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Sample records for heads isolated organs

  1. Off with your heads: isolated organs in early Soviet science and fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 1925, a debutant writer, Aleksandr Beliaev, published a ‘scientific-fantastic story’, which depicted the travails of a severed human head living in a laboratory, supported by special machinery. Just a few months later, a young medical researcher, Sergei Briukhonenko, succeeded in reviving the severed head of a dog, using a special apparatus he had devised to keep the head alive. This paper examines the relationship between the literary and the scientific experiments with severed heads in post-revolutionary Russia, which reflected the anxieties about death, revival, and survival in the aftermath of the 1914–1923 ‘reign of death’ in that country. It contrasts the anguished ethical questions raised by the story with the public fascination for ‘science that conquers death’. PMID:19442924

  2. PHENOMENON OF DEMIKHOV. "TRANSPLANTATION OF VITAL ORGANS IN EXPERIMENT" (1960. HOMOPLASTIC ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION: OF AN ISOLATED HEART, ISOLATED LUNG, KIDNEY, HEAD, HALF OF THE TRUNK, AND THE WHOLE TRUNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Glyantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  (the third one of five presents the analysis of the final part  of the third chapter on homoplastic organ transplantation from V.P.  Demikhov's monograph "Transplantation of  vital  organs  in  experiment"  (MedGIz Publ., Moscow,  1960. The article covers the data presented by V.P. Demikhov on his creating the following animal models:  of the isolated  heart  and lung,  kidneys, head, half of the trunk, and the whole  trunk. The isolated  heart  models where  the heart  was positioned in place of the biological one were not successful. The longest  period  of the dog-recipient survival was  15 hours. The  dogs with transplanted lobes of  the  lung  survived up  to 6 days  (there  are no evidence of  a whole lung  transplant in the book; animal-recipients of kidneys survived up to 19 days.  V.P. Demikhov considered that  the graft deaths might be caused  by the biological  tissue  incompatibility between  the donor  and  recipient, and  he stressed the  need  for  its suppression and  the  importance of  choosing the  donor  and  recipient compatible by their  blood group for  successful homoplastic transplantation. By  transplanting the puppies' heads  onto  the cervical  vessels  of  the dogs, starting the experiments from 1954, V.P. Demikhov attempted to prove the role of the central nervous system in the organ engraftment, which was one of the targets  in those experiments. The integration of two bodies, combining their vascular systems, and mixing the blood had two goals: to create the conditions for overcoming the transplantation immunity and to make an animal model  of organ transplant in combination with retaining the organ neurohumoral links. The model of the cross circulation also allowed the formulation and implementation of the organ bank concept in the experiment.

  3. The head organizer in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Hans R

    2012-01-01

    Organizers and organizing centers play critical roles in axis formation and patterning during the early stages of embryogenesis in many bilaterians. The presence and activity of an organizer was first described in adult Hydra about 100 years ago, and in the following decades organizer regions were identified in a number of bilaterian embryos. In an adult Hydra, the cells of the body column are constantly in the mitotic cycle resulting in continuous displacement of the tissue to the extremities where it is sloughed. In this context, the head organizer located in the hypostome is continuously active sending out signals to maintain the structure and morphology of the head, body column and foot of the animal. The molecular basis of the head organizer involves the canonical Wnt pathway, which acts in a self-renewing manner to maintain itself in the context of the tissue dynamics of Hydra. During bud formation, Hydra's mode of asexual reproduction, a head organizer based on the canonical Wnt pathway is set up to initiate and control the development of a new Hydra. As this pathway plays a central role in vertebrate embryonic organizers, its presence and activity in Hydra indicate that the molecular basis of the organizer arose early in metazoan evolution.

  4. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus species from head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus species from head Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitate ) and its potential application as a probiotic agent. ... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are one of the most important groups of microorganisms used in food fermentation, contribute to extended shelf life of the fermented ...

  5. Systematic analysis of head-to-head gene organization: evolutionary conservation and potential biological relevance.

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    Yuan-Yuan Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Several "head-to-head" (or "bidirectional" gene pairs have been studied in individual experiments, but genome-wide analysis of this gene organization, especially in terms of transcriptional correlation and functional association, is still insufficient. We conducted a systematic investigation of head-to-head gene organization focusing on structural features, evolutionary conservation, expression correlation and functional association. Of the present 1,262, 1,071, and 491 head-to-head pairs identified in human, mouse, and rat genomes, respectively, pairs with 1- to 400-base pair distance between transcription start sites form the majority (62.36%, 64.15%, and 55.19% for human, mouse, and rat,respectively of each dataset, and the largest group is always the one with a transcription start site distance of 101 to 200 base pairs. The phylogenetic analysis among Fugu, chicken, and human indicates a negative selection on the separation of head-to-head genes across vertebrate evolution, and thus the ancestral existence of this gene organization. The expression analysis shows that most of the human head-to-head genes are significantly correlated,and the correlation could be positive, negative, or alternative depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, head to-head genes statistically tend to perform similar functions, and gene pairs associated with the significant cofunctions seem to have stronger expression correlations. The findings indicate that the head-to-head gene organization is ancient and conserved, which subjects functionally related genes to correlated transcriptional regulation and thus provides an exquisite mechanism of transcriptional regulation based on gene organization. These results have significantly expanded the knowledge about head-to-head gene organization. Supplementary materials for this study are available at http://www.scbit.org/h2h.

  6. Isolated traumatic head injury in children: Analysis of 276 observations

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    Bahloul Mabrouk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : To determine predictive factors of mortality among children after isolated traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods : In this retrospective study, we included all consecutive children with isolated traumatic brain injury admitted to the 22-bed intensive care unit (ICU of Habib Bourguiba University Hospital (Sfax, Tunisia. Basic demographic, clinical, biochemical, and radiological data were recorded on admission and during ICU stay. Results : There were 276 patients with 196 boys (71% and 80 girls, with a mean age of 6.7 ± 3.8 years. The main cause of trauma was road traffic accident (58.3%. Mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 ± 2, Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS was 23.3 ± 5.9, Mean Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS was 4.8 ± 2.3, and Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM was 10.8 ± 8. A total of 259 children required mechanical ventilation. Forty-eight children (17.4% died. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with a poor prognosis were PRISM > 24 (OR: 10.98, neurovegetative disorder (OR: 7.1, meningeal hemorrhage (OR: 2.74, and lesion type VI according to Marshall tomographic grading (OR: 13.26. Conclusion : In Tunisia, head injury is a frequent cause of hospital admission and is most often due to road traffic injuries. Short-term prognosis is influenced by demographic, clinical, radiological, and biochemical factors. The need to put preventive measures in place is underscored.

  7. Novice Head Teachers' Isolation and Loneliness Experiences: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Lokman; Thakib, Mohd Taufiq Mohd; Hamzah, Mohd Hilmi; Said, Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohd; Musah, Mohammed Borhandden

    2017-01-01

    Most studies in headship focus on the elements of training and head teachers' capabilities in leading schools. The concept of isolation experienced by head teachers during the early years of their headship is, however, overlooked. This article attempts to explore the neglected aspect of headships' experiences with isolation that later contributes…

  8. Isolated head injury is a cause of shock in pediatric trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alison; Poehling, Katherine A; Miller, Chadwick D; Tooze, Janet A; Petty, John

    2013-08-01

    Current trauma resuscitation protocols from the American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, recommend intravascular volume expansion to treat shock after major trauma, assuming that hemorrhage is present. However, this assumption may not be correct. The purpose of this study was to identify the proportion of children with severe shock after trauma presenting with isolated head injury versus hemorrhagic injury. A retrospective review of all pediatric trauma patients (aged 0-15 years) was conducted over a 5-year period. Severe shock was defined as the presence of both an elevated blood lactate level and low blood pressure for age. Traumatic injuries were classified as hemorrhagic injuries, head injuries, combined hemorrhagic and head injuries, or other injuries, by analyzing International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic codes. A total of 31 (5%) of 680 pediatric trauma patients presented with severe shock. Among these 31 pediatric trauma patients, 9 (29%) had isolated head injury. Isolated head injury among children with shock was most frequently observed among children younger than 5 years (50%), and a decreased trend was noted with increasing age (23% for children 5-11 years and 0% for children 12-15 years [P = 0.03, Cochran-Armitage exact trend test]). Isolated head injury was observed in 29% of children 0 to 15 years of age with severe shock after trauma and in 50% of children younger than 5 years. Head injury is an important cause of severe shock in pediatric trauma, particularly among young children.

  9. Somatosensory temporal discrimination in essential tremor and isolated head and voice tremors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Ferrazzano, Gina; Manzo, Nicoletta; Leodori, Giorgio; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Fasano, Alfonso; Tinazzi, Michele; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold in patients with essential tremor (sporadic and familial) and to evaluate whether somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values differ depending on the body parts involved by tremor. We also investigated the somatosensory temporal discrimination in patients with isolated voice tremor. We enrolled 61 patients with tremor: 48 patients with essential tremor (31 patients with upper limb tremor alone, nine patients with head tremor alone, and eight patients with upper limb plus head tremor; 22 patients with familial vs. 26 sporadic essential tremor), 13 patients with isolated voice tremor, and 45 healthy subjects. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were normal in patients with familial essential tremor, whereas they were higher in patients with sporadic essential tremor. When we classified patients according to tremor distribution, somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were normal in patients with upper limb tremor and abnormal only in patients with isolated head tremor. Temporal discrimination threshold values were also abnormal in patients with isolated voice tremor. Somatosensory temporal discrimination processing is normal in patients with familial as well as in patients with sporadic essential tremor involving the upper limbs. By contrast, somatosensory temporal discrimination is altered in patients with isolated head tremor and voice tremor. This study with somatosensory temporal discrimination suggests that isolated head and voice tremors might possibly be considered as separate clinical entities from essential tremor. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Apparently isolated partial articular fractures of the radial head: prevalence and reliability of radiographically diagnosed displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornberg, Job; Elsner, Andreas; Kloen, Peter; Marti, René K.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Ring, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence and reliability of the radiographic diagnosis of displacement of apparently isolated partial articular radial head fractures and use these factors to assess treatment considerations. Among 119 radiographically visible partial fractures of the

  11. The Xenopus Emx genes identify presumptive dorsal telencephalon and are induced by head organizer signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, M; Lupo, G; Kablar, B; Boncinelli, E; Barsacchi, G; Vignali, R

    1998-04-01

    We have isolated and studied the expression pattern of Xemx1 and Xemx2 genes in Xenopus laevis. Xemx genes are the homologues of mouse Emx genes, related to Drosophila empty spiracles. They are expressed in selected regions of the developing brain, particularly in the telencephalon, and, outside the brain, in the otic vesicles, olfactory placodes, visceral arches and the developing excretory system. We also report on experiments concerning the tissue and molecular signals responsible for their activation in competent ectoderm. Xemx genes are activated in ectoderm conjugated with head organizer tissue, but not with tail organizer tissue. Furthermore, they are not activated in animal cap either by noggin or by Xnr3, thus suggesting that a different inducer or the integration of several signals may be responsible for their activation.

  12. Streptococcus milleri: an organism for head and neck infections and abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J K; Kerschner, J E

    2001-06-01

    Streptococcus milleri, a commensal organism, has the potential to cause significant morbidity. There is a paucity of published data regarding this organism in the head and neck. To identify and assess the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of pediatric patients affected by this pathogen. Review of the Department of Pathology database at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, between 1997 and 1999 identified 26 patients with cultures positive for S milleri group (SMG) bacteria. Retrospective chart analysis examined the demographic data, site of origin of infection, additional organisms cultured, symptoms, treatments, and complications. Sixteen patients had SMG infections involving the head and neck region. Sites of origin included the paranasal sinuses, dental, facial soft tissues, deep neck spaces, peritonsillar region, and a tracheostomy site. The paranasal sinuses were the most common site in 37% (6/16). Streptococcus milleri was the only isolate in 69% (11) of the infections. Significant local extension occurred in 56% (9/16) of the patients and included the orbit, skull base, cranium, and deep neck spaces. All patients had surgical drainage and 15 also received intravenous antibiotic treatment. One complication of osteomyelitis of the frontal bone occurred with resolution after surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotic treatment. Streptococcus milleri can be an aggressive pathogen in the head and neck with a propensity for abscess formation and local extension of the infection in a pediatric population. Surgical drainage with antibiotics is generally successful in management of the condition. However, emerging penicillin resistance and the ability for local extension require suspicion of incomplete treatment if clinical symptoms persist.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Satellite Cells from Rat Head Branchiomeric Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Monroy, Paola L; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Von den Hoff, Johannes W

    2015-07-20

    Fibrosis and defective muscle regeneration can hamper the functional recovery of the soft palate muscles after cleft palate repair. This causes persistent problems in speech, swallowing, and sucking. In vitro culture systems that allow the study of satellite cells (myogenic stem cells) from head muscles are crucial to develop new therapies based on tissue engineering to promote muscle regeneration after surgery. These systems will offer new perspectives for the treatment of cleft palate patients. A protocol for the isolation, culture and differentiation of satellite cells from head muscles is presented. The isolation is based on enzymatic digestion and trituration to release the satellite cells. In addition, this protocol comprises an innovative method using extracellular matrix gel coatings of millimeter size, which requires only low numbers of satellite cells for differentiation assays.

  14. Organic fragments from graphene oxide: Isolation, characterization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. As-prepared graphene oxide (GO) contains oxidative debris which can be washed using basic solutions. We present the isolation and characterization of these debris. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is used to monitor the separation of the debris in various solvents in the presence of different protic and aprotic.

  15. Organic fragments from graphene oxide: Isolation, characterization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As-prepared graphene oxide (GO) contains oxidative debris which can be washed using basic solutions. We present the isolation and characterization of these debris. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is used to monitor the separation of the debris in various solvents in the presence of different protic and aprotic alkylamino ...

  16. Cluster Head Selection in a Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Ensuring Full Connectivity with Minimum Isolated Nodes

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    Tapan Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work proposes a cluster head selection algorithm for a wireless sensor network. A node can be a cluster head if it is connected to at least one unique neighbor node where the unique neighbor is the one that is not connected to any other node. If there is no connected unique node then the CH is selected on the basis of residual energy and the number of neighbor nodes. With the increase in number of clusters, the processing energy of the network increases; hence, this algorithm proposes minimum number of clusters which further leads to increased network lifetime. The major novel contribution of the proposed work is an algorithm that ensures a completely connected network with minimum number of isolated nodes. An isolated node will remain only if it is not within the transmission range of any other node. With the maximum connectivity, the coverage of the network is automatically maximized. The superiority of the proposed design is verified by simulation results done in MATLAB, where it clearly depicts that the total numbers of rounds before the network dies out are maximum compared to other existing protocols.

  17. Detection of isolated covert saccades with the video head impulse test in peripheral vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blödow, Alexander; Pannasch, Sebastian; Walther, Leif Erik

    2013-08-01

    The function of the semicircular canal receptors and the pathway of the vestibulo-ocular-reflex (VOR) can be diagnosed with the clinical head impulse test (cHIT). Recently, the video head impulse test (vHIT) has been introduced but so far there is little clinical experience with the vHIT in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the horizontal VOR (hVOR) by means of vHIT in peripheral vestibular disorders. Using the vHIT, we examined the hVOR in a group of 117 patients and a control group of 20 healthy subjects. The group of patients included vestibular neuritis (VN) (n=52), vestibular schwannoma (VS) (n=31), Ménière's disease (MD) (n=22) and bilateral vestibulopathy (BV) (n=12). Normal hVOR gain was at 0.96 ± 0.08, while abnormal hVOR gain was at 0.44 ± 0.20 (79.1% of all cases). An abnormal vHIT was found in VN (94.2%), VS (61.3%), MD (54.5%) and BV (91.7%). Three conditions of refixation saccades occurred frequently in cases with abnormal hVOR: isolated covert saccades (13.7%), isolated overt saccades (34.3%) and the combination of overt and covert saccades (52.0%). The vHIT detects abnormal hVOR changes in the combination of gain assessment and refixation saccades. Since isolated covert saccades in hVOR changes can only be seen with vHIT, peripheral vestibular disorders are likely to be diagnosed incorrectly with the cHIT to a certain amount. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injury described in this area is tearing of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, sometimes referred to as "tennis leg". We conclude that an isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lump or swelling in the upper medial area of the calf and we recommend ultrasound or MRI as the investigations of choice.

  19. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  20. SU-F-I-32: Organ Doses from Pediatric Head CT Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H; Liu, Q; Qiu, J; Zhuo, W [Institute of Radiation Medicine Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Majer, M; Knezevic, Z; Miljanic, S [Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Hrsak, H [Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the organ doses of pediatric patients who undergoing head CT scan using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and compare it with measurements in anthropomorphic child phantom.. Methods: A ten years old children voxel phantom was developed from CT images, the voxel size of the phantom was 2mm*2mm*2mm. Organ doses from head CT scan were simulated using MCNPX software, 180 detectors were placed in the voxel phantom to tally the doses of the represented tissues or organs. When performing the simulation, 120 kVp and 88 mA were selected as the scan parameters. The scan range covered from the top of the head to the end of the chain, this protocol was used at CT simulator for radiotherapy. To validate the simulated results, organ doses were measured with radiophotoluminescence (RPL) detectors, placed in the 28 organs of the 10 years old CIRS ATOM phantom. Results: The organ doses results matched well between MC simulation and phantom measurements. The eyes dose was showed to be as expected the highest organ dose: 28.11 mGy by simulation and 27.34 mGy by measurement respectively. Doses for organs not included in the scan volume were much lower than those included in the scan volume, thymus doses were observed more than 10 mGy due the CT protocol for radiotherapy covered more body part than routine head CT scan. Conclusion: As the eyes are superficial organs, they may receive the highest radiation dose during the CT scan. Considering the relatively high radio sensitivity, using shielding material or organ based tube current modulation technique should be encouraged to reduce the eye radiation risks. Scan range was one of the most important factors that affects the organ doses during the CT scan. Use as short as reasonably possible scan range should be helpful to reduce the patient radiation dose. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(11475047)

  1. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injur...

  2. Theory of the interaction of flat sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bulgakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet leaves now are very widely used for livestock feeding, as an organic fertiliser, and also as a raw material for the production of biogas. Therefore the harvest of the sugar beet tops (including leaves can be considered as current task for the sugar beet growing system. Modern technologies involve harvest of the tops of sugar beet in two stages: flat basic cut and collecting of the entire green mass at higher altitude and the subsequent cutting of the heads of root crops from the residues. Therefore, topical issues of the sensing of the heads of sugar beet roots arranged in rows, are related to the majority of the sugar beet toppers, cleaners of the sugar beet heads, leaves cutters and, digging up working bodies of some designs. The aim of this study is theoretical determination the optimum design and kinematic parameters of a new sensing mechanism of the sugar beet heads located in the soil on the basis of the theory of interaction of flat passive swath board sensing organ with the sugar beet heads during their topping when located in the soil. In the study there are used methods of creation of mathematical models of functioning of the agricultural machines and their working bodies with the using of main provisions of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, programming and numerical calculations on the PC. In this paper, there is presented a theoretical study of the interaction of passive sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root when there are located residues of the leaves on a root head spherical surface in the form of short elastic rods. Thus, for such an interaction of the sensing organ and the head of sugar beet root head there is taken into account elastic-damping properties of the sugar beet leaves residues. In the study there was first of all developed a new design of the topper for sugar beet heads with the use of a flat swath board sensing organ, there was developed the equivalent scheme of the interaction of the

  3. Identification of metal-tolerant organisms isolated from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of biofilms to resist pollutants makes them advantageous for use in bioremediation. The objective of this investigation was to isolate metal-tolerant micro-organisms from a site along the Plankenburg River. Microbial biofilms cultivated in multi-channelled flow cells were exposed to varying concentrations of ...

  4. Interpersonal relationships in isolation and confinement: Long-term bed rest in head-down tilt position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karine, Weiss; Gabriel, Moser

    The long-term bed-rest was organized by ESA and CNES, in order to simulate the physiological effects of weightlessness: eight volunteers had to stay 42 days in bed, in a head down tilt position (-6 °). There were two subjects in a room, they could not be alone and it was difficult for them to have their own personal space and intimacy. In these circumstances, as in outer space, interpersonal relationships were of prime importance. This situation enabled us, through systematic observation, to analyze the evolution of the relational behavior in dyads, and to quote some social indicators of adaptation. Results show significant withdrawal, and the time spent alone was marked by the emergence, during the experiment, of specific preferential activities. Behavioral contagion was observed in each dyad (people engaged in the same activities at the same time), except in the one case of abandon. Moreover, the highest rates of inactivity and withdrawal were noted in this case. Verbal indicators were useful to comment these results and showed that, for all the dyads, one of the two subjects always played a regulating role by expressing a very positive perception of the situation. These results emphasize the importance of psycho-sociological factors in isolation and confinement. Thus, it appears that different modalities of interpersonal relationships, and not only verbal interactions, play a significant role in adaptation to stress situations.

  5. Nocardia camponoti sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the head of an ant (Camponotus japonicas Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongxi; Guan, Xuejiao; Li, Yao; Li, Wenchao; Ye, Lan; Kong, Xiangxing; Song, Jia; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-04-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain 1H-HV4T, was isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicas Mayr, which was collected from Northeast Agriculture University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Chemotaxonomic properties of this strain were consistent with those of members of the genus Nocardia. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and whole-cell sugars were galactose, glucose and arabinose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4,ω-cycl). The phospholipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were identified as C18:0 10-methyl, C16:0, C18:1ω9c and C16:1ω7c. Mycolic acids were found to be present. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis also showed that strain 1H-HV4T was a member of the genus Nocardia, with the highest sequence similarities to Nocardia salmonicida JCM 4826T (97.39%), Nocardia soli JCM 11441T (97.12%) and Nocardia cummidelens JCM 11439T (97.08%). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to type strains of other members of the genus Nocardia were less than 97%. However, DNA-DNA relatedness values and phenotypic data demonstrated that strain1H-HV4T was clearly distinguished from all closely related species of the genus Nocardia. It is concluded that the isolate can be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia camponoti is proposed. The type strain is 1H-HV4T (=DSM 100526T=CGMCC 4.7278T).

  6. Segmentation of organs at risk in CT volumes of head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaofei; Ma, Jinfeng; Li, Yan; Li, Meiling; Song, Yanli; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) is a key step in treatment planning system (TPS) of image guided radiation therapy. We are developing three classes of methods to segment 17 organs at risk throughout the whole body, including brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin. The three classes of segmentation methods include (1) threshold-based methods for organs of large contrast with adjacent structures such as lungs, trachea, and skin; (2) context-driven Generalized Hough Transform-based methods combined with graph cut algorithm for robust localization and segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen; and (3) atlas and registration-based methods for segmentation of heart and all organs in CT volumes of head and pelvis. The segmentation accuracy for the seventeen organs was subjectively evaluated by two medical experts in three levels of score: 0, poor (unusable in clinical practice); 1, acceptable (minor revision needed); and 2, good (nearly no revision needed). A database was collected from Ruijin Hospital, Huashan Hospital, and Xuhui Central Hospital in Shanghai, China, including 127 head scans, 203 thoracic scans, 154 abdominal scans, and 73 pelvic scans. The percentages of "good" segmentation results were 97.6%, 92.9%, 81.1%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 78.7%, 94.1%, 91.1%, 81.3%, 86.7%, 82.5%, 86.4%, 79.9%, 72.6%, 68.5%, 93.2%, 96.9% for brain, brain stem, eyes, mandible, temporomandibular joints, parotid glands, spinal cord, lungs, trachea, heart, livers, kidneys, spleen, prostate, rectum, femoral heads, and skin, respectively. Various organs at risk can be reliably segmented from CT scans by use of the three classes of segmentation methods.

  7. The Modified Risk Factors of Health Heads of the Medical Organizations

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    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study and evaluation of modifiable potential risk factors of health of heads of medical organizations in terms of structural and technological modernization of the health system, the growing need for highly qualified management personnel. Efficiency of activity of medical associations largely due to the level of health managers, allowing to solve problems of activities of medical organizations in the modern fastchanging environmental conditions. Based on international experience and our own research the authors identified features of the state of health of heads of medical organizations, and the degree of exposure to risk factors for no communicable diseases; considered approaches to assess motivation and psychological readiness to promote the health and potential of managerial personnel in the formation of health-saving behavior. Methods: in the present study, the following methods were used: systemic approach, content analysis, methods of social diagnosis (questionnaires, interviews, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, and method of statistical processing of information. Results: reviewed and proposed approaches to use preventive measures prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases healthcare leaders, forming health-preserving behavior. Conclusions and Relevance: in modern scientific studies on the health of medical workers, including heads of medical institutions, defined the modern methodological approaches to formation of health-saving behavior and maintaining healthy lifestyle health care workers. Despite the high awareness of heads of medical organizations in the area of influence of risk factors on health, accessibility of medical care for the diagnosis and correction of risk factors of chronic no communicable diseases, risk factors of health among healthcare leaders have sufficient prevalence. Health-promoting behavior model is not a conscious lifestyle leader and formed as a reaction if you have

  8. Admissions for isolated nonoperative mild head injuries: Sharing the burden among trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Mejaddam, Ali Y; Chang, Yuchiao; DeMoya, Marc A; King, David R; Yeh, Daniel D; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Alam, Hasan B; Velmahos, George C

    2016-10-01

    Isolated nonoperative mild head injuries (INOMHI) occur with increasing frequency in an aging population. These patients often have multiple social, discharge, and rehabilitation issues, which far exceed the acute component of their care. This study was aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with INOMHI admitted to three services: trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology. Retrospective case series (January 1, 2009 to August 31, 2013) at an academic Level I trauma center. According to an institutional protocol, INOMHI patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13 to 15 were admitted on a weekly rotational basis to trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology. The three populations were compared, and the primary outcomes were survival rate to discharge, neurological status at hospital discharge as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), and discharge disposition. Four hundred eighty-eight INOMHI patients were admitted (trauma surgery, 172; neurosurgery, 131; neurology, 185). The mean age of the study population was 65.3 years, and 58.8% of patients were male. Seventy-seven percent of patients has a GCS score of 15. Age, sex, mechanism of injury, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale in head and neck, and GCS were similar among the three groups. Patients who were admitted to trauma surgery, neurosurgery and neurology services had similar proportions of survivors (98.8% vs 95.7% vs 94.7%), and discharge disposition (home, 57.0% vs 61.6% vs 55.7%). The proportion of patients with GOS of 4 or 5 on discharge was slightly higher among patients admitted to trauma (97.7% vs 93.0% vs 92.4%). In a logistic regression model adjusting for Charlson Comorbidity Index CCI and Abbreviated Injury Scale head and neck scores, patients who were admitted to neurology or neurosurgery had significantly lower odds being discharged with GOS 4 or 5. While the trauma group had the lowest proportion of repeats of brain computed tomography (61

  9. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis organisms isolated from human lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneshiro, E S; Amit, Z; Chandra, Jan Suresh

    1999-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia (P. carinii pneumonia, or PCP) in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. Rat-derived P. carinii carinii organisms have distinct sterols which are not synthesized by mammals and not found in other microbes infecting...... mammalian lungs. The dominant sterol present in the organism is cholesterol (which is believed to be scavenged from the host), but other sterols in P. carinii carinii have an alkyl group at C-24 of the sterol side chain (C(28) and C(29) 24-alkylsterols) and a double bond at C-7 of the nucleus. Recently...... in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human...

  10. Isolation and classification of Bdellovibrio and like organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2012-08-01

    Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are obligate predators of Gram-negative bacteria. BALOs are isolated as plaques growing at the expense of their prey and are cultivated as two-member cultures. The growth cycle is composed of an extracellular attack phase and an intraperiplasmic elongation and replication phase. However, there are methods for obtaining host-independent (HI) mutants that grow without prey on rich media. BALOs are commonly found in the environment but generally constitute small populations; therefore, their isolation may require enrichment steps. Contamination by other bacteria during isolation necessitates efficient separation between the smaller BALO cells from the majority of larger bacteria. BALOs can also be directly detected and quantified in environmental samples using specific PCR. Synchronous cultures of both wild-type and HI derivatives can be obtained to study the different growth phases. These can be further separated by centrifugation. Classification is based on 16S rDNA analysis. Protocols relevant to these aspects of BALO detection, isolation, growth, classification, and quantitation are presented in this unit. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of Radiocapitellar Arthritis in Patients with a Second Radiograph at Least 2 Years after Nonoperative Treatment of an Isolated Radial Head Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Kachooei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study if patients that have a second radiograph 2 or more years after nonoperative treatment of an isolated radial head fracture have radiocapitellar osteoarthritis (RC OA. Methods: We used the database of 3 academic hospitals in one health system from 1988 to 2013 to find patients with isolated radial head fractures (no associated ligament injury or fracture that had a second elbow radiograph after more than 2 years from the initial injury. Of 887 patients with isolated radial head fractures, 54 (6% had an accessible second radiograph for reasons of a second injury (57%, pain (30%, or follow-up visit (13%. Two orthopedic surgeons independently classified the radial head fractures on the initial radiographs using the Broberg and Morrey modified Mason classification, and assessed the development of RC OA on the final radiograph using a binary system (yes/no. Results: Four out of 54 (7.5% patients had RC OA, one with isolated RC arthrosis that seemed related to capitellar cartilage injury, and 3 that presented with pain and had global OA (likely primary osteoarthritis. Conclusion: With the caveat that some percentage of patients may have left our health system during the study period, about 1 in 887 patients (0.1% returns with isolated radiocapitellar arthritis after an isolated radial head fracture, and this may relate to capitellar injury rather than attrition. Patients with isolated radial head fractures can consider post-traumatic radiocapitellar arthritis a negligible risk.

  12. Isolation and Partial Characterization of Bacterial Strains on Low Organic Carbon Medium from Soils Fertilized with Different Organic Amendments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senechkin, I.V.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Semenov, A.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 720 bacterial strains were isolated from soils with four different organic amendment regimes on a low organic carbon (low-C) agar medium (10 mu g C ml(-1)) traditionally used for isolation of oligotrophs. Organic amendments in combination with field history resulted in differences in

  13. Autoregulatory and repressive inputs localize Hydra Wnt3 to the head organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukio; Tsiairis, Charisios D.; Özbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Polarized Wnt signaling along the primary body axis is a conserved property of axial patterning in bilaterians and prebilaterians, and depends on localized sources of Wnt ligands. However, the mechanisms governing the localized Wnt expression that emerged early in evolution are poorly understood. Here we find in the cnidarian Hydra that two functionally distinct cis-regulatory elements control the head organizer-associated Hydra Wnt3 (HyWnt3). An autoregulatory element, which mediates direct inputs of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, highly activates HyWnt3 transcription in the head region. In contrast, a repressor element is necessary and sufficient to restrict the activity of the autoregulatory element, thereby allowing the organizer-specific expression. Our results reveal that a combination of autoregulation and repression is crucial for establishing a Wnt-expressing organizing center in a basal metazoan. We suggest that this transcriptional control is an evolutionarily old strategy in the formation of Wnt signaling centers and metazoan axial patterning. PMID:21576458

  14. CLUSTERISATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ADVANCED TRAINING OF THE HEADS OF NETWORK EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoriia Stoikova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of strong basic schools with the network of branches and other networked educational organizations in the Ukrainian education system requires from leading cadres the possession of the basics of network management. The article deals with the questions of the process of forming professional competencies of heads of networked educational entities in conditions of postgraduate pedagogical education. The features of learning model which based on the active use of information and communication technologies are revealed have been disclosed; components of the open educational environment (cognitive, social and educational and their influence on the process of training leading cadres; advantages of using Internet technologies for educational purposes. The article describes the experience of organizing a continuous educational process by using the funds of information and communication technologies: websites, distance learning courses, social communities, and other Internet services. At the same time, heads of educational institutions are united in cluster formations by type of educational institutions, the level of providing educational services, the direction of professional interests, preferences, and also for the joint development of managerial algorithms in certain typical situations and for solving typical professional problems. In such a model of learning, knowledge is produced by participants independently during active activity by joint search, processing, and analysis of information, solving problem situations, discussions, debates, etc.

  15. From Head-hunter to Organ-thief: Verisimilitude, Doubt and Plausible Worlds in Indonesia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    their victims and using the human heads in construction rituals as they used to do, head-hunters are now allegedly harvesting the victims’ organs for sale on the international organ market. Based on a comparison of ethnographic material from North Maluku, a province in the eastern part of Indonesia, and news...... trafficking practices, media accounts, political imaginaries, and social anxieties within the same field of reality and possibility, a field of verisimilitude in which fiction and fact, rumour and reality, are fundamentally blurred. The article proposes a ‘more-than-representational’ approach to the organ...

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility of 33 Prevotella strains isolated from Romanian patients with abscesses in head and neck spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancescu, Gabriela; Didilescu, Andreea; Bancescu, Adrian; Bari, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of a series of 33 Prevotella strains isolated from patients with abscesses in the head and neck spaces, presented to one Romanian hospital. The Etest was applied to determine the value of the minimum inhibitory concentrations for: penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, metronidazole and clindamycin. In addition, the beta-lactamase activity was detected by the chromogenic cephalosporin disc method. The results indicated that 11 isolates were resistant to both penicillin G and ampicillin due to the beta-lactamase production. All the 33 Prevotella strains were susceptible to the other 3 antimicrobial agents tested, except for only one penicillin G - ampicillin resistant isolate of Prevotella buccae (MIC > 32 and MIC = 12 mg/L, respectively), which showed high resistance to clindamycin (MIC > 256 mg/L) too. Our data underline the necessity for antimicrobial testing including monitoring of beta-lactamase production in cases of oro-maxillo-facial mixed anaerobic infections where antimicrobial treatment is required in addition to the surgical drainage. The results of the study indicated that amoxicillin-clavulanate, like metronidazole, was fully active against the tested Prevotella strains. However, local and multicentre surveys on drug resistance among the clinically significant anaerobic isolates should be carried out periodically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. T cell abundance in blood predicts acute organ toxicity in chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschel, L Milena; Leu, Martin; Reichardt, Sybille D; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Schirmer, Markus A; Stadelmann, Christine; Canis, Martin; Wolff, Hendrik A; Reichardt, Holger M

    2016-10-04

    Treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) often results in high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT). As these adverse effects impair the patients' quality of life and the feasibility of the planned therapy, we sought to analyze immunological parameters in tumor material and blood samples obtained from 48 HNSCC patients in order to assess the potential to predict the individual acute organ toxicity. T cells in the tumor stroma were enriched in patients developing HGAOT whereas levels of soluble factors in the plasma and gene expression in whole blood did not coincide with the occurrence of acute organ toxicity. In contrast, the frequency and absolute numbers of selected leukocyte subpopulations measured in samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) directly before the beginning of CRT were significantly different in patients with HGAOT as compared to those without. When we validated several potential markers including the abundance of T cells in a small prospective study with 16 HNSCC patients, we were able to correctly predict acute organ toxicity in up to 81% of the patients. We conclude that analysis of PBMCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) might be a convenient strategy to identify patients at risk of developing HGAOT caused by CRT, which might allow to adapt the treatment regimen and possibly improve disease outcome.

  18. Coaching of patients with an isolated minimally displaced fracture of the radial head immediately increases range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Teun; Thornton, Emily R; Guitton, Thierry G; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Ring, David

    2016-01-01

    Prospective cohort. Elbow stiffness is the most common adverse event after isolated radial head fractures. To assess the effect of coaching on elbow motion during the same office visit in patients with such fractures. We enrolled 49 adult patients with minimally displaced radial head fractures, within 14 days of injury. After diagnosis, we measured demographics, catastrophic thinking, health anxiety, symptoms of depression, upper extremity-specific symptoms and disability, pain, and elbow and wrist motion. The patient was taught to apply an effective stretch in spite of the pain to limit stiffness, and elbow motion was measured again. With the exception of radial deviation and pronation, motion measures improved slightly but significantly on average immediately after coaching. Elbow flexion improved from 79% (110° ± 22°) of the uninjured side to 88% (122° ± 18°) after coaching (P coaching patients regarding painful stretches might help clarify the optimal approach. Therapeutic level 4. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aphanomyces frigidophilus , fungus-like organisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bait method with the use of hemp seeds Cannabis sativa, small pieces of snake skin Natrix natrix and exuviae of shrimp Gammarus sp. as bait was applied to isolate the fungus Aphanomyces frigidophilus from the springs. The isolate was maintained on Potato Dextrose Agar PDA and stored in the culture collection of the ...

  20. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  1. Prevalence of Various Microbial Organisms Isolated from Dairy Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) followed by Micrococcus spp (17.7%), Acinetobacter spp (5%), Actinomyces spp (5%) and Streptococcus spp (1.1%). No Coliform or yeasts were isolated from any milk samples. The staphylococcus spp were mainly comprised of coagulase ...

  2. Short-term effectiveness of bi-phase oscillatory waves versus hyperthermia for isolated long head biceps tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Francesco; Via, Alessio Giai; Rossi, Silvio

    2011-07-01

    Long head biceps (LHB) tendinopathy is a common cause of anterior shoulder pain. Isolated LHB pathology is most common among younger people who practise overhead sports. The authors conducted a short-term prospective randomised study to test the effectiveness of two different methods for the treatment of isolated LHB tendinopathy: biphasic oscillatory waves and hyperthermia. The study is a prospective randomised study (Level II). The authors identified 20 patients who had clinical and ultrasound (US) evidence of LHB tendinopathy. No patient was a high-level athlete. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A (10 patients) was treated with bi-phasic oscillatory waves, while Group B received hyperthermia. During the treatment period, no other electromedical therapy, injections with corticosteroids, oral analgesics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were allowed. All the patients were assessed at baseline (T0), immediately after the end of the treatment period (T1) and 6 months after the end of treatment (T2) using a visual analogic scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley Score (CMS). Furthermore, all patients underwent US examinations at T0 and at T1. All the US examinations were performed by the same radiologist. The VAS scores showed a highly statistically significant reduction of pain at T1 both in Group A (65%; p=0,004) and in Group B (50%; p=0,0002). The CMS also showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-intervention, the post-treatment and the short-term follow-up in both groups. In addition, the peritendinous fluid evident on US examination at T0 was no longer present in all cases at T1. These findings suggest that both bi-phasic oscillatory waves and hyperthermia are able to relieve pain in patients with isolated LHB tendinopathy. This is a Class II level of evidence.

  3. Isolated photochemical reaction centers from bacteriochlorophyll b - containing organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornber, J.P.; Dutton, P.L.; Fajer, J.; Parson, W.W.; Prince, R.C.; Tiede, D.M.; Windsor, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Optical, ESR and pulsed laser spectroscopic examination of isolated bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) b-containing reaction centers (RCs) demonstrates that their composition (1 P960 : 2 bacteriopheophytin (BPh) b : 2 cyt c 558 : 2 cyt c 553 : BChl/BPh = 2) and their mechanism for charge separation are very similar to those in BChl a-containing RCs; however, P960/sup +/, the oxidized form of the primary electron donor, is apparently not a symmetrical dimer of BChl b. The ''primary'' electron acceptor (X) is a quinone-iron complex, and I, the intermediary electron carrier between P960 and X, is BPh which interact(s) strongly with one or more of the other components in the RC. Comparison of the optical spectra of isolated RCs of the BChl b-containing bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Thiocapsa pfennigii, with those of their intact cells shows that the BPh in the RC is not generated during the isolation procedure.

  4. Using Groups to Change the Department Head Role: An Organization Development Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Sheila; London, Chad; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description and analysis of how one Canadian institution used groups of department heads as change agents to address their most acute department head role tensions. It is demonstrated that this institution's change initiative aligned very closely to the recommendations proposed, in both the literature pertaining to…

  5. Susceptibility-resistance profile of micro-organisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... microbial isolates in the HMPs could lead to transfer of antibiotic resistance traits to hitherto sensitive gut or oral microflora of consumers. The present study attempts to evaluate the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of herbal medicinal products vis-a-vis the susceptibility-resistance.

  6. Risk factors, isolation and drug sensitivity of microbial organism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried between January and April 1999 in Tanga region, Tanzania to estimate the prevalence and isolate microbial agents associated with sub-clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows. The study also aimed at identifying risk factors associated with different management practices. A formal ...

  7. Micro-organisms isolated from cadaveric samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Allograft musculoskeletal tissue is commonly used in orthopaedic surgical procedures. Cadaveric donors of musculoskeletal tissue supply multiple allografts such as tendons, ligaments and bone. The microbiology laboratory of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (SEALS, Australia) has cultured cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples for bacterial and fungal isolates since 2006. This study will retrospectively review the micro-organisms isolated over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swab and tissue samples were received for bioburden testing and were inoculated onto agar and/or broth culture media. Growth was obtained from 25.1 % of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples received. The predominant organisms isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms, with the heaviest bioburden recovered from the hemipelvis. The rate of bacterial and fungal isolates from cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples is higher than that from living donors. The type of organism isolated may influence the suitability of the allograft for transplant.

  8. Population-based reference values for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Head and Neck module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerlid, Eva; Adnan, Ali; Silander, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish population-based norms for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Head and Neck 35 (EORTC QLQ-HN35) to be used as references to facilitate the interpretation of results from health-related quality of life (HRQOL) studies of patients with head and neck cancer. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and QLQ-HN35 were sent to a random sample representing the Swedish general population. The response rate was 69% (1504 participants of 2200 invited). The scores for the QLQ-C30 were comparable to previously published reference values. The reference values for the QLQ-HN35 were low, indicating few head and neck-specific problems in the population. For illustrative purposes, we also compared these reference values to our previously published HRQOL results obtained from patients with head and neck cancer at diagnosis and from 3-year survivors. These new reference values for EORTC QLQ-HN35 may be useful in future HRQOL studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. MO-E-17A-08: Attenuation-Based Size Adjusted, Scanner-Independent Organ Dose Estimates for Head CT Exams: TG 204 for Head CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, K; Bostani, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zankl, M [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); DeMarco, J [UCLA Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 204 described size specific dose estimates (SSDE) for body scans. The purpose of this work is to use a similar approach to develop patient-specific, scanner-independent organ dose estimates for head CT exams using an attenuation-based size metric. Methods: For eight patient models from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms, dose to brain and lens of the eye was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contiguous axial scans for 64-slice MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. Organ doses were normalized by scannerspecific 16 cm CTDIvol values and averaged across all scanners to obtain scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients for each patient model. Head size was measured at the first slice superior to the eyes; patient perimeter and effective diameter (ED) were measured directly from the GSF data. Because the GSF models use organ identification codes instead of Hounsfield units, water equivalent diameter (WED) was estimated indirectly. Using the image data from 42 patients ranging from 2 weeks old to adult, the perimeter, ED and WED size metrics were obtained and correlations between each metric were established. Applying these correlations to the GSF perimeter and ED measurements, WED was calculated for each model. The relationship between the various patient size metrics and CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients was then described. Results: The analysis of patient images demonstrated the correlation between WED and ED across a wide range of patient sizes. When applied to the GSF patient models, an exponential relationship between CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients and the WED size metric was observed with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.77 for the brain and lens of the eye, respectively. Conclusion: Strong correlation exists between CTDIvol normalized brain dose and WED. For the lens of the eye, a lower correlation is observed, primarily due to surface dose variations. Funding

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Antifungal Metabolites from Pterocarpus santalinus against Fusarium graminearum Causing Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-In Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head bight (FHB is a devastating disease on major cereal crops worldwide which causes primarily by Fusarium graminearum. Synthetic fungicides are generally used in conventional agriculture to control FHB. Their prolonged usage has led to environmental issues and human health problems. This has prompted interest in developing environmentally friendly biofungicides, including botanical fungicides. In this study, a total 100 plant extracts were tested for antifungal activity against F. graminearum. The crude extract of Pterocarpus santalinus heartwood showed the strongest antifungal activity and contained two antifungal metabolites which were identified as α-cedrol and widdrol by GC-MS analysis. α-Cedrol and widdrol isolated from P. santalinus heartwood extract had 31.25 mg/l and 125 mg/l of minimal inhibitory concentration against the spore germination of F. graminearum, and also showed broad spectrum antifungal activities against various plant pathogens. In addition, the wettable powder type formulation of heartwood extract of P. santalinus decreased FHB incidence in dose-dependent manner and suppressed the development of FHB with control values of 87.2% at 250-fold dilution, similar to that of chemical fungicide (92.6% at 2,000-fold dilution. This study suggests that the heartwood extract of P. santalinus could be used as an effective biofungicide for the control of FHB.

