence was 2% in the organic population and 5% in the conventional population. We did not identify mecC in any of the isolates from our population. Of interest was the relatively high number of methicillin-resistant Staph. sciuri recovered, as the number of isolates from our study was considerably higher than those recovered from other recent studies that also assessed milk samples. Our research suggests that the presence of a potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus reservoir in milk, and likely the dairy farm population in the United States, is independent of the organic or conventional production system. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diversity and antibiograms of bacterial organisms isolated from samples of household drinking-water consumed by HIV-positive individuals in rural settings, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, A; Mashao, M B; Bessong, P O; NKgau, T F; Momba, M N B; Obi, C L

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhoea is a hallmark of HIV infections in developing countries, and many diarrhoea-causing agents are often transmitted through water. The objective of the study was to determine the diversity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacterial organisms isolated from samples of household drinking-water consumed by HIV-infected and AIDS patients. In the present study, household water stored for use by HIV-positive patients was tested for microbial quality, and isolated bacterial organisms were analyzed for their susceptibility profiles against 25 different antibiotics. The microbial quality of water was generally poor, and about 58% of water samples (n=270) were contaminated with faecal coliforms, with counts varying from 2 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL to 2.4x10⁴ CFU/100 mL. Values of total coliform counts ranged from 17 CFU/100 mL to 7.9x10⁵/100 mL. In total, 37 different bacterial species were isolated, and the major isolates included Acinetobacter lwoffii (7.5%), Enterobacter cloacae (7.5%), Shigella spp. (14.2%), Yersinia enterocolitica (6.7%), and Pseudomonas spp. (16.3%). No Vibrio cholerae could be isolated; however, V. fluvialis was isolated from three water samples. The isolated organisms were highly resistant to cefazolin (83.5%), cefoxitin (69.2%), ampicillin (66.4%), and cefuroxime (66.2%). Intermediate resistance was observed against gentamicin (10.6%), cefepime (13.4%), ceftriaxone (27.6%), and cefotaxime (29.9%). Levofloxacin (0.7%), ceftazidime (2.2%), meropenem (3%), and ciprofloxacin (3.7%) were the most active antibiotics against all the microorganisms, with all recording less than 5% resistance. Multiple drug resistance was very common, and 78% of the organisms were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Education on treatment of household water is advised for HIV-positive patients, and measures should be taken to improve point-of-use water treatment as immunosuppressed individuals would be more susceptible to opportunistic

  19. Characterization of Fusarium isolates from asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario and influence of soil organic amendments on Fusarium crown and root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego-Benjumea, Ana; Basallote-Ureba, María J; Melero-Vara, José M; Abbasi, Pervaiz A

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR) of asparagus has a complex etiology with several soilborne Fusarium spp. as causal agents. Ninety-three Fusarium isolates, obtained from plant and soil samples collected from commercial asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario with a history of FCRR, were identified as Fusarium oxysporum (65.5%), F. proliferatum (18.3%), F. solani (6.4%), F. acuminatum (6.4%), and F. redolens (3.2%) based on morphological or cultural characteristics and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with species-specific primers. The intersimple-sequence repeat PCR analysis of the field isolates revealed considerable variability among the isolates belonging to different Fusarium spp. In the in vitro pathogenicity screening tests, 50% of the field isolates were pathogenic to asparagus, and 22% of the isolates caused the most severe symptoms on asparagus. The management of FCRR with soil organic amendments of pelleted poultry manure (PPM), olive residue compost, and fish emulsion was evaluated in a greenhouse using three asparagus cultivars of different susceptibility in soils infested with two of the pathogenic isolates (F. oxysporum Fo-1.5 and F. solani Fs-1.12). Lower FCRR symptom severity and higher plant weights were observed for most treatments on 'Jersey Giant' and 'Grande' but not on 'Mary Washington'. On all three cultivars, 1% PPM consistently reduced FCRR severity by 42 to 96% and increased plant weights by 77 to 152% compared with the Fusarium control treatment. Populations of Fusarium and total bacteria were enumerated after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of soil amendment. In amended soils, the population of Fusarium spp. gradually decreased while the population of total culturable bacteria increased. These results indicate that soil organic amendments, especially PPM, can decrease disease severity and promote plant growth, possibly by decreasing pathogen population and enhancing bacterial activity in the soil.

  20. Resistance to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with high somatic cell counts in organic and conventional dairy herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsgaard, Torben W.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Background: Quarter milk samples from cows with high risk of intramammary infection were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and penicillin resistant SA (SAr) in conventional and organic dairy herds and herds converting to organic farming in a combined longitudinal......: 2%-5%) respectively. The prevalence of penicillin resistance among SA infected cows was 12% (95% confidence interval: 6%-19%) when calculated from the first herd visits. No statistically significant differences were observed in the prevalence of SAr or the proportion of isolates resistant...... to penicillin between herd groups. Conclusion: The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin was low compared to studies in other countries except Norway and Sweden. Based on the low prevalence of penicillin resistance of SA, penicillin should still be the first choice of antimicrobial agent for treatment...

  1. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  2. Strong conservation of rhoptry-associated-protein-1 (RAP-1) locus organization and sequence among Babesia isolates infecting sheep from China (Babesia motasi-like phylogenetic group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Valentin, Charlotte; Bonsergent, Claire; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    Rhoptry-associated-protein 1 (RAP-1) is considered as a potential vaccine candidate due to its involvement in red blood cell invasion by parasites in the genus Babesia. We examined its value as a vaccine candidate by studying RAP-1 conservation in isolates of Babesia sp. BQ1 Ningxian, Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei, responsible for ovine babesiosis in different regions of China. The rap-1 locus in these isolates has very similar features to those described for Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan, another Chinese isolate also in the B. motasi-like phylogenetic group, namely the presence of three types of rap-1 genes (rap-1a, rap-1b and rap-1c), multiple conserved rap-1b copies (5) interspaced with more or less variable rap-1a copies (6), and the 3' localization of one rap-1c. The isolates Babesia sp. Tianzhu, Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan and Ningxian were almost identical (average nucleotide identity of 99.9%) over a putative locus of about 31 Kb, including the intergenic regions. Babesia sp. Hebei showed a similar locus organization but differed in the rap-1 locus sequence, for each gene and intergenic region, with an average nucleotide identity of 78%. Our results are in agreement with 18S rDNA phylogenetic studies performed on these isolates. However, in extremely closely related isolates the rap-1 locus seems more conserved (99.9%) than the 18S rDNA (98.7%), whereas in still closely related isolates the identities are much lower (78%) compared with the 18S rDNA (97.7%). The particularities of the rap-1 locus in terms of evolution, phylogeny, diagnosis and vaccine development are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete Detoxification of Short Chain Chlorinated Aliphatic Compounds: Isolation of Halorespiring Organisms and Biochemical Studies of the Dehalogenating Enzyme Systems - Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedje, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Work focused on the isolation and characterization of halorespiring populations, and the initial investigation of the dechlorinating enzyme systems. In addition, tools to evaluate the presence/activity to halorespiring populations in the environment were developed. The tools developed in this work (measurements of hydrogen consumption thresholds, molecular probes) are relevant for regulatory agencies in order to facilitate decisions on which bioremediation technology (biostimulation or bioaugmentation) is most promising at a particular site. In addition, a better understanding of the physiology of the halorespiring organisms as well as the biochemistry of the dehalogenating enzyme systems enhances our knowledge of how these organisms can successfully be employed in the bioremediation of contaminated sites

  4. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meter, J D; Sirota, N S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1976-05-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome.

  5. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meter, J.D.; Sirota, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome

  6. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  7. Effects of subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials on gene acquisition events in Yersinia, Proteus, Shigella, and Salmonella recipient organisms in isolated ligated intestinal loops of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Anderson, Kristi L; Carlson, Steve A

    2013-08-01

    To assess antimicrobial resistance and transfer of virulence genes facilitated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials in swine intestines. 20 anesthetized pigs experimentally inoculated with donor and recipient bacteria. 4 recipient pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, or Proteus mirabilis) were incubated with donor bacteria in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of 1 of 16 antimicrobials in isolated ligated intestinal loops in swine. Donor Escherichia coli contained transferrable antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes. After coincubations, intestinal contents were removed and assessed for pathogens that acquired new antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes following exposure to the subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. 3 antimicrobials (apramycin, lincomycin, and neomycin) enhanced transfer of an antimicrobial resistance plasmid from commensal E coli organisms to Yersinia and Proteus organisms, whereas 7 antimicrobials (florfenicol, hygromycin, penicillin G, roxarsone, sulfamethazine, tetracycline, and tylosin) exacerbated transfer of an integron (Salmonella genomic island 1) from Salmonella organisms to Yersinia organisms. Sulfamethazine induced the transfer of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 from pathogenic to nonpathogenic Salmonella organisms. Six antimicrobials (bacitracin, carbadox, erythromycin, sulfathiazole, tiamulin, and virginiamycin) did not mediate any transfer events. Sulfamethazine was the only antimicrobial implicated in 2 types of transfer events. 10 of 16 antimicrobials at subinhibitory or subtherapeutic concentrations augmented specific antimicrobial resistance or transfer of virulence genes into pathogenic bacteria in isolated intestinal loops in swine. Use of subtherapeutic antimicrobials in animal feed may be associated with unwanted collateral effects.

  8. Perda de carga em filtros orgânicos utilizados no tratamento de água residuária de suinoculturas Head-loss evolution in organic filters for swine wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a realização deste trabalho, objetivou-se parametrizar a equação de evolução da perda de carga, para descrição do processo de filtração de água residuária da suinocultura. No preenchimento das colunas filtrantes, foram utilizados bagaço de cana-de-açúcar triturado, serragem de madeira e pergaminho de grãos de café. Dados de perda de carga em diferentes profundidades e tempos de operação dos filtros orgânicos foram coletados para ajuste das equações de perda de carga. Para as equações ajustadas, foram obtidos altos coeficientes de determinação, sendo que a significância dos coeficientes da regressão foi, na sua quase totalidade, de 1% de probabilidade, podendo ser utilizada na predição do comportamento dos filtros. As variáveis tempo de operação e profundidade das colunas filtrantes, constituídas pelos três materiais filtrantes, apresentaram comportamento quadrático na estimativa da perda de carga total. O tempo ideal de operação ininterrupta dos filtros, sem troca de material filtrante, foi de, aproximadamente, 1,5 h e, depois de corrido esse tempo, o material filtrante deverá ser substituído.This work was developed to adjust the equation of head-loss, describing the head-loss process with the depth and operation time of organic filter utilized in treatment of swine wastewater. Sugarcane bagasse, sawdust and coffee husk, by-products of agricultural and agro-industrial activities, were used to fill the filter columns. Data on head-loss in different depths with the time of organic filters operation were collected to analyze the head-loss evolution. In head-loss equations as function of depth and filter operation time high values were obtained for the coefficients of determination and the regression coefficients presented, in almost, significant at 1% probability, predicting the behavior of the filters, constituted of sawdust, sugarcane bagasse and coffee husk. The variables, operation time and the filter

  9. Rat organic solute carrier protein 1 (rOscp1) mediated the transport of organic solutes in Xenopus laevis oocytes: isolation and pharmacological characterization of rOscp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuno, Hisanori; Kobayashi, Yasuna; Sanada, Yutaka; Nihei, Daisuke; Suzuki, Masako; Kohyama, Noriko; Ohbayashi, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Toshinori

    2007-09-22

    Rat organic solute carrier protein 1 (rOscp1) was isolated from a rat testis cDNA library. Isolated rOscp1 cDNA consisted of 1089 base pairs that encoded a 363-amino acid protein, and the amino acid sequence was 88% and 93% identical to that of human OSCP1 (hOSCP1) and mouse Oscp1 (mOscp1), respectively. The message for rOscp1 is highly detected in rat testis. When expressed in X. oocytes, rOscp1 mediated the high affinity transport of p-aminohippurate (PAH) with a Km value of 15.7+/-1.9 microM, and rOscp1-mediated organic solutes were exhibited in time- and Na+-independent manners. rOscp1 also transported various structurally heterogenous compounds such as testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and taurocholate with some differences in substrate specificity compared with hOSCP1. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the rOscp1 protein is localized in the basal membrane side of Sertoli cells as observed in mouse testis [Kobayashi et al., 2007; Kobayashi, Y., Tsuchiya, A., Hayashi, T., Kohyama, N., Ohbayashi, M., Yamamoto, T., 2007. Isolation and characterization of polyspecific mouse organic solute carrier protein 1 (mOscp1). Drug Metabolism and Disposition 35 (7), 1239-1245]. Thus, the present results indicate that a newly isolated cDNA clone, rOscp1, is a polyspecific organic solute carrier protein with some differences in substrate specificity compared with human and mouse OSCP1.

  10. Ulnar nerve entrapment complicating radial head excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Parfait Bienvenu Bouhelo-Pam

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mechanisms are involved in ischemia or mechanical compression of ulnar nerve at the elbow. Presentation of case: We hereby present the case of a road accident victim, who received a radial head excision for an isolated fracture of the radial head and complicated by onset of cubital tunnel syndrome. This outcome could be the consequence of an iatrogenic valgus of the elbow due to excision of the radial head. Hitherto the surgical treatment of choice it is gradually been abandoned due to development of radial head implant arthroplasty. However, this management option is still being performed in some rural centers with low resources. Discussion: The radial head plays an important role in the stability of the elbow and his iatrogenic deformity can be complicated by cubital tunnel syndrome. Conclusion: An ulnar nerve release was performed with favorable outcome. Keywords: Cubital tunnel syndrome, Peripheral nerve palsy, Radial head excision, Elbow valgus

  11. Contribution of effluent organic matter (EfOM) to ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling: Isolation, characterization, and fouling effect of EfOM fractions

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2014-11-01

    EfOM has been regarded as a major organic foulant resulting in UF membrane fouling in wastewater reclamation. To investigate fouling potential of different EfOM fractions, the present study isolated EfOM into hydrophobic neutrals (HPO-N), colloids, hydrophobic acids (HPO-A), transphilic neutrals and acids (TPI), and hydrophilics (HPI), and tested their fouling effect in both salt solution and pure water during ultrafiltration (UF). Major functional groups and chemical structure of the isolates were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) analysis. The influence of the isolation process on the properties of EfOM fractions was minor because the raw and reconstituted secondary effluents were found similar with respect to UV absorbance, molecular size distribution, and fluorescence character. In membrane filtration tests, unified membrane fouling index (UMFI) and hydraulic resistance were used to quantify irreversible fouling potential of different water samples. Results show that under similar DOC level in feed water, colloids present much more irreversible fouling than other fractions. The fouling effect of the isolates is related to their size, chemical properties, and solution chemistry. Further investigations have identified that the interaction between colloids and other fractions also influences the performance of colloids in fouling phenomena. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and possible significance of campylobacteria in pig abortions in Denmark, Surface-cauterised liver and kidney samples from 55 aborted pig fetuses submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory were taken and a sensitive isolation procedure used...

  13. Effects of semen preservation on boar spermatozoa head membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, M M; Canvin, A T; Bailey, J L

    1989-08-01

    Head plasma membranes were isolated from the sperm-rich fraction of boar semen and from sperm-rich semen that had been subjected to three commercial preservation processes: Extended for fresh insemination (extended), prepared for freezing but not frozen (cooled), and stored frozen for 3-5 weeks (frozen-thawed). Fluorescence polarization was used to determine fluidity of the membranes of all samples for 160 min at 25 degrees C and also for membranes from the sperm-rich and extended semen during cooling and reheating (25 to 5 to 40 degrees C, 0.4 degrees C/min). Head plasma membranes from extended semen were initially more fluid than from other sources (P less than 0.05). Fluidity of head membranes from all sources decreased at 25 degrees C, but the rate of decrease was significantly lower for membranes from cooled and lower again for membranes from frozen-thawed semen. Cooling to 5 degrees C reduced the rate of fluidity change for plasma membranes from the sperm-rich fraction, while heating over 30 degrees C caused a significantly greater decrease. The presence of Ca++ (10 mM) lowered the fluidity of the head plasma membranes from sperm-rich and extended semen over time at 25 degrees C but did not affect the membranes from the cooled or frozen-thawed semen. The change in head plasma membrane fluidity at 25 degrees C may reflect the dynamic nature of spermatozoa membranes prior to fertilization. Extenders, preservation processes and temperature changes have a strong influence on head plasma membrane fluidity and therefore the molecular organization of this membrane.

  14. Curative and organ-preserving treatment with intra-arterial carboplatin induction followed by surgery and/or radiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer: single-center five-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinelli Carmine

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the feasibility, toxicity, response rate and survival of neoadjuvant superselective intra-arterial infusion of high dose carboplatin in advanced head and neck cancer. Methods Forty-six patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma received 3 cycles of intra-arterial carboplatin (300 to 350 mg/m2 per cycle every 2 weeks, followed by radiotherapy or surgery plus radiotherapy. Results No complications or severe toxicity occurred. Sixteen patients (35% were complete responders, 20 (43% partial responders while 10 (22% did not respond to treatment. After completion of the multimodality treatment, 38/46 patients (83% were complete responders. After a 5-year follow-up period, 18/46 patients (39% are alive and disease-free, 3 (6,5% have died of a second primary tumor and 25 (54,5% have died of the disease. Conclusion Intra-arterial carboplatin induction chemotherapy is a safe, well-tolerated technique that discriminates between responders and non-responders and so may have prognostic significance in planning further integrated treatments aimed to organ preservation for advanced head and neck carcinomas.

  15. Project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law made of a single article. The agreement between the French government and the international organization ITER is attached to the document. It defines the juridical status, the privileges and immunities of the organization itself and of its personnel inside the French territory. An appendix to the agreement precises the cooperation modalities between the French authorities and ITER organization. (J.S.)

  16. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  17. On the nature of organic matter from natural and contaminated materials : isolation methods, characterisation and application to geochemical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.

    2008-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the material that is formed after the natural
    decomposition and transformation of dead plant and animal matter. The fresh
    organic matter (e.g. plant leaves or animal debris) is decomposed and
    transformed by microbial activity. As such, NOM is found

  18. Comparative analysis of Edwardsiella isolates from fish in the eastern United States identifies two distinct genetic taxa amongst organisms phenotypically classified as E. tarda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt J.; Quiniou, Sylvie M.; Cody, Theresa; Tabuchi, Maki; Ware, Cynthia; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Mauel, Michael J.; Soto, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda, a Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, has been implicated in significant losses in aquaculture facilities worldwide. Here, we assessed the intra-specific variability of E. tarda isolates from 4 different fish species in the eastern United States. Repetitive sequence mediated PCR (rep-PCR) using 4 different primer sets (ERIC I & II, ERIC II, BOX, and GTG5) and multi-locus sequence analysis of 16S SSU rDNA, groEl, gyrA, gyrB, pho, pgi, pgm, and rpoA gene fragments identified two distinct genotypes of E. tarda (DNA group I; DNA group II). Isolates that fell into DNA group II demonstrated more similarity to E. ictaluri than DNA group I, which contained the reference E. tarda strain (ATCC #15947). Conventional PCR analysis using published E. tarda-specific primer sets yielded variable results, with several primer sets producing no observable amplification of target DNA from some isolates. Fluorometric determination of G + C content demonstrated 56.4% G + C content for DNA group I, 60.2% for DNA group II, and 58.4% for E. ictaluri. Surprisingly, these isolates were indistinguishable using conventional biochemical techniques, with all isolates demonstrating phenotypic characteristics consistent with E. tarda. Analysis using two commercial test kits identified multiple phenotypes, although no single metabolic characteristic could reliably discriminate between genetic groups. Additionally, anti-microbial susceptibility and fatty acid profiles did not demonstrate remarkable differences between groups. The significant genetic variation (<90% similarity at gyrA, gyrB, pho, phi and pgm; <40% similarity by rep-PCR) between these groups suggests organisms from DNA group II may represent an unrecognized, genetically distinct taxa of Edwardsiella that is phenotypically indistinguishable from E. tarda.

  19. Optimization of physical factors affecting the production of thermo-stable organic solvent-tolerant protease from a newly isolated halo tolerant Bacillus subtilis strain Rand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Abu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers have reported on the optimization of protease production; nevertheless, only a few have reported on the optimization of the production of organic solvent-tolerant proteases. Ironically, none has reported on thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease to date. The aim of this study was to isolate the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease and identify the culture conditions which support its production. The bacteria of genus Bacillus are active producers of extra-cellular proteases, and the thermostability of enzyme production by Bacillus species has been well-studied by a number of researchers. In the present study, the Bacillus subtilis strain Rand was isolated from the contaminated soil found in Port Dickson, Malaysia. Results A thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease producer had been identified as Bacillus subtilis strain Rand, based on the 16S rRNA analysis conducted, as well as the morphological characteristics and biochemical properties. The production of the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease was optimized by varying various physical culture conditions. Inoculation with 5.0% (v/v of (AB600 = 0.5 inoculum size, in a culture medium (pH 7.0 and incubated for 24 h at 37°C with 200 rpm shaking, was the best culture condition which resulted in the maximum growth and production of protease (444.7 U/ml; 4042.4 U/mg. The Rand protease was not only stable in the presence of organic solvents, but it also exhibited a higher activity than in the absence of organic solvent, except for pyridine which inhibited the protease activity. The enzyme retained 100, 99 and 80% of its initial activity, after the heat treatment for 30 min at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively. Conclusion Strain Rand has been found to be able to secrete extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease into the culture medium. The protease exhibited a remarkable stability towards temperature and organic

  20. PHOTOGENERATION OF SINGLET OXYGEN AND FREE RADICALS IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ISOLATED FROM THE MISSISSIPPI AND ATCHAFALAYA RIVER PLUMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The photoreactivity to UV light of ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected during cruises along salinity transects in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plumes was examined by measuring photogenerated free radicals and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) photosensiti...

