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Sample records for headpinhole spect system

  1. Dynamic molecular imaging of cardiac innervation using a dual headpinhole SPECT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jicun; Boutchko, Rostyslav; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Reutter, BryanW.; Huesman, Ronald H.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-03-29

    Typically 123I-MIBG is used for the study of innervation andfunction of the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure. The protocolinvolves two studies: first a planar or SPECT scan is performed tomeasure initial uptake of the tracer, followed some 3-4 hours later byanother study measuring the wash-out of the tracer from the heart. A fastwash-out is indicative of a compromised heart. In this work, a dual headpinhole SPECT system was used for imaging the distribution and kineticsof 123I-MIBG in the myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) andnormotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The system geometry was calibratedbased on a nonlinear point projection fitting method using a three-pointsource phantom. The angle variation effect of the parameters was modeledwith a sinusoidal function. A dynamic acquisition was performed byinjecting 123I-MIBG into rats immediately after starting the dataacquisition. The detectors rotated continuously performing a 360o dataacquisition every 90 seconds. We applied the factor analysis (FA)methodand region of interest (ROI) sampling method to obtain time activitycurves (TACs)in the blood pool and myocardium and then appliedtwo-compartment modeling to estimate the kinetic parameters. Since theinitial injection bolus is too fast for obtaining a consistenttomographic data set in the first few minutes of the study, we appliedthe FA method directly to projections during the first rotation. Then thetime active curves for blood and myocardial tissue were obtained from ROIsampling. The method was applied to determine if there were differencesin the kinetics between SHR and WKY rats and requires less time byreplacing the delayed scan at 3-4 hours after injection with a dynamicacquisition over 90 to 120 minutes. The results of a faster washout and asmaller distribution volume of 123IMIBG near the end of life in the SHRmodel of hypertrophic cardiomyopthy may be indicative of a failing heartin late stages of heart failure.

  2. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

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    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  3. Performance evaluation of D-SPECT: a novel SPECT system for nuclear cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Kacperski, Krzysztof; van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F.

    2009-05-01

    D-SPECT (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is a novel SPECT system for cardiac perfusion studies. Based on CZT detectors, region-centric scanning, high-sensitivity collimators and resolution recovery, it offers potential advantages over conventional systems. A series of measurements were made on a β-version D-SPECT system in order to evaluate its performance in terms of energy resolution, scatter fraction, sensitivity, count rate capability and resolution. Corresponding measurements were also done on a conventional SPECT system (CS) for comparison. The energy resolution of the D-SPECT system at 140 keV was 5.5% (CS: 9.25%), the scatter fraction 30% (CS: 34%), the planar sensitivity 398 s-1 MBq-1 per head (99mTc, 10 cm) (CS: 72 s-1 MBq-1), and the tomographic sensitivity in the heart region was in the range 647-1107 s-1 MBq-1 (CS: 141 s-1 MBq-1). The count rate increased linearly with increasing activity up to 1.44 M s-1. The intrinsic resolution was equal to the pixel size, 2.46 mm (CS: 3.8 mm). The average reconstructed resolution using the standard clinical filter was 12.5 mm (CS: 13.7 mm). The D-SPECT has superior sensitivity to that of a conventional system with similar spatial resolution. It also has excellent energy resolution and count rate characteristics, which should prove useful in dynamic and dual radionuclide studies.

  4. Transmission computed tomography data acquisition with a SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, K.L.; Harris, C.C.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Coleman, R.E.; Hedlund, L.W.; Floyd, C.E.; Manglos, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Phantom and animal transmission computed tomography (TCT) scans were performed with a camera-based single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system to determine system linearity as a function of object density, which is important in the accurate determination of attenuation coefficients for SPECT attenuation compensation. Results from phantoms showed promise in providing a linear relationship in measuring density while maintaining good image resolution. Animal images were essentially free of artifacts. Transmission computed tomography scans derived from a SPECT system appear to have the potential to provide data suitable for incorporation in an attenuation compensation algorithm at relatively low (calculated) radiation doses to the subjects

  5. SPECT data acquisition and image reconstruction in a stationary small animal SPECT/MRI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Chen, Si; Yu, Jianhua; Meier, Dirk; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2010-04-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate data acquisition strategies and image reconstruction methods for a stationary SPECT insert that can operate inside an MRI scanner with a 12 cm bore diameter for simultaneous SPECT/MRI imaging of small animals. The SPECT insert consists of 3 octagonal rings of 8 MR-compatible CZT detectors per ring surrounding a multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator sleeve. Each pinhole is constructed to project the field-of-view (FOV) to one CZT detector. All 24 pinholes are focused to a cylindrical FOV of 25 mm in diameter and 34 mm in length. The data acquisition strategies we evaluated were optional collimator rotations to improve tomographic sampling; and the image reconstruction methods were iterative ML-EM with and without compensation for the geometric response function (GRF) of the MPH collimator. For this purpose, we developed an analytic simulator that calculates the system matrix with the GRF models of the MPH collimator. The simulator was used to generate projection data of a digital rod phantom with pinhole aperture sizes of 1 mm and 2 mm and with different collimator rotation patterns. Iterative ML-EM reconstruction with and without GRF compensation were used to reconstruct the projection data from the central ring of 8 detectors only, and from all 24 detectors. Our results indicated that without GRF compensation and at the default design of 24 projection views, the reconstructed images had significant artifacts. Accurate GRF compensation substantially improved the reconstructed image resolution and reduced image artifacts. With accurate GRF compensation, useful reconstructed images can be obtained using 24 projection views only. This last finding potentially enables dynamic SPECT (and/or MRI) studies in small animals, one of many possible application areas of the SPECT/MRI system. Further research efforts are warranted including experimentally measuring the system matrix for improved geometrical accuracy, incorporating the co

  6. A small-animal imaging system capable of multipinhole circular/helical SPECT and parallel-hole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jianguo; Bradley, Eric L.; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Saha, Margaret S.; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and built a small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system equipped with parallel-hole and multipinhole collimators and capable of circular or helical SPECT. Copper-beryllium parallel-hole collimators suitable for imaging the ∼35 keV photons from the decay of 125 I have been built and installed to achieve useful spatial resolution over a range of object-detector distances and to reduce imaging time on our dual-detector array. To address the resolution limitations in the parallel-hole SPECT and the sensitivity and limited field of view of single-pinhole SPECT, we have incorporated multipinhole circular and helical SPECT in addition to expanding the parallel-hole SPECT capabilities. The pinhole SPECT system is based on a 110 mm diameter circular detector equipped with a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator array (1x1x5 mm 3 /pixel). The helical trajectory is accomplished by two stepping motors controlling the rotation of the detector-support gantry and displacement of the animal bed along the axis of rotation of the gantry. Results obtained in SPECT studies of various phantoms show an enlarged field of view, very good resolution and improved sensitivity using multipinhole circular or helical SPECT. Collimators with one, three and five, 1-mm-diameter pinholes have been implemented and compared in these tests. Our objective is to develop a system on which one may readily select a suitable mode of either parallel-hole SPECT or pinhole circular or helical SPECT for a variety of small animal imaging applications

  7. SVD-Based Evaluation of Multiplexing in Multipinhole SPECT Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron K. Jorgensen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipinhole SPECT system design is largely a trial-and-error process. General principles can give system designers a general idea of how a system with certain characteristics will perform. However, the specific performance of any particular system is unknown before the system is tested. The development of an objective evaluation method that is not based on experimentation would facilitate the optimization of multipinhole systems. We derive a figure of merit for prediction of SPECT system performance based on the entire singular value spectrum of the system. This figure of merit contains significantly more information than the condition number of the system, and is therefore more revealing of system performance. This figure is then compared with simulated results of several SPECT systems and is shown to correlate well to the results of the simulations. The proposed figure of merit is useful for predicting system performance, but additional steps could be taken to improve its accuracy and applicability. The limits of the proposed method are discussed, and possible improvements to it are proposed.

  8. The analysis of software system in SOPHY SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chikang

    1993-01-01

    The FORTH software system of the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) made by French SOPHA MEDICAL Corp. are analysed. On the basis of brief introduction to the construction principle and programming methods of FORTH language the whole structure and lay-out of the Sophy system are described. With the help of some figures the modular structure, the allocation of the hard disk and internal storage, as well as the running procedure of the system are introduced in details

  9. The data acquisition system for a SPECT with cylindrical detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yongjie; Liu Yinong; Li Yuanjing

    1995-01-01

    The data acquisition and position estimation system has been developed for a multi-crystal SPECT with modular cylindrical detector. The electronics screen photon energy determines the detector module stricken by incident photon. The relevant PMT outputs are digitized and passed onto a Pentium PC. Then PMT gain normalization, detector bar identification, energy correction, event coordinates calculation and linearity correction are real-time performed by the PC. The system has been employed in clinical brain imaging

  10. Development of advanced industrial SPECT system with 12-gonal diverging-collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jang Guen; Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Jinho; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising diagnosis technique to investigate the dynamic behavior of process media. In the present study, a 12-gonal industrial SPECT system was developed using diverging collimators, and its performance was compared with those of hexagonal and 24-gonal systems. Of all of the systems, the 12-gonal type showed the best performance, providing (1) a detection-efficiency map without edge artifacts, (2) the best image resolution, and (3) reconstruction images that correctly furnish multi-source information. Based on the performance of the three different types of configurations, a SPECT system with 12-gonal type configuration was found most suitable for investigating and visualization of flow dynamics in industrial process systems. - highlights: • Industrial SPECT provides the dynamic behavior of multiphase industrial processes. • The present study compared performance of various industrial SPECT systems. • The 12-gonal SPECT system with diverging-collimator provides the best performance

  11. Geometric calibration method for multiple head cone beam SPECT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, Ph.; Grangeat, P.; Guillemaud, R.; Sauze, R.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for performing geometric calibration on Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) cone beam systems with multiple cone beam collimators, each having its own orientation parameters. This calibration method relies on the fact that, in tomography, for each head, the relative position of the rotation axis and of the collimator does not change during the acquisition. In order to ensure the method stability, the parameters to be estimated in intrinsic parameters and extrinsic parameters are separated. The intrinsic parameters describe the acquisition geometry and the extrinsic parameters position of the detection system with respect to the rotation axis. (authors) 3 refs

  12. Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG) [de

  13. {sup 67}Ga-SPECT/CT with a hybrid system in the clinical management of lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Sivolella, Silvio; Palumbo, Renato [University of Perugia, Nuclear Medicine Section, Department of Radiological Sciences, Perugia (Italy); Palumbo, Isabella; Liberati, Anna Marina [University of Perugia, Internal Medicine and Oncology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Perugia (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the added value of co-registered fusion imaging using a hybrid system in patients with lymphoma. Twenty-four lymphoma patients underwent {sup 67}Ga-SPECT/CT using a hybrid tomograph consisting of a dual-head, variable-angle gamma camera and a low-dose X-ray tube. Results were compared with those of SPECT alone. Forty-five lesions were identified by SPECT alone, while 49 were detected by SPECT/CT. Forty out of the 45 lesions observed on SPECT were confirmed as lymphoma, but five were due to other causes (thoracic aorta blood pool activity, sialoadenitis in the submandibular gland, bowel activity, rib fracture and bone marrow activation due to radiotherapy). SPECT/CT identified nine more neoplastic lesions compared with SPECT alone: four areas of radiopharmaceutical accumulation were observed in para-aortic lymph nodes, three in the spleen, one in the liver and one in para-iliac lymph nodes. In five cases, SPECT/CT provided additional anatomical information over SPECT alone. In four patients, four large areas of {sup 67}Ga uptake (one mediastinal, two supraclavicular and one para-aortic) were better characterised; in one subject uptake was localised in the seventh thoracic vertebra only by SPECT/CT. Hybrid imaging provided additional data in 13 patients (54.2%), thus inducing oncologists to reconsider the therapeutic approach in eight subjects (33.2%): unnecessary treatment was avoided in four (16.6%) while therapy was altered in another four (16.6%). SPECT/CT hybrid system is able to provide information not obtained by SPECT alone. It allows the anatomical localisation of lymphoma and physiological radiopharmaceutical uptake, facilitates the diagnosis of tumours located in the abdomen (subdiaphragmatic lesions) and provides information that may cause a change in therapeutic strategy. (orig.)

  14. GATE simulation of a new design of pinhole SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsahin, D. Uzun; Bläckberg, L.; Fakhri, G. El; Sabet, H.

    2017-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging has gained an increased interest over the past decade since it is an excellent tool for developing new drugs and tracers. Therefore, there is a huge effort on the development of cost-effective SPECT detectors with high capabilities. The aim of this study is to simulate the performance characteristics of new designs for a cost effective, stationary SPECT system dedicated to small animal imaging with a focus on mice brain. The conceptual design of this SPECT system platform, Stationary Small Animal SSA-SPECT, is to use many pixelated CsI:TI detector modules with 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm pixels in order to achieve excellent intrinsic detector resolution where each module is backed by a single pinhole collimator with 0.3 mm hole diameter. In this work, we present the simulation results of four variations of the SSA-SPECT platform where the number of detector modules and FOV size is varied while keeping the detector size and collimator hole size constant. Using the NEMA NU-4 protocol, we performed spatial resolution, sensitivity, image quality simulations followed by a Derenzo-like phantom evaluation. The results suggest that all four SSA-SPECT systems can provide better than 0.063% system sensitivity and < 1.5 mm FWHM spatial resolution without resolution recovery or other correction techniques. Specifically, SSA-SPECT-1 showed a system sensitivity of 0.09% in combination with 1.1 mm FWHM spatial resolution.

  15. Performance testing SPECT systems: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.

    1985-01-01

    A protocol is used to test as many currently available systems as possible, including both rotating gamma camera systems from GE, Siemens, Toshiba, Technicare, Elscint, Philips, Picker, etc, and single/multi slice system such as the Medimatic. This paper indicates changes that have occurred with respect to preliminary results previously published. Reconstructions were performed in a standard manner, using a Ramp filter and without attenuation correction, in order to reduce the effect of differences in software. The Jaszczak phantom was used to assess overall image quality. Tests were performed using the different collimators available. Image quality improved with better spatial resolution, even at the expense of sensitivity. Non-circular orbits, where available, were tested, and resolution was comparing for various positions and directions. With double headed systems, the results obtained were compared to those using a single head alone. Some gain in image quality seems to have been achieved by better uniformity resulting from improved correction circuitry, by the use of non-circular orbits, and from scatter correction. Potential still exists to improve collimator design

  16. An accurate projection algorithm for array processor based SPECT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Cool, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    A data re-projection algorithm has been developed for use in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on an array processor based computer system. The algorithm makes use of an accurate representation of pixel activity (uniform square pixel model of intensity distribution), and is rapidly performed due to the efficient handling of an array based algorithm and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on parallel processing hardware. The algorithm consists of using a pixel driven nearest neighbour projection operation to an array of subdivided projection bins. This result is then convolved with the projected uniform square pixel distribution before being compressed to original bin size. This distribution varies with projection angle and is explicitly calculated. The FFT combined with a frequency space multiplication is used instead of a spatial convolution for more rapid execution. The new algorithm was tested against other commonly used projection algorithms by comparing the accuracy of projections of a simulated transverse section of the abdomen against analytically determined projections of that transverse section. The new algorithm was found to yield comparable or better standard error and yet result in easier and more efficient implementation on parallel hardware. Applications of the algorithm include iterative reconstruction and attenuation correction schemes and evaluation of regions of interest in dynamic and gated SPECT

  17. Construction of McSPECT II - a clinical brain SPECT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W.; Jin, Y.; Liu, J. [Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke`s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Since reported the design concept and system configuration of the McSPECT II last year, we have settled the design details and moved on to the construction phase. The major components being developed in this phase are: detector, collimator, electronics, interfaces, acquisition and processing software, and gantry systems. To provide adequate number of angular sampling (= views), we have increased the number of transverse detector elements to 120 NaI(Tl) bar-detectors in the new cylindrical detector system. These bar-detector are housed in 24 detector modules. Since we have developed a new light-guide and implemented a new 2-step centriod position calculation, the intrinsic performance of the detector modules has been substantially improved. These improvements lead to a simpler position estimation which yields < 4 mm FWHM spatial resolution in the 12 cm axial FOV. The imaging volume is 21 cm (dia.) x 12.8 (axial) cm. The number of collimator units (= rays) is increased to 100 to achieve high linear sampling density (2.3 mm) and sampling resolution ({approximately}5.6 mm). The collimator is still being manufacture. The electronics, acquisition, and processing systems are all in the final phases of debugging through simulated testing. The electronics is divided into 24 independent channels, one for each module. A 10-bit 1.0{mu}s ADC is connected to each of the 72 PMTs. A Pentium based PC performs real-time position calculation in 20 {mu}s/event. After de-randomizing, we expect 50 K/sec count-rate performance with little loss. Linearity and energy corrections are being implemented, in a separate calibration procedure, to yield <0.5 mm non-linearity and {approximately}10% energy resolution at 140 keV. The gantry construction is moving along well but slowly. The large (27.5 cm) aperture and the adjustable orientation of the gantry plane promise easy operation and patient comfort. The system construction should be completed soon to allow imaging studies to be performed.

  18. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT: New hybrid nuclear medicine imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    Interest in multimodality imaging shows no sign of subsiding. New tracers are spreading out the spectrum of clinical applications and innovative technological solutions are preparing the way for yet more modality marriages: hybrid imaging. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has enabled the evaluation of disease processes based on functional and metabolic information of organs and cells. Integration of X ray computed tomography (CT) into SPECT has recently emerged as a brilliant diagnostic tool in medical imaging, where anatomical details may delineate functional and metabolic information. SPECT/CT has proven to be valuable in oncology. For example, in the case of a patient with metastatic thyroid cancer, neither SPECT nor CT alone could identify the site of malignancy. SPECT/CT, a hybrid image, precisely identified where the surgeon should operate. However SPECT/CT is not just advantageous in oncology. It may also be used as a one-stop-shop for various diseases. Clinical applications with SPECT/CT have started and expanded in developed countries. It has been reported that moving from SPECT alone to SPECT/CT could change diagnoses in 30% of cases. Large numbers of people could therefore benefit from this shift all over the world. This report presents an overview of clinical applications of SPECT/CT and a relevant source of information for nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists and clinical practitioners. This information may also be useful for decision making when allocating resources dedicated to the health care system, a critical issue that is especially important for the development of nuclear medicine in developing countries. In this regard, the IAEA may be heavily involved in the promotion of programmes aimed at the IAEA's coordinated research projects and Technical Cooperation projects

  19. Validation of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction with the IQ•SPECT System in Small-Heart Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Hiroto; Shibutani, Takayuki; Konishi, Takahiro; Mizutani, Asuka; Hashimoto, Ryosuke; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Okuda, Koichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-09-01

    The IQ•SPECT system, which is equipped with multifocal collimators ( SMART ZOOM) and uses ordered-subset conjugate gradient minimization as the reconstruction algorithm, reduces the acquisition time of myocardial perfusion imaging compared with conventional SPECT systems equipped with low-energy high-resolution collimators. We compared the IQ•SPECT system with a conventional SPECT system for estimating left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with a small heart (end-systolic volume IQ•SPECT. End-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, and LVEF were calculated using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) and cardioREPO software. We compared the LVEF from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT to that from echocardiographic measurements. Results: End-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and LVEF as obtained from conventional SPECT, IQ•SPECT, and echocardiography showed a good to excellent correlation regardless of whether they were calculated using QGS or using cardioREPO. Although LVEF calculated using QGS significantly differed between conventional SPECT and IQ•SPECT (65.4% ± 13.8% vs. 68.4% ± 15.2%) ( P = 0.0002), LVEF calculated using cardioREPO did not (69.5% ± 10.6% vs. 69.5% ± 11.0%). Likewise, although LVEF calculated using QGS significantly differed between conventional SPECT and IQ•SPECT (75.0 ± 9.6 vs. 79.5 ± 8.3) ( P = 0.0005), LVEF calculated using cardioREPO did not (72.3% ± 9.0% vs. 74.3% ± 8.3%). Conclusion: In small-heart patients, the difference in LVEF between IQ•SPECT and conventional SPECT was less when calculated using cardioREPO than when calculated using QGS. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  20. Development of a high-resolution detection module for the INSERT SPECT/MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busca, Paolo; Fiorini, Carlo; Butt, Arslan D; Occhipinti, Michele; Quaglia, Riccardo; Trigilio, Paolo [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nemeth, Gabor; Major, Peter; Bukki, Tamas; Nagy, Kalman [Mediso Medical Imaging Systems, Alsotorokvesz 14, H-1022 Budapest (Hungary); Piemonte, Claudio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rieger, Jan [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.UniversityF.F.), Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (Integrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes are being developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging (7 and 9.4 T), the second one dedicated to clinical imaging (3 T).

  1. Development of a high-resolution detection module for the INSERT SPECT/MRI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busca, Paolo; Fiorini, Carlo; Butt, Arslan D; Occhipinti, Michele; Quaglia, Riccardo; Trigilio, Paolo; Nemeth, Gabor; Major, Peter; Bukki, Tamas; Nagy, Kalman; Piemonte, Claudio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Rieger, Jan; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (Integrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes are being developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging (7 and 9.4 T), the second one dedicated to clinical imaging (3 T).

  2. Development of an MR-compatible SPECT system (MRSPECT) for simultaneous data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Mark J.; Ha, Seunghoon; Roeck, Werner W.; Tugan Muftuler, L.; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Meier, Dirk; Patt, Bradley E.; Nalcioglu, Orhan

    2010-03-01

    In medical imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide specific functional information while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high spatial resolution anatomical information as well as complementary functional information. In this study, we developed a miniaturized dual-modality SPECT/MRI (MRSPECT) system and demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous SPECT and MRI data acquisition, with the possibility of whole-body MRSPECT systems through suitable scaling of components. For our MRSPECT system, a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) nuclear radiation detector was interfaced with a specialized radiofrequency (RF) coil and placed within a whole-body 4 T MRI system. Various phantom experiments characterized the interaction between the SPECT and MRI hardware components. The metallic components of the SPECT hardware altered the B0 field and generated a non-uniform reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MR images. The presence of a magnetic field generated a position shift and resolution loss in the nuclear projection data. Various techniques were proposed to compensate for these adverse effects. Overall, our results demonstrate that accurate, simultaneous SPECT and MRI data acquisition is feasible, justifying the further development of MRSPECT for either small-animal imaging or whole-body human systems by using appropriate components.

  3. Thoracic and abdominal SPECT imaging in systemic amyloidosis in identifying multiorgan involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, H.N.; Benson, M.D.; Park, H.M.; Siddiqui, A.R.; Krepshaw, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with systemic amyloidosis have been studied. Thoracic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for myocardial involvement and skeletal imaging were performed with Tc-99m PYP, and abdominal SPECT with TcS colloid. Myocardial wall involvement was easily discernible with SPECT in 17 cases, and in many with normal ultrasonography. PYP uptake was also observed in liver (five patients), kidneys (four patients), and soft tissues (two patients). Most patients had widespread degenerative joint disease. With TcS colloid, intrinsic liver abnormalities were found in four patients, hepatomegaly in seven, and splenic infiltration in two. Nuclear SPECT and planar imaging characterize the distribution of systemic amyloidosis in organs, distribution not readily identified with other diagnostic modalities

  4. Performance characterization of the Inveon preclinical small-animal PET/SPECT/CT system for multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magota, Keiichi; Kubo, Naoki; Kuge, Yuji; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Zhao, Songji; Tamaki, Nagara

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the performance of the Inveon small-animal PET/SPECT/CT system and compared the imaging capabilities of the SPECT and PET components. For SPECT, the energy resolution, tomographic spatial resolution and system sensitivity were evaluated with a 99m Tc solution using a single pinhole collimator. For PET, the spatial resolution, absolute sensitivity, scatter fraction and peak noise equivalent count were evaluated. Phantoms and a normal rat were scanned to compare the imaging capabilities of SPECT and PET. The SPECT spatial resolution was 0.84 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at a radius of rotation of 25 mm using a 0.5-mm pinhole aperture collimator, while the PET spatial resolution was 1.63 mm FWHM at the centre. The SPECT system sensitivity at a radius of rotation of 25 mm was 35.3 cps/MBq (4 x 10 -3 %) using the 0.5-mm pinhole aperture, while the PET absolute sensitivity was 3.2% for 350-650 keV and 3.432 ns. Accordingly, the volume sensitivity of PET was three orders of magnitude higher than that of SPECT. This integrated PET/SPECT/CT system showed high performance with excellent spatial resolution for SPECT and sensitivity for PET. Based on the tracer availability and system performance, SPECT and PET have complementary roles in multimodality small-animal imaging. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic evaluation of brain SPECT imaging in diseases of nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsheng, Jiang; Chengmo, Zhu; Jixian, Zhang; Weijia, Tian [Shanghai Second Medical Univ. (China). Ruijing Hospital

    1992-11-01

    The dynamic distributions of home made ECD and the Amersham brain SPECT imaging agent 'Ceretec' in normal person as well as their diagnostic use in diseases of nervous system were investigated. Semi-quantitative analysis combined with direct observation was more accurate for the diagnosis. Aside from cerebrovascular diseases, SPECT brain imaging has its unique value for the diagnosis of transient ischemic attack, Alzheimer disease, multiple ischemic dementia and epilepsy etc.

  6. Evaluating performance of a pixel array semiconductor SPECT system for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Naoki; Zhao, Songji; Fujiki, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    Small animal imaging has recently been focused on basic nuclear medicine. We have designed and built a small animal SPECT imaging system using a semiconductor camera and a newly designed collimator. We assess the performance of this system for small object imaging. We employed an MGC 1500 (Acrorad Co.) camera including a CdTe semiconductor. The pixel size was 1.4 mm/pixel. We designed and produced a parallel-hole collimator with 20-mm hole length. Our SPECT system consisted of a semiconductor camera with the subject holder set on an electric rotating stage controlled by a computer. We compared this system with a conventional small animal SPECT system comprising a SPECT-2000H scanner with four Anger type cameras and pinhole collimators. The count rate linearity for estimation of the scatter was evaluated for a pie-chart phantom containing different concentrations of 99m Tc. We measured the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the 99m Tc SPECT line source along with scatter. The system volume sensitivity was examined using a flood source phantom which was 35 mm long with a 32-mm inside diameter. Additionally, an in vivo myocardial perfusion SPECT study was performed with a rat. With regards to energy resolution, the semiconductor camera (5.6%) was superior to the conventional Anger type camera (9.8%). In the count rate linearity evaluation, the regression lines of the SPECT values were y=0.019x+0.031 (r 2 =0.999) for our system and y=0.018x+0.060 (r 2 =0.997) for the conventional system. Thus, the scatter count using the semiconductor camera was less than that using the conventional camera. FWHMs of our system and the conventional system were 2.9±0.1 and 2.0±0.1 mm, respectively. Moreover, the system volume sensitivity of our system [0.51 kcps/(MBq/ml)/cm] was superior to that of the conventional system [0.44 kcps/(MBq/ml)/cm]. Our system provided clear images of the rat myocardium, sufficient for practical use in small animal imaging. Our SPECT system, utilizing a

  7. SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the evaluation of systemic granulomatous infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paulo Henrique Silva; de Souza, Thiago Ferreira; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Mengatti, Jair; de Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes; Santos, Allan Oliveira; Ramos, Celso Darío

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues (RSAs) in systemic granulomatous infections in comparison with gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) citrate scintigraphy. We studied 28 patients with active systemic granulomatous infections, including tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, leishmaniasis, infectious vasculitis, and an unspecified opportunistic infection. Of the 28 patients, 23 had started specific treatment before the study outset. All patients underwent whole-body SPECT/CT imaging: 7 after injection of 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, and 21 after injection of 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. All patients also underwent 67 Ga citrate imaging, except for one patient who died before the 67 Ga was available. In 20 of the 27 patients who underwent imaging with both tracers, 27 sites of active disease were detected by 67 Ga citrate imaging and by SPECT/CT with an RSA. Both tracers had negative results in the other 7 patients. RSA uptake was visually lower than 67 Ga uptake in 11 of the 20 patients with positive images and similar to 67 Ga uptake in the other 9 patients. The only patient who did not undergo 67 Ga scintigraphy underwent 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT-guided biopsy of a lung cavity with focal RSA uptake, which turned to be positive for aspergillosis. SPECT/CT with 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC or 111 In-DTPA-octreotide seems to be a good alternative to 67 Ga citrate imaging for the evaluation of patients with systemic granulomatous disease.

  8. A practical head tracking system for motion correction in neurological SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, R.R.; Eberl, S.; Meikle, S.; Hutton, B.F.; Braun, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Patient motion during data acquisition can degrade the quality of SPECT and PET images. Techniques for motion correction in neurological studies in both modalities based on continuous monitoring of head position have been proposed. However difficulties in developing suitable head tracking systems have so far impeded clinical implementations. We have developed a head tracking system based on the mechanical ADL-1 tracker (Shooting Star Technology, Rosedale, Canada) on a Trionix triple-head SPECT camera A software driver running on a SUN Sparc host computer communicates with the tracker over a serial line providing up to 300 updates per second with angular and positional resolutions of 0.05 degrees and 0.2 mm respectively. The SUN Sparc workstation which acquires the SPECT study also communicates with the tracker, eliminating synchronisation problems. For motion correction, the motion parameters provided by the tracker within its own coordinate system must be converted to the camera's coordinate system. The conversion requires knowledge of the rotational relationships between the two coordinate systems and the displacement of their origins, both of which are determined from a calibration procedure. The tracker has been tested under clinical SPECT imaging conditions with a 3D Hoffman brain phantom. Multiple SPECT acquisitions were performed. After each acquisition the phantom was moved to a new position and orientation. Motion parameters reported by the tracker for each applied movement were compared with those obtained by applying an automated image registration program to the sequential reconstructed studies. Maximum differences were < 0.5 degrees and < 2mm, within the expected errors of the registration procedure. We conclude that this tracking system will be suitable for clinical evaluation of motion correction in SPECT and PET

  9. Geometric Calibration and Image Reconstruction for a Segmented Slant-Hole Stationary Cardiac SPECT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Yu, Zhicong; Zeng, Gengsheng L

    2015-06-01

    A dedicated stationary cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system with a novel segmented slant-hole collimator has been developed. The goal of this paper is to calibrate this new imaging geometry with a point source. Unlike the commercially available dedicated cardiac SPECT systems, which are specialized and can be used only to image the heart, our proposed cardiac system is based on a conventional SPECT system but with a segmented slant-hole collimator replacing the collimator. For a dual-head SPECT system, 2 segmented collimators, each with 7 sections, are arranged in an L-shaped configuration such that they can produce a complete cardiac SPECT image with only one gantry position. A calibration method was developed to estimate the geometric parameters of each collimator section as well as the detector rotation radius, under the assumption that the point source location is calculated using the central-section data. With a point source located off the rotation axis, geometric parameters for each collimator section can be estimated independently. The parameters estimated individually are further improved by a joint objective function that uses all collimator sections simultaneously and incorporates the collimator symmetry information. Estimation results and images reconstructed from estimated parameters are presented for both simulated and real data acquired from a prototype collimator. The calibration accuracy was validated by computer simulations with an error of about 0.1° for the slant angles and about 1 mm for the rotation radius. Reconstructions of a heart-insert phantom did not show any image artifacts of inaccurate geometric parameters. Compared with the detector's intrinsic resolution, the estimation error is small and can be ignored. Therefore, the accuracy of the calibration is sufficient for cardiac SPECT imaging. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. Triangular SPECT system for 3-D total organ volume imaging: Design concept and preliminary imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.B.; Anderson, J.; Covic, J.

    1985-01-01

    SPECT systems based on 2-D detectors for projection data collection and filtered back-projection image reconstruction have the potential for true 3-D imaging, providing contiguous slice images in any orientation. Anger camera-based SPECT systems have the natural advantage supporting planar imaging clinical procedures. However, current systems suffer from two drawbacks; poor utilization of emitted photons, and inadequate system design for SPECT. A SPECT system consisting of three rectangular cameras with radial translation would offer the variable cylindrical FOV of 25 cm to 40 cm diameter allowing close detector access to the object. This system would provide optimized imaging for both brain and body organs in terms of sensitivity and resolution. For brain imaging a tight detector triangle with fan beam collimation, matching detector UFOV to the head, allows full 2 π utilization of emitted photons, resulting in >4 times sensitivity increase over the single detector system. Minification of intrinsic detector resolution in fan beam collimation further improves system resolution. For body organ imaging the three detectors with parallel hole collimators, rotating in non-circular orbit, provide both improved resolution and three-fold sensitivity increase. Practical challenges lie in ensuring perfect image overlap from three detectors without resolution degradation and artifact generation in order to benefit from the above improvements. An experimental system has been developed to test the above imaging concept and we have successfully demonstrated the superior image quality of the overlapped images. Design concept will be presented with preliminary imaging results

  11. Performance evaluation of Siemens E.Cam® Spect System at Korle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance evaluation of Siemens E.Cam® Spect System at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (Ghana. ... The tests were performed according to National Electrical Manufac-turers Association protocols, and different measuring instruments and phantoms containing 99m-Tc were used. Extrinsic uniformity, System energy ...

  12. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Susu; Tough, MengHeng; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT Phantom TM ), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the pinhole

  13. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 102...

  14. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A; McDonald, Benjamin S; Durko, Heather L; Furenlid, Lars R; Wilson, Donald W; Peterson, Todd E

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 1024 strips on each side gives rise to a detector with over one million pixels. Combining four high-resolution DSSDs into a SPECT system offers an unprecedented space-bandwidth product for the imaging of single-photon emitters. The system consists of two camera heads with two silicon detectors stacked one behind the other in each head. The collimator has a focused pinhole system with cylindrical-shaped pinholes that are laser-drilled in a 250 μm tungsten plate. The unique ability to collect projection data at two magnifications simultaneously allows for multiplexed data at high resolution to be combined with lower magnification data with little or no multiplexing. With the current multi-pinhole collimator design, our SPECT system will be capable of offering high spatial resolution, sensitivity and angular sampling for small field-of-view applications, such as molecular imaging of the mouse brain.

  15. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chung; Sinusas, Albert J; Liu, Chi; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory–cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p < 0.005) by 24% on average as compared to the ungated images, and led to improved perfusion uniformity across segments on polar maps for normal patients. For a patient with defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory–cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p < 0.05) compared to EXG-SPECT, and further improved defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased

  16. SPECT detector system design based on embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weizheng; Zhao Shujun; Zhang Lei; Sun Yuanling

    2007-01-01

    A single-photon emission computed tomography detector system based on embedded Linux designed. This system is composed of detector module, data acquisition module, ARM MPU module, network interface communication module and human machine interface module. Its software uses multithreading technology based on embedded Linux. It can achieve high speed data acquisition, real-time data correction and network data communication. It can accelerate the data acquisition and decrease the dead time. The accuracy and the stability of the system can be improved. (authors)

  17. Compton camera study for high efficiency SPECT and benchmark with Anger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Létang, J. M.; Ley, J.-L.; Testa, É.