  11. Predictive factors of isolated distant metastasis after primary definitive surgery without systemic treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-Yol; Lim, Young Chang; Kim, Se-Heon; Kim, Jae Wook; Jeong, Ha Min; Choi, Eun Chang

    2010-07-01

    Incidence of isolated distant metastasis (IDM) was relatively low in patients who achieved locoregional control after primary definitive surgery. However, the prognosis of patients with IDM was dismal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with IDM and identify independent predictive factors of IDM after primary definitive surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A retrospective data review was conducted for 795 patients who underwent primary definitive surgery without any systemic treatment for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. Distant metastasis-free survival was calculated and independent predictive factors for IDM were determined by Cox proportional-hazards model. For the entire study cohort, IDM developed in 75 patients (9.4%). Among 631 patients who achieved locoregional control, IDM occurred in 44 patients (7%). The median time to IDM after primary surgery was 13months, ranging from 2 to 70months. The overall salvage rate was 9% (4 of 44) after salvage treatment for IDM. In the Cox proportional-hazards model, clinical N status, and histological grade were independent predictive factors of IDM. Patients who had clinically palpable neck disease and a histologically poor grade were more likely to develop IDM after primary definitive surgery. Patients with these factors should be considered candidates for proper adjuvant systemic treatment and evaluated more thoroughly for early detection of IDM during follow-up.

  12. Identification of metal-tolerant organisms isolated from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-28

    , ScionImage. Introduction. Population growth ... mostly as biofilm communities attached to surfaces; microbial biofilms exhibit high affinities ... diversity of tolerant micro-organisms depends on nucleotide sequence variations ...

  13. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  14. Theory of the interaction of flat sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volodymyr Bulgakov; Valerii Adamchuk; Ladislav Nozdrovicky; Ivan Holovach

    2017-01-01

    .... Modern technologies involve harvest of the tops of sugar beet in two stages: flat basic cut and collecting of the entire green mass at higher altitude and the subsequent cutting of the heads of root crops from the residues...

  15. The Influence of Water Circulation on Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Bald Head Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrasse, M. C.; Osburn, C. L.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; He, R.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles in estuaries such as tidal creeks draining coastal wetlands such as salt marshes. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the quantity and quality of the DOM that tidally exchanges between salt marshes and their adjacent estuaries. Tidal movements play a central role in lateral exchanges of materials and bidirectional flow results in the mixing of DOM from marsh plants and estuarine DOM. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of water circulation on the distribution and quality of DOM in Bald Head Creek, a tributary to the Cape Fear River estuary in eastern North Carolina. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, stable carbon isotopes, and chromophoric DOM (CDOM) absorbance at 254 nm (a254) were used to distinguish between DOM quantity and quality at three locations along the creek: Site 3 (upstream), Site 2 (middle stream), and Site 1 (near the creek mouth). Samples were collected over four tidal cycles between March-August 2016 and compared to time series data collected approximately weekly from 2014-2016. DOM characteristics differed substantially over the tidal cycle. Higher CDOM and DOC concentration were observed at low tide than at high tide at all three sites, suggesting greater export of carbon from the marsh into the creek as the tides recede. Analysis of CDOM quality based on specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (SR) showed that the marsh end-member (Site 3) source of DOM had greater aromaticity and higher molecular weight. Site 1 showed greater variability over the tidal cycle most likely due to a greater tidal influence, being closer to the mouth. Additionally, an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and a hydrodynamic model were used to map water circulation and DOC concentration along the creek to compute exchanges with the adjacent estuary. Results suggest that estuarine OM dynamics are strongly controlled by

  16. An investigation into the effect of protective devices on the dose to radiosensitive organs in the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, N.W.; Faulkner, K. (Newcastle General Hospital (United Kingdom)); Clarke, P. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom))

    1992-09-01

    A series of experiments were performed to determine the dose reduction afforded to radiosensitive organs in the head and neck by various protective devices. These included spectacles with plastic, standard glass, photochromic and lead-glass lenses, a thyroid collar and a lead-acrylic face mask. The measurements were performed using an anthropomorphic phantom loaded with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters, in conditions realistic of clinical practice. Irradiations were performed using scattered radiation produced by a pelvic phantom, for X-ray beams generated at 80 kVp and 110 KVp. Also presented is the ratio of organ dose to dose to the bridge of the nose for thyroid, oesophagus, brain and sinuses, as measured for the case of no head or neck protection. (author).

  17. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Woo Jung; Jung-Seob Lee; Dong-Woo Cho

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the ...

  18. Segmentation of organs-at-risks in head and neck CT images using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, Bulat; Xing, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Accurate segmentation of organs-at-risks (OARs) is the key step for efficient planning of radiation therapy for head and neck (HaN) cancer treatment. In the work, we proposed the first deep learning-based algorithm, for segmentation of OARs in HaN CT images, and compared its performance against state-of-the-art automated segmentation algorithms, commercial software and inter-observer variability. Methods Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) – a concept from the field of deep learning – were used to study consistent intensity patterns of OARs from training CT images and to segment the OAR in a previously unseen test CT image. For CNN training, we extracted a representative number of positive intensity patches around voxels that belong to the OAR of interest in training CT images, and negative intensity patches around voxels that belong to the surrounding structures. These patches then passed through a sequence of CNN layers that captured local image features such as corners, end-points and edges, and combined them into more complex high-order features that can efficiently describe the OAR. The trained network was applied to classify voxels in a region of interest in the test image where the corresponding OAR is expected to be located. We then smoothed the obtained classification results by using Markov random fields algorithm. We finally extracted the largest connected component of the smoothed voxels classified as the OAR by CNN, performed dilate-erode operations to remov cavities of the component, which resulted in segmentation of the OAR in the test image. Results The performance of CNNs was validated on segmentation of spinal cord, mandible, parotid glands, submandibular glands, larynx, pharynx, eye globes, optic nerves and optic chiasm using 50 CT images. The obtained segmentation results varied from 37.4% Dice coefficient (DSC) for chiasm to 89.5% DSC for mandible. We also analyzed the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms and commercial

  19. Segmentation of organs-at-risks in head and neck CT images using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, Bulat; Xing, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs-at-risks (OARs) is the key step for efficient planning of radiation therapy for head and neck (HaN) cancer treatment. In the work, we proposed the first deep learning-based algorithm, for segmentation of OARs in HaN CT images, and compared its performance against state-of-the-art automated segmentation algorithms, commercial software, and interobserver variability. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs)-a concept from the field of deep learning-were used to study consistent intensity patterns of OARs from training CT images and to segment the OAR in a previously unseen test CT image. For CNN training, we extracted a representative number of positive intensity patches around voxels that belong to the OAR of interest in training CT images, and negative intensity patches around voxels that belong to the surrounding structures. These patches then passed through a sequence of CNN layers that captured local image features such as corners, end-points, and edges, and combined them into more complex high-order features that can efficiently describe the OAR. The trained network was applied to classify voxels in a region of interest in the test image where the corresponding OAR is expected to be located. We then smoothed the obtained classification results by using Markov random fields algorithm. We finally extracted the largest connected component of the smoothed voxels classified as the OAR by CNN, performed dilate-erode operations to remove cavities of the component, which resulted in segmentation of the OAR in the test image. The performance of CNNs was validated on segmentation of spinal cord, mandible, parotid glands, submandibular glands, larynx, pharynx, eye globes, optic nerves, and optic chiasm using 50 CT images. The obtained segmentation results varied from 37.4% Dice coefficient (DSC) for chiasm to 89.5% DSC for mandible. We also analyzed the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms and commercial software reported in the

  20. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  1. Size-specific, scanner-independent organ dose estimates in contiguous axial and helical head CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kyle; Bostani, Maryam; Cagnon, Chris; Zankl, Maria; Sepahdari, Ali R; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2014-12-01

    AAPM Task Group 204 introduced size-specific dose estimates for pediatric and adult patients undergoing body CT examinations. This investigation extends that work to head CT exams by using Monte Carlo simulations to develop size-specific, scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients. Using eight patient models from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms, dose to the brain and lens of the eye was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contiguous axial and helical scans for 64-slice multidetector CT scanners from four major manufacturers. For each patient model and scan mode, scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients were calculated by normalizing organ dose by scanner-specific 16 cm CTDIvol values and averaging across all scanners. Head size was measured using both geometric and attenuation-based size metrics. Head perimeter and effective diameter (ED), both geometric size metrics, were measured directly from the GSF data at the first slice superior to the eyes. Because the GSF models' pixel data are provided in terms of organ identification numbers instead of CT numbers, an indirect estimate of water equivalent diameter (WED), an attenuation-based size metric, was determined based on the relationships between WED and both ED and perimeter for a sample of patient data. Correlations between CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients and the various patient size metrics were then explored. The analysis of the patient data revealed a best-fit linear relationship (R(2) of 0.87) between ED and WED across a wide variety of patient sizes. Using this relationship along with ED determined from the GSF data, WED was estimated for each GSF model. An exponential relationship between CTDIvol normalized organ dose and WED was observed for both contiguous axial and helical scanning. For head perimeter and ED measured directly from the GSF data, an exponential relationship between CTDIvol normalized organ dose and patient size was

  2. Organization of the cpe locus in CPE-positive clostridium perfringens type C and D isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (encoded by the cpe gene contributes to several important human, and possibly veterinary, enteric diseases. The current study investigated whether cpe locus organization in type C or D isolates resembles one of the three (one chromosomal and two plasmid-borne cpe loci commonly found amongst type A isolates. Multiplex PCR assays capable of detecting sequences in those type A cpe loci failed to amplify products from cpe-positive type C and D isolates, indicating these isolates possess different cpe locus arrangements. Therefore, restriction fragments containing the cpe gene were cloned and sequenced from two type C isolates and one type D isolate. The obtained cpe locus sequences were then used to construct an overlapping PCR assay to assess cpe locus diversity amongst other cpe-positive type C and D isolates. All seven surveyed cpe-positive type C isolates had a plasmid-borne cpe locus partially resembling the cpe locus of type A isolates carrying a chromosomal cpe gene. In contrast, all eight type D isolates shared the same plasmid-borne cpe locus, which differed substantially from the cpe locus present in other C. perfringens by containing two copies of an ORF with 67% identity to a transposase gene (COG4644 found in Tn1546, but not previously associated with the cpe gene. These results identify greater diversity amongst cpe locus organization than previously appreciated, providing new insights into cpe locus evolution. Finally, evidence for cpe gene mobilization was found for both type C and D isolates, which could explain their cpe plasmid diversity.

  3. Isolation and identification of anaerobic organisms from the male and female urogenital tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, S

    1983-06-01

    Since Bacteroides spp may play an important role together with Gardnerella vaginalis in the pathogenesis of non-specific vaginitis and balanoposthitis, anaerobic organisms were isolated and identified from 34 female and 20 male patients attending a department of genitourinary medicine, and the results compared with the clinical findings and the presence of other routinely isolated pathogens. Twenty-three different organisms were recovered from 13 of the 20 men; of these organisms, 20 were of the Bacteroides spp. Most isolates were of the B melaninogenicus/oralis group, which forms part of the commensal vaginal flora in women. A definite association between the presence of anaerobes and other pathogens needs to be firmly established, as this obviously causes important complications in treating these conditions.

  4. SU-F-SPS-03: Direct Measurement of Organ Doses Resulting From Head and Cervical Spine Trauma CT Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, C; Lipnharski, I; Quails, N; Correa, N; Rill, L; Arreola, M [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study analyzes the exposure history of emergency department (ED) patients undergoing head and cervical spine trauma computed tomography (CT) studies. This study investigated dose levels received by trauma patients and addressed any potential concerns regarding radiation dose issues. Methods: Under proper IRB approval, a cohort of 300 trauma cases of head and cervical spine trauma CT scans received in the ED was studied. The radiological image viewing software of the hospital was used to view patient images and image data. The following parameters were extracted: the imaging history of patients, the reported dose metrics from the scanner including the volumetric CT Dose Index (CTDIvol) and Dose Length Product (DLP). A postmortem subject was scanned using the same scan techniques utilized in a standard clinical head and cervical spine trauma CT protocol with 120 kVp and 280 mAs. The CTDIvol was recorded for the subject and the organ doses were measured using optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters. Typical organ doses to the brain, thyroid, lens, salivary glands, and skin, based on the cadaver studies, were then calculated and reported for the cohort. Results: The CTDIvol reported by the CT scanner was 25.5 mGy for the postmortem subject. The average CTDIvol from the patient cohort was 34.1 mGy. From these metrics, typical average organ doses in mGy were found to be: Brain (44.57), Thyroid (33.40), Lens (82.45), Salivary Glands (61.29), Skin (47.50). The imaging history of the cohort showed that on average trauma patients received 26.1 scans over a lifetime. Conclusion: The average number of scans received on average by trauma ED patients shows that radiation doses in trauma patients may be a concern. Available dose tracking software would be helpful to track doses in trauma ED patients, highlighting the importance of minimizing unnecessary scans and keeping doses ALARA.

  5. Novel lineages of Giardia intestinalis identified by genetic analysis of organisms isolated from dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monis, P T; Andrews, R H; Mayrhofer, G; Mackrill, J; Kulda, J; Isaac-Renton, J L; Ey, P L

    1998-01-01

    Infection of suckling mice with Giardia trophozoites recovered from the intestines of 11 dogs autopsied in Central and Southern Australia in each case produced an established isolate. In contrast, only 1 isolate was obtained by inoculation of faecal cysts. The organisms grew poorly in comparison with isolates from humans or non-canine animal hosts. Light microscopy revealed that the trophozoites had median bodies with the 'claw hammer' appearance typical of G. intestinalis (syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) but that they differed in shape and nuclear morphology from axenic isolates of human or canine origin. Allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data representing 26 loci and phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained from DNA amplified from the glutamate dehydrogenase locus showed that the 11 isolates examined from Australian dogs were genetically distinct from all isolates of G. intestinalis that have been established previously from humans and animals, and also from G. muris. Both analytical methods placed 10 of the Australian canine isolates into a unique genetic lineage (designated Assemblage C) and the eleventh into a deep-rooted second branch (designated Assemblage D), each well separated from the 2 lineages (Assemblages A and B) of G. intestinalis that encompass all the genotypes known to infect humans. In contrast, 4 axenic isolates derived from dogs in Canada and Europe (the only other isolates to have been established from dogs) have genotypes characteristic of genetic Assemblages A or B. The findings indicate that the novel Giardia identified in these rural Australian dogs have a restricted host range, possibly confined to canine species. The poor success rate in establishing Giardia from dogs in vitro suggests, further, that similar genotypes may predominate as canine parasites world-wide. The absence of such organisms among isolates of Giardia that have been established from humans by propagation in suckling mice indicates that they are

  6. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from organic and conventional retail chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Brown, A; Nahashon, S N; Long, D

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria existing in agricultural environments may be transferred to humans through food consumption or more multifaceted environmental paths of exposure. Notably, enterococcal infections are becoming more challenging to treat as their resistance to antibiotics intensifies. In this study, the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci in organic and conventional chicken from retail stores were analyzed. Of the total 343 retail chicken samples evaluated, 282 (82.2%) were contaminated with Enterococcus spp. The prevalence was higher in organic chicken (62.5%) than conventional chicken (37.5%). Enterococcus isolates were submitted to susceptibility tests against 12 antimicrobial agents. Among the isolates tested, streptomycin had the highest frequencies of resistance (69.1 and 100%) followed by erythromycin (38.5 and 80.0%), penicillin (14.1 and 88.5%), and kanamycin (11.3 and 76.9%) for organic and conventional isolates, respectively. Chloramphenicol had the lowest frequency (0.0 and 6.6%, respectively). The predominant species in raw chicken was E. faecium (27.3%), followed by E. gallinarum (6.0%), E. casseliflavus (2.1%), and E. durans (1.4%). These species were also found to be resistant to three or more antibiotics. The data indicated that antibiotic-resistant enterococci isolates were found in chicken whether it was organic or conventional. However, enterococci isolates that were resistant to antibiotics were less common in organic chicken (31.0%) when compared with those isolated from conventional chicken (43.6%). The results of this study suggest that raw retail organic and conventional chickens could be a source of antibiotic-resistant enterococci.

  7. Heads, Tails, and Tools: Morphogenesis of a Giant Single-Celled Organism: e1001862

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mary Hoff

    2014-01-01

      [...]because its size allowed elegant surgical manipulations, Stentor became a classical model organism for studying shape and pattern formation in single-celled organisms in the first half of the 20th century...

  8. 3D printed conformal microfluidics for isolation and profiling of biomarkers from whole organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjot; Tong, Yuxin; Webster, Kelly; Cesewski, Ellen; Haring, Alexander P; Laheri, Sahil; Carswell, Bill; O'Brien, Timothy J; Aardema, Charles H; Senger, Ryan S; Robertson, John L; Johnson, Blake N

    2017-07-25

    The ability to interface microfluidic devices with native complex biological architectures, such as whole organs, has the potential to shift the paradigm for the study and analysis of biological tissue. Here, we show 3D printing can be used to fabricate bio-inspired conformal microfluidic devices that directly interface with the surface of whole organs. Structured-light scanning techniques enabled the 3D topographical matching of microfluidic device geometry to porcine kidney anatomy. Our studies show molecular species are spontaneously transferred from the organ cortex to the conformal microfluidic device in the presence of fluid flow through the organ-conforming microchannel. Large animal studies using porcine kidneys (n = 32 organs) revealed the profile of molecular species in the organ-conforming microfluidic stream was dependent on the organ preservation conditions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies revealed conformal microfluidic devices isolate clinically relevant metabolic and pathophysiological biomarkers from whole organs, including heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), which were detected in the microfluidic device as high as 409 and 12 pg mL-1, respectively. Overall, these results show conformal microfluidic devices enable a novel minimally invasive 'microfluidic biopsy' technique for isolation and profiling of biomarkers from whole organs within a clinically relevant interval. This achievement could shift the paradigm for whole organ preservation and assessment, thereby helping to relieve the organ shortage crisis through increased availability and quality of donor organs. Ultimately, this work provides a major advance in microfluidics through the design and manufacturing of organ-conforming microfluidic devices and a novel technique for microfluidic-based analysis of whole organs.

  9. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from shell eggs collected during commercial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M T; Northcutt, J K; Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Harrison, M A

    2008-06-01

    In the United States, commercial shell eggs are washed and graded before retail. Since passage of the Egg Products Inspection Act in 1971, processing guidelines have been set to ensure that external and internal characteristics are maintained. However, less is known about how commercial processing affects the safety of shell eggs. To identify enteric bacteria entering plants and persisting throughout processing, eggs were collected from 3 US commercial shell egg-processing plants on 3 separate visits. On each plant visit, 12 eggs were collected from each of 12 sites along the processing line: accumulator, prewash rinse, first washer, second washer, sanitizer rinse, dryer, oiler, check detection/scales, 2 egg grader/packer head lanes, rewash belt entrance, and rewash belt exit. Each egg was sampled by a rinse technique, and the rinsate was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae. From each plate, up to 5 colonies were randomly selected and isolated for identification to genus or species by using biochemical tests. Several genera and species were detected at each of the 3 plants. Sites from which the greatest numbers of isolates were identified were those collected from eggs during preprocessing (accumulator, prewash rinse) or from eggs judged as dirty (rewash belt entrance or exit). Sites yielding the smallest number of isolates were those during or at the end of processing. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter spp. were isolated from each of the 9 plant visits. Other genera isolated from at least 1 of the 3 plants included Cedecea, Citrobacter, Erwinia, Hafnia, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Morganella, Proteus, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, and Serratia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae isolated and identified included Aeromonas, Chryseomonas, Listonella, Pseudomonas, Sphingobacterium, Vibrio, and Xanthomonas. All of the genera and species were recovered less frequently from fully processed eggs than

  10. ISOLATION STUDIES ON THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLAE IN CHICKEN ORGANS, EGGS AND FEED COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Saraj-Uddin; Sajid, Mahum; Hashmi, Ramiz Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide.

  11. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G.R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  12. Equivalent dose, effective dose and risk assessment from panoramic radiography to the critical organs of head and neck region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ae Ryeon [Dept. of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalent and effective dose, and estimate radiation risk to the critical organs of head and neck region from the use of adult and child mode in panoramic radiography. The results were as follows. 1. The salivary glands showed the highest equivalent and effective dose in adult and child mode. The equivalent and effective dose in adult mode were 837 {mu}Sv and 20.93 {mu}Sv, those in child mode were 462 {mu}Sv and 11.54 {mu}Sv, respectively. 2. Total effective doses to the critical head and neck organs were estimated 34.2l {mu}Sv in adult mode, 20.14 {mu}Sv in child mode. From these data, the probabilities of stochastic effect from adult and child mode were 2.50xl0{sup -6} and 1.47x10{sup -6} 3. The other remainder showed the greatest risk of fatal cancer. The risk estimate were 4.5 and 2.7 fatal malignancies in adult and child mode from million examinations. The bone marrow and thyroid gland showed about 0.1 fatal cancer in adult. and child mode from these examinations.

  13. Enhanced dissolution of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, M.; Ryan, J.N. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering; Aiken, G.R.; Reddy, M.M. [Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades caused a dramatic increase in mercury release from cinnabar (HgS), a solid with limited solubility. Hydrophobic (a mixture of both humic and fulvic) acids dissolved more mercury than hydrophilic acids and other nonacid fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Cinnabar dissolution by isolated organic matter and natural water samples was inhibited by cations such as Ca{sup 2+}. Dissolution was independent of oxygen content in experimental solutions. Dissolution experiments conducted in Dl water had no detectable dissolved mercury. The presence of various inorganic (chloride, sulfate, or sulfide) and organic ligands (salicylic acid, acetic acid, EDTA, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. {zeta}-potential measurements indicated sorption of negatively charged organic matter to the negatively charged cinnabar at pH 6.0. Possible mechanisms of dissolution include surface complexation of mercury and oxidation of surface sulfur species by the organic matter.

  14. Head-to-head comparison of inhibitory and fungicidal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole against clinical isolates of Trichosporon asahii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazirolan, Gulsen; Canton, Emilia; Sahin, Selma; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of disseminated Trichosporon infections still remains difficult. Amphotericin B frequently displays inadequate fungicidal activity and echinocandins have no meaningful antifungal effect against this genus. Triazoles are currently the drugs of choice for the treatment of Trichosporon infections. This study evaluates the inhibitory and fungicidal activities of five triazoles against 90 clinical isolates of Trichosporon asahii. MICs (μg/ml) were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microdilution method M27-A3 at 24 and 48 h using two endpoints, MIC-2 and MIC-0 (the lowest concentrations that inhibited ∼50 and 100% of growth, respectively). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs; μg/ml) were determined by seeding 100 μl of all clear MIC wells (using an inoculum of 10(4) CFU/ml) onto Sabouraud dextrose agar. Time-kill curves were assayed against four clinical T. asahii isolates and the T. asahii ATCC 201110 strain. The MIC-2 (∼50% reduction in turbidity compared to the growth control well)/MIC-0 (complete inhibition of growth)/MFC values that inhibited 90% of isolates at 48 h were, respectively, 8/32/64 μg/ml for fluconazole, 1/2/8 μg/ml for itraconazole, 0.12/0.5/2 μg/ml for voriconazole, 0.5/2/4 μg/ml for posaconazole, and 0.25/1/4 μg/ml for isavuconazole. The MIC-0 endpoints yielded more consistent MIC results, which remained mostly unchanged when extending the incubation to 48 h (98 to 100% agreement with 24-h values) and are easier to interpret. Based on the time-kill experiments, none of the drugs reached the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% killing), killing activity being shown but at concentrations not reached in serum. Statistical analysis revealed that killing rates are dose and antifungal dependent. The lowest concentration at which killing activity begins was for voriconazole, and the highest was for fluconazole. These results suggest that azoles display fungistatic activity and lack fungicidal effect against

  15. Enhanced dissolution of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Mahalingam; Aiken, George R.; Reddy, Michael M.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades caused a dramatic increase in mercury release (up to 35 μM total dissolved mercury) from cinnabar (HgS), a solid with limited solubility. Hydrophobic (a mixture of both humic and fulvic) acids dissolved more mercury than hydrophilic acids and other nonacid fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Cinnabar dissolution by isolated organic matter and natural water samples was inhibited by cations such as Ca2+. Dissolution was independent of oxygen content in experimental solutions. Dissolution experiments conducted in DI water (pH = 6.0) had no detectable (salicylic acid, acetic acid, EDTA, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates (determined by 13C NMR) correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. ζ-potential measurements indicated sorption of negatively charged organic matter to the negatively charged cinnabar (pHpzc = 4.0) at pH 6.0. Possible mechanisms of dissolution include surface complexation of mercury and oxidation of surface sulfur species by the organic matter.

  16. Prevalence and Toxin Characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Organic Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Choi, Ok-Kyung; Kwon, Sun-Mok; Cho, Seung-Hak; Park, Byung-Jae; Jin, Na Young; Yu, Yong Man; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2017-08-28

    The prevalence and toxin characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from 39 organic vegetables were investigated. B. thuringiensis was detected in 30 out of the 39 organic vegetables (76.9%) with a mean value of 2.60 log CFU/g. Twenty-five out of the 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (83.3%) showed insecticidal toxicity against Spodoptera exigua. The hblCDA, nheABC, and entFM genes were found to be the major toxin genes, but the ces gene was not detected in any of the tested B. thuringiensis isolates. The hemolysin BL enterotoxin was detected in all 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (100%). The non-hemolytic enterotoxin complex was found in 27 out of 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (90.0%). The B. thuringiensis tested in this study had similar toxin gene characteristics to B. cereus, which possessed more than one toxin gene. B. thuringiensis could have the potential risk of foodborne illness based on the toxin genes and toxin-producing ability.

  17. No boundaries: genomes, organisms, and ecological interactions responsible for divergence and reproductive isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J

    2014-01-01

    Revealing the genetic basis of traits that cause reproductive isolation, particularly premating or sexual isolation, usually involves the same challenges as most attempts at genotype-phenotype mapping and so requires knowledge of how these traits are expressed in different individuals, populations, and environments, particularly under natural conditions. Genetic dissection of speciation phenotypes thus requires understanding of the internal and external contexts in which underlying genetic elements are expressed. Gene expression is a product of complex interacting factors internal and external to the organism including developmental programs, the genetic background including nuclear-cytotype interactions, epistatic relationships, interactions among individuals or social effects, stochasticity, and prevailing variation in ecological conditions. Understanding of genomic divergence associated with reproductive isolation will be facilitated by functional expression analysis of annotated genomes in organisms with well-studied evolutionary histories, phylogenetic affinities, and known patterns of ecological variation throughout their life cycles. I review progress and prospects for understanding the pervasive role of host plant use on genetic and phenotypic expression of reproductive isolating mechanisms in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis and suggest how this system can be used as a model for revealing the genetic basis for species formation in organisms where speciation phenotypes are under the joint influences of genetic and environmental factors. © The American Genetic Association. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Comprehensive isolation of natural organic matter from water for spectral characterizations and reactivity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Croue, J.-P.; Benjamin, M.; Korshin, G.V.; Hwang, C.J.; Bruchet, A.; Aiken, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of approaches were tested to comprehensively isolate natural organic matter (NOM) from water. For waters with high NOM concentrations such as the Suwannee River, Georgia, approaches that used combinations of membrane concentrations, evaporative concentrations, and adsorption on nonionic XAD resins, ion exchange resins and iron oxide coated sand isolated over 90% of the NOM. However, for waters with low NOM concentrations, losses of half of the NOM were common and desalting of NOM isolates was a problem. A new comprehensive approach was devised and tested on the Seine River, France in which 100 L of filtered water was sodium softened by ion exchange and vacuum evaporated to 100 mL. Colloids (32% of the NOM) were isolated using a 3,500 Dalton membrane by dialysis against 0.1 M HCl and 0.2 M HF to remove salts and silica. On the membrane permeate, hydrophobic NOM (42%) was isolated using XAD-8 resin and hydrophilic NOM (26%) was isolated using a variety of selective desalting precipitations. The colloid fraction was characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy as N-acetylamino sugars. ?? 2000 American Chemical Society.

  19. Navigation organs of the oriental hornet : the ocelli and ciliated sensory epithelium of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenzweig, Eyal

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the structure and the role of the orientation and navigation organs in the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis L. 1771 (Hymenoptera, Vespinae), with special reference to the ocelli. The role of the cuticle, acting as a voltaic system providing the energy for the hornet to fly and

  20. Navigation organs of the oriental hornet: the ocelli and ciliated sensory epithelium of the head

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Eyal

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the structure and the role of the orientation and navigation organs in the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis L. 1771 (Hymenoptera, Vespinae), with special reference to the ocelli. The role of the cuticle, acting as a voltaic system providing the energy for the hornet to fly and to navigate had been discussed in chapter 2

  1. Pilot study: volatile organic compounds as a diagnostic marker for head and neck tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmutzhard, Joachim; Rieder, Josef; Deibl, Martina; Schwentner, Ilona M.; Schmid, Stefan; Lirk, Philip; Abraham, Irene; Gunkel, Andreas R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) has undergone a rapid development. In this pilot study, patients with HNSCC were tested with a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry in order to establish a minimal invasive screening method. Overall in a period of 2 years, 22

  2. Isolated varices over hepatic flexure colon indicating superior mesenteric venous thrombosis caused by uncinate pancreatic head cancer - a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yu-Pin; Lin, Chun-Jung; Su, Ming-Yao; Tseng, Jeng-Hwei; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Chen, Pang-Chi

    2005-01-01

    Very rare cases of varices involving right side colon were reported. Most of them were due to cirrhotic portal hypertension or other primary causes. No report case contributed to pancreatic cancer. Here, we reported a case of uncinate pancreatic cancer with the initial finding of isolated hepatic flexure colon varices. Following studies confirmed isolated varices involving hepatic flexure colon due to pancreatic cancer with occlusion of superior mesenteric vein. From this report, superior mes...

  3. No Clear Differences between Organic or Conventional Pig Farms in the Genetic Diversity or Virulence of Campylobacter coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Denis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of pig farm management on the genetic diversity and on the virulence of Campylobacter coli, we characterized isolates from 19 organic pig farms (62 isolates and from 24 conventional pig farms (58 isolates. The 120 C. coli isolates were typed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST and the presence of nine virulence genes was screened using real-time PCR. The capacity of adhesion and invasion of 61 isolates (32 from organic and 29 from conventional farms were then tested on human intestinal Caco-2 cells. A total of 59 PFGE types and of 50 sequence types (STs were identified. Twelve PFGE types and nine STs, accounting for 34 and 41.6% of the isolates, respectively, were common between the two production systems with ST854 dominating (18.3% of the isolates. Twenty-nine PFGE types and 25 STs were only found in isolates from organic farms, and 18 PFGE types and 16 STs from conventional farms. No significant differences were found in diversity despite the differences in rearing systems, except at the locus level for the glnA, gltA, and uncA genes. All isolates, regardless of their origin, carried the ceuE, iam, ciaB, and flaA genes and more than 95% of the isolates carried the cadF and cdtABC genes. No significant differences were found in pathogenicity between the two farming systems. The pathogenicity of the C. coli isolates was low compared to C. jejuni control strains tested. The plasmid gene virb11 was detected in only 13 isolates from organic farms; these isolates showed greater invasion capacity than those without this gene. Our study indicates that pig farm management does not significantly affect the diversity and the virulence of Campylobacter coli isolated from pigs. The common genotypes between conventional and organic farms may indicate that some genotypes are adapted to pigs.

  4. Spatially isolated palladium in porous organic polymers by direct knitting for versatile organic transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo

    2017-10-03

    We report here a direct knitting Method for preparation of highly robust, effective while air- and moisture-tolerant, and readily recyclable three-dimensional (3D) porous polymer-Pd network (PPPd) from the widely used Pd(PPh3)4. Electro-beam induced Pd atom crystallization was observed for the first time in organic polymer and revealed the ultrafine dispersion of palladium atoms. Challenging types of Suzuki-Miyaura couplings, reductive coupling of aryl halides and oxidative coupling of arylboronic acid were successively catalyzed by PPPd in aqueous media. Also catalytically selective CH functionalization reactions were achieved with orders of magnitude more efficient than conventional Pd homogeneous catalysts. The strategy developed here provides a practical method for easy-to-make yet highly efficient heterogeneous catalysis.

  5. Pretreatment organ function in patients with advanced head and neck cancer: clinical outcome measures and patients' views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasch Coen RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this study is to thoroughly assess pretreatment organ function in advanced head and neck cancer through various clinical outcome measures and patients' views. Methods A comprehensive, multidimensional assessment was used, that included quality of life, swallowing, mouth opening, and weight changes. Fifty-five patients with stage III-IV disease were entered in this study prior to organ preserving (chemoradiation treatment. Results All patients showed pretreatment abnormalities or problems, identified by one or more of the outcome measures. Most frequent problems concerned swallowing, pain, and weight loss. Interestingly, clinical outcome measures and patients' perception did no always concur. E.g. videofluoroscopy identified aspiration and laryngeal penetration in 18% of the patients, whereas only 7 patients (13% perceived this as problematic; only 2 out of 7 patients with objective trismus actually perceived trismus. Conclusion The assessment identified several problems already pre-treatment, in this patient population. A thorough assessment of both clinical measures and patients' views appears to be necessary to gain insight in all (perceived pre-existing functional and quality of life problems.

  6. Compositional characteristics of materials recovered from headed gutted silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by isoelectric solubilization and precipitation using organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Ilgin; Beamer, Sarah; Jaczynski, Jacek; Matak, Kristen E

    2013-03-01

    Protein was recovered from headed gutted silver carp by isoelectric solubilization at pH 2.5, 3.0, 11.5, or 12.0 and precipitation (ISP) at pH 5.5 using acetic (AA) or a 30% formic and lactic acid combination (F&L) and 10 N sodium hydroxide. Total protein and fat recovery yields, proximate composition and mineral analyses of fractions were determined. Protein and lipid recovery yields when solubilized under basic conditions were comparable to yields reported from other studies using hydrochloric acid; however, the recovered fractions were less pure. Processing at basic pH using AA was more effective than F&L at removing impurities (P 0.05). For the most part, sodium was greater (P magnesium, and iron (P < 0.05) in the recovered protein regardless of acid used when compared to the initial paste. This research shows that organic acids have the potential to recover protein and lipid by ISP processing. This research presents a reliable method for extracting nutritionally valuable fish protein and oils from otherwise hard to process fish and its byproducts. Replacing the traditionally used strong acids with organic acids might further accomplish bacterial load reduction while resulting in similar to or improved protein recovery yields. Therefore, this technology may increase the commercial viability of hard to process fish. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  8. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  9. Head growth in fetuses with isolated congenital heart defects: lack of influence of aortic arch flow and ascending aorta oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, F A R; van Zwet, E W; Rijlaarsdam, M E B; Pajkrt, E; van Velzen, C L; Zuurveen, H R; Kragt, A; Bax, C L; Clur, S-A B; van Lith, J M M; Blom, N A; Haak, M C

    2016-09-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are reported to be associated with a smaller fetal head circumference (HC) and neurodevelopmental delay. Recent studies suggest that altered intrauterine brain hemodynamics may explain these findings. Our objectives were to evaluate the pattern of head growth in a large cohort of fetuses with various types of CHD, analyze these patterns according to the type of CHD and estimate the effect of cerebral hemodynamics with advancing gestation in the second and third trimesters. Singleton fetuses with an isolated CHD were selected from three fetal medicine units (n = 436). Cases with placental insufficiency or genetic syndromes were excluded. CHD types were clustered according to the flow and oxygen saturation in the aorta. Z-scores of biometric data were constructed using growth charts of a normal population. HC at different gestational ages was evaluated and univariate and multivariate mixed regression analyses were performed to examine the patterns of prenatal HC growth. Fetuses with severe and less severe types of CHD demonstrated statistically significant HC growth restriction with increasing gestational age (slope of -0.017/day); however, there was no statistically significant effect of fetal hemodynamics on HC growth. Fetuses with CHD but normal brain oxygenation and normal aortic flow showed a significant decrease in HC growth (slope of -0.024/day). Only fetuses with isolated tetralogy of Fallot demonstrated a smaller HC z-score at 20 weeks of gestation (-0.67 (95% CI, -1.16 to -0.18)). Despite the decline in head growth in fetuses with a prenatally detected isolated CHD, HC values were within the normal range, raising the question of its clinical significance. Furthermore, in contrast to other studies, this large cohort did not establish a significant correlation between aortic flow or oxygen saturation and HC growth. Factors other than altered fetal cerebral hemodynamics may contribute to HC growth restriction with increasing

  10. Genetic diversity of Fusarium graminearum sensu lato isolates from wheat associated with Fusarium Head Blight in diverse geographic locations of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Verónica F; Ortega, Leonel M; Salerno, Graciela; Astoreca, Andrea L; Alconada, Teresa M

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight is an important wheat disease in the Argentine Pampas region, being Fusarium graminearum the predominant pathogen. DNA polymorphism of the isolates was analyzed by IGS-RFLP and ISSR. IGS-RFLP and ISSR profiling were carried out using six endonucleases and eight primers, respectively. IGS-RFLP yielded 41 bands, 30 of which were polymorphic while ISSR produced 87 bands with 47 polymorphic bands. Both markers showed genetic variability among the analyzed isolates; however, IGS-RFLP was more efficient than ISSR, showing a higher polymorphic average (59.91%) than the latter (44.11%). The averages of polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.211 and 0.129, respectively. Twenty haplotypes were identified by IGS-RFLP and 15 haplotypes by ISSR. Genotype clustering within dendrograms was different for both types of markers. The genetic groups obtained by IGS-RFLP showed a partial association to geographic origin. This is the first report on genetic variability of F. graminearum isolates from wheat in Argentina using IGS-RFLP and ISSR markers. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from artichoke and expression analysis in wounded artichoke heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Angela; Mita, Giovanni; Durante, Miriana; Arlorio, Marco; De Paolis, Angelo

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme, which can catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, has been reported to be involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. This phenomenon is particularly severe in artichoke heads wounded during the manufacturing process. A full-length cDNA encoding for a putative polyphenol oxidase (designated as CsPPO) along with a 1432 bp sequence upstream of the starting ATG codon was characterized for the first time from [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. The 1764 bp CsPPO sequence encodes a putative protein of 587 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 65,327 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.50. Analysis of the promoter region revealed the presence of cis-acting elements, some of which are putatively involved in the response to light and wounds. Expression analysis of the gene in wounded capitula indicated that CsPPO was significantly induced after 48 h, even though the browning process had started earlier. This suggests that the early browning event observed in artichoke heads was not directly related to de novo mRNA synthesis. Finally, we provide the complete gene sequence encoding for polyphenol oxidase and the upstream regulative region in artichoke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Non-Organic Tricuspid Regurgitation Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Sheikhfathollahi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Moderate non-organic tricuspid regurgitation (TR concomitant with coronary artery disease is not uncommon. Whether or not TR improves after pure coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of isolated CABG on moderate non-organic TR.Methods: This study recruited 50 patients (40% female, mean age: 65.38±8.01 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: 45.74±13.05% with moderate non-organic TR who underwent isolated CABG. TR severity before and after CABG was compared. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PAPs>30mmHg and LVEF<50% were considered elevated PAPs (EPAPs and LV systolic dysfunction, respectively. Presence of Q-wave in leads II, III, and aVF was considered inferior myocardial infarction (inf. MI.Results: Pre-operatively, 81.5% of the patients had EPAPs, 16% right ventricle (RV dilation, and 50% left ventricle (LV and 16% RV systolic dysfunction. TR severity improved in 64% after CABG, whereas it remained unchanged or even worsened in others (P value<0.001. Patients with inf. MI showed no improvement in TR, while patients without inf. MI had significant TR regression after CABG (P value=0.050. Improvement of TR severity after CABG was not related to pre-operative RV size and function, LV systolic function, or PAPs reduction.Conclusion: Although TR severity decreased remarkably after isolated CABG, a considerable number of the patients had no TR regression. In addition, only absence of inf. MI was significantly correlated to TR improvement after CABG. Further prospective studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the other factors predicting TR regression after isolated CABG.

  13. Relationship between bacterial translocation and isolation of enteric bacteria from extraintestinal organs in slaughtered pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Satoshi; Kanazawa, Mio; Sugishima, Masahito; Ogawa, Akihiro; Ohba, Takemi

    2011-12-01

    Enteric bacteria, especially Escherichia coli, have been isolated from porcine livers affected with ascariasis. We hypothesized that reason for this bacterial isolation was due to bacterial translocation (BT). In order to clarify the association between ascariasis and isolation of Enterobacteriaceae in the livers,12 pigs with ascariasis (ascariasis group), 12 pigs without ascariasis (non-ascariasis A group) were used. Jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, livers, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and portal blood were obtained from these pigs. Furthermore, in order to confirm the presence of BT in pigs, the samples mentioned above as well as spleens were obtained from 11 pigs without ascariasis (non-ascariasis B group) and 6 specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs without ascariasis (non-ascariasis SPF group). In the first experiment, the gram-negative bacteria were isolated from livers (66.7%), MLN (91.7%), and portal blood (55.6%) regardless the presence of ascariasis. In the second experiment, isolation rates of gram-negative and -positive bacteria were 52.9 and 66.7% for livers, 52.9 and 80% for MLN, 11.8 and 26.7% for spleens, and 40 and 20% for portal blood of the pigs examined, respectively. E. coli and Staphylococcus were the predominant isolates from these pigs. A large number of antigens immunodetected by E. coli polyclonal antibody were found in the damaged cecal mucosa. These findings present evidence that BT is generally observed in slaughtered pigs regardless the presence of ascariasis. This has challenged our notion that extraintestinal organs of pigs are usually maintained as sterile.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Device for Clinical Preservation of Isolated Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Shen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between limited organ supply and huge potential need has hindered the development of organ-graft techniques. In this paper a low-cost hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP device is designed and implemented to maintain suitable preservation surroundings and extend the survival life of isolated organs. Four necessary elements (the machine perfusion, the physiological parameter monitoring, the thermostatic control and the oxygenation apparatus involved in this HMP device are introduced. Especially during the thermostatic control process, a modified Bayes estimation, which introduces the concept of improvement factor, is realized to recognize and reduce the possible measurement errors resulting from sensor faults and noise interference. Also, a fuzzy-PID controller contributes to improve the accuracy and reduces the computational load using the DSP. Our experiments indicate that the reliability of the instrument meets the design requirements, thus being appealing for potential clinical preservation applications.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Device for Clinical Preservation of Isolated Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei; Yan, Ruqiang

    2017-06-01

    The imbalance between limited organ supply and huge potential need has hindered the development of organ-graft techniques. In this paper a low-cost hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) device is designed and implemented to maintain suitable preservation surroundings and extend the survival life of isolated organs. Four necessary elements (the machine perfusion, the physiological parameter monitoring, the thermostatic control and the oxygenation apparatus) involved in this HMP device are introduced. Especially during the thermostatic control process, a modified Bayes estimation, which introduces the concept of improvement factor, is realized to recognize and reduce the possible measurement errors resulting from sensor faults and noise interference. Also, a fuzzy-PID controller contributes to improve the accuracy and reduces the computational load using the DSP. Our experiments indicate that the reliability of the instrument meets the design requirements, thus being appealing for potential clinical preservation applications.

  16. Improved culture methods for isolation of Salmonella organisms from swine feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Mortensen, Alicja

    2000-01-01

    Objective-To compare 3 alternative culture techniques for the detection of Salmonella organisms in swine feces with a modification of the international Standard Organization (ISO) 6579 standard protocol. Sample Population-Fecal samples from swine herds suspected of having Salmonella infections....... Procedure-4 experiments were performed to evaluate the following: 1) diagnostic sensitivity of the selective preenrichment and rapid isolation novel technology (SPRINT) protocol, compared with that of the modified ISO protocol; 2) detection limit of the SPRINT protocol for Salmonella organisms; 3) use....... Results-Comparing the Salmonella culture results of 183 swine fecal samples, the diagnostic sensitivity of the SPRINT protocol (0.86) was not significantly different than the diagnostic sensitivity of the modified ISO protocol (0.80), although it was 24 hours faster. The SPRINT protocol could detect 5...

  17. Isolation effect on organic thin film transistors for low hysteresis characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Seong Hyun; Koo, Jae Bon; Lim, Jung Wook; Lim, Sang Chul; Kim, Gi Heon; Yun, Sun Jin; Suh, Kyung Soo [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Chan Hoe; Jang, Jin [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) show a relative degradation of their electric characteristics, especially hysteresis, because the pentacene active layer is very susceptible to moisture, oxygen, and other ambient conditions. For commercial applications of organic devices, the stability of the organic materials is one of the most important issues. Therefore, if stable OTFTs are to be produced, it is necessary to develop methods to protect them from damage. In this study, an optimized buffer layer was used to reduce the hysteresis characteristics. We fabricated hysteresis-free OTFTs with less damage by using this buffer layer. We also fabricated a p-type metal-oxide semiconductor (pMOS) inverter by using OTFTs with isolation layers, and we measured its electrical properties.