  1. The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Susanne; Werven, Van Bernike; Oyen, Van Albert; Meijboom, André; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L.; Franeker, Van Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    In studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife, visual separation of plastic particles from gastrointestinal tracts or their dietary content can be challenging. Earlier studies have used solutions to dissolve organic materials leaving synthetic particles unaffected. However, insufficient tests

  2. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  3. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  5. Crystal structure of the fibre head domain of the Atadenovirus Snake Adenovirus 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu K Singh

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are non-enveloped icosahedral viruses with trimeric fibre proteins protruding from their vertices. There are five known genera, from which only Mastadenoviruses have been widely studied. Apart from studying adenovirus as a biological model system and with a view to prevent or combat viral infection, there is a major interest in using adenovirus for vaccination, cancer therapy and gene therapy purposes. Adenoviruses from the Atadenovirus genus have been isolated from squamate reptile hosts, ruminants and birds and have a characteristic gene organization and capsid morphology. The carboxy-terminal virus-distal fibre head domains are likely responsible for primary receptor recognition. We determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the Snake Adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1 fibre head using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD method. Despite the absence of significant sequence homology, this Atadenovirus fibre head has the same beta-sandwich propeller topology as other adenovirus fibre heads. However, it is about half the size, mainly due to much shorter loops connecting the beta-strands. The detailed structure of the SnAdV-1 fibre head and other animal adenovirus fibre heads, together with the future identification of their natural receptors, may lead to the development of new strategies to target adenovirus vectors to cells of interest.

  6. Beam path toxicity in candidate organs-at-risk: Assessment of radiation emetogenesis for patients receiving head and neck intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak-Uzel, Esengul; Gunn, G. Brandon; Colen, Rivka R.; Kantor, Micheal E.; Mohamed, Abdallah S.R.; Schoultz-Henley, Sara; Mavroidis, Paniyotis; Frank, Steven J.; Garden, Adam S.; Beadle, Beth M.; Morrison, William H.; Phan, Jack; Rosenthal, David I.; Fuller, Clifton D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate potential dose–response relationship between radiation-associated nausea and vomiting (RANV) reported during radiotherapy and candidate nausea/vomiting-associated regions of interest (CNV-ROIs) in head and neck (HNC) squamous cell carcinomas. Methods and material: A total of 130 patients treated with IMRT with squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck were evaluated. For each patient, CNV-ROIs were segmented manually on planning CT images. Clinical on-treatment RANV data were reconstructed by a review of the records for all patients. Dosimetric data parameters were recorded from dose–volume histograms. Nausea and vomiting reports were concatenated as a single binary “Any N/V” variable, and as a “CTC-V2+” variable. Results: The mean dose to CNV-ROIs was higher for patients experiencing RANV events. For patients receiving IMRT alone, a dose–response effect was observed with varying degrees of magnitude, at a statistically significant level for the area postrema, brainstem, dorsal vagal complex, medulla oblongata, solitary nucleus, oropharyngeal mucosa and whole brain CNV-ROIs. Conclusion: RANV is a common therapy-related morbidity facing patients receiving HNC radiotherapy, and, for those receiving radiotherapy-alone, is associated with modifiable dose to specific CNS structures

  7. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  8. Neuronal activity in the isolated mouse spinal cord during spontaneous deletions in fictive locomotion: insights into locomotor central pattern generator organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guisheng; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Rybak, Ilya A; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M

    2012-01-01

    We explored the organization of the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion by analysing the activity of spinal interneurons and motoneurons during spontaneous deletions occurring during fictive locomotion in the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord, following earlier work on locomotor deletions in the cat. In the isolated mouse spinal cord, most spontaneous deletions were non-resetting, with rhythmic activity resuming after an integer number of cycles. Flexor and extensor deletions showed marked asymmetry: flexor deletions were accompanied by sustained ipsilateral extensor activity, whereas rhythmic flexor bursting was not perturbed during extensor deletions. Rhythmic activity on one side of the cord was not perturbed during non-resetting spontaneous deletions on the other side, and these deletions could occur with no input from the other side of the cord. These results suggest that the locomotor CPG has a two-level organization with rhythm-generating (RG) and pattern-forming (PF) networks, in which only the flexor RG network is intrinsically rhythmic. To further explore the neuronal organization of the CPG, we monitored activity of motoneurons and selected identified interneurons during spontaneous non-resetting deletions. Motoneurons lost rhythmic synaptic drive during ipsilateral deletions. Flexor-related commissural interneurons continued to fire rhythmically during non-resetting ipsilateral flexor deletions. Deletion analysis revealed two classes of rhythmic V2a interneurons. Type I V2a interneurons retained rhythmic synaptic drive and firing during ipsilateral motor deletions, while type II V2a interneurons lost rhythmic synaptic input and fell silent during deletions. This suggests that the type I neurons are components of the RG, whereas the type II neurons are components of the PF network. We propose a computational model of the spinal locomotor CPG that reproduces our experimental results. The results may provide novel insights into the

  9. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  10. Prevalence and diversity of Escherichia coli isolated from a barley trial supplemented with bulky organic soil amendments: green compost and bovine slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, N J; Wright, F; Mackenzie, K; Marshall, J; Mitchell, S; Mahajan, A; Wheatley, R; Daniell, T J

    2014-03-01

    A barley field trial supplemented with bulky organic soil amendments, municipal compost or bovine slurry was sampled for Escherichia coli to test the hypothesis that E. coli isolated from the soil or from barley plants were derived from bovine slurry. A qualitative analysis showed that a total of 12% of the bulk soil cores and 16% of harvested grain samples yielded E. coli. The strongest association for positive detection of E. coli from soil was with time of year and for slurry-treated plots, with irrigation. However, E. coli were detected in plots from all treatment types and not exclusively associated with bovine slurry. Phylogroup, plasmid profiling and population genetics analysis (multilocus sequence typing) revealed extensive genetic diversity. Identical sequence types for slurry and soil isolates were detected, indicative of direct transfer into the soil, although not frequently. Host interaction assays with selected isolates showed a variation in the ability to colonize barley roots, but not in interactions with bovine cells. The work has implications in appropriate use of E. coli as a faecal indicator as isolates were widespread and diverse, reinforcing the view that some are a natural part of the microflora in agricultural systems. Faecal deposition is considered to be the main process that introduces Escherichia coli into soil, giving rise to their use as a faecal indication species and the potential for cycling pathogens in agricultural systems. We found that bovine slurry was not the main source of E. coli in a barley trial and a high degree of diversity was present in the collection. The findings support the hypothesis that the population structure of E. coli in secondary habitats is shaped by the environment and highlight the drawbacks of its use as a faecal indicator species. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Isolation of Marine Bacillus sp. with Antagonistic and Organic-Substances-Degrading Activities and Its Potential Application as a Fish Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxin Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the isolation and characterization of an acid- and bile-tolerant bacterial strain, Bacillus sp. YB1701 with antibacterial and quorum-quenching activity. Strain YB1701 was isolated from coastal sediment samples and characterized by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. In vitro study indicated that strain YB1701 can survive at pH 2.0 for up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Strain YB1701 showed antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahemolyticus using an agar well diffusion assay. The trial test showed dietary supplementation of YB1701 significantly improved the resistance of Carassius auratus gibelio against A. hydrophila challenge. The safety assessment revealed that the isolate Bacillus sp. YB1701 was not cytotoxic to Carassius auratus gibelio or mice and did not exhibit hemolytic activity on rabbit blood agar plate. Disc-diffusion assays using a panel of antibiotics listed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA showed that YB1701 was susceptible to selected antibiotics. Under laboratory conditions, the degradation rate of organic waste (predominately fish excrement for 14 days by YB1701 was 79.69%. Results from the present study suggest that strain YB1701 is a potential probiotic strain and can be used in aquaculture for degrading organic waste and improving disease resistance of fish against bacterial infection. Further study is needed to assess the utility of strain YB1701 on a commercial scale.

  12. Formation of brominated disinfection byproducts from natural organic matter isolates and model compounds in a sulfate radical-based oxidation process

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuru; Le Roux, Julien; Zhang, Tao; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process (SR-AOP) has received increasing application interest for the removal of water/wastewater contaminants. However, limited knowledge is available on its side effects. This study investigated the side effects in terms of the production of total organic bromine (TOBr) and brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in the presence of bromide ion and organic matter in water. Sulfate radical was generated by heterogeneous catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate. Isolated natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as low molecular weight (LMW) compounds were used as model organic matter. Considerable amounts of TOBr were produced by SR-AOP, where bromoform (TBM) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were identified as dominant Br-DBPs. In general, SR-AOP favored the formation of DBAA, which is quite distinct from bromination with HOBr/OBr- (more TBM production). SR-AOP experimental results indicate that bromine incorporation is distributed among both hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM fractions. Studies on model precursors reveal that LMW acids are reactive TBM precursors (citric acid > succinic acid > pyruvic acid > maleic acid). High DBAA formation from citric acid, aspartic acid, and asparagine was observed; meanwhile aspartic acid and asparagine were the major precursors of dibromoacetonitrile and dibromoacetamide, respectively.

  13. Formation of brominated disinfection byproducts from natural organic matter isolates and model compounds in a sulfate radical-based oxidation process

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuru

    2014-12-16

    A sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process (SR-AOP) has received increasing application interest for the removal of water/wastewater contaminants. However, limited knowledge is available on its side effects. This study investigated the side effects in terms of the production of total organic bromine (TOBr) and brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in the presence of bromide ion and organic matter in water. Sulfate radical was generated by heterogeneous catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate. Isolated natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as low molecular weight (LMW) compounds were used as model organic matter. Considerable amounts of TOBr were produced by SR-AOP, where bromoform (TBM) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were identified as dominant Br-DBPs. In general, SR-AOP favored the formation of DBAA, which is quite distinct from bromination with HOBr/OBr- (more TBM production). SR-AOP experimental results indicate that bromine incorporation is distributed among both hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM fractions. Studies on model precursors reveal that LMW acids are reactive TBM precursors (citric acid > succinic acid > pyruvic acid > maleic acid). High DBAA formation from citric acid, aspartic acid, and asparagine was observed; meanwhile aspartic acid and asparagine were the major precursors of dibromoacetonitrile and dibromoacetamide, respectively.

  14. Spectroscopic study of the water-soluble organic matter isolated from atmospheric aerosols collected under different atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Regina M.B.O.; Pio, Casimiro A.; Duarte, Armando C.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of the water-soluble organic matter from fine aerosols collected in a rural location during two different meteorological conditions (summer and autumn) was investigated by UV-vis, synchronous fluorescence (with Δλ = 20 nm), FT-IR and CPMAS- 13 C NMR spectroscopies. A seasonal variation in the concentration of total carbon, organic carbon and water-soluble organic carbon was confirmed, with higher values during the autumn and lower values during the summer season. The chemical characterisation of the water-soluble organic matter showed that both samples are dominated by a high content of aliphatic structures, carboxyl groups and aliphatic carbons single bonded to one oxygen or nitrogen atom. However, the autumn sample exhibits a higher aromatic content than the summer sample, plus signals due to carbons of phenol, ketones and methoxyl groups. These signals were attributed to lignin breakdown products which are likely to be released during wood combustion processes. The obtained results put into evidence the major contribution of biomass burning processes in domestic fireplaces during low temperature conditions into both the concentration and the bulk chemical properties of the WSOC from fine aerosols

  15. Studies on the Chromatin Isolated from the Organs of Animals Received Whole-body X-ray Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Su Nam [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    Within experimental chromatin, the total protein: DNA ratio did not vary in the same organs of control and irradiated rats. However, the amount of RNA and total protein associated with the DNA varied considerably among the different types of chromatin. In particular, the content of chromatin was the highest in the irradiated tissue, and the lowest in the chromatin control tissue. RNA and total protein ratio of chromatins from brain, liver, testis and spleen declined with experimental organs. 2) There was the same quantitative relationship between the amount of RNA and the amount histone-protein associated with DNA in each chromatin. 3) RNA:DNA ratio of chromatin showed a 1.5-2 times increase in the irradiated organs except brain. However, RNA:DNA ratio was decreased in chromatin by irradiation. 4) Histone-protein: Residual protein ratio was greatly varied among the organs. However, the effect was not found by irradiation. 5) Priming activity of chromatins showed a higher value in testis and the activity was greater in organs with higher metabolic activity. 6) Inhibition of Actinomycin D observable in chromatin for testis, liver, spleen and brain declined without relationship between irradiated and non-irradiated conditions. Ammonium sulfate in DNA of chromatin from histone showed increased priming activity with dissociation by Electrostatics. It may give different effect of ammonium sulfate on stimulation by property of chromatins. 7) It is suggested that the results support a proposal that the higher sensitivity of radioactive in testis, spleen by irradiated showed a increase and decrease lower-sensitivity of radioactive from brain, liver than did priming activity under the radioactive conditions.

  16. Studies on the Chromatin Isolated from the Organs of Animals Received Whole-body X-ray Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Su Nam

    1967-01-01

    Within experimental chromatin, the total protein: DNA ratio did not vary in the same organs of control and irradiated rats. However, the amount of RNA and total protein associated with the DNA varied considerably among the different types of chromatin. In particular, the content of chromatin was the highest in the irradiated tissue, and the lowest in the chromatin control tissue. RNA and total protein ratio of chromatins from brain, liver, testis and spleen declined with experimental organs. 2) There was the same quantitative relationship between the amount of RNA and the amount histone-protein associated with DNA in each chromatin. 3) RNA:DNA ratio of chromatin showed a 1.5-2 times increase in the irradiated organs except brain. However, RNA:DNA ratio was decreased in chromatin by irradiation. 4) Histone-protein: Residual protein ratio was greatly varied among the organs. However, the effect was not found by irradiation. 5) Priming activity of chromatins showed a higher value in testis and the activity was greater in organs with higher metabolic activity. 6) Inhibition of Actinomycin D observable in chromatin for testis, liver, spleen and brain declined without relationship between irradiated and non-irradiated conditions. Ammonium sulfate in DNA of chromatin from histone showed increased priming activity with dissociation by Electrostatics. It may give different effect of ammonium sulfate on stimulation by property of chromatins. 7) It is suggested that the results support a proposal that the higher sensitivity of radioactive in testis, spleen by irradiated showed a increase and decrease lower-sensitivity of radioactive from brain, liver than did priming activity under the radioactive conditions.

  17. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  18. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law. The document presents first the principle, challenge and stakes of the ITER project and the long negotiations that have led to chose France for the setting up of the research facility. Then, it presents the agreement of November 7, 2007, which fixes the general framework of the conditions necessary to the achievement of the project. The agreement comprises the classical rules, privileges and immunities of any international organization sited on the French ground, plus some more specific dispositions in particular in the domain of management of the wastes generated by the facility. (J.S.)

  19. SU-E-J-122: The CBCT Dose Calculation Using a Patient Specific CBCT Number to Mass Density Conversion Curve Based On a Novel Image Registration and Organ Mapping Method in Head-And-Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J; Lasio, G; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Langen, K; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B; Huang, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a CBCT HU correction method using a patient specific HU to mass density conversion curve based on a novel image registration and organ mapping method for head-and-neck radiation therapy. Methods: There are three steps to generate a patient specific CBCT HU to mass density conversion curve. First, we developed a novel robust image registration method based on sparseness analysis to register the planning CT (PCT) and the CBCT. Second, a novel organ mapping method was developed to transfer the organs at risk (OAR) contours from the PCT to the CBCT and corresponding mean HU values of each OAR were measured in both the PCT and CBCT volumes. Third, a set of PCT and CBCT HU to mass density conversion curves were created based on the mean HU values of OARs and the corresponding mass density of the OAR in the PCT. Then, we compared our proposed conversion curve with the traditional Catphan phantom based CBCT HU to mass density calibration curve. Both curves were input into the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation. Last, the PTV and OAR doses, DVH and dose distributions of CBCT plans are compared to the original treatment plan. Results: One head-and-neck cases which contained a pair of PCT and CBCT was used. The dose differences between the PCT and CBCT plans using the proposed method are −1.33% for the mean PTV, 0.06% for PTV D95%, and −0.56% for the left neck. The dose differences between plans of PCT and CBCT corrected using the CATPhan based method are −4.39% for mean PTV, 4.07% for PTV D95%, and −2.01% for the left neck. Conclusion: The proposed CBCT HU correction method achieves better agreement with the original treatment plan compared to the traditional CATPhan based calibration method

  20. SU-E-J-122: The CBCT Dose Calculation Using a Patient Specific CBCT Number to Mass Density Conversion Curve Based On a Novel Image Registration and Organ Mapping Method in Head-And-Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Bel Air, MD (United States); Lasio, G; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Langen, K; Prado, K; D’Souza, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yi, B [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huang, J [University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a CBCT HU correction method using a patient specific HU to mass density conversion curve based on a novel image registration and organ mapping method for head-and-neck radiation therapy. Methods: There are three steps to generate a patient specific CBCT HU to mass density conversion curve. First, we developed a novel robust image registration method based on sparseness analysis to register the planning CT (PCT) and the CBCT. Second, a novel organ mapping method was developed to transfer the organs at risk (OAR) contours from the PCT to the CBCT and corresponding mean HU values of each OAR were measured in both the PCT and CBCT volumes. Third, a set of PCT and CBCT HU to mass density conversion curves were created based on the mean HU values of OARs and the corresponding mass density of the OAR in the PCT. Then, we compared our proposed conversion curve with the traditional Catphan phantom based CBCT HU to mass density calibration curve. Both curves were input into the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation. Last, the PTV and OAR doses, DVH and dose distributions of CBCT plans are compared to the original treatment plan. Results: One head-and-neck cases which contained a pair of PCT and CBCT was used. The dose differences between the PCT and CBCT plans using the proposed method are −1.33% for the mean PTV, 0.06% for PTV D95%, and −0.56% for the left neck. The dose differences between plans of PCT and CBCT corrected using the CATPhan based method are −4.39% for mean PTV, 4.07% for PTV D95%, and −2.01% for the left neck. Conclusion: The proposed CBCT HU correction method achieves better agreement with the original treatment plan compared to the traditional CATPhan based calibration method.

  1. Physical and functional maps of the luminescence gene cluster in an autoinducer-deficient Vibrio fischeri strain isolated from a squid light organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, K M; Greenberg, E P

    1992-07-01

    Vibrio fischeri ES114 is an isolate representing the specific bacterial light organ symbiont of the squid Euprymna scolopes. An interesting feature of this strain of V. fischeri is that it is visibly luminous within the light organ of the squid host but is nonluminous when grown under standard laboratory conditions. Luminescence can be restored in laboratory culture, however, by the addition of autoinducer, a species-specific inducer of the V. fischeri luminescence (lux) genes. Most other isolates of V. fischeri produce autoinducer in sufficient quantities to induce luminescence in laboratory culture. We have cloned an 8.8-kb DNA fragment from V. fischeri ES114 that encodes all of the functions necessary for luminescence in Escherichia coli in the absence of exogenous autoinducer. This DNA contains both of the recognized V. fischeri lux regulatory genes, one of which (luxI) directs E. coli to synthesize autoinducer. The organization of the individual lux genes within this DNA fragment appears to be the same as that in the other strains of V. fischeri studied; the restriction map of the V. fischeri ES114 lux DNA has diverged substantially, however, from the largely conserved maps of V. fischeri MJ1 and ATCC 7744. Although E. coli containing the V. fischeri ES114 lux DNA synthesizes considerable amounts of autoinducer, V. fischeri ES114 synthesizes autoinducer only in small amounts, even when transcription of the lux genes, including luxI, is activated by the addition of exogenous autoinducer. Nonetheless, transconjugants of V. fischeri ES114 that contain multicopy plasmids bearing the ES114 lux genes synthesize sufficient autoinducer to induce luminescence. These results suggest that V. fischeri ES11r does not lack a functional luxl, nor is it deficient in the ability to synthesize metabolic precursors for autoinducer synthesis.

  2. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  3. Isolation of dissolved organic matter from permafrost soil and freshwater environments of the Kolyma River basin, east Siberia, for high resolution structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinenkov, I. V.; Perminova, I. V.; Bulygina, E. B.; Holmes, R. M.; Davydov, S.; Mann, P. J.; Vonk, J.; Zimov, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are known to be the most vulnerable with respect to climate change. Hence, research on carbon cycling in the Arctic region is very important for understanding the current climatic trends and their consequences. The Kolyma River watershed is one of the Arctic Ocean’s largest. It is dominated by continuous permafrost which is underlain with rich organic soils susceptible to increased fluvial transport. The thaw of permafrost enhanced due to global warming might provide additional large source of organic carbon to the Kolyma River and to the Arctic Ocean as a whole. For estimating the contribution of this source to the total pool of organic carbon, specific structural features of permafrost dissolved organic matter (DOM) as opposed to the waterborne DOM of the Kolyma River should be identified and monitored. The objective of this work was to isolate a representive set of the DOM samples from permafrost soil and freshwater environments of the Kolyma River basin suitable for further structural analysis using high resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectroscopy (FTICR-MS) and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The isolation protocol of DOM used in this study has been developed by Dittmar et al, 2008 for sampling marine DOM for NMR studies. It is based on the solid phase extraction of DOM from seawater using PPL Varian Bond Elute cartridges Those cartridges were shown to possess the highest efficiency in DOM isolation from marine water. Prior to discharge through the cartridge, a water sample was filtered through 0.45 μm filter for separation of particulate matter and acidified to pH 2 using HCl. About 50mg of DOM could be sequestered from aqueous phase using one cartridge. Sorption extent was monitored by measurements of DOC concentration and UV-vis spectra at the inlet and outlet of the cartridge. It was determined that from 60 to 65% of the total DOC could be extracted from the tested samples of freshwater. As a result

  4. Re-evaluation of solid-phase adsorption and desorption techniques for isolation of trace organic pollutants from chlorinated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, S; Nagatsuka, A; Rokuhara, T; Asakura, T; Hirayama, N; Suzuki, S

    1993-07-16

    Amberlite XAD resin and activated carbon columns were tested for their abilities to concentrate trace organic pollutants in chlorinated water. Both XAD-2 and XAD-7 resin columns (20 ml) were capable of adsorbing about 30% of total organic halogen (TOX) present in 20 l of drinking water (pH 7) containing about 100 micrograms/l of TOX, whereas the carbon column (10 ml) adsorbed over 90% of TOX. The adsorption capacity of XAD-7 resin was found to be strongly dependent on the solution pH, as compared with those of XAD-2 and carbon adsorbents. Soxhlet and sonication extractions were also evaluated for their abilities to recover the adsorbed organics from the adsorbents, by measurements of TOX, chromatographable compounds and mutagenicity in the eluates. Soxhlet extraction gave higher recoveries than sonication, as measured with the above indices, but these differences were generally small (ca. 20%), with exception of the carbon extracts. The XAD-2 and XAD-7 extracts of drinking water also showed about 3-4 times higher mutagenic activity than the carbon extracts.