    2017-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is at present one of the major techniques for non-invasive diagnostics in nuclear medicine. The clinical routine is mostly based on collimated cameras, originally proposed by Hal Anger. Due to the presence of mechanical collimation, detection efficiency and energy acceptance are limited and fixed by the system’s geometrical features. In order to overcome these limitations, the application of Compton cameras for SPECT has been investigated for several years. In this study we compare a commercial SPECT-Anger device, the General Electric HealthCare Infinia system with a High Energy General Purpose (HEGP) collimator, and the Compton camera prototype under development by the French collaboration CLaRyS, through Monte Carlo simulations (GATE—GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission—version 7.1 and GEANT4 version 9.6, respectively). Given the possible introduction of new radio-emitters at higher energies intrinsically allowed by the Compton camera detection principle, the two detectors are exposed to point-like sources at increasing primary gamma energies, from actual isotopes already suggested for nuclear medicine applications. The Compton camera prototype is first characterized for SPECT application by studying the main parameters affecting its imaging performance: detector energy resolution and random coincidence rate. The two detector performances are then compared in terms of radial event distribution, detection efficiency and final image, obtained by gamma transmission analysis for the Anger system, and with an iterative List Mode-Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-MLEM) algorithm for the Compton reconstruction. The results show for the Compton camera a detection efficiency increased by a factor larger than an order of magnitude with respect to the Anger camera, associated with an enhanced spatial resolution for energies beyond 500 keV. We discuss the advantages of Compton camera application

  18. SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the evaluation of systemic granulomatous infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Silva Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues (RSAs in systemic granulomatous infections in comparison with gallium-67 (67Ga citrate scintigraphy. Materials and Methods: We studied 28 patients with active systemic granulomatous infections, including tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, leishmaniasis, infectious vasculitis, and an unspecified opportunistic infection. Of the 28 patients, 23 had started specific treatment before the study outset. All patients underwent whole-body SPECT/CT imaging: 7 after injection of 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, and 21 after injection of 111In-DTPA-octreotide. All patients also underwent 67Ga citrate imaging, except for one patient who died before the 67Ga was available. Results: In 20 of the 27 patients who underwent imaging with both tracers, 27 sites of active disease were detected by 67Ga citrate imaging and by SPECT/CT with an RSA. Both tracers had negative results in the other 7 patients. RSA uptake was visually lower than 67Ga uptake in 11 of the 20 patients with positive images and similar to 67Ga uptake in the other 9 patients. The only patient who did not undergo 67Ga scintigraphy underwent 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT-guided biopsy of a lung cavity with focal RSA uptake, which turned to be positive for aspergillosis. Conclusion: SPECT/CT with 99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC or 111In-DTPA-octreotide seems to be a good alternative to 67Ga citrate imaging for the evaluation of patients with systemic granulomatous disease.

  19. SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the evaluation of systemic granulomatous infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Paulo Henrique Silva; Souza, Thiago Ferreira de; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Santos, Allan Oliveira; Ramos, Celso Darío

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues (RSAs) in systemic granulomatous infections in comparison with gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) citrate scintigraphy. Materials And Methods: We studied 28 patients with active systemic granulomatous infections, including tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, leishmaniasis, infectious vasculitis, and an unspecified opportunistic infection. Of the 28 patients, 23 had started specific treatment before the study outset. All patients underwent whole-body SPECT/CT imaging: 7 after injection of 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, and 21 after injection of 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. All patients also underwent 67 Ga citrate imaging, except for one patient who died before the 67 Ga was available. Results: In 20 of the 27 patients who underwent imaging with both tracers, 27 sites of active disease were detected by 67 Ga citrate imaging and by SPECT/CT with an RSA. Both tracers had negative results in the other 7 patients. RSA uptake was visually lower than 67 Ga uptake in 11 of the 20 patients with positive images and similar to 67 Ga uptake in the other 9 patients. The only patient who did not undergo 67 Ga scintigraphy underwent 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT-guided biopsy of a lung cavity with focal RSA uptake, which turned to be positive for aspergillosis. Conclusion: SPECT/CT with 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC or 111 In-DTPA-octreotide seems to be a good alternative to 67 Ga citrate imaging for the evaluation of patients with systemic granulomatous disease. (author)

  20. SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the evaluation of systemic granulomatous infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Paulo Henrique Silva; Souza, Thiago Ferreira de; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Santos, Allan Oliveira; Ramos, Celso Darío, E-mail: paulohsm42@gmail.com [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Mengatti Jair [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate SPECT/CT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues (RSAs) in systemic granulomatous infections in comparison with gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga) citrate scintigraphy. Materials And Methods: We studied 28 patients with active systemic granulomatous infections, including tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, leishmaniasis, infectious vasculitis, and an unspecified opportunistic infection. Of the 28 patients, 23 had started specific treatment before the study outset. All patients underwent whole-body SPECT/CT imaging: 7 after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, and 21 after injection of {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide. All patients also underwent {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging, except for one patient who died before the {sup 67}Ga was available. Results: In 20 of the 27 patients who underwent imaging with both tracers, 27 sites of active disease were detected by {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging and by SPECT/CT with an RSA. Both tracers had negative results in the other 7 patients. RSA uptake was visually lower than {sup 67}Ga uptake in 11 of the 20 patients with positive images and similar to {sup 67}Ga uptake in the other 9 patients. The only patient who did not undergo {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy underwent {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT-guided biopsy of a lung cavity with focal RSA uptake, which turned to be positive for aspergillosis. Conclusion: SPECT/CT with {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC or {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide seems to be a good alternative to {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging for the evaluation of patients with systemic granulomatous disease. (author)

  1. Validation of variance reduction techniques in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Marrero, J. P.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Gomez Facenda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear medical imaging systems is a widely used method for reproducing their operation in a real clinical environment, There are several Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) systems in Cuba. For this reason it is clearly necessary to introduce a reliable and fast simulation platform in order to obtain consistent image data. This data will reproduce the original measurements conditions. In order to fulfill these requirements Monte Carlo platform GAMOS (Geant4 Medicine Oriented Architecture for Applications) have been used. Due to the very size and complex configuration of parallel hole collimators in real clinical SPECT systems, Monte Carlo simulation usually consumes excessively high time and computing resources. main goal of the present work is to optimize the efficiency of calculation by means of new GAMOS functionality. There were developed and validated two GAMOS variance reduction techniques to speed up calculations. These procedures focus and limit transport of gamma quanta inside the collimator. The obtained results were asses experimentally in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system. Main quality control parameters, such as sensitivity and spatial resolution were determined. Differences of 4.6% sensitivity and 8.7% spatial resolution were reported against manufacturer values. Simulation time was decreased up to 650 times. Using these techniques it was possible to perform several studies in almost 8 hours each. (Author)

  2. Design and evaluation of a mobile bedside PET/SPECT imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenski, Matthew Thomas

    Patients confined to an intensive care unit, the emergency room, or a surgical suite are managed without nuclear medicine procedures such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These studies have diagnostic value which can greatly benefit the physician's treatment of the patient but require that the patient is moved to a scanner. This dissertation examines the feasibility of an economical PET/SPECT system that can be brought to the bedside of an immobile patient for imaging. We chose to focus on cardiac SPECT imaging including perfusion imaging using 99mTc tracers and viability imaging using 18F tracers first because of problems arising from positioning a detector beneath a patient's bed, a requirement for the opposed detector orientation in PET imaging. Second, SPECT imaging acquiring over the anterior 180 degrees of the patient results in reduced attenuation effects due to the heart's location in the anterior portion of the body. Four studies were done to assess the clinical feasibility of the mobile system; 1) the performance of the system was evaluated in SPECT mode at both 140 keV (99mTc tracers) and 511 keV (positron emitting tracers), 2) a dynamic cardiac phantom was used to develop and test image acquisition and processing methods for the system at both energies, 3) a high energy pinhole collimator was designed to reduce the effects of high energy photon penetration through the parallel hole collimator, and 4) we estimated the radiation dose to persons that would be in the vicinity of a patient to ensure that the effective dose is below the regulatory limit. With these studies, we show that the mobile system provides an economical means of bringing nuclear medicine to an immobile patient while staying below the regulatory dose limit to other persons. The system performed well at both 140 keV and 511 keV and provided viable images of a phantom myocardium at both energies. The system does not achieve the

  3. Brain SPECT. SPECT in der Gehirndiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistel, H. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1991-12-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG).

  4. Performance evaluation of a compact PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system for small animal imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qingyang; Wang, Shi; Ma, Tianyu; Wu, Jing; Liu, Hui; Xu, Tianpeng; Xia, Yan; Fan, Peng; Lyu, Zhenlei; Liu, Yaqiang

    2015-01-01

    PET, SPECT and CT imaging techniques are widely used in preclinical small animal imaging applications. In this paper, we present a compact small animal PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system. A dual-functional, shared detector design is implemented which enables PET and SPECT imaging with a same LYSO ring detector. A multi-pinhole collimator is mounted on the system and inserted into the detector ring in SPECT imaging mode. A cone-beam CT consisting of a micro focus X-ray tube and a CMOS detector is implemented. The detailed design and the performance evaluations are reported in this paper. In PET imaging mode, the measured NEMA based spatial resolution is 2.12 mm (FWHM), and the sensitivity at the central field of view (CFOV) is 3.2%. The FOV size is 50 mm (∅)×100 mm (L). The SPECT has a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm (FWHM) and an average sensitivity of 0.031% at the center axial, and a 30 mm (∅)×90 mm (L) FOV. The CT spatial resolution is 8.32 lp/mm @10%MTF, and the contrast discrimination function value is 2.06% with 1.5 mm size cubic box object. In conclusion, a compact, tri-modality PET/SPECT/CT system was successfully built with low cost and high performance

  5. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kuji, Ichiei; Seto, Akira; Ito, Kimiteru; Kikuta, Daisuke; Yamada, Minoru; Shimano, Yasumasa; Sato, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to SPECT. After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99m Tc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99m Tc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  6. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM to SPECT. Methods After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99mTc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. Results SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99mTc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. Conclusions The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  7. Analytical singular-value decomposition of three-dimensional, proximity-based SPECT systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Harrison H. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). College of Optical Sciences; Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging; Holen, Roel van [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP); Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    2011-07-01

    An operator formalism is introduced for the description of SPECT imaging systems that use solid-angle effects rather than pinholes or collimators, as in recent work by Mitchell and Cherry. The object is treated as a 3D function, without discretization, and the data are 2D functions on the detectors. An analytic singular-value decomposition of the resulting integral operator is performed and used to compute the measurement and null components of the objects. The results of the theory are confirmed with a Landweber algorithm that does not require a system matrix. (orig.)

  8. Experimental MRI-SPECT insert system with Hybrid Semiconductor detectors Timepix for MR animal scanner Bruker 47/20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, J.; Burian, M.; Soukup, P.; Novak, V.; Macko, M.; Jakubek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal medical imaging based on Magnetic Resonance is mainly combinated with one of the scintigraphic method like PET or SPECT. These methods provide functional information whereas magnetic resonance imaging provides high spatial resolution of anatomical information or complementary functional information. Fusion of imaging modalities allows researchers to obtain complimentary information in a single measurement. The combination of MRI with SPECT is still relatively new and challenging in many ways. The main complication of using SPECT in MRI systems is the presence of a high magnetic field therefore (ferro)magnetic materials have to be eliminated. Furthermore the application of radiofrequency fields within the MR gantry does not allow for the use of conductive structures such as the common heavy metal collimators. This work presents design and construction of an experimental MRI-SPECT insert system and its initial tests. This unique insert system consists of an MR-compatible SPECT setup with CdTe pixelated sensors Timepix tungsten collimators and a radiofrequency coil. Measurements were performed on a gelatine and tissue phantom with an embedded radioisotopic source (57Co 122 keV γ ray) inside the RF coil by the Bruker BioSpec 47/20 (4.7 T) MR animal scanner. The project was performed in the framework of the Medipix Collaboration.

  9. Acceptance testing of Siemens e.cam SPECT system at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosu, K. E.

    2006-01-01

    Acceptance testing has been performed on the Siemens e.cam Signature Series (Single Head) Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system; the first of its kind, at the Nuclear Medicine Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra. The various tests were performed according to NEMA NU 1 (2001) specifications as far as possible. The most important parameters that characterized the performance of the camera, gantry system, patient bed, collimators, computer system and fundamental software were evaluated based on visual inspection techniques. Various measuring instruments, different kinds of phantoms, point and flood sources containing 99m-Tc were also used for quantitative studies. Tests performed were divided into Physical inspection, intrinsic measurements (without collimator), extrinsic measurements (with collimator) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system measurement. Some results obtained were better than factory specifications, others were within specifications. Other results obtained from this study which did not have factory specifications for comparison can serve as baseline for future measurements and quality control. Although not all the tests originally planned for could be done due to the non-availability of certain phantoms and radionuclide, it had been possible to perform sufficient and relevant tests to ensure that the system had no serious problems and that it can be used for clinical nuclear medicine imaging. (au)

  10. Modeling and characterization of a SPECT system with pinhole collimation for the imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    My thesis work focuses on the development of several quantitative reconstruction methods dedicated to small animal Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). The latter is based on modeling the acquisition process of the 4-heads pinhole SPECT system available at Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC) and fully integrated to the AMISSA platform using Monte Carlo simulations. The system matrix approach, combined with the OS-EM iterative reconstruction algorithm, enabled to characterize the system performances and to compare it to the state of the art. Sensitivity of about 0,027% in the center of the field of view associated to a tomographic spatial resolution of 0, 875 ± 0, 025 mm were obtained. The major drawbacks of Monte Carlo methods led us to develop an efficient and simplified modeling of the physical effects occurring in the subject. My approach based on a system matrix decomposition, associated to a scatter pre-calculated database method, demonstrated an acceptable time for a daily imaging subject follow-up (∼ 1 h), leading to a personalized imaging reconstruction (article accepted). The inherent approximations of the scatter pre-calculated approach (first order scattering modeling and segmented emission) have a moderate impact on the recovery coefficients results, nevertheless a correction of about 10% was achieved. (author) [fr

  11. Simulation study of the second-generation MR-compatible SPECT system based on the inverted compound-eye gamma camera design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiaochun; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present simulation studies for the second-generation MRI compatible SPECT system, MRC-SPECT-II, based on an inverted compound eye (ICE) gamma camera concept. The MRC-SPECT-II system consists of a total of 1536 independent micro-pinhole-camera-elements (MCEs) distributed in a ring with an inner diameter of 6 cm. This system provides a FOV of 1 cm diameter and a peak geometrical efficiency of approximately 1.3% (the typical levels of 0.1%-0.01% found in modern pre-clinical SPECT instrumentations), while maintaining a sub-500 μm spatial resolution. Compared to the first-generation MRC-SPECT system (MRC-SPECT-I) (Cai 2014 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 734 147-51) developed in our lab, the MRC-SPECT-II system offers a similar resolution with dramatically improved sensitivity and greatly reduced physical dimension. The latter should allow the system to be placed inside most clinical and pre-clinical MRI scanners for high-performance simultaneous MRI and SPECT imaging.

  12. Physical and subjective evaluation of a three-detector (TRIAD 88) SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, M.F.; Mumma, C.G.; Allen, E.W.; Phal, J.J.; Prince, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The three-detector TRIAD 88 is a variable cylindrical FOV whole-body SPECT system designed for both brain as well as body organ imaging. The system performance was assessed in terms of physical indices and clinical quality. Measures of low contrast resolution using contrast-detail curves, high contrast resolution using LSFs and associated frequency descriptors, display characteristics, system sensitivity, energy resolution and uniformity analysis were utilized. In addition, images of Carlson phantom, Hoffman brain phantom and clinical brain images were used to compare two collimators subjectively. Measurements and calculations were obtained for two sets of parallel hole collimators, i.e., LEUR P AR and LEHR P AR. Of special interest is the consistency among the three detectors. The planar and volume sensitivities for the LEUR P AR collimator were about 58% of those of the LEHR P AR collimator. The planar spatial resolution of the two collimators differed by about 14%. The display was characterized by a logistic model H and D curve. The planar contrast-detail curves demonstrated no statistical difference in lesion detectability between the two collimator types, however SPECT phantom and clinical images demonstrated improved performance with the LEUR P AR collimator. Images of Hoffman single slice brain and Carlson phantoms and Tc-99m (HMPAO) brain images demonstrated excellent image quality. There was similarity in performance parameters of the three detector heads. 49 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  13. Development Of Software For Automation And Data Acquisition System For Gamma Spider And SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Jaafar Abdullah; Nolida Yussup; Nur Aira Abd Rahman; Mukhlis Mokhtar; Hanafi Ithnin; Hearie Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The portable system of gamma-ray computed tomography known as Gamma Spider and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are designed for the detection and measurement of the physical condition of small object that can fit within the diameter of 50 cm. The project consists of two major components; the scanner hardware and the system software. This paper describes the system software components which are linear and rotate motor control, data acquisition for rate meter and data recording. The scanning resolution for linear movement can be set to 0.25 cm, 0.5 cm or 1.0 cm whereas the rotation movement can be set to 5 or 10 degree depending on user requirement. The selections for scanning offset are set to three diameters which are 30 cm, 40 cm and 50 cm. The algorithm for this automation system and issues on development are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. Computer-assisted diagnostic system for neurodegenerative dementia using brain SPECT and 3D-SSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki; Shimada, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Shingo; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    To develop a computer-assisted automated diagnostic system to distinguish among Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild dementia. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with injection of N-Isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained from patients with mild degenerative dementia. First, datasets from 20 patients mild AD, 15 patients with dementia with DLB, and 17 healthy controls were used to develop an automated diagnosing system based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). AD- and DLB-specific regional templates were created using 3D-SSP, and critical Z scores in the templates were established. Datasets from 50 AD patients, 8 DLB patients, and 10 patients with non-AD/DLB type degenerative dementia (5 with frontotemporal dementia and 5 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were then used to test the diagnostic accuracy of the optimized automated system in comparison to the diagnostic interpretation of conventional IMP-SPECT images. These comparisons were performed to differentiate AD and DLB from non-AD/DLB and to distinguish AD from DLB. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The area under the ROC curve (Az) and the accuracy of the automated diagnosis system were 0.89 and 82%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the visual inspection were 0.84 and 77%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the combination of visual inspection and this system were 0.96 and 91%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 66%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The system developed in the present study achieved as good discrimination of AD, DLB, and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild dementia

  15. IBZM- and CIT-SPECT of the dopaminergic system in Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissingh, G.; Winogradzka, A.; Wolters, E.C.; Booij, J.; Royen, E.A. van

    1997-01-01

    Parkinsonism is most of the time caused by idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Considering the differences in therapeutic response and prognosis. in viva discrimination between IPD and 'Parkinsonism-plus' syndromes is important. Recently, ligands have become available for imaging the pre- and postsynaptic dopaminergic system by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). Visualization of postsynaptic D 2 dopamine receptors using 123 I-iodobenzamide ( 123 I-IBZM) may contribute to the differential diagnosis between IPD and 'Parkinsonism-plus' syndromes as IPD is a pure presynaptic disease. Imaging of the presynaptic dopamine transporters using [ 123 I]β-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) may be used as a diagnostic technique. Early disease detection in subjects suspected to be at risk for developing IPD has become possible using [ 123 I]β-CIT or other ligands for the dopamine transporter. Furthermore, with SPECT one is probably able to monitor in an objective way the efficacy of new pharmacological therapies. (author)

  16. A survey of head movement during clinical brain SPECT using an optical tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandos, G.; Barnden, L.; Lineage, H.; Smith, T.; Unger, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to survey patient motion during clinical brain SPECT using a commercial motion detection system called Polaris. Polaris is an optical tracker that remotely tracks head position and orientation via a small target attached to the patient. Its accuracy for position measurement is 1mm or 1 degree (deg), 33% moved > 2mm or 2deg and 10% moved > 4mm or 4deg. 65% of subjects moved 3 or more times. Motion in the D and P groups was equally likely to be small (<3mm or <3deg) or large and equally likely to occur early or late during acquisition. Motion in the N, F and C groups was less likely to be large and for N and F more likely to occur late in the acquisition suggesting fatigue was the main cause. The most common large movements were anterior-posterior translations and axial (Z) rotations. Significant head movement is common in brain SPECT, particularly in dementia and psychiatric subjects, and accurate motion correction is desirable to maintain image quality. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  17. Development of an Optical Fiber-Based MR Compatible Gamma Camera for SPECT/MRI Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Tadashi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Optical fiber is a promising material for integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) PET/MRI systems. Because its material is plastic, it has no interference between MRI. However, it is unclear whether this material can also be used for a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/MRI system. For this purpose, we developed an optical fiber-based block detector for a SPECT/MRI system and tested its performance by combining 1.2 ×1.2 ×6 mm Y2SiO5 (YSO) pixels into a 15 ×15 block and was coupled it to an optical fiber image guide that used was 0.5-mm in diameter with 80-cm long double clad fibers. The image guide had 22 ×22 mm rectangular input and an equal size output. The input of the optical fiber-based image guide was bent at 90 degrees, and the output was optically coupled to a 1-in square high quantum efficiency position sensitive photomultiplier tube (HQE-PSPMT). The parallel hole, 7-mm-thick collimator made of tungsten plastic was mounted on a YSO block. The diameter of the collimator holes was 0.8 mm which was positioned one-to-one coupled to the YSO pixels. We evaluated the intrinsic and system performances. We resolved most of the YSO pixels in a two-dimensional histogram for Co-57 gamma photons (122-keV) with an average peak-to-value ratio of 1.5. The energy resolution was 38% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The system resolution was 1.7-mm FWHM, 1.5 mm from the collimator surface, and the sensitivity was 0.06%. Images of a Co-57 point source could be successfully obtained inside 0.3 T MRI without serious interference. We conclude that the developed optical fiber-based YSO block detector is promising for SPECT/MRI systems.

  18. Analytical, experimental, and Monte Carlo system response matrix for pinhole SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Pablo; Pino, Francisco; Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús; Pavía, Javier; Ros, Doménec; Ruibal, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the performance of two approaches to the system response matrix (SRM) calculation in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. Methods: Evaluation was performed using experimental data from a low magnification pinhole SPECT system that consisted of a rotating flat detector with a monolithic scintillator crystal. The SRM was computed following two approaches, which were based on Monte Carlo simulations (MC-SRM) and analytical techniques in combination with an experimental characterization (AE-SRM). The spatial response of the system, obtained by using the two approaches, was compared with experimental data. The effect of the MC-SRM and AE-SRM approaches on the reconstructed image was assessed in terms of image contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, image quality, and spatial resolution. To this end, acquisitions were carried out using a hot cylinder phantom (consisting of five fillable rods with diameters of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 mm and a uniform cylindrical chamber) and a custom-made Derenzo phantom, with center-to-center distances between adjacent rods of 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 mm. Results: Good agreement was found for the spatial response of the system between measured data and results derived from MC-SRM and AE-SRM. Only minor differences for point sources at distances smaller than the radius of rotation and large incidence angles were found. Assessment of the effect on the reconstructed image showed a similar contrast for both approaches, with values higher than 0.9 for rod diameters greater than 1 mm and higher than 0.8 for rod diameter of 1 mm. The comparison in terms of image quality showed that all rods in the different sections of a custom-made Derenzo phantom could be distinguished. The spatial resolution (FWHM) was 0.7 mm at iteration 100 using both approaches. The SNR was lower for reconstructed images using MC-SRM than for those reconstructed using AE-SRM, indicating that AE-SRM deals better with the

  19. Optimization of a pinhole collimator in a SPECT scintillating fiber detector system: a Monte Carlo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hademenos, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the dimensions of a lead pinhole collimator in a photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system consisting of a line of equally spaced Tc-99m point sources and a plastic scintillating fiber detector. The optimization was performed by evaluating the spatial resolution and scanner sensitivity for each source distribution location and collimator parameter variation. An optimal spatial resolution of 0.43 cm FWHM was observed for a source distribution positioned 2.0 cm from the collimated scintillating fiber detection system with a pinhole radius of 1.0 mm and a collimator thickness of 3.0 cm for a 10,000 emission photon simulation. The optimal sensitivity occurred for a source distance of 2.0 cm, a radius of 3.0 mm and a thickness of 3.0 cm. (author)

  20. SPECT-series plot-programs for spectral data for the USC-3 computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarasaki, Yuuki

    1976-01-01

    The programs for spectral data plotting, SPECT- series, have been prepared for use in the USC-3 computer system. They are based on the Basic Plot-Subroutine Unit reported previously and used for plot-processing both γ-ray and TOF-spectra. Two programs can process continuously as many data as required, reading from a magnetic-tape file, being of the same format as that in the Magnetic-Tape Base System. Specification of the plot-processing is as follows: the programs can plot (1) any number of data as required on a sheet, (2) in either linear or logarithmic Y-axis scaling, (3) in the arbitrary channel region, and (4) with variable scale-factor. How to program is described in detail. Usage of the representative programs with example outputs is explained. Problems in the improvement of processing speed and utilization efficiency are also discussed. (auth.)

  1. Performance of a YSO/LSO detector block for use in a PET/SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlbom, M.; MacDonald, L.R.; Eriksson, L.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in using conventional SPECT scintillation cameras for PET imaging, however, the count rate performance is a limiting factor. The modular block detectors used in modem PET systems do not have this limitation. In this work, the performance of a detector block design which would have high resolution and high count rate capabilities in both detection modes is studied. The high light output of LSO (∼5-6 times BGO) would allow the construction of a detector block that would have similar intrinsic resolution characteristics at 140 keV as a conventional high resolution BGO block detector at 511 keV (∼4 mm FWHM). However, the intrinsic radioactivity of LSO prevents the use of this scintillator in single photon counting mode. YSO is a scintillator with higher light output than LSO but worse absorption characteristics than LSO. YSO and LSO could be combined in a phoswich detector block, where YSO is placed in a front layer and is used for low energy (SPECT) imaging and LSO in a second layer is used for PET imaging. Events in the two detector materials can be separated by pulse shape discrimination, since the decay times of the light in YSO and LSO are different (70 and 40 ns, respectively). Although the intrinsic resolution of the block detector with discrete elements is worse than for a NaI camera, this would not be a limiting factor. Simulations of a 20 cm diameter hot spot phantom imaged at different collimator distances using a high resolution collimator and scintillation camera system was compared to a block detector camera. No appreciable difference in resolution was seen in the reconstructed images between the two camera systems, including the ideal situation of zero distance between collimator and phantom

  2. SPECT imaging of dopaminergic system: a preliminary study of nine patients with clinically uncertain Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S. K.; Gopinath, G.; Buscombe, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Parkinsonism is the result of various neuro degenerative disorders, the common and related causes are Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). In each of these three causes, there is degeneration of presynaptic neurons in corpus striatum. Nine patients having clinically uncertain parkinsonian symptoms undergone brain SPECT imaging using the tracer (I-123 Ioflupane) that binds to dopamine transporter (DaT) in the pre-synaptic nerve terminals in basal ganglia. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake in the tail (putamen) portion of basal ganglia in five patients confirming presence of presynaptic neuro degeneration and reported as parkinsonism. Three patients revealed normal tracer uptake with one equivocal result. DaT imaging can effectively confirm parkinsonism and discriminate from normal subjects as well as other clinical simulators like essential tremor and dopa-responsive dystonia where no neuro degeneration occur.(author)

  3. The origins of SPECT and SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Brian F. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); University of Wollongong, Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has a long history of development since its initial demonstration by Kuhl and Edwards in 1963. Although clinical utility has been dominated by the rotating gamma camera, there have been many technological innovations with the recent popularity of organ-specific dedicated SPECT systems. The combination of SPECT and CT evolved from early transmission techniques used for attenuation correction with the initial commercial systems predating the release of PET/CT. The development and acceptance of SPECT/CT has been relatively slow with continuing debate as to what cost/performance ratio is justified. Increasingly, fully diagnostic CT is combined with SPECT so as to facilitate optimal clinical utility. (orig.)

  4. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  5. An Assessment of a Low-Cost Visual Tracking System (VTS) to Detect and Compensate for Patient Motion During SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Joseph E.; Bruyant, Philippe; Johnson, Karen; Feng, Bing; Lehovich, Andre; Gu, Songxiang; Gennert, Michael A.; King, Michael A.

    2008-06-01

    Patient motion is inevitable in SPECT and PET due to the lengthy period of time patients are imaged and patient motion can degrade diagnostic accuracy. The goal of our studies is to perfect a methodology for tracking and correcting patient motion when it occurs. In this paper we report on enhancements to the calibration, camera stability, accuracy of motion tracking, and temporal synchronization of a low-cost visual tracking system (VTS) we are developing. The purpose of the VTS is to track the motion of retro-reflective markers on stretchy bands wrapped about the chest and abdomen of patients. We have improved the accuracy of 3D spatial calibration by using a MATLAB optical camera calibration package with a planar calibration pattern. This allowed us to determine the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters for stereo-imaging with our CCD cameras. Locations in the VTS coordinate system are transformed to the SPECT coordinate system by a VTS/SPECT mapping using a phantom of 7 retro-reflective spheres each filled with a drop of Tc99m. We switched from pan, tilt and zoom (PTZ) network cameras to fixed network cameras to reduce the amount of camera drift. The improved stability was verified by tracking the positions of fixed retro-reflective markers on a wall. The ability of our VTS to track movement, on average, with sub-millimeter and sub-degree accuracy was established with the 7-sphere phantom for 1 cm vertical and axial steps as well as for an arbitrary rotation and translation. The difference in the time of optical image acquisition as decoded from the image headers relative to synchronization signals sent to the SPECT system was used to establish temporal synchrony between optical and list-mode SPECT acquisition. Two experiments showed better than 100 ms agreement between VTS and SPECT observed motion for three axial translations. We were able to track 3 reflective markers on an anthropomorphic phantom with a precision that allowed us to correct motion such that no

  6. Compensation of spatial system response in SPECT with conjugate gradient reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formiconi, A.R.; Pupi, A.; Passeri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A procedure for determination of the system matrix in single photon emission tomography (SPECT) is described which use a conjugate gradient reconstruction technique to take into account the variable system resolution of a camera equipped with parallel-hole collimators. The procedure involves acquisition of system line spread functions (LSF) in the region occupied by the object studied. Those data are used to generate a set of weighting factors based on the assumption that the LSFs of the collimated camera are of Gaussian shape with full width at half maximum (FWHM) linearly dependent on source depth in the span of image space. Factors are stored on a disc file for subsequent use in reconstruction. Afterwards reconstruction is performed using the conjugate gradient method with the system matrix modified by incorporation of these precalculated factors to take into account variable geometrical system response. The set of weighting factors is regenerated whenever acquisition conditions are changed (collimator, radius of rotation) with an ultra high resolution (UHR) collimator 2000 weighting factors need to be calculated. (author)

  7. The performance of a hybrid analytical-Monte Carlo system response matrix in pinhole SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bitar, Z; Pino, F; Candela, C; Ros, D; Pavía, J; Rannou, F R; Ruibal, A; Aguiar, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that in pinhole SPECT (single-photon-emission computed tomography), iterative reconstruction methods including accurate estimations of the system response matrix can lead to submillimeter spatial resolution. There are two different methods for obtaining the system response matrix: those that model the system analytically using an approach including an experimental characterization of the detector response, and those that make use of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods based on analytical approaches are faster and handle the statistical noise better than those based on Monte Carlo simulations, but they require tedious experimental measurements of the detector response. One suggested approach for avoiding an experimental characterization, circumventing the problem of statistical noise introduced by Monte Carlo simulations, is to perform an analytical computation of the system response matrix combined with a Monte Carlo characterization of the detector response. Our findings showed that this approach can achieve high spatial resolution similar to that obtained when the system response matrix computation includes an experimental characterization. Furthermore, we have shown that using simulated detector responses has the advantage of yielding a precise estimate of the shift between the point of entry of the photon beam into the detector and the point of interaction inside the detector. Considering this, it was possible to slightly improve the spatial resolution in the edge of the field of view. (paper)

  8. Analytical, experimental, and Monte Carlo system response matrix for pinhole SPECT reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Medicina Nuclear, CHUS, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, IDIS, Santiago de Compostela 15706 (Spain); Pino, Francisco [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain and Servei de Física Médica i Protecció Radiológica, Institut Catalá d' Oncologia, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Medicina Nuclear, CHUS, Santiago de Compostela 15706 (Spain); Pavía, Javier [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pí i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Ros, Doménec [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Casanova 143 (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pí i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Ruibal, Álvaro [Servicio Medicina Nuclear, CHUS (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Facultade de Medicina (USC), IDIS, Santiago de Compostela 15706 (Spain); Fundación Tejerina, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the performance of two approaches to the system response matrix (SRM) calculation in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. Methods: Evaluation was performed using experimental data from a low magnification pinhole SPECT system that consisted of a rotating flat detector with a monolithic scintillator crystal. The SRM was computed following two approaches, which were based on Monte Carlo simulations (MC-SRM) and analytical techniques in combination with an experimental characterization (AE-SRM). The spatial response of the system, obtained by using the two approaches, was compared with experimental data. The effect of the MC-SRM and AE-SRM approaches on the reconstructed image was assessed in terms of image contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, image quality, and spatial resolution. To this end, acquisitions were carried out using a hot cylinder phantom (consisting of five fillable rods with diameters of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 mm and a uniform cylindrical chamber) and a custom-made Derenzo phantom, with center-to-center distances between adjacent rods of 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 mm. Results: Good agreement was found for the spatial response of the system between measured data and results derived from MC-SRM and AE-SRM. Only minor differences for point sources at distances smaller than the radius of rotation and large incidence angles were found. Assessment of the effect on the reconstructed image showed a similar contrast for both approaches, with values higher than 0.9 for rod diameters greater than 1 mm and higher than 0.8 for rod diameter of 1 mm. The comparison in terms of image quality showed that all rods in the different sections of a custom-made Derenzo phantom could be distinguished. The spatial resolution (FWHM) was 0.7 mm at iteration 100 using both approaches. The SNR was lower for reconstructed images using MC-SRM than for those reconstructed using AE-SRM, indicating that AE-SRM deals better with the

  9. Dynamic molecular imaging of cardiac innervation using a dual head pinhole SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jicun; Boutchko, Rostyslav; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Reutter, BryanW.; Huesman, Ronald H.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-01-01

    Typically 123I-MIBG is used for the study of innervation and function of the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure. The protocol involves two studies: first a planar or SPECT scan is performed to measure initial uptake of the tracer, followed some 3-4 hours later by another study measuring the wash-out of the tracer from the heart. A fast wash-out is indicative of a compromised heart. In this work, a dual head pinhole SPECT system was used for imaging the distribution and kinetics of 123I-MIBG in the myocardium of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The system geometry was calibrated based on a nonlinear point projection fitting method using a three-point source phantom. The angle variation effect of the parameters was modeled with a sinusoidal function. A dynamic acquisition was performed by injecting 123I-MIBG into rats immediately after starting the data acquisition. The detectors rotated continuously performing a 360o data acquisition every 90 seconds. We applied the factor analysis (FA)method and region of interest (ROI) sampling method to obtain time activity curves (TACs)in the blood pool and myocardium and then applied two-compartment modeling to estimate the kinetic parameters. Since the initial injection bolus is too fast for obtaining a consistent tomographic data set in the first few minutes of the study, we applied the FA method directly to projections during the first rotation. Then the time active curves for blood and myocardial tissue were obtained from ROI sampling. The method was applied to determine if there were differences in the kinetics between SHR and WKY rats and requires less time by replacing the delayed scan at 3-4 hours after injection with a dynamic acquisition over 90 to 120 minutes. The results of a faster washout and a smaller distribution volume of 123I-MIBG near the end of life in the SHR model of hypertrophic cardiomyopthy may be indicative of a failing heart in late stages of heart

  10. Resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction for a high-resolution animal SPECT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatkar, Navid; Sajedi, Salar; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Arabi, Hossein; Sarkar, Saeed; Ghafarian, Pardis; Rahmim, Arman; Ay, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-01

    The small-animal High-Resolution SPECT (HiReSPECT) is a dedicated dual-head gamma camera recently designed and developed in our laboratory for imaging of murine models. Each detector is composed of an array of 1.2 × 1.2 mm(2) (pitch) pixelated CsI(Na) crystals. Two position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) are coupled to each head's crystal. In this paper, we report on a resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction code applicable to the system and present the experimental results achieved using different phantoms and mouse scans. Collimator-detector response functions (CDRFs) were measured via a pixel-driven method using capillary sources at finite distances from the head within the field of view (FOV). CDRFs were then fitted by independent Gaussian functions. Thereafter, linear interpolations were applied to the standard deviation (σ) values of the fitted Gaussians, yielding a continuous map of CDRF at varying distances from the head. A rotation-based maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was used for reconstruction. A fast rotation algorithm was developed to rotate the image matrix according to the desired angle by means of pre-generated rotation maps. The experiments demonstrated improved resolution utilizing our resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction. While the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) radial and tangential resolution measurements of the system were over 2 mm in nearly all positions within the FOV without resolution recovery, reaching around 2.5 mm in some locations, they fell below 1.8 mm everywhere within the FOV using the resolution-recovery algorithm. The noise performance of the system was also acceptable; the standard deviation of the average counts per voxel in the reconstructed images was 6.6% and 8.3% without and with resolution recovery, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A clinical gamma camera-based pinhole collimated system for high resolution small animal SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y., E-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular; Castro, A.A. de; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Leite, J.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Braga, J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica

    2010-11-15

    The main objective of the present study was to upgrade a clinical gamma camera to obtain high resolution tomographic images of small animal organs. The system is based on a clinical gamma camera to which we have adapted a special-purpose pinhole collimator and a device for positioning and rotating the target based on a computer-controlled step motor. We developed a software tool to reconstruct the target's three-dimensional distribution of emission from a set of planar projections, based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. We present details on the hardware and software implementation. We imaged phantoms and heart and kidneys of rats. When using pinhole collimators, the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the imaging system depend on parameters such as the detector-to-collimator and detector-to-target distances and pinhole diameter. In this study, we reached an object voxel size of 0.6 mm and spatial resolution better than 2.4 and 1.7 mm full width at half maximum when 1.5- and 1.0-mm diameter pinholes were used, respectively. Appropriate sensitivity to study the target of interest was attained in both cases. Additionally, we show that as few as 12 projections are sufficient to attain good quality reconstructions, a result that implies a significant reduction of acquisition time and opens the possibility for radiotracer dynamic studies. In conclusion, a high resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system was developed using a commercial clinical gamma camera, allowing the acquisition of detailed volumetric images of small animal organs. This type of system has important implications for research areas such as Cardiology, Neurology or Oncology. (author)

  12. 201Tl brain SPECT in differentiating central nervous system lymphoma from toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Noriko; Suzuki, Kenzo; Abe, Katsumi; Yokoyama, Yoshiaki; Ushimi, Hisashi; Terada, Kazushi

    1997-01-01

    In AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are the leading causes of CNS mass lesions. It is important to make the correct diagnosis expeditiously, since the two diseases require markedly different treatments and have different prognoses. In general, CT and MR imaging have failed to provide specific distinguishing characteristics to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis, and it is difficult to differentiate these entities clinically. We performed 201 Tl brain SPECT in order to differentiate two diseases. Counts ratio of a lesion to the normal brain (L/N ratio) was elevated in patients of lymphoma compared in patients of toxoplasmosis. 201 Tl brain SPECT is useful to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis. (author)

  13. Design of common software for quality control of SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohua; Gao Ruzhen; Chen Shengzu

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study is to design a common testing system for SPECT quality control according to NEMA standard. Using the system, the performances of different types of SPECT can be tested, so that the acceptance testing, performance comparing and routine quality control for SPECT can be normalized. The system was based on IBM PC series of microcomputer. Testing data are acquired from various types of SPECT, then transferred into IBM PC through interface and tested with an unique testing program. Two parts were included: interface and SPECT testing program. It emphatically studied the managing program of RS232 interface, designing skills and the mathematic patterns of SPECT testing program. The system which was composed of 11 subroutines can be used to measure the performances for both gamma camera and SPECT. The system was tested on OMEGA 500/MCS 560 SPECT and the results showed that it is effective, accurate and easy to use

  14. An accurate and efficient system model of iterative image reconstruction in high-resolution pinhole SPECT for small animal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, P-C; Hsu, C-H [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, I-T [Department Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, K M [Medical Engineering Research Division, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cghsu@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-06-15

    Accurate modeling of the photon acquisition process in pinhole SPECT is essential for optimizing resolution. In this work, the authors develop an accurate system model in which pinhole finite aperture and depth-dependent geometric sensitivity are explicitly included. To achieve high-resolution pinhole SPECT, the voxel size is usually set in the range of sub-millimeter so that the total number of image voxels increase accordingly. It is inevitably that a system matrix that models a variety of favorable physical factors will become extremely sophisticated. An efficient implementation for such an accurate system model is proposed in this research. We first use the geometric symmetries to reduce redundant entries in the matrix. Due to the sparseness of the matrix, only non-zero terms are stored. A novel center-to-radius recording rule is also developed to effectively describe the relation between a voxel and its related detectors at every projection angle. The proposed system matrix is also suitable for multi-threaded computing. Finally, the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed system model is evaluated in a workstation equipped with two Quad-Core Intel X eon processors.