  18. Persistence of Two Isolates of Trichomonas gallinae in Simulated Bird Baths With and Without Organic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple, Kathryn E; Gerhold, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas gallinae, a well-documented protozoan parasite of avian hosts, has been implicated in major passerine mortality events recently and historically throughout the literature. It has been suggested that bird baths and artificial water sources could serve as a source of infection for naive birds; however, trichomonad persistence in water is not well understood. We measured the persistence of T. gallinae isolates from two avian hosts in distilled water and distilled water with the addition of organic material. We inoculated plastic containers in a laboratory setting with 1 × 10(6) trichomonads and then sampled 500 μl from each container at various time points postinoculation (0-20 hr). The 500-μl aliquots were inoculated into flasks with 5 ml of modified Diamond media at each time point. Flasks were incubated at 37 C and examined by light microscopy for five consecutive days for the characteristic movements of live trichomonads. The maximum persistence was 16 hr with a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) isolate in the organic material treatment, far longer than the 1 hr persistence previously reported. We show that T. gallinae isolates are capable of persisting for long periods of time in water, illustrating that bird baths may be validated as a potential source of transmission in epidemics.

  19. CT-based delineation of organs at risk in the head and neck region.DAHANCA, EORTC, GORTEC, HKNPCSG, NCIC CTG, NCRI, NRG Oncology and TROG consensus guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Charlotte L; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Bourhis, Jean

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this project was to define consensus guidelines for delineating organs at risk (OARs) for head and neck radiotherapy for routine daily practice and for research purposes. METHODS: Consensus guidelines were formulated based on in-depth discussions of a panel of European, ...

  20. Membrane filtration of agro-industrial wastewaters and isolation of organic compounds with high added values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled.

  1. Characterization of micro‐organisms isolated from dairy industry after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine and peracetic acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bore, E; Langsrud, S

    2005-01-01

    Aims:  To characterize micro‐organisms isolated from Norwegian dairy production plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine/peracetic acid and to indicate reasons for survival...

  2. Curative treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma : Organ preservation strategies in clinical routine in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweg, T; Kimmeyer, J; Knecht, R; Hoffmann, T K; Busch, C-J; Lörincz, B B; Schuler, P J; Laban, S

    2016-07-01

    For the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), there are currently no official standard of care guidelines in German-speaking countries, with the exception of oral cavity cancer. In order to learn about the applied treatment modalities in the clinical routine, we conducted a web-based survey to evaluate the local standards of palliative and curative treatment of HNSCC. This article focuses on the curative treatment options and organ preservation strategies. The survey consisted of a web-based questionnaire that was performed between November 2013 and July 2014. The questionnaire included ten multiple-choice questions and four open questions in the section about curative treatment. Altogether, 62 of the 204 addressed centers participated in the survey. For primary chemoradiation (CRT), most centers used a platinum-based chemotherapy (52/54, 96.3 %). Induction chemotherapy (ICT) was offered in 37 of the 62 centers (60 %). In oral cavity cancer, CRT and ICT were used in 37.5 and 4.3 % of the cases, respectively. In oropharyngeal cancer, CRT and ICT were applied in 44.5 and 10.3 % of cases, respectively. For hypopharyngeal cancer, 44.8 % of the patients received CRT and 11.8 % received ICT, while for laryngeal cancer 35.9 % received CRT and 9.4 % underwent ICT. Our data showed that a variety of treatments are used for HNSCC within German-speaking countries. Many centers offer ICT. The majority of the hospitals uses platinum-based therapy as a conservative first-line option in their organ preservation protocols.

  3. Isolating Observer-Based Reference Directions in Human Spatial Memory: Head, Body, and the Self-to-Array Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David; Lippa, Yvonne; Richardson, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of research have suggested the importance of egocentric reference systems for determining how the spatial properties of one's environment are mentally organized. Yet relatively little is known about the bases for egocentric reference systems in human spatial memory. In three experiments, we examine the relative importance of…

  4. [In vitro evaluation of antibacterial substances produced by bacteria isolated from different marine organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, I; Lodeiros, C; Núñez, M; Campos, I

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria from several groups of marine organisms were isolated and, using direct antibiograms, identified those that produce antibacterial substances, using a human pathogenic strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 as revealing microorganism. Bacteria which produce substances that inhibited S. aureus growth were identified through morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. Out of 290 bacteria, 54 (18.6%) inhibited the growth of S. aureus, but only 27 survived for identification. Bivalves, sponges and corals were the most represented from which 41.2, 33.3 and 29.7%, respectively, produced antibacterial substances of the isolated bacteria in each group. The marine species with highest proportions of these bacteria were the hard coral Madracis decactis (62.5%), the sponges Cliona sp. (57.1%) and the octocoral Plexaura flexuosa (50.0%). Out of the 27 strains that produced antibacterial substances, 51.8% were Aeromonas spp. and 14.8% Vibrio spp. Marine bacteria that produce antibacterial substances are abundant, most belong in the Vibrionacea group and were isolated mainly from corals and bivalve mollusks.

  5. Comparison of PCT, CRP, D-Dimer, Lactate, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and lL-10 in Development of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Sepsis on Patients with Isolated Head Trauma and Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Dağlı

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the relationship between Glasgow Coma Scale (GKS, ISS values, PCT, CRP, D-Dimer, laktat, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 in patients with polytrauma and isolated head trauma in conjunction with SIRS and sepsis. Material and Method: Total of 68 patients (32 polytrauma, 36 isolated head trauma aged between 18-65 years were enrolled in the study. For 7 days of follow up, the biochemical parameters were analysed on the days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and the ISS, GCS score and growth rates of SIRS and sepsis were recorded. Results: It was demonstrated that for patients with isolated head trauma, SIRS (80.6%, sepsis (38.9% and mortality values (71.4% were higher and there is a statistically important linear and inverse relationship between ISS and GCS values (p<0.05. During sepsis and SIRS phases, CRP elevated in both groups, whereas PCT only in the polytrauma group. D-Dimer values were investigated high in both groups, but atypically decreased on day 3 in isolated head trauma group. Lactate, TNF-α and, IL-1β were within reference values, IL-6 and IL-10 values were elevated in both groups but were higher in the polytrauma group. Conclusion: Although multiple variations were detected in serum markers of pro-inflamatory and acute phase proteins, we thought that these are inadequate in predicting mortality and complications such as SIRS and sepsis.

  6. Isolation, identification and removal of filamentous organism from SND based SBR degrading nitrophenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P M

    2012-06-01

    Four identical lab scale sequencing batch reactors R, R1, R2, and R3, were used to assess nitrophenol biodegradation using a single sludge biomass containing Thiosphaera pantotropha. Nitrophenols [4-Nitrophenol (4-NP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (2,4,6-TNP)] were biotransformed by heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification (SND). Reactor R was used as background control, whereas R1, R2, and R3 were fed with 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, and 2,4,6-TNP, respectively. The concentration of each nitrophenol was gradually increased from 2.5 to 200 mg/l along with increase in COD, during acclimation studies. The final COD maintained was 4,500 mg/l with each nitrophenolic loading of 200 mg/l. During late phase of acclimation and HRT study, a filamentous organism started appearing in 2,4-DNP and 2,4,6-TNP bioreactors. Filaments were never found in 4-NP and background control reactor. Biochemistry and physiology behind filamentous organism development, was studied to obtain permanent solution for its removal. The effect of different input parameters such as COD loading, DO levels, SVI etc. were analyzed. The morphology and development of filamentous organism were examined extensively using microscopic techniques involving ESEM, oil immersion, phase contrast, and dark field microscopy. The organism was grown and isolated on selective agar plates and was identified as member of Streptomyses species.

  7. Clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure compared to other forms of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougol, Amir; Dugum, Mohannad; Dudekula, Anwar; Greer, Phil; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2017-08-07

    To assess differences in clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure (RF) compared to other forms of organ failure (OF) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Using a prospectively maintained database of patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to a tertiary medical center between 2003 and 2016, those with evidence of persistent OF were classified to renal, respiratory, cardiovascular, or multi-organ (2 or more organs). Data regarding demographics, comorbidities, etiology of acute pancreatitis, and clinical outcomes were prospectively recorded. Differences in clinical outcomes after development of isolated RF in comparison to other forms of OF were determined using independent t and Mann-Whitney U tests for continues variables, and χ 2 test for discrete variables. Among 500 patients with acute pancreatitis, 111 patients developed persistent OF: mean age was 54 years, and 75 (67.6%) were male. Forty-three patients had isolated OF: 17 (15.3%) renal, 25 (21.6%) respiratory, and 1 (0.9%) patient with cardiovascular failure. No differences in demographics, etiology of acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome scores, or development of pancreatic necrosis were seen between patients with isolated RF vs isolated respiratory failure. Patients with isolated RF were less likely to require nutritional support (76.5% vs 96%, P = 0.001), ICU admission (58.8% vs 100%, P = 0.001), and had shorter mean ICU stay (2.4 d vs 15.7 d, P failure. None of the patients with isolated RF or isolated respiratory failure died. Among patients with SAP per the Revised Atlanta Classification, approximately 15% develop isolated RF. This subgroup seems to have a less protracted clinical course compared to other forms of OF. Isolated RF might be weighed less than isolated respiratory failure in risk predictive modeling of acute pancreatitis.

  8. Isolation and quantification of antimalarial N-alkylamides from flower-head derived in vitro callus cultures of Spilanthes paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Radhika; Narashimman, Balaji Sitthu; Trivedi, Vishal; Chaturvedi, Rakhi

    2017-07-01

    This is the pioneer work reporting on simple procedure for synchronized determination and quantification of two biologically active N-alkylamides, (2E,6Z,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol) and (2E,4Z)-N-isobutyl-2,4-undecadiene-8,10-diynamide (UDA), using in vitro callus cultures from flower-heads of Spilanthes paniculata. The extracts were purified using preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) and finest separation of compounds was optimized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Eventually, N-alkylamides were validated by mass spectrometry. Linearity curve with its regression coefficients (R 2 ) obtained for both these alkylamides was 0.99. While spilanthol was quantified using tentative standard dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid due to the non-availability of commercial standard and the precision of a developed method was evaluated in terms of relative standard deviation by measuring inter- and intra-days variation 3.52% and 1.74%, respectively. Similarly, calibration curve was obtained for the compound UDA isolated from flower-head explants from field grown parental plant with its inter- and intra-day RSD values as 4.33% and 3.61%, respectively. With this protocol, a very high yield of 2.23 mg/g of spilanthol and 4.30 mg/g dry weight (DW) of UDA, was obtained, simultaneously, from callus cultures. Flower-heads from parent plants, used as control, showed negligible amount of spilanthol and quantity of UDA was marginally higher than that in callus cultures. The highly stable biotherapeutic spilanthol and UDA with m/z 222 and m/z 230, respectively, showed retardation of malaria parasite development through blockage at ring stage of erythrocytic schizogony and ultimately lead to parasite death. The effect on parasite was additive. This study signifies the utility of in vitro cell cultures for therapeutic compound production, throughout the year, at higher yield for down-stream applications. Copyright © 2017 The Society for

  9. Use of different organic fertilizers on soil fertility improvement, growth and head yield parameters of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibukunoluwa Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out in Akure in the rainforest zone of Nigeria to determine the effect of poultry manure, wood ash and rice bran on the soil fertility improvement, growth and head yield of cabbage...

  10. Comparison of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from organic and conventional dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Bartlett, P C; Kaneene, J B; Downes, F P

    2004-03-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline.

  11. In situ inhibition of Escherichia coli isolated from fresh pork sausage by organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Francesca Silva; Ávila, Carla Luiza da Silva; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of organics acids citric, lactic, acetic, and propionic on E. coli isolated from pork sausage. Two experiments were performed in vitro, respectively: agar disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. In agar disc diffusion, the minimum concentration of 1.29 M of citric acid inhibits bacterial growth. There was no statistically significant difference in the MIC of citric and lactic acids; citric and lactic acids were more effective than acetic and propionic acids. Based on in vitro results, lactic and citric acids were added to pork sausages with E. coli. The addition of citric acid caused a significant reduction (P Food Technologists®

  12. A Novel Peptide from Soybean Protein Isolate Significantly Enhances Resistance of the Organism under Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Ma

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that protein hydrolysates have broad biological effects. In the current study we describe a novel antioxidative peptide, FDPAL, from soybean protein isolate (SPI. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize an antioxidative peptide from SPI and determine its antioxidative mechanism. LC-MS/MS was used to isolate and identify the peptide from SPI. The sequence of the peptide was determined to be Phe-Asp-Pro-Ala-Leu (FDPAL, 561 Da. FDPAL can cause significant enhancement of resistance to oxidative stress both in cells as well as simple organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, FDPAL can up-regulate the expression of certain genes associated with resistance. The antioxidant activity of this peptide can be attributed to the presence of a specific amino acid sequence. Results from our work suggest that FDPAL can facilitate potential applications of proteins carrying this sequence in the nutraceutical, bioactive material and clinical medicine areas, as well as in cosmetics and health care products.

  13. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from organic and conventional poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Calo-Mata, P; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2008-12-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 55 samples of organic poultry meat and in 61 samples of conventional poultry meat. A total of 220 E. coli, 192 S. aureus, and 71 L. monocytogenes strains were analyzed by an agar disk diffusion assay for their resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, fosfomycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole (E. coli); chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, oxacillin, and sulfisoxazole (S. aureus); and chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, sulfisoxazole, and vancomycin (L. monocytogenes). The results indicated a significantly higher (P organic poultry meat as compared with conventional poultry meat. E. coli isolated from organic poultry meat exhibited lower levels of antimicrobial resistance against 7 of the 10 antimicrobials tested as compared with isolates recovered from conventional meat. In the case of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes isolated from conventional poultry, antimicrobial resistance was significantly higher only for doxycycline as compared with strains isolated from organic poultry. In the case of E. coli, the presence of multiresistant strains was significantly higher (P conventional poultry meat as compared with organic poultry meat. Organically farmed poultry samples showed significantly lower development of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal bacteria such as E. coli.

  14. Influence of Zinc Supplementation in Acute Diarrhea Differs by the Isolated Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. We aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. We used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (ISRCTN85071383 of zinc and copper supplementation. Using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, and stepwise logistic regression for tests of interactions, we found that the influence of zinc on the risk of diarrhea for more than 3 days depended on the isolated organism—beneficial in Klebsiella, neutral in Esherichia coli and parasitic infections, and detrimental in rotavirus coinfections. Although we found similar results for the outcome of high stool volume, the results did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the current strategy of zinc supplementation in all cases of acute diarrheas in children may need appropriate fine tuning to optimize the therapeutic benefit based on the causative organism, but further studies need to confirm and extend our findings.

  15. Isolation of Renewable Phenolics by Adsorption on Ultrastable Hydrophobic MIL-140 Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Voorde, Ben; Damasceno Borges, Daiane; Vermoortele, Frederik; Wouters, Robin; Bozbiyik, Belgin; Denayer, Joeri; Taulelle, Francis; Martineau, Charlotte; Serre, Christian; Maurin, Guillaume; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-09-21

    The isolation and separation of phenolic compounds from aqueous backgrounds is challenging and will gain in importance as we become more dependent on phenolics from lignocellulose-derived bio-oil to meet our needs for aromatic compounds. Herein, we show that highly stable and hydrophobic Zr metal-organic frameworks of the MIL-140 type are effective adsorbent materials for the separation of different phenolics and far outperform other classes of porous solids (silica, zeolites, carbons). The mechanism of the hydroquinone-catechol separation on MIL-140C was studied in detail by combining experimental results with computational techniques. Although the differences in adsorption enthalpy between catechol and hydroquinone are negligible, the selective uptake of catechol in MIL-140C is explained by its dense π-π stacking in the pores. The interplay of enthalpic and entropic effects allowed separation of a complex, five-compound phenol mixture through breakthrough over a MIL-140C column. Unlike many other metal-organic frameworks, MIL-140C is remarkably stable and maintained structure, porosity and performance after five adsorption-desorption cycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, Niklas [Department of Ecology, Section of Ecotoxicology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail: niklas.holmqvist@ekol.lu.se; Stenroth, Patrik [Department of Ecology, Section of Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Berglund, Olof [Department of Ecology, Section of Ecotoxicology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Nystroem, Per [Department of Ecology, Section of Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Olsson, Karin [Department of Ecology, Section of Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Jellyman, Don [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd., PO Box 8602, Christchurch (New Zealand); McIntosh, Angus R. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Larsson, Per [Department of Ecology, Section of Ecotoxicology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use.

  17. Whole-Organ Isolation Approach as a Basis for Tissue-Specific Analyses in Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Steffen; Lu, Zhigang; Wilson, R. Alan; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Quack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide, second only to malaria. Schistosomes exhibit an exceptional reproductive biology since the sexual maturation of the female, which includes the differentiation of the reproductive organs, is controlled by pairing. Pathogenicity originates from eggs, which cause severe inflammation in their hosts. Elucidation of processes contributing to female maturation is not only of interest to basic science but also considering novel concepts combating schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings To get direct access to the reproductive organs, we established a novel protocol using a combined detergent/protease-treatment removing the tegument and the musculature of adult Schistosoma mansoni. All steps were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and bright-field microscopy (BF). We focused on the gonads of adult schistosomes and demonstrated that isolated and purified testes and ovaries can be used for morphological and structural studies as well as sources for RNA and protein of sufficient amounts for subsequent analyses such as RT-PCR and immunoblotting. To this end, first exemplary evidence was obtained for tissue-specific transcription within the gonads (axonemal dynein intermediate chain gene SmAxDynIC; aquaporin gene SmAQP) as well as for post-transcriptional regulation (SmAQP). Conclusions/Significance The presented method provides a new way of getting access to tissue-specific material of S. mansoni. With regard to many still unanswered questions of schistosome biology, such as elucidating the molecular processes involved in schistosome reproduction, this protocol provides opportunities for, e.g., sub-transcriptomics and sub-proteomics at the organ level. This will promote the characterisation of gene-expression profiles, or more specifically to complete knowledge of signalling pathways contributing to differentiation processes, so discovering involved molecules that may

  18. Countercurrent transfer of 125I-LHRH in the perihypophyseal cavernous sinus-carotid rete vascular complex, demonstrated on isolated pig heads perfused with autologous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Skipor, J; Wasowska, B; Krzymowski, T

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether the local permeability of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) from the venous blood of the perihypophyseal cavernous sinus into the arterial blood of the carotid rete, supplying the brain and hypophysis in gilts, depends on the day of the estrous cycle, as well as to determine whether this transfer exists when LH concentration in the blood is reduced (the experimental short-loop negative feedback for LH secretion after estradiol injection in ovariectomized gilts). Experiments were conducted on isolated gilt heads with necks, on chosen days of the estrous cycle (n = 40), and on previously ovariectomized gilts treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) (n = 5) or corn oil (n = 3). After exsanguination, the gilt heads with necks were disarticulated and about 30-45 min later were supplied with autologous, oxygenated, and heated blood at a stable blood flow and pressure through the left carotid artery for 30 min. 125I-LHRH was infused into both cavernous sinuses through the cannulated angularis oculi veins for 5 min. After 125I-LHRH infusion, radiolabeled LHRH was found (P gilts), on Days 12-14 (seven gilts) of the estrous cycle, and in five ovariectomized gilts during negative feedback for LH surge (40 hr after EB). No significant radioactivity of 125I-LHRH was found in the arterial blood on Days 3-5 (n = 6), 9-11 (n = 4), and 15-21 (n = 17) of the estrous cycle. A very low level of radioactivity was found in the ovariectomized control group after the injection of corn oil (n = 3). These results provide evidence for the permeability of LHRH from the venous to the arterial blood and its retrograde transport with the arterial blood to the hypophysis and brain, after the ovulation period (Days 1-2) and on Days 12-14 of the estrous cycle. This suggests that a close relationship exists between the day of the estrous cycle and LHRH permeability from the venous to the arterial blood in the perihypophyseal cavernous sinus

  19. Induction of arthritis with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae in pigs: Clinical response and re-isolation of the organism from body fluids and organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Olsen, T.; Nielsen, N.C.; Friis, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    phase. An apparent persistent infection of the tonsils became established in all the pigs. M. hyosynoviae spreads via the blood to different organs from which it could be re-isolated during the acute phase of the infection. In general, M. hyosynoviae was recovered from joints from day 3 until day 21...

  20. Evaluation of Absorbed Dose of Critical Organ in Rando Phantom under Head, Abdomen and Pelvis Spiral CT Scan by Thermo Luminescent Dosimetery - TLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhosein Haddadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Computed tomography (CT represents 11% of all diagnostic radiology procedures but it contributes to almost 67% of the total effective dose to the human population. In head and neck CT which consist of 1/3 of total CT scans, other critical organs such as lenses and thyroid are in the radiation field. Also in the abdomen and pelvis scan, irradiation of ovaries is unavoidable. Because of high sensitivity of these organs, the probability of abnormality and cancer in these organs has increased. Therefore the dose assessment in these organs is very important. The aim of this study is to estimate the absorbed dose in critical organ of patient undergoing common head, neck, abdomen and pelvic spiral CT scan. Materials & Methods: In this study, Lithium fluoride thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLD-100, Harshaw were used to determine the absorbed dose of critical organ of tissue equivalent rando phantom (Alderson research industries, Inc, Stanford, Conn, U.S.A. The phantom was sectional in design and manufactured with a 2.5 cm slab thickness. Each section contained some holes that allowed accommodation of TLDs. At least two crystals were placed in each hole. The average value of the TLD readings was taken as the organ dose. Readouts were obtained on a Harshaw 4500 reader (Harshaw, Ohio, USA. For calibration, the annealed dosimeters were exposed to an X-ray beam resulting from 120 kVp tube voltage and calibration curve was plotted. Results: result of this study showed during head CT scan the maximum absorbed dose belongs to occipital bones skin. Which were about 11.45 mGy and the minimum absorbed dose belong to thyroid gland which was 0.5 mGy. During abdomen & pelvic spiral CT, the maximum absorbed dose of abdomen skin was 23.32 mGy and the minimum absorbed dose in the eye region was 0.15 mGy. The readout results are correlated with the results of spiral CT detector with the “ALARA” principle, we recommend suitable techniques

  1. March 2008 - ITER Organization Director-General K.Ikeda and Deputy Director-General N. Holtkamp, visiting the ATLAS cavern with Spokesperson P. Jenni, Accelerators Technology Department Head P. Lebrun and LHC Mangnets Group Leader L. Rossi.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    March 2008 - ITER Organization Director-General K.Ikeda and Deputy Director-General N. Holtkamp, visiting the ATLAS cavern with Spokesperson P. Jenni, Accelerators Technology Department Head P. Lebrun and LHC Mangnets Group Leader L. Rossi.

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head ...

  3. Modeling the dosimetry of organ-at-risk in head and neck IMRT planning: An intertechnique and interinstitutional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jun, E-mail: jun-lian@med.unc.edu; Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Chang, Sha [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Yuan, Lulin, E-mail: lulin.yuan@duke.edu; Yoo, David P.; Yin, FangFang; Wu, Q. Jackie, E-mail: jackie.wu@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Ge, Yaorong [Department of Software and Information Systems, The University of North Carolina, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To build a statistical model to quantitatively correlate the anatomic features of structures and the corresponding dose-volume histogram (DVH) of head and neck (HN) Tomotherapy (Tomo) plans. To study if the model built upon one intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique (such as conventional Linac) can be used to predict anticipated organs-at-risk (OAR) DVH of patients treated with a different IMRT technique (such as Tomo). To study if the model built upon the clinical experience of one institution can be used to aid IMRT planning for another institution. Methods: Forty-four Tomotherapy intensity modulate radiotherapy plans of HN cases (Tomo-IMRT) from Institution A were included in the study. A different patient group of 53 HN fixed gantry IMRT (FG-IMRT) plans was selected from Institution B. The analyzed OARs included the parotid, larynx, spinal cord, brainstem, and submandibular gland. Two major groups of anatomical features were considered: the volumetric information and the spatial information. The volume information includes the volume of target, OAR, and overlapped volume between target and OAR. The spatial information of OARs relative to PTVs was represented by the distance-to-target histogram (DTH). Important anatomical and dosimetric features were extracted from DTH and DVH by principal component analysis. Two regression models, one for Tomotherapy plan and one for IMRT plan, were built independently. The accuracy of intratreatment-modality model prediction was validated by a leave one out cross-validation method. The intertechnique and interinstitution validations were performed by using the FG-IMRT model to predict the OAR dosimetry of Tomo-IMRT plans. The dosimetry of OARs, under the same and different institutional preferences, was analyzed to examine the correlation between the model prediction and planning protocol. Results: Significant patient anatomical factors contributing to OAR dose sparing in HN Tomotherapy plans have been

  4. Hydrolyzed fish proteins modulates both inflammatory and antioxidant gene expression as well as protein expression in a co culture model of liver and head kidney cells isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Elisabeth; He, Juyun; Araujo, Pedro; Seliussen, Jørgen; Espe, Marit

    2016-07-01

    Hydrolyzed fish proteins (H-pro) contain high concentrations of free amino acids and low molecular peptides that potentially may benefit fish health. The following study aimed to test whether the water-soluble phase of H-pro could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provoked inflammation in liver cells and head kidney cells isolated from Atlantic salmon. Cells were grown as mono cultures or co cultures to assess possible crosstalk between immune cells and metabolic cells during treatments. Cells were added media with or without H-pro for 2 days before LPS exposure and harvested 24 h post LPS exposure. Respective cells without H-pro and LPS were used as controls. H-pro alone could affect expression of proteins directly as H-pro increased catalase protein expression in head kidney- and liver cells, regardless of culturing methods and LPS treatment. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production was also increased by H-pro in head kidney cells co cultured with liver cells. H-pro increased LPS induced interleukin 1β (IL-1β) transcription in liver cells co cultured with head kidney cells. All cultures of head kidney cells showed a significant increase in IL-1β transcription when treated with H-pro + LPS. H-pro decreased caspase-3 transcription in liver cells cultured co cultured with head kidney cells. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) was upregulated, regardless of treatment, in liver cells co cultured with head kidney cells clearly showing that culturing method alone affected gene transcription. H-pro alone and together with LPS as an inflammation inducer, affect both antioxidant and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of quinapril and triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide on cardiac and vascular end-organ damage in isolated systolic hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesen, W.F.; Beltman, F.W.; Smit, Andries; May, J.F.; de Graeff, P.A.; Havinga, T.K.; Schuurman, F.H.; van der Veur, E.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.; Lie, K.I.

    We compared, in a prospective double-blind randomized study, the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor quinapril (QUI) with that of triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide (THCT) treatment on cardiovascular end-organ damage in subjects with untreated isolated systolic hypertension (ISH).

  6. Compositions and constituents of freshwater dissolved organic matter isolated by reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Huang, Wen; Ran, Yong; Mao, Jingdong

    2014-08-15

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from riverine and lacustrine water was isolated using a reverse osmosis (RO) system. Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) was used to quantitatively evaluate the compositions and constituents of DOM, which are compared with previous investigations on marine DOM. Results indicated that concentration factor (CF) was a key metric controlling yield and sorption of DOM on the RO system. The sorption was likely non-selective, based on the (13)C NMR and δ(13)C analyses. Carbohydrates and lipids accounted for 25.0-41.5% and 30.2-46.3% of the identifiable DOM, followed by proteins (18.2-19.8%) and lignin (7.17-12.8%). The freshwater DOM contained much higher alkyl and aromatic C but lower alkoxyl and carboxyl C than marine DOM. The structural difference was not completely accounted for by using structure of high molecular weight (HMW) DOM, suggesting a size change involved in transformations of DOM during the transport from rivers to oceans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Head growth in fetuses with isolated congenital heart defects: lack of influence of aortic arch flow and ascending aorta oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, F. A. R.; van Zwet, E. W.; Rijlaarsdam, M. E. B.; Pajkrt, E.; van Velzen, C. L.; Zuurveen, H. R.; Kragt, A.; Bax, C. L.; Clur, S.-A. B.; van Lith, J. M. M.; Blom, N. A.; Haak, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are reported to be associated with a smaller fetal head circumference (HC) and neurodevelopmental delay. Recent studies suggest that altered intrauterine brain hemodynamics may explain these findings. Our objectives were to evaluate the pattern of head growth in a

  8. Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: Odontogenic and Maxillofacial Bone Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John M; Vered, Marilena

    2017-03-01

    The 4th edition of the World Health Organization's Classification of Head and Neck Tumours was published in January of 2017. This article provides a summary of the changes to Chapter 4 Tumours of the oral cavity and mobile tongue and Chapter 8 Odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumours. Odontogenic cysts which were eliminated from the 3rd 2005 edition were included in the 4th edition as well as other unique allied conditons of the jaws. Many new tumors published since 2005 have been included in the 2017 classification.

  9. Use of radiocarbon and spectroscopic analyses to characterise soil organic matter pools isolated using different fractionation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gemma; Cloy, Joanna; Garnett, Mark; Sohi, Saran; Rees, Robert; Griffiths, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Experimental division of soil organic matter (SOM) into functional pools has the potential to improve soil C modelling. Soil physical fractionation techniques seek to quantify these pools, however the fractions isolated vary in number, size, ecological role and composition. The use of different techniques to quantify soil C fractions in different studies presents a question - do similar fractions isolated by different methods fit the same conceptual definition? This study examined a sandy loam from the south-west of Scotland, sampled in summer, which had been under grassland management for at least 20 years. We compared average 14C ages of SOM fractions isolated using three published and frequently applied physical fractionation methods (1) a density separation technique isolating three fractions - free light (FLF) 1.8 g cm 3 (Sohi et al, 2001); (2) a combined physical and chemical separation isolating five fractions: sand and aggregates (S+A) > 63 µm and > 1.8 g cm-3, particulate organic matter (POM) > 63 µm and 45 µm, residual organic carbon (rSOC) the residue left after s+c is oxidised with NaOCl, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 4000 years BP for DOC and POM. Both Method 3 fractions were dominated by modern C. The average 14C ages of FLF, IALF, DOC and POM were surprisingly higher than the mineral bound fractions, although they made up a relatively small proportion of the total organic C (8.4 and 12.4 % for Methods 1 and 2 respectively). These results will be discussed alongside data from FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The characterisation of physically separated organic matter pools is likely to provide improved opportunities for modelling the long term behaviour of SOM on the basis of defined chemical and physical properties. References Sohi, S.P., Mahieu, N., Arah, J.R.M., Powlson, D.S., Madari, B. and Gaunt J.L. (2001) A procedure for isolating soil organic matter fractions suitable for modelling. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65

  10. Reproductive Performance, Udder Health, and Antibiotic Resistance in Mastitis Bacteria isolated from Norwegian Red cows in Conventional and Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there were differences between Norwegian Red cows in conventional and organic farming with respect to reproductive performance, udder health, and antibiotic resistance in udder pathogens. Methods Twenty-five conventional and 24 organic herds from south-east and middle Norway participated in the study. Herds were matched such that geographical location, herd size, and barn types were similar across the cohorts. All organic herds were certified as organic between 1997 and 2003. All herds were members of the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The herds were visited once during the study. The relationship between the outcomes and explanatory variables were assessed using mixed linear models. Results There were less > 2nd parity cows in conventional farming. The conventional cows had higher milk yields and received more concentrates than organic cows. Although after adjustment for milk yield and parity, somatic cell count was lower in organic cows than conventional cows. There was a higher proportion of quarters that were dried off at the herd visit in organic herds. No differences in the interval to first AI, interval to last AI or calving interval was revealed between organic and conventional cows. There was no difference between conventional and organic cows in quarter samples positive for mastitis bacteria from the herd visit. Milk yield and parity were associated with the likelihood of at least one quarter positive for mastitis bacteria. There was few S. aureus isolates resistance to penicillin in both management systems. Penicillin resistance against Coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from subclinically infected quarters was 48.5% in conventional herds and 46.5% in organic herds. Conclusion There were no large differences between reproductive performance and udder health between conventional and organic farming for Norwegian Red cows. PMID:20141638

  11. Reproductive Performance, Udder Health, and Antibiotic Resistance in Mastitis Bacteria isolated from Norwegian Red cows in Conventional and Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås Olav

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there were differences between Norwegian Red cows in conventional and organic farming with respect to reproductive performance, udder health, and antibiotic resistance in udder pathogens. Methods Twenty-five conventional and 24 organic herds from south-east and middle Norway participated in the study. Herds were matched such that geographical location, herd size, and barn types were similar across the cohorts. All organic herds were certified as organic between 1997 and 2003. All herds were members of the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The herds were visited once during the study. The relationship between the outcomes and explanatory variables were assessed using mixed linear models. Results There were less > 2nd parity cows in conventional farming. The conventional cows had higher milk yields and received more concentrates than organic cows. Although after adjustment for milk yield and parity, somatic cell count was lower in organic cows than conventional cows. There was a higher proportion of quarters that were dried off at the herd visit in organic herds. No differences in the interval to first AI, interval to last AI or calving interval was revealed between organic and conventional cows. There was no difference between conventional and organic cows in quarter samples positive for mastitis bacteria from the herd visit. Milk yield and parity were associated with the likelihood of at least one quarter positive for mastitis bacteria. There was few S. aureus isolates resistance to penicillin in both management systems. Penicillin resistance against Coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from subclinically infected quarters was 48.5% in conventional herds and 46.5% in organic herds. Conclusion There were no large differences between reproductive performance and udder health between conventional and organic farming for Norwegian Red cows.

  12. Reproductive performance, udder health, and antibiotic resistance in mastitis bacteria isolated from Norwegian Red cows in conventional and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmo, Randi T; Waage, Steinar; Sviland, Ståle; Henriksen, Britt I F; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav

    2010-02-08

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there were differences between Norwegian Red cows in conventional and organic farming with respect to reproductive performance, udder health, and antibiotic resistance in udder pathogens. Twenty-five conventional and 24 organic herds from south-east and middle Norway participated in the study. Herds were matched such that geographical location, herd size, and barn types were similar across the cohorts. All organic herds were certified as organic between 1997 and 2003. All herds were members of the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The herds were visited once during the study. The relationship between the outcomes and explanatory variables were assessed using mixed linear models. There were less > 2nd parity cows in conventional farming. The conventional cows had higher milk yields and received more concentrates than organic cows. Although after adjustment for milk yield and parity, somatic cell count was lower in organic cows than conventional cows. There was a higher proportion of quarters that were dried off at the herd visit in organic herds. No differences in the interval to first AI, interval to last AI or calving interval was revealed between organic and conventional cows. There was no difference between conventional and organic cows in quarter samples positive for mastitis bacteria from the herd visit. Milk yield and parity were associated with the likelihood of at least one quarter positive for mastitis bacteria. There was few S. aureus isolates resistance to penicillin in both management systems. Penicillin resistance against Coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from subclinically infected quarters was 48.5% in conventional herds and 46.5% in organic herds. There were no large differences between reproductive performance and udder health between conventional and organic farming for Norwegian Red cows.

  13. Quantifying and isolating stable soil organic carbon using long-term bare fallow experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barré

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The stability of soil organic matter (SOM is a major source of uncertainty in predicting atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 21st century. Isolating the stable soil carbon (C from other, more labile, C fractions in soil is of prime importance for calibrating soil C simulation models, and gaining insights into the mechanisms that lead to soil C stability. Long-term experiments with continuous bare fallow (vegetation-free treatments in which the decay of soil C is monitored for decades after all inputs of C have stopped, provide a unique opportunity to assess the quantity of stable soil C. We analyzed data from six bare fallow experiments of long-duration (>30 yrs, covering a range of soil types and climate conditions, and sited at Askov (Denmark, Grignon and Versailles (France, Kursk (Russia, Rothamsted (UK, and Ultuna (Sweden. A conceptual three pool model dividing soil C into a labile pool (turnover time of a several years, an intermediate pool (turnover time of a several decades and a stable pool (turnover time of a several centuries or more fits well with the long term C decline observed in the bare fallow soils. The estimate of stable C ranged from 2.7 g C kg−1 at Rothamsted to 6.8 g C kg−1 at Grignon. The uncertainty associated with estimates of the stable pool was large due to the short duration of the fallow treatments relative to the turnover time of stable soil C. At Versailles, where there is least uncertainty associated with the determination of a stable pool, the soil contains predominantly stable C after 80 years of continuous bare fallow. Such a site represents a unique research platform for characterization of the nature of stable SOM and its vulnerability to global change.

  14. Isolation and characterization of labile organic phosphorus pools in soils from the Askov long-term field experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Guggenberger, Georg; Bent T. Christensen; Rubæk, Gitte H.

    2000-01-01

    Labile soil organic phosphorus (Po) plays a crucial role in plant P nutrition and in environmental eutrophication. This paper discusses recent studies on the nature of labile soil Po and its response to different fertilization practices. Soil material was obtained from the Askov long-term experiment on animal manure and mineral fertilizers. Our analytical approach combined a macroporous anion exchange resin to isolate labile Po and 31P NMR spectroscopy to assess the chemical composition and o...

  15. No Clear Differences between Organic or Conventional Pig Farms in the Genetic Diversity or Virulence ofCampylobacter coliIsolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Martine; Nagard, Bérengère; Rose, Valérie; Bourgoin, Kévin; Cutimbo, Mélina; Kerouanton, Annaëlle

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of pig farm management on the genetic diversity and on the virulence of Campylobacter coli , we characterized isolates from 19 organic pig farms (62 isolates) and from 24 conventional pig farms (58 isolates). The 120 C. coli isolates were typed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the presence of nine virulence genes was screened using real-time PCR. The capacity of adhesion and invasion of 61 isolates (32 from organic and 29 from conventional farms) were then tested on human intestinal Caco-2 cells. A total of 59 PFGE types and of 50 sequence types (STs) were identified. Twelve PFGE types and nine STs, accounting for 34 and 41.6% of the isolates, respectively, were common between the two production systems with ST854 dominating (18.3% of the isolates). Twenty-nine PFGE types and 25 STs were only found in isolates from organic farms, and 18 PFGE types and 16 STs from conventional farms. No significant differences were found in diversity despite the differences in rearing systems, except at the locus level for the glnA, gltA , and uncA genes. All isolates, regardless of their origin, carried the ceuE, iam, ciaB , and flaA genes and more than 95% of the isolates carried the cadF and cdtABC genes. No significant differences were found in pathogenicity between the two farming systems. The pathogenicity of the C. coli isolates was low compared to C. jejuni control strains tested. The plasmid gene virb11 was detected in only 13 isolates from organic farms; these isolates showed greater invasion capacity than those without this gene. Our study indicates that pig farm management does not significantly affect the diversity and the virulence of Campylobacter coli isolated from pigs. The common genotypes between conventional and organic farms may indicate that some genotypes are adapted to pigs.

  16. Quantitative correlation of absolute hydroxyl radical rate constants with non-isolated effluent organic matter bulk properties in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L; Mezyk, Stephen P; Doud, Devin F R; Snyder, Shane A

    2008-08-15

    Absolute second-order rate constants for the reaction between the hydroxyl radical (*OH) and eight water samples containing non-isolated effluent organic matter (EfOM) collected at different wastewater and reclamation sites were measured by electron pulse radiolysis. The measured rate constants ranged from 0.27 to 1.21 x 10(9) Mc(-1) s(-1), with an average value of 0.86 (+/-0.35) x 10(9) Mc(-1) s(-1). These absolute values were 3-5 times faster than previously reported values using natural organic matter and wastewater isolates. The obtained rate constants were correlated (R2 > 0.99) to bulk EfOM properties through an empirical equation that included terms relating to the polarity, apparent molecular weight, and fluorescence index of the effluent organic matter. The obtained data were used to model steady state *OH concentrations during UV advanced oxidation. The steady-state *OH concentration was lower than that obtained using previously reported values for the reaction with dissolved organic matter, indicating that accurate measurement of reaction rate constants at specific sites would greatly improve the design and prediction of the removal of organic contaminants. These results will improve the ability of researchers to accurately model scavenging capacities during the advanced oxidation processtreatment of wastewaters.

  17. Sensitivitas Isolat Escherichia coli Patogen dari Organ Ayam Pedaging Terinfeksi Koliseptikemia terhadap Oksitetrasiklin, Ampisilin dan Sulfametoksazol (SENSITIVITY ISOLATE ESCHERICHIA COLI PATHOGEN OF BROILER ORGANS THAT INFECTED COLISEPTICAEMIA AGAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmaniar Galuh Adi Luhung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pola kepekaan Escherichia coli (E. coli penyebab koliseptikemia terhadap antibiotik oksitetrasiklin, ampisilin dan sulfametoksasol pada ayam pedaging di Desa Mangesta, Kecamatan Penebel, Kabupaten Tabanan. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah E. coli yang diisolasi dari organ ayam pedaging penderita koliseptikemia sebanyak 15 sampel. Tahap pertama dalam penelitian ini ialah sampel diisolasi pada media EMBA yang kemudian diidentifikasi dengan pewarnaan Gram dan uji biokimia dengan TSIA, SIM, SCA dan MRVP. Isolat yang positif E. coli diuji kepekaanya terhadap antibiotik oksitetrasiklin, ampisilin dan sulfametoksasol dengan metode Kirby-Bauer dan dianalisa secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa uji kepekaan E. coli yang diisolasi dari organ ayam pedaging penderita koliseptikemia menunjukan bahwa 73,3% resisten, 20% intermediet, dan 6,7% sensitif terhadap antibiotik oksitetrasiklin, 100% resisten terhadap antibiotik ampisilin, 53,3% resisten dan 46,7% intermediet terhadap sulfametoksasol.   This study aims to determine the sensitivity pattern pathogenic E. coli against antibiotics: oxytetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole, in broilers in the Mangesta Village, Penebel, Tabanan Regency. The samples used in this research were 15 samples of colisepticaemia infected broiler’s organs . Sampels were isolated on media EMBA then identified with a Gram staining and biochemical tests with a TSIA, SIM, SCA and MRVP. Positive isolates of the bacterium E. coli were tested sensitivity to antibiotics oxytetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole. The results showed that the sensitivity test of E. coli bacteria were isolated from the organs broilers suffered from colisepticaemia: 73.3% of E. coli resistant, 20% intermediate, and 6.7% was sensitive to the antibiotic oxytetracycline, 100% resistant to the antibiotic ampicillin, 53.3% and 46.7% intermediate resistance against

  18. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay ...

  19. Heads and tails: both sides of the coin: an analysis of hybrid organizations in the Dutch waste management sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karré, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, Philip Marcel Karré argues that hybridity can only be fully understood and managed when one considers both sides of the coin, and sees benefits and risks as each other’s flipsides. By analyzing hybrid organizations in the Dutch waste management sector, he develops a perspective on

  20. Enhanced Butanol Production Through Adding Organic Acids and Neutral Red by Newly Isolated Butanol-Tolerant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Cao, Guangli; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Ying; Song, Jinzhu; Cong, Hua; Zhang, Junzheng; Yang, Qian

    2016-12-01

    As alternative microorganisms for butanol production with high butanol tolerant and productivity are in high demand, one excellent butanol-tolerant bacterium, S10, was isolated and identified as Clostridium acetobutylicum S10. In order to enhance the performance of butanol production, organic acids and neutral red were added during butanol fermentation. Synergistic effects were exhibited in the combinations of organic acids and neutral red to promote butanol production. Consequently, the optimal concentrations of combined acetate, butyrate, and neutral red were determined at sodium acetate 1.61 g/L, sodium butyrate 1.88 g/L, and neutral red 0.79 g/L, respectively, with the butanol yield of 6.09 g/L which was 20.89 % higher than that in control. These results indicated that combination of adding organic acid and neutral red is a potential effective measure to improve butanol production.

  1. Biomarker distributions in different types of sedimentary organic matter isolated from the same sample: Implications for biomarker correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.B.

    1994-06-01

    The observation of qualitatively and quantitatively distinct biomarker distributions in the pyrolysates of Type II and Type III organic matter isolated from the same sample is reported. This demonstrates the clear need for a greater understanding of the relationship between biomarker distributions present in the different components of sedimentary organic matter, and those observed in liquid products generated by maturation. The data imply that it is possible that the biomarker distributions observed in petroleums derived from inhomogeneous source rocks may be disproportionately derived from the various organic components of the sediment. This may result in spurious conclusions concerning oil/source relationships and other geochemical parameters, which suggests that further investigations of these phenomena is well merited.

  2. Anthelmintic-resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from an organic sheep and goat farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thansborg, Stig M.