  5. Organic Compounds, Trace Elements, Suspended Sediment, and Field Characteristics at the Heads-of-Tide of the Raritan, Passaic, Hackensack, Rahway, and Elizabeth Rivers, New Jersey, 2000-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of suspended sediment, particulate and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, and organic compounds were measured in samples from the heads-of-tide of the five tributaries to the Newark and Raritan Bays during June 2000 to June 2003. The samples were collected as part of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Toxics Reduction Workplan/Contaminant Assessment Reduction Program. Samples of streamwater were collected at water-quality sampling stations constructed near U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations on the Raritan, Passaic, Hackensack, Rahway, and Elizabeth Rivers. Sampling was conducted during base-flow conditions and storms. Constituent concentrations were measured to determine the water quality and to calculate the load of sediment and contaminants contributed to the bays from upstream sources. Water samples were analyzed for suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, and specific conductance. Samples of suspended sediment and water were analyzed for 98 distinct polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 7 dioxins, 10 furans, 27 pesticides, 26 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the trace elements cadmium, lead, mercury, and methyl-mercury. Measurements of ultra-low concentrations of organic compounds in sediment and water were obtained by collecting 1 to 3 grams of suspended sediment on glass fiber filters and by passing at least 20 liters of filtered water through XAD-2 resin. The extracted sediment and XAD-2 resin were analyzed for organic compounds by high- and low-resolution gas chromatography mass-spectrometry that uses isotope dilution procedures. Trace elements in filtered and unfiltered samples were analyzed for cadmium, lead, mercury, and methyl-mercury by inductively coupled charged plasma and mass-spectrometry. All constituent concentrations are raw data. Interpretation of the data will be completed in the second phase of the study.

  6. High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) Determination of Dissolved Organic Matter Molecular Weight Revisited: Accounting for Changes in Stationary Phases, Analytical Standards, and Isolation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Brandon C; Aiken, George R; McKnight, Diane M; Arnold, William A; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2018-01-16

    We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA 280 ) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA 280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA 280 .

  7. High pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) determination of dissolved organic matter molecular weight revisited: Accounting for changes in stationary phases, analytical standards, and isolation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Brandon C.; Aiken, George R.; McKnight, Diane M.; Arnold, William A.; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA280) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA280.

  8. Comparison of dialysis and solid-phase extraction for isolation and concentration of dissolved organic matter prior to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Cooper, William T. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hodgkins, Suzanne; Chanton, Jeffrey P. [Florida State University, Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Podgorski, David C. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Florida State University, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We compare two methods, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and dialysis, commonly used for extraction and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) prior to molecular characterization by electrospray ionization (ESI) and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Spectra of DOM samples from Minnesota and Sweden peatlands that were extracted with styrene divinyl benzene polymer SPE sorbents included ions with formulas that had higher oxygen to carbon (O/C) ratios than spectra of DOM from the same samples after de-salting by dialysis. The SPE method was not very effective in extracting several major classes of DOM compounds that had high ESI efficiencies, including carboxylic acids and organo-sulfur compounds, and that out-competed other less-functionalized compounds (e.g., carbohydrates) for charge in the ESI source. The large abundance of carboxylic acids in the dialysisextracted DOM, likely the result of in situ microbial production, makes it difficult to see other (mainly hydrophilic) compounds with high O/C ratios. Our results indicate that, while dialysis is generally preferable for the isolation of DOM, for samples with high microbial inputs, the use of both isolation methods is recommended for a more accurate molecular representation. (orig.)

  9. Impact of modified diamond-like carbon coatings on the spatial organization and disinfection of mixed-biofilms composed of Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans industrial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L C; Deschamps, J; Briandet, R; Mergulhão, F J

    2018-07-20

    This work investigated the effects of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the architecture and biocide reactivity of dual-species biofilms mimicking food processing contaminants. Biofilms were grown using industrial isolates of Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans on bare stainless steel (SST) and on two DLC surface coatings (a-C:H:Si:O designated by SICON® and a-C:H:Si designated by SICAN) in order to evaluate their antifouling activities. Quantification and spatial organization in single- and dual-species biofilms were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using a strain specific labelling procedure. Those assays revealed that the E. coli isolate exhibited a higher adhesion to the modified surfaces and a decreased susceptibility to disinfectant in presence of P. agglomerans than alone in axenic culture. While SICON® reduced the short-term growth of E. coli in axenic conditions, both DLC surfaces increased the E. coli colonization in presence of P. agglomerans. However, both modified surfaces triggered a significantly higher log reduction of E. coli cells within mixed-species biofilms, thus the use of SICON® and SICAN surfaces may be a good approach to facilitate the disinfection process in critical areas of food processing plants. This study presents a new illustration of the importance of interspecies interactions in surface-associated community functions, and of the need to evaluate the effectiveness of hygienic strategies with relevant multi-species consortia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Susanne; van Werven, Bernike; van Oyen, Albert; Meijboom, André; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; van Franeker, Jan A

    2017-02-15

    In studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife, visual separation of plastic particles from gastrointestinal tracts or their dietary content can be challenging. Earlier studies have used solutions to dissolve organic materials leaving synthetic particles unaffected. However, insufficient tests have been conducted to ensure that different categories of consumer products partly degraded in the environment and/or in gastrointestinal tracts were not affected. In this study 63 synthetic materials and 11 other dietary items and non-plastic marine debris were tested. Irrespective of shape or preceding environmental history, most polymers resisted potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, with the exceptions of cellulose acetate from cigarette filters, some biodegradable plastics and a single polyethylene sheet. Exposure of hard diet components and other marine debris showed variable results. In conclusion, the results confirm that usage of KOH solutions can be a useful approach in general quantitative studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, E. L; Edmiston, D. R.; O'Leary, G. A.; Rivera, M. A.; Steward, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  12. Effect of organic fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk. clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. and dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2010. The design was split plot with three replications. Main plots were the medicinal plant species consist of: blond psyllium (Plantago ovate Forssk., clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L. and subplots were various organic fertilizer consist of cow manure, vermicompost (based on cow manure, coffee compost and spent mushroom compost. Results showed that medicinal plants had significant difference for number of seeds per plant, shoot dry matter, seed yield, plant height and mucilage percentage. Effect of various organic matter on all traits except for 1000-seed weight was significant. Interaction of organic fertilizers and plant was significant for dry matter. Lalementia had the most mucilage percentage (27.75% and cow manure was the best fertilizer because it had the highest amounts of dry matter (1816 kg.ha-1, seed yield (467.5 kg.ha-1, number seed per plant (550 seeds.plant-1, plant height (23.17 cm and mucilage percentage (20.75%.

  13. Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Phenolic Compounds Profile and Its Assessment as an Agent Against Oxidative Stress in Isolated Mouse Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited

  14. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) phenolic compounds profile and its assessment as an agent against oxidative stress in isolated mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel; Yáñez, Jaime A

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited considerable in vitro

  15. Characterization and function of the first antibiotic isolated from a vent organism: the extremophile metazoan Alvinella pompejana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Tasiemski

    Full Text Available The emblematic hydrothermal worm Alvinella pompejana is one of the most thermo tolerant animal known on Earth. It relies on a symbiotic association offering a unique opportunity to discover biochemical adaptations that allow animals to thrive in such a hostile habitat. Here, by studying the Pompeii worm, we report on the discovery of the first antibiotic peptide from a deep-sea organism, namely alvinellacin. After purification and peptide sequencing, both the gene and the peptide tertiary structures were elucidated. As epibionts are not cultivated so far and because of lethal decompression effects upon Alvinella sampling, we developed shipboard biological assays to demonstrate that in addition to act in the first line of defense against microbial invasion, alvinellacin shapes and controls the worm's epibiotic microflora. Our results provide insights into the nature of an abyssal antimicrobial peptide (AMP and into the manner in which an extremophile eukaryote uses it to interact with the particular microbial community of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. Unlike earlier studies done on hydrothermal vents that all focused on the microbial side of the symbiosis, our work gives a view of this interaction from the host side.

  16. Long-range chromosome organization in E. coli: a site-specific system isolates the Ter macrodomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Axel; Valens, Michèle; Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Espéli, Olivier; Boccard, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The organization of the Escherichia coli chromosome into a ring composed of four macrodomains and two less-structured regions influences the segregation of sister chromatids and the mobility of chromosomal DNA. The structuring of the terminus region (Ter) into a macrodomain relies on the interaction of the protein MatP with a 13-bp target called matS repeated 23 times in the 800-kb-long domain. Here, by using a new method that allows the transposition of any chromosomal segment at a defined position on the genetic map, we reveal a site-specific system that restricts to the Ter region a constraining process that reduces DNA mobility and delays loci segregation. Remarkably, the constraining process is regulated during the cell cycle and occurs only when the Ter MD is associated with the division machinery at mid-cell. The change of DNA properties does not rely on the presence of a trans-acting mechanism but rather involves a cis-effect acting at a long distance from the Ter region. Two specific 12-bp sequences located in the flanking Left and Right macrodomains and a newly identified protein designated YfbV conserved with MatP through evolution are required to impede the spreading of the constraining process to the rest of the chromosome. Our results unravel a site-specific system required to restrict to the Ter region the consequences of anchoring the Ter MD to the division machinery.

  17. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  2. Femoral head fracture without hip dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Aditya K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Femoral head fractures without dislocation or subluxation are extremely rare injuries. We report a neglected case of isolated comminuted fracture of femoral head without hip dislocation or subluxation of one year duration in a 36-year-old patient who sustained a high en- ergy trauma due to road traffic accident. He presented with painful right hip and inability to bear full weight on right lower limb with Harris hip score of 39. He received cementless total hip replacement. At latest follow-up of 2.3 years, functional outcome was excellent with Harris hip score of 95. Such isolated injuries have been described only once in the literature and have not been classified till now. The purpose of this report is to highlight the extreme rarity, possible mechanism involved and a novel classification system to classify such injuries. Key words: Femur head; Hip dislocation; Classification; Arthroplasty, replacement, hip

  3. The Identification of Complex Organic Molecules in the Interstellar Medium: Using Lasers and Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy to Simulate the Interstellar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bradley M.

    1998-01-01

    The Astrochemistry Group at NASA Ames Research Center is interested in the identification of large organic molecules in the interstellar medium Many smaller organic species (e.g. hydrocarbons, alcohols, etc.) have been previously identified by their radiofrequency signature due to molecular rotations. However, this becomes increasingly difficult to observe as the size of the molecule increases. Our group in interested in the identification of the carriers of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (absorption features observed throughout the visible and near-infrared in the spectra of stars, due to species in the interstellar medium). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related molecules are thought to be good candidates for these carriers. Laboratory experiments am performed at Ames to simulate the interstellar environment, and to compare spectra obtained from molecules in the laboratory to those derived astronomically. We are also interested in PAHs with respect to their possible connection to the UIR (Unidentified infrared) and ERE (Extended Red Emission) bands - emission features found to emanate from particular regions of our galaxy (e.g. Orion nebula, Red Rectangle, etc.). An old, "tried and proven spectroscopic technique, matrix isolation spectroscopy creates molecular conditions ideal for performing laboratory astrophysics.

  4. Isolation of non-sporing anaerobic rods from infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, I

    1996-07-01

    From 1974 to 1994, 2033 microbiological specimens from children were submitted for cultures for anaerobic bacteria. Fifty-seven isolates of Bifidobacterium spp. were obtained from 55 (3%) children, 67 isolates of Eubacterium spp. from 65 (3%) children and 41 isolates of Lactobacillus spp. from 40 (2%) children. Most Bifidobacterium isolates were from chronic otitis media, abscesses, peritonitis, aspiration pneumonia and paronychia. Most Eubacterium isolates were from abscesses, peritonitis, decubitus ulcers and bites. Lactobacillus spp. were mainly isolated from abscesses, aspiration pneumonia, bacteraemia and conjunctivitis. Most (> 90%) infections from which these species were isolated were polymicrobial and yielded a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The organisms most commonly isolated with the non-sporing anaerobic gram-positive rods were Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp., pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Most Bacteroides spp. and E. coli were isolated from intra-abdominal infection and skin and soft tissue infection around the rectal area, whereas most Prevotella, Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium isolates were from oropharyngeal, pulmonary and head and neck sites. The predisposing conditions associated with the isolation of non-sporing anaerobic gram-positive rods were previous surgery, malignancy, steroid therapy and immunodeficiency. Antimicrobial therapy was given to 149 (83%) of the 160 patients, in conjunction with surgical drainage or correction of pathology in 89 (56%).

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  6. Space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization of double-helix nanostructure: a nanotube twist with a moving catalyst head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Huang, Jia-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-05-22

    Inorganic materials with double-helix structure have attracted intensive attention due to not only their elegant morphology but also their amazing morphology-related potential applications. The investigation on the formation mechanism of the inorganic double-helix nanostructure is the first step for the fundamental studies of their materials or physical properties. Herein, we demonstrated the space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization mechanism of the carbon nanotube (CNT)-array double helices under scanning electron microscopy by directly observing their formation process from individual layered double hydroxide flakes, which is a kind of hydrotalcite-like material composed of positively charged layers and charge-balancing interlayer anions. Space confinement is considered to be the most important extrinsic factor for the formation of CNT-array double helices. Synchronous growth of the CNT arrays oppositely from LDH flakes with space confinement on both sides at the same time is essential for the growth of CNT-array double helices. Coiling of the as-grown CNT arrays into double helices will proceed by self-organization, tending to the most stable morphology in order to release their internal rotation stress. Based on the demonstrated mechanism, effective routes were carried out to improve the selectivity for CNT-array double helices. The work provides a promising method for the fabrication of double-helix nanostructures with their two helices connected at the end by self-assembly.

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  8. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephanie M; Bos, Jelte E; Klis, Sjaak F L

    2014-01-01

    To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. To test a new, more simple method of unilateral stimulation with head tilt and the body remaining on axis. During stationary and during 360 deg/s rotation, 12 healthy blindfolded subjects had their heads tilted 30 degrees sideways, positioning one otolithic organ on the axis of rotation after the other. The haptic subjective vertical (SV) was recorded several times by means of a manually adjustable rod. It was found that during stationary the SV tilted about 4 degrees on average in the direction of the head. During rotation, the SV tilted about 9 degrees on average. We therefore estimate the effect of eccentric otolith rotation to be 5 degrees on average. Tilt of the subjective vertical induced by head tilt during on-axis body rotation can provide a relatively uncomplicated alternative to test unilateral otolithic function as compared to body and head translation during rotation. Moreover, unlike eccentric rotation of the entire body, somatosensory cues are minimized by keeping the body fixed on axis and by subtracting the effect of head tilt per se.

  9. 26th August 2010 - World Meteorological Organization Secretary-General M. Jarraud signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department Head F. Bordry; throughout accompanied by M. Bona, CERN Relations with International Organisations

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    26th August 2010 - World Meteorological Organization Secretary-General M. Jarraud signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department Head F. Bordry; throughout accompanied by M. Bona, CERN Relations with International Organisations

  10. Neck extensor muscle weakness (Dropped head syndrome) following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, S.; Miller, R.C.; Lachance, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Dropped head syndrome is an unusual condition in which the head cannot be held upright in its normal anatomic position secondary to pronounced, isolated, neck extensor muscle weakness. Case report. A case of dropped head syndrome in a female with a history of radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma and a clinical history consistent with multiple sclerosis is presented, and potential etiologies are discussed. Conclusions. Muscular atrophy and lower motor neuron injury secondary to isolated anterior horn cell injury from radiotherapy emerge as the most likely etiology. (author)

  11. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ALKALOTHERMOSTABLE, ORGANIC SOLVENT TOLERANT AND SURFACTANT TOLERANT ESTERASE PRODUCED BY A THERMOPHILIC BACTERIUM GEOBACILLUS SP. AGP-04, ISOLATED FROM BAKRESHWAR HOT SPRING, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus sp. AGP-04, isolated from Surya Kund hot spring, Bakreshwar, West Bengal, India was studied in terms of capability of tributyrin hydrolysis and characterization of its thermostable esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB as substrate. The extracellular crude preparation was characterized in terms of pH and temperature optima and stability, organic solvent tolerance capacity and stability, substrate specificity, surfactant tolerance capacity, kinetic parameters and activation/inhibition behavior towards some metal ions and chemicals. Tributyrin agar assay exhibited that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 secretes an extracellular esterase. The Vmax and Km values of the esterase were found to be 5099 U/Land 103.5µM, respectively in the presence of PNPB as substrate. The optimum temperature and pH, for Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 esterase was 60oC and 8.0, respectively. Although the enzyme activity was not significantly altered by incubating crude extract solution at 20-70oC for 1 hour, the enzyme activity was fully lost at 90oC for same incubation period. The pH stability profile showed that original crude esterase activity is stable at a broad range (pH 5.0-10.0. Moreover, the enzyme was highly organic solvent and surfactant tolerant. The effect of some chemical on crude esterase activity indicated that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 produce an esterase which contains a serine residue in active site and for its activity -SH groups are essential. Besides, enzyme production was highly induced if fermentation medium contain polysaccharides and oil as carbon source.

  12. Characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant thermostable glucoamylase from a halophilic isolate, Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 and its application in raw starch hydrolysis for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Ying; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A halophilic bacterium Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 producing extracellular glucoamylase was isolated from saline soil of Yuncheng Salt Lake, China. Enzyme production was strongly influenced by the salinity of growth medium with maximum in the presence of 5% NaCl. The glucoamylase was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 78.5 kDa. It showed broad substrate specificity and raw starch hydrolyzing activity. Analysis of hydrolysis products from soluble starch by thin-layer chromatography revealed that glucose was the sole end-product, indicating the enzyme was a true glucoamylase. Optimal enzyme activity was found to be at 70°C, pH 8.0, and 7.5% NaCl. In addition, it was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (0-100°C), pH (7.0-12.0), and NaCl concentration (0-20%), showing excellent thermostable, alkali stable, and halotolerant properties. Furthermore, it displayed high stability in the presence of hydrophobic organic solvents. The purified glucoamylase was applied for raw corn starch hydrolysis and subsequent bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield in terms of grams of ethanol produced per gram of sugar consumed was 0.365 g/g, with 71.6% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using enzymes from halophiles for further application in bioenergy production. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. LIFE experiment: isolation of cryptoendolithic organisms from Antarctic colonized sandstone exposed to space and simulated Mars conditions on the international space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzi, Giuliano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Albertano, Patrizia; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-06-01

    Desiccated Antarctic rocks colonized by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE-Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1.5 years in space samples were retrieved, rehydrated and spread on different culture media. Colonies of a green alga and a pink-coloured fungus developed on Malt-Agar medium; they were isolated from a sample exposed to simulated Mars conditions beneath a 0.1 % T Suprasil neutral density filter and from a sample exposed to space vacuum without solar radiation exposure, respectively. None of the other flight samples showed any growth after incubation. The two organisms able to grow were identified at genus level by Small SubUnit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing as Stichococcus sp. (green alga) and Acarospora sp. (lichenized fungal genus) respectively. The data in the present study provide experimental information on the possibility of eukaryotic life transfer from one planet to another by means of rocks and of survival in Mars environment.

  14. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  15. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  16. Quantification of selected volatile organic compounds in human urine by gas chromatography selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-SRI-TOF-MS) coupled with head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl

    2016-08-07

    Selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry with NO(+) as the reagent ion (SRI-TOF-MS(NO(+))) in conjunction with gas chromatography (GC) and head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to determine selected volatile organic compounds in human urine. A total of 16 volatiles exhibiting high incidence rates were quantified in the urine of 19 healthy volunteers. Amongst them there were ten ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone, and 4-heptanone), three volatile sulphur compounds (dimethyl sulfide, allyl methyl sulfide, and methyl propyl sulfide), and three heterocyclic compounds (furan, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran). The concentrations of the species under study varied between 0.55 nmol L(-1) (0.05 nmol mmol(-1)creatinine) for allyl methyl sulfide and 11.6 μmol L(-1) (1.54 μmol mmol(-1)creatinine) for acetone considering medians. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.08 nmol L(-1) for allyl methyl sulfide to 1.0 nmol L(-1) for acetone and furan (with RSDs ranging from 5 to 9%). The presented experimental setup assists both real-time and GC analyses of volatile organic compounds, which can be performed consecutively using the same analytical system. Such an approach supports the novel concept of hybrid volatolomics, an approach which combines VOC profiles obtained from two or more body fluids to improve and complement the chemical information on the physiological status of an individual.