  15. Experimental MRI-SPECT insert system with Hybrid Semiconductor detectors Timepix for MR animal scanner Bruker 47/20

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíček, J.; Burian, M.; Soukup, P.; Novák, Vladimír; Macko, M.; Jakůbek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, January (2017), č. článku P01015. ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : Gamma camera * SPECT * PET PET /CT * coronary CT angiography (CTA) * Gamma detectors (scintillators, CZT, HPG, HgI etc) * multi-modality systems * pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronics Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/P01015

  16. Calibration of gamma camera systems for a multicentre European {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT normal database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia [Southampton Univ. Hospitals NHS Trust, Dept. of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and Univ. College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [Univ. of Szeged, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nijs, Robin de [Rigshospitalet and Univ. of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bagnara, Maria Claudia [Az. Ospedaliera Universitaria S. Martino, Medical Physics Unit, Genoa (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Scheepers, Egon [Univ. of Amsterdam, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zito, Felicia [Fondazione IRCCS Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Seese, Anita [Univ. of Leipzig, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [Univ. of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Dept., Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Koole, Michel [Univ. Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Raith, Maria [Medical Univ. of Vienna, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); George, Jean [Univ. Catholique Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Mont-Godinne (Belgium); Lonsdale, Markus Nowak [Bispebjerg Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muenzing, Wolfgang [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Tatsch, Klaus [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc., Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); Varrone, Andrea [Center for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska Inst., Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    A joint initiative of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Neuroimaging Committee and EANM Research Ltd. aimed to generate a European database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of healthy controls. This study describes the characterization and harmonization of the imaging equipment of the institutions involved. {sup 123}I SPECT images of a striatal phantom filled with striatal to background ratios between 10:1 and 1:1 were acquired on all the gamma cameras with absolute ratios measured from aliquots. The images were reconstructed by a core lab using ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) without corrections (NC), with attenuation correction only (AC) and additional scatter and septal penetration correction (ACSC) using the triple energy window method. A quantitative parameter, the simulated specific binding ratio (sSBR), was measured using the ''Southampton'' methodology that accounts for the partial volume effect and compared against the actual values obtained from the aliquots. Camera-specific recovery coefficients were derived from linear regression and the error of the measurements was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (COV). The relationship between measured and actual sSBRs was linear across all systems. Variability was observed between different manufacturers and, to a lesser extent, between cameras of the same type. The NC and AC measurements were found to underestimate systematically the actual sSBRs, while the ACSC measurements resulted in recovery coefficients close to 100% for all cameras (AC range 69-89%, ACSC range 87-116%). The COV improved from 46% (NC) to 32% (AC) and to 14% (ACSC) (p < 0.001). A satisfactory linear response was observed across all cameras. Quantitative measurements depend upon the characteristics of the SPECT systems and their calibration is a necessary prerequisite for data pooling. Together with accounting for partial volume, the

  17. The current status of SPECT or SPECT/CT in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chung, Yong An [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon Saint Mary' s HospitalThe Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The first step to nuclear medicine in Korea started with introduction of the gamma camera in 1969. Although planar images with the gamma camera give important functional information, they have the limitations that result from 2-dimensional images. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) due to its 3-dimensional image acquisition is superior to earlier planar gamma imaging in image resolution and diagnostic accuracy. As demand for a hybrid functional and anatomical imaging device has increased, integrated SPECT/CT systems have been used. In Korea, SPECT/CT was for the first time installed in 2003. SPECT/CT can eliminate many possible pitfalls on SPECT-alone images, making better attenuation correction and thereby improving image quality. Therefore, SPECT/CT is clinically preferred in many hospitals in various aspects. More recently, additional SPECT/CT images taken from the region with equivocal uptake on planar images have been helpful in making precise interpretation as part of their clinical workup in postoperative thyroid cancer patients. SPECT and SPECT/CT have various advantages, but its clinical application has gradually decreased in recent few years. While some researchers investigated the myocardial blood flow with cardiac PET using F-18 FDG or N-13 ammonia, myocardial perfusion SPECT is, at present, the radionuclide imaging study of choice for the risk stratification and guiding therapy in the coronary artery disease patients in Korea. New diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for AD have received increasing attention; nevertheless, brain SPECT will remain the most reliable modality evaluating cerebral perfusion.

  18. The effect of truncation on very small cardiac SPECT camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmer, Damien; Eisner, Robert L.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The limited transaxial field-of-view (FOV) of a very small cardiac SPECT camera system causes view-dependent truncation of the projection of structures exterior to, but near the heart. Basic tomographic principles suggest that the reconstruction of non-attenuated truncated data gives a distortion-free image in the interior of the truncated region, but the DC term of the Fourier spectrum of the reconstructed image is incorrect, meaning that the intensity scale of the reconstruction is inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to characterize the reconstructed image artifacts from truncated data, and to quantify their effects on the measurement of tracer uptake in the myocardial. Particular attention was given to instances where the heart wall is close to hot structures (structures of high activity uptake).Methods: The MCAT phantom was used to simulate a 2D slice of the heart region. Truncated and non-truncated projections were formed both with and without attenuation. The reconstructions were analyzed for artifacts in the myocardium caused by truncation, and for the effect that attenuation has relative to increasing those artifacts. Results: The inaccuracy due to truncation is primarily caused by an incorrect DC component. For visualizing the left ventricular wall, this error is not worse than the effect of attenuation. The addition of a small hot bowel-like structure near the left ventricle causes few changes in counts on the wall. Larger artifacts due to the truncation are located at the boundary of the truncation and can be eliminated by sinogram interpolation. Finally,algebraic reconstruction methods are shown to give better reconstruction results than an analytical filtered back-projection reconstruction algorithm. Conclusion: Small inaccuracies in reconstructed images from small FOV camera systems should have little effect on clinical interpretation. However, changes in the degree of inaccuracy in counts from slice to slice are due to changes in

  19. Evaluation of cerebral perfusion in patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus using 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Atsuko; Shishido, Fumio; Kato, Kazuo; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Seino, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    In the course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), central nervous system (CNS) complications occur at a high frequency. An accurate diagnosis of CNS lupus, differentiated from secondary CNS involvement, is difficult. CNS lupus is indicative of advancing primary disease and is treated by steroid pulse therapy or increased dosage of steroids. In contrast, if symptoms are caused by secondary CNS complications, it is possible to observe or treat these complications using symptomatic therapy. We examined whether quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using cerebral perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to differentiate CNS lupus from secondary CNS involvement. We divided 18 SLE patients with CNS symptoms into a CNS lupus group and a non-CNS lupus group, and then compared the mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) of each group of patients. SPECT was performed with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP), with quantitation carried out by table look-up and autoradiographic methods. The mCBF of both groups was decreased; however, the mCBF of patients with CNS lupus was significantly lower than that of non-CNS lupus patients. Quantitative CBF may provide a useful tool to distinguish CNS lupus from non-CNS lupus. (author)

  20. Implementation and assessment of an animal management system for small-animal micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, David W.; Detombe, Sarah A.; Chiodo, Chris; Fricke, Stanley T.; Drangova, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Advances in laboratory imaging systems for CT, SPECT, MRI, and PET facilitate routine micro-imaging during pre-clinical investigations. Challenges still arise when dealing with immune-compromised animals, biohazardous agents, and multi-modality imaging. These challenges can be overcome with an appropriate animal management system (AMS), with the capability for supporting and monitoring a rat or mouse during micro-imaging. We report the implementation and assessment of a new AMS system for mice (PRA-3000 / AHS-2750, ASI Instruments, Warren MI), designed to be compatible with a commercial micro-CT / micro-SPECT imaging system (eXplore speCZT, GE Healthcare, London ON). The AMS was assessed under the following criteria: 1) compatibility with the imaging system (i.e. artifact generation, geometric dimensions); 2) compatibility with live animals (i.e. positioning, temperature regulation, anesthetic supply); 3) monitoring capabilities (i.e. rectal temperature, respiratory and cardiac monitoring); 4) stability of co-registration; and 5) containment. Micro-CT scans performed using a standardized live-animal protocol (90 kVp, 40 mA, 900 views, 16 ms per view) exhibited low noise (+/-19 HU) and acceptable artifact from high-density components within the AMS (e.g. ECG pad contacts). Live mice were imaged repeatedly (with removal and replacement of the AMS) and spatial registration was found to be stable to within +/-0.07 mm. All animals tolerated enclosure within the AMS for extended periods (i.e. > one hour) without distress, based on continuous recordings of rectal temperature, ECG waveform and respiratory rate. A sealed AMS system extends the capability of a conventional micro-imaging system to include immune-compromised and biosafety level 2 mouse-imaging protocols.

  1. Improved image quality in pinhole SPECT by accurate modeling of the point spread function in low magnification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Francisco; Roé, Nuria; Aguiar, Pablo; Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec; Pavía, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery

  2. Improved image quality in pinhole SPECT by accurate modeling of the point spread function in low magnification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, Francisco [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain and Servei de Física Mèdica i Protecció Radiològica, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08907 (Spain); Roé, Nuria [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela 15706, Spain and Grupo de Imagen Molecular, Instituto de Investigacións Sanitarias de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Galicia 15782 (Spain); Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domènec [Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 08036, Spain and CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Pavía, Javier [Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 080836 (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); and Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has become an important noninvasive imaging technique in small-animal research. Due to the high resolution required in small-animal SPECT systems, the spatially variant system response needs to be included in the reconstruction algorithm. Accurate modeling of the system response should result in a major improvement in the quality of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the impact that an accurate modeling of spatially variant collimator/detector response has on image-quality parameters, using a low magnification SPECT system equipped with a pinhole collimator and a small gamma camera. Methods: Three methods were used to model the point spread function (PSF). For the first, only the geometrical pinhole aperture was included in the PSF. For the second, the septal penetration through the pinhole collimator was added. In the third method, the measured intrinsic detector response was incorporated. Tomographic spatial resolution was evaluated and contrast, recovery coefficients, contrast-to-noise ratio, and noise were quantified using a custom-built NEMA NU 4–2008 image-quality phantom. Results: A high correlation was found between the experimental data corresponding to intrinsic detector response and the fitted values obtained by means of an asymmetric Gaussian distribution. For all PSF models, resolution improved as the distance from the point source to the center of the field of view increased and when the acquisition radius diminished. An improvement of resolution was observed after a minimum of five iterations when the PSF modeling included more corrections. Contrast, recovery coefficients, and contrast-to-noise ratio were better for the same level of noise in the image when more accurate models were included. Ring-type artifacts were observed when the number of iterations exceeded 12. Conclusions: Accurate modeling of the PSF improves resolution, contrast, and recovery

  3. Additional value of hybrid SPECT/CT systems in neuroendocrine tumors, adrenal tumors, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K K; Chondrogiannis, S; Fuster, D; Ruiz, C; Marzola, M C; Giammarile, F; Colletti, P M; Rubello, D

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the potential advantages of SPECT/CT hybrid imaging in the management of neuroendocrine tumors, adrenal tumors, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. From the collected data, the superiority of fused images was observed as providing both functional/molecular and morphological imaging compared to planar imaging. This provided an improvement in diagnostic imaging, with significant advantages as regards: (1) precise locating of the lesions; (2) an improvement in characterization of the findings, resulting higher specificity, improved sensitivity, and overall greater accuracy, (3) additional anatomical information derived from the CT component; (4) CT-based attenuation correction and potential for volumetric dosimetry calculations, and (5) improvement on the impact on patient management (e.g. in better defining treatment plans, in shortening surgical operating times). It can be concluded that SPECT/CT hybrid imaging provides the nuclear medicine physician with a powerful imaging modality in comparison to planar imaging, providing essential information about the location of lesions, and high quality homogeneous images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  4. MediSPECT: Single photon emission computed tomography system for small field of view small animal imaging based on a CdTe hybrid pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accorsi, R.; Autiero, M.; Celentano, L.

    2007-01-01

    We describe MediSPECT, a new scanner developed at University and INFN Napoli, for SPECT studies on small animals with a small field of view (FOV) and high spatial resolution. The CdTe pixel detector (a 256x256 matrix of 55 μm square pixels) operating in single photon counting for detection of gamma-rays with low and medium energy (e.g. 125 I, 27-35 keV, 99m Tc, 140 keV), is bump bonded to the Medipix2 readout chip. The FOV of the MediSPECT scanner with a coded aperture mask collimator ranges from 6.3 mm (system spatial resolution 110 μm at 27-35 keV) to 24.3 mm. With a 0.30 mm pinhole the FOV ranges from 2.4 to 29 mm (where the system spatial resolution is 1.0 mm at 27-35 keV and 2.0 mm at 140 keV). MediSPECT will be used for in vivo imaging of small organs or tissue structures in mouse, e.g., brain, thyroid, heart or tumor

  5. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  6. Changes in cardiac adrenergic nervous system in patients submitted to transmyocardial laser revascularisation - assessment with I-123-MIBG SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresinska, A.; Sliwinski, M.; Konieczna, S.; Szymanska, M.; Hendzel, P.; Juraszynski, Z.; Wojnowski, A.; Debski, A.; Szumilak, B.

    2002-01-01

    Meta-iodobenzylguanidine [MIBG] is an analogue of guanethidine, which, after labelling with iodine-123, has been used for cardiac neuronal imaging in conditions such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, heart transplantation. The aim of our program using I-123-Mibg is: 1) to study the range of influence of the laser energy (CO 2 -high power laser) during trans myocardial laser revascularisation [Tml] on cardiac adrenergic nervous system, and 2) to assess if disruption of this system can be one of the mechanisms responsible for clinical improvement observed early after Tml. Methods: The patients with high pre-operative probability of having sole TMLR or TMLR combined with only 1 bypass are studied before the operation for neuronal activity with I-123-MIBG SPECT [MIBG-0]. The patients (if they were operated according to the assumption) are studied postoperatively with I-123-MIBG SPECT as early as possible from clinical point of view [MIBG-early] and 6 months after operation [MIBG-6m]. Up to now, in 27 pts the preoperative and early postoperative (7-39 days, av. 13±7 days) tests were performed and in 15 pts - also MIBG-6m was performed. The group characteristics: 21M (78%); age: 43-76y, av. 64±10y; all the patients in III/IV CCS class; 20 pts (74%) after 1-2 MI; 5 pts (19%) after earlier CABG or PTCA. Registration of I-123-MIBG SPECT images was started 4 hrs after injection of the radiopharmaceutical. All SPECT studies were assessed in 17 segments (seg) of the LV. The bypassed seg and the septal seg were excluded from the assessment (as not submitted to the laser). Results: In 22 studies (32%), the evaluation of MIBG uptake was not possible because of very low heart uptake and/or very high extra cardiac uptake. Finally, 18 of the preoperative, 18 of the early postoperative and 11 of the late postoperative studies were submitted to segmental analysis. In MIBG-0, there were 172 uptake defects in

  7. Usefulness of 99mTc-ECD SPECT in diseases of central nerve system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shimato; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Mimura, Hiroaki

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of a new cerebral perfusion imaging radiopharmaceutical, 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD), was clinically evaluated. The subjects of this study were 14 patients with neurological disorders including 10 patients with cerebral infarction and 4 patients with other diseases. A total of 15 examinations was performed. 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HM-PAO) or 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) SPECTs were performed simultaneously, and the findings from those examinations were compared with 99m Tc-ECD. As to the count ratio of lesions to normal area (L/N), the L/N ratio in severe ischemic patients was lower in 99m Tc-ECD than in 99m Tc-HM-PAO or 123 I-IMP. In mild ischemic patients, on the other hand, the L/N ratio was the lowest in 123 I-IMP. When the relationship between regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) obtained from 123 I-IMP and the values of L/N in 99m Tc-ECD or 99m Tc-HM-PAO was compared, the values of L/N in 99m Tc-ECD or 99m Tc-HM-PAO were found to have decreased linearity with increasing rCBF. In a patient showing luxury perfusion, the accumulation pattern of 99m Tc-ECD was different from that of the other two radiopharmaceuticals, and focal defect was revealed in 99m Tc-ECD SPECT. On the dynamic SPECT of 99m Tc-ECD in a patient with meningioma, the tumor showed a change from high to low perfusion with the passage of time. This finding indicated that care should be taken in the evaluation of accumulation of 99m Tc-ECD. Therefore, 99m Tc-ECD was found to be useful as a cerebral perfusion agent. In addition, as accumulation of 99m Tc-ECD might somehow reflect metabolism in some cases, further careful investigation of many cases should be carried out. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the effects of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with brain involvement by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, S.S.; Kao, C.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Huang, W.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, J.J.H. [Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medicine University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Chang, C.P. [Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Wang, J.J. [Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-07-01

    Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) was introduced to avoid life-threatening complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with brain manifestations; however, the efficacy of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement is still uncertain and needs to be objectively evaluated. We enrolled 15 female SLE patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations in this study. All patients had normal brain MRI and abnormal brain HMPAO-SPECT findings. Follow-up HMPAO-SPECT studies were conducted 2 weeks after MPT. Serum levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and anti-ribosomal P antibodies (anti-P) were measured before and after MPT. Before MPT, 7 patients were positive for ACA and 7 patients were positive for anti-P. After MPT, none of the 15 patients demonstrated positive serologic findings or neuropsychiatric manifestations. Based on the follow up brain HMPAO-SPECT images following MPT, 13 patients showed disappearance of the perfusion defects and 2 patients showed partial recovery of rCBF. Brain HMPAO-SPECT imaging is a logical and objective tool for measuring the effects of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement by determining of changes in rCBF. (orig.)

  9. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  10. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  11. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  12. PET and SPECT in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ghent Univ.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van; Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  13. Experimental task-based optimization of a four-camera variable-pinhole small-animal SPECT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.

    2005-04-01

    We have previously utilized lumpy object models and simulated imaging systems in conjunction with the ideal observer to compute figures of merit for hardware optimization. In this paper, we describe the development of methods and phantoms necessary to validate or experimentally carry out these optimizations. Our study was conducted on a four-camera small-animal SPECT system that employs interchangeable pinhole plates to operate under a variety of pinhole configurations and magnifications (representing optimizable system parameters). We developed a small-animal phantom capable of producing random backgrounds for each image sequence. The task chosen for the study was the detection of a 2mm diameter sphere within the phantom-generated random background. A total of 138 projection images were used, half of which included the signal. As our observer, we employed the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with Laguerre-Gauss channels. The signal-to-noise (SNR) of this observer was used to compare different system configurations. Results indicate agreement between experimental and simulated data with higher detectability rates found for multiple-camera, multiple-pinhole, and high-magnification systems, although it was found that mixtures of magnifications often outperform systems employing a single magnification. This work will serve as a basis for future studies pertaining to system hardware optimization.

  14. Performance evaluation of Siemens E.CAM(R) SPECT system at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosu, E.K.; Hasford, F.; Amuasi, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Performance evaluation tests on Siemens e.cam(R) Signature Series Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)System at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (Ghana) were conducted for compliance with Manufacturer's specifications and user's requirements. The tests were performed according to National Electrical Manufacturer's Association protocols, and different measuring instruments and phantoms containing 99m-Tc were used. Extrinsic uniformity, system energy resolution, system spatial resolution (without scattering), detector shield leakage and system planar sensitivity were evaluated. The system energy resolution measured was 9.38 % as against manufacturer's specification of ≤ 9.9 %, Planar sensitivity value measured was 232.92 c/min/mCi while manufacturers' specification was 202 c/min/mCi, and detector shield leakage values measured were 0.001 %, 0.002 % and 0.025 % against an accepted value of < 1 %. The performance evaluation confirmed that the system met requirements for clinical nuclear medicine imaging, and the values could be used as database for future quality control measurements. (au)

  15. Advances in SPECT Instrumentation (Including Small Animal Scanners). Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, G.; Zavattini, G.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental major efforts have been devoted to the development of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging modality over the last few decades. Recently, a novel surge of interest in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technology has occurred, particularly after the introduction of the hybrid SPECT-CT imaging system. This has led to a flourishing of investigations in new types of detectors and collimators, and to more accurate refinement of reconstruction algorithms. Along with SPECT-CT, new, fast gamma cameras have been developed for dedicated cardiac imaging. The existing gap between PET and SPECT in sensitivity and spatial resolution is progressively decreasing, and this trend is particularly apparent in the field of small animal imaging where the most important advances have been reported in SPECT tomographs. An outline of the basic features of SPECT technology, and of recent developments in SPECT instrumentation for both clinical applications and basic biological research on animal models is described. (author)

  16. Iodine-131 imaging using 284 keV photons with a small animal CZT-SPECT system dedicated to low-medium-energy photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Akihiro; Gotoh, Kumiko; Shimamoto, Masako; Hasegawa, Koki; Okada, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Iodine-131 is widely used for radionuclide therapy because of its β-particle and for diagnostic imaging employing its principal gamma ray. Since that principal gamma ray has the relatively high energy of 364 keV, small animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging systems may be required to possess the ability to image such higher energy photons. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of imaging I-131 using its 284 keV photons instead of its 364 keV photons in a small animal SPECT imaging system dedicated to the detection of low-medium-energy photons (below 300 keV). The imaging system used was a commercially available preclinical SPECT instrument with CZT detectors that was equipped with multi-pinhole collimators and was accompanied by a CT imager. An energy window for I-131 imaging was set to a photopeak of 284 keV with a low abundance compared with 364 keV photons. Small line sources and two mice, one of each of two types, that were injected with NaI-131 were scanned. Although higher counts occurred at the peripheral region of the reconstructed images due to the collimator penetration by the 364 keV photons, the shape of the small line sources could be well visualized. The measured spatial resolution was relatively poor (~1.9 mm for full width at half maximum and ~3.9 mm for full width at tenth maximum). However, a good linear correlation between SPECT values and the level of I-131 radioactivity was observed. Furthermore, the uptake of NaI-131 to the thyroid gland for the two mice was clearly identified in the 3D-SPECT image fused with the X-ray CT image. We conclude that the use of an energy window set on the photopeak of 284 keV and the multi-pinhole collimator may permit I-131 imaging for a preclinical CZT-SPECT system that does not have the ability to acquire images using the 364 keV photons.

  17. Comparison between a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system in the measurement of the loss of dopamine transporters with [123I]FP-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrone, Andrea; Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco; Pellecchia, Maria T.; Salvatore, Elena; de Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo; Amboni, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Dual-head SPECT systems are used by many clinical departments for [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging, while triple-head or brain-dedicated systems with better imaging performance are more commonly used by research institutions. There are limited data comparing the capability of the two types of system to measure dopamine transporter (DAT) loss in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system to estimate the degree of DAT loss in different movement disorders with variable nigrostriatal impairment, with [ 123 I]FP-CIT. Four patients with essential tremor, 24 with Parkinson's disease (PD), six with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 and six controls were studied with [ 123 I]FP-CIT. SPECT scans were performed on a dual-head (E.CAM - Siemens) and subsequently on a brain-dedicated system (Ceraspect - DSI). Striatal DAT outcome measures on the E.CAM and the Ceraspect were strongly correlated and the putamen-to-caudate ratios were almost identical. Although the measured values were lower by 52 ± 25% in caudate and by 51 ± 31% in putamen on the E.CAM (p < 0.0001), the average striatal DAT decrease in each patient group compared with controls was similar for both systems. In PD patients, similar correlations (p < 0.05) were found between motor UPDRS or Hoehn and Yahr stage and striatal DAT density. Despite underestimation of striatal DAT outcome measures, the E.CAM showed similar capability as the Ceraspect in measuring the degree of nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit and assessing the correlation between DAT outcome measures and clinical variables of PD severity and stage. (orig.)

  18. A study of reconstruction accuracy for a cardiac SPECT system with multi-segmental collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, D.C.; Chang, W.; Pan, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    To improve the geometric efficiency of cardiac SPECT imaging, we have previously proposed to use a ring geometry and a multi-segmental collimation. The proposed collimation consists of multiple parallel collimators with most of the segments focused on a small central region, where the patient heart should be positioned. This scheme provides an significantly increased detection efficiency for the central region, but at the expense of reduced efficiency for the surrounding background. We have used computer simulations to evaluate the implication of this scheme on the accuracy of the reconstructed cardiac images. Two imaging situations were simulated, one with the heart well placed in the center, the other with the heart shifted outward and partially outside the central region; a neighboring high uptake liver was also simulated. The images were reconstructed with ML-EM and OS-EM methods using a complete attenuation map. The results indicate the deviation caused by truncation is not significant and is not strongly dependent on the activity of the liver when the heart is well positioned within the central region. The distribution of activity in the myocardium reconstructed with ML-EM or OS-EM is not sensitive to the noisy projections sampled from the background. When the heart is positioned improperly, the image reconstructed from the hybrid emission (a combination of high-count projections through the central region and low-count background projections) can restore the activity for the myocardium with increased noise variances in the section outside the central region

  19. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  20. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golestani, Reza; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Wu, Chao [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Petrov, Artiom D. [University of California, Irvine, Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Beekman, Freek J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); MILabs, Utrecht (Netherlands); Boersma, Hendrikus H. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  1. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golestani, Reza; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Wu, Chao; Tio, Rene A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Petrov, Artiom D.; Beekman, Freek J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  2. Brain SPECT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)

  3. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Otte, Andreas; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van

    2014-01-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  4. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  5. SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide activities within the human body is affected by several physical and instrumental factors including attenuation of photons within the patient, Compton scattered events, the system's finite spatial resolution and object size, finite number of detected events, partial volume effects, the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics, and patient and/or organ motion. Furthermore, other instrumentation factors such as calibration of the center-of-rotation, sampling, and detector nonuniformities will affect the SPECT measurement process. These factors are described, together with examples of compensation methods that are currently available for improving SPECT quantification. SPECT offers the potential to improve in vivo estimates of absorbed dose, provided the acquisition, reconstruction, and compensation procedures are adequately implemented and utilized. 53 references, 2 figures

  6. The effect of Compton scattering on quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Starmer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the response of a SPECT system. The accuracy of the code has been verified and has been used in this research to study and illustrate the effects of Compton scatter on quantitative SPECT measurements. The effects of Compton scattered radiation on gamma camera response have been discussed by several authors, and will be extended to rotating gamma camera SPECT systems. The unique feature of this research includes the pictorial illustration of the Compton scattered and the unscattered components of the photopeak data on SPECT imaging by simulating phantom studies with and without Compton scatter

  7. Technical approach to improvement of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukukita, Hiroyoshi

    1985-01-01

    At present, a large number of SPECT systems are being widely used in Japan, hence, it is reasonable for us to know the physical and imaging characteristics of these SPECT devices, and also to recommend the optimum utility of SPECT systems. For this reason, a survey respect of characteristics of the commercialy available SPECT devices was carried out. In addition to this, various factors which have significant influence over SPECT image quality, such as, data acquisition matrix, reconstruction filter, γ-ray attenuation correction and daily quality control procedure, were also investigated. The materials used for this study are PET/SPECT phantom, Alderson liver phantom filled with Tc-99m solution, and either LFOV-E or ZLC-7500 interfaced to Scintipac 2400 minicomputer with 256 K byte of memory. Following are the results of this study. 1) The suitable data acquisition procedure was 128 x 128 matrix for linear sampling and approximately 64 views for angular sampling. 2) Reconstructed image using pre-processing filter with Wiener and Butterworth filters provided high quality image as compared with the Ramp filter. 3) Weighted backprojection method (WBP) proposed by Tanaka was superior to other methods, such as Sorenson method and Chang method in the object with non-uniform distribution of radionuclide. 4) It was found that uniformity correction of gamma camera and precise adjustment of the center of rotation are most important to maintain the images with a high quality. (author)

  8. Quantification of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies with 123I-labelled radioligands. A comparison between different imaging systems and data acquisition protocols using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, Cristina; Aguiar, Pablo; Gallego, Judith; Cot, Albert; Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domenec; Bullich, Santiago; Pareto, Deborah; Sempau, Josep; Lomena, Francisco; Calvino, Francisco; Pavia, Javier

    2008-01-01

    123 I-labelled radioligands are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopaminergic system to study the dopamine transporter binding. The aim of this work was to compare the quantitative capabilities of two different SPECT systems through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The SimSET MC code was employed to generate simulated projections of a numerical phantom for two gamma cameras equipped with a parallel and a fan-beam collimator, respectively. A fully 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm was used to compensate for attenuation, the spatially variant point spread function (PSF) and scatter. A post-reconstruction partial volume effect (PVE) compensation was also developed. For both systems, the correction for all degradations and PVE compensation resulted in recovery factors of the theoretical specific uptake ratio (SUR) close to 100%. For a SUR value of 4, the recovered SUR for the parallel imaging system was 33% for a reconstruction without corrections (OSEM), 45% for a reconstruction with attenuation correction (OSEM-A), 56% for a 3D reconstruction with attenuation and PSF corrections (OSEM-AP), 68% for OSEM-AP with scatter correction (OSEM-APS) and 97% for OSEM-APS plus PVE compensation (OSEM-APSV). For the fan-beam imaging system, the recovered SUR was 41% without corrections, 55% for OSEM-A, 65% for OSEM-AP, 75% for OSEM-APS and 102% for OSEM-APSV. Our findings indicate that the correction for degradations increases the quantification accuracy, with PVE compensation playing a major role in the SUR quantification. The proposed methodology allows us to reach similar SUR values for different SPECT systems, thereby allowing a reliable standardisation in multicentric studies. (orig.)

  9. Quantification of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies with {sup 123}I-labelled radioligands. A comparison between different imaging systems and data acquisition protocols using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Cristina; Aguiar, Pablo [Universitat de Barcelona - IDIBAPS, Unitat de Biofisica i Bioenginyeria, Departament de Ciencies Fisiologiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona (Spain); Gallego, Judith [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Cot, Albert [Universitat de Barcelona - IDIBAPS, Unitat de Biofisica i Bioenginyeria, Departament de Ciencies Fisiologiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Seccio d' Enginyeria Nuclear, Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Barcelona (Spain); Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domenec [Universitat de Barcelona - IDIBAPS, Unitat de Biofisica i Bioenginyeria, Departament de Ciencies Fisiologiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); Bullich, Santiago [Hospital del Mar, Center for Imaging in Psychiatry, CRC-MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Pareto, Deborah [CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); PRBB, Institut d' Alta Tecnologia, Barcelona (Spain); Sempau, Josep [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); Lomena, Francisco [IDIBAPS, Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Calvino, Francisco [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Seccio d' Enginyeria Nuclear, Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Barcelona (Spain); Pavia, Javier [CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); IDIBAPS, Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    {sup 123}I-labelled radioligands are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopaminergic system to study the dopamine transporter binding. The aim of this work was to compare the quantitative capabilities of two different SPECT systems through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The SimSET MC code was employed to generate simulated projections of a numerical phantom for two gamma cameras equipped with a parallel and a fan-beam collimator, respectively. A fully 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm was used to compensate for attenuation, the spatially variant point spread function (PSF) and scatter. A post-reconstruction partial volume effect (PVE) compensation was also developed. For both systems, the correction for all degradations and PVE compensation resulted in recovery factors of the theoretical specific uptake ratio (SUR) close to 100%. For a SUR value of 4, the recovered SUR for the parallel imaging system was 33% for a reconstruction without corrections (OSEM), 45% for a reconstruction with attenuation correction (OSEM-A), 56% for a 3D reconstruction with attenuation and PSF corrections (OSEM-AP), 68% for OSEM-AP with scatter correction (OSEM-APS) and 97% for OSEM-APS plus PVE compensation (OSEM-APSV). For the fan-beam imaging system, the recovered SUR was 41% without corrections, 55% for OSEM-A, 65% for OSEM-AP, 75% for OSEM-APS and 102% for OSEM-APSV. Our findings indicate that the correction for degradations increases the quantification accuracy, with PVE compensation playing a major role in the SUR quantification. The proposed methodology allows us to reach similar SUR values for different SPECT systems, thereby allowing a reliable standardisation in multicentric studies. (orig.)