    2013-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance (AR) was investigated in an organic dairy sheep and goat farm. The herd was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from a number of other farms. Selection for the study was based on history of anthelmintic-treatment failure. Forty-eight lambs and 48...... %. This is the first isolation of BZ-resistant H. contortus and T. colubriformis in Denmark and highlights the need for continuous surveillance of AR in conventional and organic farms.......A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance (AR) was investigated in an organic dairy sheep and goat farm. The herd was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from a number of other farms. Selection for the study was based on history of anthelmintic-treatment failure. Forty-eight lambs and 48...

  3. Identification and characterization of two amylase producing bacteria Cellulosimicrobium sp. and Demequina sp. isolated from marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila S.H. Al-Naamani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sources have been known to yield novel compounds with a wide range of bioactivity with various commercial applications. In this study, the abilities of bacteria isolated from eight marine organisms to produce α-amylase were examined. All eight organisms were found to harbor amylase producing bacteria. Two bacterial species isolated from the green alga Ulva rigida and the sponge Mycale sp. were further identified and their α-amylases were purified and characterized. The bacterial species isolated from U. rigida and Mycale sp. were identified by DNA sequencing as Cellulosimicrobium sp. and Demequina sp., respectively. Cellulosimicrobium sp. obtained maximum cell growth and amylase production at 29.C and in the presence of lactose as a carbon source. Optimal cell growth and amylase production by Demequina sp. was observed at 35.C. While lactose enhanced cell growth of Demequina sp., maximum amylase production was found when fructose and glycerol were the available sources of carbon. Both strains grew better in the presence of tryptone, whilst peptone stimulated amylase production. Maximal cell growth and amylase production by both of the strains was found at a medium salinity of 3% NaCl.

  4. High-grade acute organ toxicity as positive prognostic factor in primary radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Bosch, Jan; Hennies, Steffen; Hess, Clemens F.; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Jung, Klaus [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Overbeck, Tobias [Dept. of Haematology and Oncology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany); Matthias, Christoph; Roedel, Ralph M. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Univ. Medicine Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radio(chemo)therapy and treatment outcome in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients and methods: from 05/1994 to 01/2009, 216 HNSCC patients were treated with radio(chemo)therapy in primary approach. They received normofractionated (2 Gy/fraction) irradiation including associated nodal drainage sites to a cumulative dose of 70 Gy. 151 patients received additional concomitant chemotherapy (111 patients 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C, 40 patients cisplatin-based). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), and any toxicity grade CTC {>=} 3 of mucositis, dysphagia or skin reaction was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: a statistically significant coherency between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival as well as locoregional control was found: patients with CTC {>=} 3 acute organ toxicity had a 5-year overall survival rate of 4% compared to 8% in patients without (p < 0.01). Thereby, multivariate analyses revealed that the correlation was independent of other possible prognostic factors or factors that may influence treatment toxicity, especially concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy technique or treatment-planning procedure. Conclusion: these data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, as high-grade acute organ toxicity during radio(chemo)therapy showed to be an independent prognostic marker in the own patient population. However, the authors are aware of the fact that a multivariate analysis in a retrospective study generally has statistical limitations. Therefore, their hypothesis should be further analyzed on biomolecular and clinical levels and other tumor entities in prospective trials. (orig.)

  5. Uptake of inorganic and organic nutrient species during cultivation of a Chlorella isolate in anaerobically digested dairy waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahal, Shantanu; Viamajala, Sridhar

    2016-09-01

    A natural assemblage of microalgae from a facultative lagoon system treating municipal wastewater was enriched for growth in the effluents of an anaerobic digester processing dairy waste. A green microalga with close resemblance to Chlorella sp. was found to be dominant after multiple cycles of sub-culturing. Subsequently, the strain (designated as LLAI) was isolated and cultivated in 20× diluted digester effluents under various incident light intensities (255-1,100 µmoles m-2 s-1 ) to systematically assess growth and nutrient utilization. Our results showed that LLAI production increased with increasing incident light and a maximum productivity of 0.34 g L-1 d-1 was attained when the incident irradiance was 1,100 µmoles m-2 s-1 . Lack of growth in the absence of light indicated that the cultures did not grow heterotrophically on the organic compounds present in the medium. However, the cultures were able to uptake organic N and P under phototrophic conditions and our calculations suggest that the carbon associated with these organic nutrients contributed significantly to the production of biomass. Overall, under high light conditions, LLAI cultures utilized half of the soluble organic nitrogen and >90% of the ammonium, orthophosphate, and dissolved organic phosphorus present in the diluted waste. Strain LLAI was also found to accumulate triacylglycerides (TAG) even before the onset of nutrient limitation and a lipid productivity of 37 mg-TAG L-1 d-1 was measured in cultures incubated at an incident irradiance of 1,100 µmoles m-2 s-1 . The results of this study suggest that microalgae isolates from natural environments are well-suited for nutrient remediation and biomass production from wastewater containing diverse inorganic and organic nutrient species. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1336-1342, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Functional limbal epithelial cells can be successfully isolated from organ culture rims following long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovell, Victoria E; Massie, Isobel; Kureshi, Alvena K; Daniels, Julie T

    2015-06-01

    Because of a shortage of fresh corneal tissue for research, it was of interest to investigate the potential of successfully isolating human limbal epithelial cells (hLECs) from organ culture corneal-scleral (OCCS) rims. Superficial segments of corneal limbus were dissected and digested using collagenase (0.5 mg/mL, 16 hours at 37 °C). Cell suspensions were separated into four different growth conditions: corneal epithelial cell medium (CM); CM + 3T3-Swiss albino cells; stromal stem cell medium (SM); and SM + 3T3 cells. Colony number, hLEC count, cell density, and colony forming efficiency (CFE) were quantified to assess different growth conditions. The expression profile associated with basal hLECs was assessed by immunofluorescence, and epithelial integrity was measured using our real architecture for 3D tissue (RAFT) corneal tissue equivalent. Human limbal epithelial cells can be successfully isolated from OCCS rims following 4 weeks in storage with an 80.55% success rate with 36 corneal rims. Stromal stem cell medium + 3T3s provided optimal growth conditions. Colony number, total cell number, and cell density were significantly higher at day 7 in cultures with SM than in CM. There were no significant differences between SM and CM when assessing CFE and the expression profile associated with basal hLECs. Cells maintained in SM were found to produce a higher quality epithelium than that cultured in CM. Organ culture corneal-scleral rims can be a valuable source for hLEC. Using a combination of collagenase-based isolation and medium designed for stromal stem cell isolation, a high number of good quality hLECs can be cultured from tissue that would have otherwise been ignored.

  7. Secretion of Organic Acids by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from Oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Dwidya Prijambada

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus availability is a major limiting for crop production. Bacterial solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate has been studied as a means of providing available phosphorus for crop production. Bacterial abilities to solubilize calcium phosphate and rock phosphate have been identified to be related with their abilities to produce gluconic acid and ketogluconic acid. However, there is no information regarding the relationship between bacterial ability to solubilize aluminum phosphate and their ability to produce organic acids. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between bacterial ability to solubilize calcium and aluminum phosphates with their ability to produce organic acids. Bacterial ability to solubilize calcium and aluminum phosphates were determined as the concentration of soluble phosphate in the filtrate of bacterial cultivation media, while bacterial ability to produce organic acids were assessed from the accumulated organic acids in its. The results showed that bacterial abilities to solubilize calcium and aluminum phosphates well related to their abilities to produce organic acids. Organic acids related with the solubilization of calcium phosphate differ from the ones related with the solubilization of aluminum phosphate. Moreover, there is similarity in the production of organic acids related to the solubilization of aluminum phosphates and iron phosphate.

  8. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in red kangaroos: isolation and characterisation of the causative organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K; Curtis, J; Baldwin, T; Mathis, A; Kumar, B; Sakthianandeswaren, A; Spurck, T; Low Choy, J; Handman, E

    2004-05-01

    This is the first report of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kangaroos where infection was acquired within Australia. The diagnosis is based on the clinical criteria used for humans, the lesion histopathology, the detection and isolation of parasites from the lesions, and the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes using the polymerase chain reaction. Despite a clear indication that the parasites belong to the genus Leishmania, no assignation to a known Leishmania species could be made using these or other less conserved genetic loci such as the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon repeat. As is the case in humans, some but not all animals harbouring lesions had antibodies to the isolated parasites or to several other Leishmania species. The isolated parasites displayed two well characterised Leishmania glycoconjugates, the lipophosphoglycan and proteophosphoglycan. They were infectious for mouse macrophages in vitro and established long-term infection at 33 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C. Our findings raise the possibility of transmission to humans, which may be unrecognised and suggest the possibility that imported species of Leishmania could become endemic in Australia.

  9. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  10. Bioprinting of a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional dual cell-laden construct for osteochondral tissue engineering using a multi-head tissue/organ building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Seob; Kim, Jong Young; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to build a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted construct containing two different cell types for osteochondral tissue regeneration. Recently, the production of 3D cell-laden structures using various scaffold-free cell printing technologies has opened up new possibilities. However, ideal 3D complex tissues or organs have not yet been printed because gel-state hydrogels have been used as the principal material and are unable to maintain the desired 3D structure due to their poor mechanical strength. In this study, thermoplastic biomaterial polycaprolactone (PCL), which shows relatively high mechanical properties as compared with hydrogel, was used as a framework for enhancing the mechanical stability of the bioprinted construct. Two different alginate solutions were then infused into the previously prepared framework consisting of PCL to create the 3D construct for osteochondral printing. For this work, a multi-head tissue/organ building system (MtoBS), which was particularly designed to dispense thermoplastic biomaterial and hydrogel having completely different rheology properties, was newly developed and used to bioprint osteochondral tissue. It was confirmed that the line width, position and volume control of PCL and alginate solutions were adjustable in the MtoBS. Most importantly, dual cell-laden 3D constructs consisting of osteoblasts and chondrocytes were successfully fabricated. Further, the separately dispensed osteoblasts and chondrocytes not only retained their initial position and viability, but also proliferated up to 7 days after being dispensed.

  11. Heads Up to High School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit" value="Submit" /> HEADS UP to School Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To help ... organizations, developed the HEADS UP: Concussion in School Sports initiative and materials. Specific Concussion Information for... Coaches ...

  12. How does organic matter affect the head velocity and run-out distance of cohesive sediment gravity flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Melissa; Baas, Jaco; Amos, Kathryn; Strachan, Lorna; Baker, Megan

    2016-04-01

    Despite over 50 years of multidisciplinary research on the flow mechanics and deposits of submarine saline density currents and sediment gravity flows, the flow dynamics and depositional processes of clay-rich gravity flows remain poorly understood. Cohesive clay can alter the flow rheology as a result of the electrochemical forces of attraction between individual particles. These forces may induce particle aggregation, leading to the formation of floccules and more pervasive cohesive structures, called gels. Through flocculation and gelling, clay particles can enhance or dampen turbulent forces in sediment gravity flows, such that increasing the cohesive sediment content causes a transition from turbulent, Newtonian flow, via transient-turbulent flow, to laminar, non-Newtonian debris flow. Because the flow rheology controls the depositional style, a thorough understanding of how flow composition relates to flow rheology is essential for our interpretation of the architecture and the palaeo-environmental setting of submarine deposits in outcrop and core. In the natural environment, clay-rich sediments are commonly associated with the presence of organic matter. The effect of organic matter, in particular 'sticky' extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), on the flocculation and gelling within clay-laden flows is reasonably well known for tidal flows in shallow-marine environments, but the impact of cohesive organic matter on the dynamics of sediment gravity flows has not been explored yet. A complex interaction between physical and biological forces has been found to influence the stability of sedimentary deposits. Here, the influence of similar interactions for clay and EPS suspended within sediment gravity flows is presented. The above research gaps were addressed by means of flume experiments that recorded changes in dynamic behaviour of sediment gravity flows with variable amounts of biologically cohesive xanthan gum (a commonly used proxy for natural EPS) and

  13. Validation of clinical acceptability of an atlas-based segmentation algorithm for the delineation of organs at risk in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Duc, Albert K., E-mail: albert.hoangduc.ucl@gmail.com; McClelland, Jamie; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Mendelson, Alex F. [Center for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Eminowicz, Gemma; Mendes, Ruheena; Wong, Swee-Ling; D’Souza, Derek [Radiotherapy Department, University College London Hospitals, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Veiga, Catarina [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kadir, Timor [Mirada Medical UK, Oxford Center for Innovation, New Road, Oxford OX1 1BY (United Kingdom); Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess whether clinically acceptable segmentations of organs at risk (OARs) in head and neck cancer can be obtained automatically and efficiently using the novel “similarity and truth estimation for propagated segmentations” (STEPS) compared to the traditional “simultaneous truth and performance level estimation” (STAPLE) algorithm. Methods: First, 6 OARs were contoured by 2 radiation oncologists in a dataset of 100 patients with head and neck cancer on planning computed tomography images. Each image in the dataset was then automatically segmented with STAPLE and STEPS using those manual contours. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was then used to compare the accuracy of these automatic methods. Second, in a blind experiment, three separate and distinct trained physicians graded manual and automatic segmentations into one of the following three grades: clinically acceptable as determined by universal delineation guidelines (grade A), reasonably acceptable for clinical practice upon manual editing (grade B), and not acceptable (grade C). Finally, STEPS segmentations graded B were selected and one of the physicians manually edited them to grade A. Editing time was recorded. Results: Significant improvements in DSC can be seen when using the STEPS algorithm on large structures such as the brainstem, spinal canal, and left/right parotid compared to the STAPLE algorithm (all p < 0.001). In addition, across all three trained physicians, manual and STEPS segmentation grades were not significantly different for the brainstem, spinal canal, parotid (right/left), and optic chiasm (all p > 0.100). In contrast, STEPS segmentation grades were lower for the eyes (p < 0.001). Across all OARs and all physicians, STEPS produced segmentations graded as well as manual contouring at a rate of 83%, giving a lower bound on this rate of 80% with 95% confidence. Reduction in manual interaction time was on average 61% and 93% when automatic

  14. Organ sparing and clinical outcome with step-and-shoot IMRT for head and neck cancer: a mono-institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Rosario; Ferrera, Giuseppe; Alongi, Filippo; Mannino, Mariella; Abbate, Boris; Cucchiara, Teresa; Iacoviello, Giuseppina; Sciumè, Francesco; Di Paola, Gioacchino; Federico, Manuela; Blasi, Livio; Lo Casto, Antonio; Lagalla, Roberto; Messana, Domenico

    2015-08-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy has been suggested as the technique of choice for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. In the last decade, most radiotherapy departments have focused their efforts in programs to implement this technique. We report our experience for parotid gland and constrictor muscle sparing with intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer using a step-and-shoot technique. Thirty-four consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx treated between June 2008 and June 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. A simultaneous integrated boost was adopted to treat different volumes in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Priority as organs at risk was given to the parotid glands as well as the constrictor muscle of the pharynx in 53 % (n = 18). Dysphagia and xerostomia were evaluated according to RTOG/EORTC scale at 6, 12 and 24 months. Outcomes were analysed using Kaplan-Meier curves. The median follow-up was 43 months. The 5-year overall survival was 70 %, and local control was 94 %. Grade 2 dysphagia and xerostomia at 6, 12 and 24 months were as follows: 26 % (n = 9), 23 % (n = 8), 23 % (n = 8) and 21 % (n = 7), 12 % (n = 4), 12 % (n = 4), respectively. No grade 3 or 4 toxicity was found. Ordinal logistic regression analysis demonstrated that hyposalivation was the main predictive factor for late dysphagia. Excellent loco-regional results were achieved with acceptable acute and late toxicities. The low rate of late dysphagia was related to parotid gland sparing; we did not observe a correlation between late dysphagia and dose to pharyngeal constrictors.

  15. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1044-1047. Canyon, DV, Speare R, et al . “Spatial and kinetic factors for the transfer of head ... for children. Natural products can give parents false sense of safety If using a natural product or ...

  16. Identifying patients who may benefit from adaptive radiotherapy : Does the literature on anatomic and dosimetric changes in head and neck organs at risk during radiotherapy provide information to help?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Charlotte L.; Steenbakkers, Roe J. H. M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Sijtsema, Nanna M.

    In the last decade, many efforts have been made to characterize anatomic changes of head and neck organs at risk (OARS) and the dosimetric consequences during radiotherapy. This review was undertaken to provide an overview of the magnitude and frequency of these effects, and to investigate whether

  17. Effect of Propafenone on the Contractile Activity of Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Isolated in an Organ Chamber: Experimental Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Simões

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of propafenone on the contractile function of latissimus dorsi muscle isolated from rats in an organ chamber. METHODS: We studied 20 latissimus dorsi muscles of Wistar rats and divided them into 2 groups: group I (n=10, or control group - we studied the feasibility of muscle contractility; group II (n=10, in which the contralateral muscles were grouped - we analyzed the effect of propafenone on muscle contractility. After building a muscle ring, 8 periods of sequential 2-minute baths were performed, with intervals of preprogrammed electrical stimulation using a pacemaker of 50 stimuli/min. In group II, propafenone, at the concentration of 9.8 µg/mL, was added to the bath in period 2 and withdrawn in period 4. RESULTS: In group I, no significant depression in muscle contraction occurred up to period 5 (p>0.05. In group II, a significant depression occurred in all periods, except between the last 2 periods (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Propafenone had a depressing effect on the contractile function of latissimus dorsi muscle isolated from rats and studied in an organ chamber.

  18. Antipoliovirus Activity of the Organic Extract of Eupatorium buniifolium: Isolation of Euparin as an Active Compound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Visintini Jaime, María Florencia; Campos, Rodolfo H; Martino, Virginia S; Cavallaro, Lucía V; Muschietti, Liliana V

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral activity of the organic extract (OE) of Eupatorium buniifolium against poliovirus type 1 was determined by in vitro assays with an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 23.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL...

  19. CONSTANTS FOR MERCURY BINDING BY DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ISOLATES FROM THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES. (R827653)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been implicated as an important complexing agent for Hg that can affect its mobility and bioavailability in aquatic ecosystems. However, binding constants for natural Hg-DOM complexes are not well known. We employed a competitive ligand appro...

  20. Isolation, identification and characterization of organic solvent tolerant protease from Bacillus sp. DAF-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arastoo Badoei-Dalfard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvent-tolerant bacteria are relatively novel extermophilic microorganisms, which can produce organic tolerant protease with capacity of being used in industrial biotechnology for producing high-value compounds. Therefore, finding of these bacteria has drawn much researchers attention nowadays. Materials and Methods: In this project, samples were collected from a hot spring, located in Jiroft. Samples were incubated in medium supplemented with cyclohexane and toluene for 3 days. Screening of protease producing bacteria was performed on the specific media, SKM (Skim milk agar, based on clear area diameter. The best bacterium was identified based on 16s rDNA gene. Protease activity was considered in different temperatures, pH and organic solvents.Results: Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results showed that this bacteria was closely related to Bacillus niacini, with 97% homology. Enzymatic studies showed that, this enzyme was active at a wide range of temperatures, 20-90 °C and it,s optimal activity was in 60 °C. In addition, maximum protease activity was obtained in the 8-9 range of pH, and optimal stability was also at pH 9.0. Protease activity in the presence of methanol, toluene, isopropanol, cyclohexane and DMF ‏showed that, remaining activity was at least 80% compared to the control (without organic solvent Discussion and Conclusion: Thermopilic capacity, being active in alkaline protease and high protease stability in the presence of organic solvents all herald a remarkable application for using in different industries.

  1. Examinations Of The Matrix Isolation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra Of Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, W. M.

    1989-12-01

    Matrix isolation Fourier transform infrared spectra (MI/FT-IR), mass spectra (MS), carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C-NMR) spectra, condensed phase infrared spectra and vapor phase infrared (IR) spectra are presented for a series of terpene compounds. Subtle differences in positional and configurational isomers commonly found with terpenes could be easily detected by the. MI/FT-IR spqctra. The results are comparable in some aspects to those obtainable from IJC-NMR and thin film IR, however, most importantly, they are acquired at the low nanogram level for MI/FTIR as compared to the milligram level for the other techniques. These results represent an advance in the technology available for the analysis of complex mixtures such as essential oils containing terpene-like molecules.

  2. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Shaw, J D; Sheppard, M; Harrison, M A

    2009-10-01

    Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to the plant on carts to be processed. Two plants in the southeastern United States were sampled. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n=25/visit). A 12x12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated using violet red bile glucose agar incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. There was 100% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae at plant A with an average 3.8 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Plant B had 90% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae with an average 3.2 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Two randomly selected isolates from each positive sample were recultured 3 times to increase the likelihood of clonality and were then identified biochemically. Of the 124 isolates analyzed, genera identified were Citrobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Hafnia spp., Kluyvera spp., Leclercia spp., and Salmonella spp. Pseudomonas spp. was the only non-Enterobacteriaceae identified by our methods. This work demonstrates that nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae in the shell egg processing environment.

  3. Bacterial Agents Andantibiogram of Most Common Isolated Organisms from Hands of Surgical Team Members after Scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Mohseni- Meybodi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many post-surgical wound infections in hospitals cause morbidity and morality of patients and these are usually transmitted via hands of surgical personnel. The aim of the present study was to detect and antibiogram the bacterial agents following scrubbing of hands of surgical personnel before operation. Methods: Hands of 134 personnels of operation room were swabbed following scrubbing with antiseptic Betadine solution. Swab samples were inoculated on selective and differential media such as blood ager, McConky and manitol salt agar(MSA. Following incubation of media at 37c° for 24hr, bacterial species were identified using differential related tests. The isolated species were than antibiogramed and the results together with other data was analysed by SPSS software program. Results: Of the total of 134 cases, 81(60.4% were male and 53(39.6% female. The mean scrub time for each person was (206.1+/-103.2 seconds; 6 to 60 seconds base change. Increasing time of scrub was significantly correlated with decreasing rate of bacteria (P=0.003, (R=-0.254. Contamination was present in 129(96.3% cases following scrubbing. Maximum contamination was observed in nails (92.5%. Average number of bacteria for each individual was between 0 and 159. 62.6% of isolated bacteria were non- staphylococci and 7.7% were S. aureus. Vancomycin and ceftizoxim were the most sensitive, while penicillin was the least sensitive antibiotic. Conclusion: Results revealed that hand contamination was more than the expected standard level. Therefore, regarding the critical task of surgical personnel, training of all operation room staff is highly recommended to minimize the rate of contamination.

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk tank milk in organic and conventional dairy herds in the midwestern United States and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Bartlett, P C; Erskine, R J; Kaneene, J B

    2004-06-01

    An observational study was conducted to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk tank milk in organic and conventional dairy farms in Wisconsin, United States, and southern Jutland, Denmark. Bulk tank milk samples and data regarding management and production were collected from 30 organic and 30 conventional dairy farms in Wisconsin and 20 organic and 20 conventional dairy farms in Denmark. S. aureus isolates were tested for resistance against 15 antimicrobial agents by semiautomatic microbroth dilution methods in each country. Of the 118 bulk tank milk samples in Wisconsin, 71 samples (60%) yielded at least one S. aureus isolate, and a total of 331 isolates were collected. Of the 40 bulk tank milk samples from Denmark, 27 samples (55%) yielded at least one S. aureus isolate, and a total of 152 isolates were collected. Significant differences between organic and conventional dairies were detected only to ciprofloxacin in Wisconsin and avilamycin in Denmark. Significant differences (P organic and conventional farm types in each country and larger differences between the two national agricultural systems.

  5. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m-3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

  6. Apoptosis inducing lead compounds isolated from marine organisms of potential relevance in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesoo, Rima; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2014-10-01

    Apoptosis is a critical defense mechanism against the formation and progression of cancer and exhibits distinct morphological and biochemical traits. Targeting apoptotic pathways becomes an intriguing strategy for the development of chemotherapeutic agents particularly if the process is selective to cancer cells. Marine natural products have become important sources in the discovery of antitumour drugs, especially when recent technological and methodological advances have increased the scope of investigations of marine organisms. A high number of individual compounds from diverse organisms have induced apoptosis in several tumour cell lines via a number of mechanisms. Here, we review the effects of selected marine natural products and their synthetic derivatives on apoptosis signalling pathways in association with their pharmacological properties. Providing an outlook into the future, we also examine the factors that contribute to new discoveries and the difficulties associated with translating marine-derived compounds into clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m−3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  8. Fabrication of Metal-Organic Framework MOF-177 Coatings on Stainless Steel Fibers for Head-Space Solid-Phase Microextraction of Phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Hua; Lei, Yong-Qian

    2017-08-01

    Direct head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of phenols in water is usually difficult due to its polarity and solubility in aqueous matrix. Herein we report the fabrication of metal-organic framework MOF-177 coated stainless steel fiber for the HS-SPME of phenols (2-methylolphenol, 4-methylolphenol, 2,4-dimethylolphenol, 2,4-dichlorphenol, and 3-methyl-4-chlorophenol) in environmental water samples prior to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized in the experiment, including extraction temperature and time, the pH value and salt addition. The results indicated that the coated fiber gave low detection limits (0.015-0.043 μg L(-1)) and good repeatability with the RSD ranging from 2.8% to 5.5% for phenols. The recoveries are between 84.5%-98.6% with the spiked level of 10 μg L(-1) for the real water samples. The established method may afford a kind of potential enrichment material and a reference method for the analysis of methylphenols in water samples.

  9. Cloning and Genomic Organization of a Rhamnogalacturonase Gene from Locally Isolated Strain of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damak, Naourez; Abdeljalil, Salma; Taeib, Noomen Hadj; Gargouri, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The rhg gene encoding a rhamnogalacturonase was isolated from the novel strain A1 of Aspergillus niger. It consists of an ORF of 1.505 kb encoding a putative protein of 446 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47 kDa, belonging to the family 28 of glycosyl hydrolases. The nature and position of amino acids comprising the active site as well as the three-dimensional structure were well conserved between the A. niger CTM10548 and fungal rhamnogalacturonases. The coding region of the rhg gene is interrupted by three short introns of 56 (introns 1 and 3) and 52 (intron 2) bp in length. The comparison of the peptide sequence with A. niger rhg sequences revealed that the A1 rhg should be an endo-rhamnogalacturonases, more homologous to rhg A than rhg B A. niger known enzymes. The comparison of rhg nucleotide sequence from A. niger A1 with rhg A from A. niger shows several base changes. Most of these changes (59 %) are located at the third base of codons suggesting maintaining the same enzyme function. We used the rhamnogalacturonase A from Aspergillus aculeatus as a template to build a structural model of rhg A1 that adopted a right-handed parallel β-helix.

  10. Isolation of selenium organic species from antarctic krill after enzymatic hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siwek, Mariana; Galunsky, Boris [Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Institute of Biotechnology II, Hamburg (Germany); Niemeyer, Bernd [GKSS Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research, Geesthacht (Germany); University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Institute of Thermodynamics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Total selenium content and its distribution in the soluble and insoluble protein-bound fractions obtained after aqueous extraction of antarctic krill samples were determined. About 26% of the total selenium (2.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) was found in the supernatant; the rest was in the pellet. Isolation of low molecular selenium-containing fractions was also performed by enzymatic digestion of the protein, followed by size-exclusion chromatography in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrometry. From the applied various proteinases (pronase E, subtilisin Carlsberg, trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase and proteinase N from Bacillus subtilis and Novo 0.6 MPX enzyme), the treatment with pronase E led to best recovery of selenium. About 96% of the total Se was found in the hydrolysate, mainly in low molecular weight fractions. Eighty percent of the Se species were in fractions with molecular weights in the range of amino acids and short peptides. High-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) allowed the identification of selenomethionine and the assumption that selenocystine or its derivatives were the main species in these fractions. (orig.)

  11. Persistence of two Trichomonas gallinae isolates in chlorinated and distilled water with or without organic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Richard W; Maestas, Lauren P; Harnage, Philip M

    2013-09-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite commonly found in columbids, passerines, and raptors. In passerines and columbids, trichomonosis causes significant morbidity and mortality associated with contaminated bird feeders and waters. However, there has been little work on the persistence of T. gallinae in water to determine if artificial waters are a likely source of infection for naive birds. To examine drinking water as a source of T. gallinae transmission, we inoculated 1 x 10(6) trichomonads into containers with 500 ml of either distilled or chlorinated water. In addition, we inoculated the same number of trichomonads in distilled or chlorinated water contaminated with 15 g organic matter. Aliquots of 0.5 ml were collected from each container at 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, or 20 min; inoculated into a Trichomonas culture packet; and incubated at 37 C for 6 days. Survival was best in the presence of organic matter, with either distilled or chlorinated water. Uncontaminated chlorinated water did not allow survival at any sampling period.

  12. Effect of midazolam versus propofol sedation on markers of neurological injury and outcome after isolated severe head injury: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ghori, Kamran A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam and propofol are sedative agents commonly administered to patients with brain injury. We compared plasma concentrations of glial cell S100beta protein and nitric oxide (NO) between patients who received midazolam and those who received propofol sedation after severe brain injury, and investigated the association between S100beta and NO concentrations and neurological outcome. DESIGN: 28 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Score <9) who required sedation and ventilation were randomly assigned to receive midazolam (n =15) or propofol (n = 13) based sedation. Blood samples were drawn daily for 5 days for estimation of S100beta and NO concentrations. Neurological outcome was assessed 3 months later as good (Glasgow Outcome Score [GOS], 4-5) or poor (GOS, 1-3). RESULTS: A good neurological outcome was observed in 8\\/15 patients (53%) in the midazolam group and 7\\/13 patients (54%) in the propofol group. Patients with a poor outcome had higher serum S100beta concentrations on ICU admission and on Days 1-4 in the ICU than those with a good outcome (mean [SD] on Day 1, 0.99 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.4] microg\\/L; Day 2, 0.80 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.24] microg\\/L; Day 3, 0.52 [0.55] v 0.24 [0.25] microg\\/L; and Day 4, 0.54 [0.43] v 0.24 [0.35] microg\\/L; P<0.05). There was no significant difference on Day 5. Plasma NO concentrations were not associated with outcome. In subgroup analysis, there was no difference in S100beta and NO concentrations between patients with a good outcome versus those with a poor outcome in either the midazolam or propofol group. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma concentrations of markers of neurological injury in patients with severe head injury were similar in those who received midazolam sedation and those who received propofol. Patients who had a poor neurological outcome at 3 months had consistently higher serum S100beta concentrations during the initial 4 days after injury than patients who had a good outcome.

  13. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  14. STUDY OF THE ISOLATES OF SUSPECTED VAP, PREVALENCE OF THE DIFFERENT ORGANISMS AND MIC PATTERNS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagnik Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The development of nosocomial infections mostly ventilator-associated pneumonia due to prolonged stay in the ICUs varies grossly in different outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality. The American Thoracic Society (ATS guidelines recommend that quantitative cultures can be performed on ETA or samples collected either bronchoscopically or nonbronchosopically. 1 More importantly, recent small trials have repeatedly shown that there is no advantage of bronchoscopic cultures over quantitative endotracheal aspirate. 2,3,4 Detection of causative organisms and their antibiotic MIC determination is absolutely necessary to initiate the specific antibiotic with appropriate dose thereby reducing the adverse effects of inadequate antibiotic treatment on the patient prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prospective study was carried out during the period from August 2012 to January 2015 in Department of Microbiology from the samples those were received as a routine culture from VAP suspected patients from the ICU. There were 373 samples from which 123 were culture positives. Inclusion criteria were all the patients 18 years and more age group who were intubated in mechanical ventilator and others were excluded in the study. Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS was given to each patient included in the study on daily basis. CPIS of greater than six was used as diagnostic criteria for VAP. 5 Clinically diagnosed ventilator-associated pneumonia were observed and clinical parameters were recorded from their medical records and bedside charts. All patients with clinical and radiological signs suggestive of pneumonia on admission. Endotracheal aspirate was collected by using a 22-inch Romsons suction catheter. Chest vibration or percussion for 10 mins. was used. Only 1 ETA sample was collected from each patient and was immediately taken to the laboratory for processing. RESULTS Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated 39.02%, Pseudomonas

  15. Identification of novel open reading frames from metagenomic libraries generated from extremophilic organisms: application of metagenomics and high throughput screening for novel enzyme isolation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Visser, Daniel F

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Frames from Metagenomic Libraries Generated from Extremophilic Organisms: Application of Metagenomics and High Throughput Screening for Novel Enzyme Isolation 1FRITHA HENNESSY, 1DANIEL F. VISSER, 1VARSHA P. CHHIBA, 1FRANCISCO LAKAY, 2ESTA VAN HEERDEN..., in particular proteases and lipases. Result- ant hits had plasmid DNA isolated; this DNA was sequenced and analysed using BLAST. CONCLUSIONS High variation in hits Duplicate results Smaller inserts still gave activity despite small ORF’s Weak correlation...

  16. Comparison of organ-at-risk sparing and plan robustness for spot-scanning proton therapy and volumetric modulated arc photon therapy in head-and-neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barten, Danique L. J., E-mail: d.barten@vumc.nl; Tol, Jim P.; Dahele, Max; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F. A. R. [Department of Radiotherapy, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1118, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) aims to improve organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing over photon radiotherapy. However, it may be less robust for setup and range uncertainties. The authors investigated OAR sparing and plan robustness for spot-scanning proton planning techniques and compared these with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) photon plans. Methods: Ten HNC patients were replanned using two arc VMAT (RapidArc) and spot-scanning proton techniques. OARs to be spared included the contra- and ipsilateral parotid and submandibular glands and individual swallowing muscles. Proton plans were made using Multifield Optimization (MFO, using three, five, and seven fields) and Single-field Optimization (SFO, using three fields). OAR sparing was evaluated using mean dose to composite salivary glands (Comp{sub Sal}) and composite swallowing muscles (Comp{sub Swal}). Plan robustness was determined for setup and range uncertainties (±3 mm for setup, ±3% HU) evaluating V95% and V107% for clinical target volumes. Results: Averaged over all patients Comp{sub Sal}/Comp{sub Swal} mean doses were lower for the three-field MFO plans (14.6/16.4 Gy) compared to the three-field SFO plans (20.0/23.7 Gy) and VMAT plans (23.0/25.3 Gy). Using more than three fields resulted in differences in OAR sparing of less than 1.5 Gy between plans. SFO plans were significantly more robust than MFO plans. VMAT plans were the most robust. Conclusions: MFO plans had improved OAR sparing but were less robust than SFO and VMAT plans, while SFO plans were more robust than MFO plans but resulted in less OAR sparing. Robustness of the MFO plans did not increase with more fields.

  17. New tumour entities in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck tumours: odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Paul M; Takata, Takashi

    2017-07-03

    The latest (4th) edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck tumours has recently been published with a number of significant changes across all tumour sites. In particular, there has been a major attempt to simplify classifications and to use defining criteria which can be used globally in all situations, avoiding wherever possible the use of complex molecular techniques which may not be affordable or widely available. This review summarises the changes in Chapter 8: Odontogenic and maxillofacial bone lesions. The most significant change is the re-introduction of the classification of the odontogenic cysts, restoring this books status as the only text which classifies and defines the full range of lesions of the odontogenic tissues. The consensus group considered carefully the terminology of lesions and were concerned to ensure that the names used properly reflected the best evidence regarding the true nature of specific entities. For this reason, this new edition restores the odontogenic keratocyst and calcifying odontogenic cyst to the classification of odontogenic cysts and rejects the previous terminology (keratocystic odontogenic tumour and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour) which were intended to suggest that they are true neoplasms. New entities which have been introduced include the sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma and primordial odontogenic tumour. In addition, some previously poorly defined lesions have been removed, including the ameloblastic fibrodentinoma, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, which are probably developing odontomas, and the odontoameloblastoma, which is not regarded as an entity. Finally, the terminology "cemento" has been restored to cemento-ossifying fibroma and cemento-osseous dysplasias, to properly reflect that they are of odontogenic origin and are found in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws.

  18. Abundance, genetic diversity and sensitivity to demethylation inhibitor fungicides of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from organic substrates with special emphasis on compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Matić, Slavica; Gisi, Ulrich; Spadaro, Davide; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria L

    2017-12-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a widespread fungus that colonizes dead organic substrates but it can also cause fatal human diseases. Aspergilloses are treated with demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides; however, resistant isolates appeared recently in the medical and also environmental area. The present study aims at molecular characterizing and quantifying A. fumigatus in major environmental habitats and determining its sensitivity to medical and agricultural DMI fungicides. A. fumigatus was isolated only rarely from soil and meadow/forest organic matter but high concentrations (10 3 to 10 7  cfu/g) were detected in substrates subjected to elevated temperatures, such as compost and silage. High genetic diversity of A. fumigatus from compost was found based on SSR markers, distinguishing among fungal isolates even when coming from the same substrate sample, while subclustering was observed based on mutations in cyp51A gene. Several cyp51A amino acid substitutions were found in 15 isolates, although all isolates were fully sensitive to the tested DMI fungicides, with exception of one isolate in combination with one fungicide. This study suggests that the tested A. fumigatus isolates collected in Italy, Spain and Hungary from the fungus' major living habitats (compost) and commercial growing substrates are not potential carriers for DMI resistance in the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Early and Severe Radiation Toxicity Associated with Concurrent Sirolimus in an Organ Transplant Recipient with Head and Neck Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manyam, Bindu V; Nwizu, Tobenna I; Rahe, Melissa L; Harr, Bridgett A; Koyfman, Shlomo A

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a history of liver transplantation who was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin for recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck...

  20. Development of additional pituitary hormone deficiencies in pediatric patients originally diagnosed with isolated growth hormone deficiency due to organic causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Christopher J; Blum, Werner F; Deal, Cheri; Zimmermann, Alan G; Quigley, Charmian A; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cutler, Gordon B; Rosenfeld, Ron G

    2016-05-01

    To determine characteristics of children initially diagnosed with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) of organic aetiology, who later developed multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). Data were analysed for 716 growth hormone-treated children with organic IGHD, who were growth hormone-naïve at baseline in the multinational, observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study. Development of MPHD was ascertained from investigator-provided diagnoses, adverse events and concomitant medications. Analyses were performed for all patients and separately for those who developed MPHD within 4.5 years or had >3.5 years follow-up and continued to have IGHD (4-year cohort). MPHD developed in 71/716 (9.9%) children overall, and in 60/290 (20.7%) in the 4-year cohort. The most frequent additional deficiencies were thyroid-stimulating hormone (47 patients) and gonadotropins (23 patients). Compared with those who remained with IGHD, children who developed MPHD had more severe GHD at study entry, significantly lower baseline insulin-like growth factor1, peak stimulated growth hormone, and more frequent diagnosis of intracranial tumour or mutation of gene(s) controlling hypothalamic-pituitary development and/or function. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified female gender, longer follow-up, higher baseline age and lower peak stimulated growth hormone as predictors of MPHD development. MPHD is more likely to develop in patients with severe organic IGHD, especially those with history of intracranial tumour or mutation of gene(s) controlling hypothalamic-pituitary development and/or function. Older baseline age, female gender and longer follow-up duration were also associated with higher incidence of MPHD. Long-term monitoring of pituitary function is recommended, irrespective of the aetiology of GHD. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Effect of organic fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk.) clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L.), qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L.) and dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Koocheki; S. Amirmoradi; J. Shabahng; S. Kalantari Khandani

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2010. The design was split plot with three replications. Main plots were the medicinal plant species consist of: blond psyllium (Plantago ovate Forssk.), clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L.), qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L.) dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.) and subplots were various organic fertilizer consist of cow manure, vermicompost (based on c...

  2. Sword-Like Trauma to the Shoulder with Open Head-Splitting Fracture of the Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Panagopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Head-splitting fractures occur as a result of violent compression of the head against the glenoid; the head splits and the tuberosities may remain attached to the fragments or split and separate. Isolated humeral head-splitting fractures are rare injuries. Favorable results with osteosynthesis can be difficult to achieve because of the very proximal location of the head fracture and associated poor vascularity. We present a case of a 67-year-old man who sustained a severe, sword-like trauma to his left shoulder after a road traffic accident with associated isolated open Gustilo-Anderson IIIA humeral head-splitting fracture. Bony union was achieved with minimal internal fixation but the clinical outcome deteriorated due to accompanying axillary nerve apraxia. To our knowledge, this type of sword-like injury with associated humeral head-split fracture has not previously been reported.

  3. Sword-Like Trauma to the Shoulder with Open Head-Splitting Fracture of the Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Andreas; Pantazis, Konstantinos; Iliopoulos, Ilias; Seferlis, Ioannis; Kokkalis, Zinon

    2016-01-01

    Head-splitting fractures occur as a result of violent compression of the head against the glenoid; the head splits and the tuberosities may remain attached to the fragments or split and separate. Isolated humeral head-splitting fractures are rare injuries. Favorable results with osteosynthesis can be difficult to achieve because of the very proximal location of the head fracture and associated poor vascularity. We present a case of a 67-year-old man who sustained a severe, sword-like trauma to his left shoulder after a road traffic accident with associated isolated open Gustilo-Anderson IIIA humeral head-splitting fracture. Bony union was achieved with minimal internal fixation but the clinical outcome deteriorated due to accompanying axillary nerve apraxia. To our knowledge, this type of sword-like injury with associated humeral head-split fracture has not previously been reported.

  4. Does kinship affect spatial organization in a small and isolated population of a solitary felid: The Eurasian lynx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Krzysztof; Davoli, Francesca; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Randi, Ettore

    2016-09-01

    Social organization in wild carnivores is mostly determined by patterns of family bonds, which may shape the degree of relatedness among individuals in the population. We studied kinship in a small and isolated population of a solitary carnivore, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to evaluate its effect on spatial distribution of individuals. We investigated the relationship between spatial location and pair-wise kinship among 28 lynx individuals identified in 2004-2011 by telemetry, non-invasive sampling and genotyping with the use of 12 autosomal microsatellites in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. The average relatedness of the lynx population was relatively low (Lynch and Ritland's R = 0.03). Females were significantly more related to each other than males with other males. The inferred pedigree showed that the population was dominated by only 2 familial groups. We did not find significant correlations between the relatedness and the extent of home range overlap or the straight-line distances between the home ranges' central points. These results suggest that the dynamics of kinship in this solitary felid may not differ from the random mating processes described in social carnivores. Although the chances of random mating could be limited to a few resident males and females, the presence of unrelated floaters may provide a "breeding buffer" that may prevent an increase of relatedness and likely inbreeding in the population. This system is likely to fail in preserving genetic diversity in small, highly isolated populations; therefore, restoring habitat connectivity is crucial to ensure sufficient immigration from neighboring populations. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Volatile organic compounds emitted by filamentous fungi isolated from flooded homes after Hurricane Sandy show toxicity in a Drosophila bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Yin, G; Inamdar, A A; Luo, J; Zhang, N; Yang, I; Buckley, B; Bennett, J W

    2017-05-01

    Superstorm Sandy provided an opportunity to study filamentous fungi (molds) associated with winter storm damage. We collected 36 morphologically distinct fungal isolates from flooded buildings. By combining traditional morphological and cultural characters with an analysis of ITS sequences (the fungal DNA barcode), we identified 24 fungal species that belong to eight genera: Penicillium (11 species), Fusarium (four species), Aspergillus (three species), Trichoderma (two species), and one species each of Metarhizium, Mucor, Pestalotiopsis, and Umbelopsis. Then, we used a Drosophila larval assay to assess possible toxicity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by these molds. When cultured in a shared atmosphere with growing cultures of molds isolated after Hurricane Sandy, larval toxicity ranged from 15 to 80%. VOCs from Aspergillus niger 129B were the most toxic yielding 80% mortality to Drosophila after 12 days. The VOCs from Trichoderma longibrachiatum 117, Mucor racemosus 138a, and Metarhizium anisopliae 124 were relatively non-toxigenic. A preliminary analysis of VOCs was conducted using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from two of the most toxic, two of the least toxic, and two species of intermediate toxicity. The more toxic molds produced higher concentrations of 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 2-octen-1-ol, and 2-nonanone; while the less toxic molds produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol, or an overall lower amount of volatiles. Our data support the hypothesis that at certain concentrations, some VOCs emitted by indoor molds are toxigenic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Isolation, production, purification and characterization of an organic-solvent-thermostable alkalophilic cellulase from Bacillus vallismortis RG-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rajeeva; Tiwari, Soni

    2015-03-19

    The rising concerns about the scarcity of fossil fuels, the emission of green house gasses and air pollution by incomplete combustion of fossil fuel have also resulted in an increasing focus on the use of cellulases to perform enzymatic hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic materials for the generation of bioethanol. The aim of this study was to isolate a potential thermo-solvent tolerant cellulase producing bacterium from natural resources, and then applied for purification and characterization. The purified enzyme was to be accessible for the bioethanol production as well as industrial exploitation (discuss in our next study). It is the first instance when thermo-solvent tolerant cellulase producing bacterium was isolated from soil sample. The culture was identified as Bacillus vallismortis RG-07 by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Bacillus vallismortis RG-07 reported maximum cellulase production from sugarcane baggase (4105 U ml(-1)) used as agro-waste carbon source. The cellulase enzyme produced by the Bacillus sp. was purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, with overall recovery of 28.8%. The molecular weight of purified cellulase was 80 kDa as revealed by SDS-PAGE and activity gel analysis. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity was determined as 65°C and 7.0 and it retained 95 and 75% of activity even at 95°C, and 9.0 respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of organic solvents (30%) n-dodecane, iso-octane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-haxane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, after prolonged incubation (7 days). The enzyme activity was also stimulated by Ca(2+), mercaptoethanol, Tween-60, and Sodium hypochloride whereas strongly inhibited by Hg. Kinetic analysis of purified enzyme showed the Km and Vmax to be 1.923 mg ml(-1) and 769.230 μg ml(-1) min(-1), respectively. The unique property of solvent-thermostable-alkalophilic, nature proves the potential candidature of this isolate for

  7. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  8. challenges facing child headed households

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    care approaches on psychosocial wellbeing of orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) in Zimbabwe, ... related stigma, poverty or anomie, are insufficient for understanding the isolation of the child-headed ..... organisation was failing to cope with the problems of these families. This was so because it did not have.