  17. High-grade acute organ toxicity and p16INK4A expression as positive prognostic factors in primary radio(chemo)therapy for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrany, Narges; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F.; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Kitz, Julia; Li, Li; Kueffer, Stefan; Lorenzen, Stephan; Beissbarth, Tim; Burfeind, Peter; Reichardt, Holger M.; Canis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Superior treatment response and survival for patients with human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive head and neck cancer (HNSCC) are documented in clinical studies. However, the relevance of high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT), which has also been correlated with improved prognosis, has attracted scant attention in HPV-positive HNSCC patients. Hence we tested the hypothesis that both parameters, HPV and HGAOT, are positive prognostic factors in patients with HNSCC treated with definite radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). Pretreatment tumor tissue and clinical records were available from 233 patients receiving definite RT (62 patients) or RCT (171 patients). HPV infection was analysed by means of HPV DNA detection or p16 INK4A expression; HGAOT was defined as the occurrence of acute organ toxicity >grade 2 according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. Both variables were correlated with overall survival (OS) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Positivity for HPV DNA (44 samples, 18.9 %) and p16 INK4A expression (102 samples, 43.8 %) were significantly correlated (p < 0.01), and HGAOT occurred in 77 (33 %) patients. Overall, the 5-year OS was 23 %; stratified for p16 INK4A expression and HGAOT, OS rates were 47 %, 42 %, 20 % and 10 % for patients with p16 INK4A expression and HGAOT, patients with HGAOT only, patients with p16 INK4A expression only, and patients without p16 INK4A expression or HGAOT, respectively. After multivariate testing p16 INK4A expression (p = 0.003) and HGAOT (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with OS. P16 INK4A expression and HGAOT are independent prognostic factors for OS of patients with HNSCC, whereas p16 INK4A expression is particularly important for patients without HGAOT. (orig.) [de

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  20. Comparing the Spectroscopic and Molecular Characteristics of Different Dissolved Organic Matter Fractions Isolated by Hydrophobic and Anionic Exchange Resins Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy and FT-ICR-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Derrien

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the environmental significance of dissolved organic matter (DOM, characterizing DOM is still challenging due to its structural complexity and heterogeneity. In this study, three different chemical fractions, including hydrophobic acid (HPOA, transphilic acid (TPIA, and hydrophilic neutral and base (HPIN/B fractions, were separated from bulk aquatic DOM samples, and their spectral features and the chemical composition at the molecular level were compared using both fluorescence excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS. The HPIN/B fraction was distinguished from the two acidic fractions (i.e., HPOA and TPIA by the EEM-PARAFAC, while the TPIA fraction was discriminated by using the molecular parameters derived from the FT-ICR MS analyses. Statistical comparison suggests that the spectral dissimilarity among the three chemical fractions might result from the acido-basic properties of DOM samples, while the differences in molecular composition were more likely to be affected by the hydrophobicity of the DOM fractions. The non-metric multidimensional scaling map further revealed that the HPOA was the most heterogeneous among the three fractions. The number of overlapping formulas among the three chemical fractions constituted only <5% of all identified formulas, and those between two different fractions ranged from 2.0% to 24.1%, implying relatively homogeneous properties of the individual chemical fractions with respect to molecular composition. Although employing chemical fractionation achieved a lowering of the DOM heterogeneity, prevalent signatures of either acido-basic property or the hydrophobic nature of DOM on the characteristics of three chemical isolated fractions were not found for this study.

  1. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  2. Trial hygienic assessment and minimizing environmental health risks during leaders council meeting of shanghai cooperation organization countries and meeting of leaders and government heads of brics countries held in Ufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kleyn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the results and experience obtained in the process of giving scientific grounds for volume and essence of a monitoring program, and detecting territories with health risks for Ufa city population, as well as for participants and visitors during the Summits (SCO member states leaders council and meeting of BRICS leaders and heads of BRICS countries governments. We detected that if unfavorable meteorological conditions occurred (calm or wind weaker than 0.5 m/sec and if industrial enterprises were working at full capacity together with motorways being under peak loads it could lead to unacceptable health risks in areas where the Summits were organized; such risks for exposed population were related to dangers for respiratory organs (up to 5.66HI, eyes (up to 3.2HI, and system effects (up to 1.3HI. When we modeled weather conditions which were typical for July risks were assessed as being lower (in relation to respiratory organs up to 2.8HI, eyesight, up to 1.05HI, system effects up to 1.03HI, and an area where such risks could possibly occur was considerably smaller. We didn't detect any unacceptable health risks for participants and visitors of the Summits under exposure to chemical admixtures from drinking water and soil (HI=0.17 and HI=3.95*10–7 correspondingly. We suggested optimal programs for monitoring environmental objects aimed at providing maximum control over the situation. We also recommended to perform additional measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 fine-dispersed dust fractions when monitoring air quality. A comprehensive sanitary analysis of drinking water and soil quality control as per standard programs were offered. We created a set of activities which allowed to minimize health risks and to provide safe conditions for the Summits in term of all the examined factors. Implementation of the created monitoring program and recommended sanitary-epidemiologic activities as per data of instrumental air quality

  3. Insights into Head-Tailed Viruses Infecting Extremely Halophilic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Maija K.; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Extremophilic archaea, both hyperthermophiles and halophiles, dominate in habitats where rather harsh conditions are encountered. Like all other organisms, archaeal cells are susceptible to viral infections, and to date, about 100 archaeal viruses have been described. Among them, there are extraordinary virion morphologies as well as the common head-tailed viruses. Although approximately half of the isolated archaeal viruses belong to the latter group, no three-dimensional virion structures of these head-tailed viruses are available. Thus, rigorous comparisons with bacteriophages are not yet warranted. In the present study, we determined the genome sequences of two of such viruses of halophiles and solved their capsid structures by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. We show that these viruses are inactivated, yet remain intact, at low salinity and that their infectivity is regained when high salinity is restored. This enabled us to determine their three-dimensional capsid structures at low salinity to a ∼10-Å resolution. The genetic and structural data showed that both viruses belong to the same T-number class, but one of them has enlarged its capsid to accommodate a larger genome than typically associated with a T=7 capsid by inserting an additional protein into the capsid lattice. PMID:23283946

  4. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  5. 14 CFR 385.16 - Heads of Offices and Assistant General Counsels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ORGANIZATION STAFF ASSIGNMENTS AND REVIEW OF ACTION UNDER ASSIGNMENTS Assignment of Functions to Staff Members § 385.16 Heads of Offices and Assistant General Counsels. The heads of Offices...

  6. Metamerism in cephalochordates and the problem of the vertebrate head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, Takayuki; Adachi, Noritaka; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate head characteristically exhibits a complex pattern with sense organs, brain, paired eyes and jaw muscles, and the brain case is not found in other chordates. How the extant vertebrate head has evolved remains enigmatic. Historically, there have been two conflicting views on the origin of the vertebrate head, segmental and non-segmental views. According to the segmentalists, the vertebrate head is organized as a metameric structure composed of segments equivalent to those in the trunk; a metamere in the vertebrate head was assumed to consist of a somite, a branchial arch and a set of cranial nerves, considering that the head evolved from rostral segments of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrates. Non-segmentalists, however, considered that the vertebrate head was not segmental. In that case, the ancestral state of the vertebrate head may be non-segmented, and rostral segments in amphioxus might have been secondarily gained, or extant vertebrates might have evolved through radical modifications of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrate head. Comparative studies of mesodermal development in amphioxus and vertebrate gastrula embryos have revealed that mesodermal gene expressions become segregated into two domains anteroposteriorly to specify the head mesoderm and trunk mesoderm only in vertebrates; in this segregation, key genes such as delta and hairy, involved in segment formation, are expressed in the trunk mesoderm, but not in the head mesoderm, strongly suggesting that the head mesoderm of extant vertebrates is not segmented. Taken together, the above finding possibly adds a new insight into the origin of the vertebrate head; the vertebrate head mesoderm would have evolved through an anteroposterior polarization of the paraxial mesoderm if the ancestral vertebrate had been amphioxus-like.

  7. Isolation of Stem rot Disease Causing Organism of Brinjal and their in-vitro Inhibition with Fungicides and Bio-control Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily Javeria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different strains of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the diseased samples collected from different hosts and locations. Among the 14 isolates, 12 isolates colonies covered the entire Petri plates within 96 hours but, two isolates from fababean and yellow mustard showed slow colony growth within 96 hours. All isolates produced sclerotia which were varied in number, but the fenugreek isolate produced maximum (43 number of sclerotia and lambs quarter isolate produced minimum number of sclerotia (12 on PDA medium. To examine inhibitory effect of fungicide on the mycelial growth of the pathogen, 9 fungicides were tested in vitro against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, of those carbendazim, carboxin, topsin-M and carbendazim+ mancozeb (SAAF were found most effective and inhibited the mycelial growth of pathogen up to 100 per cent at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% concentration. The effect of different bioagents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. koningii, T. atroviride, T. longibraciatum, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosome and Penicillium notatum in inhibiting the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied through “Dual Culture Technique”. The data showed that among the eight biocontrol agent six were fond effective. The maximum inhibition was found by T. harzianum causing 70.82% inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogen S. sclerotiorum.

  8. Cancer stem cells in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapasso S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia Allegra, Serena TrapassoOtolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called "cells that start the tumor," represent in themselves one of the most topical and controversial issues in the field of cancer research. Tumor stem cells are able to self-propagate in vitro (self-renewal, giving rise both to other tumor stem cells and most advanced cells in the line of differentiation (asymmetric division. A final characteristic is tumorigenicity, a fundamental property, which outlines the tumor stem cell as the only cell able to initiate the formation of a tumor when implanted in immune-deficient mice. The hypothesis of a hierarchical organization of tumor cells dates back more than 40 years, but only in 1997, thanks to the work of John Dick and Dominique Bonnet, was there the formal proof of such an organization in acute myeloid leukemia. Following this, many other research groups were able to isolate CSCs, by appropriate selection markers, in various malignancies, such as breast, brain, colon, pancreas, and liver cancers and in melanoma. To date, however, it is not possible to isolate stem cells from all types of neoplasia, particularly in solid tumors. From a therapeutic point of view, the concept of tumor stem cells implies a complete revision of conventional antineoplastic treatment. Conventional cytotoxic agents are designed to target actively proliferating cells. In the majority of cases, this is not sufficient to eliminate the CSCs, which thanks to their reduced proliferative activity and/or the presence of proteins capable of extruding chemotherapeutics from the cell are not targeted. Therefore, the theory of cancer stem cells can pose new paradigms in terms of cancer treatment. Potential approaches, even in the very early experimental stages, relate to the selective inhibition of pathways connected with self-renewal, or more specifically based on

  9. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  10. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  11. SU-C-210-07: Assessment of Intra-/Inter-Fractional Internal Tumor and Organ Movement in Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer Using On-Board Cine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Fischer-Valuck, B; Kashani, R; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Mutic, S; Gay, H; Thorstad, W; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Victoria, J; Dempsey, J [ViewRay Incorporated, Oakwood Village, OH (United States); Ruan, S [University of Rouen, QuantIF - EA 4108 LITIS, Rouen (France); Low, D [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Head and neck (H&N) internal organ motion has previously been determined with low frequency and temporary nature based on population-based pre- and post-treatment studies. Using immobilization masks and adding a 4–6 mm planning-tumor-volume margin, geometric uncertainties of patients are routinely considered clinically inconsequential in H&N radiotherapy. Using the first commercially-available MR-IGRT system, we conducted the first quantitative study on inter-patient, intra- and inter-fractional H&N internal motion patterns to evaluate the necessity of individualized asymmetric internal margins. Methods: Ninety cine sagittal MR image sequences were acquired during the entire treatment course (6–7 weeks) of three H&N cancer patients using the ViewRay™ MR-IGRT system. The images were 5 mm thick and acquired at 4 frames/per second. One of the patients had a tracheostomy tube. The cross-sectional H&N airway (nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx portions) movement was analyzed comprehensively using in-house developed motion detection software. Results: Large inter-patient variations of swallowing frequency (0–1 times/per fraction), swallowing duration (1–3 seconds), and pharyngeal cross-sectional area (238–2516 mm2) were observed. Extensive pharyngeal motion occurred during swallowing, while nonzero and periodic change of airway geometry was observed in resting. For patient 1 with tracheostomy tube replacement, 30.3%, 30.0%, 48.7% and 0.3% of total frames showed ≥ 4 mm displacements in the anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries, respectively; similarly, (5.7%, 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.3%) and (23.3%, 0.0%, 35.7%, 1.7%) occurred for patients 2 and 3. Area overlapping coefficients with respect to the first frame were 76.3+/−6.4%, 90.3+/−0.6%, and 92.3+/−1.2% for the three patients, respectively. Conclusion: Both the resting and swallowing motions varied in frequency and amplitude among the patients and across fractions of a

  12. SU-C-210-07: Assessment of Intra-/Inter-Fractional Internal Tumor and Organ Movement in Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer Using On-Board Cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Fischer-Valuck, B; Kashani, R; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Mutic, S; Gay, H; Thorstad, W; Li, H; Victoria, J; Dempsey, J; Ruan, S; Low, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Head and neck (H&N) internal organ motion has previously been determined with low frequency and temporary nature based on population-based pre- and post-treatment studies. Using immobilization masks and adding a 4–6 mm planning-tumor-volume margin, geometric uncertainties of patients are routinely considered clinically inconsequential in H&N radiotherapy. Using the first commercially-available MR-IGRT system, we conducted the first quantitative study on inter-patient, intra- and inter-fractional H&N internal motion patterns to evaluate the necessity of individualized asymmetric internal margins. Methods: Ninety cine sagittal MR image sequences were acquired during the entire treatment course (6–7 weeks) of three H&N cancer patients using the ViewRay™ MR-IGRT system. The images were 5 mm thick and acquired at 4 frames/per second. One of the patients had a tracheostomy tube. The cross-sectional H&N airway (nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx portions) movement was analyzed comprehensively using in-house developed motion detection software. Results: Large inter-patient variations of swallowing frequency (0–1 times/per fraction), swallowing duration (1–3 seconds), and pharyngeal cross-sectional area (238–2516 mm2) were observed. Extensive pharyngeal motion occurred during swallowing, while nonzero and periodic change of airway geometry was observed in resting. For patient 1 with tracheostomy tube replacement, 30.3%, 30.0%, 48.7% and 0.3% of total frames showed ≥ 4 mm displacements in the anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries, respectively; similarly, (5.7%, 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.3%) and (23.3%, 0.0%, 35.7%, 1.7%) occurred for patients 2 and 3. Area overlapping coefficients with respect to the first frame were 76.3+/−6.4%, 90.3+/−0.6%, and 92.3+/−1.2% for the three patients, respectively. Conclusion: Both the resting and swallowing motions varied in frequency and amplitude among the patients and across fractions of a

  13. Hematologic, cytochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular findings of Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Narkkong, Nual-Anong; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Pattanarangsan, Rattapan

    2008-03-01

    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia and is considered extremely endangered. Little is known about the hematologic values, blood cell morphology, or hemoparasites of this species in relation to other Felidae. The objective of this study was to report basic hematologic values and describe the light microscopic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in 2 wild-caught flat-headed cats. In addition, molecular analysis was done of a Hepatozoon organism found in the neutrophils of both cats. Blood samples were collected into EDTA from the cephalic vein. A CBC, manual differential count, manual reticulocyte count, cytochemical stains (Sudan black B [SBB], alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], and beta-glucuronidase), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were done using standard methods. HCT was slightly lower and reticulocyte counts and red cell distribution width were higher than the expected values for other species of cats. Hepatozoon organisms were found in the cytoplasm of neutrophils in both cats, but the number of infected neutrophils was very low (1%-2%). Neutrophils stained strongly positive for SBB, but were negative for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. Hepatozoon-infected neutrophils were negative for SBB, but focally positive for ANAE and beta-glucuronidase. By transmission electron microscopy, gamonts of Hepatozoon sp were observed in neutrophils, and rarely free in plasma. Infected neutrophils had fewer specific granules and more mitochondria compared with noninfected neutrophils. PCR products of partial 18S rRNA revealed that the isolate of Hepatozoon in the flat-headed cats was closely related to that of the frog Hepatozoon sp. These results add to our understanding of hematologic values and blood cell morphology in Hepatozoon-infected flat-headed cats as well as the molecular analysis of the Hepatozoon organism, and may be useful for the health management and evaluation of

  14. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, S.M.; Bos, J.E.; Klis, S.F.L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. OBJECTIVE: To test a new,

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  16. Exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  18. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  3. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  5. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...

  7. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  8. Head trauma in female professional wrestlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Jun; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Nemoto, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of head trauma were evaluated in 18 wrestlers belonging to a female professional wrestling organization, 13 regular members and five trainees aged 15-34 years. Medical examinations for head trauma were performed in all wrestlers, and wrestlers treated at our emergency outpatient department were clinically evaluated. In addition, the relationships of head trauma with duration of the wrestling career of 1-16 years (mean 8 years) in the regular members, and less than 1 year in the five trainees, and body mass index (BMI) of 21.0-32.0 in the 16 subjects, excluding two trainees, was evaluated. Chronic symptoms were noted in four of the 18 wrestlers with long wrestling careers (16 years in 1, 13 years in 1, and 5 years in 2). Three wrestlers with symptoms immediately after head trauma showed recurrent retrograde amnesia and had low BMI (21.6, 21.6, and 23.1). Five wrestlers were treated at our emergency outpatient clinic, three required hospitalization and two showed intracranial traumatic changes on computed tomography (acute subdural hematoma in 1 and diffuse brain swelling in 1). Head trauma in female professional wrestlers is associated with longer wrestling career and low BMI. Periodic medical examinations are recommended to monitor for signs of head trauma. (author)

  9. The exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews the features of an uncommon malady termed "the exploding head syndrome." Sufferers describe terrorizing attacks of a painless explosion within their head. Attacks tend to occur at the onset of sleep. The etiology of attacks is unknown, although they are considered to be benign. Treatment with clomipramine has been suggested, although most sufferers require only reassurance that the spells are benign in nature.

  10. Shivering heat production and core cooling during head-in and head-out immersion in 17 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Cahill, Farrell; Kocay, Sheila; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2008-05-01

    Many cold-water scenarios cause the head to be partially or fully immersed (e.g., ship wreck survival, scuba diving, cold-water adventure swim racing, cold-water drowning, etc.). However, the specific effects of head cold exposure are minimally understood. This study isolated the effect of whole-head submersion in cold water on surface heat loss and body core cooling when the protective shivering mechanism was intact. Eight healthy men were studied in 17 degrees C water under four conditions: the body was either insulated or exposed, with the head either out of the water or completely submersed under the water within each insulated/exposed subcondition. Submersion of the head (7% of the body surface area) in the body-exposed condition increased total heat loss by 11% (P < 0.05). After 45 min, head-submersion increased core cooling by 343% in the body-insulated subcondition (head-out: 0.13 +/- 0.2 degree C, head-in: 0.47 +/- 0.3 degree C; P < 0.05) and by 56% in the body-exposed subcondition (head-out: 0.40 +/- 0.3 degree C and head-in: 0.73 +/- 0.6 degree C; P < 0.05). In both body-exposed and body-insulated subconditions, head submersion increased the rate of core cooling disproportionally more than the relative increase in total heat loss. This exaggerated core-cooling effect is consistent with a head cooling induced reduction of the thermal core, which could be stimulated by cooling of thermosensitive and/or trigeminal receptors in the scalp, neck, and face. These cooling effects of head submersion are not prevented by shivering heat production.

  11. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  12. Exploding head syndrome is common in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2015-08-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of loud noises during sleep-wake or wake-sleep transitions. Although episodes by themselves are relatively harmless, it is a frightening phenomenon that may result in clinical consequences. At present there are little systematic data on exploding head syndrome, and prevalence rates are unknown. It has been hypothesized to be rare and to occur primarily in older (i.e. 50+ years) individuals, females, and those suffering from isolated sleep paralysis. In order to test these hypotheses, 211 undergraduate students were assessed for both exploding head syndrome and isolated sleep paralysis using semi-structured diagnostic interviews: 18.00% of the sample experienced lifetime exploding head syndrome, this reduced to 16.60% for recurrent cases. Though not more common in females, it was found in 36.89% of those diagnosed with isolated sleep paralysis. Exploding head syndrome episodes were accompanied by clinically significant levels of fear, and a minority (2.80%) experienced it to such a degree that it was associated with clinically significant distress and/or impairment. Contrary to some earlier theorizing, exploding head syndrome was found to be a relatively common experience in younger individuals. Given the potential clinical impacts, it is recommended that it be assessed more regularly in research and clinical settings. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Primary tendinitis of the long head of the biceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, M; Benca, P

    1989-09-01

    Seventeen patients with chronic painful shoulders who showed evidence of isolated bicipital tendinitis involving only the extracapsular, intertubercular portion of the long head of the biceps were chosen for surgical treatment when conservative treatment failed. The patients were thought to have primary bicipital tendinitis. The latter condition is secondary to other shoulder pathologies. Thirteen patients had tenodeses and four patients had transfer of the long head of the biceps to the origin of the conjoined tendon. Overall, excellent and good results were noted in 94% of both groups of patients when the long head of the biceps was tenodesed or transferred. Whether or not the long head of the biceps is a significant depressor of the humeral head requires further investigation.

  14. "Stuttering" after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Stephen; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Parry, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as impairment in brain function as a result of mechanical force. It is classified based on clinical findings using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Mild TBI is defined as GCS 14-15; moderate, 9-13; and severe, 3-8. Patients with the same TBI classification may have very different underlying pathology. In moderate to severe TBI, the primary pathology may include contusions, hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury, direct cellular damage, "tearing and shearing of the tissues, loss of the blood-brain barrier, disruption of the neurochemical homeostasis and loss of the electrochemical function". Although the primary pathology associated with mild TBI may be milder versions of the same pathology associated with moderate and severe TBI, it is generally a metabolic injury. However, it is reported that 15% of patients with mild TBI and a GCS score of 14 or 15 will have an intracranial lesion; less than 1% of these require neurosurgical intervention. Although patients with mild TBI may have intracranial lesions, it is rare that the presenting and only physical examination finding is an isolated neurologic finding. Here we present a case of isolated head trauma with a single physical examination finding--expressive aphasia.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus sp. isolates supernatant on Escherichia coli O157:H7 enhances the role of organic acids production as a factor for pathogen control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Poppi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to establish the control of foodborne pathogens through Lactobacillus isolates and their metabolism products with success being obtained in several situations. The aim of this study was to investigate the antagonistic effect of eight Lactobacillus isolates, including L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, L. plantarum, L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, on the pathogenic Escherichia colistrain O157:H7. The inhibitory effect of pure cultures and two pooled cultures supernatants of Lactobacillus on the growth of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by the spot agar method and by monitoring turbidity. Antimicrobial activity was confirmed for L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii and for a pool of lactic acid bacteria. The neutralized supernatant of the pool exerted a higher antimicrobial activity than that of the individual strains. Furthermore, D-lactic acid and acetic acid were produced during growth of the Lactobacillus isolates studied.