  10. Design of a Multi-Pinhole Collimator for I-123 DaTscan Imaging on Dual-Headed SPECT Systems in Combination with a Fan-Beam Collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael A; Mukherjee, Joyeeta M; Könik, Arda; Zubal, I George; Dey, Joyoni; Licho, Robert

    2016-02-01

    For the 2011 FDA approved Parkinson's Disease (PD) SPECT imaging agent I-123 labeled DaTscan, the volume of interest (VOI) is the interior portion of the brain. However imaging of the occipital lobe is also required with PD for calculation of the striatal binding ratio (SBR), a parameter of significance in early diagnosis, differentiation of PD from other disorders with similar clinical presentations, and monitoring progression. Thus we propose the usage of a combination of a multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator on one head of the SPECT system and a fan-beam on the other. The MPH would be designed to provide high resolution and sensitivity for imaging of the interior portion of the brain. The fan-beam collimator would provide lower resolution but complete sampling of the brain addressing data sufficiency and allowing a volume-of-interest to be defined over the occipital lobe for calculation of SBR's. Herein we focus on the design of the MPH component of the combined system. Combined reconstruction will be addressed in a subsequent publication. An analysis of 46 clinical DaTscan studies was performed to provide information to define the VOI, and design of a MPH collimator to image this VOI. The system spatial resolution for the MPH was set to 4.7 mm, which is comparable to that of clinical PET systems, and significantly smaller than that of fan-beam collimators employed in SPECT. With this set, we compared system sensitivities for three aperture array designs, and selected the 3 × 3 array due to it being the highest of the three. The combined sensitivity of the apertures for it was similar to that of an ultra-high resolution fan-beam (LEUHRF) collimator, but smaller than that of a high-resolution fan-beam collimator (LEHRF). On the basis of these results we propose the further exploration of this design through simulations, and the development of combined MPH and fan-beam reconstruction.

  11. Brain SPECT in psychiatry: Delusion or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Epstein, P.; Kohn, R.; Antonino, F.; Devore-Best, S.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The need for functional information is becoming increasingly evident for proper therapeutic approaches to the treatment and follow up of psychiatric diseases. While data on this subject already exists, there is a general lack of consensus about the use of brain SPECT in this domain and also a considerable negative prejudice due to a number of factors including poor quality imaging and unrealistic expectations. Based on a large group of brain SPECT-s performed over the past 3 years we attempted to sort and refine the indications for SPECT in psychiatry. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT was performed with triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A comprehensive semiquantitative color, 3D surface as well as multi-thresholded volume display was routinely used and supplemented by automatic realignment in case of longitudinal follow-up. Results: 470 brain SPECT-s done on 432 patients were all referred by psychiatrists or neuro-psychiatrists for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diseases and ranged in age from 7 to 88 years. The most common primary reasons for referral were : attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); anxiety; obsessive-compulsive disease, depression (refractory, chronic, bipolar ), impulse control problems; oppositional defiance, post traumatic brain injury; seizures, learning difficulties, pervasive development disorders, memory loss and differential of dementia. Among common denominators were long duration of the disease, unresponsiveness to treatment, worsening of clinical status, and presence of multiple conditions at the same time. The multiparametric display used enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the brain volume which included the hemispheric surfaces; the basal ganglia (striatum) and the thalamus, several components of the limbic and paralimbic systems: anterior and posterior cingulate and their respective subdivisions, insula-s and their subdivisions, apical and mesial

  12. Calibration of gamma camera systems for a multicentre European ¹²³I-FP-CIT SPECT normal database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Dickson, John C; Sera, Terez

    2011-01-01

    A joint initiative of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Neuroimaging Committee and EANM Research Ltd. aimed to generate a European database of [(123)I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of healthy controls. This study describes the characterization...

  13. Influence of void on image quality of industrial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J G; Jung, S H; Kim, J B; Moon, J; Kim, C H

    2013-01-01

    Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising technique to determine the dynamic behavior of industrial process media and has been developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present study evaluated the influence of a void, which is presence in multiphase reactors of industrial process, on the image quality of an industrial SPECT. The results are very encouraging; that is, the performance of the industrial SPECT system is little influenced by the presence of a void, which means that industrial SPECT is an appropriate tool to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the process media in a water-air phase bubble column with a static gas sparger

  14. Methods of gated-blood-pool-spect data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosa, I.; Mester, J.; Tanaka, M.; Csernay, L.; Mate, E.; Szasz, K.

    1991-01-01

    Three techniques of gated SPECT were evaluated. The methods of Integral SPECT (ISPECT), enddyastole-endsystole SPECT (ED-ES SPECT) and Fourier SPECT were adapted and developed on the Hungarian nuclear medicine data processing system microSEGAMS. The methods are based on data reduction before back projection which results in processing times acceptable for the clinical routine. The clinical performance of the introduced techniques was tested in 10 patients with old posterior myocardial infarction and in 5 patients without cardiac disease. The left ventricular ejection faction determined by ISPECT correlated well with the planar values. The correlation coefficient was 0.89. The correlation coefficient of EF values determined by ED-ES SPECT and planar radionuclide ventriculography was lower (0.70). For the identification of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities ED-ES SPECT and Fourier SPECT exhibited a favourable performance, but ISPECT only moderate suitability. In the detection of regional phase delay Fourier-SPECT demonstrated higher sensitivity than the planar radionuclide ventriculography. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barocka, A.; Feistel, H.; Ebert, D.; Lungershausen, E.

    1993-01-01

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D 2 and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.) [de

  16. A comparative study on PET and SPECT image formation systems for a proper scanner choice in a considered PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.R. dos; Oliveira, A. de; Oliveira, C.L. de

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the last twenty years, the conjunction of technology and research had provided exceptional conditions for improvements on the quality of life, specially on nuclear medicine. In this area, the developed technology is being applied, making available better diagnoses and therapy to a variety of diseases. Since then the short-lived radionuclides were available only in the large physics research centers. The increasing clinical applications have led to the rapid rise in the number of compact cyclotrons throughout the world. All medical cyclotrons currently are suitable for sustaining programs for PET research and clinical application. To date, up to 122 medical cyclotrons have been established worldwide, and Brazil is about to install a new dedicated cyclotron (RDS111 from CTI), to its first PET Center, in Rio de Janeiro. Also the number of scanners worldwide has increased, mainly those based on the positrons emission and annihilation. The better result gotten in the final contrast of the object imposes a comparative study and analysis of the image formation process, either in a system based on a Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT), as well as on Positron Emission Tomography (PET.) This comparative study should at least follow same increasing rates of the new devices with technological advances. That kind of study can be helpful on the decision of what type of scan should be the proper one, to a PET Center, on a specific region. Obviously, many other parameters are involved in that decision, and this discussion and analyses are the main subject of the present work. The objective is to make available a realistic comparative scenario. Many of the new devices have been introduced making progresses. As an example, in the new PET scanners, the reduction of examination time, and the remarkable improvement on the diagnoses based on images. As a consequence, we have a broadening on application, better performance, and making possible the

  17. SP-ECT imaging and its physical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Fujimi

    1983-01-01

    Recently, more than a hundred hospitals are provided with SPECT system for clinical examination in Japan. However, a standardization of measuring method and performance test of the systems is ont yet made. We have been studying some basic problems of SPECT system with special phantoms originaly designed by ourselves. We got a conclusion that a standardized phantom is necessary for comparing performances between SPECT systems. In clinical experiences with 3,332 cases, we think that SPECT image combined with conventional image presents much more informations for accurate diagnosis, especially in brain, bone and tumor imagings. Synthesized image of SPECT and XCT, double tracer image and transmission image are useful to visualize the body contour and the clinical diagnosis. (author)

  18. Rapid construction of pinhole SPECT system matrices by distance-weighted Gaussian interpolation method combined with geometric parameter estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ming-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In pinhole SPECT applied to small-animal studies, it is essential to have an accurate imaging system matrix, called H matrix, for high-spatial-resolution image reconstructions. Generally, an H matrix can be obtained by various methods, such as measurements, simulations or some combinations of both methods. In this study, a distance-weighted Gaussian interpolation method combined with geometric parameter estimations (DW-GIMGPE) is proposed. It utilizes a simplified grid-scan experiment on selected voxels and parameterizes the measured point response functions (PRFs) into 2D Gaussians. The PRFs of missing voxels are interpolated by the relations between the Gaussian coefficients and the geometric parameters of the imaging system with distance-weighting factors. The weighting factors are related to the projected centroids of voxels on the detector plane. A full H matrix is constructed by combining the measured and interpolated PRFs of all voxels. The PRFs estimated by DW-GIMGPE showed similar profiles as the measured PRFs. OSEM reconstructed images of a hot-rod phantom and normal rat myocardium demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. The detectability of a SKE/BKE task on a synthetic spherical test object verified that the constructed H matrix provided comparable detectability to that of the H matrix acquired by a full 3D grid-scan experiment. The reduction in the acquisition time of a full 1.0-mm grid H matrix was about 15.2 and 62.2 times with the simplified grid pattern on 2.0-mm and 4.0-mm grid, respectively. A finer-grid H matrix down to 0.5-mm spacing interpolated by the proposed method would shorten the acquisition time by 8 times, additionally. -- Highlights: • A rapid interpolation method of system matrices (H) is proposed, named DW-GIMGPE. • Reduce H acquisition time by 15.2× with simplified grid scan and 2× interpolation. • Reconstructions of a hot-rod phantom with measured and DW-GIMGPE H were similar. • The imaging study of normal

  19. Usefulness of CT based SPECT Fusion Image in the lung Disease : Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, SPECT/CT system has been applied to many diseases, however, the application is not extensively applied at pulmonary disease. Especially, in case that, the pulmonary embolisms suspect at the CT images, SPECT is performed. For the accurate diagnosis, SPECT/CT tests are subsequently undergoing. However, without SPECT/CT, there are some limitations to apply these procedures. With SPECT/CT, although, most of the examination performed after CT. Moreover, such a test procedures generate unnecessary dual irradiation problem to the patient. In this study, we evaluated the amount of unnecessary irradiation, and the usefulness of fusion images of pulmonary disease, which independently acquired from SPECT and CT. Using NEMA PhantomTM (NU2-2001), SPECT and CT scan were performed for fusion images. From June 2011 to September 2010, 10 patients who didn't have other personal history, except lung disease were selected (male: 7, female: 3, mean age: 65.3±12.7). In both clinical patient and phantom data, the fusion images scored higher than SPECT and CT images. The fusion images, which is combined with pulmonary vessel images from CT and functional images from SPECT, can increase the detection possibility in detecting pulmonary embolism in the resin of lung parenchyma. It is sure that performing SPECT and CT in integral SPECT/CT system were better. However, we believe this protocol can give more informative data to have more accurate diagnosis in the hospital without integral SPECT/CT system.

  20. Computer-assisted system for diagnosing degenerative dementia using cerebral blood flow SPECT and 3D-SSP. A multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Ito, Kengo; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Kitamura, Shin; Terashima, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with dementia, more physicians who do not specialize in brain nuclear medicine are being asked to interpret SPECT images of cerebral blood flow. We conducted a multicenter study to determine whether a computer-assisted diagnostic system Z-score summation analysis method (ZSAM) using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) can differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD)/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and non-AD/DLB in institutions using various types of gamma cameras. We determined the normal thresholds of Z-sum (summed Z-score) within a template region of interest for each single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) device and then compared them with the Z-sums of patients and calculated the accuracy of the differential diagnosis by ZSAM. We compared the diagnostic accuracy between ZSAM and visual assessment. We enrolled 202 patients with AD (mean age, 76.8 years), 40 with DLB (mean age 76.3 years) and 36 with non-AD/DLB (progressive supranuclear palsy, n=10; frontotemporal dementia, n=20; slowly progressive aphasia, n=2 and one each with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, corticobasal degeneration, multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease) who underwent N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine cerebral blood flow SPECT imaging at each participating institution. The ZSAM sensitivity to differentiate between AD/DLB and non-AD/DLB in all patients, as well as those with mini-mental state examination scores of ≥24 and 20-23 points were 88.0, 78.0 and 88.4%, respectively, with specificity of 50.0, 44.4 and 60.0%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy rates were 83.1, 72.9 and 84.2%, respectively. The areas under receiver operating characteristics curves for visual inspection by four expert raters were 0.74-0.84, 0.66-0.85 and 0.81-0.93, respectively, in the same patient groups. The diagnostic accuracy rates were 70.9-89.2%, 50.9-84.8% and 76.2-93.1%, respectively. The diagnostic

  1. Myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary calcium scoring with a two-slice SPECT/CT system: can the attenuation map be calculated from the calcium scoring CT scan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenning, Christian; Rahbar, Kambiz; Schober, Otmar; Stegger, Lars [University of Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Vrachimis, Alexis; Schaefers, Michael [University of Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); University of Muenster, European Institute for Molecular Imaging, Muenster (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Coronary artery calcium scoring can complement myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using the CalciumScore-CT derived from a combined SPECT/CT device also for SPECT attenuation correction (AC). The study group comprised 99 patients who underwent both post-stress and rest MPI using a two-slice SPECT/CT system. For AC, one of the two scans was accompanied by a CalciumScore-CT scan (CalciumScore-CTAC) and the other by a conventional spiral CT (AttenCorr-CT) scan (AttenCorr-CTAC). In 48 patients the CalciumScore-CT scan was acquired with the post-stress scan and the AttenCorr-CT scan with the rest scan, and in 51 patients the order was reversed. The accuracy of the images based on AC was determined qualitatively by consensus reading with respect to the clinical diagnoses as well as quantitatively by comparing the perfusion summed stress scores (SSS) and the summed rest scores (SRS) between attenuation-corrected and uncorrected images. In comparison to the uncorrected images CalciumScore-CTAC led to regional inaccuracies in 14 of 51 of studies (27.5 %) versus 12 of 48 studies (25 %) with AttenCorr-CTAC for the stress studies and in 5 of 48 (10 %) versus 1 of 51 (2 %) for the rest studies, respectively. This led to intermediate and definite changes in the final diagnosis (ischaemia and/or scarring) in 12 % of the studies (12 of 99) and in 7 % of the studies (7 of 99) with CalciumScore-CTAC and in 9 % of the studies (9 of 99) and 4 % of the studies (4 of 99) with AttenCorr-CTAC. Differences in SSS and SRS with respect to the uncorrected images were greater for the CalciumScore-CTAC images than for the AttenCorr-CTAC images ({Delta}SSS 4.5 {+-} 5.6 and 2.1 {+-} 4.4, p = 0.023; {Delta}SRS 4.2 {+-} 4.9 and 1.6 {+-} 3.2, p = 0.004, respectively). Using the same CT scan for calcium scoring and SPECT AC is feasible. Image interpretation must, however, include uncorrected images since CT-based AC relatively

  2. Geometric calibration method for multiple-head cone-beam SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, P.; Grangeat, P.; Guillemaud, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the geometrical parameters of cone beam systems with multiple heads, each head having its own orientation. In tomography, for each head, the relative position of the rotation axis and f the collimator do not change during the data acquisition. The authors thus can separate the parameters into intrinsic parameters and extrinsic parameters. The intrinsic parameters describe the detection system geometry and the extrinsic parameters the position of the detection system with respect to the rotation axis. Intrinsic parameters must be estimated each time the acquisition geometry is modified. Extrinsic parameters are estimated by minimizing the distances between the measured position of a point source projection and the computed position obtained using the estimated extrinsic parameters. The main advantage of this method is that the extrinsic parameters are only weakly correlated when the intrinsic parameters are known. Thus the authors can use any simple least square error minimization method to perform the estimation of the extrinsic parameters. Giving a fixed value to the distance between the point source and the rotation axis in the estimation process, ensures the coherence of the extrinsic parameters between each head. They show that with this calibration method, the full width at half maximum measured with point sources is very close to the theoretical one, and remains almost unchanged when more than one head is used. Simulation results and reconstructions on a Jaszczak phantom are presented that show the capabilities of this method

  3. IQ-SPECT for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: effect of normal databases on quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Takahiro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yoneyama, Hiroto; Matsuo, Shinro; Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    Although IQ-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides rapid acquisition and attenuation-corrected images, the unique technology may create characteristic distribution different from the conventional imaging. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of IQ-SPECT using Japanese normal databases (NDBs) with that of the conventional SPECT for thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). A total of 36 patients underwent 1-day 201 Tl adenosine stress-rest MPI. Images were acquired with IQ-SPECT at approximately one-quarter of the standard time of conventional SPECT. Projection data acquired with the IQ-SPECT system were reconstructed via an ordered subset conjugate gradient minimizer method with or without scatter and attenuation correction (SCAC). Projection data obtained using the conventional SPECT were reconstructed via a filtered back projection method without SCAC. The summed stress score (SSS) was calculated using NDBs created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group, and scores were compared between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT using the acquisition condition-matched NDBs. The diagnostic performance of the methods for the detection of coronary artery disease was also compared. SSSs were 6.6 ± 8.2 for the conventional SPECT, 6.6 ± 9.4 for IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and 6.5 ± 9.7 for IQ-SPECT with SCAC (p = n.s. for each comparison). The SSS showed a strong positive correlation between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT (r = 0.921 and p IQ-SPECT with and without SCAC was also good (r = 0.907 and p IQ-SPECT without SCAC; and 88.5, 86.8, and 87.3%, respectively, for IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively. The area under the curve obtained via receiver operating characteristic analysis were 0.77, 0.80, and 0.86 for conventional SPECT, IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively (p = n.s. for each comparison). When appropriate NDBs were used, the diagnostic performance of 201 Tl IQ-SPECT

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery planning with ictal SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, T.; RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC; Geso, M.; O'Keefe, G.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is motivated by a clinical requirement to utilise ictal SPECT images for target localisation in stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning using the xknife system which only supports CT and MRI images. To achieve this, the SPECT images were converted from raw (pixel data only) format into a part 10 compliant DICOM CT fileset. The minimum requirements for the recasting of a raw format image as DICOM CT or MRI data set are described in detail. The method can be applied to the importation of raw format images into any radiotherapy treatment planning system that supports CT or MRI import. It is demonstrated that the combination of the low spatial resolution SPECT images, depicting functional information, with high spatial resolution MRI images, which show the structural information, is suitable for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  5. The assessment of whole body bone SPECT in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scortechini, Shonika

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To assess the significance and practicability of oncology whole body bone SPECT as part of the standard skeletal survey and its impact on the traditional planar whole body bone imaging protocol. Method: Three consenting oncology patients were injected with a standard adult dose of Tc-99m MOP. Delayed Imaging of whole body sweep and SPECT acquisitions were performed on a Siemens Symbia T6. The patient was positioned supine with arms down with a SPECT scan length covering vortex to thighs. SPECT data was reconstructed and a single whole body zipped file created. Normal SPECT slices along with a cine/MIP of the zipped data were created for review. Results: Both image data sets were reviewed to assess if SPECT provided any further diagnostic clinical information not apparent in planer imaging. In our limited review, whole body SPECT did not add extra value to the planar whole body scans performed; it did however demonstrate vertebral involvement with greater resolution. The processing software and system limitations in seamlessly knitting data sets (creating image artefacts) was a major limiting factor in not pursuing further studies. Conclusion: Both imaging techniques offer differing advantages and limitations, however due to image artefact in the triple knitted SPECT approach with current software technology, it cannot be substituted for whole body imaging at this time.

  6. Scatter and attenuation correction in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungberg, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The adsorbed dose is related to the activity uptake in the organ and its temporal distribution. Measured count rate with scintillation cameras is related to activity through the system sensitivity, cps/MBq. By accounting for physical processes and imaging limitations we can measure the activity at different time points. Correction for physical factor, such as attenuation and scatter is required for accurate quantitation. Both planar and SPECT imaging can be used to estimate activities for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry. Planar methods have been the most widely used but is a 2D technique. With accurate modelling for imagine in iterative reconstruction, SPECT methods will prove to be more accurate

  7. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, S.; Gruenwald, F.; Walter, H.; Klemm, E.; Podreka, I.; Biersack, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.) [de

  8. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  9. Diagnosis of myocardial involvement in patients with systemic myopathies with 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropp, J.; Briele, B.; Smekal, A.V.; Hotze, A.L.; Biersack, H.J.; Koehler, U.; Zierz, St. [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Knapp, F.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Involvement of the myocardium in non-infectious myopathies presents in most cases as systolic dysfunction or a disturbed cardiac rhythm. We are interested in exploring how often cardiac involvement can be evaluated with various diagnostic techniques in patients with proven myopathy. We investigated 41 patients with myopathies of various etiology, including mitochondrial and congenital myopathies, Curshmann-Steinert disease, muscular dystrophy, and others. Myopathy was proven by muscular biopsy usually from the bicep. Fatty acid imaging was performed with 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IP-PA) and sequential SPECT-scintigraphy with a 180 deg. rotation starting at the 45 deg. RAO position. 190 MBq were injected at the maximal stage of a submaximal exercise. Filtered backprojection and reorientation of the slices were achieved by standard techniques. The quantitative comparison of the oblique slices (bulls-eye technique) of the SPECT-studies revealed turnover-rates as a qualitative measure of {beta}-oxidation. Serum levels of lactate (L), pyruvate (P), glucose (G) and triglycerides (TG) were measured at rest and stress. Ventricular function was investigated by radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) at rest and under stress with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. In addition, ECG, 24 hour-ECG, and echocardiography were also performed with standard techniques.

  10. Diagnosis of myocardial involvement in patients with systemic myopathies with 15-(p-(I-123)iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropp, J.; Briele, B.; Smekal, A.V.; Hotze, A.L.; Biersack, H.J.; Koehler, U.; Zierz, St. (Bonn Univ. (Germany)); Knapp, F.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Involvement of the myocardium in non-infectious myopathies presents in most cases as systolic dysfunction or a disturbed cardiac rhythm. We are interested in exploring how often cardiac involvement can be evaluated with various diagnostic techniques in patients with proven myopathy. We investigated 41 patients with myopathies of various etiology, including mitochondrial and congenital myopathies, Curshmann-Steinert disease, muscular dystrophy, and others. Myopathy was proven by muscular biopsy usually from the bicep. Fatty acid imaging was performed with 15-(p-(I-123)iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IP-PA) and sequential SPECT-scintigraphy with a 180 deg. rotation starting at the 45 deg. RAO position. 190 MBq were injected at the maximal stage of a submaximal exercise. Filtered backprojection and reorientation of the slices were achieved by standard techniques. The quantitative comparison of the oblique slices (bulls-eye technique) of the SPECT-studies revealed turnover-rates as a qualitative measure of {beta}-oxidation. Serum levels of lactate (L), pyruvate (P), glucose (G) and triglycerides (TG) were measured at rest and stress. Ventricular function was investigated by radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) at rest and under stress with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. In addition, ECG, 24 hour-ECG, and echocardiography were also performed with standard techniques.

  11. Diagnosis of myocardial involvement in patients with systemic myopathies with 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, J.; Briele, B.; Smekal, A.V.; Hotze, A.L.; Biersack, H.J.; Koehler, U.; Zierz, St.; Knapp, F.F.

    1992-01-01

    Involvement of the myocardium in non-infectious myopathies presents in most cases as systolic dysfunction or a disturbed cardiac rhythm. We are interested in exploring how often cardiac involvement can be evaluated with various diagnostic techniques in patients with proven myopathy. We investigated 41 patients with myopathies of various etiology, including mitochondrial and congenital myopathies, Curshmann-Steinert disease, muscular dystrophy, and others. Myopathy was proven by muscular biopsy usually from the bicep. Fatty acid imaging was performed with 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IP-PA) and sequential SPECT-scintigraphy with a 180 deg. rotation starting at the 45 deg. RAO position. 190 MBq were injected at the maximal stage of a submaximal exercise. Filtered backprojection and reorientation of the slices were achieved by standard techniques. The quantitative comparison of the oblique slices (bulls-eye technique) of the SPECT-studies revealed turnover-rates as a qualitative measure of β-oxidation. Serum levels of lactate (L), pyruvate (P), glucose (G) and triglycerides (TG) were measured at rest and stress. Ventricular function was investigated by radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) at rest and under stress with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. In addition, ECG, 24 hour-ECG, and echocardiography were also performed with standard techniques

  12. Usefulness of brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.; Rancurel, G.; Kieffer, E.; Ricard, S.; Askienazy, S.; Moretti, J.L.; Bourdoiseau, M.; Rapin, J.; Soussaline, F.

    1983-01-01

    Brain SPECT was not effectively exploited until I-123 isopropyl amphetamine (IAMP), indicator able to penetrate the blood brain barrier, became available. Although the experience of research teams working with IAMP is quite restricted due to the high cost of the indicator, some applications now appear to be worth the cost and in some cases provide data which cannot be obtained with routine techniques, especially in cerebrovascular patients, in epilepsy and some cases of tumor. Brain SPECT appears as an atraumatic test which is useful to establish a functional evaluation of the cerebral parenchyma, and which is a complement to arteriography, X-ray scan and regional cerebral blood flow measurement

  13. Brain spect imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.G.L.; Hill, T.C.; Holman, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how the rapid development of single-photon radiopharmaceuticals has given new life to tomographic brain imaging in nuclear medicine. Further developments in radiopharmaceuticals and refinements in neuro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) instrumentation should help to reinstate brain scintigraphy as an important part of neurologic diagnosis. SPECT of the brain evolved from experimentation using prototype instrumentation during the early 1960s. Although tomographic studies provided superior diagnostic accuracy when compared to planar techniques, the arrival of X-ray CT of the head resulted in the rapid demise of technetium brain imaging

  14. Interactions of collimation, sampling and filtering on spect spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.M.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The major factors which affect the spatial resolution of single-photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) include collimation, sampling and filtering. A theoretical formulation is presented to describe the relationship between these factors and their effects on the projection data. Numerical calculations were made using commercially available SPECT systems and imaging parameters. The results provide an important guide for proper selection of the collimator-detector design, the imaging and the reconstruction parameters to avoid unnecessary spatial resolution degradation and aliasing artifacts in the reconstructed image. In addition, the understanding will help in the fair evaluation of different SPECT systems under specific imaging conditions

  15. Radiopharmaceuticals for brain - SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Perfusion tracers for brain SPECT imaging suitable for regional cerebral blood flow measurement and regional cerebral blood volume determination, with respect to their ability to pass the blood-brain-barrier, are described. Problems related t the use of specific radiotracers to map receptors distribution in the brain are also discussed in this lecture. 9 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping of 123I-IMP SPECT in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Akimoto, Manabu; Matsushita, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    123 I-iodoamphetamine Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (IMP SPECT) is used to evaluate cerebral blood flow. However, application of IMP SPECT to patients with brain tumors has been rarely reported. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor that shows delayed IMP uptake. The relatively low spatial resolution of SPECT is a clinical problem in diagnosing brain tumors. We examined anatomically standardized statistical mapping of IMP SPECT in patients with brain lesions. This study included 49 IMP SPECT images for 49 patients with brain lesions: 20 PCNSL, 1 Burkitt's lymphoma, 14 glioma, 4 other tumor, 7 inflammatory disease and 3 without any pathological diagnosis but a clinical diagnosis of PCNSL. After intravenous injection of 222 MBq of 123 I-IMP, early (15 minutes) and delayed (4 hours) images were acquired using a multi-detector SPECT machine. All SPECT data were transferred to a newly developed software program iNeurostat+ (Nihon Medi-physics). SPECT data were anatomically standardized on normal brain images. Regions of increased uptake of IMP were statistically mapped on the tomographic images of normal brain. Eighteen patients showed high uptake in the delayed IMP SPECT images (16 PCNSL, 2 unknown). Other tumor or diseases did not show high uptake of delayed IMP SPECT, so there were no false positives. Four patients with pathologically proven PCNSL showed no uptake in original IMP SPECT. These tumors were too small to detect in IMP SPECT. However, statistical mapping revealed IMP uptake in 18 of 20 pathologically verified PCNSL patients. A heterogeneous IMP uptake was seen in homogenous tumors in MRI. For patients with a hot IMP uptake, statistical mapping showed clearer uptake. IMP SPECT is a sensitive test to diagnose of PCNSL, although it produced false negative results for small posterior fossa tumor. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping is therefore considered to be a useful method for improving the diagnostic

  17. Juvenile spondylolysis: a comparative analysis of CT, SPECT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.S.D.; Grainger, A.J.; Hide, I.G.; Papastefanou, S.; Greenough, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether MRI correlates with CT and SPECT imaging for the diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis, and to determine whether MRI can be used as an exclusive image modality. Juveniles and young adults with a history of extension low back pain were evaluated by MRI, CT and SPECT imaging. All images were reviewed blindly. Correlative analyses included CT vs MRI for morphological grading and SPECT vs MRI for functional grading. Finally, an overall grading system compared MRI vs CT and SPECT combined. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa statistic. Seventy-two patients (mean age 16 years) were recruited. Forty pars defects were identified in 22 patients (31%), of which 25 were chronic non-union, five acute complete defects and ten acute incomplete fractures. Kappa scores demonstrated a high level of agreement for all comparative analyses. MRI vs SPECT (kappa: 0.794), MRI vs CT (kappa: 0.829) and MRI vs CT/SPECT (kappa: 0.786). The main causes of discrepancy were between MRI and SPECT for the diagnosis of stress reaction in the absence of overt fracture, and distinguishing incomplete fractures from intact pars or complete defects. MRI can be used as an effective and reliable first-line image modality for diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis. However, localised CT is recommended as a supplementary examination in selected cases as a baseline for assessment of healing and for evaluation of indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  18. Juvenile spondylolysis: a comparative analysis of CT, SPECT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.S.D. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J. [Leeds General Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Hide, I.G. [Freeman Hospital, Department of Radiology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Papastefanou, S. [James Cook University Hospital, Department Radiology, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Greenough, C.G. [James Cook University Hospital, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate whether MRI correlates with CT and SPECT imaging for the diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis, and to determine whether MRI can be used as an exclusive image modality. Juveniles and young adults with a history of extension low back pain were evaluated by MRI, CT and SPECT imaging. All images were reviewed blindly. Correlative analyses included CT vs MRI for morphological grading and SPECT vs MRI for functional grading. Finally, an overall grading system compared MRI vs CT and SPECT combined. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa statistic. Seventy-two patients (mean age 16 years) were recruited. Forty pars defects were identified in 22 patients (31%), of which 25 were chronic non-union, five acute complete defects and ten acute incomplete fractures. Kappa scores demonstrated a high level of agreement for all comparative analyses. MRI vs SPECT (kappa: 0.794), MRI vs CT (kappa: 0.829) and MRI vs CT/SPECT (kappa: 0.786). The main causes of discrepancy were between MRI and SPECT for the diagnosis of stress reaction in the absence of overt fracture, and distinguishing incomplete fractures from intact pars or complete defects. MRI can be used as an effective and reliable first-line image modality for diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis. However, localised CT is recommended as a supplementary examination in selected cases as a baseline for assessment of healing and for evaluation of indeterminate cases. (orig.)

  19. Proceedings of clinical SPECT [single photon emission computed tomography] symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  20. Initial Investigation of preclinical integrated SPECT and MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Mark J; Ha, Seunghoon; Roeck, Werner W; Wagenaar, Douglas J; Meier, Dirk; Patt, Bradley E; Nalcioglu, Orhan

    2010-02-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide specific functional information while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-spatial resolution anatomical information as well as complementary functional information. In this study, we utilized a dual modality SPECT/MRI (MRSPECT) system to investigate the integration of SPECT and MRI for improved image accuracy. The MRSPECT system consisted of a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) nuclear radiation detector interfaced with a specialized radiofrequency (RF) coil that was placed within a whole-body 4 T MRI system. The importance of proper corrections for non-uniform detector sensitivity and Lorentz force effects was demonstrated. MRI data were utilized for attenuation correction (AC) of the nuclear projection data and optimized Wiener filtering of the SPECT reconstruction for improved image accuracy. Finally, simultaneous dual-imaging of a nude mouse was performed to demonstrated the utility of co-registration for accurate localization of a radioactive source.

  1. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, O.; Darcourt, J.; Benoit, M; Malandain, G.; Thirion, J.P.; Robert, Ph.; Vidal, R.; Desvignes, Ph.; Benoliel, J.; Ayache, N.; Bussiere, F.

    1997-01-01

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  2. Metabolic imaging using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Junichi; Matsunari, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In normal condition, the heart obtains more than two-thirds of its energy from the oxidative metabolism of long chain fatty acids, although a wide variety of substrates such as glucose, lactate, ketone bodies and amino acids are also utilised. In ischaemic myocardium, on the other hand, oxidative metabolism of free fatty acid is suppressed and anaerobic glucose metabolism plays a major role in residual oxidative metabolism. Therefore, metabolic imaging can be an important technique for the assessment of various cardiac diseases and conditions. In SPECT, several iodinated fatty acid traces have been introduced and studied. Of these, 123 I-labelled 15-(p-iodophenyl)3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been the most commonly used tracer in clinical studies, especially in some of the European countries and Japan. In this review article, several fatty acid tracers for SPECT are characterised, and the mechanism of uptake and clinical utility of BMIPP are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  3. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  4. Brain pertechnetate SPECT in perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Curless, R.; Goldberg, R.; Clarke, L.; Saw, C.; Sfakianakis, E.; Bloom, F.; Bauer, C.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain was performed in 6 patients with perinatal asphyxis aged 8-26 days. A single-head (LFOV) commercial SPECT system (Picker) was used and data were acquired 2-3 hr after an IV injection of 1-2 mCi Tc-99m-pertechnetate (360/sup 0/ rotation, 60 views, 64 x 64 matrix, 50K cts/view). Reconstruction in three planes was performed using MDS software (Hanning medium resolution filter, with or without attenuation correction using Sorenson's technique). For each clinical study, a ring type phantom source was used to identify the level of reconstruction noise in the tomographic planes. Abnormalities were found in all patients studied, 3 central (moderate intensity), 2 peripheral (1 severe, 1 moderate) and 1 diffuse (mild intensity). Despite use of oral perchlorate (50 mg) in one patient the choroid plexus was visible. Since attenuation correction tended to amplify noise, the clinical studies were interpreted both with and without this correction. All 3 patients with central lesions were found abnormal on early (1-4 mo) neurologic follow-up examination, whereas the others were normal. No correlation was found between SPECT and 24 hr blood levels of CPK, ammonia, base excess, or the Apgar scores. Ct scans were reported abnormal (3 diffuse, 1 peripheral, 1 central and 1 questionable). Planar scintigrams obtained immediately after SPECT were normal (2), questionable (2) and abnormal (2). Follow-up SPECT brain scintigrams in two of the patients showed partial resolution. SPECT of the brain appears promising in perinatal asphyxia but long-term correlation with patient development is necessary.

  5. Brain lesion analysis using three-dimensional SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Iekado; Onagi, Atsuo; Kuroki, Takao

    1995-01-01

    A three-headed gamma camera (PRISM 3000) is capable to scan the protocol of early dynamic SPECT and to analyze two radioisotopes at the same time. We have framed three-dimensional brain SPECT images for several brain diseases by using the Application Visualization System (AVS). We carried out volume measurements in brain tumors and/or AVMs by applying this methodology. Thallium-201 and/or 123I-IMP were used for brain SPECT imaging. The dynamic scan protocol was changed in accordance with the given disease. The protocol for brain tumors was derived from a preliminary comparative study with thallium-201 and 123I-IMP that had suggested a disparity in the detection of brain tumors and the differentiation between tumor tissue and normal brain. The three-dimension SPECT image represented the brain tumor or AVM in a striking fashion, and the changes with respect to tumor or AVM after radiosurgery or embolization were understood readily. (author)

  6. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  7. Using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system technique for crosstalk correction in simultaneous {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 201}Tl SPECT imaging: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidary, Saeed, E-mail: saeedheidary@aut.ac.ir; Setayeshi, Saeed, E-mail: setayesh@aut.ac.ir

    2015-01-11

    This work presents a simulation based study by Monte Carlo which uses two adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) for cross talk compensation of simultaneous {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 201}Tl dual-radioisotope SPECT imaging. We have compared two neuro-fuzzy systems based on fuzzy c-means (FCM) and subtractive (SUB) clustering. Our approach incorporates eight energy-windows image acquisition from 28 keV to 156 keV and two main photo peaks of {sup 201}Tl (77±10% keV) and {sup 99m}Tc (140±10% keV). The Geant4 application in emission tomography (GATE) is used as a Monte Carlo simulator for three cylindrical and a NURBS Based Cardiac Torso (NCAT) phantom study. Three separate acquisitions including two single-isotopes and one dual isotope were performed in this study. Cross talk and scatter corrected projections are reconstructed by an iterative ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm which models the non-uniform attenuation in the projection/back-projection. ANFIS-FCM/SUB structures are tuned to create three to sixteen fuzzy rules for modeling the photon cross-talk of the two radioisotopes. Applying seven to nine fuzzy rules leads to a total improvement of the contrast and the bias comparatively. It is found that there is an out performance for the ANFIS-FCM due to its acceleration and accurate results.