  9. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...

  10. Synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica and from the central nervous system of Mus musculus contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huinan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic vesicles (SVs are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS of Mus musculus (mouse contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤50 nucleotides (Scientific Reports, 5:1–14(14918 Li et al. (2015 [1]. Our previous publication provided the five most abundant sequences associated with the T. californica SVs, and the ten most abundant sequences associated with the mouse SVs, representing 59% and 39% of the total sRNA reads sequenced, respectively. We provide here a full repository of the SV sRNAs sequenced from T. californica and the mouse deposited in the NCBI as biosamples. Three data studies are included: SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques, SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques with an additional affinity purification step, and finally, SVs isolated from the CNS of mouse. The three biosamples are available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample/ SRS1523467, SRS1523466, and SRS1523472 respectively.

  11. Synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica and from the central nervous system of Mus musculus contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huinan; Wu, Cheng; Aramayo, Rodolfo; Sachs, Matthew S; Harlow, Mark L

    2017-06-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS) of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS) of Mus musculus (mouse) contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤ 50 nucleotides) (Scientific Reports, 5:1-14(14918) Li et al. (2015) [1]). Our previous publication provided the five most abundant sequences associated with the T. californica SVs, and the ten most abundant sequences associated with the mouse SVs, representing 59% and 39% of the total sRNA reads sequenced, respectively). We provide here a full repository of the SV sRNAs sequenced from T. californica and the mouse deposited in the NCBI as biosamples. Three data studies are included: SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques, SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques with an additional affinity purification step, and finally, SVs isolated from the CNS of mouse. The three biosamples are available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample/ SRS1523467, SRS1523466, and SRS1523472 respectively.

  12. Introducing Organic Chemistry Students to Natural Product Isolation Using Steam Distillation and Liquid Phase Extraction of Thymol, Camphor, and Citral, Monoterpenes Sharing a Unified Biosynthetic Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Katherine A.; Miller, Kenneth A.; Collins, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have provided and continue to provide the inspiration and foundation for modern medicines. Natural product isolation is a key component of the process of drug discovery from plants. The purpose of this experiment is to introduce first semester undergraduate organic chemistry students, who have relatively few lab techniques at their…

  13. Perda de carga em filtros orgânicos utilizados no tratamento de água residuária de suinoculturas Head-loss evolution in organic filters for swine wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a realização deste trabalho, objetivou-se parametrizar a equação de evolução da perda de carga, para descrição do processo de filtração de água residuária da suinocultura. No preenchimento das colunas filtrantes, foram utilizados bagaço de cana-de-açúcar triturado, serragem de madeira e pergaminho de grãos de café. Dados de perda de carga em diferentes profundidades e tempos de operação dos filtros orgânicos foram coletados para ajuste das equações de perda de carga. Para as equações ajustadas, foram obtidos altos coeficientes de determinação, sendo que a significância dos coeficientes da regressão foi, na sua quase totalidade, de 1% de probabilidade, podendo ser utilizada na predição do comportamento dos filtros. As variáveis tempo de operação e profundidade das colunas filtrantes, constituídas pelos três materiais filtrantes, apresentaram comportamento quadrático na estimativa da perda de carga total. O tempo ideal de operação ininterrupta dos filtros, sem troca de material filtrante, foi de, aproximadamente, 1,5 h e, depois de corrido esse tempo, o material filtrante deverá ser substituído.This work was developed to adjust the equation of head-loss, describing the head-loss process with the depth and operation time of organic filter utilized in treatment of swine wastewater. Sugarcane bagasse, sawdust and coffee husk, by-products of agricultural and agro-industrial activities, were used to fill the filter columns. Data on head-loss in different depths with the time of organic filters operation were collected to analyze the head-loss evolution. In head-loss equations as function of depth and filter operation time high values were obtained for the coefficients of determination and the regression coefficients presented, in almost, significant at 1% probability, predicting the behavior of the filters, constituted of sawdust, sugarcane bagasse and coffee husk. The variables, operation time and the filter

  14. Comparison of the phenotypic antimicrobial resistances and spa-types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates derived from pigs in conventional and in organic husbandry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntenkoetter, Vitus; Blaha, Thomas; Tegeler, Regina; Fetsch, Alexandra; Hartmann, Maria; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Meemken, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify differences in the phenotypic resistance to antimicrobials and in the spa-types between 273 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates derived from conventional (n = 21) versus organic pig farms (n = 10) located in Germany. The susceptibility of the isolates against 19 antimicrobial agents was tested and then compared between the two different husbandry systems. A statistically significant difference was observed between the MRSA strains isolated on conventional and on organic pig farms for the antimicrobials tilmicosin (61.8% vs. 40.0%; OR: 2.42), clindamycin (63.5% vs. 45.7%; OR: 2.06), gentamicin (14.7% vs. 34.3%; OR: 0.33), apramycin (3.8% vs. 22.9%; OR: 0.13) and enrofloxacin (13.9% vs. 34.3%; OR: 0.31). Finally, the results of the susceptibility testing were analysed in order to determine the resistance pattern per isolate. Among the tested isolates a kind of"basic resistance pattern of MRSA"to penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline was identified. The predominant spa-types in both groups were t011 and t034. Less frequently detected spa-types were t1430, t1197, t2510, t779, t1451 and t1250.

  15. Severe head injury in children: early prognosis and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarello, M; Facco, E; Zampieri, P; Zanardi, L; Andrioli, G C

    1985-01-01

    The outcome is reported in 62 children with severe head injuries following a road traffic accident. All patients were comatose for at least 6 h; all patients were graded using the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) or the Children Coma Score (CCS). Fifty-four patients were comatose immediately after injury, 8 after a lucid interval. Thirty patients had isolated head injuries and 32 had associated injuries, either long bone fractures or rupture of an abdominal organ. Additional information concerning main brainstem reflexes, posture and respiration was included in the study. The overall mortality was 32%. The goal of the study was to identify those clinical features available soon after injury which are important indicators of treatment and outcome.

  16. A method for a priori estimation of best feasible DVH for organs-at-risk: Validation for head and neck VMAT planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saeed; Nelms, Benjamin; Gintz, Dawn; Caudell, Jimmy; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo G; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Despite improvements in optimization and automation algorithms, the quality of radiation treatment plans still varies dramatically. A tool that allows a priori estimation of the best possible sparing (Feasibility DVH, or FDVH) of an organ at risk (OAR) in high-energy photon planning may help reduce plan quality variability by deriving patient-specific OAR goals prior to optimization. Such a tool may be useful for (a) meaningfully evaluating patient-specific plan quality and (b) supplying best theoretically achievable DVH goals, thus pushing the solution toward automatic Pareto optimality. This work introduces such a tool and validates it for clinical Head and Neck (HN) datasets. To compute FDVH, first the targets are assigned uniform prescription doses, with no reference to any particular beam arrangement. A benchmark 3D dose built outside the targets is estimated using a series of energy-specific dose spread calculations reflecting observed properties of radiation distribution in media. For the patient, the calculation is performed on the heterogeneous dataset, taking into account the high- (penumbra driven) and low- (PDD and scatter-driven) gradient dose spreading. The former is driven mostly by target dose and surface shape, while the latter adds the dependence on target volume. This benchmark dose is used to produce the "best possible sparing" FDVH for an OAR, and based on it, progressively more easily achievable FDVH curves can be estimated. Validation was performed using test cylindrical geometries as well as 10 clinical HN datasets. For HN, VMAT plans were prepared with objectives of covering the primary and the secondary (bilateral elective neck) PTVs while addressing only one OAR at a time, with the goal of maximum sparing. The OARs were each parotid, the larynx, and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor. The difference in mean OAR doses was computed for the achieved vs. FDVHs, and the shapes of those DVHs were compared by means of the Dice similarity

  17. Actinomyces succiniciruminis sp. nov. and Actinomyces glycerinitolerans sp. nov., two novel organic acid-producing bacteria isolated from rumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Pristaš, Peter; Hrehová, Ludmila; Javorský, Peter; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial strains, Am4 and G10 were isolated from rumen fluid of different ruminants: cow (Holstein-Friesian) and sheep (Slovenskè merino), respectively. They were isolated from different hosts and regions, but showed 99.2% similarity of the 16S rRNA genes. Both strains are versatile and

  18. Curative and organ-preserving treatment with intra-arterial carboplatin induction followed by surgery and/or radiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer: single-center five-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinelli Carmine

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the feasibility, toxicity, response rate and survival of neoadjuvant superselective intra-arterial infusion of high dose carboplatin in advanced head and neck cancer. Methods Forty-six patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma received 3 cycles of intra-arterial carboplatin (300 to 350 mg/m2 per cycle every 2 weeks, followed by radiotherapy or surgery plus radiotherapy. Results No complications or severe toxicity occurred. Sixteen patients (35% were complete responders, 20 (43% partial responders while 10 (22% did not respond to treatment. After completion of the multimodality treatment, 38/46 patients (83% were complete responders. After a 5-year follow-up period, 18/46 patients (39% are alive and disease-free, 3 (6,5% have died of a second primary tumor and 25 (54,5% have died of the disease. Conclusion Intra-arterial carboplatin induction chemotherapy is a safe, well-tolerated technique that discriminates between responders and non-responders and so may have prognostic significance in planning further integrated treatments aimed to organ preservation for advanced head and neck carcinomas.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative organisms isolated from patients hospitalized in intensive care units in United States and European hospitals (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) represents a great challenge, especially those caused by Gram-negative organisms. Rapid introduction of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial to reduce mortality; resistance rates in the ICU can be elevated due to antimicrobial selection pressure. We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients hospitalized in ICUs (ICU patients). The isolates were consecutively collected as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program from January 2009 to December 2011 and tested for susceptibility to multiple antimicrobial agents at a central laboratory by reference broth microdilution methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility results for 5989 bacterial isolates from ICU patients (3445 from the United States [USA] and 2544 from Europe [EU]) were analyzed and compared to those of 17,244 organisms from non-ICU patients (9271 from USA and 7973 from EU). Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated organisms from ICU patients, followed by Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter spp., and Proteus mirabilis. Susceptibility rates were generally lower among ICU isolates compared to non-ICU organisms. E. coli isolates from ICU patients exhibited elevated extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-phenotype rates (13.7% in USA and 16.6% in EU); furthermore, only amikacin (90.5-94.8% susceptibility), colistin (99.8-100.0% inhibited at ≤2 μg/mL), imipenem (95.5-96.0%), meropenem (95.4-95.8%), and tigecycline (96.3-98.0%) exhibited good activity against Klebsiella spp. ESBL-phenotype rates have increased among both E. coli and Klebsiella spp. from ICU patients in the USA and in Europe, with the most noticeable increase among Klebsiella spp. from Europe (from 27.5% in 2009 to 41.8% in 2011; P = 0.015 and odds ratio = 0.89 [95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.18]). Meropenem susceptibility among

  20. Resistance to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with high somatic cell counts in organic and conventional dairy herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsgaard, Torben W.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Background: Quarter milk samples from cows with high risk of intramammary infection were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and penicillin resistant SA (SAr) in conventional and organic dairy herds and herds converting to organic farming in a combined longitudinal......: 2%-5%) respectively. The prevalence of penicillin resistance among SA infected cows was 12% (95% confidence interval: 6%-19%) when calculated from the first herd visits. No statistically significant differences were observed in the prevalence of SAr or the proportion of isolates resistant...... to penicillin between herd groups. Conclusion: The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin was low compared to studies in other countries except Norway and Sweden. Based on the low prevalence of penicillin resistance of SA, penicillin should still be the first choice of antimicrobial agent for treatment...

  1. Correlation of observed-to-expected total fetal lung volume with intrathoracic organ herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawapun, K; Eastwood, M; Sandaite, I; DeKoninck, P; Claus, F; Richter, J; Rayyan, M; Deprest, J

    2015-08-01

    To assess using fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the relationship between the position of the stomach as well as the volume of herniation of organs into the thorax, and the observed-to-expected total fetal lung volume (o/e-TFLV), as a measure of pulmonary hypoplasia, in fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (LCDH). This was a single-center retrospective study using archived MR images from fetuses > 20 weeks' gestation evaluated for isolated LCDH over an 11-year period between July 2002 and September 2013. We retrieved data on the gestational age at MRI, o/e-TFLV and liver position. Images were also reviewed by a single operator to determine retrospectively the position of the stomach as well as the proportion of the total thorax volume occupied by the herniated fetal liver, stomach and other viscera. Following confirmation of reproducibility, we assessed the correlation of intrathoracic organ volumes and stomach position with o/e-TFLV. The study included 205 fetuses which underwent a total of 259 MR examinations. The reproducibility of organ volume measurements was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.928-0.997). The average time spent to obtain intrathoracic organ volumes ranged from 2.28 to 5.13 min. Of all herniated organ-to-thoracic volume ratios, the liver-to-thoracic volume ratio had the strongest correlation with o/e-TFLV (ρ = -0.429, Pvolume did not correlate, although, when categorized by the position and extent of stomach herniation, there was an inverse relationship to o/e-TFLV. No intrathoracic organ-to-thoracic volume ratio was related to gestational age. We observed in fetuses with isolated LCDH an inverse relationship between lung volume and the amount of liver herniated as well as the position of the stomach in the chest. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  3. Effects of subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials on gene acquisition events in Yersinia, Proteus, Shigella, and Salmonella recipient organisms in isolated ligated intestinal loops of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Anderson, Kristi L; Carlson, Steve A

    2013-08-01

    To assess antimicrobial resistance and transfer of virulence genes facilitated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials in swine intestines. 20 anesthetized pigs experimentally inoculated with donor and recipient bacteria. 4 recipient pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, or Proteus mirabilis) were incubated with donor bacteria in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of 1 of 16 antimicrobials in isolated ligated intestinal loops in swine. Donor Escherichia coli contained transferrable antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes. After coincubations, intestinal contents were removed and assessed for pathogens that acquired new antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes following exposure to the subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. 3 antimicrobials (apramycin, lincomycin, and neomycin) enhanced transfer of an antimicrobial resistance plasmid from commensal E coli organisms to Yersinia and Proteus organisms, whereas 7 antimicrobials (florfenicol, hygromycin, penicillin G, roxarsone, sulfamethazine, tetracycline, and tylosin) exacerbated transfer of an integron (Salmonella genomic island 1) from Salmonella organisms to Yersinia organisms. Sulfamethazine induced the transfer of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 from pathogenic to nonpathogenic Salmonella organisms. Six antimicrobials (bacitracin, carbadox, erythromycin, sulfathiazole, tiamulin, and virginiamycin) did not mediate any transfer events. Sulfamethazine was the only antimicrobial implicated in 2 types of transfer events. 10 of 16 antimicrobials at subinhibitory or subtherapeutic concentrations augmented specific antimicrobial resistance or transfer of virulence genes into pathogenic bacteria in isolated intestinal loops in swine. Use of subtherapeutic antimicrobials in animal feed may be associated with unwanted collateral effects.

  4. Resistance to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with high somatic cell counts in organic and conventional dairy herds in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaarst Mette

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quarter milk samples from cows with high risk of intramammary infection were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA and penicillin resistant SA (SAr in conventional and organic dairy herds and herds converting to organic farming in a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Methods 20 conventional herds, 18 organic herds that converted before 1995, and 19 herds converting to organic farming in 1999 or 2000 were included in the study. Herds converting to organic farming were sampled three times one year apart; the other herds were sampled once. Risk of infection was estimated based on somatic cell count, milk production, breed, age and lactation stage. Results The high-risk cows represented about 49 % of the cows in the herds. The overall prevalence of SA and SAr among these cows was 29% (95% confidence interval: 24%–34% and 4% (95% confidence interval: 2%–5% respectively. The prevalence of penicillin resistance among SA infected cows was 12% (95% confidence interval: 6%–19% when calculated from the first herd visits. No statistically significant differences were observed in the prevalence of SAr or the proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin between herd groups. Conclusion The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin was low compared to studies in other countries except Norway and Sweden. Based on the low prevalence of penicillin resistance of SA, penicillin should still be the first choice of antimicrobial agent for treatment of bovine intramammary infection in Denmark.

  5. Characterization and copper binding of humic and nonhumic organic matter isolated from the South Platte River: Evidence for the presence of nitrogenous binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croue, J.-P.; Benedetti, M.F.; Violleau, D.; Leenheer, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Humic substances typically constitute 40-60% of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters. However, little information is available regarding the metal binding properties of the nonhumic hydrophilic portion of the DOM. In this study, humic and nonhumic DOM samples were isolated from the South Platte River (Colorado, DOC = 2.6 mg??L-1, SUVA254 = 2.4 L/mg??m) using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The three major isolated fractions of DOM, which accounted for 57% of the bulk DOM, were characterized using a variety of analytical tools. Proton and copper binding properties were studied for each fraction. The main objective of this work was to compare the structural and chemical characteristics of the isolated fractions and test models describing DOM reactivity toward metal ions. The characterization work showed significant structural differences between the three isolated fractions of DOM. The hydrophobic acid fraction (i.e., humic substances isolated from the XAD-8 resin) gave the largest C/H, C/O, and C/N ratios and aromatic carbon content among the three isolated fractions. The transphilic acid (TPHA) fraction ("transphilic" meaning fraction of intermediate polarity isolated from the XAD-4 resin) was found to incorporate the highest proportion of polysaccharides, whereas the transphilic neutral (TPHN) fraction was almost entirely proteinaceous. The gradual increase of the charge with pH for the three DOM fractions is most likely caused by a large distribution of proton affinity constants for the carboxylic groups, as well as a second type of group more generally considered to be phenolic. In the case of the DOM fraction enriched in proteinaceous material (i.e., TPHN fraction), the results showed that the amino groups are reponsible for the charge reversal. For low copper concentrations, nitrogen-containing functional groups similar to those of amino acids are likely to be involved in complexation, in agreement with previously published data.

  6. Mechanisms underlying a decrease in KCl-induced contraction after long-term serum-free organ culture of rat isolated mesenteric artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoka; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2014-07-01

    Organ culture of blood vessel is a better technique to investigate the long-term effects of drugs. However, some functional changes may occur from freshly isolated vessel (Fresh). Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates smooth muscle differentiation and Ca(2+) mobilization. We thus investigated mechanisms of alteration in smooth muscle contractility after serum-free organ culture focusing on mTOR. Rat isolated mesenteric arteries were cultured for 5 days without (0% serum) or with rapamycin. In 0% serum, absolute contraction by KCl significantly decreased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In 0% serum, mTOR expression significantly increased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In 0% serum, expression of myocardin, a key regulator of smooth muscle differentiation markers, significantly decreased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. However, the decrease in expression of contractile proteins, including SM22α and calponin, was not changed by rapamycin. Basal phosphorylation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II significantly increased in 0% serum, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In 0% serum, absolute contraction by caffeine significantly decreased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In conclusion, expression of mTOR increased during serum-free organ culture of rat isolated mesenteric artery for 5 days, which may be at least partly responsible for the decreased smooth muscle contractility perhaps due to the decrease in the stored Ca(2+) in smooth muscle.

  7. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  8. Impact of geometric uncertainties on dose distribution during intensity modulated radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer: the need for a planning target volume and a planning organ-at-risk volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballivy, O; Parker, W; Vuong, T; Shenouda, G; Patrocinio, H

    2006-06-01

    We assessed the effect of geometric uncertainties on target coverage and on dose to the organs at risk (OARS) during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer, and we estimated the required margins for the planning target volume (PTV) and the planning organ-at-risk volume (PRV). For eight head-and-neck cancer patients, we generated IMRT plans with localization uncertainty margins of 0 mm, 2.5 mm, and 5.0 mm. The beam intensities were then applied on repeat computed tomography (CT) scans obtained weekly during treatment, and dose distributions were recalculated.The dose-volume histogram analysis for the repeat ct scans showed that target coverage was adequate (V(100) >/= 95%) for only 12.5% of the gross tumour volumes, 54.3% of the upper-neck clinical target volumes (CTVS), and 27.4% of the lower-neck CTVS when no margins were added for PTV. The use of 2.5-mm and 5.0-mm margins significantly improved target coverage, but the mean dose to the contralateral parotid increased from 25.9 Gy to 29.2 Gy. Maximum dose to the spinal cord was above limit in 57.7%, 34.6%, and 15.4% of cases when 0-mm, 2.5-mm, and 5.0-mm margins (respectively) were used for prv.Significant deviations from the prescribed dose can occur during IMRT treatment delivery for head-and-neck cancer. The use of 2.5-mm to 5.0-mm margins for PTV and PRV greatly reduces the risk of underdosing targets and of overdosing the spinal cord.

  9. Putting two heads together to unwind DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Thomas J; Bell, Stephen P

    2009-11-13

    The loading of replicative helicases onto DNA is tightly regulated in all organisms, yet the molecular mechanisms for this event remain poorly defined. Remus et al. (2009) provide important insights into helicase loading in eukaryotes, showing that the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase encircles double-stranded DNA as head-to-head double hexamers.

  10. Isolation and identification of multiple drug resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria from organs of cattle produced typical granuloma lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangyu; Xu, Donglei; Wang, Jinling; Liu, Chunfa; Zhou, Yang; Cui, Yongyong; Liu, Hancan; Wan, Kanglin; Zhou, Xiangmei

    2017-06-01

    Nontuberculosis mycobacteria are widespread in the environment and some are zoonotic. 320 tissue samples with visible lesions were obtained from dairy cows and examined by histopathology. Eleven samples showed typical granulomatous lesions and a total of 8 strains were cultured. Three genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were sequenced for species identification. All mycobacterial isolates were tested for rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, capreomycin, kanamycin, para-aminosalicylic acid susceptibility. Six strains were identified as M. fortuitum, 1 was M. avium, 1 was M. conceptionense, isolated from cattle for the first time. Seven of the 8 isolated strains showed multiple drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: isolated Pierre Robin sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Isolated Pierre Robin sequence Isolated Pierre Robin sequence Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pierre Robin sequence is a set of abnormalities affecting the head ...

  12. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  14. Efeito de composto orgânico sobre a produção e características comerciais de alface americana Effect of organic compost on crisp head lettuce production and commercial characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony E. Yuri

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Doses de composto orgânico foram avaliadas na produtividade e qualidade da alface americana em um ensaio em Três Pontas, de 08/07 a 30/08/02. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por cinco doses de composto orgânico (0,0; 20,0; 40,0; 60,0 e 80,0 t ha-1. A massa fresca total evidenciou um efeito quadrático, na qual a produtividade máxima de 914,2 g planta-1, foi obtida com a dose de 59,4 t ha-1 do composto orgânico. Para massa fresca comercial, a máxima produtividade (634,3 g planta-1, foi obtida com a dose de 56,1 t ha-1. A maior circunferência da cabeça comercial (41,4 cm, foi obtida com a dose de 53,7 t ha-1. A dose de 42,7 t ha-1 proporcionou um comprimento de caule máximo de 3,9 cm. Diante desses resultados, pode-se concluir que o uso de 56,0 t ha-1 de composto orgânico aplicado em pré-plantio, proporciona aumento de rendimento e qualidade comercial da alface americana.Doses of organic compost were evaluated on crisp head lettuce production and quality in an experiment conduced in Três Pontas, Brazil, from July 8>th to August 30th. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four replicates, the treatments being constituted by five doses of organic compost (0.0; 20.0; 40.0; 60.0 and 80.0 t ha-1. Total fresh matter showed a quadratic effect, in which the maximum yield of 914.2 g plant-1 was obtained with the dose of 59.4 t ha-1 of organic compost. For commercial fresh matter, the maximum yield (634.3 g plant-1 was obtained with the dose of 56.1 t ha-1. The greatest commercial head circumference (41.4 cm was obtained with the dose of 53.7 t ha-1. The dose of 42.7 t ha-1 caused a maximum stem length of 3.9 cm. These results permit to conclude that the use of 56.0 t ha-1 of organic compost applied in pre plant provides an increase in yield and commercial quality of crisp head lettuce.

  15. Contribution of effluent organic matter (EfOM) to ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling: Isolation, characterization, and fouling effect of EfOM fractions

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2014-11-01

    EfOM has been regarded as a major organic foulant resulting in UF membrane fouling in wastewater reclamation. To investigate fouling potential of different EfOM fractions, the present study isolated EfOM into hydrophobic neutrals (HPO-N), colloids, hydrophobic acids (HPO-A), transphilic neutrals and acids (TPI), and hydrophilics (HPI), and tested their fouling effect in both salt solution and pure water during ultrafiltration (UF). Major functional groups and chemical structure of the isolates were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) analysis. The influence of the isolation process on the properties of EfOM fractions was minor because the raw and reconstituted secondary effluents were found similar with respect to UV absorbance, molecular size distribution, and fluorescence character. In membrane filtration tests, unified membrane fouling index (UMFI) and hydraulic resistance were used to quantify irreversible fouling potential of different water samples. Results show that under similar DOC level in feed water, colloids present much more irreversible fouling than other fractions. The fouling effect of the isolates is related to their size, chemical properties, and solution chemistry. Further investigations have identified that the interaction between colloids and other fractions also influences the performance of colloids in fouling phenomena. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  17. UTILIZATION OF ORGANIC NITROGEN-SOURCES BY 2 PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES AND A BACTERIAL ISOLATE IN PURE AND MIXED CULTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IETSWAART, T; SCHNEIDER, PJ; PRINS, RA

    Algal production of dissolved organic carbon and the regeneration of nutrients from dissolved organic carbon by bacteria are important aspects of nutrient cycling in the sea, especially when inorganic nitrogen is limiting. Dissolved free amino acids are a major carbon source for bacteria and can be

  18. On the nature of organic matter from natural and contaminated materials : isolation methods, characterisation and application to geochemical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.

    2008-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the material that is formed after the natural decomposition and transformation of dead plant and animal matter. The fresh organic matter (e.g. plant leaves or animal debris) is decomposed and transformed by microbial activity. As such, NOM is found everywhere in

  19. Production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by yeasts isolated from the ascocarps of black (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) and white (Tuber magnatum Pico) truffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Pietro; Gasparetti, Chiara; Turchetti, Benedetta; Cramarossa, Maria Rita; Vaughan-Martini, Ann; Martini, Alessandro; Pagnoni, Ugo Maria; Forti, Luca

    2005-11-01

    Twenty-nine yeast strains were isolated from the ascocarps of black and white truffles (Tuber melanosporum Vitt. and Tuber magnatum Pico, respectively), and identified using a polyphasic approach. According to the conventional taxonomic methods, MSP-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA, the strains were identified as Candida saitoana, Debaryomyces hansenii, Cryptococcus sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Trichosporon moniliiforme. All isolates assimilated L: -methionine as a sole nitrogen source and produced the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 2-methyl butanol, 3-methyl butanol, methanethiol, S-methyl thioacetate, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, dihydro-2-methyl-3(2H)-thiophenone and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (MTP). ANOVA analysis of data showed significant (PTuber spp. aroma through the independent synthesis of yeast-specific volatile constituents.

  20. The 2016 revised World Health Organization definition of 'myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)'; prognostic implications of single versus double cytogenetic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Mark; Patnaik, Mrinal M; Hanson, Curtis A; Litzow, Mark R; Al-Kali, Aref; Ketterling, Rhett P; Tefferi, Ayalew; Gangat, Naseema

    2017-07-01

    The definition of the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subtype 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' was expanded to include cases with one additional non-chromosome 7 based cytogenetic abnormality in the 2016 revised World Health Organization classification. This study applied the revised definition to a large primary MDS cohort, and evaluated the prognostic impact of the additional cytogenetic abnormality. Seventy-two of 1067 patients (7%) met the 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' criteria, 11 (1%) of whom had an additional cytogenetic abnormality. There was no survival difference between patients in whom del(5q) occurred alone, compared to those with one additional cytogenetic abnormality (P = 0·52). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: What Is New in the 2017 WHO Blue Book for Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions of the Neck and Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabi, Nora; Lewis, James S

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) 2017 Classification of Head and Neck Tumors ("Blue Book") will now include a new chapter on tumors and tumor-like lesions of the neck and lymph nodes, which was not included in the previous edition. Tumors and tumor-like lesions, including a variety of cysts and metastases, can arise in any component in the neck, including soft tissue, lymph nodes, and developmental remnants. The pathology and clinical features of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary in the head and neck has changed dramatically in the last several years. Many of these tumors which were previously diagnosed as unknown primary are now identified as oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal carcinomas related to human papillomavirus (HPV), less commonly to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and occasionally even to Merkel cell polyomavirus. Many unusual features can arise in these metastases, such as undifferentiated morphology, extensive cystic change with central degeneration, gland formation, and even ciliated cells. Rarely, carcinoma in the neck can arise in association with a heterotopic tissue, primarily thyroid or salivary gland tissue. Tumor-like lesions include branchial cleft cysts, thyroglossal duct cyst, dermoid and teratoid cyst, and ranula. Pathologists should be familiar with the diagnostic features and clinicopathologic corrections of these neck lesions in order to correctly diagnosis them and to provide for proper clinical management. This article will briefly describe the pathologic and clinical features of these entities as they are covered in the new 2017 Blue Book.

  2. The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Susanne; Werven, Van Bernike; Oyen, Van Albert; Meijboom, André; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L.; Franeker, Van Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    In studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife, visual separation of plastic particles from gastrointestinal tracts or their dietary content can be challenging. Earlier studies have used solutions to dissolve organic materials leaving synthetic particles unaffected. However, insufficient tests

  3. PHOTOGENERATION OF SINGLET OXYGEN AND FREE RADICALS IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ISOLATED FROM THE MISSISSIPPI AND ATCHAFALAYA RIVER PLUMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The photoreactivity to UV light of ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected during cruises along salinity transects in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plumes was examined by measuring photogenerated free radicals and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) photosensiti...

  4. Organ Mass Variation in a Toad Headed Lizard Phrynocephalus vlangalii in Response to Hypoxia and Low Temperature in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Han

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and low temperature at high altitudes are the main environmental pressures for alpine animals, inducing phenotypic plasticity at several levels. To investigate the effect of these variables on the organ mass of Phrynocephalus vlangalii, 138 individuals belonging to four populations living along an altitudinal gradient in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (China were dissected to remove heart, lungs, stomach, and intestinal tract. Organ dry mass, individuals' sex, and body mass, as well as mean annual temperature and average air pressure (calculated from a 30-year-data series obtained from the National Climatic Data Center were subjected to two-way analyses of covariance and generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs. Except for the heart, organ mass varied significantly among populations, although only lung and stomach mass increased significantly with increasing altitude. Males' heart and lung mass was higher than that of females, which might be due to their different behavior and reproductive efforts. GLMM analyses indicated that air pressure had a positive effect on heart, lung and intestinal tract mass, whereas temperature had a negative effect on these three organs. In order to explain the effect of hypoxia and low temperature on P. vlangalii's organ mass, further rigorous study on respiration, energy budget and food intake was encouraged.

  5. On the nature of organic matter from natural and contaminated materials : isolation methods, characterisation and application to geochemical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Zomeren, van, André

    2008-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the material that is formed after the natural decomposition and transformation of dead plant and animal matter. The fresh organic matter (e.g. plant leaves or animal debris) is decomposed and transformed by microbial activity. As such, NOM is found everywhere in the natural environment; in soils, surface water and oceans. Due to its abundance at the earth’s surface, the production and decomposition of NOM plays an important role in the global carbon cycling. In...

  6. Compromising on School for Students with Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Pediculosis, or head lice infestation, has been a public health nuisance for thousands of years. Since most affected children are under 12 years of age, head lice is an elementary school issue. The question then becomes how schools should handle cases of head lice. Some organizations advocate immediately sending children home from school, while…

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the large-headed frog, Limnonectes bannaensis (Amphibia: Anura), and a novel gene organization in the vertebrate mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Feng; Nie, Liu-Wang; Wang, Yang; Hu, Li-Li

    2009-08-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the large-headed frog, Limnonectes bannaensis (Amphibia, Anura) by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The entire mtDNA sequence is 16,867 bp in length with a novel case of tRNAs in vertebrates. This mt genome is characterized by three distinctive features: (1) a tandem duplication of tRNA(Met) gene is observed, (2) the tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys) and tRNA(Glu) genes coded on the L-strand are absent from the L. bannaensis mtDNA, the tRNA(Cys) and tRNA(Glu) genes change into tRNA pseudogenes by reason of degenerative anticodon, and a noncoding sequence of 206 nt long (NC1) has replaced the original position of other two tRNAs, (3) besides NC1, another three noncoding spacers (NC2-4) longer than 50 bp are found in the broken WANCY region and the region NC3-ND5-NC4-ND6-PsiE-Cytb-CR of the new sequence. These features could be explained by a model of gene duplication and deletion. The new sequence data was used to assess the phylogenetic relationships among 25 species of Anura using neighbor-joining, Bayesian, and maximum likelihood methods, and the phylogenetic tree shows the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis is closest to L. bannaensis in the study.

  8. Myasthenia gravis as a cause of head drop in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Irem Fatma; Korucuk, Meltem; Sener, Ufuk; Zorlu, Yasar

    2011-05-01

    Head drop is characterized by marked anterior flexion of the cervical spine. As a result, the affected patient presents with the head tilted forward and the chin resting on the chest. We report a 75-year-old male patient with parkinsonism and head drop caused by isolated myasthenic weakness of the neck extensor muscles. Our case is the second report of isolated head drop as a presenting symptom of myasthenia gravis in a patient with parkinsonism.

  9. Ranking the significance of fermentation conditions on the volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation system by combination of head-space solid phase microextraction and chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Cheng; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Yuan, Zhan-Peng; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2014-03-01

    Tuber melanosporum is highly appreciated in culinary contexts due to its unique and characteristic aroma. T. melanosporum fermentation has been established as a promising alternative for fruiting bodies to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this work, a technique using a combination of chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis, head-space solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography was developed to rank the significance of fermentation conditions on the VOCs profile during T. melanosporum fermentation. Omission tests indicated that the absence of major carbon source (i.e., sucrose) in the fermentation media had the most significant effect on the profile of VOCs, followed by the absence of yeast extract or peptone. Consideration of the culture conditions revealed that VOCs produced was the most significantly affected by temperature. These results indicated that it is possible to adjust the aroma of truffles via fermentation process control.

  10. Effect of organic fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk. clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. and dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2010. The design was split plot with three replications. Main plots were the medicinal plant species consist of: blond psyllium (Plantago ovate Forssk., clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L. and subplots were various organic fertilizer consist of cow manure, vermicompost (based on cow manure, coffee compost and spent mushroom compost. Results showed that medicinal plants had significant difference for number of seeds per plant, shoot dry matter, seed yield, plant height and mucilage percentage. Effect of various organic matter on all traits except for 1000-seed weight was significant. Interaction of organic fertilizers and plant was significant for dry matter. Lalementia had the most mucilage percentage (27.75% and cow manure was the best fertilizer because it had the highest amounts of dry matter (1816 kg.ha-1, seed yield (467.5 kg.ha-1, number seed per plant (550 seeds.plant-1, plant height (23.17 cm and mucilage percentage (20.75%.

  11. Purification and characterization of novel organic solvent tolerant 98kDa alkaline protease from isolated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain SK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Shailesh R; Gurav, Aparna A; Mali, Sonal A; Nadaf, Naiem H; Jadhav, Deepak B; Sonawane, Kailas D

    2015-03-01

    Ability of microorganisms to grow at alkaline pH makes them an attractive target for several industrial applications. Thus, search for new extremozyme producing microorganisms must be a continuous exercise. Hence, we isolated a potent alkaline protease producing bacteria from slaughter house soil. The morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequencing studies revealed that the isolated bacteria is Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain SK. Alkaline protease from S. maltophilia strain SK was purified by using ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange column chromatography. The purified enzyme was optimally active at pH 9.0 and temperature 40°C with broad substrate specificity. It was observed that the metal ions such as Ca(++), Mg(++) and Fe(+++) completely repressed the enzyme activity. The enzyme was stable in presence of various water miscible solvents like ethanol, methanol, isopropanol at 25% (v/v) concentration and less stable at 37.5% (v/v) concentration. These robust properties of enzyme might be applicable for various applications in detergent and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic and alkaliphilic marine lactic acid bacterium isolated from marine organisms in temperate and subtropical areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Morio; Nakajima, Kazuyuki; Yanagi, Miyoko; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Yamasato, Kazuhide

    2003-05-01

    A novel marine lactic acid rod bacterium has been described for eight strains isolated from living and decomposing marine organisms collected from temperate and subtropical areas of Japan. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-sporulating and motile with peritrichous flagella. They were slightly halophilic, highly halotolerant and alkaliphilic; the optimum NaCl concentration for growth was 2.0-3.75% (w/v) with a range from 0 to 17.0-20.5% (depending on the strain); the optimum pH was between 8.0 and 9.5 with a range from 6.0 to 10.0. They were psychrotolerant, growing well at -1.8 degrees C with a maximum at 40-45 degrees C and the optimum at 37-40 degrees C. Lactate yields were 87-100% per consumed glucose; the residual products were formate, acetate and ethanol with a molar ratio of approximately 2 : 1 : 1. The product composition was markedly affected by the pH of fermentation medium; at higher pH, the yield of lactate decreased (60-65% at pH 9.0) and that of other products increased conversely. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was type A4beta, Orn-D-Glu, whereas that of the genus Alkalibacterium, the phylogenetically closest lactic acid bacterium, was type A4beta, Orn-D-Asp. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1delta9, C18 : 0 and C18 : 1delta9 (oleic acid). The G + C content of the DNA was 34.6-36.2 mol%. The eight isolates were phenotypically homogeneous and formed a single genomic species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolates constituted an independent phylogenetic lineage within the radiation of lactic acid bacteria with 96.2% similarity to the genus Alkalibacterium. The secondary structure and the nucleotide sequence of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA were characteristic of the organism among other related lactic acid genera. On the bases of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctness, the organism was proposed to belong to a new genus and species, Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov

  13. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head is typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. ... hard time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to ...

  15. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002980.htm Head and face reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  18. Newborn head molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn cranial deformation; Molding of the newborn's head; Neonatal care - head molding ... The bones of a newborn baby's skull are soft and flexible, with gaps between the plates of bone. The spaces between the bony plates of ...

  19. [Study on dilemma and strategy of community support network by community organization for prevention of isolated death in an urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yuzuri; Tadaka, Etsuko; Dai, Yuka; Itoi, Waka; Taguchi, Rie; Kawahara, Chie

    2011-12-01

    Isolated death of elderly is recognized as a severe social problem in public health and it is an urgent requirement that a supportive community network be organized so that its occurrence is minimized. The purpose of this research was to analyze actual issues of a supportive community network for elderly within the community and to obtain clues for useful actions to prevent isolated death of elderly individuals in the future. The subjects were 14 representatives of a supportive community network for elderly in A City, B Ward and C District (as a junior high school segment). The research was conducted with a qualitative inductively approach using the Focus Group Interview (FGI). Interviews were focused on difficulties and perspectives within their daily support activities in the community, and were held three times during October 2009 to March 2010. The FGI records were then analyzed with meaningful minimal words and sentences, categorized codes, and then those codes were classified into subcategories or categories. Three categories, Individual, Neighborhood and Community network for elderly resulted from the analysis. Regarding difficulties, "Refusing supports or indifference", "Isolation or Tojikomori in the youth generation", "Lack of family support", "Relationships among their residents weakening gradually", "Unfamiliar newcomers and residents", "Residence feels burden on association with neighborhood", "Limitation of support activities under personal security", "Lack of resources for persons and places of gathering" were identified. On the other hand, perspectives in the community network for elderly were "Building relationships personally", "Invitation to community meetings as companions", "Development of safety confirmation", "Helping each other in the neighborhood", "Stimulate enforcement of bonding in daily life", "Making arrangements for regional administration and residents for supportive activites", "Fostering the trust and connection of residence". To

  20. Transfer and Non-Transfer Patients in Isolated Low-Grade Blunt Pediatric Solid Organ Injury: Implications for Regionalized Trauma Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Robert A; Lyons, Vivian H; Hagedorn, Judith C; Vavilala, Monica S; Goldin, Adam; Arbabi, Saman; Rivara, Frederick P

    2017-12-28

    Regionalization of trauma care is a national priority and hospitalization for blunt abdominal trauma, that may include transfer, is common among children. The objective of this study was to determine whether there were differences in mortality, treatment, or length of stay between patients treated at or transferred to a higher level trauma center and those not transferred and admitted to a lower level trauma center. Cohort from Washington state trauma registry from 2000-2014 of patients 16 years or younger with isolated Grade I-III spleen, liver, or kidney injury. Among 54034 patients 16 years or younger, the trauma registry captured 1177 (2.2 %) patients with isolated low grade solid organ injuries; 226 (19.2%) presented to a higher level trauma center, 600 (51.0%) presented to a lower level trauma center and stayed there for care, and 351 (29.8%) were transferred to a higher level trauma center. Forty patients (3.4%) underwent an abdominal operation. Among the 950 patients evaluated initially at a lower level trauma center, the risk of surgery did not differ significantly between those who were not transferred compared to those who were (RR 2.19 95%CI 0.80-6.01). The risk of total splenectomy was no different for patients who stayed at a lower level trauma center compared to those who were transferred to a higher level trauma center (RR 0.84 95%CI 0.33-2.16). Non-transferred patients had a 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45-0.88) times lower risk of staying in the hospital for an additional day compared to patients who were transferred to a higher level trauma center. One patient died. Few pediatric patients with isolated low grade blunt solid organ injury require intervention and thus may not need to be transferred; trauma systems should revise their transfer policies. Prevention of unnecessary transfers is an opportunity for cost savings in pediatric trauma. III, Epidemiological.

  1. Formation of brominated disinfection byproducts from natural organic matter isolates and model compounds in a sulfate radical-based oxidation process

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuru

    2014-12-16

    A sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process (SR-AOP) has received increasing application interest for the removal of water/wastewater contaminants. However, limited knowledge is available on its side effects. This study investigated the side effects in terms of the production of total organic bromine (TOBr) and brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in the presence of bromide ion and organic matter in water. Sulfate radical was generated by heterogeneous catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate. Isolated natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as low molecular weight (LMW) compounds were used as model organic matter. Considerable amounts of TOBr were produced by SR-AOP, where bromoform (TBM) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were identified as dominant Br-DBPs. In general, SR-AOP favored the formation of DBAA, which is quite distinct from bromination with HOBr/OBr- (more TBM production). SR-AOP experimental results indicate that bromine incorporation is distributed among both hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM fractions. Studies on model precursors reveal that LMW acids are reactive TBM precursors (citric acid > succinic acid > pyruvic acid > maleic acid). High DBAA formation from citric acid, aspartic acid, and asparagine was observed; meanwhile aspartic acid and asparagine were the major precursors of dibromoacetonitrile and dibromoacetamide, respectively.

  2. Variable emissions of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) from root-associated fungi isolated from Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Jaana; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Hellén, Heidi; Kajos, Maija K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Taipale, Risto; Pumpanen, Jukka; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2010-09-01

    Soils emit a large variety of volatile organic compounds. In natural ecosystems, measurements of microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) exchange rates between soil and atmosphere are difficult due to e.g. the spatial heterogeneity of the belowground organisms, and due to the many potential sources for the same compounds. We measured in laboratory conditions the MVOC emission rates and spectra of eight typical fungi occurring in boreal forest soils. The studied species are decomposers ( Gymnopilus penetrans, Ophiostoma abietinum), ectomycorrhizal ( Cenococcum geophilum, Piloderma olivaceum, Suillus variegatus, Tomentellopsis submollis) and endophytic fungi ( Meliniomyces variabilis, Phialocephala fortinii). The MVOC emissions contained altogether 21 known and 6 unidentified compounds whose emission rates were >0.1 μg g(DW) -1 h -1. The most abundant compounds were the short-chain carbonyl compounds (acetone and acetaldehyde). The greatest carbonyl emissions were measured from P. olivaceum (1.9 mg acetone g(DW) -1 h -1) and P. fortinii (0.114 mg acetaldehyde g(DW) -1 h -1). Terpenoid emissions (isoprene, mono- and sesquiterpenes) were detected from some fungal cultures, but in relatively small amounts. We conclude that soil micro-organisms can potentially be responsible for significant emissions of volatiles, especially short-chain oxygenated compounds, to the below-canopy atmosphere.