  20. Effects Of pH, Temperature And Salinity In Growth And Organic Acid Production Of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Penaeid Shrimp Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagiyo Subagiyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakteri asam laktat telah lama dikembangkan sebagai probiotik. Penentuan kondisi lingkungan yang optimum untuk pertumbuhan sel serta asam organik memberikan gambaran aktivitas optimum untuk kinerja probiotik baik dalam sistem fisiologi inang maupun dalam sistem bioproses untuk produksi sel dan metabolit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh faktor lingkungan (pH, suhu dan salinitas terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi total asam organik tiga isolat bakteri asam laktat yang telah diseleksi dari intestinum udang penaeid. Eksperimen menggunakan  medium deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS cair. Perlakuan pH awal meliputi  nilai pH 4, 5 dan 6. Perlakuan suhu meliputi suhu 25, 30 dan 35OC serta perlakuan salinitas  meliputi salinitas 0,75 %, 1,5 % dan 3 %.  Setiap interval 6 jam dilakukan pengambilan sampel kultur bakteri dan penghitungan pertumbuhan berdasarkan perubahan optical density (pada panjang gelombang 600 nm sedangkan produksi asam laktat dianalisis dengan metode titrimetrik menggunakan NaOH 1 N sebagai larutan titrasinya. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa suhu, pH awal dan salinitas berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi asam organik. Nilai kondisi lingkungan terbaik untuk pertumbuhan dapat berbeda dengan nilai terbaik untuk produksi asam organic. Hal ini ditunjukan oleh nilai laju pertumbuhan dan produksi asam laktat tertinggi dari tiga isolat uji terjadi pada suhu, pH awal dan salinitas yang berbeda.  Isolat L12 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 0,75%. Isolat L14 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 1.5%. Isolat L 21 tumbuh optimum pada suhu 30 oC, pH awal 6 dan salinitas 1.5%. Kata kunci: bakteri asam laktat, suhu, pH, salinitas, asamorganik, pertumbuhan, Lactic acid bacteria are widely distributed in intestinal tracts of various animals where they live as normal flora.Strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most common microbes employed as probiotics, The optimum

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium sp. Strain TBD182, an Antagonist of the Plant-Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum, Isolated from a Novel Hydroponics System Using Organic Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yuichiro; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Someya, Nobutaka; Shinohara, Makoto

    2017-03-16

    Rhizobium sp. strain TBD182, isolated from a novel hydroponics system, is an antagonistic bacterium that inhibits the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum but does not eliminate the pathogen. We report the draft genome sequence of TBD182, which may contribute to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of its fungistatic activity. Copyright © 2017 Iida et al.

  2. Ca2+ influx insensitive to organic Ca2+ entry blockers contributes to noradrenaline-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M. A.; Wilffert, B.; Wermelskirchen, D.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the contribution of intracellular Ca2+ to the noradrenaline (NA, 3 X 10(-5) mmol/l)-induced contraction of the isolated guinea pig aorta. Since only about 55% of the NA-induced contraction could be attributed to intracellular Ca2+ release, we assumed that a Ca2+ influx component

  3. Ca2+influx insensitive to organic Ca2+entry blockers contributes to noradrenaline-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M.A.M.; Wilffert, B.; Wermelskirchen, D.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the contribution of intracellular Ca2+to the noradrenaline (NA, 3 x 10-5mmol/l)-induced contraction of the isolated guinea pig aorta. Since only about 55% of the NA-induced contraction could be attributed to intracellular Ca2+release, we assumed that a Ca2+influx component contributes

  4. Management of post-traumatic elbow instability after failed radial head excision: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Touloupakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Radial head excision has always been a safe commonly used surgical procedure with a satisfactory clinical outcome for isolated comminuted radial head fractures. However, diagnosis of elbow instability is still very challenging and often underestimated in routine orthopaedic evaluation. We present the case of a 21-years old female treated with excision after radial head fracture, resulting in elbow instability. The patient underwent revision surgery after four weeks. We believe that ligament reconstruction without radial head substitution is a safe alternative choice for Mason III radial head fractures accompanied by complex ligament lesions.

  5. High-grade acute organ toxicity and p16{sup INK4A} expression as positive prognostic factors in primary radio(chemo)therapy for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrany, Narges; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F.; Wolff, Hendrik A. [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Kitz, Julia; Li, Li; Kueffer, Stefan [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Pathology, Goettingen (Germany); Lorenzen, Stephan; Beissbarth, Tim [University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics, Goettingen (Germany); Burfeind, Peter [University Medical Center, Institute for Human Genetics, Goettingen (Germany); Reichardt, Holger M. [University Medical Center, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Goettingen (Germany); Canis, Martin [Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Superior treatment response and survival for patients with human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive head and neck cancer (HNSCC) are documented in clinical studies. However, the relevance of high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT), which has also been correlated with improved prognosis, has attracted scant attention in HPV-positive HNSCC patients. Hence we tested the hypothesis that both parameters, HPV and HGAOT, are positive prognostic factors in patients with HNSCC treated with definite radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). Pretreatment tumor tissue and clinical records were available from 233 patients receiving definite RT (62 patients) or RCT (171 patients). HPV infection was analysed by means of HPV DNA detection or p16{sup INK4A} expression; HGAOT was defined as the occurrence of acute organ toxicity >grade 2 according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. Both variables were correlated with overall survival (OS) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Positivity for HPV DNA (44 samples, 18.9 %) and p16{sup INK4A} expression (102 samples, 43.8 %) were significantly correlated (p < 0.01), and HGAOT occurred in 77 (33 %) patients. Overall, the 5-year OS was 23 %; stratified for p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, OS rates were 47 %, 42 %, 20 % and 10 % for patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, patients with HGAOT only, patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression only, and patients without p16{sup INK4A} expression or HGAOT, respectively. After multivariate testing p16{sup INK4A} expression (p = 0.003) and HGAOT (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with OS. P16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT are independent prognostic factors for OS of patients with HNSCC, whereas p16{sup INK4A} expression is particularly important for patients without HGAOT. (orig.) [German] Ein besseres Therapieansprechen von humanen Papillomavirus (HPV)-positiven Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNSCC) ist durch Studien belegt. Weniger Beachtung hat bisher die Relevanz unerwuenschter

  6. Potential influence of organic compounds on the transport of radionuclides from a geologic repository. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silviera, D.J.

    1981-03-01

    This study identifies organic compounds that may be present in a repository and outlines plausible interactions and mechanisms that may influence the forms and chemical behavior of these compounds. A review of the literature indicates that large quantities of organic radioactive wastes are generated by the nuclear industry and if placed in a repository could increase or decrease the leach rate and sorption characteristics of waste radionuclides. The association of radionuclides with organic matter can render the nuclides soluble or insoluble depending on the particular nuclide and such parameters as the pH, Eh, and temperature of the hydrogeologic system as well as the properties of the organic compounds themselves. 44 references.

  7. Potential influence of organic compounds on the transport of radionuclides from a geologic repository. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silviera, D.J.

    1981-03-01

    This study identifies organic compounds that may be present in a repository and outlines plausible interactions and mechanisms that may influence the forms and chemical behavior of these compounds. A review of the literature indicates that large quantities of organic radioactive wastes are generated by the nuclear industry and if placed in a repository could increase or decrease the leach rate and sorption characteristics of waste radionuclides. The association of radionuclides with organic matter can render the nuclides soluble or insoluble depending on the particular nuclide and such parameters as the pH, Eh, and temperature of the hydrogeologic system as well as the properties of the organic compounds themselves. 44 references

  8. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  9. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  10. Study on the noncoincidence effect phenomenon using matrix isolated Raman spectra and the proposed structural organization model of acetone in condense phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenwen; Wu, Fengqi; Zhao, Yanying; Zhou, Ran; Wang, Huigang; Zheng, Xuming; Ni, Bukuo

    2017-03-01

    The isotropic and anisotropic Raman spectra of acetone and deuterated acetone isolated in an argon matrix have been recorded for the understanding of noncoincidence effect (NCE) phenomenon. According to the matrix isolated Raman spectra and DFT calculations, we proposed aggregated model for the explanations of the acetone C=O vibration NCE phenomenon and its concentration effect. The experimental data were in consistence with the DFT calculations performed at the B3LYP-D3/6-311 G (d,p) levels based on the proposed model. The experimental identification of the monomer, dimer and trimer are reported here, and the dynamic of the transformation from monomer to aggregated structure can be easily controlled by tuning annealing temperature.

  11. Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity. 2012 FRAME.

  12. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here i...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ... RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  16. The Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Visser, L.C.; Bennik, J.; Carloni, Raffaella; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This video shows the results of the project on the mechatronic development of the Twente humanoid head. The mechanical structure consists of a neck with four degrees of freedom (DOFs) and two eyes (a stereo pair system) which tilt on a common axis and rotate sideways freely providing a three more

  17. Dkk1 and noggin cooperate in mammalian head induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barco Barrantes, Ivan; Davidson, Gary; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Westphal, Heiner; Niehrs, Christof

    2003-01-01

    Growth factor antagonists play important roles in mediating the inductive effects of the Spemann organizer in amphibian embryos and its equivalents in other vertebrates. Dual inhibition of Wnt and BMP signals has been proposed to confer head organizer activity. We tested the requirement of this coinhibition in Xenopus and mice. In Xenopus, simultaneous reduction of the BMP antagonists chordin and noggin, and the Wnt antagonist dickkopf1 (dkk1) leads to anterior truncations. In mice, compound mutants for dkk1 and noggin display severe head defects, with deletion of all head structures anterior to the mid-hindbrain boundary. These defects arise as a result of a failure in anterior specification at the gastrula stage. The results provide genetic evidence for the dual inhibition model and indicate that dkk1 and noggin functionally cooperate in the head organizer. PMID:12952897

  18. Head injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa

    1981-01-01

    Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)

  19. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo; Carvalho, Jorge Jose; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Pereira, Mario; Dire, Glaucio; Bernardo Filho, Mario; Rocha, Emely Kazan

    2005-01-01

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na 99m TcO 4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na 99m TcO 4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P 99m TcO 4 . (author)

  20. Management of post-traumatic elbow instability after failed radial head excision: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Touloupakis, Georgios; Theodorakis, Emmanouil; Favetti, Fabio; Nannerini, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Radial head excision has always been a safe commonly used surgical procedure with a satisfactory clinical outcome for isolated comminuted radial head fractures. However, diagnosis of elbow instability is still very challenging and often underestimated in routine orthopaedic evaluation. We present the case of a 21-years old female treated with excision after radial head fracture, resulting in elbow instability. The patient underwent revision surgery after four weeks. We believe that ligament r...

  1. Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system; Etude tribologique de revetements durs sans cobalt destines aux organes d`isolement du circuit primaire des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachon, L.

    1995-10-18

    The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ``Stellites`` coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 {mu}m monolayers of Cr/C{sub x} with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C{sub 1.6} at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 {mu}m of cermets NiCr{sub y} (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 {mu}m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.).

  2. WIPP: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are discussed briefly: history and site selection; salt as a disposal medium; transporting waste materials; early key events; impacts on New Mexico; project organization; and site certification profile

  3. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  7. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  8. Promoter isolation and characterization of GhAO-like1, a Gossypium hirsutum gene similar to multicopper oxidases that is highly expressed in reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambret-Frotté, Julia; Artico, Sinara; Muniz Nardeli, Sarah; Fonseca, Fernando; Brilhante Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fatima; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most economically important cultivated crops. It is the major source of natural fiber for the textile industry and an important target for genetic modification for both biotic stress and herbicide tolerance. Therefore, the characterization of genes and regulatory regions that might be useful for genetic transformation is indispensable. The isolation and characterization of new regulatory regions is of great importance to drive transgene expression in genetically modified crops. One of the major drawbacks in cotton production is pest damage; therefore, the most promising, cost-effective, and sustainable method for pest control is the development of genetically resistant cotton lines. Considering this scenario, our group isolated and characterized the promoter region of a MCO (multicopper oxidase) from Gossypium hirsutum, named GhAO-like1 (ascorbate oxidase-like1). The quantitative expression, together with the in vivo characterization of the promoter region reveals that GhAO-like1 has a flower- and fruit-specific expression pattern. The GUS activity is mainly observed in stamens, as expected considering that the GhAO-like1 regulatory sequence is enriched in cis elements, which have been characterized as a target of reproductive tissue specific transcription factors. Both histological and quantitative analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana have confirmed flower (mainly in stamens) and fruit expression of GhAO-like1. In the present paper, we isolated and characterized both in silico and in vivo the promoter region of the GhAO-like1 gene. The regulatory region of GhAO-like1 might be useful to confer tissue-specific expression in genetically modified plants.

  9. Diamond-coated probe head for measurements in the deep SOL and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Xu, G. S.; Yan, Ning

    We have tested two cylindrical graphite probe heads coated by a layer of electrically isolating UNCD (Ultra Nano-Crystalline Diamond) using a CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) method. The probe heads were mounted on the reciprocating probe manipulator of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting T...

  10. MRI in head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo [Shin Wha Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  11. Where is Russia heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.

  12. MRI in head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Kyo

    1986-01-01

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  13. "Head versus heart"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.

  14. Complete Oxidation of Propionate, Valerate, Succinate, and Other Organic Compounds by Newly Isolated Types of Marine, Anaerobic, Mesophilic, Gram-Negative, Sulfur-Reducing Eubacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Kai; Bak, Friedhelm

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures with either propionate, succinate, lactate, or valerate and elemental sulfur and inocula from shallow marine or deep-sea sediments were dominated by rod-shaped motile bacteria after three transfers. By application of deep-agar dilutions, five eubacterial strains were obtained in pure culture and designated Kyprop, Gyprop, Kysw2, Gylac, and Kyval. All strains were gram negative and grew by complete oxidation of the electron donors and concomitant stoichiometric reduction of elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. The isolates used acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, pyruvate, oxaloacetate, maleate, glutamate, alanine, aspartate, and yeast extract. All isolates, except strain Gylac, used citrate as an electron donor but valerate was oxidized only by strain Kyval. Fumarate and malate were degraded by all strains without an additional electron donor or acceptor. Kyprop, Gyprop, and Gylac utilized elemental sulfur as the sole inorganic electron acceptor, while Kysw2 and Kyval also utilized nitrate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or Fe(III)-citrate as an electron acceptor. Images PMID:16348934

  15. [The exploding head syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L

    1991-04-06

    The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.

  16. Where are we heading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry's participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  17. "Head versus heart"

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker

    2007-01-01

    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  18. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  19. Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Anne-Sylvie Catherin has been appointed Head of the Human Resources Department with effect from 1 August 2009. Mrs Catherin is a lawyer specialized in International Administration and joined CERN in 1996 as legal advisor within the Office of the HR Department Head. After having been promoted to the position of Group Leader responsible for social and statutory conditions in 2000, Mrs Catherin was appointed Deputy of the Head of the Human Resources Department and Group Leader responsible for Strategy, Management and Development from 2005 to date. Since 2005, she has also served as a member of CCP and TREF. In the execution of her mandate as Deputy HR Department Head, Mrs Catherin closely assisted the HR Department Head in the organization of the Department and in devising new HR policies and strategies. She played an instrumental role in the last five-yearly review and in the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations.

  20. Head injuries in snowboarders compared with head injuries in skiers. A prospective analysis of 1076 patients from 1994 to 1999 in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, O; Takaba, M; Saito, T; Endo, S

    2001-01-01

    We investigated snowboarding-related head injury cases and skiing-related head injury cases during five ski seasons at one resort area. There were 634 snowboarding-related head injuries and 442 skiing-related head injuries. The number of snowboarding head injuries increased rapidly over the study period. More male snowboarders than female snowboarders suffered head injuries. For both snowboarders and skiers, head injuries frequently occurred on the easy and middle slopes. Falls were the most frequent causes of injury in both groups. Jumping was a more frequent cause of injury in the snowboarders (30%) than in the skiers (2.5%). Injury to the occipital region predominated in the snowboarders as compared with the skiers. There were 49 organic lesions in 37 snowboarders and 46 organic lesions in 33 skiers. Subdural hematoma was frequent in the snowboarding head injury group, and fracture was frequent in the skiing head injury group compared with the snowboarding group (not significant). Subdural hematoma was likely to be caused by a fall rather than by a collision, and bone fracture was likely to be caused by a collision rather than by a fall. Four snowboarders and one skier died as a result of their head injuries. Our data suggest that snowboarding head injuries may be prevented by protection of the occipital region and refraining from jumping by beginners.

  1. [The isolation of organic compounds from hydrosulfuric mineral waters with the use of the extractive freezing-out technique with centrifugation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhterev, V N; Kabina, E A

    The mineral waters, enriched with organic substances find extensive application in balneotherapy. The fast and efficient methods for the identification and quantitative measurement of organic compounds (in the first place, organic acids) in such waters need to be developed for the estimation of their quality and biological activity. The objective of the present study was to elaborate a gas chromatographic method for the determination of monobasic carbonic acids in sulfide-containing mineral waters by means of extractive freezing-out in combination with the application of the centrifugal forces for the elucidation of the metrological characteristics of the compounds of interest. The secondary objective was to estimate the prospects for the application of the method of interest for determining the dissolved organic compounds in mineral waters. The following carbonic acids were used for the purposes of the study: acetic acid (analytical grade), Russia; propionic grade (extra pure), Ferak, Germany; butyric acid (pure), Russia; valeric acid (pure), Russia; caproic acid (pure), Russia; oenanthic acid (pure), Russia; and caprylic acid (pure), Russia). Acetonitrile («O» grade), Russia, was used as the extracting agent. The LV-210 analytical balance (Russia) was used to prepare the model and standard solutions of the organic compounds and to determine their mass. The extracts and standard mixture were investigated by the gas chromatographic technique with the use of the Kristallyuks apparatus («Meta-Khrom», Russia) equipped with the flame ionization detector and the capillary column. Extractive freezing-out in the combination with centrifugation was performed with the laboratory installation for this purpose. Under the model conditions, a single extractive freezing-out procedure with the centrifugation of the sample made it possible to reach the 22-37-fold concentration of C2-C8 monobasic carbonic acids during their transfer from water into acetonitrile. The

  2. The head problem. The organizational significance of segmentation in head development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horder, Tim J; Presley, Robert; Slípka, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    This review argues for the segmental basis of chordate head organization which, like somite-based segmental organization in the trunk, takes its origin from early mesodermal development. The review builds on, and brings up to date, Goodrich's well-known scheme of head organization. It surveys recent data in support of this scheme and shows how evidence and arguments supposedly in conflict with it can be accommodated. Many of the arguments revolve around matters of methodology; the limitations of older LM, SEM (on which the concept of "somitomeres" is based) and recent molecular evidence (which has sometimes been seen as allocating the central role in head organization to the CNS and the neural crest) are highlighted and shown to explain a number of claims contrary to Goodrich's. We provide (in Part 2) a new, comparative survey of the best available evidence most directly relevant to the Goodrich Bauplan, with a special emphasis on stem chordates. The postotic region has commonly been seen as segmentally organized: the critical issues concern the preotic region. There are many reasons why Goodrich's three preotic segments may become specialized during evolution and why the underlying initial segmental organization may be overridden in later stages during embryonic development; we refer to a number of these. We conclude that the preotic segmental Bauplan is remarkably conserved and most explicitly demonstrated among stem forms, but we also suggest that the concept of the prechordal plate requires careful reexamination. Central to our overall analysis is the importance of the epigenetic nature of embryogenesis; its implications are made clear. Finally we speculate on evolutionary implications for the origin of the head and its specialized features. The review is intended to serve as a resource giving access to references to a wealth of now neglected, older data on anamniote embryology.

  3. The Neuroendocrinology of Social Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P.; Cole, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed. PMID:25148851

  4. The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-01-03

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed.

  5. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  6. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  7. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  8. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  9. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  10. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  11. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  12. High-level exogenous glutamic acid-independent production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with organic acid addition in a new isolated Bacillus subtilis C10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Zhang, Anyi; Hong, Yizhi; Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-07-01

    A new exogenous glutamic acid-independent γ-PGA producing strain was isolated and characterized as Bacillus subtilis C10. The factors influencing the endogenous glutamic acid supply and the biosynthesis of γ-PGA in this strain were investigated. The results indicated that citric acid and oxalic acid showed the significant capability to support the overproduction of γ-PGA. This stimulated increase of γ-PGA biosynthesis by citric acid or oxalic acid was further proved in the 10 L fermentor. To understand the possible mechanism contributing to the improved γ-PGA production, the activities of four key intracellular enzymes were measured, and the possible carbon fluxes were proposed. The result indicated that the enhanced level of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity caused by oxalic acid was important for glutamic acid synthesized de novo from glucose. Moreover, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were the positive regulators of glutamic acid biosynthesis, while 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was the negative one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elbow joint laxity after experimental radial head excision and lateral collateral ligament rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Tyrdal, Stein

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this experimental study were to investigate the effect of radial head excision and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) division on elbow joint laxity and to determine the efficacy of radial head prosthetic replacement and LCL repair. Valgus, varus, internal rotation, and external...... rotation of the ulna were measured during passive flexion-extension and application of a 0.75-Nm torque in 6 intact cadaveric elbows and after (1) either excision of the radial head or division of the LCL, (2) removal of both constraints, (3) isolated radial head prosthetic replacement, (4) isolated LCL...... normalized varus laxity but resulted in a 2.9 degrees increase in external rotatory laxity. The combined procedures restored laxity completely. The radial head is a constraint to varus and external rotation in the elbow joint, functioning by maintaining tension in the LCL. Still, removal of both constraints...

  14. Organization of the origins of replication of the chromosomes of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and isolation of a functional origin from M. smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, L; Fsihi, H; de Rossi, E; Riccardi, G; Rios, C; Cole, S T; Takiff, H E

    1996-04-01

    The genus Mycobacterium is composed of species with widely differing growth rates ranging from approximately three hours in Mycobacterium smegmatis to two weeks in Mycobacterium leprae. As DNA replication is coupled to cell duplication, it may be regulated by common mechanisms. The chromosomal regions surrounding the origins of DNA replication from M. smegmatis, M. tuberculosis, and M. leprae have been sequenced, and show very few differences. The gene order, rnpA-rpmH-dnaA-dnaN-recF-orf-gyrB-gyrA, is the same as in other Gram-positive organisms. Although the general organization in M. smegmatis is very similar to that of Streptomyces spp., a closely related genus, M. tuberculosis and M. leprae differ as they lack an open reading frame, between dnaN and recF, which is similar to the gnd gene of Escherichia coli. Within the three mycobacterial species, there is extensive sequence conservation in the intergenic regions flanking dnaA, but more variation from the consensus DnaA box sequence was seen than in other bacteria. By means of subcloning experiments, the putative chromosomal origin of replication of M. smegmatis, containing the dnaA-dnaN region, was shown to promote autonomous replication in M. smegmatis, unlike the corresponding regions from M. tuberculosis or M. leprae.