  8. Silicon Detectors for PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Eric R.

    Silicon detectors use state-of-the-art electronics to take advantage of the semiconductor properties of silicon to produce very high resolution radiation detectors. These detectors have been a fundamental part of high energy, nuclear, and astroparticle physics experiments for decades, and they hold great potential for significant gains in both PET and SPECT applications. Two separate prototype nuclear medicine imaging systems have been developed to explore this potential. Both devices take advantage of the unique properties of high resolution pixelated silicon detectors, designed and developed as part of the CIMA collaboration and built at The Ohio State University. The first prototype is a Compton SPECT imaging system. Compton SPECT, also referred to as electronic collimation, is a fundamentally different approach to single photon imaging from standard gamma cameras. It removes the inherent coupling of spatial resolution and sensitivity in mechanically collimated systems and provides improved performance at higher energies. As a result, Compton SPECT creates opportunities for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on higher energy isotopes as well as opportunities to expand the use of current isotopes such as 131I due to the increased resolution and sensitivity. The Compton SPECT prototype consists of a single high resolution silicon detector, configured in a 2D geometry, in coincidence with a standard NaI scintillator detector. Images of point sources have been taken for 99mTc (140 keV), 131I (364keV), and 22Na (511 keV), demonstrating the performance of high resolution silicon detectors in a Compton SPECT system. Filtered back projection image resolutions of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, and 6.7 mm were achieved for the three different sources respectively. The results compare well with typical SPECT resolutions of 5-15 mm and validate the claims of improved performance in Compton SPECT imaging devices at higher source energies. They also support the potential of

  9. New SPECT and PET dementia tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, J.; Chalon, S.; Emond, P.; Vercouillie, J.; Guilloteau, D.; Vergote, J.; Guilloteau, D.; Pappata, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are techniques to study in vivo neurotransmitter systems, neuro inflammation and amyloid deposits in normal human brain and in dementia. These methods used to explore the integrity of dopaminergic, cholinergic and serotonergic systems in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementias allowed to understand how the neurotransmission was modified in these disorders. Progress in the understanding of pathophysiological and clinical signs of dementia requires an evolution of the radioligands used to carry out an increasingly early and differential diagnosis in addition to monitoring the progression of disease and the effects of therapies. New emerging radiotracers for neuro inflammation or amyloid deposits are essential. In this article, new SPECT and PET tracers are presented. (authors)

  10. Cerebral blood flow assessed by brain SPECT with 99mTc-HMPAO utilising the acetazolamide test in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Romanowicz, G.; Koseda-Dragan, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Cerebrovascular diseases are one of the most important complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The diagnostic imaging of neuropsychiatric SLE complications presents many problems. This study was undertaken to investigate cerebral blood flow char s and its reactivity to hypercapnia by means of acetazolamide test in SLE patients. Methods: Brain SPECT studies using 99mTc-HMPAO were performed in 50 patients with SLE. Acetazolamide test was performed in 35 patients 3 days after the baseline study by means of repetitive scanning 20 min after i.v. injection of 1.0 g of acetazolamide. Results: Significant interhemispheric hypoperfusion areas were shown in 76.3% of all patients, 83.8% symptomatic and 63.1% asymptomatic. Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome showed multifocal perfusion deficits. The reaction of cerebral perfusion to acetazolamide was heterogenous and showed increase, decrease, no change or mixed reaction of baseline-study-found focal hypoperfusion. Acetazolamide test revealed hypoperfusion in two patients with normal baseline study. MRI scanning revealed cerebral lesions in 41% of patients. Conclusions: CBF asymmetries in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with SLE are frequent. Regional CBF alterations seem to be different in patients with and without antiphospholipid syndrome. The part of the patients with SLE shows no or paradoxically inversed reaction to acetazolamide. (author)

  11. The dopaminergic system in patients with functional dyspepsia analysed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and an alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) challenge test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braak, Breg; Klooker, Tamira K.; Booij, Jan; Wijngaard, Rene M.J. van den; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic condition characterized by upper abdominal symptoms without an identifiable cause. While the serotonergic system is thought to play a key role in the regulation of gut physiology, the role of the dopaminergic system, which is important in the regulation of visceral pain and stress, is under-studied. Therefore, this study investigated the dopaminergic system and its relationship with drinking capacity and symptoms in FD patients. In FD patients and healthy volunteers (HV) the dopaminergic system was investigated by in-vivo assessment of central dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) with [ 123 I]IBZM SPECT and by an acute, but reversible, dopamine depletion alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) challenge test. A nutrient drink test was performed to investigate the association between maximal ingested volume, evoked symptoms, and D2Rs. The HV subjects comprised 12 women and 8 men (mean age 31 ± 3 years), and the FD patients comprised 5 women and 3 men (mean age 39 ± 5 years). The FD patients had a lower left plus right average striatal binding potential (BP NP ) for the caudate nucleus (p = 0.02), but not for putamen (p = 0.15), which in the FD patients was correlated with maximal ingested volume (r = 0.756, p = 0.03). The D2R BP NP in the putamen was correlated with nausea (r = 0.857, p = 0.01). The acute dopamine depletion test, however, failed to reveal differences in prolactin release between the FD patients and the HV subjects. These preliminary data suggest that chronic rather than acute alterations in the dopaminergic system may be involved in the pathogenesis of FD. Further studies are required to reproduce our novel findings and to evaluate to what extent the dopaminergic changes may be secondary to abnormalities in serotonergic pathways. (orig.)

  12. The dopaminergic system in patients with functional dyspepsia analysed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and an alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) challenge test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braak, Breg; Klooker, Tamira K. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Booij, Jan [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wijngaard, Rene M.J. van den [Academic Medical Center, Tytgat Institute of Liver and Intestinal Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boeckxstaens, Guy E.E. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University Hospital Leuven, Catholic University Leuven, Department of Gastroenterology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic condition characterized by upper abdominal symptoms without an identifiable cause. While the serotonergic system is thought to play a key role in the regulation of gut physiology, the role of the dopaminergic system, which is important in the regulation of visceral pain and stress, is under-studied. Therefore, this study investigated the dopaminergic system and its relationship with drinking capacity and symptoms in FD patients. In FD patients and healthy volunteers (HV) the dopaminergic system was investigated by in-vivo assessment of central dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) with [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPECT and by an acute, but reversible, dopamine depletion alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) challenge test. A nutrient drink test was performed to investigate the association between maximal ingested volume, evoked symptoms, and D2Rs. The HV subjects comprised 12 women and 8 men (mean age 31 {+-} 3 years), and the FD patients comprised 5 women and 3 men (mean age 39 {+-} 5 years). The FD patients had a lower left plus right average striatal binding potential (BP{sub NP}) for the caudate nucleus (p = 0.02), but not for putamen (p = 0.15), which in the FD patients was correlated with maximal ingested volume (r = 0.756, p = 0.03). The D2R BP{sub NP} in the putamen was correlated with nausea (r = 0.857, p = 0.01). The acute dopamine depletion test, however, failed to reveal differences in prolactin release between the FD patients and the HV subjects. These preliminary data suggest that chronic rather than acute alterations in the dopaminergic system may be involved in the pathogenesis of FD. Further studies are required to reproduce our novel findings and to evaluate to what extent the dopaminergic changes may be secondary to abnormalities in serotonergic pathways. (orig.)

  13. Neuropharmacological studies with SPECT in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Andreas; Jones, Douglas W.; Raedler, Thomas; Coppola, Richard; Knable, Michael B.; Weinberger, Daniel R. E-mail: weinberd@intra.nimh.nih.gov

    2000-10-01

    The last decade saw a rapid development of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) from a tool to assess cerebral blood flow to the study of specific neurotransmitter systems. Because of the relatively long half-life of SPECT radioisotopes, it is practical to measure the availability of neuroreceptors and transporters in conditions approaching equilibrium. The cost-efficiency of SPECT allowed studies in relatively large samples of patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders. We have applied this approach in studies of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and muscarinergic neurotransmission in patients with dementia, extrapyramidal disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism. No simple associations were observed between a single defect in one neurotransmitter system and a certain neuropsychiatric disease. Instead, complex dysfunction of several neurotransmitter systems in multiple, partially connected brain circuits have been implicated. Treatment effects also have been characterized. Microdialysis and neurotransmitter depletion studies showed that most radioligands and endogenous neurotransmitters compete for binding at receptors and transporters. Future research directions include the assessment of endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations measured by depletion studies and of genetic effects on neuroreceptor and transporter expression.

  14. Neuropharmacological studies with SPECT in neuropsychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, Andreas; Jones, Douglas W.; Raedler, Thomas; Coppola, Richard; Knable, Michael B.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    The last decade saw a rapid development of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) from a tool to assess cerebral blood flow to the study of specific neurotransmitter systems. Because of the relatively long half-life of SPECT radioisotopes, it is practical to measure the availability of neuroreceptors and transporters in conditions approaching equilibrium. The cost-efficiency of SPECT allowed studies in relatively large samples of patients with various neuropsychiatric disorders. We have applied this approach in studies of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and muscarinergic neurotransmission in patients with dementia, extrapyramidal disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism. No simple associations were observed between a single defect in one neurotransmitter system and a certain neuropsychiatric disease. Instead, complex dysfunction of several neurotransmitter systems in multiple, partially connected brain circuits have been implicated. Treatment effects also have been characterized. Microdialysis and neurotransmitter depletion studies showed that most radioligands and endogenous neurotransmitters compete for binding at receptors and transporters. Future research directions include the assessment of endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations measured by depletion studies and of genetic effects on neuroreceptor and transporter expression

  15. Neuropsychiatry: PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana F, Juan Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Functional brain imaging with PET and SPECT have a definitive and well established role in the investigation of a variety of conditions such as dementia, epilepsy and drug addiction. With these methods it is possible to detect early rCBF (regional Cerebral Blood Flow) changes seen in dementia (even before clinical symptoms) and differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other dementias by means of the rCBF pattern change. 18-F-FDG PET imaging is a useful tool in partial epilepsy because both rCBF and brain metabolism are compromised at the epileptogenic focus. During the seizure, rCBF dramatically increases locally. Using SPECT it is possible to locate such foci with 97% accuracy. In drug addiction, particularly with cocaine, functional imaging has proven to be very sensitive to detect brain flow and metabolism derangement early in the course of this condition. These findings are important in many ways: prognostic value, they are used as a powerful reinforcement tool and to monitor functional recovery with rehabilitation. There are many other conditions in which functional brain imaging is of importance such as acute stroke treatment assessment, trauma rehabilitation and in psychiatric and abnormal movement diseases specially with the development of receptor imaging (au)

  16. Attenuation correction for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoba, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    Attenuation correction is required for the reconstruction of a quantitative SPECT image. A new method for detecting body contours, which are important for the correction of tissue attenuation, is presented. The effect of body contours, detected by the newly developed method, on the reconstructed images was evaluated using various techniques for attenuation correction. The count rates in the specified region of interest in the phantom image by the Radial Post Correction (RPC) method, the Weighted Back Projection (WBP) method, Chang's method were strongly affected by the accuracy of the contours, as compared to those by Sorenson's method. To evaluate the effect of non-uniform attenuators on the cardiac SPECT, computer simulation experiments were performed using two types of models, the uniform attenuator model (UAM) and the non-uniform attenuator model (NUAM). The RPC method showed the lowest relative percent error (%ERROR) in UAM (11 %). However, 20 to 30 percent increase in %ERROR was observed for NUAM reconstructed with the RPC, WBP, and Chang's methods. Introducing an average attenuation coefficient (0.12/cm for Tc-99m and 0.14/cm for Tl-201) in the RPC method decreased %ERROR to the levels for UAM. Finally, a comparison between images, which were obtained by 180 deg and 360 deg scans and reconstructed from the RPC method, showed that the degree of the distortion of the contour of the simulated ventricles in the 180 deg scan was 15 % higher than that in the 360 deg scan. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Meniconi, Martina; Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Gaeta, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the SPECT/CT hybrid modality has led to a rapid development of imaging techniques in nuclear medicine, opening new perspectives for imaging staff and patients as well. However, while, the clinical role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is well consolidated, the diffusion and the consequent value of single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) has yet to be weighed, Hence, there is a need for a careful analysis, comparing the "potential" benefits of the hybrid modality with the "established" ones of the standalone machine. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of this hybrid tool on the diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, comparing strengths and weaknesses of both modalities through the use of SWOT analysis.

  18. Phantom evaluation of a cardiac SPECT/VCT system that uses a common set of solid-state detectors for both emission and transmission scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chuanyong; Conwell, Richard; Kindem, Joel; Babla, Hetal; Gurley, Mike; De Los Santos, Romer; Old, Rex; Weatherhead, Randy; Arram, Samia; Maddahi, Jamshid

    2010-06-01

    We developed a cardiac SPECT system (X-ACT) with low dose volume CT transmission-based attenuation correction (AC). Three solid-state detectors are configured to form a triple-head system for emission scans and reconfigured to form a 69-cm field-of-view detector arc for transmission scans. A near mono-energetic transmission line source is produced from the collimated fluorescence x-ray emitted from a lead target when the target is illuminated by a narrow polychromatic x-ray beam from an x-ray tube. Transmission scans can be completed in 1 min with insignificant patient dose (deep dose equivalent used phantom studies to evaluate (1) the accuracy of the reconstructed attenuation maps, (2) the effect of AC on image uniformity, and (3) the effect of AC on defect contrast (DC). The phantoms we used included an ACR phantom, an anthropomorphic phantom with a uniform cardiac insert, and an anthropomorphic phantom with two defects in the cardiac insert. The reconstructed attenuation coefficient of water at 140 keV was .150 +/- .003/cm in the uniform region of the ACR phantom, .151 +/- .003/cm and .151 +/- .002/cm in the liver and cardiac regions of the anthropomorphic phantom. The ACR phantom images with AC showed correction of the bowing effect due to attenuation in the images without AC (NC). The 17-segment scores of the images of the uniform cardiac insert were 78.3 +/- 6.5 before and 87.9 +/- 3.3 after AC (average +/- standard deviation). The inferior-to-anterior wall ratio and the septal-to-lateral wall ratio were .99 and 1.16 before and 1.02 and 1.00 after AC. The DC of the two defects was .528 and .156 before and .628 and .173 after AC. The X-ACT system generated accurate attenuation maps with 1-minute transmission scans. AC improved image quality and uniformity over NC.

  19. Serial SPECT in children with partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Machiko; Ushiku, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    We performed serial single-photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-Iodoamphetamine to measure the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 15 children with partial epilepsy. SPECT showed focal changes in 14 cases. Ten cases had abnormalities in the initial SPECT and another four cases in the second test. The cases with normal rCBF in initial SPECT had been tested in an early phase after the onset, and then decreased rCBF were observed in the second SPECT. The cases with both abnormal rCBF in the initial SPECT and improved rCBF in the second SPECT showed good prognosis in clinico-electrophysiological evolutions. In cases with abnormal changes of rCBF in the second SPECT, clinical prognosis was found to be not so good. These findings suggest that serial SPECT may be used to follow the course of epilepsy. (author)

  20. Affordable CZT SPECT with dose-time minimization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugg, James W.; Harris, Brian W.; Radley, Ian

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE Pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detector arrays are used in molecular imaging applications that can enable precision medicine, including small-animal SPECT, cardiac SPECT, molecular breast imaging (MBI), and general purpose SPECT. The interplay of gamma camera, collimator, gantry motion, and image reconstruction determines image quality and dose-time-FOV tradeoffs. Both dose and exam time can be minimized without compromising diagnostic content. METHODS Integration of pixelated CZT detectors with advanced ASICs and readout electronics improves system performance. Because historically CZT was expensive, the first clinical applications were limited to small FOV. Radiation doses were initially high and exam times long. Advances have significantly improved efficiency of CZT-based molecular imaging systems and the cost has steadily declined. We have built a general purpose SPECT system using our 40 cm x 53 cm CZT gamma camera with 2 mm pixel pitch and characterized system performance. RESULTS Compared to NaI scintillator gamma cameras: intrinsic spatial resolution improved from 3.8 mm to 2.0 mm; energy resolution improved from 9.8% to reconstruction, result in minimized dose and exam time. With CZT cost improving, affordable whole-body CZT general purpose SPECT is expected to enable precision medicine applications.

  1. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grova, C [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Jannin, P [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Biraben, A [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Buvat, I [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Benali, H [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Bernard, A M [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France); Scarabin, J M [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Gibaud, B [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2003-12-21

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were

  2. Implementation of angular response function modeling in SPECT simulations with GATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descourt, P; Visvikis, D; Carlier, T; Bardies, M; Du, Y; Song, X; Frey, E C; Tsui, B M W; Buvat, I

    2010-01-01

    Among Monte Carlo simulation codes in medical imaging, the GATE simulation platform is widely used today given its flexibility and accuracy, despite long run times, which in SPECT simulations are mostly spent in tracking photons through the collimators. In this work, a tabulated model of the collimator/detector response was implemented within the GATE framework to significantly reduce the simulation times in SPECT. This implementation uses the angular response function (ARF) model. The performance of the implemented ARF approach has been compared to standard SPECT GATE simulations in terms of the ARF tables' accuracy, overall SPECT system performance and run times. Considering the simulation of the Siemens Symbia T SPECT system using high-energy collimators, differences of less than 1% were measured between the ARF-based and the standard GATE-based simulations, while considering the same noise level in the projections, acceleration factors of up to 180 were obtained when simulating a planar 364 keV source seen with the same SPECT system. The ARF-based and the standard GATE simulation results also agreed very well when considering a four-head SPECT simulation of a realistic Jaszczak phantom filled with iodine-131, with a resulting acceleration factor of 100. In conclusion, the implementation of an ARF-based model of collimator/detector response for SPECT simulations within GATE significantly reduces the simulation run times without compromising accuracy. (note)

  3. Implementation of angular response function modeling in SPECT simulations with GATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descourt, P; Visvikis, D [INSERM, U650, LaTIM, IFR SclnBioS, Universite de Brest, CHU Brest, Brest, F-29200 (France); Carlier, T; Bardies, M [CRCNA INSERM U892, Nantes (France); Du, Y; Song, X; Frey, E C; Tsui, B M W [Department of Radiology, J Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Buvat, I, E-mail: dimitris@univ-brest.f [IMNC-UMR 8165 CNRS Universites Paris 7 et Paris 11, Orsay (France)

    2010-05-07

    Among Monte Carlo simulation codes in medical imaging, the GATE simulation platform is widely used today given its flexibility and accuracy, despite long run times, which in SPECT simulations are mostly spent in tracking photons through the collimators. In this work, a tabulated model of the collimator/detector response was implemented within the GATE framework to significantly reduce the simulation times in SPECT. This implementation uses the angular response function (ARF) model. The performance of the implemented ARF approach has been compared to standard SPECT GATE simulations in terms of the ARF tables' accuracy, overall SPECT system performance and run times. Considering the simulation of the Siemens Symbia T SPECT system using high-energy collimators, differences of less than 1% were measured between the ARF-based and the standard GATE-based simulations, while considering the same noise level in the projections, acceleration factors of up to 180 were obtained when simulating a planar 364 keV source seen with the same SPECT system. The ARF-based and the standard GATE simulation results also agreed very well when considering a four-head SPECT simulation of a realistic Jaszczak phantom filled with iodine-131, with a resulting acceleration factor of 100. In conclusion, the implementation of an ARF-based model of collimator/detector response for SPECT simulations within GATE significantly reduces the simulation run times without compromising accuracy. (note)

  4. Proceedings of clinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  5. Quantitative organ visualization using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircos, L.T.; Carey, J.E. Jr.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative organ visualization (QOV) was performed using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Organ size was calculated from serial, contiguous ECT images taken through the organ of interest with image boundaries determined using a maximum directional gradient edge finding technique. Organ activity was calculated using ECT counts bounded by the directional gradient, imaging system efficiency, and imaging time. The technique used to perform QOV was evaluated using phantom studies, in vivo canine liver, spleen, bladder, and kidney studies, and in vivo human bladder studies. It was demonstrated that absolute organ activity and organ size could be determined with this system and total imaging time restricted to less than 45 min to an accuracy of about +/- 10% providing the minimum dimensions of the organ are greater than the FWHM of the imaging system and the total radioactivity within the organ of interest exceeds 15 nCi/cc for dog-sized torsos. In addition, effective half-lives of approximately 1.5 hr or greater could be determined

  6. Brain SPECT in childhood; Temp cerebrale chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F; Saliba, E; Prunier, C; Baulieu, F; Besnard, J C; Guilloteau, D; Baulieu, J L [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Unite Inserm 316, 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-04-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  7. Diagnostic impact of SPECT-CT in the assessment of endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Badaoui, A.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Allard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Image fusion using single photon emission computed tomography - computed tomography (SPECT - CT) associates functional and morphological images. This study evaluates the added value of SPECT- CT, obtained with a hybrid SPECT- CT gamma camera, on anatomic localization and diagnostic impact in assessment of endocrine tumours and pheochromocytomas. Method: Six months prospective study was undertaken including 33 consecutive exams encompassing 20 Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphies (S.R.S.) and 13 123 I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (Mibg) scans. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians independently analysed independently planar and SPECT images in a first time, then, SPECT- CT fused images in a second time. They evaluated two parameters: SPECT- CT impact on anatomic localization (L.A.) and its diagnostic impact (I.D.). Each parameter was scored according three levels of evaluation. Results: An added value of SPECT- CT images was evidenced in 55% of cases on the anatomic localization and in 41% of the patients on the diagnostic impact. Therefore, a more important benefit was noted when SPECT was positive (L.A.: 90%; I.D.: 70%) than when it was negative (L.A.: 15%; I.D.: 8%). Furthermore, the added value proved higher for the S;R.S. compared to Mibg scans. Conclusion: SPECT- CT fusion images obtained by a hybrid system is more relevant to determine anatomic localization and more accurate than SPECT alone, particularly in the assessment of endocrine tumours. The added value of SPECT- CT seems to be lower for Mibg scans in the assessment of pheochromocytomas. (authors)

  8. SPM analysis of cerebrovascular reserve capacity after stimulation with acetazolamide measured by Tc-99m ECD SPECT in normal brain MRI patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. H.; Yoon, S. N.; Yoon, J. K.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate normal response of acetazolamide in normal individuals, whose brain MRI is normal, using SPM99. In total, 10 Tc- 99m ECD brain SPECT were evaluated retrospectively. The half of the patients were male. Their mean age was 47.1 years old with a range of 33-61 years. They all visited our neurology department to evaluate stroke symptom. Their brain MRI was normal. Rest/acetazolamide brain SPECT was perfomed using Tc-99m ECD and the sequential injection and subtraction method. SPECT was acquired using fanbeam collimators and triple-head gamma camera (MultiSPECT III, Siemens medical systems, Inc. Hoffman Estates, III, USA). Chang's attenuation correction was applied their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis by two nuclear physician and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared rest brain SPECT images with those of acetazolamide brain SPECT and measured the extent of the area with significant perfusion change (P<0.05) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Acetazolamide brain SPECT showed no significant decreased region in comparison to rest brain SPECT. Only small portion of left mid temporal gyrus revealed increased rCBF on acetazolamide brain SPECT in comparison to rest brain SPECT. It apperas that there is no significant change in rCBF between rest and acetazolamide brain SPECT using Tc-99m ECD. The small number of this study is limitation of our study.

  9. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Ballinger, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  10. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  11. Implementation and Evaluation of Pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArtain Anne Marie

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this work was to implement Pinhole SPECT into a working Nuclear Medicine department. It has been reported that pinhole SPECT has been successfully performed to visualise pathology in ankle bones using gamma camera and the images were constructed using a standard filtered back-projection algorithm (Bahk YW, 1998). The objective of this study was to produce and evaluate this technique with the equipment available in the nuclear medicine department. The system performance was assessed using both the low-energy high resolution and the pinhole collimators. Phantoms constructed using capillary tubes, filled with technetium 99m (pertechnetate) were imaged in different arrays to identify possible limitations in the reconstruction software. A thyroid phantom with hot and cold inserts was also imaged. Data was acquired in ''tep-and-shoot'' mode as the camera was rotated 180 degrees or 360 degrees around the phantom. Images were reconstructed using standard parallel back-projection algorithm and a weighted backprojection algorithm (Nowak). An attempt was made to process images of the phantom in Matlab using the Iradon function modified by application of a cone-beam type algorithm (Feldkamp L, 1984). Visual comparison of static images between the pinhole and the LEHR collimators showed the expected improved spatial resolution of the pinhole images. Pinhole SPECT images should be reconstructed using the appropriate cone beam algorithm. However, it was established that reconstructing pinhole SPECT images using a standard parallel backprojection algorithm yielded results which were deemed to be clinically useful. The Nowak algorithm results were a distinct improvement on those achieved with the parallel backprojection algorithm. Likewise the results from the cone beam algorithm were better than the former but not as good as those obtained from the Nowak algorithm. This was due to the fact that the cone beam algorithm did not include a weighting factor. Implementation

  12. SPECT imaging of cardiac reporter gene expression in living rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Liang; Wu Tao; Jiang Rifeng; Zhang Yongxue

    2009-01-01

    This work is to demonstrate feasibility of imaging the expression of herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSVI-tk) reporter gene in rabbits myocardium by using the reporter probe 131 I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-l-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ( 131 I-FIAU) and SPECT. Rabbits of the study group received intramyocardial injection of Ad5-tk and control group received aseptic saline injection. Two sets of experiments were performed on the study group. Rabbits of the 1st set were injected with 131 I-FIAU 600 μCi at Day 2 after intramyocardial transfection of Ad5-tk in 1xl0 9 , 5x10 8 , 1x10 8 , 5x10 7 and 1x10 7 pfu, and heart SPECT imaging was done at different hours. Rabbits of the 2nd were transferred various titers of Ad5-tk (1x10 9 , 5x10 8 , 1x10 8 , 5x10 7 , 1x10 7 pfu) to determine the threshold and optimal viral titer needed for detection of gene expression. Two days later, 131 I-FIAU was injected and heart SPECT imaging was performed at 6, 24 and 48 h, before killing them for gamma counting of the hearts. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to verify the transferred HSVI-tk gene expression. Semi-quantitative analysis derived of region of interest (ROI) of SPECT images and RT-PCR images was performed and the relationship of SPECT images with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA level were evaluated. SPECT images conformed 131 I-FIAU accumulation in rabbits injected with Ad5-tk in the anterolateral wall. The optimal images quality was obtained at 24-48 h for different viral titers. The highest radioactivity in the focal myocardium was seen at 6 h, and then declined with time. The threshold was 5x10 7 pfu of virus titer. The result could be set better in 1-5x10 8 pfu by SPECT analysis and gamma counting. ROI-derived semi-quantitative study on SPECT images correlated well with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA levels from RT-PCR analysis. The HSVI-tk/ 131 I-FIAU reporter gene/reporter probe system is feasible for cardiac SPECT reporter

  13. Optimization of detector size and collimator for PG-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K.

    2000-01-01

    A current absorbed dose evaluation method in a Boron Neutron Capture Therapy demands boron reaction rate from a boron concentration of an affected part supposed from a neutron flux and a boron concentration in blood measured by an activation method of a gold wire indirectly and converts it into an absorbed dose. So we devised a PG-SEPCT (Prompt Gamma-ray Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) system to evaluate an absorbed dose directly by measuring prompt gamma-rays. Ordinary SPECT system uses a big NaI scintillator for detector so that measurement is done in low background gamma-ray environment. However, a conventional detector and collimator system cannot be just applied to PG-SPECT system because a background radiation coexists abundantly (PG-SPECT system is set in irradiation room). Accordingly PG-SPECT system requires a dedicated detector and collimator system. In order to reduce efficiency for background gamma-rays, we arranged detectors in a collimator to shield from background gamma-rays. We examined the most suitable collimator shape. The optimization condition of a dedicated collimator system is as follows: 1) the smallest particle size that can be distinguished is 1 cm. 2) necessary counts at measurement target center is not less than 10,000. (author)

  14. SPECT in Focal Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion changes during seizures were first observed in the 1930s. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT was developed in the 1970s, and tracers suitable for the imaging of regional cerebral perfusion (rCP became available in the 1980s. The method was first used to study rCP in the interictal phase, and this showed areas of low perfusion in a proportion of cases, mainly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. However, the trapping paradigm of tracers such as hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO provided a practicable method of studying changes in rCP during seizures, and a literature was established in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing a typical sequence of changes during and after seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin; the ictal phase was associated with large increases in perfusion throughout the temporal lobe, with first the lateral, then the mesial temporal lobe becoming hypoperfused in the postictal phase. Activation and inhibition of other structures, such as the basal ganglia and frontal cortex, were also seen. Studies of seizures originating elsewhere in the brain have shown a variety of patterns of change, according to the structures involved. These changes have been used practically to aid the process of localisation of the epileptogenic zone so that epilepsy surgery can be planned.

  15. Problems in the optimum display of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    The instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and the image display system are all very important in the production of diagnostically useful SPECT images. Acquisition and processing parameters are discussed which can affect the quality of SPECT images. Regular quality control of the gamma camera and computer is important to keep the artifacts due to instrumentation to a minimum. The choice of reconstruction method will depend on the statistics in the study. The paper has shown that for high count rate studies, a high pass filter can be used to enhance the reconstructions. For lower count rate studies, pre-filtering is useful and the data can be reconstructed into thicker slices to reduce the effect of image noise. Finally, the optimum display for the images must be chosen, so that the information contained in the SPECT data can be easily perceived by the clinician. (orig.) [de

  16. The application of PET, SPECT and MRS in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Aisheng; Tian Jianming

    2005-01-01

    PET and SPECT provide the means to studying in vivo the neurochemical, hemodynamic or metabolic consequences of the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamineric system in Parkinson's disease (PD). Activation studies using cerebral blood flow and metabolism measurements during a motor task reveal an impaired ability to activate the supplementary motor area and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in PD. The extent of striatal dopaminergic denervation can be quantified with PET and SPECT. Striatal uptake of 18 F-dopa is markedly decreased in PD, more in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus, and inversely correlates with the severity of motor signs and with duration of disease. PET and SPECT make possible the assessment by noninvasive means of the changes in dopamine receptor density. Meanwhile, MRS can reveal changes in concentration of several hydrogenate and phosphoric compounds in the brain. The functional information of brain in PD can be obtained with these complementary techniques. (authors)

  17. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging using thallium-201 with a novel multifocal collimator SPECT/CT: IQ-SPECT versus conventional protocols in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Wakabayash, Hiroshi; Okuda, Koichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-06-01

    A novel multifocal collimator, IQ-SPECT (Siemens) consists of SMARTZOOM, cardio-centric and 3D iterative SPECT reconstruction and makes it possible to perform MPI scans in a short time. The aims are to delineate the normal uptake in thallium-201 ((201)Tl) SPECT in each acquisition method and to compare the distribution between new and conventional protocol, especially in patients with normal imaging. Forty patients (eight women, mean age of 75 years) who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging were included in the study. All patients underwent one-day protocol perfusion scan after an adenosine-stress test and at rest after administering (201)Tl and showed normal results. Acquisition was performed on a Symbia T6 equipped with a conventional dual-headed gamma camera system (Siemens ECAM) and with a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator. Imaging was performed with a conventional system followed by IQ-SPECT/computed tomography (CT). Reconstruction was performed with or without X-ray CT-derived attenuation correction (AC). Two nuclear physicians blinded to clinical information interpreted all myocardial perfusion images. A semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion was analyzed by a 17-segment model with a 5-point visual scoring. The uptake of each segment was measured and left ventricular functions were analyzed by QPS software. IQ-SPECT provided good or excellent image quality. The quality of IQ-SPECT images without AC was similar to those of conventional LEHR study. Mid-inferior defect score (0.3 ± 0.5) in the conventional LEHR study was increased significantly in IQ-SPECT with AC (0 ± 0). IQ-SPECT with AC improved the mid-inferior decreased perfusion shown in conventional images. The apical tracer count in IQ-SPECT with AC was decreased compared to that in LEHR (0.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7, p IQ-SPECT was significantly higher than that from the LEHR collimator (p = 0.0009). The images of IQ-SPECT acquired in a short time are equivalent to that of conventional LEHR

  18. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, James; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yan, Susu; Roper, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  19. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, James, E-mail: james.bowsher@duke.edu; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yan, Susu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Roper, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  20. Multimodality imaging: transfer and fusion of SPECT and MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knesaurek, K.

    1994-01-01

    Image fusion is a technique which offers the best of both worlds. It unites the two basic types of medical images: functional body images(PET or SPECT scans), which provide physiological information, and structural images (CT or MRI), which provide an anatomic map of the body. Control-point based registration technique was developed and used. Tc-99m point sources were used as external markers in SPECT studies while, for MRI and CT imaging only anatomic landmarks were used as a control points. The MRI images were acquired on GE Signa 1.2 system and CT data on a GE 9800 scanner. SPECT studies were performed 1h after intravenous injection of the 740 MBq of the Tc-99m-HMPAO on the triple-headed TRIONIX gamma camera. B-spline and bilinear interpolation were used for the rotation, scaling and translation of the images. In the process of creation of a single composite image, in order to retain information from the individual images, MRI (or CT) image was scaled to one color range and a SPECT image to another. In some situations the MRI image was kept black-and-white while the SPECT image was pasted on top of it in 'opaque' mode. Most errors which propagate through the matching process are due to sample size, imperfection of the acquisition system, noise and interpolations used. Accuracy of the registration was investigated by SPECT-CT study performed on a phantom study. The results has shown that accuracy of the matching process is better, or at worse, equal to 2 mm. (author)

  1. Normal anatomy of lung perfusion SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, G.W.; Levy, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients studies for possible pulmonary embolic disease had normal lung perfusion planar and SPECT scintigraphy. A computer program was developed to superimpose the CT scans on corresponding SPECT images. Superimposition of CT scans on corresponding SPECT transaxial cross-sectional images, when available, provides the needed definition and relationships of adjacent organs. SPECT transaxial sections provide clear anatomic definition of perfusion defects without foreground and background lung tissue superimposed. The location, shape, and size of the perfusion defects can be readily assessed by SPECT. An algorithm was developed for the differentiation of abnormal pulmonary perfusion patterns from normal structures on variation

  2. Radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V. I., E-mail: chernov@oncology.tomsk.ru; Medvedeva, A. A., E-mail: tickayaAA@oncology.tomsk.ru; Zelchan, R. V., E-mail: r.zelchan@yandex.ru; Sinilkin, I. G., E-mail: sinilkinig@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Stasyuk, E. S.; Larionova, L. A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Slonimskaya, E. M.; Choynzonov, E. L. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 199}Tl and {sup 99}mTc-MIBI in the detection of breast, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. A total of 220 patients were included into the study: 120 patients with breast lesions (100 patients with breast cancer and 20 patients with benign breast tumors) and 100 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal diseases (80 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer and 20 patients with benign laryngeal/hypopharyngeal lesions). No abnormal {sup 199}Tl uptake was seen in all patients with benign breast and laryngeal lesions, indicating a 100% specificity of {sup 199}Tl SPECT. In the breast cancer patients, the increased {sup 199}Tl uptake in the breast was visualized in 94.8% patients, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI—in 93.4% patients. The increased {sup 199}Tl uptake in axillary lymph nodes was detected in 60% patients, and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI—in 93.1% patients. In patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer, the sensitivity of SPECT with {sup 199}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI was 95%. The {sup 199}Tl SPECT sensitivity in identification of regional lymph node metastases in the patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 75% and the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT sensitivity was 17%. The data obtained showed that SPECT with {sup 199}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI can be used as one of the additional imaging methods in detection of tumors.