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of ... content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT ... Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography ( ...

  5. Dynamic MRI analysis of tumor and organ motion during rest and deglutition and margin assessment for radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Julie A; Paulson, Eric S; Ahunbay, Ergun; Schultz, Christopher; Li, X Allen; Wang, Dian

    2011-12-01

    To quantify swallowing frequency and tumor and normal structure displacements during deglutition using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine planning target volume (PTV) margins to account for resting and deglutition-induced displacements in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Twenty-two patients with HNC were imaged in the treatment position using dynamic MRI. Sagittal images were acquired. Two-dimensional displacement was analyzed using contours of normal structures and GTV drawn for one swallowing event. Deglutition-induced displacements were quantified based on position change during deglutition relative to preswallow structure location for anterior (A), posterior (P), superior (S), and inferior (I) directions. Additional long-time MRI series were obtained from a subset of 11 patients while they were resting in order to determine swallowing frequency and duration. PTV margins to account for setup error, frequency and duration of deglutition, and resting and deglutition-induced GTV motion were calculated. Mean maximum resting displacements ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 mm for combined GTV subsites. Mean maximum swallowing GTV displacement for combined subsites ranged from 4.0 to 11.6 mm. Swallowing was nonperiodic, with a frequency ranging from 0 to 19 swallows over 12.8 min and mean swallow duration of 3.5 s. Based on the average swallowing characteristics in this cohort, the average PTV margins to account for setup error and tumor motion are estimated to be 4.7 mm anteriorly, 4.2 mm posteriorly, 4.7 mm inferiorly, and 6.0 mm superiorly. The measurable mean maximum resting displacement for the GTV indicates that tumor motion occurs even when the patient is not swallowing. Nonuniform margins should be used as a standard PTV margin that accounts for setup error and tumor motion in radiotherapy of HNC unless adaptive radiotherapy with respect to intrafraction tumor motion is performed. The PTV margin can be individualized to a single patient

  6. Heptemerones A-G, seven novel diterpenoids from Coprinus heptemerus: producing organism, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettering, Melanie; Valdivia, Carola; Sterner, Olov; Anke, Heidrun; Thines, Eckhard

    2005-06-01

    Seven novel diterpenoids, named heptemerones A-G, were isolated from the broth of submerged cultures of Coprinus heptemerus, a basidiomycete which previously had not been known to produce secondary metabolites. The compounds were purified by solid phase extraction and silica gel chromatography followed by preparative HPLC. Among the biological activities the inhibition of fungal germination was the most potent, and depended highly on the composition of the assay medium. In water, inhibition occurred at 5 - 10 fold lower concentrations as compared to complex media. Heptemerone G was the most active compound with MICs starting at 1 microg/ml. Four of the antifungal compounds exhibited plant protective activity in a leaf segment assay using Magnaporthe grisea as the pathogen. Growth of yeasts and bacteria was hardly affected. Cytotoxic activities were moderate and only heptemerone D was phytotoxic.

  7. Femoral head fracture without hip dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Aditya K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Femoral head fractures without dislocation or subluxation are extremely rare injuries. We report a neglected case of isolated comminuted fracture of femoral head without hip dislocation or subluxation of one year duration in a 36-year-old patient who sustained a high en- ergy trauma due to road traffic accident. He presented with painful right hip and inability to bear full weight on right lower limb with Harris hip score of 39. He received cementless total hip replacement. At latest follow-up of 2.3 years, functional outcome was excellent with Harris hip score of 95. Such isolated injuries have been described only once in the literature and have not been classified till now. The purpose of this report is to highlight the extreme rarity, possible mechanism involved and a novel classification system to classify such injuries. Key words: Femur head; Hip dislocation; Classification; Arthroplasty, replacement, hip

  8. Actinomyces succiniciruminis sp. nov. and Actinomyces glycerinitolerans sp. nov., two novel organic acid-producing bacteria isolated from rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong N A, Susakul; Pristaš, Peter; Hrehová, Ludmila; Javorský, Peter; Stams, Alfons J M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2016-10-01

    Two bacterial strains, Am4 and G10 were isolated from rumen fluid of different ruminants: cow (Holstein-Friesian) and sheep (Slovenskè merino), respectively. They were isolated from different hosts and regions, but showed 99.2% similarity of the 16S rRNA genes. Both strains are versatile and ferment various sugars to mainly succinate and lactate and small amounts of acetate and formate. The 16S rRNA sequences of Am4 and G10 revealed that they belonged to the genus Actinomyces, and are related to Actinomyces ruminicola JCM 13352(T) with 97.0% and 97.4% similarity, respectively. DDH showed strain Am4 and G10 had only 55.8 and 43.3% similarity with the Actinomyces ruminicola JCM 13352(T), and had 69.9% similarity among each other. Comparing strain Am4 and G10, gANI value and dDDH were 92.9% and 68.6%, respectively. Additionally, AAI between the strains was 95.8%. MLSA of housekeeping genes showed difference of metG and pheS. The G+C% contents of strain Am4 and G10 were 69.8% and 68.5%, respectively. MK-10(H4) was the principal quinone for strain Am4 (82%) and G10 (91%) with small amounts of MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H6) for both strains. Only MK-9(H4) was detected in strain Am4. MALDI-TOF analysis of protein profiles also revealed that Am4 and G10 are different from each other and from Actinomyces ruminicola JCM 13352(T). Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, together with genome comparison and MLSA we propose two novel species in the genus Actinomyces: Actinomyces succiniciruminis sp. nov. (type strain Am4(T)=TISTR 2317(T)=DSM 10376(T)) and Actinomyces glycerinitolerans sp. nov. (type strain G10(T)=TISTR 2318(T)=DSM 10377(T)). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  10. How to use individual differences to isolate functional organization, biology, and utility of visual functions; with illustrative proposals for stereopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a call for greater use of individual differences in the basic science of visual perception. Individual differences yield insights into visual perception’s functional organization, underlying biological/environmental mechanisms, and utility. I first explain the general approach advocated and where it comes from. Second, I describe five principles central to learning about the nature of visual perception through individual differences. Third, I elaborate on the use of individual differences to gain insights into the three areas mentioned above (function, biology/environment, utility), in each case describing the approach advocated, presenting model examples from the literature, and laying out illustrative research proposals for the case of stereopsis. PMID:19017483

  11. 26th August 2010 - World Meteorological Organization Secretary-General M. Jarraud signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department Head F. Bordry; throughout accompanied by M. Bona, CERN Relations with International Organisations

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    26th August 2010 - World Meteorological Organization Secretary-General M. Jarraud signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department Head F. Bordry; throughout accompanied by M. Bona, CERN Relations with International Organisations

  12. Isolation of Pythium oligandrum from Egyptian soil and its mycoparasitic effect on Pythium ultimum var. ultimum the damping-off organism of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, H M; Elnaghy, M A; Fadl-Allah, E M

    1997-01-01

    Pythium oligandrum Drechsler bearing spherical sporangia with complex subglobose elements was isolated for the first time in Egypt from agricultural field soil cultivated with alfalfa (Trifolium alexandrinum) in El-Minia, Egypt. This fungus was found to be an active bio-control agent against P. ultimum var. ultimum, the damping-off organism of wheat. In agar plates, P. oligandrum parasitized P. ultimum var. ultimum hyphae with the aid of thin haustorial branches or infection pegs, eventually leading to host destruction. Incorporation of P. oligandrum into carboxymethylcellulose seed coating successfully eliminated pre-emergence damping-off of wheat caused by P. ultimum var. ultimum, whereas Post-emergence damping-off was prevented by adding inocula of P. oligandrum to the soil.

  13. High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) Determination of Dissolved Organic Matter Molecular Weight Revisited: Accounting for Changes in Stationary Phases, Analytical Standards, and Isolation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Brandon C; Aiken, George R; McKnight, Diane M; Arnold, William A; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2018-01-16

    We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA 280 ) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA 280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA 280 .

  14. Isolation of Modulators of the Liver-Specific Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 and 1B3 from Rollinia emarginata Schlecht (Annonaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Megan; Araya, Juan J.; Timmermann, Barbara N.

    2011-01-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) are liver-specific transporters that mediate the uptake of a broad range of drugs into hepatocytes, including statins, antibiotics, and many anticancer drugs. Compounds that alter transport by one or both of these OATPs could potentially be used to target drugs to hepatocytes or improve the bioavailability of drugs that are cleared by the liver. In this study, we applied a bioassay-guided isolation approach to identify such compounds from the organic extract of Rollinia emarginata Schlecht (Annonaceae). Fractions of the plant extract were screened for effects on OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport of the model substrates estradiol-17β-glucuronide and estrone-3-sulfate. We isolated three compounds, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and 8-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-α-terpineol, which inhibited estradiol-17β-glucuronide uptake by OATP1B1 but not OATP1B3. In addition, a rare compound, quercetin 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl(1→2) α-l-rhamnopyranoside, was identified that had distinct effects on each OATP. OATP1B1 was strongly inhibited, as was OATP1B3-mediated transport of estradiol-17β-glucuronide. However, OATP1B3-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate was stimulated 4- to 5-fold. Kinetic analysis of this stimulation revealed that the apparent affinity for estrone-3-sulfate was increased (decreased Km), whereas the maximal rate of transport (Vmax) was significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a mechanism through which the hepatic uptake of drug OATP substrates could be stimulated. PMID:21846839

  15. Optimizing isolation protocol of organic carbon and elemental carbon for 14C analysis using fine particulate samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Yanlin; Liu, Di; Shen, Chengde; Zhang, Gan

    2017-04-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analysis is a unique tool that can be used to directly apportion organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) into fossil and non-fossil fractions. In this study, a coupled carbon analyzer and high-vacuum setup was established to collect atmospheric OC and EC. We thoroughly investigated the correlations between 14C levels and mass recoveries of OC and EC using urban PM2.5 samples collected from a city in central China and found that: (1) the 14C signal of the OC fraction collected in the helium phase of the EUSSAR_2 protocol (200 °C for 120 s, 300 °C for 150 s, 450 °C for 180 s, and 650 °C for 180 s) was representative of the entire OC fraction, with a relative error of approximately 6%, and (2) after thermal treatments of 120 s at 200 °C, 150 s at 300 °C, and 180 s at 475 °C in an oxidative atmosphere (10% oxygen, 90% helium) and 180 s at 650 °C in helium, the remaining EC fraction sufficiently represented the 14C level of the entire EC, with a relative error of modern carbon in the OC and EC of reference material (RM) 8785 was 0.564 ± 0.013 and 0.238 ± 0.006, respectively. Analysis of 14C levels in four selected PM2.5 samples in Xinxiang, China revealed that the relative contribution of fossil sources in OC and EC in the PM2.5 samples were 50.5± 5.8% and 81.4± 2.6%, respectively, which are comparable to findings in previous studies conducted in other Chinese cities. We confirmed that most urban EC derives from fossil fuel combustion processes, whereas both fossil and non-fossil sources have comparable and important impacts on OC. Our results suggested that water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and its pyrolytic carbon can be completely removed before EC collection via the method employed in this study.

  16. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  17. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) phenolic compounds profile and its assessment as an agent against oxidative stress in isolated mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel; Yáñez, Jaime A

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited considerable in vitro

  18. Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Phenolic Compounds Profile and Its Assessment as an Agent Against Oxidative Stress in Isolated Mouse Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited

  19. Characterization and function of the first antibiotic isolated from a vent organism: the extremophile metazoan Alvinella pompejana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Tasiemski

    Full Text Available The emblematic hydrothermal worm Alvinella pompejana is one of the most thermo tolerant animal known on Earth. It relies on a symbiotic association offering a unique opportunity to discover biochemical adaptations that allow animals to thrive in such a hostile habitat. Here, by studying the Pompeii worm, we report on the discovery of the first antibiotic peptide from a deep-sea organism, namely alvinellacin. After purification and peptide sequencing, both the gene and the peptide tertiary structures were elucidated. As epibionts are not cultivated so far and because of lethal decompression effects upon Alvinella sampling, we developed shipboard biological assays to demonstrate that in addition to act in the first line of defense against microbial invasion, alvinellacin shapes and controls the worm's epibiotic microflora. Our results provide insights into the nature of an abyssal antimicrobial peptide (AMP and into the manner in which an extremophile eukaryote uses it to interact with the particular microbial community of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. Unlike earlier studies done on hydrothermal vents that all focused on the microbial side of the symbiosis, our work gives a view of this interaction from the host side.

  20. Characterization and Function of the First Antibiotic Isolated from a Vent Organism: The Extremophile Metazoan Alvinella pompejana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Jung, Sascha; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Jollivet, Didier; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Pradillon, Florence; Vetriani, Costantino; Hecht, Oliver; Sönnichsen, Frank D.; Gelhaus, Christoph; Hung, Chien-Wen; Tholey, Andreas; Leippe, Matthias; Grötzinger, Joachim; Gaill, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The emblematic hydrothermal worm Alvinella pompejana is one of the most thermo tolerant animal known on Earth. It relies on a symbiotic association offering a unique opportunity to discover biochemical adaptations that allow animals to thrive in such a hostile habitat. Here, by studying the Pompeii worm, we report on the discovery of the first antibiotic peptide from a deep-sea organism, namely alvinellacin. After purification and peptide sequencing, both the gene and the peptide tertiary structures were elucidated. As epibionts are not cultivated so far and because of lethal decompression effects upon Alvinella sampling, we developed shipboard biological assays to demonstrate that in addition to act in the first line of defense against microbial invasion, alvinellacin shapes and controls the worm's epibiotic microflora. Our results provide insights into the nature of an abyssal antimicrobial peptide (AMP) and into the manner in which an extremophile eukaryote uses it to interact with the particular microbial community of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. Unlike earlier studies done on hydrothermal vents that all focused on the microbial side of the symbiosis, our work gives a view of this interaction from the host side. PMID:24776651

  1. Physicochemical and functional properties of rapeseed protein isolate: influence of antinutrient removal with acidified organic solvents from rapeseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Gogoi, Jyotchna; Kalita, Dipankar; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Nakhuru, Khonamai Sewa; Goyary, Danswrang; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2014-08-06

    The presence of antinutritional constituents in rapeseed protein products (RPI), such as polyphenols, phytates, allyl isothiocyanates, and glucosinolates, is a formidable constraint. The effect of antinutrient removal from rapeseed meal with an organic solvent mixture (methanol/acetone, 1:1 v/v, combined with an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric)) on the physicochemical and functional properties of RPI was investigated. The extraction resulted in a substantial reduction of antinutrients from RPI, especially polyphenols and phytates, with concomitant decreases in protein yield and solubility. Treatment harbored significant improvement in the degree of whiteness, which was highest in the perchloric acid case. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl group of RPI changed considerably, with perchloric acid-treated samples showing higher values, whereas the disulfide content remarkably increased in trichloroacetic acid- and phosphoric acid-treated samples, signifying aggregation. Intrinsic emission fluorescence and FTIR spectra showed significant changes in proteins' tertiary and secondary conformations, and the changes were more pronounced in samples treated with higher concentrations of acids. No appreciable alteration appeared among the electrophoretic profiles of proteins from pristine meal and those treated with lower levels of acids. Interfacial surface properties of proteins were variably improved by the solvent extraction, whereas the converse was true for their extent of denaturation. The results suggest that the physicochemical and conformational properties of RPI are closely related to its functional properties.

  2. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  3. The Identification of Complex Organic Molecules in the Interstellar Medium: Using Lasers and Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy to Simulate the Interstellar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bradley M.

    1998-01-01

    The Astrochemistry Group at NASA Ames Research Center is interested in the identification of large organic molecules in the interstellar medium Many smaller organic species (e.g. hydrocarbons, alcohols, etc.) have been previously identified by their radiofrequency signature due to molecular rotations. However, this becomes increasingly difficult to observe as the size of the molecule increases. Our group in interested in the identification of the carriers of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (absorption features observed throughout the visible and near-infrared in the spectra of stars, due to species in the interstellar medium). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related molecules are thought to be good candidates for these carriers. Laboratory experiments am performed at Ames to simulate the interstellar environment, and to compare spectra obtained from molecules in the laboratory to those derived astronomically. We are also interested in PAHs with respect to their possible connection to the UIR (Unidentified infrared) and ERE (Extended Red Emission) bands - emission features found to emanate from particular regions of our galaxy (e.g. Orion nebula, Red Rectangle, etc.). An old, "tried and proven spectroscopic technique, matrix isolation spectroscopy creates molecular conditions ideal for performing laboratory astrophysics.

  4. Characterization of genetically matched isolates of Campylobacter jejuni reveals that mutations in genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis alter the organism's virulence potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik-Kale, Preeti; Raphael, Brian H; Parker, Craig T; Joens, Lynn A; Klena, John D; Quiñones, Beatriz; Keech, Amy M; Konkel, Michael E

    2007-05-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all Campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. We hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of C. jejuni isolates. A C. jejuni isolate (Turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second C. jejuni isolate (CS) recovered from a chicken differed in their degrees of in vitro and in vivo virulence. The C. jejuni Turkey isolate invaded INT 407 human epithelial cells and secreted the Cia (Campylobacter invasion antigen) proteins, while the C. jejuni CS isolate was noninvasive for human epithelial cells and did not secrete the Cia proteins. Newborn piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni Turkey isolate developed more severe clinical signs of campylobacteriosis than piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni CS isolate. Additional work revealed that flagellin was not expressed in the C. jejuni CS isolate. Microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that all flagellar class II genes were significantly downregulated in the C. jejuni CS isolate compared to the C. jejuni Turkey isolate. Finally, nucleotide sequencing of the flgR gene revealed the presence of a single residue that was different in the FlgR proteins of the C. jejuni Turkey and CS isolates. Complementation of the C. jejuni CS isolate with a wild-type copy of the flgR gene restored the isolate's motility. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that critical differences in gene content or gene expression can alter the pathogenic potential of C. jejuni isolates.

  5. Could the Addition of Cetuximab to Conventional Radiation Therapy Improve Organ Preservation in Those Patients With Locally Advanced Larynx Cancer Who Respond to Induction Chemotherapy? An Organ Preservation Spanish Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group Phase 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesía, Ricard; Garcia-Saenz, Jose A; Lozano, Alicia; Pastor, Miguel; Grau, Juan J; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Lambeaz, Julio; Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Mel, Jose R; González, Belen; Vázquez, Silvia; Mañós, Manel; Taberna, Miren; Cirauqui, Beatriz; Del Barco, Elvira; Casado, Esther; Rubió-Casadevall, Jordi; Rodríguez-Jaráiz, Angles; Cruz, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by bioradiotherapy (BRT) to achieve functional larynx preservation in the setting of locally advanced head and neck tumors. This was a phase 2, open-label, multicenter study of patients with stage III and IVA laryngeal carcinoma who were candidates for total laryngectomy. The primary endpoint was the rate of survival with functional larynx (SFL) at 3 years, with a critical value to consider the study positive of SFL >59%. Patients received 3 cycles of IC with TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil), and those who responded received conventional BRT with cetuximab. In patients with residual nodal disease after BRT, neck dissection was planned 2 months after BRT. Patients who did not respond to IC underwent total laryngectomy plus neck dissection and radiation therapy. A total of 93 patients started TPF. Responses to IC on larynx target lesion were as follows: 37 patients (40%) showed a complete response; 38 patients (41%) showed a partial response; 8 patients (9%) showed stabilization; 2 patients (2%) showed progressive disease, and 8 patients (9%) were not evaluated (2 deaths, 5 adverse events, and 1 lost to follow-up). Seventy-three patients (78%) received BRT: 72 as per protocol, but 1 with only stable disease. Median follow-up was 53.7 months. Three-year actuarial rates were as follows: SFL: 70% (95% confidence interval [CI] 60%-79%); laryngectomy-free survival: 72% (95% CI 61%-81%); overall survival: 78% (95% CI: 63%-82%). The acute toxicity observed during both IC and BRT was as expected, with only 1 toxicity-related death (local bleeding) during BRT. According to this protocol, the SFL rate was clearly higher than the critical value, with acceptable levels of toxicity. The use of cetuximab added to radiation therapy in patients with stage III and IVA laryngeal cancer who respond to TPF could improve functional larynx preservation. A phase 3 trial is warranted. Copyright

  6. Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: What is New in the 2017 WHO Blue Book for Tumours of the Hypopharynx, Larynx, Trachea and Parapharyngeal Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nina; Poljak, Mario; Zidar, Nina

    2017-03-01

    Chapter 3 "Tumours of the hypopharynx, larynx, trachea, and parapharyngeal space" of the World Health Organization (WHO) Blue Book 2017 "Classification of Head and Neck Tumours" shows a shortened list of entities, especially due to reducing the number of benign and malignant soft tissue tumours, malignant melanoma and some others, which are transferred to more frequently affected regions of the head and neck. The basic concept of the new edition is to assimilate all advances concerning the discussed tumours in a shorter framework, appropriate for daily work. The main emphasis is on the most frequent lesions and tumors originating from the covering squamous epithelium. Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal conventional squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC), its variants and precursor lesions, occupy a major part of the chapter. New data on etiopathogenesis, with the focus on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are discussed in relation to the entities of the squamous epithelium. Although only a small fraction of these lesions are HPV-related, further studies are required for evaluation of the potential prognostic and therapeutic benefit of mRNA HPV determination. In contrast to earlier data, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal verrucous SCC, spindle cell SCC and basaloid SCC are not anymore considered as HPV-related tumours. New data on the pathogenesis of spindle cell SCC exhibiting divergent differentiation by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, are also briefly discussed. The most important innovation is brought by the section on precursor lesions, in which a unified two-tier classification, consisting of low- and high-grade dysplasia, is introduced. The proposed two-tier system can also be transformed into a three-tier classification for treatment purposes, with a distinction between carcinoma in situ and high-grade dysplasia. The reviewed morphological criteria of the proposed system are based on the amended Ljubljana classification. The section on laryngeal neuroendocrine

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  8. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  9. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid) can cause a head tilt. This is ... amblyopia) are other treatment alternatives. Physical therapy helps congenital torticollis from tight neck muscles. Updated ... Terms & Conditions Most Common ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of ...

  11. Head Start in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Clara M. D.; Epps, Frances M. J.

    Records and observations from a summer Head Start program, conducted in Los Angeles by Delta Sigma Theta, are delineated in this book. It relates firsthand experiences of the participating personnel as they developed and implemented a Head Start program for some 300 children. The book is divided into three sections. Section I,…

  12. Elbow joint laxity after experimental radial head excision and lateral collateral ligament rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Tyrdal, Stein

    2005-01-01

    rotation of the ulna were measured during passive flexion-extension and application of a 0.75-Nm torque in 6 intact cadaveric elbows and after (1) either excision of the radial head or division of the LCL, (2) removal of both constraints, (3) isolated radial head prosthetic replacement, (4) isolated LCL...

  13. Microbial community analysis in the roots of aquatic plants and isolation of novel microbes including an organism of the candidate phylum OP10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Nigaya, Masahiro; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    A number of molecular ecological studies have revealed complex and unique microbial communities in various terrestrial plant roots; however, little is known about the microbial communities of aquatic plant roots in spite of their potential use for water quality improvement in aquatic environments (e.g. floating treatment wetland system). Here, we report the microbial communities inhabiting the roots of emerged plants, reed (Phragmites australis) and Japanese loosestrife (Lythrum anceps), collected from a floating treatment wetland in a pond by both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the microbial compositions between the two aquatic plant roots were clearly different (e.g. the predominant microbe was Betaproteobacteria for reed and Alphaproteobacteria for Japanese loosestrife). In comparisons of microbial communities between the plant roots and pond water taken from near the plants, the microbial diversity in the plant roots (e.g. 4.40-4.26 Shannon-Weiner index) were higher than that of pond water (e.g. 3.15 Shannon-Weiner index). Furthermore, the plant roots harbored 2.5-3.5 times more phylogenetically novel clone phylotypes than pond water. The culture-dependent approach also revealed differences in the microbial composition and diversity among the two plant roots and pond water. More importantly, compared to pond water, we succeeded in isolating approximately two times more novel isolate phylotypes, including a bacterium of candidate phylum OP10 (recently named Armatimonadetes) from the plant roots. These findings suggest that aquatic plants roots are significant sources for a variety of novel organisms.

  14. In situ chitin isolation from body parts of a centipede and lysozyme adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Esra; Sargin, Idris; Arslan, Ozlem; Odabasi, Mehmet; Akyuz, Bahar; Kaya, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Isolation of structurally intact chitin samples for biotechnological applications has gained much recent attention. So far, three-dimensional chitin isolates have been obtained from only diplopods and sponges. In this study, three-dimensional chitin isolates were obtained from the body parts of centipede Scolopendra sp. (antennae, head, forcipule, collum, trunk, trunk legs and last pair of legs) without leading to structural failure. FT-IR spectra of chitin isolates confirmed that chitin samples are in α allomorph. TGA, XRD and SEM analyses and lysozyme adsorption studies revealed that each chitin isolate had different thermal stability, crystallinity and surface characteristics. Among the chitin isolates, Cu(II)-immobilized forcipule chitin showed the highest affinity for lysozyme (54.1mg/g), whereas chitin from last pair of legs exhibited the lowest affinity (3.7mg/g). This study demonstrated that structurally intact chitin isolates can be obtained from the body parts of centipede Scolopendra sp. (antennae, head, forcipule, collum, trunk, trunk legs and last pair of legs) by using a simple chemical procedure. Also, it gives a biotechnological perspective to the organisms in the group of Chilipoda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Baseline head in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Tammisto, E.; Lehtimaeki, T. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2008-11-15

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel, Posiva Oy investigates the prevailing hydrological conditions on Olkiluoto island. The hydrological investigations have included several kinds of hydrological tests such as measurements of hydraulic conductivity by flow logging and a double-packer tool as well as interference tests by pumping, in order to study the hydraulic connections between the drillholes. In addition, long-term monitoring of groundwater level and groundwater head as well as measurements of flow conditions in open drillholes, groundwater salinity (in situ EC), precipitation (including snow), sea-water level, surface flow (runoff) etc. have been part of the investigation programme aiming at the characterization of the bedrock. The data have been used in the compilation of deterministic hydro-zones and hydraulic properties for numerical flow modelling to study the flow pattern on Olkiluoto island. In addition, the compiled bedrock models have been used in the planning of the repository layout and in the analyses of the transport of radionuclides and the functionality of engineered barriers. This report focuses on the measurements of groundwater head by means of multi-packers and in connection with flow loggings. The determination of the undisturbed groundwater head (baseline head) in terms of the in situ fresh water head is the main goal of this report. The density of groundwater is strongly dependent on salinity and due to the saline groundwater deep in the bedrock in Olkiluoto the term fresh water head is used instead of hydraulic head. Taking the density of groundwater into account, the gradient of the residual pressure, which actually causes groundwater flow can be calculated. The measured and calculated heads are converted into corresponding in situ fresh water heads, which correspond to the water level (metres above sea level) in the hose that runs from the packed-off section to the ground surface. This means that

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  18. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  19. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ALKALOTHERMOSTABLE, ORGANIC SOLVENT TOLERANT AND SURFACTANT TOLERANT ESTERASE PRODUCED BY A THERMOPHILIC BACTERIUM GEOBACILLUS SP. AGP-04, ISOLATED FROM BAKRESHWAR HOT SPRING, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus sp. AGP-04, isolated from Surya Kund hot spring, Bakreshwar, West Bengal, India was studied in terms of capability of tributyrin hydrolysis and characterization of its thermostable esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB as substrate. The extracellular crude preparation was characterized in terms of pH and temperature optima and stability, organic solvent tolerance capacity and stability, substrate specificity, surfactant tolerance capacity, kinetic parameters and activation/inhibition behavior towards some metal ions and chemicals. Tributyrin agar assay exhibited that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 secretes an extracellular esterase. The Vmax and Km values of the esterase were found to be 5099 U/Land 103.5µM, respectively in the presence of PNPB as substrate. The optimum temperature and pH, for Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 esterase was 60oC and 8.0, respectively. Although the enzyme activity was not significantly altered by incubating crude extract solution at 20-70oC for 1 hour, the enzyme activity was fully lost at 90oC for same incubation period. The pH stability profile showed that original crude esterase activity is stable at a broad range (pH 5.0-10.0. Moreover, the enzyme was highly organic solvent and surfactant tolerant. The effect of some chemical on crude esterase activity indicated that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 produce an esterase which contains a serine residue in active site and for its activity -SH groups are essential. Besides, enzyme production was highly induced if fermentation medium contain polysaccharides and oil as carbon source.

  20. Laxity of the elbow after experimental excision of the radial head and division of the medial collateral ligament. Efficacy of ligament repair and radial head prosthetic replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Deutch, Søren R; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    2003-01-01

    We studied the stabilising effect of prosthetic replacement of the radial head and repair of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) after excision of the radial head and section of the MCL in five cadaver elbows. Division of the MCL increased valgus angulation (mean 3.9 +/- 1.5 degrees) and internal...... that the radial head is a constraint secondary to the MCL for both valgus displacement and internal rotation. Isolated repair of the ligament is superior to isolated prosthetic replacement and may be sufficient to restore valgus and internal rotatory stability after excision of the radial head in MCL...

  1. Characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant thermostable glucoamylase from a halophilic isolate, Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 and its application in raw starch hydrolysis for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Ying; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A halophilic bacterium Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 producing extracellular glucoamylase was isolated from saline soil of Yuncheng Salt Lake, China. Enzyme production was strongly influenced by the salinity of growth medium with maximum in the presence of 5% NaCl. The glucoamylase was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 78.5 kDa. It showed broad substrate specificity and raw starch hydrolyzing activity. Analysis of hydrolysis products from soluble starch by thin-layer chromatography revealed that glucose was the sole end-product, indicating the enzyme was a true glucoamylase. Optimal enzyme activity was found to be at 70°C, pH 8.0, and 7.5% NaCl. In addition, it was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (0-100°C), pH (7.0-12.0), and NaCl concentration (0-20%), showing excellent thermostable, alkali stable, and halotolerant properties. Furthermore, it displayed high stability in the presence of hydrophobic organic solvents. The purified glucoamylase was applied for raw corn starch hydrolysis and subsequent bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield in terms of grams of ethanol produced per gram of sugar consumed was 0.365 g/g, with 71.6% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using enzymes from halophiles for further application in bioenergy production. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. LIFE experiment: isolation of cryptoendolithic organisms from Antarctic colonized sandstone exposed to space and simulated Mars conditions on the international space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzi, Giuliano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Albertano, Patrizia; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-06-01

    Desiccated Antarctic rocks colonized by cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE-Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1.5 years in space samples were retrieved, rehydrated and spread on different culture media. Colonies of a green alga and a pink-coloured fungus developed on Malt-Agar medium; they were isolated from a sample exposed to simulated Mars conditions beneath a 0.1 % T Suprasil neutral density filter and from a sample exposed to space vacuum without solar radiation exposure, respectively. None of the other flight samples showed any growth after incubation. The two organisms able to grow were identified at genus level by Small SubUnit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA sequencing as Stichococcus sp. (green alga) and Acarospora sp. (lichenized fungal genus) respectively. The data in the present study provide experimental information on the possibility of eukaryotic life transfer from one planet to another by means of rocks and of survival in Mars environment.

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ...

  5. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain. If the head injury is very severe, mechanical ventilation may be used. Doctors control blood pressure and minimize the amount of brain swelling by adjusting the amount of intravenous fluids given and sometimes by giving intravenous drugs that ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? A person who is very large may not fit into ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It ... within the brain shortly after a patient exhibits symptoms of a stroke. a stroke, especially with a ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scans in children should always be done with low-dose technique. top of page What are the ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this tunnel. Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... a few seconds, and even faster in small children. Such speed is beneficial for all patients but ...

  16. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top of page This page ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sometimes compared to looking into a loaf of bread by cutting the loaf into thin slices. When ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ...

  19. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  20. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  1. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be: Stored Viewed on a monitor Printed on film Three-dimensional models of the head area can ... when you have certain other signs or symptoms Hearing loss (in some people) Symptoms of damage to ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your ... provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x- ...

  3. Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk of head and neck cancer. Environmental or occupational inhalants. Inhaling asbestos, wood dust, paint ... from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Review dictionary articles to help understand medical phrases and terms ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... is also performed to: evaluate the extent of bone and soft tissue damage in patients with facial ...

  6. Cancer stem cells in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapasso S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia Allegra, Serena TrapassoOtolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called "cells that start the tumor," represent in themselves one of the most topical and controversial issues in the field of cancer research. Tumor stem cells are able to self-propagate in vitro (self-renewal, giving rise both to other tumor stem cells and most advanced cells in the line of differentiation (asymmetric division. A final characteristic is tumorigenicity, a fundamental property, which outlines the tumor stem cell as the only cell able to initiate the formation of a tumor when implanted in immune-deficient mice. The hypothesis of a hierarchical organization of tumor cells dates back more than 40 years, but only in 1997, thanks to the work of John Dick and Dominique Bonnet, was there the formal proof of such an organization in acute myeloid leukemia. Following this, many other research groups were able to isolate CSCs, by appropriate selection markers, in various malignancies, such as breast, brain, colon, pancreas, and liver cancers and in melanoma. To date, however, it is not possible to isolate stem cells from all types of neoplasia, particularly in solid tumors. From a therapeutic point of view, the concept of tumor stem cells implies a complete revision of conventional antineoplastic treatment. Conventional cytotoxic agents are designed to target actively proliferating cells. In the majority of cases, this is not sufficient to eliminate the CSCs, which thanks to their reduced proliferative activity and/or the presence of proteins capable of extruding chemotherapeutics from the cell are not targeted. Therefore, the theory of cancer stem cells can pose new paradigms in terms of cancer treatment. Potential approaches, even in the very early experimental stages, relate to the selective inhibition of pathways connected with self-renewal, or more specifically based on

  7. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, S.M.; Bos, J.E.; Klis, S.F.L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. OBJECTIVE: To test a new,

  8. Isolated heart transplant and combined heart-liver transplant in adult congenital heart disease patients: Insights from the united network of organ sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elisa A; Pinyoluksana, Krong-On; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Miao, Yongjie; Daniels, Curt

    2017-02-01

    The aging patient with severe congenital heart disease (CHD) faces many challenges: heart failure, arrhythmia, and in the Fontan patient, liver disease. Our goal was to define combined heart liver transplant (CHLT) and isolated orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) outcomes in U.S. adult CHD patients. The U.S. United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) thoracic and liver databases were queried for cardiac and CHD diagnoses, from inception-2014. In CHLT, CHD made up 22% of waitlist patients (non-CHD n=262 vs. CHD n=58), and 20% of transplanted patients (non-CHD n=137 vs. CHD n=27). Liver function tests in the non-CHD and CHD groups were similar and there was no difference in CHD and non-CHD survival (HR 0.93, CI: 0.36-2.38, p 0.48). In isolated OHT, CHD patients comprised 2% of those listed (non-CHD n=74,080 vs. CHD n=1599) and transplanted (non-CHD n=48,985 vs. CHD n=967) and had higher early (<1year) mortality (HR 1.36, CI: 1.18-1.57, p<0.0001), but better long-term survival (HR 0.66, CI; 0.57-0.76, p<0.001) than non-CHD. Both groups benefitted from mechanical support when used (non-CHD HR 0.34, CI: 0.31-0.37 and CHD HR 0.14, CI: 0.03-0.58) and prior sternotomy had no effect on mortality in CHD (HR 0.63, CI: 0.15-2.58). Survival of CHD patients undergoing CHLT is no different than in non-CHD, encouraging consideration of CHLT when clinically appropriate. Short-term mortality is higher in CHD (vs. non-CHD) patients undergoing OHT, regardless of prior cardiac surgery status. Modifications to CHD classification within UNOS would help better understand CHD CHLT and OHT outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  11. New electroactive polymers with electronically isolated 3,6,9-triarylcarbazole units as efficient hole transporting materials for organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griniene, R.; Tavgeniene, D.; Baranauskyte, U.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, B.; Gelzinis, A.; Grigalevicius, S.

    2017-04-01

    Polyethers containing electronically isolated 3,6,9-triarylcarbazole moieties have been synthesized by the multi-step synthetic procedures. A polymer containing unsubstituted carbazole rings was also prepared for comparison of properties. Full characterization of the materials is presented. The new polymers represent materials of high thermal stability with initial thermal degradation temperatures exceeding 367 °C. The high glass transition temperatures of the amorphous materials were in the rage of 133-146 °C. The electron photoemission spectra of thin layers of the polymers showed ionization potentials in the range of 5.52-5.6 eV. Hole-transporting properties of the electroactive materials were tested in the structures of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with tris(quinolin-8-olato)aluminium as the green emitter and electron transporting material. The OLED devices in general exhibited rather low turn-on voltages of 3.2-4.2 V, high maximum brightness of 4910-7500 cd/m2 and luminous efficiency of 1.7-3.1 cd/A. It was confirmed that the devices containing the polymers with 3,6,9-triarylcarbazole moieties demonstrate considerably better OLED performance than that of device with polymer containing unsubstituted carbazole rings due to its higher ionization potential and accordingly worse hole injecting properties. The device containing hole-transporting layer of polymer with 3,6-di(1-naphthyl)-9-phenylcarbazole units exhibited the best overall performance with rather low turn on voltage of 4.4 V, maximum photometric efficiency exceeding 3.1 cd/A and maximum brightness of about 7500 cd/m2.

  12. Analysis of plant growth-promoting effects of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from Mentha piperita rhizosphere and effects of their volatile organic compounds on essential oil composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Valeria Santoro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many species or strains of the genus Pseudomonas have been characterized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. We used a combination of phenotypic and genotypic techniques to analyze the community of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere of commercially grown Mentha piperita (peppermint. Biochemical techniques, Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the majority of the isolated native fluorescent strains were P. putida. Use of two Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR techniques, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR, allowed us to evaluate diversity among the native strains and to more effectively distinguish among them. PGPR activity was tested for the native strains and reference strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. Micropropagated M. piperita plantlets were exposed to microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs emitted by the bacterial strains, and plant biomass parameters and production of essential oils (EOs were measured. mVOCs from 11 of the native strains caused an increase in shoot fresh weight. mVOCs from three native strains (SJ04, SJ25,SJ48 induced changes in M. pierita EO composition. The mVOCs caused a reduction of metabolites in the monoterpene pathway, for example menthofuran, and an increase in menthol production. Menthol production is the primary indicator of EO quality. The mVOCs produced by native strains SJ04, SJ25,SJ48 and strain WCS417r were analyzed. The obtained mVOC chromatographic profiles were unique for each of the three native strains analyzed, containing varying hydrocarbon, aromatic, and alogenic compounds. The differential effects of the strains were most likely due to the specific mixtures of mVOCs emitted by each strain, suggesting a synergistic effect occurs among the compounds present.

  13. Phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from the endophyte Hypoxylon anthochroum strain Blaci isolated from Bursera lancifolia (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Benítez, Á; Medina-Romero, Y M; Sánchez-Fernández, R E; Lappe-Oliveras, P; Roque-Flores, G; Duarte Lisci, G; Herrera Suárez, T; Macías-Rubalcava, M L

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the phytotoxic, antifungal and antioomycete activity; and, determine the chemical composition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile metabolites produced by the endophyte Hypoxylon anthochroum strain Blaci isolated from Bursera lancifolia. Based on its macro- and micro-morphological features, the strain Blaci was identified as Nodulisporium sp.; partial analysis of its ITS1-5.8-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence revealed the identity of the teleomorphic stage of the fungus as H. anthochroum. Phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of VOCs, and culture medium and mycelium organic extracts from H. anthochroum Blaci were determined by simple and multiple antagonism bioassays, and gas phase and agar dilution bioassays respectively. The volatile and semi-volatile metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. VOCs from a 5-day H. anthochroum strain Blaci culture caused the inhibition of seed germination, root elongation and seedling respiration on Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Panicum miliaceum, Trifolium pratense and Medicago sativa. In addition, extracts, phenylethyl alcohol and eucalyptol main compounds present in the VOCs and extract displayed a high phytotoxic activity, inhibiting the three physiological processes on the four test plants in a concentration-dependent manner. The results revealed that H. anthochroum strain Blaci produces a mixture of VOCs. These VOCs showed a strong phytotoxic activity on seed germination, root elongation, and seedling respiration of four plants and slightly affected the growth of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Also, the culture medium and mycelium extracts of H. anthochroum showed a high phytotoxic activity on the four test plants and, generally, the culture medium extract was more phytotoxic than the mycelium extracts. This work firstly reports the phytotoxic activity of volatile and semi-volatile compounds produced by the endophyte H. anthochroum strain Blaci on seed

  14. Pediatric head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  15. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  16. Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shannon; Melin, Alyson; Reilly, Debra

    2017-10-01

    Management of head and neck burns involves acute and intermediate phases. Acutely, the goals are establish a secure airway and treat life-threatening injuries. Then, optimize nutrition, assess extent of the burn, perform local wound care, and provide eye protection. Management depends on the degree of the head and neck burn. Postinjury splinting and rehabilitation are vital to healing. After the acute inflammation has resolved and the scars have matured, reconstruction begins with the goals of restoring both function and aesthetics. Reconstruction ranges from simple scar release, to skin grafting, and possibly free flap reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  18. High-grade acute organ toxicity and p16{sup INK4A} expression as positive prognostic factors in primary radio(chemo)therapy for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrany, Narges; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F.; Wolff, Hendrik A. [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Kitz, Julia; Li, Li; Kueffer, Stefan [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Pathology, Goettingen (Germany); Lorenzen, Stephan; Beissbarth, Tim [University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics, Goettingen (Germany); Burfeind, Peter [University Medical Center, Institute for Human Genetics, Goettingen (Germany); Reichardt, Holger M. [University Medical Center, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Goettingen (Germany); Canis, Martin [Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Superior treatment response and survival for patients with human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive head and neck cancer (HNSCC) are documented in clinical studies. However, the relevance of high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT), which has also been correlated with improved prognosis, has attracted scant attention in HPV-positive HNSCC patients. Hence we tested the hypothesis that both parameters, HPV and HGAOT, are positive prognostic factors in patients with HNSCC treated with definite radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). Pretreatment tumor tissue and clinical records were available from 233 patients receiving definite RT (62 patients) or RCT (171 patients). HPV infection was analysed by means of HPV DNA detection or p16{sup INK4A} expression; HGAOT was defined as the occurrence of acute organ toxicity >grade 2 according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. Both variables were correlated with overall survival (OS) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Positivity for HPV DNA (44 samples, 18.9 %) and p16{sup INK4A} expression (102 samples, 43.8 %) were significantly correlated (p < 0.01), and HGAOT occurred in 77 (33 %) patients. Overall, the 5-year OS was 23 %; stratified for p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, OS rates were 47 %, 42 %, 20 % and 10 % for patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT, patients with HGAOT only, patients with p16{sup INK4A} expression only, and patients without p16{sup INK4A} expression or HGAOT, respectively. After multivariate testing p16{sup INK4A} expression (p = 0.003) and HGAOT (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with OS. P16{sup INK4A} expression and HGAOT are independent prognostic factors for OS of patients with HNSCC, whereas p16{sup INK4A} expression is particularly important for patients without HGAOT. (orig.) [German] Ein besseres Therapieansprechen von humanen Papillomavirus (HPV)-positiven Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNSCC) ist durch Studien belegt. Weniger Beachtung hat bisher die Relevanz unerwuenschter

  19. The serum of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) has antimicrobial activity to some pathogenic organisms and a novel serum L-amino acid oxidase is isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanghua; Li, Ruijun; Xie, Mingquan; Li, Anxing

    2011-01-01

    The serum of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) has been confirmed previously to have killing effect to Cryptocaryon irritans, an important marine ciliate protozoan that causes a disease referred to as "marine white spot disease". Herein, we find the serum of the rabbitfish also shows antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and has killing effect on two other parasites: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that after treating with rabbitfish serum, the surface of the Staphylococcus aureus was wrinkled and pores were formed on the surface of Escherichia coli. Serum of the rabbitfish possesses a strong killing effect to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in vitro, causing a similar effect as to C. irritans. The serum of rabbitfish also showed strong killing effect to T. b. brucei in vitro, with the minimus trypanocidal titre (MTT) only to be 1.5% in 1 h. Results of laser confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that rabbitfish serum could also induce cell rupture of T. b. brucei. A novel antimicrobial protein (SR-LAAO) was isolated from the serum of rabbitfish by using ultrafiltration, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE). Results of gel overlay assay showed that the protein could act alone to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. Results of western blot and automated Edman degradation showed that it was the same as the antiparasitic protein (APP) reported before to have killing effect on C. irritans. Full length cDNA sequence of the SR-LAAO was cloned. BLAST research suggested that the cDNA of SR-LAAO has a close similarity with a number of L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) and possesses two conserved motifs that exist in LAAOs. Combined, these results demonstrate that this protein which has antimicrobial activity to some pathogenic organisms was a novel LAAO found in the serum of

  20. Thyroxine (T4 Transfer from Blood to Cerebrospinal Fluid in Sheep Isolated Perfused Choroid Plexus: Role of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Zibara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroxine (T4 enters the brain either directly across the blood–brain barrier (BBB or indirectly via the choroid plexus (CP, which forms the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B. In this study, using isolated perfused CP of the sheep by single-circulation paired tracer and steady-state techniques, T4 transport mechanisms from blood into lateral ventricle CP has been characterized as the first step in the transfer across the B-CSF-B. After removal of sheep brain, the CPs were perfused with 125I-T4 and 14C-mannitol. Unlabeled T4 was applied during single tracer technique to assess the mode of maximum uptake (Umax and the net uptake (Unet on the blood side of the CP. On the other hand, in order to characterize T4 protein transporters, steady-state extraction of 125I-T4 was measured in presence of different inhibitors such as probenecid, verapamil, BCH, or indomethacin. Increasing the concentration of unlabeled-T4 resulted in a significant reduction in Umax%, which was reflected by a complete inhibition of T4 uptake into CP. In fact, the obtained Unet% decreased as the concentration of unlabeled-T4 increased. The addition of probenecid caused a significant inhibition of T4 transport, in comparison to control, reflecting the presence of a carrier mediated process at the basolateral side of the CP and the involvement of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs: MRP1 and MRP4 and organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatp1, Oatp2, and Oatp14. Moreover, verapamil, the P-glycoprotein (P-gp substrate, resulted in ~34% decrease in the net extraction of T4, indicating that MDR1 contributes to T4 entry into CSF. Finally, inhibition in the net extraction of T4 caused by BCH or indomethacin suggests, respectively, a role for amino acid “L” system and MRP1/Oatp1 in mediating T4 transfer. The presence of a carrier-mediated transport mechanism for cellular uptake on the basolateral membrane of the CP, mainly P-gp and Oatp2, would account

  1. Ardrea characterisation of acidophilic micro-organisms isolated from gold mines in Marmato, Colombia Caracterización por Ardrea de microorganismos acidófilos aislados en minas de oro de Marmato, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio E. Victor Manuel; Márquez G. Marco; Márquez F. Edna Judith

    2007-01-01

    Mineral bio-oxidation improves the extraction of valuable metals and also decreases the impact caused by mining waste; however, the interactions between the micro-organisms so involved are little known. Double-layer solid culture media techniques and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction enzyme analysis (Ardrea), using Eco72I, Eco24I, XcmI and BsaAI enzymes, were used for characterising four micro-organisms isolated from gold mines located in Marmato, Colombia. This work was aimed at better und...