  15. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated in Organic Waste Products (Cattle Fecal Matter, Manure and, Slurry) from Cattle's Markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bako, Evariste; Kagambèga, Assèta; Traore, Kuan Abdoulaye; Bagre, Touwendsida Serge; Ibrahim, Hadiza Bawa; Bouda, Soutongnooma Caroline; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste Ouindgueta; Kaboré, Saidou; Zongo, Cheikna; Traore, Alfred Sababenejo; Barro, Nicolas

    2017-09-22

    Cattle farming can promote diarrheal disease transmission through waste, effluents or cattle fecal matter. The study aims to characterize the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from cattle feces, manure in the composting process and slurry, collected from four cattle markets in Ouagadougou. A total of 585 samples (340 cattle feces, 200 slurries and 45 manures in the composting process) were collected from the four cattle markets between May 2015 and May 2016. A multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), namely 16-plex PCR, was used to screen simultaneously the virulence genes specific for shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). DEC was detected in 10.76% of samples. ETEC was the most prevalent (9.91%). STEC and EAEC have been observed with the same rate (0.51%). ETEC were detected in 12.64% of cattle feces, in 6.66% of manure in the composting process and in 5% of slurry. STEC were detected in 0.58% of cattle feces and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. EAEC was detected only in 1% of slurry and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. ETEC strains were identified based on estIa gene and/or estIb gene and/or elt gene amplification. Of the 58 ETEC, 10.34% contained astA , 17.24% contained elt , 3.44% contained estIa and 79.31% contained estIb . The two positive EAEC strains contained only the aggR gene, and the third was positive only for the pic gene. The results show that effluent from cattle markets could contribute to the spreading of DEC in the environment in Burkina Faso.

  17. Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated in Organic Waste Products (Cattle Fecal Matter, Manure and, Slurry from Cattle’s Markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evariste Bako

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cattle farming can promote diarrheal disease transmission through waste, effluents or cattle fecal matter. The study aims to characterize the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC isolated from cattle feces, manure in the composting process and slurry, collected from four cattle markets in Ouagadougou. A total of 585 samples (340 cattle feces, 200 slurries and 45 manures in the composting process were collected from the four cattle markets between May 2015 and May 2016. A multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, namely 16-plex PCR, was used to screen simultaneously the virulence genes specific for shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. DEC was detected in 10.76% of samples. ETEC was the most prevalent (9.91%. STEC and EAEC have been observed with the same rate (0.51%. ETEC were detected in 12.64% of cattle feces, in 6.66% of manure in the composting process and in 5% of slurry. STEC were detected in 0.58% of cattle feces and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. EAEC was detected only in 1% of slurry and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. ETEC strains were identified based on estIa gene and/or estIb gene and/or elt gene amplification. Of the 58 ETEC, 10.34% contained astA, 17.24% contained elt, 3.44% contained estIa and 79.31% contained estIb. The two positive EAEC strains contained only the aggR gene, and the third was positive only for the pic gene. The results show that effluent from cattle markets could contribute to the spreading of DEC in the environment in Burkina Faso.

  18. Proteomic analysis of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. pupae head development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Zheng

    Full Text Available The honeybee pupae development influences its future adult condition as well as honey and royal jelly productions. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates honeybee pupae head metamorphosis is still poorly understood. To further our understand of the associated molecular mechanism, we investigated the protein change of the honeybee pupae head at 5 time-points using 2-D electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Accordingly, 58 protein spots altered their expression across the 5 time points (13-20 days, of which 36 proteins involved in the head organogenesis were upregulated during early stages (13-17 days. However, 22 proteins involved in regulating the pupae head neuron and gland development were upregulated at later developmental stages (19-20 days. Also, the functional enrichment analysis further suggests that proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, development, cytoskeleton and protein folding were highly involved in the generation of organs and development of honeybee pupal head. Furthermore, the constructed protein interaction network predicted 33 proteins acting as key nodes of honeybee pupae head growth of which 9 and 4 proteins were validated at gene and protein levels, respectively. In this study, we uncovered potential protein species involved in the formation of honeybee pupae head development along with their specific temporal requirements. This first proteomic result allows deeper understanding of the proteome profile changes during honeybee pupae head development and provides important potential candidate proteins for future reverse genetic research on honeybee pupae head development to improve the performance of related organs.

  19. Proteome reference map of Drosophila melanogaster head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Ren; Huang, Shun-Hong; Lee, Chi-Ching; Lee, Hsiao-Yun; Chan, Hsin-Tzu; Lin, Kuo-Sen; Chan, Hong-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2012-06-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a genetic model organism to understand the fundamental molecular mechanisms in human biology including memory formation that has been reported involving protein synthesis and/or post-translational modification. In this study, we employed a proteomic platform based on fluorescent 2DE and MALDI-TOF MS to build a standard D. melanogaster head proteome map for proteome-proteome comparison. In order to facilitate the comparison, an interactive database has been constructed for systematically integrating and analyzing the proteomes from different conditions and further implicated to study human diseases related to D. melanogaster model. In summary, the fundamental head proteomic database and bioinformatic analysis will be useful for further elucidating the biological mechanisms such as memory formation and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Marine organisms as source of extracts to disrupt bacterial communication: bioguided isolation and identification of quorum sensing inhibitors from Ircinia felix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Quintana

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, 39 extracts from marine organisms were evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and the Brazilian Coast including 26 sponges, seven soft corals, five algae and one zooanthid. The results showed that crude extracts from the soft coral Eunicea laciniata, and the sponges Svenzea tubulosa, Ircinia felix and Neopetrosia carbonaria were the most promising source of quorum sensing inhibitors compounds without affecting bacterial growth, unlike the raw extracts of Agelas citrina, Agelas tubulata, Iotrochota arenosa, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Niphates caycedoi, Cliona tenuis, Ptilocaulis walpersi, Petrosia pellasarca, and the algae Laurencia catarinensis and Laurencia obtusa, which displayed potent antibacterial activity against the biosensors employed. The crude extract from the sponge I. felix was fractionated, obtaining furanosesterterpenes which were identified and evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, showing a moderate activity without affecting the biosensor's growth.

  1. Representation of heading direction in far and near head space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Berg, A.V. van den

    2003-01-01

    Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye

  2. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    In our cases of acute and subacute subdural hematoma, the use of CT was evaluated. In our department of surgery, acute subdural hematoma was found in 46 of 388 patients of head trauma who underwent CT. Acute subdural hematoma, like epidural hematoma was usually visualized as a high-density area along the cranial inner table, and this was easily differenciated from epidural hematoma because of difference in shape from the other. The picture of acute subdural hematoma was occasionally confused with that of intracerebral hematoma or cerebral contusion. Single use of CT does not differenciate subacute subdural hematoma from chronic subdural hematoma. However, CT usually visualized acute hematoma as a high-density area, showing the extent of hematoma. Comparison of the thickness of hematoma with the axis deviation of the median part such as the 3rd cerebral ventricle suggested severity of cerebral edema. CT also revealed bilateral or multiple lesions of cerebral contusion or intracerebral hematoma. (Ueda, J.)

  3. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  4. MCNP study for epithermal neutron irradiation of an isolated liver at the Finnish BNCT facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiluoto, P; Auterinen, I

    2004-11-01

    A successful boron neutron capture treatment (BNCT) of a patient with multiple liver metastases has been first given in Italy, by placing the removed organ into the thermal neutron column of the Triga research reactor of the University of Pavia. In Finland, FiR 1 Triga reactor with an epithermal neutron beam well suited for BNCT has been extensively used to irradiate patients with brain tumors such as glioblastoma and recently also head and neck tumors. In this work we have studied by MCNP Monte Carlo simulations, whether it would be beneficial to treat an isolated liver with epithermal neutrons instead of thermal ones. The results show, that the epithermal field penetrates deeper into the liver and creates a build-up distribution of the boron dose. Our results strongly encourage further studying of irradiation arrangement of an isolated liver with epithermal neutron fields.

  5. Lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Thinnes, G.L.; Allison, C.M.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure in order to determine (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of reactor designs and thermodynamic conditions using analytic closed-form approximations to assess the important governing parameters in non-dimensional form. Preliminary results illustrate the importance of vessel and tube geometrical parameters, material properties, and external boundary conditions on predicting vessel failure. Thermal analyses indicate that steady-state temperature distributions will occur in the vessel within several hours, although the exact time is dependent upon vessel thickness. In-vessel tube failure is governed by the tube-to-debris mass ratio within the lower head, where most penetrations are predicted to fail if surrounded by molten debris. Melt penetration distance is dependent upon the effective flow diameter of the tube. Molten debris is predicted to penetrate through tubes with a larger effective flow diameter, such as a boiling water reactor (BWR) drain nozzle. Ex-vessel tube failure for depressurized reactor vessels is predicted to be more likely for a BWR drain nozzle penetration because of its larger effective diameter. At high pressures (between ∼0.1 MPa and ∼12 MPa) ex-vessel tube rupture becomes a dominant failure mechanism, although tube ejection dominates control rod guide tube failure at lower temperatures. However, tube ejection and tube rupture predictions are sensitive to the vessel and tube radial gap size and material coefficients of thermal expansion

  6. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Martín, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  7. Mild head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasle, Veronique; Riffaud, Laurent; Longuet, Romain; Martineau-Curt, Marie; Collet, Yann; Le Fournier, Luc; Pladys, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Post-concussion syndrome is a well-described complication following moderate and severe head trauma but whether it occurs after mild head injury in children remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to mild head injury with potential additional risk factors (non-surgical lesion on computed tomographic, high kinetic trauma, or Glasgow Coma Scale <15) is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after the head trauma. This study was performed in an emergency department on children admitted between 2009 and 2013. It compared victims of mild head injury aged 6-16 years with matched children presenting isolated non-surgical forearm fracture (ratio1/2). ADHD was assessed using Conners' Global Index-Parent short version 3-40 months after the trauma. The patients were compared using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, t test or u-test as appropriate with a p value set at 0.05. During the study period, 676 patients were admitted for mild head injury. Among them, 34 (5 %) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were compared with 64 matched patients admitted for a forearm fracture. The groups were comparable. ADHD was observed in both groups (18 % in the mild head injury group, 11 % in the control group) with no significant differences between groups. The prevalence was high when compared to an expected frequency of 3.5-5.6 % in children aged 6-12 years in the general population. These results suggest that pre-existing ADHD may have contributed to injury proneness in both groups and does not argue for a specific risk of ADHD induced by mild head injury. The diagnosis of ADHD should be evoked at admission of children aged 6-16 years presenting with a trauma.

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save ... to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ... is also performed to: evaluate the extent of bone and soft tissue damage in patients with facial ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail ...

  11. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Adult Periodic Alternating Nystagmus Masked by Involuntary Head Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Kaski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquired periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN describes a horizontal jerk nystagmus that reverses its direction with a predictable cycle, and is thought to arise from lesions involving the brainstem and cerebellum. We report a 20-year-old patient with PAN who presented with an acute vertiginous episode and developed an involuntary head movement that initially masked the PAN. The involuntary head movements were abolished with a subtherapeutic dose of botulinum toxin to the neck muscles. We propose that the head movements initially developed as a compensatory movement to the nystagmus, to maintain visual fixation in the presence of the underlying nystagmus, and became an entrained involuntary behavior. This case highlights the importance of disambiguating psychogenic from organic pathology as this may have clinical therapeutic implications, in this case resolution of the most disabling symptom which was her head oscillations, leading to improved day-to-day function despite PAN.

  13. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  14. Thermal effects of dorsal head immersion in cold water on nonshivering humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Lockhart, Tamara L; Bristow, Gerald K; Steinman, Allan M

    2005-11-01

    Personal floatation devices maintain either a semirecumbent flotation posture with the head and upper chest out of the water or a horizontal flotation posture with the dorsal head and whole body immersed. The contribution of dorsal head and upper chest immersion to core cooling in cold water was isolated when the confounding effect of shivering heat production was inhibited with meperidine (Demerol, 2.5 mg/kg). Six male volunteers were immersed four times for up to 60 min, or until esophageal temperature = 34 degrees C. An insulated hoodless dry suit or two different personal floatation devices were used to create four conditions: 1) body insulated, head out; 2) body insulated, dorsal head immersed; 3) body exposed, head (and upper chest) out; and 4) body exposed, dorsal head (and upper chest) immersed. When the body was insulated, dorsal head immersion did not affect core cooling rate (1.1 degrees C/h) compared with head-out conditions (0.7 degrees C/h). When the body was exposed, however, the rate of core cooling increased by 40% from 3.6 degrees C/h with the head out to 5.0 degrees C/h with the dorsal head and upper chest immersed (P immersed (approximately 10%). The exaggerated core cooling during dorsal head immersion (40% increase) may result from the extra heat loss affecting a smaller thermal core due to intense thermal stimulation of the body and head and resultant peripheral vasoconstriction. Dorsal head and upper chest immersion in cold water increases the rate of core cooling and decreases potential survival time.

  15. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  16. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  17. Multiple Drosophila Tracking System with Heading Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudith Sirigrivatanawong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision systems have been widely used for image analysis, especially that which is beyond human ability. In biology, studies of behavior help scientists to understand the relationship between sensory stimuli and animal responses. This typically requires the analysis and quantification of animal locomotion. In our work, we focus on the analysis of the locomotion of the fruit fly D r o s o p h i l a m e l a n o g a s t e r , a widely used model organism in biological research. Our system consists of two components: fly detection and tracking. Our system provides the ability to extract a group of flies as the objects of concern and furthermore determines the heading direction of each fly. As each fly moves, the system states are refined with a Kalman filter to obtain the optimal estimation. For the tracking step, combining information such as position and heading direction with assignment algorithms gives a successful tracking result. The use of heading direction increases the system efficiency when dealing with identity loss and flies swapping situations. The system can also operate with a variety of videos with different light intensities.

  18. Femoral head necrosis; Hueftkopfnekrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.; Scheurecker, A.; Stoeger, A.; Huber, A. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Orthopaedisches Landeskrankenhaus Stolzalpe (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    The epidemiology and pathohistogenesis of avascular femoral head necrosis has still not been clarified in detail. Because the course of the disease runs in stages and over a long time period nearly always culminates in the necessity for a total hip prosthesis, an exact radiological evaluation is of paramount importance for the treatment. There is a need for a common staging system to enable comparison of different therapy concepts and especially their long-term results. In this article the ARCO staging system is described in full detail, which includes all radiological modalities as well as histopathological alterations. (orig.) [German] Bei der avaskulaeren Femurkopfnekrose handelt es sich um ein Krankheitsbild, dessen Ursachen noch immer nicht vollstaendig geklaert sind. Da die Erkrankung stadienhaft verlaeuft und ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum betrachtet nahezu immer in einem prothetischen Hueftersatz muendet, ist eine genaue radiologische Abklaerung fuer die Behandlung von enormer Bedeutung. Um Langzeiterfolge verschiedener Therapiekonzepte vergleichen zu koennen, sind eine exakte Beschreibung und darauf basierend die Verwendung einer einheitlichen Stadieneinteilung wuenschenswert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die ARCO-Stadieneinteilung im Detail beschrieben, die alle bildgebenden Methoden beruecksichtigt und histopathologische Veraenderungen mit einbezieht. (orig.)

  19. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    It has been said that chronic subdural hematoma cannot be diagnosed by CT. In our cases, CT was used, and the results were described. According to the density of the picture, CT findings of chronic subdural hematoma could be classified into 3 types, those of higher density than that of the cerebral paranchyma, those of isodensity, and those of lower density than that of the cerebral parenchyma. The difference among them appeared to be due to variation in the fluid in hematoma, especially that in hemoglobin concentration. Chronic subdural hematoma was found in 27 of 388 cases of head trauma in which CT was undertaken in our department of surgery for last 2 years. It is difficult to differenciate this disease from subdural edema or subarachnoideal retention of the cerebrospinal fluid. In many cases, use of contrast medium added no change to the CT picture. Cerebral angiography is necessary for definite diagnosis of the disease. Chronic subdural hematoma gives more varieties of findings than other intracranial hematomas. However, if the film is very carefully read, CT is still useful for diagnosing this disease in spite of initially remarked difficulties. (Ueda, J.)

  20. Project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law made of a single article. The agreement between the French government and the international organization ITER is attached to the document. It defines the juridical status, the privileges and immunities of the organization itself and of its personnel inside the French territory. An appendix to the agreement precises the cooperation modalities between the French authorities and ITER organization. (J.S.)

  1. Use of the GPK cutter loader to drive headings. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' tsov, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Mine drivage work is described at the Novovolynskaya mine of the Ukrzapadugol' organization with an output of 520,000 t/y, daily output 1457 t. Two seams 0.6-1.8 m thick are worked at depths of 360-380 m. There is a catagory I methane hazard and a hazard of coal dust explosions. Almost all heading drivage is performed using the GPK cutter loader. The AKP-3/9.2 yielding arch support is used in headings, with an interval of 0.8 m between arches. Local ventilation blowers provide air through 600 mm pipes. Suction dust collectors and spraying are used at the face. Details are given of work organization and maintenance procedures. No serious or fatal accidents were recorded during heading drivage between 1981 and 1984.

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional ... advantage of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the same time. ...

  3. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  4. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  5. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  6. Head-positioning scintillation camera and head holder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A holder for immobilizing the head of a patient undergoing a vertex brain scan by a Gamma Scintillation Camera is described. The holder has a uniquely designed shape capable of comfortably supporting the head. In addition, this holder can be both adjustably and removably utilized in combination with the scintillation camera so as to enable the brain scan operation to take place while the patient is in the seated position

  7. Phenotypic and Genotypic Features of a Salmonella Heidelberg Strain Isolated in Broilers in Brazil and Their Possible Association to Antibiotics and Short-Chain Organic Acids Resistance and Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Elizabeth; Hayashi, Ricardo Mitsuo; Wammes, Jessica Caroline; Gonzalez-Esquerra, Ricardo; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Freire, Caio César de Melo; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is a human pathogen also found in broilers. A strain (UFPR1) has been associated with field reports of resistance to short-chain organic acids (SCOA) in broilers in the South of Brazil, but was susceptible to a Bacillus subtilis -based probiotic added in feed in a related study. This work aimed to (i) report clinical symptoms caused by SH UFPR1 in broilers, (ii) study its susceptibility to some antibiotics in vitro , and (iii) SCOA in vivo ; and (iv) relate these phenotypic observations with its genome characteristics. Two in vivo trials used 1-day-old chicks housed for 21 days in 8 sterilized isolated negative pressure rooms with 4 battery cages of 12 birds each. Birds were challenged or not with 10 7  CFU/bird of SH UFPR1 orally and exposed or not to SCOA in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Zootechnical parameters were unaffected ( P  > 0.05), no clinical signs were observed, and few cecal and hepatic histologic and immune-related alterations were seen, in birds challenged with SH. Formic and propionic acids added together in drinking water, fumaric and benzoic acid in feed (Trial 1), and coated calcium butyrate in feed (Trial 2) did not reduce the SH isolation frequencies seen in cecum and liver in broilers after SH challenge ( P  > 0.05). SH UFPR1 was susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, ceftiofur, cephalexin, doxycycline and oxytetracycline; and mildly susceptible to ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamycin in an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration model using Mueller-Hinton agar. The whole genome of SH UFPR1 was sequenced and consisted of a circular chromosome, spanning 4,760,321 bp with 52.18% of GC-content encoding 84 tRNA, 22 rRNA, and 4,427 protein-coding genes. The comparison between SH UFPR1 genome and a multidrug-resistant SL476 strain revealed 11 missing genomic fragments and 5 insertions related to bgt, bgr , and rpoS genes. The

  8. Phenotypic and Genotypic Features of a Salmonella Heidelberg Strain Isolated in Broilers in Brazil and Their Possible Association to Antibiotics and Short-Chain Organic Acids Resistance and Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Santin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is a human pathogen also found in broilers. A strain (UFPR1 has been associated with field reports of resistance to short-chain organic acids (SCOA in broilers in the South of Brazil, but was susceptible to a Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic added in feed in a related study. This work aimed to (i report clinical symptoms caused by SH UFPR1 in broilers, (ii study its susceptibility to some antibiotics in vitro, and (iii SCOA in vivo; and (iv relate these phenotypic observations with its genome characteristics. Two in vivo trials used 1-day-old chicks housed for 21 days in 8 sterilized isolated negative pressure rooms with 4 battery cages of 12 birds each. Birds were challenged or not with 107 CFU/bird of SH UFPR1 orally and exposed or not to SCOA in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Zootechnical parameters were unaffected (P > 0.05, no clinical signs were observed, and few cecal and hepatic histologic and immune-related alterations were seen, in birds challenged with SH. Formic and propionic acids added together in drinking water, fumaric and benzoic acid in feed (Trial 1, and coated calcium butyrate in feed (Trial 2 did not reduce the SH isolation frequencies seen in cecum and liver in broilers after SH challenge (P > 0.05. SH UFPR1 was susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, ceftiofur, cephalexin, doxycycline and oxytetracycline; and mildly susceptible to ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamycin in an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration model using Mueller–Hinton agar. The whole genome of SH UFPR1 was sequenced and consisted of a circular chromosome, spanning 4,760,321 bp with 52.18% of GC-content encoding 84 tRNA, 22 rRNA, and 4,427 protein-coding genes. The comparison between SH UFPR1 genome and a multidrug-resistant SL476 strain revealed 11 missing genomic fragments and 5 insertions related to bgt, bgr, and rpoS genes. The

  9. Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshiki; Imanishi, Yorihisa

    2008-01-01

    The limitation of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) as the primary treatment is described based on recent findings. Limits in the application/indication involve factors of age, performance status (PS) and renal function. The first is that, as deaths in >71 years old patients are derived from other causes (41%) than HNC, CCRT is only useful for younger population; the second, patients with PS 0-1 or Karnofsky performance score >60-70 can be indicated; and third, contraindicated are those with creatinine clearance (CCr) <60 mL/min as the key drug cisplatin in CCRT has a high renal toxicity. It should be recognized that completion rates of chemotherapy and RT are as low as 66-85% and 84-92%, respectively, in CCRT. CCRT has such limiting adverse events as mucitis, dry mouth, dysohagia, weight loss, neutropenia, sepsis, etc., which are most important in CCRT application. CCRT is recommended for the primary cancers of larynx and hypopharynx because they are significantly better conserved than middle pharyngeal, oral and upper jaw cancers. Evidence of CCRT is poor for cancers in paranasal sinuses. Planned neck dissection (PND) is for the cervical metastatic lymph nodes and conducted 6-12 weeks after CCRT regardless to its outcome. In fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) negative cases, PND can be omitted. Necessity of PND is possibly inversely proportional to CCRT intensity performed. For control of remote metastasis, CCRT has obvious limits and inductive chemotherapy before it is currently considered. Salvage surgery post CCRT does not always yield a relief because of complication. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer can be selected either to surgery or CCRT depending on results of the inductive chemotherapy. To predict the sensitivity to CCRT, some biomarkers like HPV, EGFR and VEGF have been suggested to be useful by retrospective studies. Understanding the limitation is as important as knowing the usefulness in

  10. Spasm of the near reflex associated with head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Christopher; Sachdev, Arun; Gottlob, Irene

    2002-03-01

    Spasm of the near reflex is characterized by intermittent miosis, convergence spasm and pseudomyopia with blurred vision at distance. Usually, it is a functional disorder in young patients with underlying emotional problems. Only rarely is it caused by organic disorder. We report a patient who developed convergent spasm associated with miosis after head trauma at the age of 84 years.