  3. Technetium-99m-labelled red blood cell imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic haemangiomas: the role of SPECT/CT with a hybrid camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Danieli, Roberta; Manni, Carlo; Capoccetti, Francesca; Simonetti, Giovanni [Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Delayed liver single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after {sup 99m}Tc red blood cell (RBC) labelling is helpful in detecting hepatic haemangiomas; however, diagnosis can be difficult when lesions are situated adjacent to structures like the inferior vena cava, the heart or hepatic vessels, where blood activity persists. The aims of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of RBC SPECT and transmission computed tomography (RBC SPECT/CT) performed simultaneously with a hybrid imaging system for correct characterisation of hepatic lesions in patients with suspected haemangioma, and to assess the additional value of fused images compared with SPECT alone. Twelve patients with 24 liver lesions were studied. The acquisitions of both anatomical (CT) and functional (SPECT) data were performed during a single session. SPECT images were first interpreted alone and then re-evaluated after adding the transmission anatomical maps. Image fusion was successful in all patients, with perfect correspondence between SPECT and CT data, allowing the precise anatomical localisation of sites of increased blood pool activity. SPECT/CT had a significant impact on results in four patients (33.3%) with four lesions defined as indeterminate on SPECT images, accurately characterising the hot spot foci located near vascular structures. In conclusion, RBC SPECT/CT imaging using this hybrid SPECT/CT system is feasible and useful in the identification or exclusion of suspected hepatic haemangiomas located near regions with high vascular activity. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of Intrahepatic and Pancreatic Perfusion on Fusion Images Using a Combined SPECT/CT System and Assessment of Efficacy of Combined Continuous Arterial Infusion and Systemic Chemotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Osama; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Shinya; Kawanaka, Kouichi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Takamori, Hiroshi; Kanemitsu, Keiichiro; Baba, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare intrahepatic and pancreatic perfusion on fusion images using a combined single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT system and to evaluate the efficacy of combined continuous transcatheter arterial infusion (CTAI) and systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and Methods. CTAI was performed in 33 patients (22 men, 11 women; age range, 35-77 years; mean age, 60 years) with stage IV pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis. The reservoir was transcutaneously implanted with the help of angiography. The systemic administration of gemcitabine was combined with the infusion of 5-fluorouracil via the reservoir. In all patients we obtained fusion images using a combined SPECT/CT system. Pancreatic perfusion on fusion images was classified as perfusion presence or as perfusion absent in the pancreatic cancer. Using WHO criteria we recorded the tumor response after 3 months on multislice helical CT scans. Treatment effects were evaluated based on the pancreatic cancer, liver metastasis, and factors such as intrahepatic and pancreatic perfusion on fusion images. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test; survival was evaluated by the Kaplan Meier method (log-rank test). Results. On fusion images, pancreatic and intrahepatic perfusion was recorded as hot spot and as homogeneous distribution, respectively, in 18 patients (55%) and as cold spot and heterogeneous distribution, respectively, in 15 (45%). Patients with hot spot in the pancreatic tumor and homogeneous distribution in the liver manifested better treatment results (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Patients with hot spot both in the pancreatic cancer and in the liver survived longer than those with cold spot in the pancreatic cancer and heterogeneous distribution in the liver (median ± SD, 16.0 ± 3.7 vs. 8.0 ± 1.4 months; p < 0.05). Conclusions. We conclude that in patients with advanced pancreatic

  5. Pinhole SPECT: high resolution imaging of brain tumours in small laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franceschim, M.; Bokulic, T.; Kusic, Z.; Strand, S.E.; Erlandsson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The performance properties of pinhole SPECT and the application of this technology to evaluate radionuclide uptake in brain in small laboratory animals were investigated. System sensitivity and spatial resolution measurements of a rotating scintillation camera system were made for a low energy pinhole collimator equipped with 2.0 mm aperture pinhole insert. Projection data were acquired at 4 degree increments over 360 degrees in the step and shoot mode using a 4.5 cm radius of rotation. Pinhole planar and SPECT imaging were obtained to evaluate regional uptake of Tl-201, Tc-99m-MIBI, Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-DTPA in tumor and control regions of the brain in a primary brain tumor model in Fisher 344 rats. Pinhole SPECT images were reconstructed using a modified cone- beam algorithm developed from a two dimensional fan-beam filtered backprojection algorithm. The reconstructed transaxial resolution of 2.8 FWHM and system sensitivity of 0.086 c/s/kBq with the 2.0 mm pinhole collimator aperture were measured. Tumor to non-tumor uptake ratios at 19-28 days post tumor cell inoculation varied by a factor > 20:1 on SPECT images. Pinhole SPECT provides an important new approach for performing high resolution imaging: the resolution properties of pinhole SPECT are superior to those which have been achieved with conventional SPECT or PET imaging technologies. (author)

  6. Clinical application of domestica manufactured BHP6601 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuwen; Tian Jiahe; Liu Zilai; He Yijie; Shao Mingzhe; Zhang Jinming

    2005-01-01

    Clinical imaging of 150 patients with varying demand is carried out with BHP6601 SPECT manufactured locally, and the results are compared with that obtained by an E. CAM system manufactured by Siemens. The results show that BHP6601 had an acceptable and stable performance from a technical point of view. It offers a sufficient ability for organ imaging of clinical requirement. (authors)

  7. Feasibility of Stereo-Infrared Tracking to Monitor Patient Motion During Cardiac SPECT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Richard D.; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Boening, Guido; Bruyant, Philippe P.; Feng, Bing; Fulton, Roger R.; Gennert, Michael A.; Nadella, Suman; King, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Patient motion during cardiac SPECT imaging can cause diagnostic imaging artifacts. We investigated the feasibility of monitoring patient motion using the Polaris motion-tracking system. This system uses passive infrared reflection from small spheres to provide real-time position data with vendor stated 0.35 mm accuracy and 0.2 mm repeatability. In our configuration, the Polaris system views through the SPECT gantry toward the patient's head. List-mode event data was temporally synchronized w...

  8. Benign versus malignant osseous lesions in spine: differentiation by means of bone SPECT/CT fused image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhiming; Qu Wanying

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the efficiency of SPECT-CT fused image with planar bone scan, bone SPECT and CT in differentiating malignant from benign lesions and detecting metastases to the spine. Methods. Total 144 patients with spinal lesions underwent planar bone scan (WB), single photon tomography (SPECT), CT and SPECT-CT fused image by a SPECT/CT system. The malignant or benign nature of lesions was proved by radiological Methods, histological findings, 6-24 month follow-up, or all of these. The diagnostic results was divided into 4 types, i.e., normal, benign, doubtful malignant and malignant. Results. There were 137 malignant and 252 benign lesions in 144 patients, respectively. The percentages of doubtful malignant diagnosed by WB, SPECT, CT and fused image are 22.6%, 5.1%, 9.5% and 0%, respectively, p < 0.01-0.001, except for the comparison between the percentages of SPECT and CT. Sensitivities in detection of malignant lesions by WB, SPECT, CT and fused image are 75.2%, 94.2%, 96.6% and 99.3%, respectively, P < 0.001, excepting for the comparisons between those of SPECT and CT, and between those of CT and fused image. The sensitivities m detection of benign lesions by WB, SPECT, CT and fused image are, 56.7%, 86.5%, 90.1% and 96.8%, respectively, P < 0.005 - 0.001, excepting for the comparison between those of SPECT and CT. The specificities in detection of maliganant lesions by WB, SPECT, CT and fused image are 70.6%, 88.9%, 97.2% and 97.6%, respectively, P < 0.001, excepting for the comparison between those of CT and fused image. Conclusion. Bone SPECT-CT fused image has highest diagnostic and differentiating diagnostic values in detection of spinal abnormalities over the planar bone scanning and SPECT. The CT by present SPECT/CT system can complement planar bone scanning and SPECT and is clinically valuable in detection of spinal abnormalities. (authors)

  9. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O.B.; Lassen, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow in SPECT pattern in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenart-Jankowska, D.; Junik, R.; Sowinski, J.; Gembicki, M.; Wender, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in SPECT examination in Parkinson's disease with (17 cases) and without (7 cases) dementia and in various clinical stages of the disease. The patients underwent SPECT examination 5-40 min after intravenous application of HMPAO (Ceretec, Amersham) with 740 Mbq (20 mCi) pertechnate 99m Tc. SPECT was performed with a Siemens Diacam single-head rotating gamma camera coupled to a high resolution collimator and Icon computer system provided by the manufacturer. The results were defined in relative values of ROI in relation to cerebellum. Patients with Parkinson's disease showed hypoperfusion in cerebral lobes and in deep cerebral structures including the basal ganglia. Regional perfusion deficit in SPECT was seen with and without associated dementia and already in early stage of the disease. Parkinson's disease is provoked by the lesions of dopaminergic neurons of the central nervous system leading to domination of extrapyramidal symptoms. There are many indications that also the neurotransmitters associated with cognitive functions as acetylcholine demonstrate some abnormalities. However, only in some cases of Parkinson's disease dementia is the dominating symptom. Our results of regional cerebral blood flow testify that in Parkinson's disease the dysfunction of the central nervous system is more diffuse than has previously been suggested. (author)

  11. Effect of bypass on the motor activation SPECT compared to the acetazolamide SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Iwahashi, Hideaki; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The authors evaluated and analyzed motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared to resting and acetazolamide (ACZ) activated SPECT studies. Seventeen cases with STA-MCA bypass performed for ischemic cerebrovascular disease were examined. The SPECT studies consisting of resting, ACZ activation, and motor activation stages were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after bypass. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as negative or positive. Before bypass: In all 17 cases, SPECT studies of the affected side showed reduction of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduction of cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). Eight cases were positive in the M-SPECT study. One week after bypass: The resting CBF increased in seven cases. Four showed preoperative positive M-SPECT. Eight cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Twelve cases were positive in M-SPECT, and two were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. Three months after bypass: Thirteen cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and fourteen cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Fourteen cases were positive in the M-SPECT, and among these, 6 were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. There was a discrepancy between the improvement in CVRC and M-SPECT. M-SPECT study can provide information about the degree of hemodynamic compromise and effect of bypass surgery. (author)

  12. Effect of bypass on the motor activation SPECT compared to the acetazolamide SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Iwahashi, Hideaki; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated and analyzed motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared to resting and acetazolamide (ACZ) activated SPECT studies. Seventeen cases with STA-MCA bypass performed for ischemic cerebrovascular disease were examined. The SPECT studies consisting of resting, ACZ activation, and motor activation stages were performed before bypass, at 1 month, and 3 months after bypass. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as negative or positive. Before bypass: In all 17 cases, SPECT studies of the affected side showed reduction of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduction of cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC). Eight cases were positive in the M-SPECT study. One week after bypass: The resting CBF increased in seven cases. Four showed preoperative positive M-SPECT. Eight cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Twelve cases were positive in M-SPECT, and two were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. Three months after bypass: Thirteen cases showed improvement in the resting CBF, and fourteen cases showed improvement of the CVRC. Fourteen cases were positive in the M-SPECT, and among these, 6 were negative in the preoperative M-SPECT. There was a discrepancy between the improvement in CVRC and M-SPECT. M-SPECT study can provide information about the degree of hemodynamic compromise and effect of bypass surgery. (author)

  13. U-SPECT-BioFluo : An integrated radionuclide, bioluminescence, and fluorescence imaging platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, M.N.; Kreuger, R.; Buckle, T.; Mahn, W.A.; Bunschoten, A.; Josephson, L.; Van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Beekman, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In vivo bioluminescence, fluorescence, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging provide complementary information about biological processes. However, to date these signatures are evaluated separately on individual preclinical systems. In this paper, we introduce a

  14. Scatter and crosstalk corrections for 99mTc/123I dual-radionuclide imaging using a CZT SPECT system with pinhole collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Peng; Hutton, Brian F.; Holstensson, Maria; Ljungberg, Michael; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; Prasad, Rameshwar; Liu, Chi; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Thorn, Stephanie L.; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The energy spectrum for a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has a low energy tail due to incomplete charge collection and intercrystal scattering. Due to these solid-state detector effects, scatter would be overestimated if the conventional triple-energy window (TEW) method is used for scatter and crosstalk corrections in CZT-based imaging systems. The objective of this work is to develop a scatter and crosstalk correction method for 99m Tc/ 123 I dual-radionuclide imaging for a CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT system with pinhole collimators (GE Discovery NM 530c/570c). Methods: A tailing model was developed to account for the low energy tail effects of the CZT detector. The parameters of the model were obtained using 99m Tc and 123 I point source measurements. A scatter model was defined to characterize the relationship between down-scatter and self-scatter projections. The parameters for this model were obtained from Monte Carlo simulation using SIMIND. The tailing and scatter models were further incorporated into a projection count model, and the primary and self-scatter projections of each radionuclide were determined with a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative estimation approach. The extracted scatter and crosstalk projections were then incorporated into MLEM image reconstruction as an additive term in forward projection to obtain scatter- and crosstalk-corrected images. The proposed method was validated using Monte Carlo simulation, line source experiment, anthropomorphic torso phantom studies, and patient studies. The performance of the proposed method was also compared to that obtained with the conventional TEW method. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and line source experiment demonstrated that the TEW method overestimated scatter while their proposed method provided more accurate scatter estimation by considering the low energy tail effect. In the phantom study, improved defect contrasts were observed with both

  15. Scatter and crosstalk corrections for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging using a CZT SPECT system with pinhole collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Peng [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hutton, Brian F. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Holstensson, Maria [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm 14186 (Sweden); Ljungberg, Michael [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund 222 41 (Sweden); Hendrik Pretorius, P. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Prasad, Rameshwar; Liu, Chi, E-mail: chi.liu@yale.edu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Thorn, Stephanie L.; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yale Translational Research Imaging Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The energy spectrum for a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has a low energy tail due to incomplete charge collection and intercrystal scattering. Due to these solid-state detector effects, scatter would be overestimated if the conventional triple-energy window (TEW) method is used for scatter and crosstalk corrections in CZT-based imaging systems. The objective of this work is to develop a scatter and crosstalk correction method for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging for a CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT system with pinhole collimators (GE Discovery NM 530c/570c). Methods: A tailing model was developed to account for the low energy tail effects of the CZT detector. The parameters of the model were obtained using {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I point source measurements. A scatter model was defined to characterize the relationship between down-scatter and self-scatter projections. The parameters for this model were obtained from Monte Carlo simulation using SIMIND. The tailing and scatter models were further incorporated into a projection count model, and the primary and self-scatter projections of each radionuclide were determined with a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative estimation approach. The extracted scatter and crosstalk projections were then incorporated into MLEM image reconstruction as an additive term in forward projection to obtain scatter- and crosstalk-corrected images. The proposed method was validated using Monte Carlo simulation, line source experiment, anthropomorphic torso phantom studies, and patient studies. The performance of the proposed method was also compared to that obtained with the conventional TEW method. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and line source experiment demonstrated that the TEW method overestimated scatter while their proposed method provided more accurate scatter estimation by considering the low energy tail effect. In the phantom study, improved defect contrasts were

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of PET and SPECT imaging of {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihiko, E-mail: takahsr@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Sasaki, Masayuki [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Himuro, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Yasuo; Komiya, Isao [Division of Radiology, Department of Medical Technology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Shingo [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Yittrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) is traditionally thought of as a pure beta emitter, and is used in targeted radionuclide therapy, with imaging performed using bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, because {sup 90}Y also emits positrons through internal pair production with a very small branching ratio, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is also available. Because of the insufficient image quality of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT, PET imaging has been suggested as an alternative. In this paper, the authors present the Monte Carlo-based simulation–reconstruction framework for {sup 90}Y to comprehensively analyze the PET and SPECT imaging techniques and to quantitatively consider the disadvantages associated with them. Methods: Our PET and SPECT simulation modules were developed using Monte Carlo simulation of Electrons and Photons (MCEP), developed by Dr. S. Uehara. PET code (MCEP-PET) generates a sinogram, and reconstructs the tomography image using a time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximization (TOF-OSEM) algorithm with attenuation compensation. To evaluate MCEP-PET, simulated results of {sup 18}F PET imaging were compared with the experimental results. The results confirmed that MCEP-PET can simulate the experimental results very well. The SPECT code (MCEP-SPECT) models the collimator and NaI detector system, and generates the projection images and projection data. To save the computational time, the authors adopt the prerecorded {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photon data calculated by MCEP. The projection data are also reconstructed using the OSEM algorithm. The authors simulated PET and SPECT images of a water phantom containing six hot spheres filled with different concentrations of {sup 90}Y without background activity. The amount of activity was 163 MBq, with an acquisition time of 40 min. Results: The simulated {sup 90}Y-PET image accurately simulated the experimental results. PET image is visually

  17. Patient position matching between SPECT and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eubig, C.; Lodhi, L.M.; Trueblood, J.H.; Kingsbury, T.; Burke, G.; Flickenger, F.

    1990-01-01

    Since the authors had previously developed an ability for accurate repositioning of patients by means of video imaging of their external features, it was their purpose to determine if separate video systems placed in SPECT and CT rooms could be positioned and a calibration procedure for each modality developed to assure easy identification and acquisition of corresponding congruent axial image sections through the patient. A video frame grabber is used to acquire an image of the patient in one room and superimpose it on a similar image of the patient in the other room. A radioactive ruler visible at CT images obtained with a gamma camera computer, and a CT scout image are used to adjust the initial relative position of the video cameras and calibrate the acquisition parameters of both systems. The success of this alignment procedure was tested with a body phantom. The body phantom studies indicate that this method of positioning the patient and acquiring corresponding aligned CT and SPECT axial sections can be successful where internal organ shift between the acquisitions is minimal. This should lead to a reduction of the time and computer resources necessary to fuse or superimpose images of corresponding patient sections acquired with different modalities

  18. Improvements in SPECT technology for cerebral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Advancement in three major areas of SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) technology have resulted in improved image quality for cerebral studies. In the first area, single-crystal camera electronics, extensive use of microprocessors, custom digital circuitry, an data bus architecture have allowed precise external control of all gantry motions and improved signal processing. The new digital circuitry permits energy, uniformity, and linearity corrections to be an integral part of the processing electronics. Calibration of these correlations is controlled by algorithms stored in the camera's memory. The second area of improved SPECT technology is camera collimation and related imaging techniques. In this area, system resolution has been improved without loss of sensitivity by decreasing the air gap between patient and collimator surface. Since cerebral studies characteristically image high-contrast regions less than 1 cm in size, image quality has been improved by increasing collimator resolution even at the expense of sensitivity. Increased resolution also improved image contrast for studies using 123 I-labeled pharmaceuticals with 3% to 4% 124 I contamination. 65 references

  19. Clinical evaluation of SPECT in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshibuchi, Masao; Satoh, Mitsutaka; Kanda, Tetsuro; Nishi, Fumiaki; Yamane, Kanji; Fujimatsu, Masahiko; Edamitsu, Satoshi; Anno, Yasuro; Ohtake, Hisashi.

    1989-01-01

    In 131 patients with cerebrovascular disease, regional cerebral blood flow were determined by 123 I-IMP (N-isopropyl ( 123 I)-iodoamphetamine) or 99m Tc-HM-PAO ( 99m Tc (d, 1)-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime) SPECT and findings were compared with those of X-CT or MRI. The perfusion deficit detected by SPECT was larger than the deficit by X-CT or MRI in every case. The perfusion deficit area was more clearly demonstrated by SPECT than by X-CT or MRI in patients with acute cerebral infarction. The hypoperfusion area determined by 123 I-IMP SPECT was wider than that by 99m Tc-HM-PAO SPECT. The crossed cerebellar diaschisis was observed in 56 out of 131 cases (43%). The results of operation were quantitatively evaluated by 123 I-IMP SPECT in 25 patients. (author)

  20. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  1. Practical reconstruction protocol for quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siman, W.; Mikell, J. K.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a practical background compensation (BC) technique to improve quantitative 90 Y-bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) using a commercially available imaging system. Methods: All images were acquired using medium-energy collimation in six energy windows (EWs), ranging from 70 to 410 keV. The EWs were determined based on the signal-to-background ratio in planar images of an acrylic phantom of different thicknesses (2–16 cm) positioned below a 90 Y source and set at different distances (15–35 cm) from a gamma camera. The authors adapted the widely used EW-based scatter-correction technique by modeling the BC as scaled images. The BC EW was determined empirically in SPECT/CT studies using an IEC phantom based on the sphere activity recovery and residual activity in the cold lung insert. The scaling factor was calculated from 20 clinical planar 90 Y images. Reconstruction parameters were optimized in the same SPECT images for improved image quantification and contrast. A count-to-activity calibration factor was calculated from 30 clinical 90 Y images. Results: The authors found that the most appropriate imaging EW range was 90–125 keV. BC was modeled as 0.53× images in the EW of 310–410 keV. The background-compensated clinical images had higher image contrast than uncompensated images. The maximum deviation of their SPECT calibration in clinical studies was lowest (<10%) for SPECT with attenuation correction (AC) and SPECT with AC + BC. Using the proposed SPECT-with-AC + BC reconstruction protocol, the authors found that the recovery coefficient of a 37-mm sphere (in a 10-mm volume of interest) increased from 39% to 90% and that the residual activity in the lung insert decreased from 44% to 14% over that of SPECT images with AC alone. Conclusions: The proposed EW-based BC model was developed for 90 Y bremsstrahlung imaging. SPECT with AC + BC gave improved lesion detectability and activity

  2. Practical reconstruction protocol for quantitative {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman, W.; Mikell, J. K.; Kappadath, S. C., E-mail: skappadath@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: To develop a practical background compensation (BC) technique to improve quantitative {sup 90}Y-bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) using a commercially available imaging system. Methods: All images were acquired using medium-energy collimation in six energy windows (EWs), ranging from 70 to 410 keV. The EWs were determined based on the signal-to-background ratio in planar images of an acrylic phantom of different thicknesses (2–16 cm) positioned below a {sup 90}Y source and set at different distances (15–35 cm) from a gamma camera. The authors adapted the widely used EW-based scatter-correction technique by modeling the BC as scaled images. The BC EW was determined empirically in SPECT/CT studies using an IEC phantom based on the sphere activity recovery and residual activity in the cold lung insert. The scaling factor was calculated from 20 clinical planar {sup 90}Y images. Reconstruction parameters were optimized in the same SPECT images for improved image quantification and contrast. A count-to-activity calibration factor was calculated from 30 clinical {sup 90}Y images. Results: The authors found that the most appropriate imaging EW range was 90–125 keV. BC was modeled as 0.53× images in the EW of 310–410 keV. The background-compensated clinical images had higher image contrast than uncompensated images. The maximum deviation of their SPECT calibration in clinical studies was lowest (<10%) for SPECT with attenuation correction (AC) and SPECT with AC + BC. Using the proposed SPECT-with-AC + BC reconstruction protocol, the authors found that the recovery coefficient of a 37-mm sphere (in a 10-mm volume of interest) increased from 39% to 90% and that the residual activity in the lung insert decreased from 44% to 14% over that of SPECT images with AC alone. Conclusions: The proposed EW-based BC model was developed for {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung imaging. SPECT with AC + BC gave improved lesion

  3. HMPAO-SPECT in cerebral seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.; Reichmann, K.; Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Durwen, H.; Buelau, P.; Elger, C.E.; Rohde, A.; Penin, H.

    1988-01-01

    In nine patients with suspected psychogenic seizures and in three patients with proven epileptic seizures HMPAO-SPECT was performed prior to and during seizure. In the patients with lateron-proven psychogenic seizures no, or only slight, changes of regional cerebral blood flow were found. Patients with proven epilepsy revealed partly normal findings interictally but during seizure a markedly increased circumscript blood flow was found in all patients. Even though PET is superior to SPECT with respect to spatial resolution, in the diagnosis of seizures HMPAO-SPECT has the advantage of enabling injection of the tracer during the seizure and the performance of the SPECT study subsequently. (orig.) [de

  4. Combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Larobina, Michele [Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Tommaso De Amicis, 95, Naples I-80145 (Italy); Di Lillo, Francesca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Del Vecchio, Silvana [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Via Pansini, 5, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.

  5. Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT: Utility for prediction of improved postoperative outcome in lung volume reduction surgery candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Daisuke; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Nogami, Munenobu; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To directly compare the capabilities of perfusion scan, SPECT, co-registered SPECT/CT, and quantitatively and qualitatively assessed MDCT (i.e. quantitative CT and qualitative CT) for predicting postoperative clinical outcome for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) candidates. Materials and methods: Twenty-five consecutive candidates (19 men and six women, age range: 42-72 years) for LVRS underwent preoperative CT and perfusion scan with SPECT. Clinical outcome of LVRS for all subjects was also assessed by determining the difference between pre- and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). All SPECT examinations were performed on a SPECT scanner, and co-registered to thin-section CT by using commercially available software. On planar imaging, SPECT and SPECT/CT, upper versus lower zone or lobe ratios (U/Ls) were calculated from regional uptakes between upper and lower lung fields in the operated lung. On quantitatively assessed CT, U/L for all subjects was assessed from regional functional lung volumes. On qualitatively assessed CT, planar imaging, SPECT and co-registered SPECT/CT, U/Ls were assessed with a 4-point visual scoring system. To compare capabilities of predicting clinical outcome, each U/L was statistically correlated with the corresponding clinical outcome. Results: Significantly fair or moderate correlations were observed between quantitatively and qualitatively assessed U/Ls obtained with all four methods and clinical outcomes (-0.60 ≤ r ≤ -0.42, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT has better correlation with clinical outcome in LVRS candidates than do planar imaging, SPECT or qualitatively assessed CT, and is at least as valid as quantitatively assessed CT.

  6. Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT: Utility for prediction of improved postoperative outcome in lung volume reduction surgery candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.j [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Nogami, Munenobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Image-Based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2, Minatojima Minamimachi Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047 (Japan); Onishi, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimogato, Chuo, Yamanashi, 409-3898 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To directly compare the capabilities of perfusion scan, SPECT, co-registered SPECT/CT, and quantitatively and qualitatively assessed MDCT (i.e. quantitative CT and qualitative CT) for predicting postoperative clinical outcome for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) candidates. Materials and methods: Twenty-five consecutive candidates (19 men and six women, age range: 42-72 years) for LVRS underwent preoperative CT and perfusion scan with SPECT. Clinical outcome of LVRS for all subjects was also assessed by determining the difference between pre- and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). All SPECT examinations were performed on a SPECT scanner, and co-registered to thin-section CT by using commercially available software. On planar imaging, SPECT and SPECT/CT, upper versus lower zone or lobe ratios (U/Ls) were calculated from regional uptakes between upper and lower lung fields in the operated lung. On quantitatively assessed CT, U/L for all subjects was assessed from regional functional lung volumes. On qualitatively assessed CT, planar imaging, SPECT and co-registered SPECT/CT, U/Ls were assessed with a 4-point visual scoring system. To compare capabilities of predicting clinical outcome, each U/L was statistically correlated with the corresponding clinical outcome. Results: Significantly fair or moderate correlations were observed between quantitatively and qualitatively assessed U/Ls obtained with all four methods and clinical outcomes (-0.60 {<=} r {<=} -0.42, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Co-registered perfusion SPECT/CT has better correlation with clinical outcome in LVRS candidates than do planar imaging, SPECT or qualitatively assessed CT, and is at least as valid as quantitatively assessed CT.

  7. SPECT of aged backache patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shigehiko; Nishikimi, Junzo; Mizuno, Naokado; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kondo, Masaki; Ozaki, Satoshi; Urasaki, Tetsuya; Muro, Toshiyuki [Prefectural Tajimi Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP was performed on 53 middle-aged or elderly patients (male 20, female, 33; age range, 40-80 years old) with lumbago, i.e., 25 patients with lumbar spondylosis, 15 with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, 4 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 3 with compression fracture, 3 with pulurent spondylitis, 2 with spondylous osteoporosis, and 1 with spinal osteodesmosis. {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP (740 MBq) was intravenously injected and regular SPECT was performed at 3 hours. Gamma camera was performed for about 10 seconds with 5deg intervals, and 36 steps (180deg) of collection was completed after about 6 minutes. The radioisotope accumulation, the presence or absence of sthenia, and its site were evaluated. Forty-seven (88.7%) patients showed excessive accumulation, i.e., 40 (75.5%) in peripheral vertebral osteophyte, 31 (58.5%) in vertebral articulations, and 10 (18.9%) in whole vertebral body. Significantly increased bilateral excessive accumulation was admitted in the vertebral articulations of sliding disc in degenerative spondylolisthesis. SPECT is considered useful in understanding the pathophysiology of degenerative lumber diseases. (S.Y.).

  8. SPECT of aged backache patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shigehiko; Nishikimi, Junzo; Mizuno, Naokado; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kondo, Masaki; Ozaki, Satoshi; Urasaki, Tetsuya; Muro, Toshiyuki

    1995-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99m Tc-HMDP was performed on 53 middle-aged or elderly patients (male 20, female, 33; age range, 40-80 years old) with lumbago, i.e., 25 patients with lumbar spondylosis, 15 with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, 4 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 3 with compression fracture, 3 with pulurent spondylitis, 2 with spondylous osteoporosis, and 1 with spinal osteodesmosis. 99m Tc-HMDP (740 MBq) was intravenously injected and regular SPECT was performed at 3 hours. Gamma camera was performed for about 10 seconds with 5deg intervals, and 36 steps (180deg) of collection was completed after about 6 minutes. The radioisotope accumulation, the presence or absence of sthenia, and its site were evaluated. Forty-seven (88.7%) patients showed excessive accumulation, i.e., 40 (75.5%) in peripheral vertebral osteophyte, 31 (58.5%) in vertebral articulations, and 10 (18.9%) in whole vertebral body. Significantly increased bilateral excessive accumulation was admitted in the vertebral articulations of sliding disc in degenerative spondylolisthesis. SPECT is considered useful in understanding the pathophysiology of degenerative lumber diseases. (S.Y.)

  9. Labeled receptor ligands for spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor specific imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can potentially be useful in the understanding of basic biochemistry and pharmacology of receptors. SPECT images may also provide tools for evaluation of density and binding kinetics of a specific receptor, information important for diagnosis and patient management. Basic requirements for receptor imaging agents are: (a) they are labeled with short-lived isotopes, (b) they show high selectivity and specific uptake, (c) they exhibit high target/background ratio, and (d) they can be modeled to obtain quantitative information. Several good examples of CNS receptor specific ligands labeled with I-123 have been developed, including iodoQNB, iodoestrogen iodobenzadiazepine, iodobenazepine, iodobenzamides for muscarinic, estrogen benzadiazepine, D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors. With the advent of newer and faster SPECT imaging devices, it may be feasible to quantitate the receptor density by in vivo imaging techniques. These new brain imaging agents can provide unique diagnostic information, which may not be available through other imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI

  10. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  11. Feasibility of a CdTe-based SPECT for high-resolution low-dose small animal imaging: a Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S-J; Yu, A R; Lee, Y-J; Kim, Y-S; Kim, H-J

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems based on pixelated semiconductors such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) are in development to study small animal models of human disease. In an effort to develop a high-resolution, low-dose system for small animal imaging, we compared a CdTe-based SPECT system and a conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In addition, we investigated the radiation absorbed dose and calculated a figure of merit (FOM) for both SPECT systems. Using the conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system, we achieved a spatial resolution of 1.66 mm at a 30 mm source-to-collimator distance, and a resolution of 2.4-mm hot-rods. Using the newly-developed CdTe-based SPECT system, we achieved a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm FWHM at a 30 mm source-to-collimator distance, and a resolution of 1.7-mm hot-rods. The sensitivities at a 30 mm source-to-collimator distance were 115.73 counts/sec/MBq and 83.38 counts/sec/MBq for the CdTe-based SPECT and conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT systems, respectively. To compare quantitative measurements in the mouse brain, we calculated the CNR for images from both systems. The CNR from the CdTe-based SPECT system was 4.41, while that from the conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system was 3.11 when the injected striatal dose was 160 Bq/voxel. The CNR increased as a function of injected dose in both systems. The FOM of the CdTe-based SPECT system was superior to that of the conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system, and the highest FOM was achieved with the CdTe-based SPECT at a dose of 40 Bq/voxel injected into the striatum. Thus, a CdTe-based SPECT system showed significant improvement in performance compared with a conventional system in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, and CNR, while reducing the radiation dose to the small animal subject. Herein, we discuss the feasibility of a CdTe-based SPECT system for high

  12. Assessment of anatomic relation between pulmonary perfusion and morphology in pulmonary emphysema with breath-hold SPECT-CT fusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Noriko; Seto, Akiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2008-01-01

    Anatomic relation between pulmonary perfusion and morphology in pulmonary emphysema was assessed on deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images. Subjects were 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 11 non-smoker controls, who successfully underwent DIBrH and non-BrH perfusion SPECT using a dual-headed SPECT system during the period between January 2004 and June 2006. DIBrH SPECT was three-dimensionally co-registered with DIBrH CT to comprehend the relationship between lung perfusion defects and CT low attenuation areas (LAA). By comparing the appearance of lung perfusion on DIBrH with non-BrH SPECT, the correlation with the rate constant for the alveolar-capillary transfer of carbon monoxide (DLCO/VA) was compared between perfusion abnormalities on these SPECTs and LAA on CT. DIBrH SPECT provided fairly uniform perfusion in controls, but significantly enhanced perfusion heterogeneity when compared with non-BrH SPECT in pulmonary emphysema patients (P<0.001). The reliable DIBrH SPECT-CT fusion images confirmed more extended perfusion defects than LAA on CT in majority (73%) of patients. Perfusion abnormalities on DIBrH SPECT were more closely correlated with DLCO/VA than LAA on CT (P<0.05). DIBrH SPECT identifies affected lungs with perfusion abnormality better than does non-BrH SPECT in pulmonary emphysema. DIBrH SPECT-CT fusion images are useful for more accurately localizing affected lungs than morphologic CT alone in this disease. (author)

  13. Some observations about quality control tests of Spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.; Rebelo, M.F.S.; Oliveira, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Some observations about quality control tests done in the tomographic system of Heart Institute are described. Among the tests, the traditional test of quality control with scintillation camera and the specific test for tomography systems are induced. The traditional tests are essential, but not sufficient for evaluating the Spect equipment and the specific tests have been effectuated in controlled conditions. (C.G.C.) [pt

  14. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging by combination of parallel and tilted detector heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuro; Takeuchi, Wataru; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Morimoto, Yuichi; Kobashi, Keiji; Ueno, Yuichiro

    2015-10-01

    To improve the spatial resolution of brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), we propose a new brain SPECT system in which the detector heads are tilted towards the rotation axis so that they are closer to the brain. In addition, parallel detector heads are used to obtain the complete projection data set. We evaluated this parallel and tilted detector head system (PT-SPECT) in simulations. In the simulation study, the tilt angle of the detector heads relative to the axis was 45°. The distance from the collimator surface of the parallel detector heads to the axis was 130 mm. The distance from the collimator surface of the tilted detector heads to the origin on the axis was 110 mm. A CdTe semiconductor panel with a 1.4 mm detector pitch and a parallel-hole collimator were employed in both types of detector head. A line source phantom, cold-rod brain-shaped phantom, and cerebral blood flow phantom were evaluated. The projection data were generated by forward-projection of the phantom images using physics models, and Poisson noise at clinical levels was applied to the projection data. The ordered-subsets expectation maximization algorithm with physics models was used. We also evaluated conventional SPECT using four parallel detector heads for the sake of comparison. The evaluation of the line source phantom showed that the transaxial FWHM in the central slice for conventional SPECT ranged from 6.1 to 8.5 mm, while that for PT-SPECT ranged from 5.3 to 6.9 mm. The cold-rod brain-shaped phantom image showed that conventional SPECT could visualize up to 8-mm-diameter rods. By contrast, PT-SPECT could visualize up to 6-mm-diameter rods in upper slices of a cerebrum. The cerebral blood flow phantom image showed that the PT-SPECT system provided higher resolution at the thalamus and caudate nucleus as well as at the longitudinal fissure of the cerebrum compared with conventional SPECT. PT-SPECT provides improved image resolution at not only upper but also at

  15. SPECT quality control tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.; Rebelo, M.F.S.; Oliveira, M.A.; Abe, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control tests of tomographic system composed by a rotatory chamber (CGR Gammatomome T-9000) and a microcomputer are presented. Traditional quality control tests for scintilation chambers and specific tests for tomographic systems are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Can perfusion SPECT aid CTPA interpretation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradinscak, D. J.; Roach, P.; Bailey, E.; Kueh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Objective: To determine whether fusion of perfusion SPECT and CTPA improves the diagnostic accuracy of CTPA. Methods: 35 patients with suspected PE who underwent both CTPA and SPECT V/Q within 48 hours were included. Of these, the majority (n=30) had PE as determined by the V/Q SPECT scan and the others (n=5) were negative for PE. The clinical reports of CTPA were reviewed and pulmonary emboli tabulated based on anatomical location. A second radiologist, blinded to the results of the clinical read and the V/Q SPECT scan, reviewed the CTPA with and without perfusion SPECT fusion for assistance. Results: A total 57 PE were reported on the clinical reports and 60 PE identified on the blinded read. Fused CTPA/perfursion SPECT images identified a further 5 PE not identified on the clinical read (8% increase) and 2 PE not identified on the blinded read (3% increase). The additional emboli detected resulted in a change in final diagnosis from PE negative to PE positive in 2 patients (6%) compared with the clinical read and 1 patient (3%) compared with the blinded read without SPECT fusion. Conclusion: Fused CTPA-SPECT perfusion improves the sensitivity of CTPA for the detection of PE in a small number of patients. Fused data may help guide the radiologist to identify sites of PE on CTPA.