  2. Determination of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates from lymph nodes of sheep and goats at an organic export abattoir, Modjo, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abebe, D; Sisay Tessema, T

    2015-01-01

    Significance and Impact of the Study: This work presents data on the prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis in slaughtered sheep and goats as well as the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  4. Lubricating the swordfish head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, John J.; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T.; Szabo, Ben G.

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using

  5. Waco Head Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Para

    The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 led to the formation of three separate Head Start Programs in Waco, Texas. The first year, 1,500 children were involved. Of these, 40 percent were Negro, 30 percent Latin American, and 30 percent white. All teachers received a week of preparatory study at the University of Texas. The program involved four areas…

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  7. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the brain. During the examination, an ultrasound machine sends sound ... The fontanel provides an opening for the sound waves to get through and reach the brain. Why It's Done Doctors order head ultrasounds when ...

  8. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  10. Head nurses as middle managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P F

    1983-11-01

    The relationship between head nurses and their staff nurses influences staff turnover rates and job satisfaction. In this article the author describes the measures taken by the management of Greater Southeast Community Hospital in response to an increasing turnover rate among staff RNs. In recognition of the head nurse role vis-d-vis attrition rates and job satisfaction, head nurses were upgraded to department head status and rigorous head nurse performance standards were developed. These standards required clinical expertise, managerial competence, and accountability. It is the author's contention that clinical practice and staff morale are directly related to a clearly defined head nurse role.

  11. Head injuries, heading, and the use of headgear in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedfeldt, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Soccer has more than 265 million players around the world and is the only contact sport with purposeful use of the head for controlling and advancing the ball. Head contact in soccer has the potential to cause acute traumatic brain injury including concussion or, potentially, a pattern of chronic brain injury. Although early retrospective research on the effects of soccer heading seemed to suggest that purposeful heading may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment, prospective controlled studies do not support this and, in fact, suggest that purposeful heading may not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Headgear has not been shown to be effective in reducing ball impact but may be helpful in reducing the force of non-ball-related impacts to the head. There are concerns that universal use of headgear may cause more aggressive heading and head challenges, leading to increased risk of injury.

  12. Radial Head Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-articular displacement and angulation acceptable for non-operative management has yet to be conclusively defined. Similarly the treatment of type III and IV fractures remain controversial. Traditional radial head excision is associated with valgus instability and should be considered only for patients with low functional demands. Comparative studies have shown improved results from internal fixation over excision. Internal fixation should only be attempted when anatomic reduction and initiation of early motion can be achieved. Authors have reported that results from fixation are poorer and complication rates are higher if more than three fragments are present. Radial head arthroplasty aims to reconstruct the native head and is indicated when internal fixation is not feasible and in the presence of complex elbow injuries. Overstuffing of the radiocapitellar joint is a frequent technical fault and has significant adverse effects on elbow biomechanics. Modular design improves the surgeon’s ability to reconstruct the native joint. Two randomised controlled trials have shown improved clinical outcomes and lower complication rate following arthroplasty when compared to internal fixation. Conclusion: We have presented details regarding the treatment of various types of radial head fractures - further evidence, however, is still required to provide clarity over the role of these different management strategies. PMID:29290880

  13. Pyrocarbon Interposition after Capitate Head Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Mathieu; Bellemere, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Isolated lunocapitate disease is a rare situation. It includes both capitolunate arthritis and osteonecrosis of the capitate head. The management of this pathology is not defined yet. Case Description We treated three patients by resection of the capitate head and interposition of a so-called capitolunate Pi2 implant (Tornier, BioProfile, Grenoble, France). We reported encouraging results at average follow-up of 4.8 years. Literature Review Several procedures have been reported in this indication. All suffer from lack of follow-up. Four-corner fusion seems to be the most reliable solution at the expense of wrist stiffness. Clinical Relevance case series PMID:24436841

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  18. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  20. Caracterização morfológica e identificação molecular de isolados de Fusarium graminearum associados à giberela do trigo e triticale no sul do Brasil Morphological characterization and molecular identification of Fusarium graminearum isolates associated with fusarium head blight in wheat and triticale in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francislene Angelotti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A giberela ou fusariose da espiga é uma das principais doenças do trigo e triticale no sul do Brasil. A espécie de fungo Fusarium graminearum é citada como agente causal da doença, muito embora, em outros países, outras espécies de Fusarium também estejam associadas à doença. No País, não existem relatos de levantamentos de espécies associadas à doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar espécies de Fusarium associados à giberela do trigo e triticale procedentes do sul do Brasil, com base na morfologia e no emprego da reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR baseada em oligonucletídeos específicos para espécies de Fusarium. A patogenicidade dos isolados em trigo foi avaliada em espigas de plantas cultivadas em casa de vegetação. Os 20 isolados monospóricos analisados, obtidos de espigas doentes e sementes, foram identificados como F. graminearum.Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab is an important disease of wheat and triticale in Southern Brazil. The fungus Fusarium graminearum has been reported as the causal agent of this disease in Brazil even though other Fusarium species are also associated to FHB in other regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify species of Fusarium associated with FHB on wheat and triticale in Southern Brazil. The identification was based on morphological features, and uppon polymerase chain reaction using species specific primers. The pathogenicity of the isolates in wheat was evaluated after inoculation of ears under greenhouse conditions. The twenty single spores isolates obtained from diseased ears and seeds were classified as F. graminearum.

  1. Automatic classification of human sperm head morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Violeta; Heutte, Laurent; Petitjean, Caroline; Härtel, Steffen; Hitschfeld, Nancy

    2017-05-01

    Infertility is a problem that affects up to 15% of couples worldwide with emotional and physiological implications and semen analysis is the first step in the evaluation of an infertile couple. Indeed the morphology of human sperm cells is considered to be a clinical tool dedicated to the fertility prognosis and serves, mainly, for making decisions regarding the options of assisted reproduction technologies. Therefore, a complete analysis of not only normal sperm but also abnormal sperm turns out to be critical in this context. This paper sets out to develop, implement and calibrate a novel methodology to characterize and classify sperm heads towards morphological sperm analysis. Our work is aimed at focusing on a depth analysis of abnormal sperm heads for fertility diagnosis, prognosis, reproductive toxicology, basic research or public health studies. We introduce a morphological characterization for human sperm heads based on shape measures. We also present a pipeline for sperm head classification, according to the last Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen of the World Health Organization (WHO). In this sense, we propose a two-stage classification scheme that permits to classify sperm heads among five different classes (one class for normal sperm heads and four classes for abnormal sperm heads) combining an ensemble strategy for feature selection and a cascade approach with several support vector machines dedicated to the verification of each class. We use Fisher's exact test to demonstrate that there is no statistically significant differences between our results and those achieved by domain experts. Experimental evaluation shows that our two-stage classification scheme outperforms some state-of-the-art monolithic classifiers, exhibiting 58% of average accuracy. More interestingly, on the subset of data for which there is a total agreement between experts for the label of the samples, our system is able to provide 73% of average

  2. Effect of Lactobacillus sp. isolates supernatant on Escherichia coli O157:H7 enhances the role of organic acids production as a factor for pathogen control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Poppi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to establish the control of foodborne pathogens through Lactobacillus isolates and their metabolism products with success being obtained in several situations. The aim of this study was to investigate the antagonistic effect of eight Lactobacillus isolates, including L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, L. plantarum, L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, on the pathogenic Escherichia colistrain O157:H7. The inhibitory effect of pure cultures and two pooled cultures supernatants of Lactobacillus on the growth of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by the spot agar method and by monitoring turbidity. Antimicrobial activity was confirmed for L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii and for a pool of lactic acid bacteria. The neutralized supernatant of the pool exerted a higher antimicrobial activity than that of the individual strains. Furthermore, D-lactic acid and acetic acid were produced during growth of the Lactobacillus isolates studied.

  3. Where are we heading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, L.A. [Mobil Corporation, (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry`s participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  4. Radial Head Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-arti...

  5. Headache in traumatic brain injuries from blunt head trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Chelse, Ana B.; Epstein, Leon G.

    2015-01-01

    Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  6. Female-Headed Households Within The Legal Framework In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... status registration ordinance, penal code, and the general rules and regulations of the public service. The paper concludes that although there a variety of isolated inclusion of female-headed households in the legal framework, many are still not applied. International Journal of emotiaonl psychology and sport ethics Vol.

  7. Voluntary head stabilization in space during trunk movements in weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, B.; Assaiante, C.; Fabre, J.-C.; Martin, N.; Massion, J.; Mouchnino, L.; Vernazza, S.

    The ability to voluntarily stabilize the head in space during lateral rhythmic oscillations of the trunk has been investigated during parabolic flights. Five healthy young subjects, who gave informed consent, were examined. The movements were performed with eyes open or eyes closed, either during phases of microgravity or phases of normal gravity. The main result to emerge from this study is that the head may be stabilized in space about the roll axis under microgravity conditions with, as well as without vision, despite the reduction of the vestibular afferent and the muscle proprioceptive inputs. Moreover, the absence of head stabilization about the yaw axis confirms that the degrees of freedom of the neck can be independently controlled, as it was previously shown [1]. These results seem to indicate that voluntary head stabilization does not depend crucially upon static vestibular afferents. Head stabilization in space may be in fact organized on the basis of either dynamic vestibular afferents or a postural body scheme.

  8. Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Anne-Sylvie Catherin has been appointed Head of the Human Resources Department with effect from 1 August 2009. Mrs Catherin is a lawyer specialized in International Administration and joined CERN in 1996 as legal advisor within the Office of the HR Department Head. After having been promoted to the position of Group Leader responsible for social and statutory conditions in 2000, Mrs Catherin was appointed Deputy of the Head of the Human Resources Department and Group Leader responsible for Strategy, Management and Development from 2005 to date. Since 2005, she has also served as a member of CCP and TREF. In the execution of her mandate as Deputy HR Department Head, Mrs Catherin closely assisted the HR Department Head in the organization of the Department and in devising new HR policies and strategies. She played an instrumental role in the last five-yearly review and in the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations.

  9. Diamond-coated probe head for measurements in the deep SOL and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Xu, G. S.; Yan, Ning

    We have tested two cylindrical graphite probe heads coated by a layer of electrically isolating UNCD (Ultra Nano-Crystalline Diamond) using a CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) method. The probe heads were mounted on the reciprocating probe manipulator of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting T...

  10. Fixation of two part fracture of radial head by pre-bend K-wire: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to see the functional status of elbow after fixation with pre bend K- wire in Mason type II Radial head fractures. We have studied eight patients (3 females and 5 males) with Mason type II isolated radial head fractures aged between 15 and 65 years (average 39 years) who underwent open reduction and ...

  11. Detection and organization of atrazine-degrading genetic potential of seventeen bacterial isolates belonging to divergent taxa indicate a recent common origin of their catabolic functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Azhari, Najoi

    2007-01-01

    A collection of 17 atrazine-degrading bacteria isolated from soils was studied to determine the composition of the atrazine-degrading genetic potential (i.e. trzN, trzD and atz) and the presence of IS1071. The characterization of seven new atrazine-degrading bacteria revealed for the first time...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium sp. Strain TBD182, an Antagonist of the Plant-Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum, Isolated from a Novel Hydroponics System Using Organic Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Someya, Nobutaka; Shinohara, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhizobium sp. strain TBD182, isolated from a novel hydroponics system, is an antagonistic bacterium that inhibits the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum but does not eliminate the pathogen. We report the draft genome sequence of TBD182, which may contribute to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of its fungistatic activity. PMID:28302768

  13. Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity. 2012 FRAME.

  14. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  15. "E" Heating Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris; Copeland, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    Two separate areas heated inductively for adhesive bonding in single operation. "E" heating head developed to satisfy need for fast-acting and reliable induction heating device. Used in attaching "high-hat" stiffeners to aircraft panels. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun. Width and length configured to provide variously sized heat zones, depending on bonding requirements. Lightweight, portable and provides rapid, reliable heating of dual areas in any environment. Well suited for flight-line and depot maintenance, and battlefield repair. Also useful in automotive assembly lines to strengthen automobile panels.

  16. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  17. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  18. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  19. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  20. Growth inhibition and ultrastructural alterations induced by Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase inhibitors in Candida spp. isolates, including non-albicans organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Celso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of inhibitors of Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMTI, 20-piperidin-2-yl-5α-pregnan-3β-20(R-diol (AZA, and 24(R,S,25-epiminolanosterol (EIL, against clinical isolates of Candida spp., analysing the ultrastructural changes. Results AZA and EIL were found to be potent growth inhibitors of Candida spp. isolates. The median MIC50 was 0.5 μg.ml-1 for AZA and 2 μg.ml-1 for EIL, and the MIC90 was 2 μg.ml-1 for both compounds. All strains used in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B; however, some isolates were fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. Most of the azole-resistant isolates were Candida non-albicans (CNA species, but several of them, such as C. guilliermondii, C. zeylanoides, and C. lipolytica, were susceptible to 24-SMTI, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Reference strain C. krusei (ATCC 6258, FLC-resistant was consistently susceptible to AZA, although not to EIL. The fungicidal activity of 24-SMTI was particularly high against CNA isolates. Treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of AZA and EIL induced several ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the cell-wall shape and thickness, a pronounced disconnection between the cell wall and cytoplasm with an electron-lucent zone between them, mitochondrial swelling, and the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Fluorescence microscopy analyses indicated an accumulation of lipid bodies and alterations in the cell cycle of the yeasts. The selectivity of 24-SMTI for fungal cells versus mammalian cells was assessed by the sulforhodamine B viability assay. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of 24-SMT may be a novel approach to control Candida spp. infections, including

  1. Social isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C; Norman, Greg J; Berntson, Gary G

    2011-01-01

    ..., reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms...

  2. Nucleic acid isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  3. Nucleic acid isolation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  4. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from big-head ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mail: wangrixin1123@126.com. †These authors contributed equally to this work. Beijing, China) and approximately 200–1000 bp frag- ments were ligated to adapters OligoA (5 -TAC TCA GGA. CTC AT-3 ) and OligoB (5 -GAC GAT GAG TCC.

  5. Proteomic analysis of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. pupae head development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Zheng

    Full Text Available The honeybee pupae development influences its future adult condition as well as honey and royal jelly productions. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates honeybee pupae head metamorphosis is still poorly understood. To further our understand of the associated molecular mechanism, we investigated the protein change of the honeybee pupae head at 5 time-points using 2-D electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Accordingly, 58 protein spots altered their expression across the 5 time points (13-20 days, of which 36 proteins involved in the head organogenesis were upregulated during early stages (13-17 days. However, 22 proteins involved in regulating the pupae head neuron and gland development were upregulated at later developmental stages (19-20 days. Also, the functional enrichment analysis further suggests that proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, development, cytoskeleton and protein folding were highly involved in the generation of organs and development of honeybee pupal head. Furthermore, the constructed protein interaction network predicted 33 proteins acting as key nodes of honeybee pupae head growth of which 9 and 4 proteins were validated at gene and protein levels, respectively. In this study, we uncovered potential protein species involved in the formation of honeybee pupae head development along with their specific temporal requirements. This first proteomic result allows deeper understanding of the proteome profile changes during honeybee pupae head development and provides important potential candidate proteins for future reverse genetic research on honeybee pupae head development to improve the performance of related organs.

  6. Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system; Etude tribologique de revetements durs sans cobalt destines aux organes d`isolement du circuit primaire des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachon, L.

    1995-10-18

    The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ``Stellites`` coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 {mu}m monolayers of Cr/C{sub x} with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C{sub 1.6} at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 {mu}m of cermets NiCr{sub y} (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 {mu}m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.).

  7. Can we safely decrease intensive care unit admissions for children with high grade isolated solid organ injuries? Using the shock index, pediatric age-adjusted and hematocrit to modify APSA admission guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnot, Mary; Armstrong, Lindsey Bendure; Mooney, David P

    2017-06-01

    In 2000, the American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) disseminated consensus practice guidelines for the management of blunt liver and splenic injury which included intensive care unit (ICU) admission for children with grade IV injuries. We sought to determine if we could better predict which children with isolated solid organ injuries (SOI) underwent an ICU-level intervention, thus necessitating ICU admission. Children with isolated liver, spleen, or kidney injuries admitted to the ICU from November 2003 to August 2015 were identified in our trauma registry, and data were extracted from the medical record. ICU-level interventions were defined as transfusion, vasopressor use, intubation, and operative/procedural intervention. Shock index and pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) was calculated for all patients. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV) were determined. 133 children met inclusion criteria. 19 (14.3%) required ICU-level intervention, and 114 (85.1%) did not. 95% (n=18) of the intervention group had either an elevated SIPA or a hematocrit <30% on admission compared to 22% (n=25) of patients in the no intervention group. Sensitivity was 95%, and NPV was 99%. Limiting ICU admission in children with isolated SOI to those with an elevated SIPA or hematocrit <30% would reduce the ICU admission rate by two-thirds while maintaining patient safety. Diagnostic study. III. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Medicas]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Pereira, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Dire, Glaucio; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Rocha, Emely Kazan [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Celular e Genetica

    2005-10-15

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P<0.05), probably caused by metabolites generated by EGb and capable of altering the bioavailability of the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}. (author)

  9. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF MICRO - ORGANISM CAPABLE OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS THROUGH MOBILE PHONES OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN OBSTETRIC DEPARTMENT OF TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the microbial contamination on mobile phones of health care workers and to know the antibiotic sensitivity pattern. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Swabs from mobile phones of 40 health care workers (Doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, ward boys were taken & processed by standard bacteriological technique. Antibiotic susceptibility done by Kirby - Bauer disc diffusion technique. RESULT: Out of 40 mobile phones of Health care workers of Obstetrics department of Jhalawar M edical C ollege, Jhalawar, 34( 85% showed bacterial contamination. In our study we found single bacterial growth on 24% of mobile and multiple growth on 76%. S. aureus was most common isolate (62% followed by Klebseilla sp. (56%. S. aureus isolate shows sensitivity to Augmentin while E. coli was resistant to Augmentin and Ciprofloxacin. Other Gram negative bacterias were sensitive to most of the antibiotics. Pseudomonas was found sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes that mobile phones act as a c arriers & may play an important role in spreading of nosocomial infection.

  10. HEADS UP : Sensorimotor control of the head-neck system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Head-neck stabilization is inherently challenging even when stationary, requiring constant vigilance to counter the downward pull of gravity. It involves a highly complex biomechanical system comprised of a large mass (the head) balanced on top of seven vertebrae (the neck), that are in turn

  11. Isolated third ventricle glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Baran; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Yapıcıer, Özlem; Kılıç, Türker

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and the most malignant type of gliomas. Cerebral hemispheres are usual locations for gliomas. Isolated third ventricular presentation is very rare for glioblastomas. A new case of isolated third ventricular glioblastoma has been presented in this report. A 36-year-old woman was admitted to outpatient clinic with headache, blurred vision and confusion. A head CT scan and MRI had showed third ventricular mass lesion with obstructive hydrocephalus. Previous to her admission to our clinic, a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt had been inserted and her hydrocephalus had been relieved to some extent in acute settings. In our clinic, stereotactic biopsy was performed and a second ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted from the opposite site. Histopathological diagnosis was glioblastoma. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were started immediately after the surgery. Patient's hydrocephalus has resolved and she was well at post-operative 6th month. In differential diagnosis list of the tumors presenting in the third ventricle, there are plenty of tumors such as colloid cyst, meningioma, germinoma, craniopharyngioma, lymphoma, choroid plexus papilloma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, chiasmatic and hypothalamic benign astrocytoma. Ring enhancement of this region pathology is a peculiar sign for glioblastoma, yet not pathognomonic. Tumor histology is crucial to yield the final diagnosis. Management of obstructive hydrocephalus, making histopathological diagnosis, starting adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in isolated third ventricular glioblastomas is a safe and effective approach when we consider malignant nature and intractable progress of glioblastomas.

  12. Evaluation of three formulations of culture media for isolation of Brucella spp. regarding their ability to inhibit the growth of contaminating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Acácia F; Antunes, João M A P; Lara, Gustavo H B; Mioni, Mateus S R; Allendorf, Susan D; Peres, Marina G; Appolinário, Camila M; Listoni, Fernando J P; Ribeiro, Marcio G; Megid, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Three culture media (Brucella agar, Farrell medium, and CITA) were compared for their effectiveness in inhibiting contamination and for isolating Brucella spp. One hundred lymph nodes from pigs (n = 50) and wild boars (n = 50) with lymphadenitis were collected in slaughterhouses in the State of São Paulo and were assessed on these three selective media for Brucella spp. All of the samples were negative for Brucella spp. on the three culture media. On the agar medium, fungal (70 plates) and Gram-positive bacterial (59 plates) contaminants were observed; in the CITA medium, the absence of fungal and Gram-positive bacteria on 15 plates was observed; no bacterial or fungal growth was observed on the Farrell media. The results demonstrated that the CITA and Farrell media inhibited the growth of contaminants better than the Brucella agar.

  13. Neuraminidase Activity in Streptococcus sanguis and in the Viridans Group, and Occurrence of Acylneuraminate Lyase in Viridans Organisms Isolated from Patients with Septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The enzyme neuraminidase (EC 3.2.1.18) was found to be strongly active in different types of Streptococcus sanguis and S. viridans, and, in addition, the occurrence of the enzyme acylneuraminate pyruvate lyase (EC 4.1.3.3) was described in S. viridans. The enzyme-active bacteria strains were isolated from blood cultures of patients with septicemia. Whereas S. sanguis lost its strong neuraminidase activity after some weeks, S. viridans retained its enzyme activity for a long time in culture. Immunoelectrophoretic studies of the blood cultures of patients with streptococcal infections showed the loss of neuraminic acid in most glycoproteins of the serum, proving the in vivo action of neuraminidase. The pathogenic role of neuraminidase is discussed in streptococcal septicemia from the viewpoint of present knowledge. Images PMID:4816461

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as organs like the heart or liver, shows up in shades of gray, and air appears black. ... who will discuss the results with you. Follow-up examinations may be necessary. Your doctor will explain ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up in shades of gray, and air ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save ... to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on ...

  18. Antioxidant, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic and thrombolytic activities of organic and aqueous extracts of Hopea odorata leaves and in silico PASS prediction of its isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Hossain, Mohammed Munawar; Kabir, Md Imtiazul; Ahmad, Shabbir; Chakrabarty, Nishan; Rahman, Md Atiar; Rahman, Md Mominur

    2016-11-21

    Hopea Odorata, locally known as Telsur (Bangladesh), has some traditional uses as folk medicine. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic and thrombolytic activities of H. odorata leaf extracts as new therapeutic prospects predicting the activity of some of the isolated compounds of this plant. Leaves of Hopea odorata was extracted with pure methanol (MEHO), ethanol (EEHO) and water (AEHO). The extract was tested for antioxidant activity by using reducing power and H 2 O 2 scavenging assay. Antidiarrheal effects were assayed by three standard methods of bioassay: Castor oil-induced diarrhea, Castor oil induced enteropooling and gastrointestinal transit test. Hypoglycemic effect was determined by normoglycemic model of mice. Thrombolytic activity was evaluated by clot lyses test for human and mice blood. In silico PASS prediction was applied for phytoconstituents namely Balanocarpol, Hopeaphenol and Ampelopsin H isolated from this plant. Among the all extracts, MEHO exhibited strong antioxidant activity in both reducing power and H 2 O 2 scavenging assay. Phenol content of MEHO was 297.22 ± 0.78 mg/g and flavonol content was 91.53 ± 1.82 mg/g. All the experiment of extracts at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg) showed significant (p extract showed no significant (P antioxidant, free radical scavenger, Nitric oxide scavenger, cardioprotectant, hepatoprotectant, thrombolytic, fibrinolytic, antibacterial, antifungal, anticarcinogenic, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory activity of examined phytoconstituents. These findings suggest that the plant may be a potential source of new antidiarrheal, thrombolytic and antioxidative agents but it is found to have no antidiabetic capability. PASS prediction matched with present study for the extracts. Further study needs to identify the PASS predicted biological actions of the phytoconstituents.

  19. Womanhood in Bessie Head's fiction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confronted with gender discrimination in addition ;to the racial and ethnic marginality she had suffered since childhood. When the discovery of. Margaret's Basarwa origins culminate in the decision to get rid of her, Head points to the multiplicity of her problems. Head demonstrates that Margaret's womanhood comes into ...

  20. Analytical modelling of soccer heading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heading occur frequently in soccer games and studies have shown that repetitive heading of the soccer ball could result in degeneration of brain cells and lead to mild traumatic brain injury. This study proposes a two degree-of-freedom linear mathematical model to study the impact of the soccer ball on the brain. The model ...

  1. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Shrapnel Injury of Isolated Third Cranial Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Ulutaş, Murat; Seçer, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Isolated third nerve palsy develops in numerous intracranial pathologies such as closed head trauma, tumor, and aneurysm. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy caused by shrapnel injury is uncommon. After a penetrating intracranial shrapnel injury, our patient with oculomotor ophthalmoplegia underwent surgery. Microsurgery removed the shrapnel that was applying pressure on the third nerve, resulting in contusion. A partial recovery associated with regeneration was observed at month 9. Extraocular m...

  3. [The isolation of organic compounds from hydrosulfuric mineral waters with the use of the extractive freezing-out technique with centrifugation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhterev, V N; Kabina, E A

    The mineral waters, enriched with organic substances find extensive application in balneotherapy. The fast and efficient methods for the identification and quantitative measurement of organic compounds (in the first place, organic acids) in such waters need to be developed for the estimation of their quality and biological activity. The objective of the present study was to elaborate a gas chromatographic method for the determination of monobasic carbonic acids in sulfide-containing mineral waters by means of extractive freezing-out in combination with the application of the centrifugal forces for the elucidation of the metrological characteristics of the compounds of interest. The secondary objective was to estimate the prospects for the application of the method of interest for determining the dissolved organic compounds in mineral waters. The following carbonic acids were used for the purposes of the study: acetic acid (analytical grade), Russia; propionic grade (extra pure), Ferak, Germany; butyric acid (pure), Russia; valeric acid (pure), Russia; caproic acid (pure), Russia; oenanthic acid (pure), Russia; and caprylic acid (pure), Russia). Acetonitrile («O» grade), Russia, was used as the extracting agent. The LV-210 analytical balance (Russia) was used to prepare the model and standard solutions of the organic compounds and to determine their mass. The extracts and standard mixture were investigated by the gas chromatographic technique with the use of the Kristallyuks apparatus («Meta-Khrom», Russia) equipped with the flame ionization detector and the capillary column. Extractive freezing-out in the combination with centrifugation was performed with the laboratory installation for this purpose. Under the model conditions, a single extractive freezing-out procedure with the centrifugation of the sample made it possible to reach the 22-37-fold concentration of C2-C8 monobasic carbonic acids during their transfer from water into acetonitrile. The

  4. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly in...

  5. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c) of...

  6. Head Injury as Risk Factor for Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlovska, Sonja; Pedersen, Michael Skaarup; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies investigating the relationship between head injury and subsequent psychiatric disorders often suffer from methodological weaknesses and show conflicting results. The authors investigated the incidence of severe psychiatric disorders following hospital contact for head injury....... METHOD: The authors used linkable Danish nationwide population-based registers to investigate the incidence of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and organic mental disorders in 113,906 persons who had suffered head injuries. Data were analyzed by survival analysis...... and adjusted for gender, age, calendar year, presence of a psychiatric family history, epilepsy, infections, autoimmune diseases, and fractures not involving the skull or spine. RESULTS: Head injury was associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65, 95% CI=1...

  7. Microbial isolates in chronic osteomyelitis--a guide to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, T O; Ogunlade, S O; Fashina, A N

    2002-06-01

    Between August 1995 and December 1999, sixty patients with chronic osteomyelitis had the effluent from the discharging sinuses and bone biopsies cultured aerobically and anaerobically. 47 positive isolates were obtained and the organism commonly isolated both in the single- and two-organism isolates was Staphylococcus aureus. The sensitivity patterns of these isolates were carried out with the available antibiotic discs. 30 per cent of the organisms isolated were sensitive to ceftriaxone (Rocephine) and gentamycin.

  8. Isolated Aortitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among others. In some cases, biologics like anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs such as infliximab or rituximab have been used. Isolated aortitis occurring with retroperitoneal fibrosis has been treated with tamoxifen, an anti- ...

  9. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4 and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na99mTcO4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na99mTcO4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (PSubstâncias podem interferir na biodisponibilidade de radiobiocomplexos, como os radiofármacos. O extrato de Ginkgo Biloba (EGb apresenta efeitos. Avaliou-se a influência de um EGb na biodisponibilidade do pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO-4Na e na morfometria de órgãos de ratos que foram tratados com EGb. 99mTcO-4Na foi injetado, os animais sacrificados e a radioatividade nos órgãos contada. Os resultados mostraram que o EGb alterou a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na em rins, fígado e duodeno e alterações morfométricas significativas (p<0.05 foram encontradas. Sugere-se que o EGb poderia gerar metabólitos capazes de alterar morfometricamente os órgãos citados e alterar a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na.

  10. High-level exogenous glutamic acid-independent production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with organic acid addition in a new isolated Bacillus subtilis C10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Zhang, Anyi; Hong, Yizhi; Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-07-01

    A new exogenous glutamic acid-independent γ-PGA producing strain was isolated and characterized as Bacillus subtilis C10. The factors influencing the endogenous glutamic acid supply and the biosynthesis of γ-PGA in this strain were investigated. The results indicated that citric acid and oxalic acid showed the significant capability to support the overproduction of γ-PGA. This stimulated increase of γ-PGA biosynthesis by citric acid or oxalic acid was further proved in the 10 L fermentor. To understand the possible mechanism contributing to the improved γ-PGA production, the activities of four key intracellular enzymes were measured, and the possible carbon fluxes were proposed. The result indicated that the enhanced level of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity caused by oxalic acid was important for glutamic acid synthesized de novo from glucose. Moreover, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were the positive regulators of glutamic acid biosynthesis, while 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was the negative one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coordination of eye and head movements during smooth pursuit in patients with vestibular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterston, J A; Barnes, G R; Grealy, M A; Luxon, L M

    1992-12-01

    During pursuit of smoothly moving targets with combined eye and head movements in normal subjects, accurate gaze control depends on successful interaction of the vestibular and head movement signals with the ocular pursuit mechanisms. To investigate compensation for loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head-free pursuit in labyrinthine-deficient patients, pursuit performance was assessed and compared under head-fixed and head-free conditions in five patients with isolated bilateral loss of vestibular function. Target motion consisted of predictable and unpredictable pseudo-random waveforms containing the sum of three or four sinusoids. Comparison of slow-phase gaze velocity gains under head-free and head-fixed conditions revealed no significant differences during pursuit of any of the three pseudo-random waveforms. The finding of significant compensatory eye movement during active head movements in darkness in labyrinthine-deficient patients, which were comparable in character and gain to the vestibular eye movement elicited in normal subjects, probably explains the similarity of the head-fixed and head-free responses. In two additional patients with cerebellar degeneration and vestibular failure, no compensatory eye movement response was observed, implying that the cerebellum is necessary for the generation of such responses in labyrinthine-deficient patients.

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up in shades of gray, and ... chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  13. Landslides at Beachy Head, Sussex

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Beachy Head (Figures 1 and 2) is a famous natural and historic site and tourist attraction on the south coast. The cliff top area is part of the Downland Country Park managed by Eastbourne District Council. The section of cliff surveyed at Beachy Head is situated to the east of the modern lighthouse. The survey spans a 400 m south-facing stretch of beach with a cliff height of between 120 and 160 m. Cliffs and lighthouse at Beachy Head As part of a programme of work monitoring coast...

  14. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events......The present article suggests that the brief history of Western television news dramaturgy can be expounded as three major waves: from the early days of the talking heads in the studio, over the narrativization of the field report to a (re-)current studio- and field-based talking heads format...

  15. Project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law made of a single article. The agreement between the French government and the international organization ITER is attached to the document. It defines the juridical status, the privileges and immunities of the organization itself and of its personnel inside the French territory. An appendix to the agreement precises the cooperation modalities between the French authorities and ITER organization. (J.S.)

  16. Marine organisms as source of extracts to disrupt bacterial communication: bioguided isolation and identification of quorum sensing inhibitors from Ircinia felix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Quintana

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, 39 extracts from marine organisms were evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and the Brazilian Coast including 26 sponges, seven soft corals, five algae and one zooanthid. The results showed that crude extracts from the soft coral Eunicea laciniata, and the sponges Svenzea tubulosa, Ircinia felix and Neopetrosia carbonaria were the most promising source of quorum sensing inhibitors compounds without affecting bacterial growth, unlike the raw extracts of Agelas citrina, Agelas tubulata, Iotrochota arenosa, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Niphates caycedoi, Cliona tenuis, Ptilocaulis walpersi, Petrosia pellasarca, and the algae Laurencia catarinensis and Laurencia obtusa, which displayed potent antibacterial activity against the biosensors employed. The crude extract from the sponge I. felix was fractionated, obtaining furanosesterterpenes which were identified and evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, showing a moderate activity without affecting the biosensor's growth.

  17. A study on accumulation of volatile organic compounds during ochratoxin a biosynthesis and characterization of the correlation in Aspergillus carbonarius isolated from grape and dried vine fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Cheng, Zhan; Ma, Liyan; Li, Jingming

    2017-07-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were detected in Aspergillus carbonarius strains (AF, SD26 and SD27) during a 7-day growing period, using HS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Results showed that 33 VOCs were detected in these strains. The AF strain showed the different sesquiterpene profile compared with the other strains. Principal component analysis revealed that the AF strain was segregated from the other two strains regarding the VOC profile, especially the sesquiterpene profile. Ester metabolites were produced more at the beginning of the strain growth period, whereas extension of the strain incubation resulted in an intense accumulation of hydrocarbon compounds. The prediction models on the correlation between OTA and VOCs were established using partial least squares regression analysis. This analysis indicated that C-8 alcohols, ketones, and trans-nerolidol showed a close relation with the OTA synthesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Counting heads in Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-14

    Representatives of 182 nations gathered in Cairo in September, 1994, at the Un Conference on Population and Development. The resulting 113-page Draft Program of Action contains sober discussions on demographic issues, including projections of population increase in the decades ahead. It focuses on the potential growth of famine, disease, warfare, environmental degradation, and general human misery if the world's population cannot be stabilized at around 8 billion in the next 20 years. The 1994 figure stands at about 5.7 billion, and there will be 12.5 billion people if no action is taken. Previous conferences hosted under the UN helped spark a remarkable decline in fertility rates, especially in Indonesia and Thailand. Even in populous Bangladesh, some 40% of women now use contraceptives, while the fertility rate has dropped from 7 to 4.2 in 2 decades. The proposals debated in Cairo include sustainable development, gender equality, and the empowerment of women. Whatever the country or culture, fertility rates tend to fall dramatically as women become more educated. This has been borne out almost everywhere, most notably in Japan and Singapore. The conference has been criticized by the Vatican as advocating an international standard for easy abortion, encouraging sex education for teenagers, and sanctioning marriages other than between a man and a woman. Some conservative Muslim thinkers have also complained that it promotes Western values and fosters illicit sex. Many supporters of population planning have argued that the empowerment of women will reduce the incidence of abortion. The Cairo document will alienate many across Asia with its references to the plurality of family forms, including the large number of households headed by single parents. The one goal on which everyone can agree is the need to promote policies that will stabilize the global headcount.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common ... acutely injured; however, this decision is based on clinical judgment. This is because traction devices and many ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an IV line, into a vein in your hand or arm. A saline solution may be used ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... gadolinium contrast, it may still be possible to use it after appropriate pre-medication. Patient consent will ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some ... told otherwise, you may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some ...

  13. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... on the interaction object while interacting. This method has been implemented on a head-mounted eye tracker for detecting a set of predefined head gestures. The accuracy of the gesture classifier is evaluated and verified for gaze-based interaction in applications intended for both large public displays and small...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably....

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test ... Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ... Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top of page ... and is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... the body being imaged, send and receive radio waves, producing signals that are detected by the coils. ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding after receiving intravenous contrast. For further information please ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top of page This page ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... copied to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive ... Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may sense a temporary metallic taste in their mouth after the contrast injection. If you do not ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and may add approximately 15 minutes to the total exam time. top of page What will I ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  6. 10th International Symposium on Head And Neck Skin Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; van der Veen, J. P. Wietse

    2011-01-01

    Since 1993, ten multidisciplinary symposia were organized at The Netherlands Cancer Institute on the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies of the head and neck. The symposia are meant to provide up-to-date teaching for physicians by world-renowned speakers. The previous symposia dealt with

  7. Antifungal potential of flower head extract of Spilanthes acmella Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different concentrations of Spilanthes acmella flower head extract were evaluated for antifungal activity (0.1 to 2.0 mg). The diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 0.1 to 2.3 cm with the increase in concentration of test solution. In all the organisms, the maximum zone of inhibition was observed at 2000mg concentration.

  8. Head and Neck Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Jakun W

    2017-08-01

    Pain is a significant morbidity resulting from head and neck cancer. Pain may also be the result of the treatments directed against head and neck cancer. An experienced practitioner may manage this pain by understanding the multifactorial mechanisms of pain and the various pharmacotherapies available. Pain should be managed with multiple medications in a multimodal approach, and nonpharmacologic therapies should be considered as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 28 CFR 0.135 - Functions common to heads of organizational units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organizational units. 0.135 Section 0.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE... Disqualification to Act § 0.135 Functions common to heads of organizational units. Subject to the general supervision and direction of the Attorney General, the head of each organizational unit within the Department...

  10. Effect of Time Management Program on Job Satisfaction for Head Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Hanan ELsayed; Sleem, Wafaa Fathi; El Atroush, Hala Gaber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time management and job satisfaction all related to each other and greatly affect success of organization. Subjects and Methods: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a designed program of time management on job satisfaction for head nurses. A Quasi-experimental design was used for a total number of head nurses participated. Two…

  11. Influenza virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type.

  12. WE-G-BRD-04: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An Integrated Model-Based Intrafractional Organ Motion Tracking Approach with Dynamic MRI in Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Li, H; Wooten, H; Gay, H; Mutic, S; Thorstad, W; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Victoria, J; Dempsey, J [ViewRay incorporated, Oakwood Village, Ohio (United States); Ruan, S [University of Rouen, QuantIF - EA 4108 LITIS, Rouen (France); Low, D [Deparment of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In-treatment dynamic cine images, provided by the first commercially available MRI-guided radiotherapy system, allow physicians to observe intrafractional motion of head and neck (H&N) internal structures. Nevertheless, high anatomical complexity and relatively poor cine image contrast/resolution have complicated automatic intrafractional motion evaluation. We proposed an integrated model-based approach to automatically delineate and analyze moving structures from on-board cine images. Methods: The H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein severe internal motion often occurs, was selected as the target-to-be-tracked. To reliably capture its motion, a hierarchical structure model containing three statistical shapes (face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) was first built from a set of manually delineated shapes using principal component analysis. An integrated model-fitting algorithm was then employed to align the statistical shapes to the first to-be-detected cine frame, and multi-feature level-set contour propagation was performed to identify the airway shape change in the remaining frames. Ninety sagittal cine MR image sets, acquired from three H&N cancer patients, were utilized to demonstrate this approach. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 20 randomly selected images from each patient. The resulting dice similarity coefficient (93.28+/−1.46 %) and margin error (0.49+/−0.12 mm) showed good agreement with the manual results. Intrafractional displacements of anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries were observed, with values of 2.62+/−2.92, 1.78+/−1.43, 3.51+/−3.99, and 0.68+/−0.89 mm, respectively. The H&N airway motion was found to vary across directions, fractions, and patients, and highly correlated with patients’ respiratory frequency. Conclusion: We proposed the integrated computational approach, which for the first

  13. Understanding How Headings Influence Text Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemarié

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titles and headings are commonly used signaling devices in expository texts. Researchers in cognitive and educational psychology have demonstrated several important effects of headings and titles on text processing: headings improve memory for text organization; headings influence text comprehension by activating readers’ prior knowledge; and titles can bias text comprehension by their emphasis on a particular text topic. However, the lack of precise linguistic analyses of titles/headings has limited both the scope of empirical research and the precision of conclusions. We present a theory of signaling devices that provides a detailed analysis of variation in titles and headings and generates predictions concerning their effects. We discuss the implications of our analyses for research on titles and headings and summarize recent research findings that illustrate the validity of a central component of our analyses. Finally, we propose some future research directions integrating insights from linguistics for the study of how headings and titles affect text processing.Les titres et intertitres sont des dispositifs de signalisation fréquemment utilisés dans les textes expositifs. De nombreuses recherches réalisées en psychologie cognitive et psychologie des apprentissages ont mis en évidence leurs effets sur le traitement du texte par le lecteur : les intertitres améliorent la représentation mnésique de l’organisation du texte et influencent la compréhension du texte par un mécanisme d’activation des connaissances antérieures du lecteur. Les titres généraux, lorsqu’ils mettent en avant un des thèmes du texte, biaisent la compréhension du texte. Cependant, l’absence d’analyse linguistique approfondie des titres et intertitres a limité la portée de ces travaux et a mené à des conclusions méritant d’être affinées. Nous présentons une théorie générale de la signalisation des textes qui propose un cadre d

  14. Symposium on the evolution and development of the vertebrate head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, Michael J; Olsson, Lennart

    2008-06-15

    Among the symposia held at the seminal meeting of the European Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology was one centered on the development and evolution of the vertebrate head, an exquisitely complex anatomical system. The articles presented at this meeting have been gathered in a special issue of the Journal of Experimental Zoology, and are here reviewed by the organizers of the symposia. These articles cover a breadth of subjects, including interactions between cells derived from the different germ layers, such as those underlying neural crest cell migration and fate and cranial muscle specification, as well as placode development and the origin, development, and evolution of important evolutionary innovations such as jaws and the trabecula cranii. In this introduction, we provide a short historical overview of themes of research into the fundamental organization, structure, and development of the vertebrate head, including the search for head segmentation and the relevance of the New Head Hypothesis, and subsequently present the topics discussed in each of the articles. This overview of the past and the present of head evo-devo is then followed by a glimpse at its possible future and a brief examination of the utility of the notions of heterochrony, heterotopy, and heterofacience in describing evolutionarily important changes in developmental events. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Devise for isolation and preconcentration of volatile organic compounds by means of purging and cryo-trapping of analytes; Prototype pour l`isolation et la pre-concentration de composes organiques volatils par purge et cryo-piegeage des analytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasik, A.; Janicki, W.; Wardencki, W.; Namiesnik, J. [Gdansk Univ. (Poland)

    1997-04-01

    A laboratory prototype of a device for the isolation of volatile organic compounds from liquid samples, by means of purging followed by cryogenic preconcentration before introducing the analytes in a narrow band into a chromatographic column, has been presented. The device was tested using a liquid solution of nine volatile hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, benzene, toluene, p- and o-xylenes and ethylbenzene) at the ppb (2.5-10) level. The automation of the procedure allows good repeatability of the results. Standard deviations of the slopes of calibration curves do not exceed 5 % in any case and high values of regression coefficients confirm linearity. Different types of real samples (e.g., rain water, sea water, wastewater) have been analyzed using this device. The construction of this device allows an extension of the applicability of the analysis of a liquid sample by means of the purge and trap technique. (authors) 13 refs.