  11. 10th International Symposium on Head And Neck Skin Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; van der Veen, J. P. Wietse

    2011-01-01

    Since 1993, ten multidisciplinary symposia were organized at The Netherlands Cancer Institute on the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies of the head and neck. The symposia are meant to provide up-to-date teaching for physicians by world-renowned speakers. The previous symposia dealt with

  12. Advances in Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Nuyts, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, significant improvements have been made in the radiotherapy (RT) treatment of head and neck malignancies. The progressive introduction of intensity-modulated RT and the use of multimodality imaging for target volume and organs at risk delineation, together with the use of

  13. WE-G-BRD-04: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An Integrated Model-Based Intrafractional Organ Motion Tracking Approach with Dynamic MRI in Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Li, H; Wooten, H; Gay, H; Mutic, S; Thorstad, W; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Victoria, J; Dempsey, J [ViewRay incorporated, Oakwood Village, Ohio (United States); Ruan, S [University of Rouen, QuantIF - EA 4108 LITIS, Rouen (France); Low, D [Deparment of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In-treatment dynamic cine images, provided by the first commercially available MRI-guided radiotherapy system, allow physicians to observe intrafractional motion of head and neck (H&N) internal structures. Nevertheless, high anatomical complexity and relatively poor cine image contrast/resolution have complicated automatic intrafractional motion evaluation. We proposed an integrated model-based approach to automatically delineate and analyze moving structures from on-board cine images. Methods: The H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein severe internal motion often occurs, was selected as the target-to-be-tracked. To reliably capture its motion, a hierarchical structure model containing three statistical shapes (face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) was first built from a set of manually delineated shapes using principal component analysis. An integrated model-fitting algorithm was then employed to align the statistical shapes to the first to-be-detected cine frame, and multi-feature level-set contour propagation was performed to identify the airway shape change in the remaining frames. Ninety sagittal cine MR image sets, acquired from three H&N cancer patients, were utilized to demonstrate this approach. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 20 randomly selected images from each patient. The resulting dice similarity coefficient (93.28+/−1.46 %) and margin error (0.49+/−0.12 mm) showed good agreement with the manual results. Intrafractional displacements of anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries were observed, with values of 2.62+/−2.92, 1.78+/−1.43, 3.51+/−3.99, and 0.68+/−0.89 mm, respectively. The H&N airway motion was found to vary across directions, fractions, and patients, and highly correlated with patients’ respiratory frequency. Conclusion: We proposed the integrated computational approach, which for the first

  14. WE-G-BRD-04: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An Integrated Model-Based Intrafractional Organ Motion Tracking Approach with Dynamic MRI in Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Li, H; Wooten, H; Gay, H; Mutic, S; Thorstad, W; Li, H; Victoria, J; Dempsey, J; Ruan, S; Low, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In-treatment dynamic cine images, provided by the first commercially available MRI-guided radiotherapy system, allow physicians to observe intrafractional motion of head and neck (H&N) internal structures. Nevertheless, high anatomical complexity and relatively poor cine image contrast/resolution have complicated automatic intrafractional motion evaluation. We proposed an integrated model-based approach to automatically delineate and analyze moving structures from on-board cine images. Methods: The H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein severe internal motion often occurs, was selected as the target-to-be-tracked. To reliably capture its motion, a hierarchical structure model containing three statistical shapes (face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) was first built from a set of manually delineated shapes using principal component analysis. An integrated model-fitting algorithm was then employed to align the statistical shapes to the first to-be-detected cine frame, and multi-feature level-set contour propagation was performed to identify the airway shape change in the remaining frames. Ninety sagittal cine MR image sets, acquired from three H&N cancer patients, were utilized to demonstrate this approach. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 20 randomly selected images from each patient. The resulting dice similarity coefficient (93.28+/−1.46 %) and margin error (0.49+/−0.12 mm) showed good agreement with the manual results. Intrafractional displacements of anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries were observed, with values of 2.62+/−2.92, 1.78+/−1.43, 3.51+/−3.99, and 0.68+/−0.89 mm, respectively. The H&N airway motion was found to vary across directions, fractions, and patients, and highly correlated with patients’ respiratory frequency. Conclusion: We proposed the integrated computational approach, which for the first

  15. Sports-related Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and head gear come in many sizes and styles for many sports and must properly fit to ... to play or practice." The "Concussion Diagnosis and Management" section details circumstances in which an athlete should ...

  16. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and may add approximately 15 minutes to the total exam time. top of page What will I ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... gadolinium contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Oral, Head ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... gadolinium contrast, it may still be possible to use it after appropriate pre-medication. Patient consent will ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  8. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... for immediate assistance. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by the interpreting radiologist. Frequently, the differentiation of abnormal (diseased) tissue from normal tissues is better with ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  17. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  18. Effect of Time Management Program on Job Satisfaction for Head Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Hanan ELsayed; Sleem, Wafaa Fathi; El Atroush, Hala Gaber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time management and job satisfaction all related to each other and greatly affect success of organization. Subjects and Methods: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a designed program of time management on job satisfaction for head nurses. A Quasi-experimental design was used for a total number of head nurses participated. Two…

  19. Topiramate Responsive Exploding Head Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Palikh, Gaurang M.; Vaughn, Bradley V.

    2010-01-01

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  20. Topiramate responsive exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikh, Gaurang M; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2010-08-15

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  1. The marble head of a statuette from Mediana (excavations in 2001)

    OpenAIRE

    Plemić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    During the archaeological excavations in Mediana in 2001, the head of a marble statuette of exceptional beauty and craftsmanship was discovered. It was an isolated discovery, the sculpture probably having been imported from some Greek artistic centre or an eastern Mediterranean workshop, presenting a part of a larger ensemble of sculptures that had adorned an imperial villa with peristyle. Since the head was found in pieces and being just part of a sculptural representation with no reliable a...

  2. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  3. Fixation and localisation of manganese in some soft water organisms: I - Distribution of 54Mn in an ecologic system in fresh water; II - study by biochemical fractionation of manganese contained by isolated plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaval, Robert; Lachet, Bernard; Gagnaire, Janine; Fourcy, Andre; Neuburger, Michel; Fer, Andre

    1968-12-01

    After having recalled that Manganese 54, an irradiation product of 54 Fe, has a sufficiently long radioactive period to be detected in atmospheric fallouts of nuclear explosions, but also in radioactive wastes produced by research centres, and is generally produced by corrosion of any enclosure submitted to neutron irradiation, the authors report the experimental study of a radioactive pollution of fresh water when this radio-element is a component of this pollution. Different containers are considered. They contain either water and sediments, or water and organic compounds and aquatic plants, or water and sediments and aquatic plants. A solution of 54 MnCl 2 of radioactive pollution is introduced in these containers and the authors study the decrease of radioactivity in water with respect to the considered ecosystem, the 54 Mn concentration in aquatic living species, and the distribution of 54 Mn after 43 days. In a second part, they report the study of the distribution of cellular manganese in isolated biochemical fractions by using the Schmidt and Thannhauser method. Due to the low content, the detection of this mineral nutrient requires a highly sensitive method: dosing of natural manganese by radio-activation

  4. Management of post-traumatic elbow instability after failed radial head excision: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloupakis, Georgios; Theodorakis, Emmanouil; Favetti, Fabio; Nannerini, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    Radial head excision has always been a safe commonly used surgical procedure with a satisfactory clinical outcome for isolated comminuted radial head fractures. However, diagnosis of elbow instability is still very challenging and often underestimated in routine orthopaedic evaluation. We present the case of a 21-years old female treated with excision after radial head fracture, resulting in elbow instability. The patient underwent revision surgery after four weeks. We believe that ligament reconstruction without radial head substitution is a safe alternative choice for Mason III radial head fractures accompanied by complex ligament lesions. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Head capsule, chephalic central nervous system and head circulatory system of an aberrant orthopteran, Prosarthria teretrirostris (Caelifera, Hexapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Eileen; Hertel, Wieland; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2007-01-01

    The head capsule, the circulatory system and the central nervous system of the head of Prosarthria teretrirostris (Proscopiidae) is described in detail, with special consideration of modifications resulting from the aberrant head shape. The transformations of the head are completely different from those found in phasmatodeans, which are also characterised by twig mimesis. The circulatory system is distinctly modified. A hitherto undescribed additional structure in the posterior head region very likely functions as a pulsatile organ. The cephalic central nervous system is strongly elongated, with changes in the position of the suboesophageal ganglion, the corpora cardiaca and the course of the nervus mandibularis. Three-dimensional reconstructions of these two organ systems in combination with the pharynx were made using Alias Maya 6.0 software. Comparisons with other representatives of Caelifera suggest a clade comprising Proscopiidae and Morabinae. The presence of a transverse muscle connecting the antennal ampullae in Prosarthria shows that this structure likely belongs to the groundplan of Orthoptera, even though it is missing in different representatives of this group. The transverse ampullary muscle is a potential synapomorphy of Orthoptera, Phasmatodea and Dictyoptera.

  6. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  7. Head Injury as Risk Factor for Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlovska, Sonja; Pedersen, Michael Skaarup; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2014-01-01

    . METHOD: The authors used linkable Danish nationwide population-based registers to investigate the incidence of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and organic mental disorders in 113,906 persons who had suffered head injuries. Data were analyzed by survival analysis...... and adjusted for gender, age, calendar year, presence of a psychiatric family history, epilepsy, infections, autoimmune diseases, and fractures not involving the skull or spine. RESULTS: Head injury was associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65, 95% CI=1...

  8. Isolation and antibiogram of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli isolates from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Nalini Mohanty,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the continuous change in the pattern of drug resistance showed by different mastitogenic organisms, isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 150 milk samples received from various clinical and subclinical cases, from which the causative organisms were isolated and subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: The bacteriological analysis of the samples indicated the presence of both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms followed by isolation of isolates like Staphylococcus, E. coli, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Klebsiella. The in vitro sensitivity of Staphylococcus, E. coli and Streptococcus isolates revealed that they were more sensitive towards newer antimicrobials like Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin.Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus was found to be maximum followed by Streptococcus and E. coli among the isolated organisms. Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin were found to be most effective against the targeted isolates.

  9. Oligotrophic bacteria isolated from clinical materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Y; Ihmori, M; Yamaguchi, J

    1995-01-01

    Oligotrophic bacteria (oligotrophs) are microorganisms that grow in extremely nutritionally deficient conditions in which the concentrations of organic substances are low. Many oligotrophic bacteria were isolated from clinical materials including urine, sputum, swabbings of the throat, vaginal discharges, and others. Seventy-seven strains of oligotrophic bacteria from 871 samples of clinical material were isolated. A relatively higher frequency of isolation of oligotrophic bacteria was shown ...

  10. Opioid-Induced Nausea Involves a Vestibular Problem Preventable by Head-Rest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Lehnen

    Full Text Available Opioids are indispensable for pain treatment but may cause serious nausea and vomiting. The mechanism leading to these complications is not clear. We investigated whether an opioid effect on the vestibular system resulting in corrupt head motion sensation is causative and, consequently, whether head-rest prevents nausea.Thirty-six healthy men (26.6 ± 4.3 years received an opioid remifentanil infusion (45 min, 0.15 μg/kg/min. Outcome measures were the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain determined by video-head-impulse-testing, and nausea. The first experiment (n = 10 assessed outcome measures at rest and after a series of five 1-Hz forward and backward head-trunk movements during one-time remifentanil administration. The second experiment (n = 10 determined outcome measures on two days in a controlled crossover design: (1 without movement and (2 with a series of five 1-Hz forward and backward head-trunk bends 30 min after remifentanil start. Nausea was psychophysically quantified (scale from 0 to 10. The third controlled crossover experiment (n = 16 assessed nausea (1 without movement and (2 with head movement; isolated head movements consisting of the three axes of rotation (pitch, roll, yaw were imposed 20 times at a frequency of 1 Hz in a random, unpredictable order of each of the three axes. All movements were applied manually, passively with amplitudes of about ± 45 degrees.The VOR gain decreased during remifentanil administration (p<0.001, averaging 0.92 ± 0.05 (mean ± standard deviation before, 0.60 ± 0.12 with, and 0.91 ± 0.05 after infusion. The average half-life of VOR recovery was 5.3 ± 2.4 min. 32/36 subjects had no nausea at rest (nausea scale 0.00/0.00 median/interquartile range. Head-trunk and isolated head movement triggered nausea in 64% (p<0.01 with no difference between head-trunk and isolated head movements (nausea scale 4.00/7.25 and 1.00/4.5, respectively.Remifentanil reversibly decreases VOR gain at a half

  11. Is mask-based stereotactic head-and-neck fixation as precise as stereotactic head fixation for precision radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Bogner, Joachim; Dieckmann, Karin; Poetter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    -and-neck fixation allows accurate and reproducible fixation of patients. For intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the upper head-and-neck region, the application of reduced margins around 2-3 mm, which has an implication on organ sparing, is enabled by such an immobilization device

  12. Triterpene alcohol isolation from oil shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, P; Ourisson, G

    1969-03-14

    Isoarborinol, an intact pentacyclic unsaturated alcohol, was isolated from the Messel oil shale (about 50 x 106 years old). Complex organic substances, even those very sensitive to oxidation, reduction, or acidic conditions, can thus survive without alteration for long periods.

  13. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  14. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  15. A case series of closed head trauma with pituitary stalk disruption resulting in hypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Khan

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in young trauma patients with resultant multi-organ effects. Hypopituitarism following TBI can be debilitating and life threatening. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury, such as from a motor vehicle accident, or by chronic repetitive head trauma, as seen in combative supports including boxing, kick-boxing, and football. In the majority of cases, a diagnosis of hypopituitarism can be entirely missed resulting in severe neuro-endocrine dysfunction. We present a case series of two patients diagnosed with hypopituitarism after TBI and treated appropriately with favorable outcome. Case presentations: The first case is a 34 year-old male, who presented to the emergency department with blunt head trauma after a motor vehicle accident while riding his bicycle. He suffered from severe cranio-facial injuries, resulting in multifocal hemorrhagic contusions, epidural hematoma, and extensive cranio-facial fractures involving the sinuses. The patient developed persistent hypotension with a blood pressure as low as 60/40 mmHg on hospital day three.The second case is a 56 year-old male with a history of schizophrenia, who suffered traumatic brain injury after he was hit by a train. The patient sustained multiple facial fractures, pneumocephalus and C2/7 transverse processes fractures. He also had persistent hypotension, unresponsive to standard treatment. Investigation revealed a deficiency of anterior pituitary hormones resulting from pituitary axis disruption. Discussion: Hypopituitarism is becoming an increasingly recognized complication following TBI, ranging from total to isolated deficiencies. Traumatic Brain Injury is a major public health problem and is one of the leading causes of disability. Understanding and recognizing pituitary dysfunction after TBI can lead to better outcomes and improved quality of life

  16. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  17. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  18. Effect of Various Inoculum Levels of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg (2011 Ground Turkey Outbreak Isolate on Cecal Colonization, Dissemination to Internal Organs, and Deposition in Skeletal Muscles of Commercial Turkeys after Experimental Oral Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divek V. T. Nair

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg is a major foodborne pathogen colonizing poultry. The pathogen is associated with a significant number of foodborne outbreaks through contaminated poultry meat, including turkeys. Recently, multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of S. Heidelberg have emerged as a threat to human public health in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the cecal colonization, dissemination to internal organs, and the potential for skeletal muscle deposition of an MDR S. Heidelberg isolate from the 2011 ground turkey outbreak in the United States after the experimental oral challenge of poults (young turkeys and adult turkey hens. In the poult study, two separate experiments using day-old, straight-run, commercial hybrid converter poults were randomly assigned to five challenge groups (0, 10∧2, 10∧4, 10∧6, 10∧8 CFU groups; 12 poults/group; N = 60/experiment and a week after, treatment groups were challenged separately with 0-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8- log10 CFU of S. Heidelberg orally. After 14 days post-challenge, the poults were euthanized, and samples were collected to determine MDR S. Heidelberg colonization in the cecum, dissemination to liver and spleen, and deposition in the thigh, drumstick, and breast muscles. A similar experimental design was followed for the adult turkey hens. In two separate experiments, 11-week-old commercial Hybrid Converter turkey hens (4 hens/group; N = 20/experiment were challenged with MDR S. Heidelberg and on day 16 post-challenge, birds were euthanized and samples were collected to determine Salmonella populations in the samples. The results indicated that, in turkey poults, the recovery of MDR S. Heidelberg was highest in the cecum followed by spleen, liver, thigh, drumstick, and breast. All tested inoculum levels resulted in more than 3.5 log10 CFU/g colonization in the poult cecum. The cecal colonization, dissemination to internal organs, and tissue

  19. MYTH AND REALITY:ORGANIC VS NON-ORGANIC

    OpenAIRE

    Azeez, Ms G

    2001-01-01

    This report examines some of the key issues around organic food and its production. It takes up the challenge of answering the critics - critics who range from companies defending agri-business, through to the heads of national food authorities and some academics. It exposes the misleading and erroneous statements made against organic food, and provides the facts that proves them wrong.

  20. 18 CFR 701.5 - Organization pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organization pattern... ORGANIZATION Introduction § 701.5 Organization pattern. (a) The Office of the Water Resources Council is... Council Staff headed by a Director, and Field Organizations within its jurisdiction. (b) The Water...

  1. False-positive head-impulse test in cerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia eKremmyda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this study was to compare the findings of the bedside head impulse test (HIT, passive head rotation gain, and caloric irrigation in patients with cerebellar ataxia (CA. In 16 patients with CA and bilaterally pathological bedside HIT, VOR gains were measured during HIT and passive head rotation by scleral search coil technique. Eight of the patients had pathologically reduced caloric responsiveness, while the other eight had normal caloric responses. Those with normal calorics showed a slightly reduced HIT gain (mean±SD: 0.73±0.15. In those with pathological calorics, gains 80ms and 100 ms after the HIT as well as the passive rotation VOR gains were significantly lower. The corrective saccade after head turn occurred earlier in patients with pathological calorics (111±62 ms after onset of the HIT than in those with normal calorics. (191±17 ms, p=0.0064 We indentified two groups of patients with CA: those with an isolated moderate HIT deficit only, probably due to floccular dysfunction, and those with combined HIT, passive rotation and caloric deficit, probably due to a peripheral vestibular deficit. From a clinical point of view, these results show that the bedside HIT alone can be false positive for establishing a diagnosis of a bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit in patients with CA.

  2. New Head of the Users Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Doris Chromek-Burckhart took over as Head of the Users Office on 1 June. She succeeds Chris Onions, who held the post for more than ten years before retiring in 2010, and Jose Salicio Diez, who replaced him temporarily.   Doris Chromek-Burckhart photographed by Pierre Gildemyn. Doris Chromek-Burckhart arrived at CERN about thirty years ago after completing a physics degree at Mainz University in Germany, and began her career with the Organization working on data acquisition systems for the experiments. She then joined ATLAS, where she took part in the development, commissioning and operation of the experiment's own data acquisition system. Her appointment as Head of the Users Office was preceded by two years as CERN's Equal Opportunities Officer from 2009 to 2010. The Users Office, which has now been in existence for over twenty years, manages administrative procedures and generally makes life easier for the 10,000 or more users from around a hundred different countries, in collaboration with CER...

  3. Intellectual Capital and Predefined Headings in Swedish Health Care Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terner Annika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavily decentralized Swedish health care sector is facing massive challenges, e.g. to even out differences in health care performance. Intellectual Capital can partly be used to explain these differences. In the research field it is difficult to find contributions regarding the study of intellectual capital management in the health care sector and there is also a lack of studies on semantic interoperability. It is semantic interoperability which allows the right information to be available to the right people at the right time across products and organizations. Structured and standardized headings can be a tool to enable semantic interoperability. The aim of this article is to argue for predefined headings as intellectual capital and as base for a national shared and standardized terminology in the health care sector. The study shows that there is a lack of national management of predefined headings deployed in both electronic health records and national quality registries. This lack causes multiple documentation which is time-consuming, impacts health professionals’ workloads, data quality and partly the performance of health care. We argue that predefined headings can be a base for semantic interoperability and that there is a need for the management of predefined headings on a national level.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If sedation is used, there ... have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related ...

  6. Womanhood in Bessie Head's fiction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rain Cloud~· Gather ( 1969), Maru ( 1972) and A Question of Power ( 1974 ),. Head addresses and ... Yet as is the case in most literature by black women from Africa and the. Caribbean .... womanhood comes into play in the principal's decision to get rid of her: "she ... which tl}e principal intends to use to his advantage.

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... information please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media and its references. top of page What are the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able to ...

  11. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...

  12. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ... more. TMJ and Facial Pain TMJ and Facial ... Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can ...

  13. Head Start Center Design Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This guide contains suggested criteria for planning, designing, and renovating Head Start centers so that they are safe, child-oriented, developmentally appropriate, beautiful, environmentally sensitive, and functional. The content is based on the U.S. General Services Administration's Child Care Center Design Guide, PBS-P140, which was intended…

  14. Analytical modelling of soccer heading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... game is that the players are permitted to use their head to direct the ball during ... method in assessing the cognitive functions that can be applied not only to ... It is attached to a spring (stiffness, k1) and a dashpot (damping coefficient, c1).