  17. Clinical applications of SPECT-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [University Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-06-01

    Covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. Includes chapters on the use of SPECT/CT for dosimetry and for therapy planning. Completely up to date. Many helpful illustrations. SPECT/CT cameras have considerably improved diagnostic accuracy in recent years. Such cameras allow direct correlation of anatomic and functional information, resulting in better localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. In addition to this anatomic referencing, CT coregistration provides superior quantification of radiotracer uptake based on the attenuation correction capabilities of CT. Useful applications of SPECT/CT have been identified not only in oncology but also in other specialties such as orthopedics and cardiology. This book covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis and therapy planning of benign and malignant diseases. Opening chapters discuss the technology and physics of SPECT/CT and its use for dosimetry. The role of SPECT/CT in the imaging of a range of pathologic conditions is then addressed in detail. Applications covered include, among others, imaging of the thyroid, bone, and lungs, imaging of neuroendocrine tumors, cardiac scintigraphy, and sentinel node scintigraphy. Individual chapters are also devoted to therapy planning in selective internal radiation therapy of liver tumors and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Readers will find this book to be an essential and up-to-date source of information on this invaluable hybrid imaging technique.

  18. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  19. Brain imaging during seizure: ictal brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottamasu, Sambasiva Rao

    1997-01-01

    The role of single photon computed tomography (SPECT) in presurgical localization of medically intractable complex partial epilepsy (CPE) in children is reviewed. 99m Technetium neurolite, a newer lipophylic agent with a high first pass brain extraction and little or no redistribution is injected during a seizure, while the child is monitored with a video recording and continuous EEG and SPECT imaging is performed in the next 1-3 hours with the images representing regional cerebral profusion at the time of injection. On SPECT studies performed with radiopharmaceutical injected during a seizure, ictal focus is generally hypervascular. Other findings on ictal brain SPECT include hypoperfusion of adjacent cerebral cortex and white matter, hyperperfusion of contralateral motor cortex, hyperperfusion of ipsilateral basal ganglia and thalamus, brain stem and contralateral cerebellum. Ictal brain SPECT is non-invasive, cost effective and highly sensitive for localization of epileptic focus in patients with intractable CPE. (author)

  20. PET and SPECT investigations in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear medicine offers a wide range of possibilities to investigate dementia. Various SPECT and PET tracers will be introduced in this article first. Different questions concerning evaluation of dementia are discussed taking Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an example. It is important to perform nuclear medicine investigations on high technical level, using standardized methods as statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for evaluation. If neuroprotective therapies are available, an early diagnosis, the determination of risk factors and longitudinal investigations will be the focus of interest and the main goal of nuclear medicine. Apart from measuring cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism the development of new ligands, concerning the cholinergic system and the visualization of amyloid plaques, is of great importance. (orig.) [de

  1. Effective of deep breath-hold SPECT in torso area. Examination concerning improvement of resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takashi; Horiuchi, Shoji; Hayashi, Masuo; Sugibayashi, Keiichi

    2007-01-01

    The routine single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) gives images with reduced resolution of internal organs like diaphragm due to breathing movements. In the present study, authors developed a breath-hold (BH) SPECT method where SPECT projection data were acquired during BH, and examined its usefulness. Equipments used were all Toshiba's dual-detector SPECT system E.CAM, image processor GMS-5500 A/PI, fusion software ART, and CT scanner Aquillion/M8. SPECT data were alternatively acquired at steps during BH and free breath (FB), for an entire step-and-shoot SPECT cycle, and acquisition time for 1 step (view) was set to be 10-15 sec depending on the subject's BH ability. Data from BH and FB views were extracted to get respective SPECT images. An evaluation was first done for a phantom simulating the breathing lung, an elliptical acrylic shell where a balloon connected with an ambu bag was placed. Two point sources of 99m Tc (14 MBq) were attached on the balloon. The phantom study revealed BH method did not give any artifacts. Clinically, 201 Tl-SPECT images of patients with lung tumors were compared for resolution between BH and FB and for their accuracy of registration by superimposing on CT images. Such results were observed as that, when FB gave two regions of Tl accumulation, BH, one region agreeing with the one lesion in the CT image, and that, when Tl accumulation was visualized in BH, but not in FB due to its overlapping with the liver area. Thus BH method could reduce respiratory motion artifacts to improve resolution, and was thought applicable to other imaging methods. (R.T.)

  2. Radiation risk and protection of patients in clinical SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, Gunnar; Nekolla, Elke A.; Nosske, Dietmar [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Borowski, Markus [Klinikum Braunschweig, Institute of Radiation Diagnostics and Nuclear Medicine, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for various diagnostic issues has an added value as compared to SPECT alone. However, the combined acquisition of functional and anatomical images can substantially increase radiation exposure to patients, in particular when using a hybrid system with diagnostic CT capabilities. It is, therefore, essential to carefully balance the diagnostic needs and radiation protection requirements. To this end, the evidence on health effects induced by ionizing radiation is outlined. In addition, the essential concepts for estimating radiation doses and lifetime attributable cancer risks associated with SPECT/CT examinations are presented taking into account both the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the most recent radiation risk models. Representative values of effective dose and lifetime attributable risk are reported for ten frequently used SPECT radiopharmaceuticals and five fully diagnostic partial-body CT examinations. A diagnostic CT scan acquired as part of a combined SPECT/CT examination contributes considerably to, and for some applications even dominates, the total patient exposure. For the common SPECT and CT examinations considered in this study, the lifetime attributable risk of developing a radiation-related cancer is less than 0.27 %/0.37 % for men/women older than 16 years, respectively, and decreases markedly with increasing age at exposure. Since there is no clinical indication for a SPECT/CT examination unless an emission scan has been indicated, the issue on justification comes down to the question of whether it is necessary to additionally acquire a low-dose CT for attenuation correction and anatomical localization of tracer uptake or even a fully diagnostic CT. In any case, SPECT/CT studies have to be optimized, e.g. by adapting dose reduction measures from state-of-the-art CT practice, and

  3. Contribution of ictal- and interictal brain SPECT to the diagnostic work-up of epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondi, M.; Salgarello, M.; Zoboli, S.; Cidda, C.; Nanni, C.; Rubboli, G.; Meletti, S.; Volpi, L.; Tassinari, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim of the study: We aimed at assessing the contribution of brain SPECT to the diagnostic work-up of patients admitted to the Intensive Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (IEMU) by evaluating concordance of SPECT results with clinical diagnosis (DX) at IEMU admittance (Adm-DX) and at hospital discharge (Disch-DX). Materials and methods: 48 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study and submitted to both ictal and inter-ictal brain SPECT, carried out by means of a three-head system. Before ictal studies, patients were video-EEG monitored in the IEMU. 740 MBq of Tc99m ECD were injected during seizures and imaging performed within 45-60 minutes. For interictal studies, injection was given after at least a 24-hours seizure-free interval. Slices were reconstructed along the orbito-meatal line as well as along the temporal cut. Possible epileptic foci were identified by visual comparison of ictal and interictal studies. Clinical data: Out of the 48 cases, 27 were diagnosed as temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE). Of these, 15 had an Adm-DX of lateralization, whereas 12 were not lateralized according to standardized clinical and EEG criteria. Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) was diagnosed in 11 patients, another group of 3 was classified as cryptogenetic (CRYP), while the remaining 7 cases did not fall into any of the previous groups (OTH). SPECT results: in TLE, ictal/interictal SPECT results were congruent with Adm-Dx in 13/27 cases (48%) whereas congruence was found with 25 out of 27 (92%) of Disch-DX. In FLE, concordance between SPECT and clinical diagnosis remained unchanged (9/11 in comparison to either Adm-DX or Disch-DX). CRYPT patients had no lateralization at Adm-DX, while Dis-DX was concordant with SPECT in 2/3 cases. The group labeled as OTH showed concordance SPECT with Adm-DX in 0/7 cases, as opposed to 5/7 of Disch-DX. On the whole, SPECT results were concordant with Adm-DX in 34/48 cases (71%) but concordance was much higher with Dis-DX (41/48; 85%). Conclusions: Brain

  4. Quantitative Analysis of cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekolla, S.G.; Bengel, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of myocardial SPECT images is a powerful tool to extract the highly specific radio tracer uptake in these studies. If compared to normal data bases, the uptake values can be calibrated on an individual basis. Doing so increases the reproducibility of the analysis substantially. Based on the development over the last three decades starting from planar scinitigraphy, this paper discusses the methods used today incorporating the changes due to tomographic image acquisitions. Finally, the limitations of these approaches as well as consequences from most recent hardware developments, commercial analysis packages and a wider view of the description of the left ventricle are discussed. (orig.)

  5. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O.B.; Lassen, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...... of important biological processes in the intact organism can be studied. The methods have been used in many disciplines but in particular for neurobiological research on the brain--e.g., the brain's regional blood circulation and mapping of the brain's functional structure. The methods have also been used...

  6. Contralateral thalamic hypoperfusion on brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Moo; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for the localization of cerebrovascular lesion and sometimes reveals more definite lesion than radiologic imaging modality such as CT or MRI does. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with hemisensory impairment. Thirteen consecutive patients (M:F= 8:5, mean age = 48) who has hemisensory impairment were included. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The images were obtained using a dual-head gamma camera with ultra-high resolution collimator. Semiquantitative analysis was performed after placing multiple ROIs on cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. There were 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment and 3 patients with right-sided symptom. Only 2 patients revealed abnormal signal change in the thalamus on MRI. But brain perfusion SPECT showed decreased perfusion in the thalamus in 9 patients. Six patients among 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment revealed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. The other 4 patients revealed no abnormality. Two patients among 3 patients with right hemisensory impairment also showed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. One patients with right hemisensory impairment showed ipsilateral perfusion decrease. Two patients who had follow-up brain perfusion SEPCT after treatment revealed normalization of perfusion in the thalamus. Brain perfusion SPECT might be a useful tool in diagnosing patients with hemisensory impairment

  7. SPECT of the brain: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, F.; Lenzi, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In both PET and SPECT, most of the studies and the models have been addressed to two organs: brain and heart. So far, brain has certainly been investigated more. The several comparisons between planar scintigraphy and SPECT, between X-ray TCT and SPECT, and also between PET and SPECT, have tended to consider SPECT a cheap but scarcely useful tool for a nuclear medicine section. Again the authors feel that this is due to the fact that SPECT is really a ''physiological tomography'', with little known about its physiology or how it is measured. Thus the present state of the art of SPECT of the brain is characterized by a collection of data and reports on brain imaging and by a slowly growing basic understanding of the utilized modes. The introduction of a new brain-imaging radiopharmaceutical is immediately signaled by its ''first clinical application'' without parallel studies on the kinetics, the metabolic degradation, and the real suitability of the molecule as a tracer for measurement of regional CBF. Only a few attempts seek to narrow this discussion between clinic and biology, and the authors like to emphasize the need for nuclear medicine people to dedicate more time and effort

  8. First Robotic SPECT for Minimally Invasive Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Bernhard; Sprung, Julian; Pinto, Francisco; Frisch, Benjamin; Wendler, Thomas; Simon, Hervé; Mengus, Laurent; van den Berg, Nynke S; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Navab, Nassir

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present the usage of a drop-in gamma probe for intra-operative Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging in the scope of minimally invasive robot-assisted interventions. The probe is designed to be inserted and reside inside the abdominal cavity during the intervention. It is grasped during the procedure using a robotic laparoscopic gripper enabling full six degrees of freedom handling by the surgeon. We demonstrate the first deployment of the tracked probe for intra-operative in-patient robotic SPECT enabling augmented-reality image guidance. The hybrid mechanical- and image-based in-patient probe tracking is shown to have an accuracy of 0.2 mm. The overall system performance is evaluated and tested with a phantom for gynecological sentinel lymph node interventions and compared to ground-truth data yielding a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.67 mm.

  9. Automatic and remote controlled ictal SPECT injection for seizure focus localization by use of a commercial contrast agent application pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Michael; Eder, Hans; Holl, Alexander; Körner, Eva; Zmugg, Gerda; Aigner, Reingard; Fazekas, Franz; Ott, Erwin

    2007-07-01

    In the presurgical evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy, the ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for seizure focus localization. To achieve optimal SPECT scan quality, ictal tracer injection should be carried out as quickly as possible after the seizure onset and under highest safety conditions possible. Compared to the commonly used manual injection, an automatic administration of the radioactive tracer may provide higher quality standards for this procedure. In this study, therefore, we retrospectively analyzed efficiency and safety of an automatic injection system for ictal SPECT tracer application. Over a 31-month period, 26 patients underwent ictal SPECT by use of an automatic remote-controlled injection pump originally designed for CT-contrast agent application. Various factors were reviewed, including latency of ictal injection, radiation safety parameters, and ictal seizure onset localizing value. Times between seizure onset and tracer injection ranged between 3 and 48 s. In 21 of 26 patients ictal SPECT supported the localization of the epileptogenic focus in the course of the presurgical evaluation. In all cases ictal SPECT tracer injection was performed with a high degree of safety to patients and staff. Ictal SPECT by use of a remote-controlled CT-contrast agent injection system provides a high scan quality and is a safe and confirmatory presurgical evaluation technique in the epilepsy-monitoring unit.

  10. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  11. Absolute quantitative total-body small-animal SPECT with focusing pinholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chao; Have, Frans van der; Vastenhouw, Brendan; Beekman, Freek J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Paans, Anne M.J.

    2010-01-01

    In pinhole SPECT, attenuation of the photon flux on trajectories between source and pinholes affects quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. Previously we introduced iterative methods that compensate for image degrading effects of detector and pinhole blurring, pinhole sensitivity and scatter for multi-pinhole SPECT. The aim of this paper is (1) to investigate the accuracy of the Chang algorithm in rodents and (2) to present a practical Chang-based method using body outline contours obtained with optical cameras. Here we develop and experimentally validate a practical method for attenuation correction based on a Chang first-order method. This approach has the advantage that it is employed after, and therefore independently from, iterative reconstruction. Therefore, no new system matrix has to be calculated for each specific animal. Experiments with phantoms and animals were performed with a high-resolution focusing multi-pinhole SPECT system (U-SPECT-II, MILabs, The Netherlands). This SPECT system provides three additional optical camera images of the animal for each SPECT scan from which the animal contour can be estimated. Phantom experiments demonstrated that an average quantification error of -18.7% was reduced to -1.7% when both window-based scatter correction and Chang correction based on the body outline from optical images were applied. Without scatter and attenuation correction, quantification errors in a sacrificed rat containing sources with known activity ranged from -23.6 to -9.3%. These errors were reduced to values between -6.3 and +4.3% (with an average magnitude of 2.1%) after applying scatter and Chang attenuation correction. We conclude that the modified Chang correction based on body contour combined with window-based scatter correction is a practical method for obtaining small-animal SPECT images with high quantitative accuracy. (orig.)

  12. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    The long-term goal of this research project is to develop methods to improve the utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECI) to quantify the biodistribution of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled with clinically relevant radionuclides ( 123 I, 131 I, and 111 In) and with another radionuclide, 211 At, recently used in therapy. We describe here our progress in developing quantitative SPECT methodology for 111 In and 123 I. We have focused our recent research thrusts on the following aspects of SPECT: (1) The development of improved SPECT hardware, such as improved acquisition geometries. (2) The development of better reconstruction methods that provide accurate compensation for the physical factors that affect SPECT quantification. (3) The application of carefully designed simulations and experiments to validate our hardware and software approaches

  13. Kinetic parameter estimation from SPECT cone-beam projection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesman, Ronald H.; Reutter, Bryan W.; Zeng, G. Larry; Gullberg, Grant T.

    1998-01-01

    Kinetic parameters are commonly estimated from dynamically acquired nuclear medicine data by first reconstructing a dynamic sequence of images and subsequently fitting the parameters to time-activity curves generated from regions of interest overlaid upon the image sequence. Biased estimates can result from images reconstructed using inconsistent projections of a time-varying distribution of radiopharmaceutical acquired by a rotating SPECT system. If the SPECT data are acquired using cone-beam collimators wherein the gantry rotates so that the focal point of the collimators always remains in a plane, additional biases can arise from images reconstructed using insufficient, as well as truncated, projection samples. To overcome these problems we have investigated the estimation of kinetic parameters directly from SPECT cone-beam projection data by modelling the data acquisition process. To accomplish this it was necessary to parametrize the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the SPECT field of view. In a simulated chest image volume, kinetic parameters were estimated for simple one-compartment models for four myocardial regions of interest. Myocardial uptake and washout parameters estimated by conventional analysis of noiseless simulated cone-beam data had biases ranging between 3-26% and 0-28%, respectively. Parameters estimated directly from the noiseless projection data were unbiased as expected, since the model used for fitting was faithful to the simulation. Statistical uncertainties of parameter estimates for 10 000 000 events ranged between 0.2-9% for the uptake parameters and between 0.3-6% for the washout parameters. (author)

  14. Brain SPECT with 123I-isopropyl amphetamine in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Rasche, A.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients were studied with N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out by hand of a rotating gamma camera system (Gammatome T9000/CGR, high resolution collimator). During 1 rotation (360 0 ) 64 frames (4k matrix) were acquired within 20 min 1 hour after injection of 6.5 mCi I-123 labeled amphetamine. The content of I-124 was less than 2%. After reconstruction of transverse slices coronar and sagittal reconstructions were rapidly performed using an array processor. Nine patients suffered from epilepsy and one from severe migraine. Excellent differentiation between gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia was evident in all of the cases. In 2 out of 3 patients with epilepsy and negative CT results SPECT revealed circumscribed areas with increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the EEG findings. In 4 out of 6 cases with positive CT findings SPECT lesions with diminished amphetamine uptake could be established. One patient with severe migraine showed focal increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the respective clinical results. (orig.)

  15. Novel SPECT Technologies and Approaches in Cardiac Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent novel approaches in myocardial perfusion single photon emission CT (SPECT have been facilitated by new dedicated high-efficiency hardware with solid-state detectors and optimized collimators. New protocols include very low-dose (1 mSv stress-only, two-position imaging to mitigate attenuation artifacts, and simultaneous dual-isotope imaging. Attenuation correction can be performed by specialized low-dose systems or by previously obtained CT coronary calcium scans. Hybrid protocols using CT angiography have been proposed. Image quality improvements have been demonstrated by novel reconstructions and motion correction. Fast SPECT acquisition facilitates dynamic flow and early function measurements. Image processing algorithms have become automated with virtually unsupervised extraction of quantitative imaging variables. This automation facilitates integration with clinical variables derived by machine learning to predict patient outcome or diagnosis. In this review, we describe new imaging protocols made possible by the new hardware developments. We also discuss several novel software approaches for the quantification and interpretation of myocardial perfusion SPECT scans.

  16. Precise fusion of MRI and dual energy 111In WBC/99mTc HDP SPECT/CT in the diabetic foot using companion CT: an example of SPECT/MRI imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knešaurek, K.; Heiba, S.; Kolker, D.; Vatti, S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to correctly fuse MRI and SPECT 111 In WBC and 99m Tc HDP images using companion CT images. The fused images could be used to assess proper surgical approach in treatment of the diabetic foot. Nine patients who had dual energy 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT/CT and MRI studies within a week were investigated in an ongoing project. A GE Infinia SPECT/CT camera and Siemens MAGNETOM 1.5T MR system were used in this study. First, the MRI and corresponding CT images were coregistrated using a transformation based on normalized mutual information. The transformation was saved and used for MRI and 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT fusion. A Jaszczak phantom study was also performed in order to estimate accuracy of MRI/ SPECT fusion. The Jaszczak phantom study with 3.7 MBq 111 In hot sphere showed that MRI/SPECT alignment using the approach described above produced registration with 0.7±0.4 mm accuracy in all three dimensions (3D). The nine clinical cases were visually evaluated and showed 1-2 mm 3D fusion accuracy. MRI provides almost perfect anatomy of soft tissue and bony structures but it may exaggerate the extent of infection. 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT imaging is more accurate for infection detection but lacks anatomical reference. Combination of these images proved an essential adjunct to diagnosis. A clinical utility of the approach is illustrated in two clinical examples. In conclusion, the CT in dual energy 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT/CT studies can be used to accurately fuse and compare 111 In WBC/ 99 m Tc HDP SPECT and MRI images of the diabetic foot. This can significantly help in conservative treatment planning and limb salvage procedures in treatment of diabetic foot infections.

  17. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H.; Cohen, D.; Konstantini, S.; Meiner, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99m Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Role of brain SPECT in epilepsy exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biraben, A.; Bernard, AM.

    1996-01-01

    The management of epileptic patients is currently developing in relation with the introduction of video EEG and the opening of medical centers dedicated to epilepsy. The role of SPECT is now well established to assess the temporal and spatial dynamic phenomena during seizures. Ictal SPECT has technical and organisational requirements but is a very sensitive method, which appears to be superior to other available imaging techniques. (author)

  19. Nontraumatic femoral head necrosis. Classification of bone scintigraphic findings and diagnostic value of SPECT following planar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Anzai, Yoshimi; Uno, Kimiichi; Arimizu, Noboru [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine bone scintigraphic findings in nontraumatic femoral head avascular necrosis and diagnostic value of SPECT imaging following a conventional planar imaging. Forty-three femoral heads in twenty-six cases with idiopathic femoral head necrosis (n=2), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=22), aplastic anemia (n=1), and renal transplantation (n=1) were studied. The diagnosis for femoral head necrosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging as well as other diagnostic studies in all cases. Scintigraphic findings of planar and SPECT images were classified into six categories: normal (N); cold or decrease (C); partial increase with cold or decrease (PH+C); ring-like increase with a cold center (RH+C); partial increase (PH); diffuse and/or irregular increase (DH). Avascular necrosis was confirmed in twenty-four femoral heads, in which planar and SPECT images showed scintigraphic findings of N (n=3, 2), C (n=1, 3), PH+C (n=2, 8), RH+C (n=2, 3), PH (n=9, 2), and DH (n=7, 6), respectively. Femoral heads without avascular necrosis demonstrated planar and SPECT findings of N (n=16, 12), C (n=0, 6), and DH (n=3, 1), respectively. When considering C, PH+C, and RH+C as diagnostic findings for avascular necrosis, sensitivities of planar and SPECT images were 21% and 58%, and specificities were 100% and 68%, respectively. In nineteen femoral heads with normal planar findings (N), SPECT correctly identified avascular necrosis in two femoral heads and misidentified six normal femoral heads as avascular necrosis. In nineteen femoral heads with nondiagnostic abnormalities (PH, DH), SPECT correctly identified avascular necrosis in seven femoral heads and showed no false positive. Diagnostic planar findings in five femoral heads were concordant with SPECT diagnosis. These results indicate that SPECT imaging is most valuable when planar images show nondiagnostic abnormalities based on the proposed classification of scintigraphic findings. (author).

  20. Nontraumatic femoral head necrosis. Classification of bone scintigraphic findings and diagnostic value of SPECT following planar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Anzai, Yoshimi; Uno, Kimiichi; Arimizu, Noboru

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine bone scintigraphic findings in nontraumatic femoral head avascular necrosis and diagnostic value of SPECT imaging following a conventional planar imaging. Forty-three femoral heads in twenty-six cases with idiopathic femoral head necrosis (n=2), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=22), aplastic anemia (n=1), and renal transplantation (n=1) were studied. The diagnosis for femoral head necrosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging as well as other diagnostic studies in all cases. Scintigraphic findings of planar and SPECT images were classified into six categories: normal (N); cold or decrease (C); partial increase with cold or decrease (PH+C); ring-like increase with a cold center (RH+C); partial increase (PH); diffuse and/or irregular increase (DH). Avascular necrosis was confirmed in twenty-four femoral heads, in which planar and SPECT images showed scintigraphic findings of N (n=3, 2), C (n=1, 3), PH+C (n=2, 8), RH+C (n=2, 3), PH (n=9, 2), and DH (n=7, 6), respectively. Femoral heads without avascular necrosis demonstrated planar and SPECT findings of N (n=16, 12), C (n=0, 6), and DH (n=3, 1), respectively. When considering C, PH+C, and RH+C as diagnostic findings for avascular necrosis, sensitivities of planar and SPECT images were 21% and 58%, and specificities were 100% and 68%, respectively. In nineteen femoral heads with normal planar findings (N), SPECT correctly identified avascular necrosis in two femoral heads and misidentified six normal femoral heads as avascular necrosis. In nineteen femoral heads with nondiagnostic abnormalities (PH, DH), SPECT correctly identified avascular necrosis in seven femoral heads and showed no false positive. Diagnostic planar findings in five femoral heads were concordant with SPECT diagnosis. These results indicate that SPECT imaging is most valuable when planar images show nondiagnostic abnormalities based on the proposed classification of scintigraphic findings. (author)

  1. Invisible Base Electrode Coordinates Approximation for Simultaneous SPECT and EEG Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, L.; Goszczynska, H.; Zalewska, E.; Bajera, A.; Krolicki, L.

    2014-04-01

    This work was performed as part of a larger research concerning the feasibility of improving the localization of epileptic foci, as compared to the standard SPECT examination, by applying the technique of EEG mapping. The presented study extends our previous work on the development of a method for superposition of SPECT images and EEG 3D maps when these two examinations are performed simultaneously. Due to the lack of anatomical data in SPECT images it is a much more difficult task than in the case of MRI/EEG study where electrodes are visible in morphological images. Using the appropriate dose of radioisotope we mark five base electrodes to make them visible in the SPECT image and then approximate the coordinates of the remaining electrodes using properties of the 10-20 electrode placement system and the proposed nine-ellipses model. This allows computing a sequence of 3D EEG maps spanning on all electrodes. It happens, however, that not all five base electrodes can be reliably identified in SPECT data. The aim of the current study was to develop a method for determining the coordinates of base electrode(s) missing in the SPECT image. The algorithm for coordinates approximation has been developed and was tested on data collected for three subjects with all visible electrodes. To increase the accuracy of the approximation we used head surface models. Freely available model from Oostenveld research based on data from SPM package and our own model based on data from our EEG/SPECT studies were used. For data collected in four cases with one electrode not visible we compared the invisible base electrode coordinates approximation for Oostenveld and our models. The results vary depending on the missing electrode placement, but application of the realistic head model significantly increases the accuracy of the approximation.

  2. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi; Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi; Sias, Alessandro; Marrosu, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and 99m Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in 99m Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating better the

  3. High-resolution tomography of positron emitters with clustered pinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goorden, Marlies C; Beekman, Freek J [Section of Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.c.goorden@tudelft.nl

    2010-03-07

    State-of-the-art small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) enables sub-half-mm resolution imaging of radio-labelled molecules. Due to severe photon penetration through pinhole edges, current multi-pinhole SPECT is not suitable for high-resolution imaging of photons with high energies, such as the annihilation photons emitted by positron emitting tracers (511 keV). To deal with this edge penetration, we introduce here clustered multi-pinhole SPECT (CMP): each pinhole in a cluster has a narrow opening angle to reduce photon penetration. Using simulations, CMP is compared with (i) a collimator with traditional pinholes that is currently used for sub-half-mm imaging of SPECT isotopes (U-SPECT-II), and (ii), like (i) but with collimator thickness adapted to image high-energy photons (traditional multi-pinhole SPECT, TMP). At 511 keV, U-SPECT-II is able to resolve the 0.9 mm rods of an iteratively reconstructed Jaszczak-like capillary hot rod phantom, and while TMP only leads to small improvements, CMP can resolve rods as small as 0.7 mm. Using a digital tumour phantom, we show that CMP resolves many details not assessable with standard USPECT-II and TMP collimators. Furthermore, CMP makes it possible to visualize uptake of positron emitting tracers in sub-compartments of a digital mouse striatal brain phantom. This may open up unique possibilities for analysing processes such as those underlying the function of neurotransmitter systems. Additional potential of CMP may include (i) the imaging of other high-energy single-photon emitters (e.g. I-131) and (ii) localized imaging of positron emitting tracers simultaneously with single photon emitters, with an even better resolution than coincidence PET.

  4. Invisible Base Electrode Coordinates Approximation for Simultaneous SPECT and EEG Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed as part of a larger research concerning the feasibility of improving the localization of epileptic foci, as compared to the standard SPECT examination, by applying the technique of EEG mapping. The presented study extends our previous work on the development of a method for superposition of SPECT images and EEG 3D maps when these two examinations are performed simultaneously. Due to the lack of anatomical data in SPECT images it is a much more difficult task than in the case of MRI/EEG study where electrodes are visible in morphological images. Using the appropriate dose of radioisotope we mark five base electrodes to make them visible in the SPECT image and then approximate the coordinates of the remaining electrodes using properties of the 10-20 electrode placement system and the proposed nine-ellipses model. This allows computing a sequence of 3D EEG maps spanning on all electrodes. It happens, however, that not all five base electrodes can be reliably identified in SPECT data. The aim of the current study was to develop a method for determining the coordinates of base electrode(s missing in the SPECT image. The algorithm for coordinates approximation has been developed and was tested on data collected for three subjects with all visible electrodes. To increase the accuracy of the approximation we used head surface models. Freely available model from Oostenveld research based on data from SPM package and our own model based on data from our EEG/SPECT studies were used. For data collected in four cases with one electrode not visible we compared the invisible base electrode coordinates approximation for Oostenveld and our models. The results vary depending on the missing electrode placement, but application of the realistic head model significantly increases the accuracy of the approximation.

  5. A direct ROI quantification method for inherent PVE correction: accuracy assessment in striatal SPECT measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanzi, Eleonora; De Cristofaro, Maria T.; Sotgia, Barbara; Mascalchi, Mario; Formiconi, Andreas R. [University of Florence, Clinical Pathophysiology, Florence (Italy); Ramat, Silvia [University of Florence, Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, Florence (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    The clinical potential of striatal imaging with dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT tracers is hampered by the limited capability to recover activity concentration ratios due to partial volume effects (PVE). We evaluated the accuracy of a least squares method that allows retrieval of activity in regions of interest directly from projections (LS-ROI). An Alderson striatal phantom was filled with striatal to background ratios of 6:1, 9:1 and 28:1; the striatal and background ROIs were drawn on a coregistered X-ray CT of the phantom. The activity ratios of these ROIs were derived both with the LS-ROI method and with conventional SPECT EM reconstruction (EM-SPECT). Moreover, the two methods were compared in seven patients with motor symptoms who were examined with N-3-fluoropropyl-2-{beta}-carboxymethoxy-3-{beta}-(4-iodophenyl) (FP-CIT) SPECT, calculating the binding potential (BP). In the phantom study, the activity ratios obtained with EM-SPECT were 3.5, 5.3 and 17.0, respectively, whereas the LS-ROI method resulted in ratios of 6.2, 9.0 and 27.3, respectively. With the LS-ROI method, the BP in the seven patients was approximately 60% higher than with EM-SPECT; a linear correlation between the LS-ROI and the EM estimates was found (r = 0.98, p = 0.03). The LS-ROI PVE correction capability is mainly due to the fact that the ill-conditioning of the LS-ROI approach is lower than that of the EM-SPECT one. The LS-ROI seems to be feasible and accurate in the examination of the dopaminergic system. This approach can be fruitful in monitoring of disease progression and in clinical trials of dopaminergic drugs. (orig.)

  6. Clinical evaluation of stress thallium spect in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Osamu; Kimura, Nazuna; Soeki; Takeshi; Takeichi, Naoki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Thallium SPECT was performed in patients with significant coronary artery stenosis, 67 cases were after maximal exercise and 74 cases were during coronary vasodilation induced by ATP (adenosine triphosphate) infusion. In patients suspected of angina pectoris, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) were 88%, 78% and 82% for exercise SPECT, and 100%, 72% and 84% for ATP SPECT studies, respectively. In patients with old myocardial infarction, these were 73%, 100% and 88% for exercise SPECT and 71%, 100% and 81% for ATP SPECT. These were 75%, 49% and 60% for treadmill exercise test in the patient group including both angina and myocardial infarction. For detection of diseased vessels, the diagnostic accuracy for left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery lesions was almost equal for ATP and exercise SPECT study, but ATP SPECT study was more sensitive than exercise SPECT study in detection of left circumflex artery lesions. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies occasionally gave false positive results in patients with single-vessel disease. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies underestimated the severity of multi-vessel disease. In general, the results of ATP SPECT imaging were highly concordant with the results of exercise SPECT imaging. ATP stress thallium SPECT imaging provided a safe and highly accurate diagnostic tool for detection of CAD. (author)

  7. Brain SPECT in childhood; Temp cerebrale chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Unite Inserm 316, 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-04-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  8. Assessment of left ventricular function by 201Tl FCG-gated myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toba, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshio; Fukuchi, Kazuki; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Katafuchi, Tetsurou; Hayashida, Kohei; Oka, Hisashi; Takamiya, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We applied the QGS program for LV function analysis (described by Germano, 1995) to a 201 Tl SPECT study at rest, and estimated its accuracy. We performed 201 Tl ECG-gated myocardial SPECT in 25 patients with ischemic heart disease under an acquisition time used in the routine 99m Tc ECG-gated SPECT study. The quality of the gated images was visually assessed with a 4-point grading system. LVEDV, LVESV, LVEF determined by the QGS program were compared with those by Simpson's method on biplane LVG in 25 patients. Regional wall motion scores in 7 myocardial segments were assessed on the three-dimensional display created by the QGS program and the cine display of biplane LVG with a 5-point grading system. Wall motion scores obtained by the QGS program were compared with those by LVG. Although 72.0% of 201 Tl ECG-gated SPECT images were fair or poor in image quality, there were good correlations between the values obtained by the QGS program and LVG (LVEDV: r=0.82, LVESV: r=0.88, LVEF: r=0.89). In addition, wall motion scores by the QGS program were correspondent to those by LVG in 77.1% of all 175 myocardial segments. We conclude that the QGS program provides high accuracy in evaluating left ventricular function even from 201 Tl ECG-gated myocardial SPECT data. (author)

  9. Comparison of SPECT/CT and MRI in diagnosing symptomatic lesions in ankle and foot pain patients: diagnostic performance and relation to lesion type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seunggyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Yeon; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Arya, Amitabh; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of SPECT/CT and MRI in patients with ankle and foot pain, with regard to the lesion types. Fifty consecutive patients with ankle and foot pain, who underwent 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and MRI, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Symptomatic lesions were determined based on clinical examination and response to treatment. On MRI and SPECT/CT, detected lesions were classified as bone, ligament/tendon, and joint lesions. Uptake on SPECT/CT was assessed using a 4-grade system. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of SPECT/CT and MRI were evaluated in all detected lesions and each lesion type. Diagnostic value of uptake grade was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and diagnostic performance was compared using Chi-square or McNemar tests. In overall lesions, the sensitivity, PPV and NPV of SPECT/CT for symptomatic lesions were 93%, 56%, 91%, and they were 98%, 48%, 95% for MRI. There was no significant difference between SPECT/CT and MRI. However, the specificity of SPECT/CT was significantly higher than that of MRI (48% versus 24%, P = 0.016). Uptake grade on SPECT/CT was significantly higher in symptomatic lesions (P diagnostic performance for symptomatic lesions in ankle and foot pain patients. SPECT/CT and MRI exhibit different diagnostic specificity in different lesion types. SPECT/CT may be used as a complementary imaging method to MRI for enhancing diagnostic specificity.