  16. 49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head... assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Test procedure...

  17. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  18. [Progress on tantalum rod implanting for the treatment of femur head necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-kang; Ye, Fu-sheng; Tong, Pei-jian; Fan, Yan-hua; Li, Min; Ying, Hang; Xiao, Lu-wei

    2013-07-01

    Incorrect treatment for femur head necrosis can cause collapse of femoral head and tresult in severe harm for the patients (especially for the patient with middle-aged and young). The structure and mechanics characteristics of tantalum rod is similar to bone tissue, it higher strength and can adapt the internal environment of organism, so it has a large potency in treating femur head necrosis. Treatment of early femur head necrosis with tantalum rod implanting had alreadly widey applied at home and abroad, the method has the advantages of simple operation, little risk, less complication and beseems the patient with stage I - II of ARCO. But reasons that the difficult diagnosis of early femur head necrosis, localized effect of tantalum rod, different experience of medical worker,caused the contentions about effect of tantalum rod implanting. With development of science, tantalum rod implanting combined with correlative biotechnology should raise the effect in treating femur head necrosis.

  19. Magnetic head having a wear-resistant layer, and method of manufacturing such a magnetic head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirne, F.W.A.; Zieren, V.; Broese van Groenou, A.; Oorschot, L.F.M. van; Lasinski, P.; Jongh, M. de; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic head having a head face (5) and comprising a head structure composed of thin layers and provided with a transducing element (E11), in which different materials occurring in different areas are present in the head face. The head face is provided with a first layer (31) of a material which is

  20. [Clinical relevance of the Streptococcus milleri group in head and neck infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Udaka, Tsuyoshi; Tanabe, Tadao; Makishima, Kazumi

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus constellatus, S. intermedius, and S. anginosus, the 3 species of the S. milleri group, form part of the normal flora commonly found in the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal and genital tracts. This group has become known as an important pathogen in infections and abscesses, but data on the anatomical distribution of these species is lacking in relation to clinical significance. We obtained 275 strains of the S. milleri group from different departments at our hospital over the last 3 years, including 54 strains from dental surgery, 47 from internal medicine, 44 from otolaryngology (head and neck), 43 from surgery, 32 from gynecology, 17 from urology, 16 from dermatology, 11 from brain surgery, 6 from pediatrics, 3 from orthopedics, and 2 from opthalmology. The 44 strains from head and neck were found in 42 patients,--23 with primary infection and 19 with secondary infection induced by cancer treatments. The primary infection group included 4 deep neck abscesses, 1 peritonsillar abscess, 5 tonsillitis, 4 paranasal sinusitis, 3 congenital aural fistula infections, 2 dental infections, 2 paranasal sinus cysts, 1 supprative parotitis, and 1 postoperative wound infection. The secondary infection group included 7 postoperative wound infections, 3 postoperative pulmonary infections, 3 laryngitis and pharyngitis, 3 terminal pneumonias, and 3 infections of the local recurrence site. The S. milleri group was the only isolated organism in 13 cases (56.5%) of primary infection and in 5 (26.3%) of secondary infection. Among other organisms from the primary infection group, no so-called major pathogens were found. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of the S. milleri group showed that 50% were resistant to CCL and 33% to CTM. ABPC, CPDX, and CFDN were also found to be less sensitive, although no resistant strains were detected. To adequately culture the S. milleri group, incubation in air containing carbon dioxide or in an anaerobic atmosphere is required, and

  1. The Influence of Neck Muscle Tonus and Posture on Brain Tissue Strain in Pedestrian Head Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Victor S; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians are one of the least protected groups in urban traffic and frequently suffer fatal head injuries. An important boundary condition for the head is the cervical spine, and it has previously been demonstrated that neck muscle activation is important for head kinematics during inertial loading. It has also been shown in a recent numerical study that a tensed neck musculature also has some influence on head kinematics during a pedestrian impact situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence on head kinematics and injury metrics during the isolated time of head impact by comparing a pedestrian with relaxed neck and a pedestrian with increased tonus. The human body Finite Element model THUMS Version 1.4 was connected to head and neck models developed at KTH and used in pedestrian-to-vehicle impact simulations with a generalized hood, so that the head would impact a surface with an identical impact response in all simulations. In order to isolate the influence of muscle tonus, the model was activated shortly before head impact so the head would have the same initial position prior to impact among different tonus. A symmetric and asymmetric muscle activation scheme that used high level of activation was used in order to create two extremes to investigate. It was found that for the muscle tones used in this study, the influence on the strain in the brain was very minor, in general about 1-14% change. A relatively large increase was observed in a secondary peak in maximum strains in only one of the simulated cases.

  2. Myogenic capacity of muscle progenitor cells from head and limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M; Torensma, Ruurd; Von den Hoff, Johannes W

    2012-02-01

    The restoration of muscles in the soft palate of patients with cleft lip and/or palate is accompanied by fibrosis, which leads to speech and feeding problems. Treatment strategies that improve muscle regeneration have only been tested in limb muscles. Therefore, in the present study the myogenic potential of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) isolated from head muscles was compared with that of limb muscles. Muscle progenitor cells were isolated from the head muscles and limb muscles of rats and cultured. The proliferation of MPCs was analysed by DNA quantification. The differentiation capacity was analysed by quantifying the numbers of fused cells, and by measuring the mRNA levels of differentiation markers. Muscle progenitor cells were stained to quantify the expression of paired box protein Pax 7 (Pax-7), myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD), and myogenin. Proliferation was similar in the head MPCs and the limb MPCs. Differentiating head and limb MPCs showed a comparable number of fused cells and mRNA expression levels of myosin-1 (Myh1), myosin-3 (Myh3), and myosin-4 (Myh4). During proliferation and differentiation, the number of Pax-7(+), MyoD(+), and myogenin(+) cells in head and limb MPCs was equal. It was concluded that head and limb MPCs show similar myogenic capacities in vitro. Therefore, in vivo myogenic differences between those muscles might rely on the local microenvironment. Thus, regenerative strategies for limb muscles might also be used for head muscles. © 2012 Eur J Oral Sci.

  3. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  4. Opioid-Induced Nausea Involves a Vestibular Problem Preventable by Head-Rest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Lehnen

    Full Text Available Opioids are indispensable for pain treatment but may cause serious nausea and vomiting. The mechanism leading to these complications is not clear. We investigated whether an opioid effect on the vestibular system resulting in corrupt head motion sensation is causative and, consequently, whether head-rest prevents nausea.Thirty-six healthy men (26.6 ± 4.3 years received an opioid remifentanil infusion (45 min, 0.15 μg/kg/min. Outcome measures were the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain determined by video-head-impulse-testing, and nausea. The first experiment (n = 10 assessed outcome measures at rest and after a series of five 1-Hz forward and backward head-trunk movements during one-time remifentanil administration. The second experiment (n = 10 determined outcome measures on two days in a controlled crossover design: (1 without movement and (2 with a series of five 1-Hz forward and backward head-trunk bends 30 min after remifentanil start. Nausea was psychophysically quantified (scale from 0 to 10. The third controlled crossover experiment (n = 16 assessed nausea (1 without movement and (2 with head movement; isolated head movements consisting of the three axes of rotation (pitch, roll, yaw were imposed 20 times at a frequency of 1 Hz in a random, unpredictable order of each of the three axes. All movements were applied manually, passively with amplitudes of about ± 45 degrees.The VOR gain decreased during remifentanil administration (p<0.001, averaging 0.92 ± 0.05 (mean ± standard deviation before, 0.60 ± 0.12 with, and 0.91 ± 0.05 after infusion. The average half-life of VOR recovery was 5.3 ± 2.4 min. 32/36 subjects had no nausea at rest (nausea scale 0.00/0.00 median/interquartile range. Head-trunk and isolated head movement triggered nausea in 64% (p<0.01 with no difference between head-trunk and isolated head movements (nausea scale 4.00/7.25 and 1.00/4.5, respectively.Remifentanil reversibly decreases VOR gain at a half

  5. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  6. The Video Head Impulse Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmagyi, G. M.; Chen, Luke; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Weber, Konrad P.; McGarvie, Leigh A.; Curthoys, Ian S.

    2017-01-01

    In 1988, we introduced impulsive testing of semicircular canal (SCC) function measured with scleral search coils and showed that it could accurately and reliably detect impaired function even of a single lateral canal. Later we showed that it was also possible to test individual vertical canal function in peripheral and also in central vestibular disorders and proposed a physiological mechanism for why this might be so. For the next 20 years, between 1988 and 2008, impulsive testing of individual SCC function could only be accurately done by a few aficionados with the time and money to support scleral search-coil systems—an expensive, complicated and cumbersome, semi-invasive technique that never made the transition from the research lab to the dizzy clinic. Then, in 2009 and 2013, we introduced a video method of testing function of each of the six canals individually. Since 2009, the method has been taken up by most dizzy clinics around the world, with now close to 100 refereed articles in PubMed. In many dizzy clinics around the world, video Head Impulse Testing has supplanted caloric testing as the initial and in some cases the final test of choice in patients with suspected vestibular disorders. Here, we consider seven current, interesting, and controversial aspects of video Head Impulse Testing: (1) introduction to the test; (2) the progress from the head impulse protocol (HIMPs) to the new variant—suppression head impulse protocol (SHIMPs); (3) the physiological basis for head impulse testing; (4) practical aspects and potential pitfalls of video head impulse testing; (5) problems of vestibulo-ocular reflex gain calculations; (6) head impulse testing in central vestibular disorders; and (7) to stay right up-to-date—new clinical disease patterns emerging from video head impulse testing. With thanks and appreciation we dedicate this article to our friend, colleague, and mentor, Dr Bernard Cohen of Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, who since his

  7. The Video Head Impulse Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Halmagyi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, we introduced impulsive testing of semicircular canal (SCC function measured with scleral search coils and showed that it could accurately and reliably detect impaired function even of a single lateral canal. Later we showed that it was also possible to test individual vertical canal function in peripheral and also in central vestibular disorders and proposed a physiological mechanism for why this might be so. For the next 20 years, between 1988 and 2008, impulsive testing of individual SCC function could only be accurately done by a few aficionados with the time and money to support scleral search-coil systems—an expensive, complicated and cumbersome, semi-invasive technique that never made the transition from the research lab to the dizzy clinic. Then, in 2009 and 2013, we introduced a video method of testing function of each of the six canals individually. Since 2009, the method has been taken up by most dizzy clinics around the world, with now close to 100 refereed articles in PubMed. In many dizzy clinics around the world, video Head Impulse Testing has supplanted caloric testing as the initial and in some cases the final test of choice in patients with suspected vestibular disorders. Here, we consider seven current, interesting, and controversial aspects of video Head Impulse Testing: (1 introduction to the test; (2 the progress from the head impulse protocol (HIMPs to the new variant—suppression head impulse protocol (SHIMPs; (3 the physiological basis for head impulse testing; (4 practical aspects and potential pitfalls of video head impulse testing; (5 problems of vestibulo-ocular reflex gain calculations; (6 head impulse testing in central vestibular disorders; and (7 to stay right up-to-date—new clinical disease patterns emerging from video head impulse testing. With thanks and appreciation we dedicate this article to our friend, colleague, and mentor, Dr Bernard Cohen of Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, who

  8. Femoral Head and Neck Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Tisha A M

    2017-07-01

    Femoral head and neck excision is a surgical procedure that is commonly performed in small animal patients. It is a salvage procedure that is done to relieve pain in the coxofemoral joint and restore acceptable function of the limb. Femoral head and neck excision is most commonly used to treat severe osteoarthritis in the coxofemoral joint and can be done in dogs and cats of any size or age. The procedure should not be overused and ideally should not be done when the integrity of the coxofemoral joint can be restored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  10. Phenotypic and Genotypic Features of a Salmonella Heidelberg Strain Isolated in Broilers in Brazil and Their Possible Association to Antibiotics and Short-Chain Organic Acids Resistance and Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Elizabeth; Hayashi, Ricardo Mitsuo; Wammes, Jessica Caroline; Gonzalez-Esquerra, Ricardo; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Freire, Caio César de Melo; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is a human pathogen also found in broilers. A strain (UFPR1) has been associated with field reports of resistance to short-chain organic acids (SCOA) in broilers in the South of Brazil, but was susceptible to a Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic added in feed in a related study. This work aimed to (i) report clinical symptoms caused by SH UFPR1 in broilers, (ii) study its susceptibility to some antibiotics in vitro, and (iii) SCOA in vivo; and (iv) relate these phenotypic observations with its genome characteristics. Two in vivo trials used 1-day-old chicks housed for 21 days in 8 sterilized isolated negative pressure rooms with 4 battery cages of 12 birds each. Birds were challenged or not with 107 CFU/bird of SH UFPR1 orally and exposed or not to SCOA in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Zootechnical parameters were unaffected (P > 0.05), no clinical signs were observed, and few cecal and hepatic histologic and immune-related alterations were seen, in birds challenged with SH. Formic and propionic acids added together in drinking water, fumaric and benzoic acid in feed (Trial 1), and coated calcium butyrate in feed (Trial 2) did not reduce the SH isolation frequencies seen in cecum and liver in broilers after SH challenge (P > 0.05). SH UFPR1 was susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, ceftiofur, cephalexin, doxycycline and oxytetracycline; and mildly susceptible to ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamycin in an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration model using Mueller-Hinton agar. The whole genome of SH UFPR1 was sequenced and consisted of a circular chromosome, spanning 4,760,321 bp with 52.18% of GC-content encoding 84 tRNA, 22 rRNA, and 4,427 protein-coding genes. The comparison between SH UFPR1 genome and a multidrug-resistant SL476 strain revealed 11 missing genomic fragments and 5 insertions related to bgt, bgr, and rpoS genes. The deleted genes

  11. 10th International Symposium on Head And Neck Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Balm, Alfons J M; Lohuis, Peter J F M; van der Veen, J P Wietse

    2011-07-01

    Since 1993, ten multidisciplinary symposia were organized at The Netherlands Cancer Institute on the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies of the head and neck. The symposia are meant to provide up-to-date teaching for physicians by world-renowned speakers. The previous symposia dealt with sarcomas, reconstruction, cancer in young patients, salivary glands, melanoma, unknown primaries, as well as several other topics. This 10th symposium focused on skin cancer of the head and neck. There are many types of skin cancer and the differential diagnosis can often be difficult. In this symposium, diagnosis, molecular biology, epidemiology, staging and the treatment of various skin cancers were discussed by leaders in the field. There were over 200 participants from many different countries in Europe and overseas, representing specialties in the fields of dermatology, maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, head and neck surgery, general surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, and radiotherapy.

  12. Sex differences in head acceleration during heading while wearing soccer headgear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tierney, Ryan T; Higgins, Michael; Caswell, Shane V; Brady, Jessica; McHardy, Krista; Driban, Jeffrey B; Darvish, Kurosh

    2008-01-01

    .... Soccer headgear is marketed for reducing head acceleration and risk of concussion. To determine the effect of sex and soccer headgear on head impact kinematics and dynamic stabilization during soccer heading...

  13. Headache in traumatic brain injuries from blunt head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Peter S; Holmes, James F; Hoyle, John; Atabaki, Shireen; Tunik, Michael G; Lichenstein, Richard; Miskin, Michelle; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    To determine the risk of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children with headaches after minor blunt head trauma, particularly when the headaches occur without other findings suggestive of TBIs (ie, isolated headaches). This was a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of children 2 to 18 years with minor blunt head trauma (ie, Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 14-15). Clinicians assessed the history and characteristics of headaches at the time of initial evaluation, and documented findings onto case report forms. Our outcome measures were (1) clinically important TBI (ciTBI) and (2) TBI visible on computed tomography (CT). Of 27 495 eligible patients, 12 675 (46.1%) had headaches. Of the 12 567 patients who had complete data, 2462 (19.6%) had isolated headaches. ciTBIs occurred in 0 of 2462 patients (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.1%) in the isolated headache group versus 162 of 10 105 patients (1.6%; 95% CI: 1.4%-1.9%) in the nonisolated headache group (risk difference, 1.6%; 95% CI: 1.3%-1.9%). TBIs on CT occurred in 3 of 456 patients (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.1%-1.9%) in the isolated headache group versus 271 of 6089 patients (4.5%; 95% CI: 3.9%-5.0%) in the nonisolated headache group (risk difference, 3.8%; 95% CI: 2.3%-4.5%). We found no significant independent associations between the risk of ciTBI or TBI on CT with either headache severity or location. ciTBIs are rare and TBIs on CT are very uncommon in children with minor blunt head trauma when headaches are their only sign or symptom. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. New Head of the Users Office

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Doris Chromek-Burckhart took over as Head of the Users Office on 1 June. She succeeds Chris Onions, who held the post for more than ten years before retiring in 2010, and Jose Salicio Diez, who replaced him temporarily.   Doris Chromek-Burckhart photographed by Pierre Gildemyn. Doris Chromek-Burckhart arrived at CERN about thirty years ago after completing a physics degree at Mainz University in Germany, and began her career with the Organization working on data acquisition systems for the experiments. She then joined ATLAS, where she took part in the development, commissioning and operation of the experiment's own data acquisition system. Her appointment as Head of the Users Office was preceded by two years as CERN's Equal Opportunities Officer from 2009 to 2010. The Users Office, which has now been in existence for over twenty years, manages administrative procedures and generally makes life easier for the 10,000 or more users from around a hundred different countries, in collaboration with CER...

  15. Head-Worn Displays: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Ozan; Rolland, Jannick

    2006-09-01

    Head-worn display design is inherently an interdisciplinary subject fusing optical engineering, optical materials, optical coatings, electronics, manufacturing techniques, user interface design, computer science, human perception, and physiology for assessing these displays. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art in head-worn display design (HWD) and development. This review is focused on the optical engineering aspects, divided into different sections to explore principles and applications. Building on the guiding fundamentals of optical design and engineering, the principles section includes a summary of microdisplay or laser sources, the Lagrange invariant for understanding the trade-offs in optical design of HWDs, modes of image presentation (i.e., monocular, biocular, and stereo) and operational modes such as optical and video see-through. A brief summary of the human visual system pertinent to the design of HWDs is provided. Two optical design forms, namely, pupil forming and non-pupil forming are discussed. We summarize the results from previous design work using aspheric, diffractive, or holographic elements to achieve compact and lightweight systems. The applications section is organized in terms of field of view requirements and presents a reasonable collection of past designs.

  16. Improved yield of canine islet isolation from deceased donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Stephen; Williams, S Janette; Otte, Vern; Barchman, Sally; Jones, Cheryl; Ramachandran, Karthik; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2017-08-22

    Canine diabetes is a strikingly prevalent and growing disease, and yet the standard treatment of a twice-daily insulin injection is both cumbersome to pet owners and only moderately effective. Islet transplantation has been performed with repeated success in canine research models, but has unfortunately not been made available to companion animals. Standard protocols for islet isolation, developed primarily for human islet transplantation, include beating-heart organ donation, vascular perfusion of preservation solutions, specialized equipment. Unfortunately, these processes are prohibitively complex and expensive for veterinary use. The aim of the study was to develop a simplified approach for isolating canine islets that is compatible with the financial and logistical restrictions inherent to veterinary medicine for the purpose of translating islet transplantation to a clinical treatment for canine diabetes. Here, we describe simplified strategies for isolating quality islets from deceased canine donors without vascular preservation and with up to 90 min of cold ischemia time. An average of more than 1500 islet equivalents per kg of donor bodyweight was obtained with a purity of 70% (N = 6 animals). Islets were 95% viable and responsive to glucose stimulation for a week. We found that processing only the body and tail of the pancreas increased isolation efficiency without sacrificing islet total yield. Islet yield per gram of tissue increased from 773 to 1868 islet equivalents when the head of the pancreas was discarded (N = 3/group). In summary, this study resulted in the development of an efficient and readily accessible method for obtaining viable and functional canine islets from deceased donors. These strategies provide an ethical means for obtaining donor islets.

  17. False-Positive Head-Impulse Test in Cerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremmyda, Olympia; Kirchner, Hanni; Glasauer, Stefan; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus; Strupp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the findings of the bedside head-impulse test (HIT), passive head rotation gain, and caloric irrigation in patients with cerebellar ataxia (CA). In 16 patients with CA and bilaterally pathological bedside HIT, vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) gains were measured during HIT and passive head rotation by scleral search coil technique. Eight of the patients had pathologically reduced caloric responsiveness, while the other eight had normal caloric responses. Those with normal calorics showed a slightly reduced HIT gain (mean ± SD: 0.73 ± 0.15). In those with pathological calorics, gains 80 and 100 ms after the HIT as well as the passive rotation VOR gains were significantly lower. The corrective saccade after head turn occurred earlier in patients with pathological calorics (111 ± 62 ms after onset of the HIT) than in those with normal calorics (191 ± 17 ms, p = 0.0064). We identified two groups of patients with CA: those with an isolated moderate HIT deficit only, probably due to floccular dysfunction, and those with combined HIT, passive rotation, and caloric deficit, probably due to a peripheral vestibular deficit. From a clinical point of view, these results show that the bedside HIT alone can be false-positive for establishing a diagnosis of a bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit in patients with CA. PMID:23162531

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding after receiving intravenous contrast. For further information please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media and its references. top of page What are the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and may require an injection of a ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If sedation is used, there ... have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... information please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media and its references. top of page What are the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able to ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms. It can help diagnose conditions such as: brain tumors stroke infections developmental anomalies hydrocephalus — dilatation of fluid ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : ...

  6. Femoral head cartilage disarticulation disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femoral head cartilage disarticulation disorder and necrosis is a major skeletal problem in broiler breeders since they are maintained for a long time in the farm. The etiology of this disease is not well understood. A field study was conducted to understand the basis of this metabolic disease. Six ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  9. Differential effects of cortisol on apoptosis and proliferation of carp B-lymphocytes from head kidney, spleen and blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Nowak, B.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weyts, F.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared B lymphocytes isolated from different tissues with regard to their proliferation, apoptosis and the effects of cortisol on these processes. B-lymphocytes, isolated from the head kidney and spleen, were characterised by higher proliferation and lower intracellular calcium (Ca2 i)

  10. Humeral head size in shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaesel, M T; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1998-01-01

    Changes in kinematics after hemiarthroplasty of the glenohumeral joint were investigated in nine cadaveric specimens. During experiments the influence of the humeral head size on glenohumeral kinematics was evaluated. A modular prosthesis with five different head sizes and press-fit stems was used....... Three-dimensional kinematic measurements during abduction and adduction from 0 degree to 70 degrees showed increased external rotation with increasing head size. Small prosthetic heads translated inferiorly and large prosthetic heads superiorly compared with the intact humeral head. During forced...

  11. Non-uniformity of Clinical Head, Head and Neck, and Body Coils in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Nazarpoor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Signal intensity uniformity in a magnetic resonance (MR image indicates how well the MR imaging (MRI system represents an object. One of the major sources of image non-uniformity in high-field MRI scanners is inhomogeneity of radio-frequency coil. The aim of this study was to investigate non-uniformity in head, head and neck, and body coils and compare the obtained results to determine the best clinical coil for future clinical application. Materials and Methods A phantom was designed to investigate the non-uniformity of coils. All evaluations were carried out using a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. T1-weighted inversion recovery sequence (linear phase encoding and turbo fast low angle shot (TurboFLASH images were used to find non-uniformity in the clinical coils. For testing the uniformity of coils, signal intensity profiles in parts of the coronal image of phantom were measured over X and Y axes. Results The results showed that body coil was the most uniform coil of all; in addition, the head and neck coil was more uniform than the head coil. The results also indicated that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the head and neck coil was higher than the head and body coils. Moreover, SNR of the head coil was higher than that of the body coil. Conclusion In order to accurately find or apply an image signal intensity for measuring organ blood flow or perfusion, coil non-uniformity corrections are required.

  12. 18 CFR 701.5 - Organization pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organization pattern... ORGANIZATION Introduction § 701.5 Organization pattern. (a) The Office of the Water Resources Council is... Council Staff headed by a Director, and Field Organizations within its jurisdiction. (b) The Water...

  13. Radial head prosthesis: results overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carità, E; Donadelli, A; Cugola, L; Perazzini, P

    2017-12-01

    Radial head replacement is frequently used in treatment of radial head fractures or sequela. Impossibility to restore a correct anatomy, acute elbow traumatic instability and failure of osteosynthesis hardware are the most common indications. The authors describe their case studies and results on the implantation of various radial head prostheses. Between June 2005 and June 2016, 28 radial head prostheses were implanted in the same number of patients with an average follow-up of 49 months (6-104). Indications for implantation were: Mason type III and IV radial head fractures and post-traumatic arthritis due to failure of previous treatments. Monopolar prostheses were used and were press-fit implanted via Kaplan's lateral access and Kocher's anconeus approach to the humeroradial joint. At the follow-up, assessments were made of the pain, according to the visual analogic scale, range of motion (ROM), stability and functionality according to the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, presence of osteolysis and mobilization during radiography tests, personal satisfaction of the patients, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation outcomes measurements. At the follow-up, we recorded an average level of pain of 1.8 in patients under acute treatments for radial head fractures and a marked reduction in the remaining cases from 6.7 to 2.1. ROM was found on average to be 107° of flexion-extension and 159° of pronosupination. Personal satisfaction was good-excellent in 23 cases. There was no case of infection; removal of the implant was necessary in three cases due to mobilization of the stem and oversized implants. In six cases, bone resorption was seen at the level of the prosthetic collar and it was in all cases asymptomatic. The results of this study suggest that the use of prostheses, if well positioned, is a valid solution in the treatment of secondary arthritis and fractures of the radial head with poor prognosis, with good results in the

  14. An Investigation of Head Accelerometry, Cognitive Function, and Brain Blood Flow During Intercollegiate Boxing and its Impact Regarding Head Injury Assessment In Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-06

    Brininger ,Teresa, Kryskow, Elizabeth 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER HQ USAFA/ADPH 2169 Fieldhouse Drive USAFA, CO 80840 USARIEM Natick, MA 01760 9...Injury, Head Acceleration, MBTI Diagnostics, Cognitive Testing, Brain Acoustic Monitoring, Boxing, Neuropsychology 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  15. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  16. Head-shaking tilt suppression: a clinical test to discern central from peripheral causes of vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuma E Maia, F C; Cal, Renato; D'Albora, Ricardo; Carmona, Sergio; Schubert, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Tilt suppression refers to both tilting the head away from an Earth vertical axis and a reduction of an induced horizontal nystagmus. This phenomenon of reducing an induced horizontal nystagmus involves a circuitry of neurons within the vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum (collectively referred to as velocity storage) and signals from the otolith end organs. Lesions involving this circuitry can disrupt tilt suppression of induced horizontal nystagmus. We investigated the clinical value of combining the horizontal head-shaking nystagmus test with tilt suppression in 28 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction and 11 patients with lesions affecting the central nervous system. Each of the subjects with peripheral vestibular lesions generated an appropriately directed horizontal nystagmus after head shaking that then suppressed the induced angular slow phase velocity on average 52 ± 17.6% following tilt down of the head. In contrast, patients with central lesions had very little ability to suppress post-head-shaking nystagmus (mean 3.4 ± 56%). We recommend tilting the head after head shaking as a useful clinical test to assist in the differential diagnosis of vertiginous patients. In the case of unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction, head tilt suppresses the induced nystagmus via influence of the otolith organ. In the case of central pathology, the inability to suppress the nystagmus is from lesions impairing the otolith mediation on the velocity storage circuitry.

  17. Facility Head | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility HeadConfocal Microscopy Core FacilityLaboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics The Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics (LCBG), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), NCI, NIH, HHS is looking for a motivated and skilled microscopist to fill a Facility Head position to lead its Confocal Microscopy Core Facility. The CCR Microscopy Core provides microscopy equipment and support to approximately 150 active users representing over 20 NCI laboratories. The Core places an emphasis on training independent users, but the staff is available to assist in all phases of experiments. This includes experimental design, data acquisition, and data analysis. The Core provides state-of-the-art microscopic analyses to better understand critical biological structures and cellular processes involved in cancer. The Facility Head will also be expected to participate in the CCR Microscopy Core meetings and to interact extensively with the other microscopy facilities in CCR. Light microscopic techniques and analytic methods currently used in this facility include, but are not limited to: 1) co-localization of fluorescent fusion proteins with organelles; 2) demonstration of membrane ruffling, cytoskeletal organization, focal adhesions and other cell morphology; 3) live time-lapse translocation of fluorescent fusion proteins; 4) fluorescent indicators of oxidative stress in live cells; 5) 4D imaging of cell division; 6) Super-Resolution imaging; 7) tiling; 8) Fluorescent Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET); 9) Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS); 10) Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM); and, 11) Second Harmonic Generation imaging (SHG) of whole live tissue/organ. The Facility's equipment includes a Zeiss LSM 710 NLO for two-photon imaging, a Zeiss LSM 780 for higher sensitivity imaging, a Zeiss LSM 780/ELYRA for super-resolution imaging of fixed cells, and the Zeiss LSM 880/Airyscan for super-resolution imaging of live and

  18. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  19. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Concussion in Youth Sports Training course: This page has moved ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources ...

  20. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this? Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How ... for Disease Control and Prevention , National Center for Injury Prevention and Control , Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention ...

  1. Adjustment of saccade characteristics during head movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasso, P.; Bizzi, E.; Dichgans, J.

    1973-01-01

    Saccade characteristics have been studied during coordinated eye-head movements in monkeys. Amplitude, duration, and peak velocity of saccades with head turning were compared with saccades executed while the head was artificially restrained. The results indicate that the saccade characteristics are modulated as a function of head movement, hence the gaze movement (eye+head) exactly matches saccades with head fixed. Saccade modulation is achieved by way of negative vestibulo-ocular feedback. The neck proprioceptors, because of their longer latency, are effective only if the head starts moving prior to the onset of saccade. It is concluded that saccades make with head turning are not 'ballistic' movements because their trajectory is not entirely predetermined by a central command.

  2. [Isolation and characterization of a Thermus bacteriophage lytic from Tengchong Rehai Hot Spring lytic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Han, Jian; Dai, Xin; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin; Lin, Lianbing

    2010-03-01

    Genus Thermus represents an ancient descendant within the domain of Bacteria. This research was focused on the isolation and characterization of Thermus bacteriophages from Tengchong Reihai hot spring. Bacteriophage was isolated from Tengchong Rehai hot springs by double-layer plate method, and further characterized by morphology, temperature, pH and organic solvent effect on phage production, DNA restriction endonuclease digestion and protein composition analysis. One lytic bacteriophage was isolated from Tengchong hot spring. It's host strain Thermus sp. TC10 belonged to genus Thermus (16S rRNA gene accession number GU119889). This phage has a hexagonal head (67 nm in diameter) and an extremely long tail (837 nm in length and 10 nm in width). The optimum temperature and pH value for production of virons were about 65 degrees C and 7.6, respectively. The phage was not sensitive to chloroform. The differences between this phage and the other two Thermus Siphoviridae phages P23-45 and P74-26, which were isolated form Russia's Kamchatka peninsula, demostrated it was a novel bacteriaphage and was denoted as TTSP10 (Tengchong Thermus Siphoviridae phage).

  3. Head stabilization in whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, M.R.; Cronin, T.W.; Olsen, G.H.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is the tallest bird in North America, yet not much is known about its visual ecology. How these birds overcome their unusual height to identify, locate, track, and capture prey items is not well understood. There have been many studies on head and eye stabilization in large wading birds (herons and egrets), but the pattern of head movement and stabilization during foraging is unclear. Patterns of head movement and stabilization during walking were examined in whooping cranes at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland USA. Four whooping cranes (1 male and 3 females) were videotaped for this study. All birds were already acclimated to the presence of people and to food rewards. Whooping cranes were videotaped using both digital and Hi-8 Sony video cameras (Sony Corporation, 7-35 Kitashinagawa, 6-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan), placed on a tripod and set at bird height in the cranes' home pens. The cranes were videotaped repeatedly, at different locations in the pens and while walking (or running) at different speeds. Rewards (meal worms, smelt, crickets and corn) were used to entice the cranes to walk across the camera's view plane. The resulting videotape was analyzed at the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. Briefly, we used a computerized reduced graphic model of a crane superimposed over each frame of analyzed tape segments by means of a custom written program (T. W. Cronin, using C++) with the ability to combine video and computer graphic input. The speed of the birds in analyzed segments ranged from 0.30 m/s to 2.64 m/s, and the proportion of time the head was stabilized ranged from 79% to 0%, respectively. The speed at which the proportion reached 0% was 1.83 m/s. The analyses suggest that the proportion of time the head is stable decreases as speed of the bird increases. In all cases, birds were able to reach their target prey with little difficulty. Thus when cranes are walking searching for food

  4. Head Impact Exposure in Collegiate Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Crisco, Joseph J.; Wilcox, Bethany J.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Rowson, Steve; Duma, Stefan M.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Greenwald, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    In American football, impacts to the helmet and the resulting head accelerations are the primary cause of concussion injury and potentially chronic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposures to impacts to the head (frequency, location and magnitude) for individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences in head impact exposure by player position. A total of 314 players were enrolled at three institutions and 286,636 head impacts were recorded over thr...

  5. Predicting leadership behavior in a hospital organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, J E; Vredenburgh, D J

    1978-12-01

    A regression analysis was used to estimate the importance of difference situational factors in predicting the leadership behavior of head nurses in a hospital organization. Turnover among staff members, the leadership behavior of supervisor nurses and administrative climate variables explained significant portions of variance in the measures of the head nurse's consideration and initiating structure behavior.

  6. Analysis of mutation and promoter methylation of TP53 gene in tumors of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarzynski Adrian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to current World Health Organization data, worldwide, cancer is second to cardiovascular diseases as the leading cause of death. The p53 protein is a translation product of the TP53 gene, and it has many functions in cells. Indeed, for this, it is commonly called the “guardian of the genome”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mutation and methylation in the promoter of the TP53 gene in cells affected with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The research material consisted of 34 DNA samples isolated from surgically removed tissue fragments of head and neck tumors. In this work, analysis of all samples for the presence of mutations proved negative. This result simultaneously revealed an absence of mutation in the TP53 gene promoter in the analyzed material. However, the detection of changes in the methylation profile status of the promoter of the TP53 gene in the DNA samples revealed the presence of both methylated alleles in 76.5% of the sample population, while in the remaining 23.5%, methylation was present in only one allele of the studied gene. In our work, we assumed that samples displaying methylation involving two alleles will show greater predisposition to the development of a malignant tumor. The obtained results reveal that despite the lack of mutation in the TP53 gene promoter, its functioning may be impaired by other mechanisms – either epigenetic or environmental.

  7. Bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of head tremor. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Caglar; Honey, Christopher R

    2002-03-01

    Isolated head tremor is rare, but can be disabling. The authors' experience with the treatment of limb tremor due to essential tremor led them to consider using bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in two patients presenting only with disabling head tremor. One patient exhibited no peripheral tremor and the other displayed only a slight upper-limb tremor. Both patients underwent placement of units that apply simultaneous bilateral thalamic DBS. Surgical targets were verified by using intraoperative macrostimulation, and the stimulators were implanted during the same surgery. Patients were videotaped preoperatively and at 2, 4, 6, and 9 months postoperatively during periods in which the stimulators were turned on and off. Videotapes were randomized and rated for resting, postural, and action tremors according to the Fahn clinical rating scale for tremor. Because this scale is not designed for head tremor, the patients were also evaluated on the basis of a functional scale that reflected their quality of life and the amount of disability caused by head tremor. Both patients experienced no tremor after their stimulators were turned on and properly adjusted at the 6th postoperative week. The patients were followed for a total of 9 months and results remained stable throughout this period. No complications were encountered. Bilateral thalamic DBS appears to be an effective and safe treatment for isolated head tremor in patients with essential tremor. The authors present a scale for the functional assessment of head tremor.

  8. Head movements while steering around bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Oving, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the determinants of head motions (rotations) when driving around bends were investigated when drivers viewed the scene through a head-mounted display. The scene camera was either fixed or coupled to head motions along 2 or 3 axes of rotation. Eight participants drove around a

  9. Heads in Grammatical Theory. Introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Greville G.; Fraser, Norman M.; McGlashan, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Contemporary linguistic theories distinguish the principal element of a phrase - the ‘head’ - from the subordinate elements it dominates. This pervasive grammatical concept has been used to describe and account for linguistic phenomena ranging from agreement and government to word order universals, but opinions differ widely on its precise definition. A key question is whether the head is not already identified by some other, more basic notion or interacting set of notions in linguistics. Hea...

  10. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The biceps brachii muscle and the musculocutaneous nerve of arm are frequent in their variations. A third head of biceps brachii was noted unilaterally during routine anatomy dissection. Variation in musculocutaneous nerve was also seen on the same arm. The evolutionary and functional basis of such variations are discussed. Such variations become relevant during surgical intervention of the arm, especially after humeral fracture with subsequent unusual bone displacements.

  11. Optical Head Design Using HOE's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ih, Charles S.; Xiang, Lian-Qin; Zhuang, B. H.; Yang, C. W.; Lu, K. Q.; Tian, Rongsheng; Wang, Z. M.

    1989-05-01

    We describe an optical head design using two spherical lenses and two HOE's. This study was intended to show the feasibility of using HOE's to improve the performance of optical head for Read/Write optical disc drives. The two HOE's correct the spherical aberrations of the lens, change the elliptical beam to a circular one and compensate for wavelength shift up to +, - 5 nm. Experiments have been performed to confirm these concepts. The HOE's were made optically in the visible wavelength using an intermediate CGH. Ideally the HOE's are to be generated by a computer and preferably written directly by an e-beam machine. Since at that time all the commercially available e-beam shops we contacted lacked the confidence in making such high resolution CGH, we decided to use the Optical-CGH approach. Actually this approach offers several advantages. First we can make large and high resolution ir HOE immediately. Secondly we can even make Bragg (or volume) ir hologram using visible light. Basically we create a pre-distorted CGH from which the final HOE can be made using visible light. The final HOE can then be reconstruct at the ir wavelength without aberrations. The techniques used here can be extended to optical head designs using aspherical lenses. The HOE's function can then be, in addition to beam shaping, to achieve a larger wavelength compensation, to correct the residual chromatic and aspherical aberrations of the aspherical lenses. The astigmatism of the laser diode can also be corrected by the HOE's. The possibility of an optical head using only HOE's (no lenses) will be discussed. Computer simulations and experimental results are shown.

  12. Cranial surgery without head shaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimura, Hiroshi; Tajitsu, Kenichiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Ayumi; Takayama, Kenji; Kaji, Masatomo; Hirabaru, Masashi; Hirayama, Takahisa; Shinsato, Tomomi; Arita, Kazunori

    2009-12-01

    Based on a series of 632 patients who underwent craniotomy without head shaving, we report the efficacy and safety of our simplified procedure and document the usefulness of the electrosurgical scalpel. After brushing a chlorhexidine-alcohol solution onto the craniotomy site, the hair was parted from the incision line and fixed with adhesive paper drapes. In recent cases, electrosurgical scalpels were used for scalp- and subcutaneous dissection. At the end of surgery, the wound was closed in the usual manner, taking care that no hair was in the wound and the hair and wound were rinsed with clean water in the operating room. We did not apply disinfectant for postoperative wound care, rather, the hair was shampooed on the 2nd, 4th, and 6th postoperative day. Among 632 patients who underwent cranial surgery without head shaving, only 7 (1.1%) developed postoperative wound infections. None of the 34 patients who underwent craniotomy using the electrosurgical scalpel developed wound infections. Our simplified cranial surgery without head shaving does not increase the risk of wound infection. Because the use of the electrosurgical scalpel for skin and soft tissue dissection minimizes bleeding, the probability of wound infection appears to be reduced.

  13. Wear and creep of highly crosslinked polyethylene against cobalt chrome and ceramic femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, A L; Jennings, L M; Tipper, J L; Ingham, E; Fisher, J

    2010-10-01

    The wear and creep characteristics of highly crosslinked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) articulating against large-diameter (36mm) ceramic and cobalt chrome femoral heads have been investigated in a physiological anatomical hip joint simulator for 10 million cycles. The crosslinked UHMWPE/ceramic combination showed higher volume deformation due to creep plus wear during the first 2 million cycles, and a steady-state wear rate 40 per cent lower than that of the crosslinked UHMWPE/cobalt chrome combination. Wear particles were isolated and characterized from the hip simulator lubricants. The wear particles were similar in size and morphology for both head materials. The particle isolation methodology used could not detect a statistically significant difference between the particles produced by the cobalt chrome and alumina ceramic femoral heads.

  14. Is Heading in Youth Soccer Dangerous Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.

  15. A barley UDP-glucosyltransferase inactivates nivalenol and provides Fusarium head blight resistance in transgenic wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium Head Blight is a disease of cereal crops that causes severe yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of grain. The main causal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, produces the trichothecene toxins deoxynivalenol or nivalenol as virulence factors. Nivalenol-producing isolates are most prevalent ...

  16. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  17. Effect of Astralagus radix on proliferation and nitric oxide production of head kidney macrophages in Cyprinus carpio: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo-Jun, Y.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Yue-Ming, L.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Pao, X.; Hong-qi, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro effect of Astragalus radix water extract onthe non-specific immune responses of macrophages isolated from the head kidney of Cyprinus carpio was evaluated. Astragalus radix extract stimulated the proliferation of the head kidney macrophages, and it alone had no effect on nitrogen burst

  18. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  19. Mechanisms of head injuries in elite football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T E; Arnason, A; Engebretsen, L; Bahr, R

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe, using video analysis, the mechanisms of head injuries and of incidents with a high risk of head injury in elite football. Videotapes and injury information were collected prospectively for 313 of the 409 matches played in the Norwegian (2000 season) and Icelandic (1999 and 2000 season) professional leagues. Video recordings of incidents where a player appeared to be hit in the head and the match was consequently interrupted by the referee were analysed and cross referenced with reports of acute time loss injuries from the team medical staff. The video analysis revealed 192 incidents (18.8 per 1000 player hours). Of the 297 acute injuries reported, 17 (6%) were head injuries, which corresponds to an incidence of 1.7 per 1000 player hours (concussion incidence 0.5 per 1000 player hours). The most common playing action was a heading duel with 112 cases (58%). The body part that hit the injured player's head was the elbow/arm/hand in 79 cases (41%), the head in 62 cases (32%), and the foot in 25 cases (13%). In 67 of the elbow/arm/hand impacts, the upper arm of the player causing the incident was at or above shoulder level, and the arm use was considered to be active in 61 incidents (77%) and intentional in 16 incidents (20%). This study suggests that video analysis provides detailed information about the mechanisms for head injuries in football. The most frequent injury mechanism was elbow to head contact, followed by head to head contact in heading duels. In the majority of the elbow to head incidents, the elbow was used actively at or above shoulder level, and stricter rule enforcement or even changes in the laws of the game concerning elbow use should perhaps be considered, in order to reduce the risk of head injury.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not