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and may require an injection of a ...

  16. Spasm of accommodation associated with closed head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R V Paul; Trobe, Jonathan D

    2002-03-01

    Spasm of accommodation, creating pseudomyopia, is generally associated with miosis and excess convergence as part of spasm of the near reflex. It may also exist as an isolated entity, usually attributed to psychogenic causes. We present six cases of accommodative spasm associated with closed head injury. All patients were male, ranging in age between 16 and 37 years. The degree of pseudomyopia, defined as the difference between manifest and cycloplegic refraction, was 1.5 to 2 diopters. A 3-year trial of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in one patient did not lead to reversal of the spasm when the cycloplegia was stopped. All patients required the manifest refraction to see clearly at distance. The pseudomyopia endured for at least 7 years following head trauma. This phenomenon may represent traumatic activation or disinhibition of putative brain stem accommodation centers in young individuals.

  17. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  18. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How do I view different ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  19. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How do ... Page last updated: April 24, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , National Center for ...

  20. Head and Neck Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx (voice box), throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Start here to find information on head and neck cancer treatment in adults and children, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  1. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training course: This page has moved Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This training course has been ... with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources ... HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  2. Rapid Communication. Monitoring the occurrence of bacteria in stored cabbage heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichmeier Aleš

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six cabbage heads stored under typical conditions in a storage hall in Moravia, Czech Republic, were tested for the presence of bacteria by the method of isolation from three different parts of the cabbage heads. Isolations were carried out from stalks, inner and superficial leaves. Two samplings were done; in November 2015 and February 2016. Bacterial cultures were sequenced in the part of 16S rRNA region; bacteria were identified according to the sequences obtained. The most prevalent bacteria were of the genus Pseudomonas. Genera: Klebsiella, Erwinia, Pantoea, Bacillus were also identified. The results provided an interesting insight into the bacterial spectrum in stored cabbage heads and their dynamics during storage. The nucleotide sequences which were found were saved in GenBank/NCBI under accession numbers KX160104-KX160145.

  3. Wear and creep of highly crosslinked polyethylene against cobalt chrome and ceramic femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, A L; Jennings, L M; Tipper, J L; Ingham, E; Fisher, J

    2010-10-01

    The wear and creep characteristics of highly crosslinked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) articulating against large-diameter (36mm) ceramic and cobalt chrome femoral heads have been investigated in a physiological anatomical hip joint simulator for 10 million cycles. The crosslinked UHMWPE/ceramic combination showed higher volume deformation due to creep plus wear during the first 2 million cycles, and a steady-state wear rate 40 per cent lower than that of the crosslinked UHMWPE/cobalt chrome combination. Wear particles were isolated and characterized from the hip simulator lubricants. The wear particles were similar in size and morphology for both head materials. The particle isolation methodology used could not detect a statistically significant difference between the particles produced by the cobalt chrome and alumina ceramic femoral heads.

  4. Head stabilization in whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, M.R.; Cronin, T.W.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is the tallest bird in North America, yet not much is known about its visual ecology. How these birds overcome their unusual height to identify, locate, track, and capture prey items is not well understood. There have been many studies on head and eye stabilization in large wading birds (herons and egrets), but the pattern of head movement and stabilization during foraging is unclear. Patterns of head movement and stabilization during walking were examined in whooping cranes at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland USA. Four whooping cranes (1 male and 3 females) were videotaped for this study. All birds were already acclimated to the presence of people and to food rewards. Whooping cranes were videotaped using both digital and Hi-8 Sony video cameras (Sony Corporation, 7-35 Kitashinagawa, 6-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan), placed on a tripod and set at bird height in the cranes' home pens. The cranes were videotaped repeatedly, at different locations in the pens and while walking (or running) at different speeds. Rewards (meal worms, smelt, crickets and corn) were used to entice the cranes to walk across the camera's view plane. The resulting videotape was analyzed at the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. Briefly, we used a computerized reduced graphic model of a crane superimposed over each frame of analyzed tape segments by means of a custom written program (T. W. Cronin, using C++) with the ability to combine video and computer graphic input. The speed of the birds in analyzed segments ranged from 0.30 m/s to 2.64 m/s, and the proportion of time the head was stabilized ranged from 79% to 0%, respectively. The speed at which the proportion reached 0% was 1.83 m/s. The analyses suggest that the proportion of time the head is stable decreases as speed of the bird increases. In all cases, birds were able to reach their target prey with little difficulty. Thus when cranes are walking searching for food

  5. International conference on matrix isolation spectroscopy. Extended Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    Seventy-five extended abstracts are arranged under the following headings: generation of reactive species and their isolation in matrices, spectra of metal atoms and cluster formation, stable molecules in matrices, Raman- and IR-spectroscopy, high-temperature molecules, reactive matrices, relaxation phenomena studied in matrices, and physical properties of matrices. (DLC)

  6. Isolated vasculitis of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, F.; Reith, W.

    2000-01-01

    Vasculitis is a rare cause for disease of the CNS. The isolated vasculitis of the CNS is restricted to the CNS whereas other forms of vasculitis affect various organs including the CNS. Headache, encephalopathy, focal deficits and epileptic seizures are the major symptoms suggestive for vasculitis. One major criterion of the isolated vasculitis of the CNS is the lack of evidence for other vasculitis forms or for pathology of other organs. Angiography displays multifocal segmental stenosis of intracranial vessels. MRI demonstrates multiple lesions which in part show enhancement after gadolinium. A definite diagnosis can only be made on the grounds of biopsy from leptomeninges and parenchyma. Therapy consists of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamid. (orig.) [de

  7. Deficit in figure-ground segmentation following closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, G C; Baylis, L L

    1997-08-01

    Patient CB showed a severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation following a closed head injury. Unlike normal subjects, CB was unable to parse smaller and brighter parts of stimuli as figure. Moreover, she did not show the normal effect that symmetrical regions are seen as figure, although she was able to make overt judgments of symmetry. Since she was able to attend normally to isolated objects, CB demonstrates a dissociation between figure ground segmentation and subsequent processes of attention. Despite her severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation, CB showed normal 'parallel' single feature visual search. This suggests that figure-ground segmentation is dissociable from 'preattentive' processes such as visual search.

  8. 29 CFR 1918.103 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1918.103 Section 1918.103 Labor... must ensure that head protection complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ANSI Z89.1... as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... helmets. (1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ANSI Z89.1... as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.135 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1910.135 Section 1910.135 Labor... head protection. (1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i... consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section. [59 FR 16362...

  11. Small head size after atomic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Mulvihill, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of children exposed to nuclear explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki showed small head size and mental retardation when exposure occurred less than 18 weeks of gestational age. Increased frequency of small head size occurred when maternal exposure was 10 to 19 rad. Tables and graphs are presented to show relationships between dose, gestational age, and frequency of small head size

  12. Health Coordination Manual. Head Start Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    Part 1 of this manual on coordinating health care services for Head Start children provides an overview of what Head Start health staff should do to meet the medical, mental health, nutritional, and/or dental needs of Head Start children, staff, and family members. Offering examples, lists, action steps, and charts for clarification, part 2…

  13. 21 CFR 868.1930 - Stethoscope head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stethoscope head. 868.1930 Section 868.1930 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1930 Stethoscope head. (a) Identification. A stethoscope head is a weighted chest piece used during anesthesia to listen to a patient's heart, breath, and...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.100 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1926.100 Section 1926.100 Labor... § 1926.100 Head protection. (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head... protected by protective helmets. (b) Helmets for the protection of employees against impact and penetration...

  15. Efficacy of breast shielding during CT of the head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brnic, Z.; Hebrang, A.; Anic, P.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate in vivo the levels of breast exposure to scatter radiation in head CT examination and the dependence of breast exposure upon body constitution. We tried to estimate the efficacy of external lead shielding as a mean of breast dose reduction. We wanted to estimate how much radiation reaches the organ from outside, in comparison to radiation load due to internal scatter

  16. Preparation and isolation of isobenzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten K. Peters

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, isolation and characterization of isobenzofuran are described in this publication. Isobenzofuran is of general interest in synthetic and physical organic chemistry because it is one of the most reactive dienes known. A number of synthetic pathways have been published which all suffer from disadvantages such as low yields and difficult purification. We present a synthetic pathway to prepare isobenzofuran in laboratory scale with high yields, from affordable, commercially available starting materials.

  17. Fuel rod pellet loading head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, T.E.

    1975-01-01

    An assembly for loading nuclear fuel pellets into a fuel rod comprising a loading head for feeding pellets into the open end of the rod is described. The pellets rest in a perforated substantially V-shaped seat through which air may be drawn for removal of chips and dust. The rod is held in place in an adjustable notched locator which permits alignment with the pellets

  18. Bottom head failure program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier this year the NRC staff presented a Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan (SECY-89-123) to the Commission and initiated work on that plan. Two of the near-term issues in that plan involve failure of the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel. These two issues are (1) depressurization and DCH and (2) BWR Mark I Containment Shell Meltthrough. ORNL has developed models for several competing failure mechanisms for BWRs. INEL has performed analytical and experimental work directly related to bottom head failure in connection with several programs. SNL has conducted a number of analyses and experimental activities to examine the failure of LWR vessels. In addition to the government-sponsored work mentioned above, EPRI and FAI performed studies on vessel failure for the Industry Degraded Core Rulemaking Program (IDCOR). EPRI examined the failure of a PWR vessel bottom head without penetrations, as found in some Combustion Engineering reactors. To give more attention to this subject as called for by the revised Severe Accident Research Plan, two things are being done. First, work previously done is being reviewed carefully to develop an overall picture and to determine the reliability of assumptions used in those studies. Second, new work is being planned for FY90 to try to complete a reasonable understanding of the failure process. The review and planning are being done in close cooperation with the ACRS. Results of this exercise will be presented in this paper

  19. Is Heading in Youth Soccer Dangerous Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.

  20. Indole-positive Vibrio vulnificus isolated from disease outbreaks on a Danish eel farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Høi, L.; Siebeling, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus was isolated in 1996 from 2 disease outbreaks on a Danish eel farm which used brackish water. A characteristic clinical sign was extensive, deep muscle necrosis in the head region. V. vulnificus was isolated from kidney, mucus, spleen, gill and intestine of diseased eels. Thirty...

  1. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  2. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  3. 28 CFR 0.37 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 0.37 Section 0.37 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Executive Office for United States Trustees § 0.37 Organization. The Executive Office for United States Trustees shall be headed by a...

  4. [Quality assurance in head and neck medical oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digue, Laurence; Pedeboscq, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    In medical oncology, how can we be sure that the right drug is being administered to the right patient at the right time? The implementation of quality assurance criteria is important in medical oncology, in order to ensure that the patient receives the best treatment safely. There is very little literature about quality assurance in medical oncology, as opposed to radiotherapy or cancer surgery. Quality assurance must cover the entire patient care process, from the diagnosis, to the therapeutic decision and drug distribution, including its selection, its preparation and its delivery to the patient (administration and dosage), and finally the potential side effects and their management. The dose-intensity respect is crucial, and its reduction can negatively affect overall survival rates, as shown in breast and testis cancers for example. In head and neck medical oncology, it is essential to respect the few well-standardized recommendations and the dose-intensity, in a population with numerous comorbidities. We will first review quality assurance criteria for the general medical oncology organization and then focus on head and neck medical oncology. We will then describe administration specificities of head and neck treatments (chemoradiation, radiation plus cetuximab, postoperative chemoradiation, induction and palliative chemotherapy) as well as their follow-up. Lastly, we will offer some recommendations to improve quality assurance in head and neck medical oncology.

  5. Instructional leaders for all? High school science department heads and instructional leadership across all science disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Stephen

    Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.

  6. Evaluation of a video-based head motion tracking system for dedicated brain PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, S.; Beylin, D.; Stepanov, P.; Stepanov, A.; Weinberg, I. N.; Schaeffer, S.; Zavarzin, V.; Shaposhnikov, D.; Smith, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional head motion during Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data acquisition can degrade PET image quality and lead to artifacts. Poor patient compliance, head tremor, and coughing are examples of movement sources. Head motion due to patient non-compliance can be an issue with the rise of amyloid brain PET in dementia patients. To preserve PET image resolution and quantitative accuracy, head motion can be tracked and corrected in the image reconstruction algorithm. While fiducial markers can be used, a contactless approach is preferable. A video-based head motion tracking system for a dedicated portable brain PET scanner was developed. Four wide-angle cameras organized in two stereo pairs are used for capturing video of the patient's head during the PET data acquisition. Facial points are automatically tracked and used to determine the six degree of freedom head pose as a function of time. The presented work evaluated the newly designed tracking system using a head phantom and a moving American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. The mean video-tracking error was 0.99±0.90 mm relative to the magnetic tracking device used as ground truth. Qualitative evaluation with the ACR phantom shows the advantage of the motion tracking application. The developed system is able to perform tracking with accuracy close to millimeter and can help to preserve resolution of brain PET images in presence of movements.

  7. Dynamic Response and Residual Helmet Liner Crush Using Cadaver Heads and Standard Headforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, S J; Luck, J F; Bass, C R; Gardiner, J C; Onar-Thomas, A; Asfour, S S; Siegmund, G P

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical headforms are used for helmet certification testing and reconstructing helmeted head impacts; however, their biofidelity and direct applicability to human head and helmet responses remain unclear. Dynamic responses of cadaver heads and three headforms and residual foam liner deformations were compared during motorcycle helmet impacts. Instrumented, helmeted heads/headforms were dropped onto the forehead region against an instrumented flat anvil at 75, 150, and 195 J. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify maximum liner crush depth and crush volume. General linear models were used to quantify the effect of head type and impact energy on linear acceleration, head injury criterion (HIC), force, maximum liner crush depth, and liner crush volume and regression models were used to quantify the relationship between acceleration and both maximum crush depth and crush volume. The cadaver heads generated larger peak accelerations than all three headforms, larger HICs than the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), larger forces than the Hybrid III and ISO, larger maximum crush depth than the ISO, and larger crush volumes than the DOT. These significant differences between the cadaver heads and headforms need to be accounted for when attempting to estimate an impact exposure using a helmet's residual crush depth or volume.

  8. "Where Withstanding is Difficult, and Deserting Even More": Head Nurses’ Phenomenological Description of Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The intensive care unit is one of the specialized units in hospitals where head nurses are responsible for both motivating the personnel and providing high quality care. Understanding of the lived experiences of head nurses could help develop new assumptions of the ICU. The present study was therefore conducted to describe the lived experiences of head nurses working in ICU. Methods: In this phenomenological study, data were collected through unstructured in-depth interviews with 5 ICU head nurses in Northern Iran and then analyzed using 7 steps Colaizzi’s method. Results: Despite the "distressing atmosphere of the ICU", the "difficulty of managing the ICU" and the "difficulty of communication in the ICU", which encourages the "desire to leave the unit" among ICU head nurses, the "desire to stay in the unit" is stronger and head nurses are highly motivated to stay in the unit because the unit "develops a feeling of being extraordinary", "creates an interest in providing complicated care to special patients", "facilitates the spiritual bond", "develops a professional dynamism" and "creates an awareness about the nature of intensive care" among them. Conclusion: According to the result, ICU head nurses are still inclined to work in the unit and achieve success in spite of the problems that persist in working in the ICU. As the individuals’ motivation can be the backbone of organizations, and given that individuals with a high enthusiasm for success are productive, hospital managers can take advantage of this strength in choosing their head nurses.

  9. Genomic analysis of Xenopus organizer function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhai Sándor

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the Xenopus organizer have laid the foundation for our understanding of the conserved signaling pathways that pattern vertebrate embryos during gastrulation. The two primary activities of the organizer, BMP and Wnt inhibition, can regulate a spectrum of genes that pattern essentially all aspects of the embryo during gastrulation. As our knowledge of organizer signaling grows, it is imperative that we begin knitting together our gene-level knowledge into genome-level signaling models. The goal of this paper was to identify complete lists of genes regulated by different aspects of organizer signaling, thereby providing a deeper understanding of the genomic mechanisms that underlie these complex and fundamental signaling events. Results To this end, we ectopically overexpress Noggin and Dkk-1, inhibitors of the BMP and Wnt pathways, respectively, within ventral tissues. After isolating embryonic ventral halves at early and late gastrulation, we analyze the transcriptional response to these molecules within the generated ectopic organizers using oligonucleotide microarrays. An efficient statistical analysis scheme, combined with a new Gene Ontology biological process annotation of the Xenopus genome, allows reliable and faithful clustering of molecules based upon their roles during gastrulation. From this data, we identify new organizer-related expression patterns for 19 genes. Moreover, our data sub-divides organizer genes into separate head and trunk organizing groups, which each show distinct responses to Noggin and Dkk-1 activity during gastrulation. Conclusion Our data provides a genomic view of the cohorts of genes that respond to Noggin and Dkk-1 activity, allowing us to separate the role of each in organizer function. These patterns demonstrate a model where BMP inhibition plays a largely inductive role during early developmental stages, thereby initiating the suites of genes needed to pattern dorsal tissues

  10. Long head of biceps: from anatomy to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sarmento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long head of the biceps (LHB, tendinous structure of the proximal brachial biceps, has its well-known anatomy, which contrasts with its current functional characterization. Various forms of proximal anchor and intra–articular route, important for the correct interpretation of its contribution to the pathology of the shoulder as well as the treatment methodology, are described. Knowledge of its biomechanics results mainly from cadaveric studies that contradict each other. Already the few studies in vivo indicate a depressant and stabilizing action, anterior, for the humeral head. Its pathology is rarely isolated because it is almost always correlated with rotator cuff or labrum pathology. It can be divided into 3 major groups (inflammatory, instability and traumatic and subdivided according to its location. The anterior shoulder pain is the initial symptom of pathology of LHB Its perfect characterization is dependent on the associated injuries. Clinical tests are multiple and only their combination allows better sensitivity and specificity for LHB pathology. The arthro-MRI and dynamic ultrasound are able to increase proper diagnostic of the pathology of LHB. Treatment ranges from conservative and surgical. The latter includes the repair, tenotomy and tenodesis of LHB which can be performed by open or arthroscopic methodology. The author intends to review existing literature on all aspects related to the long head of the biceps from anatomy to treatment, presenting the latest results.

  11. FUNCTIONS OF THE HEAD OF SPECIAL (CORRECTIONAL) EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION ON PERFECTION OF ESTIMATION OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Voynelenko Natalya Vaselyevna

    2012-01-01

    In article the maintenance of activity of the head of special (correctional) educational institution on the organization of estimation of quality of educational system is discussed. The model of joint activity of participants of educational process on estimation of educational objects, as component of system of quality management in Educational institution is presented. Functions of estimation of educational system in activity of the head of educational institution are formulated.

  12. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Botti, F M; Panichi, R; Barmack, N H

    2011-08-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5-5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, "open loop." Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during "closed loop" HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement.

  13. Optimum Shock Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolotnik, Nikolai

    2001-01-01

    .... Several types of performance criteria for isolation are considered, the most important of which are the peak force transmitted to the body to be isolated and the maximum displacement of the body relative to the base...

  14. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Poolman, R.W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based

  15. Essential radiology for head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, D.W.H.; Kreel, L.

    1988-01-01

    The book covers the guidelines established by the Royal College of Radiologists for the radiographic evaluation of head injuries. It presents a chapter reviewing the normal radiologic anatomy of the skull in six different projections. The advantages and limitations of each projection are addressed. The third chapter, contains 43 radiographs dedicated to the calcified pineal gland and other intracranial calcifications. The book reports on specific types of fractures: linear fractures of the vault, depressed fractures of the vault, fractures in children, fractures of the base of the skull, and fractures of the facial bones

  16. Head First jQuery

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Want to add more interactivity and polish to your websites? Discover how jQuery can help you build complex scripting functionality in just a few lines of code. With Head First jQuery, you'll quickly get up to speed on this amazing JavaScript library by learning how to navigate HTML documents while handling events, effects, callbacks, and animations. By the time you've completed the book, you'll be incorporating Ajax apps, working seamlessly with HTML and CSS, and handling data with PHP, MySQL and JSON. If you want to learn-and understand-how to create interactive web pages, unobtrusive scrip

  17. Comparative sequence analysis revealed altered chromosomal organization and a novel insertion sequence encoding DNA modification and potentially stress-related functions in an Escherichia coli O157:H7 foodborne isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently described the complete genome of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain NADC 6564, an isolate of strain 86-24 linked to the 1986 disease outbreak. In the current study, we compared the chromosomal sequence of NADC 6564 to the well-characterized chromosomal sequences of ...

  18. Thermal effects of whole head submersion in cold water on nonshivering humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Bristow, Gerald K; Steinman, Alan M; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2006-08-01

    This study isolated the effect of whole head submersion in cold water, on surface heat loss and body core cooling, when the confounding effect of shivering heat production was pharmacologically eliminated. Eight healthy male subjects were studied in 17 degrees C water under four conditions: the body was either insulated or uninsulated, with the head either above the water or completely submersed in each body-insulation subcondition. Shivering was abolished with buspirone (30 mg) and meperidine (2.5 mg/kg), and subjects breathed compressed air throughout all trials. Over the first 30 min of immersion, exposure of the head increased core cooling both in the body-insulated conditions (head out: 0.47 +/- 0.2 degrees C, head in: 0.77 +/- 0.2 degrees C; P body-exposed conditions (head out: 0.84 +/- 0.2 degrees C and head in: 1.17 +/- 0.5 degrees C; P body surface area) in the body-exposed conditions increased total heat loss by only 10%. In both body-exposed and body-insulated conditions, head submersion increased core cooling rate much more (average of 42%) than it increased total heat loss. This may be explained by a redistribution of blood flow in response to stimulation of thermosensitive and/or trigeminal receptors in the scalp, neck and face, where a given amount of heat loss would have a greater cooling effect on a smaller perfused body mass. In 17 degrees C water, the head does not contribute relatively more than the rest of the body to surface heat loss; however, a cold-induced reduction of perfused body mass may allow this small increase in heat loss to cause a relatively larger cooling of the body core.

  19. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  20. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... into Head Start and from Head Start to public school. 1308.21 Section 1308.21 Public Welfare... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START... Standards § 1308.21 Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to...