  10. Investigation of dynamic SPECT measurements of the arterial input function in human subjects using simulation, phantom and human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winant, Celeste D.; Aparici, Carina Mari; Zelnik, Yuval R.; Reutter, Bryan W.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Bacharach, Stephen L.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations, a phantom study and a human study were performed to determine whether a slowly rotating single-photon computed emission tomography (SPECT) system could provide accurate arterial input functions for quantification of myocardial perfusion imaging using kinetic models. The errors induced by data inconsistency associated with imaging with slow camera rotation during tracer injection were evaluated with an approach called SPECT/P (dynamic SPECT from positron emission tomography (PET)) and SPECT/D (dynamic SPECT from database of SPECT phantom projections). SPECT/P simulated SPECT-like dynamic projections using reprojections of reconstructed dynamic 94Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (94Tc-MIBI) PET images acquired in three human subjects (1 min infusion). This approach was used to evaluate the accuracy of estimating myocardial wash-in rate parameters K1 for rotation speeds providing 180° of projection data every 27 or 54 s. Blood input and myocardium tissue time-activity curves (TACs) were estimated using spatiotemporal splines. These were fit to a one-compartment perfusion model to obtain wash-in rate parameters K1. For the second method (SPECT/D), an anthropomorphic cardiac torso phantom was used to create real SPECT dynamic projection data of a tracer distribution derived from 94Tc-MIBI PET scans in the blood pool, myocardium, liver and background. This method introduced attenuation, collimation and scatter into the modeling of dynamic SPECT projections. Both approaches were used to evaluate the accuracy of estimating myocardial wash-in parameters for rotation speeds providing 180° of projection data every 27 and 54 s. Dynamic cardiac SPECT was also performed in a human subject at rest using a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner. Dynamic measurements of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in the myocardium were obtained using an infusion time of 2 min. Blood input, myocardium tissue and liver TACs were estimated using the same spatiotemporal splines. The spatiotemporal maximum

  11. Investigation of dynamic SPECT measurements of the arterial input function in human subjects using simulation, phantom and human studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winant, Celeste D; Aparici, Carina Mari; Bacharach, Stephen L; Gullberg, Grant T; Zelnik, Yuval R; Reutter, Bryan W; Sitek, Arkadiusz

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations, a phantom study and a human study were performed to determine whether a slowly rotating single-photon computed emission tomography (SPECT) system could provide accurate arterial input functions for quantification of myocardial perfusion imaging using kinetic models. The errors induced by data inconsistency associated with imaging with slow camera rotation during tracer injection were evaluated with an approach called SPECT/P (dynamic SPECT from positron emission tomography (PET)) and SPECT/D (dynamic SPECT from database of SPECT phantom projections). SPECT/P simulated SPECT-like dynamic projections using reprojections of reconstructed dynamic 94 Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 94 Tc-MIBI) PET images acquired in three human subjects (1 min infusion). This approach was used to evaluate the accuracy of estimating myocardial wash-in rate parameters K 1 for rotation speeds providing 180° of projection data every 27 or 54 s. Blood input and myocardium tissue time-activity curves (TACs) were estimated using spatiotemporal splines. These were fit to a one-compartment perfusion model to obtain wash-in rate parameters K 1 . For the second method (SPECT/D), an anthropomorphic cardiac torso phantom was used to create real SPECT dynamic projection data of a tracer distribution derived from 94 Tc-MIBI PET scans in the blood pool, myocardium, liver and background. This method introduced attenuation, collimation and scatter into the modeling of dynamic SPECT projections. Both approaches were used to evaluate the accuracy of estimating myocardial wash-in parameters for rotation speeds providing 180° of projection data every 27 and 54 s. Dynamic cardiac SPECT was also performed in a human subject at rest using a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner. Dynamic measurements of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin in the myocardium were obtained using an infusion time of 2 min. Blood input, myocardium tissue and liver TACs were estimated using the same spatiotemporal splines. The spatiotemporal

  12. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  13. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Catherine; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of benzodiazepine receptor SPECT and 18F-FDG PET using a coincidence detection camera in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissmeyer, M.; Geiger, L.; Luescher, D.; Krause, T.; Loevblad, K.; Donati, F.; Wielepp, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the results of benzodiazepine receptor (BDR) SPECT using 123 I-Iomazenil with those of 18 F-FDG (FDG) PET obtained on a double-headed gamma camera with a coincidence detection system in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We evaluated 6 patients (4 female, 2 male; age range 26-54 years, average 43.5 years) with therapy-refractory TLE due to mesiotemporal sclerosis or other focal brain anomalies. To delineate the epileptogenic zone, clinical evaluation, ictal and interictal surface EEG using the international 10-20 system, brain MRI, interictal CBF SPECT using 99m Tc-ECD, BDR SPECT and FDG coincidence PET were performed. The CBF SPECT, BDR SPECT and coincidence PET scans were viewed independently by 2 observers considering the regional cerebral blood flow, BDR density and FDG uptake asymmetry in the temporal lobe visually as none (0), low (1), moderate (2) and high (3). Ictal and interictal EEG recordings located the epileptogenic focus in all patients in the temporal region. Both the BDR SPECT and the FDG coincidence PET located the epileptogenic focus correctly in circumscribed areas of the temporal lobe in all patients, whereas brain MRI revealed focal anomalies only in 5 of 6 cases . The lateralization to the right (n=4) and left hemisphere (n=2) by interictal CBF SPECT, BDR SPECT and FDG coincidence PET corresponded to the EEG findings in all patients. The visual consideration of the asymmetry revealed a slightly but not statistically significant higher value for the FDG coincidence PET (observer 1: mean 2.333, SD 0.516; observer 2: mean 2.000, SD 0.632) than for the BDR SPECT (observer 1: mean 1.667, SD 1.033; observer 2: mean 1.833, SD 0.753). Visual consideration of the interictal CBF SPECT revealed mean values of 2.000 for both observers. The inter-observer variability was higher in the BDR SPECT than in the FDG coincidence PET and the interictal CBF SPECT, but the difference was not

  15. Indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy in lung cancer patients: SPECT, CT or SPECT-CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Harmandeep; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the role of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and SPECT-CT of selected volume in lung cancer patients with indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy (BS). The data of 50 lung cancer patients (53 ± 10.3 years; range 30-75; male/female 38/12) with 65 indeterminate lesions on planar BS (January 2010 to November 2010) were retrospectively evaluated. All of them underwent SPECT-CT of a selected volume. SPECT, CT and SPECT-CT images were independently evaluated by two experienced readers (experience in musculoskeletal imaging, including CT: 5 and 7 years) in separate sessions. A scoring scale of 1 to 5 was used, in which 1 is definitely metastatic, 2 is probably metastatic, 3 is indeterminate, 4 is probably benign and 5 is definitely benign. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each modality, taking a score ≤2 as metastatic. With receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for each modality and compared. Clinical and imaging follow-up and/or histopathology were taken as reference standard. For both readers SPECT was inferior to CT (P = 0.004, P = 0.022) and SPECT-CT (P = 0.003, P = 0.037). However, no significant difference was found between CT and SPECT-CT for reader 1 (P = 0.847) and reader 2 (P = 0.592). The findings were similar for lytic as well as sclerotic lesions. Moderate inter-observer agreement was seen for SPECT images (κ = 0.426), while almost perfect agreement was seen for CT (κ = 0.834) and SPECT-CT (κ = 0.971). CT alone and SPECT-CT are better than SPECT for accurate characterisation of indeterminate lesions on planar BS in lung cancer patients. CT alone is not inferior to SPECT-CT for this purpose and might be preferred because of shorter acquisition time and wider availability. (orig.)

  16. The usefulness of SPECT and MRI in the diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogseid, I.M.; Gerdts, R.; Nyberg-Hansen, R.; Rootwelt, K.; Bakke, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Clinico-pathological studies have shown that only three out of four patients with parkinsonism have idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In patients with so-called Parkinson plus syndrome, the degeneration in the brain is more widespread and the variety of neurological signs greater than in Parkinson's disease. The differentiation of these syndromes from Parkinson's disease can be difficult. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRl) can be of value in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. We present three patients with atypical parkinsonism in whom MRI and SPECT with β-CIT and epidepride was performed in addition to the clinical evaluation. The three patients all had a rapidly developing symmetric akinetic-rigid syndrome that responded poorly to levodopa. MRI showed findings regarded as typical for multiple system atrophy in two patients, but only nonspecific findings in the third patient. SPECT with β-CIT showed a pronounced bilateral and relatively symmetric reduction in the striatal dopaminergic activity in all patients. SPECT with epidepride showed a clearly reduced striatal D 2 -receptor binding bilaterally in only one of the patients. In patients with atypical parkinsonism, MRI and SPECT with β-CIT and epidepride can give valuable support to the clinical diagnosis of a Parkinson plus syndrome

  17. Registration and display of brain SPECT and MRI using external markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjonen, H.; Nikkinen, P.; Sipilae, O.; Launes, J.; Salli, E.; Salonen, O.; Karp, P.; Ylae-Jaeaeski, J.; Katila, T.; Liewendahl, K.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate anatomical localisation of abnormalities observed in brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is difficult, but can be improved by correlating data from SPECT and other tomographic imaging modalities. For this purpose we have developed software to register, analyse and display 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime SPECT and 1.0 T MRI of the brain. For registration of SPECT and MRI data external skin markers containing 99m Tc (220 kBq) in 50 μl of coconut butter were used. The software is coded in the C programming language, and the X Window system and the OSF/Motif standards are used for graphics and definition of the user interface. The registration algorithm follows a noniterative least-squares method using singular value decomposition of a 3 x 3 covariance matrix. After registration, the image slices of both data sets are shown at identical tomographic levels. The registration error in phantom studies was on average 4 mm. In the two-dimensional display mode the orthogonal cross-sections of the data sets are displayed side by side. In the three-dimensional mode MRI data are displayed as a surface-shaded 3 D reconstruction and SPECT data as cut planes. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated in patients with cerebral infarcts, brain tumour, herpes simplex encephalitis and epilepsy. (orig.). With 9 figs

  18. Simulated Design Strategies for SPECT Collimators to Reduce the Eddy Currents Induced by MRI Gradient Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoudi, Amine M.; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Vermeeren, Günter; Verhoyen, Gregory; Martens, Luc; Van Holen, Roel; Joseph, Wout

    2015-10-01

    Combining single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the insertion of highly conductive SPECT collimators inside the MRI scanner, resulting in an induced eddy current disturbing the combined system. We reduced the eddy currents due to the insert of a novel tungsten collimator inside transverse and longitudinal gradient coils. The collimator was produced with metal additive manufacturing, that is part of a microSPECT insert for a preclinical SPECT/MRI scanner. We characterized the induced magnetic field due to the gradient field and adapted the collimators to reduce the induced eddy currents. We modeled the x-, y-, and z-gradient coil and the different collimator designs and simulated them with FEKO, a three-dimensional method of moments / finite element methods (MoM/FEM) full-wave simulation tool. We used a time analysis approach to generate the pulsed magnetic field gradient. Simulation results show that the maximum induced field can be reduced by 50.82% in the final design bringing the maximum induced magnetic field to less than 2% of the applied gradient for all the gradient coils. The numerical model was validated with measurements and was proposed as a tool for studying the effect of a SPECT collimator within the MRI gradient coils.

  19. A new reconstruction strategy for image improvement in pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Teramoto, Noboru; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Sohlberg, Antti; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to provide information on the biodistribution of several radioligands in small laboratory animals, but has limitations associated with non-uniform spatial resolution or axial blurring. We have hypothesised that this blurring is due to incompleteness of the projection data acquired by a single circular pinhole orbit, and have evaluated a new strategy for accurate image reconstruction with better spatial resolution uniformity. A pinhole SPECT system using two circular orbits and a dedicated three-dimensional ordered subsets expectation maximisation (3D-OSEM) reconstruction method were developed. In this system, not the camera but the object rotates, and the two orbits are at 90 and 45 relative to the object's axis. This system satisfies Tuy's condition, and is thus able to provide complete data for 3D pinhole SPECT reconstruction within the whole field of view (FOV). To evaluate this system, a series of experiments was carried out using a multiple-disk phantom filled with 99m Tc solution. The feasibility of the proposed method for small animal imaging was tested with a mouse bone study using 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Feldkamp's filtered back-projection (FBP) method and the 3D-OSEM method were applied to these data sets, and the visual and statistical properties were examined. Axial blurring, which was still visible at the edge of the FOV even after applying the conventional 3D-OSEM instead of FBP for single-orbit data, was not visible after application of 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data. 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data dramatically reduced the resolution non-uniformity and statistical noise, and also demonstrated considerably better image quality in the mouse scan. This system may be of use in quantitative assessment of bio-physiological functions in small animals. (orig.)

  20. Diagnostic pathway of integrated SPECT/CT for coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Tio, Rene A.; Zijlstra, Felix; Dierckx, Rudi A.

    2009-01-01

    . The development of SPECT/CT hybrid systems is therefore of important value for the nuclear cardiology armamentarium. This editorial commentary outlines a diagnostic pathway of integrated SPECT/CT for CAD assessment in symptomatic patients at intermediate risk for CAD. (orig.)

  1. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.

    2006-01-01

    The application of hybrid SPECT cameras in Nuclear Medicine follows the revolutionary introduction of PET/CT. This review focuses on the advantages and limitations of SPECT/CT in its various clinical indications. It appears that SPECT/CT will be a clear factor of progress for Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  2. Interest of the SPECT-CT hybrid imaging in the management of thyroid differentiated carcinomas; Interets de l'imagerie hybride TEMP-TDM dans la prise en charge des carcinomes differencies de la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemani, A.; Mebarki, M.; Slama, A.; Meghelli, S.; Lachachi, B.; Krim, M.; Berber, N. [CHU Tlemcen, Service de medecine nucleaire (Algeria)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Images merging, associating SPECT and CT, integers functional and anatomical data. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the SPECT contribution coupled to CT in our daily practice of the management thyroid differentiated carcinomas. Conclusions: SPECT/CT merging got by a hybrid system allows a better anatomical location and improves the diagnostic value of examination in the extension assessment of thyroid differentiated carcinomas. (N.C.)

  3. Optimizing multi-pinhole SPECT geometries using an analytical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentmeester, M C M; Have, F van der; Beekman, F J

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art multi-pinhole SPECT devices allow for sub-mm resolution imaging of radio-molecule distributions in small laboratory animals. The optimization of multi-pinhole and detector geometries using simulations based on ray-tracing or Monte Carlo algorithms is time-consuming, particularly because many system parameters need to be varied. As an efficient alternative we develop a continuous analytical model of a pinhole SPECT system with a stationary detector set-up, which we apply to focused imaging of a mouse. The model assumes that the multi-pinhole collimator and the detector both have the shape of a spherical layer, and uses analytical expressions for effective pinhole diameters, sensitivity and spatial resolution. For fixed fields-of-view, a pinhole-diameter adapting feedback loop allows for the comparison of the system resolution of different systems at equal system sensitivity, and vice versa. The model predicts that (i) for optimal resolution or sensitivity the collimator layer with pinholes should be placed as closely as possible around the animal given a fixed detector layer, (ii) with high-resolution detectors a resolution improvement up to 31% can be achieved compared to optimized systems, (iii) high-resolution detectors can be placed close to the collimator without significant resolution losses, (iv) interestingly, systems with a physical pinhole diameter of 0 mm can have an excellent resolution when high-resolution detectors are used

  4. SPECT in patients with cortical visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, I E; Galetta, S L; Gray, L G; Moster, M; Atlas, S W; Maurer, A H; Alavi, A

    1993-09-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was used to investigate changes in cerebral blood flow in seven patients with cortical visual impairment. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was the cause of cortical damage in two patients, cerebral ischemia in two patients and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, status epilepticus and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) each in three separate patients. The SPECT scans of the seven patients were compared to T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) scans of the brain to determine the correlation between functional and anatomical findings. In six of the seven patients, the qualitative interpretation of the SPECT studies supported the clinical findings (i.e., the visual field defect) by revealing altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the appropriate regions of the visual pathway. MR scans in all of the patients, on the other hand, were either normal or disclosed smaller lesions than those detected by SPECT. We conclude that SPECT may reveal altered rCBF in patients with cortical visual impairment of various etiologies, even when MRI studies are normal or nondiagnostic.

  5. Noninvasive evaluation of ischemic stroke with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, C.R.; Malik, M.M.; Gomez, S.M.; Wingkun, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Technetium Tc 99m DTPA single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) brain scans of 20 patients with acute ischemic stroke were reviewed retrospectively and compared with clinical and radiologic (CT) data. Fourteen of the patients had abnormal SPECT studies. The abnormal findings were demonstrated by static views in eight patients, by the flow study in one patient, and by both sets of images in the other five patients. All abnormalities correlated with the clinical syndrome of presentation, and only two of the patients had no corresponding lesions on CT. Of the six patients with normal SPECT scans, two had abnormal CT studies, and in the other four, no lesions were shown at all. The ability of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA SPECT to display cerebral infarctions appears to be, at best, comparable to that of CT. SPECT also provides qualitative information regarding flow dynamics in the affected hemisphere of some patients (6/20 in our review). This, we believe, represents the objective demonstration of the preexisting insufficient collateral flow in the hemisphere at risk for ischemic stroke

  6. Receptor mapping in psychiatric patients with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes some data of our studies with the single-photon-emission-computerized tomography (SPECT), focussing on the dopamine-D2- and the benzodiazepine receptor mapping. Benzodiazepine receptors: Central benzodiazepine receptors (BZr) can be visualized with iomazenil which is an analogue of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil, labeled with 123-iodine. Since the involvement of the BZr system is discussed in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, patients with these disorders were investigated. A third study investigated the BZr-occupancy during benzodiazepine treatment (lorazepam). Results: (a) Patients with panic disorders had lower iomazenil uptake values compared to epileptic patients. (b) Depressed patients showed a positive correlation between severity of illness and frontal uptake. (c) BZr occupancy during lorazepam treatment was measurable, but not associated with lorazepam plasma levels. Dopamine-D2-receptors: With 123-I-iodobenzamide (IBZM), and iodine-labeled dopamine receptor ligand, the D2 receptor density can be measured by a semiquantitative approach (striatum/frontal cortex=ST/FC). Therefore, we investigated the D2-receptor occupancy during treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics in relationship to dosages (normalized with different formulas of chlorpromazine equivalents), side effects, and prolactin plasma levels. Results: Dependent on the selected formula for chlorpromazine equivalents, the ST/FC ratio was correlated with dosages. Side effects and prolactin plasma levels showed a negative association with lower ST/FC ratios. (orig.) [de

  7. Feasibility study of a novel general purpose CZT-based digital SPECT camera: initial clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshen, Elinor; Beilin, Leonid; Stern, Eli; Kenig, Tal; Goldkorn, Ronen; Ben-Haim, Simona

    2018-03-14

    The performance of a prototype novel digital single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) camera with multiple pixelated CZT detectors and high sensitivity collimators (Digital SPECT; Valiance X12 prototype, Molecular Dynamics) was evaluated in various clinical settings. Images obtained in the prototype system were compared to images from an analog camera fitted with high-resolution collimators. Clinical feasibility, image quality, and diagnostic performance of the prototype were evaluated in 36 SPECT studies in 35 patients including bone (n = 21), brain (n = 5), lung perfusion (n = 3), and parathyroid (n = 3) and one study each of sentinel node and labeled white blood cells. Images were graded on a scale of 1-4 for sharpness, contrast, overall quality, and diagnostic confidence. Digital CZT SPECT provided a statistically significant improvement in sharpness and contrast in clinical cases (mean score of 3.79 ± 0.61 vs. 3.26 ± 0.50 and 3.92 ± 0.29 vs. 3.34 ± 0.47 respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Overall image quality was slightly higher for the digital SPECT but not statistically significant (3.74 vs. 3.66). CZT SPECT provided significantly improved image sharpness and contrast compared to the analog system in the clinical settings evaluated. Further studies will evaluate the diagnostic performance of the system in large patient cohorts in additional clinical settings.

  8. Contrast detail phantom for SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejas, M.L. de; Arashiro, J G; Giannone, C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camuyrano, M; Nohara, G [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad Ciencias Exactas

    1996-06-01

    A new low variable contrast phantom for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was constructed, tested and compared with other existing phantoms. It contains simulated cylindrical lesions of four different diameters (D{sub i}), embedded in a cylindrical scattering medium and a uniform section to evaluate tomographic uniformity. The concentration of tracer in the simulated lesions and the scattering medium (background) can be varied to simulate hot and cold lesions. Different applications of the phantom were tested, including determination of the minimum object contrast (OCm) necessary to detect lesions as a function of lesion size, lesion type (hot or cold) and acquisition and processing protocols by visual inspection. This parameter allows categorization of instruments comparing an `image quality index` (IQI). Preliminary comparison with the Britten contrast processing method showed that the detectable OCm was of the same order of magnitude, but the presented device seems more suitable for training and intercomparison purposes. The constructed phantom, of simple design, has proved to be useful for acquisition and processing condition evaluation, OCm estimation and external quality control. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs.

  9. D-SPECT, a semiconductor camera: Technical aspects and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, C.; Bertrand, S.; Kelly, A.; Veyre, A.; Mestas, D.; Cachin, F.; Motreff, P.; Levesque, S.; Cachin, F.; Askienazy, S.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical practice in nuclear medicine has largely changed in the last decade, particularly with the arrival of PET/CT and SPECT/CT. New semiconductor cameras could represent the next evolution in our nuclear medicine practice. Due to the resolution and sensitivity improvement, this technology authorizes fast speed acquisitions, high contrast and resolution images performed with low activity injection. The dedicated cardiology D-SPECT camera (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is based on semiconductor technology and provides an original system for collimation and images reconstruction. We describe here our clinical experience in using the D-SPECT with a preliminary study comparing D-D.P.E.C.T. and conventional gamma camera. (authors)

  10. Comparison SPECT-CT with PET-CT in several applications of small-animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yifan; Song Shaoli; Huang Gang

    2009-01-01

    With the development of medical science, monitoring dynamic biologic processes in small-animal models of diseases has become one of the most important approaches in medical studies. Important physiologic parameters that traditionally have been characterized by nuclear medicine imaging include blood flow, biochemical metabolism, and cellular receptors. Recently, nuclear medicine has been greatly facilitated by the newer development of dual-modality integrated imaging systems (SPECT-CT and PET-CT), which provide functional and anatomical images in the same scanning session, with the acquired images co-registered by means of the hardware. The purpose of this review is to compare SPECT-CT with PET-CT in several applications of small-animal models. Conclusicn: PET-CT for small animal modes in nledical research in the applications has great advantages, but SPECT-CT is still a very important role, and research low cost. (authors)

  11. Optimisation of conditions for detecting variations in focal activity in SPECT using the rotating gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, P.; Golde, G.; Schneider, R.; Fiegler, W.; Hedde, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The signal to noise ratio (quotient of contrast and mean noise) is a quality parameter for identifying activity gaps during single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Contrast and mean noise level are site-dependent on the reconstruction plane which is influenced in a complex manner by absorption conditions (strong or weak absorption), modes of rotation (full angle or partial angle imaging), interdependencies of opposing partial projections (arithmetic or geometric mean), magnitude of defect (relative to the resolution of the imaging system), geometry of the object to be measured, and scatter. In the present study the authors performed analysis and graphical representation of the SPECT imaging properties on the basis of model calculations illustrated by phantom measurements. The optimal conditions of examination or evaluation and the diagnostic criteria in SPECT of the heart, liver, brain and pelvis are discussed by comparative calculation of signal to noise ratios in defect identification. (orig.)

  12. Quality control of analogue to digital conversion circuitry for artefact-free SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, G.J.; Elliott, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    A simple method for the objective, quantitative assessment of analogue to digital conversion (ADC) differential linearity has been developed for SPECT imaging. The analytical approach uses the fact that a differential non-linearity in the ADC will produce a non-uniformity in the digitized image which has a well defined periodicity. This can be most clearly demonstrated in the frequency space domain by determining the Fourier transform of a thick profile which is taken through the centre of a flood field image. The accuracy of the method permits deteriorations in the performance of ADCs to be detected well before significant reductions in SPECT image quality are produced. The availability of a quantitative measure of ADC performance, which can be tested objectively using a simple data acquisition method, is of value in the specification, acceptance testing and general quality control of gamma camera SPECT systems. (author)

  13. In vivo regional quantitation of intrathoracic /sup 99m/Tc using SPECT: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, D.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.E.; Greer, K.; Lischko, M.

    1982-01-01

    A whole-body single-photon emission computed tomographic system (SPECT) was used to quantitate the activities of a series of /sup 99m/Tc point sources in the dog's thorax and to evaluate attenuation of a uniform esophageal line source containing a known concentration of /sup 99m/Tc. A first-order attenuation correction and an empirically derived attenuation coefficient of 0.09 cm-1 were used in the SPECT analyses of the intrathoracic point sources. The relationship between SPECT measurements of multiple point-source activities and the same sources measured in air was linear over a range of 100 to 1000 muCi (slope 1.08; R2 coefficient of determination 0.97). These data are sufficiently accurate to allow an estimate of the regional activity of radiopharmaceutical in the dog's thorax and justify their use in experimental quantitation of regional pulmonary perfusion

  14. Gallium-SPECT in the detection of prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic ring abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, K.; Barnes, D.; Martin, R.H.; Rae, J.R. (Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Victoria General Hospital Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1991-09-01

    A 52-yr-old man who had a bioprosthetic aortic valve developed Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Despite antibiotic therapy he had persistent pyrexia and developed new conduction system disturbances. Echocardiography did not demonstrate vegetations on the valve or an abscess, but gallium scintigraphy using SPECT clearly identified a focus of intense activity in the region of the aortic valve. The presence of valvular vegetations and a septal abscess was confirmed at autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy, using SPECT, provided a useful noninvasive method for the demonstration of endocarditis and the associated valve ring abscess.

  15. Gallium-SPECT in the detection of prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic ring abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, K.; Barnes, D.; Martin, R.H.; Rae, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A 52-yr-old man who had a bioprosthetic aortic valve developed Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Despite antibiotic therapy he had persistent pyrexia and developed new conduction system disturbances. Echocardiography did not demonstrate vegetations on the valve or an abscess, but gallium scintigraphy using SPECT clearly identified a focus of intense activity in the region of the aortic valve. The presence of valvular vegetations and a septal abscess was confirmed at autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy, using SPECT, provided a useful noninvasive method for the demonstration of endocarditis and the associated valve ring abscess

  16. SPECT I-123 iodoamphetamine brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikofsky, R.S.; Liebman, A.; Hellman, R.S.; Collier, B.D.; Voslar, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    SPECT/IMP studies of 100 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of dementia were performed with a rotating gamma camera 15-20 minutes after intravenous injection of 3.5 mCi of IMP. Of these studies, 43 were interpreted as normal for age; 28 demonstrated decreased but not absent activity bilaterally in posterior parietal/occipital regions (consistent with Alzheimer-type dementia); 28 showed unilateral abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow consistent with cerebrovascular disease; and one had mixed findings. Based on SPECT/IMP results, further diagnostic testing and/or management would be altered for 72% of patients, suggesting that SPECT/IMP provides valuable data, not available on clinical examination, to guide the evaluation and management of demented patients

  17. Brain SPECT in severs traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, F.; Eder, V.; Pottier, J.M.; Baulieu, J.L.; Fournier, P.; Legros, B.; Chiaroni, P.; Dalonneau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of the early brain scintigraphy in traumatic brain injury to the long term neuropsychological behavior. Twenty four patients had an ECD-Tc99m SPECT, within one month after the trauma; scintigraphic abnormalities were evaluated according to a semi-quantitative analysis. The neuropsychological clinical investigation was interpreted by a synthetic approach to evaluate abnormalities related to residual motor deficit, frontal behavior, memory and language disorders. Fourteen patients (58%) had sequela symptoms. SPECT revealed 80 abnormalities and CT scan only 31. Statistical analysis of uptake values showed significantly lower uptake in left basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with sequela memory disorders. We conclude that the brain perfusion scintigraphy is able to detect more lesions than CT and that it could really help to predict the neuropsychological behavior after severe head injury. Traumatology could become in the future a widely accepted indication of perfusion SPECT. (authors)

  18. Applications of SPECT / CT at the Institute of Nephrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayas Crespo, Francisco; Batlle Leal, Fernando; Mesa Dueñas, Niurka

    2016-01-01

    The main applications of SPECT-CT in the diagnosis of various diseases, as well as the experiences gained from the operation of this hybrid system are described. To date we have studied more than 100 patients from different hospitals in the capital and other nearby provinces, including. Including major diseases: kidney, bone, oncological and endocrine. So far, the results achieved have enabled diagnostic evaluation of higher accuracy and detail, even improving in a significant number of patients the initial diagnosis or modifying this fully. (author)

  19. SPECT/CT versus MRI in patients with nonspecific pain of the hand and wrist - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huellner, Martin W.; Buerkert, Alexander; Schleich, Florian S.; Strobel, Klaus; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Schuerch, Maja; Hug, Urs; Wartburg, Urs von

    2012-01-01

    Hand and wrist pain is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the complex anatomy of the involved small structures. The American College of Radiology recommends MRI as the study of choice in patients with chronic wrist pain if radiographs are negative. Lately, state-of-the-art SPECT/CT systems have been introduced and may help in the diagnosis of this selected indication. This retrospective study included 21 patients with nonspecific pain of the hand/wrist. The diagnosis of nonspecific wrist pain was made by the referring hand surgeon based on patient history, clinical examination, plain radiography and clinical guidelines. All patients received planar early-phase imaging and late-phase SPECT/CT imaging as well as MRI. Lesions were divided into major (causative) and minor (not causative) pathologies according to clinical follow-up. Furthermore, oedema-like bone marrow changes seen on MRI were compared with focally increased tracer uptake seen on SPECT/CT images. MRI yielded a quite high sensitivity (0.86), but a low specificity (0.20). In contrast, SPECT/CT yielded a high specificity (1.00) and a low sensitivity (0.71). Oedema-like bone marrow changes were detected in 15 lesions in 11 patients. In ten lesions with bone marrow oedema on MRI, foci of elevated tracer uptake were detected on SPECT/CT. Overall, MRI was more sensitive, but SPECT/CT was more specific in the evaluation of causative pathologies. In this initial comparison, SPECT/CT showed higher specificity than MRI in the evaluation of causative pathologies in patients with nonspecific wrist pain. However, MRI was more sensitive. Thus, SPECT/CT was shown to be a useful problem-solving tool in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. (orig.)

  20. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landvogt, C.

    2007-01-01

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, 11 C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed

  1. The Value of Attenuation Correction in Hybrid Cardiac SPECT/CT on Inferior Wall According to Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamam, Muge; Mulazimoglu, Mehmet; Edis, Nurcan; Ozpacaci, Tevfik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of attenuation-corrected single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) on the inferior wall compared to uncorrected (NC) SPECT MPI between obese and nonobese patients. A total of 157 consecutive patients (122 males and 35 females, with median age: 57.4 ± 11 years) who underwent AC technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (AC Tc99m-sestamibi) SPECT MPI were included to the study. A hybrid SPECT and transmission computed tomography (CT) system was used for the diagnosis with 1-day protocol, and stress imaging was performed first. During attenuation correction (AC) processing on a Xeleris Workstation using Myovation cardiac software with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), iterative reconstruction with attenuation correction (IRAC) and NC images filtered back projection (FBP) were used. For statistical purposes, P < 0.05 was considered significant. This study included 73 patients with body mass index (BMI) <30 and 84 patients with BMI ≥ 30. In patients with higher BMI, increased amount of both visual and semiquantitative attenuation of the inferior wall was detected. IRAC reconstruction corrects the diaphragm attenuation of the inferior wall better than FBP. AC with OSEM iterative reconstruction significantly improves the diagnostic value of stress-only SPECT MPI in patients with normal weight and those who are obese, but the improvements are significantly greater in obese patients. Stress-only SPECT imaging with AC provides shorter and lower radiation exposure

  2. Automatic lung segmentation in functional SPECT images using active shape models trained on reference lung shapes from CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Al-Mashat, Mariam; Haris, Kostas; Aletras, Anthony H; Jögi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika; Maglaveras, Nicolaos; Heiberg, Einar

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation is an essential step in quantifying the extent of reduced or absent lung function. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new tool for automatic segmentation of lungs in ventilation and perfusion SPECT images and compare automatic and manual SPECT lung segmentations with reference computed tomography (CT) volumes. A total of 77 subjects (69 patients with obstructive lung disease, and 8 subjects without apparent perfusion of ventilation loss) performed low-dose CT followed by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) SPECT examination in a hybrid gamma camera system. In the training phase, lung shapes from the 57 anatomical low-dose CT images were used to construct two active shape models (right lung and left lung) which were then used for image segmentation. The algorithm was validated in 20 patients, comparing its results to reference delineation of corresponding CT images, and by comparing automatic segmentation to manual delineations in SPECT images. The Dice coefficient between automatic SPECT delineations and manual SPECT delineations were 0.83 ± 0.04% for the right and 0.82 ± 0.05% for the left lung. There was statistically significant difference between reference volumes from CT and automatic delineations for the right (R = 0.53, p = 0.02) and left lung (R = 0.69, p automatic quantification of wide range of measurements.

  3. Segmented slant hole collimator for stationary cardiac SPECT: Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Yu, Zhicong; Zeng, Gengsheng L

    2015-09-01

    This work is a preliminary study of a stationary cardiac SPECT system. The goal of this research is to propose a stationary cardiac SPECT system using segmented slant-hole collimators and to perform computer simulations to test the feasibility. Compared to the rotational SPECT, a stationary system has a benefit of acquiring temporally consistent projections. The most challenging issue in building a stationary system is to provide sufficient projection view-angles. A GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate a two-detector stationary cardiac SPECT that uses segmented slant-hole collimators. Each detector contains seven segmented slant-hole sections that slant to a common volume at the rotation center. Consequently, 14 view-angles over 180° were acquired without any gantry rotation. The NCAT phantom was used for data generation and a tailored maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm was used for image reconstruction. Effects of limited number of view-angles and data truncation were carefully evaluated in the paper. Simulation results indicated that the proposed segmented slant-hole stationary cardiac SPECT system is able to acquire sufficient data for cardiac imaging without a loss of image quality, even when the uptakes in the liver and kidneys are high. Seven views are acquired simultaneously at each detector, leading to 5-fold sensitivity gain over the conventional dual-head system at the same total acquisition time, which in turn increases the signal-to-noise ratio by 19%. The segmented slant-hole SPECT system also showed a good performance in lesion detection. In our prototype system, a short hole-length was used to reduce the dead zone between neighboring collimator segments. The measured sensitivity gain is about 17-fold over the conventional dual-head system. The gate Monte Carlo simulations confirm the feasibility of the proposed stationary cardiac SPECT system with segmented slant

  4. Segmented slant hole collimator for stationary cardiac SPECT: Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Yanfei, E-mail: ymao@ucair.med.utah.edu [Department of Radiology, Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research (UCAIR), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Yu, Zhicong [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Zeng, Gengsheng L. [Department of Radiology, Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research (UCAIR), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108 and Department of Engineering, Weber State University, Ogden, Utah 84408 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: This work is a preliminary study of a stationary cardiac SPECT system. The goal of this research is to propose a stationary cardiac SPECT system using segmented slant-hole collimators and to perform computer simulations to test the feasibility. Compared to the rotational SPECT, a stationary system has a benefit of acquiring temporally consistent projections. The most challenging issue in building a stationary system is to provide sufficient projection view-angles. Methods: A GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate a two-detector stationary cardiac SPECT that uses segmented slant-hole collimators. Each detector contains seven segmented slant-hole sections that slant to a common volume at the rotation center. Consequently, 14 view-angles over 180° were acquired without any gantry rotation. The NCAT phantom was used for data generation and a tailored maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm was used for image reconstruction. Effects of limited number of view-angles and data truncation were carefully evaluated in the paper. Results: Simulation results indicated that the proposed segmented slant-hole stationary cardiac SPECT system is able to acquire sufficient data for cardiac imaging without a loss of image quality, even when the uptakes in the liver and kidneys are high. Seven views are acquired simultaneously at each detector, leading to 5-fold sensitivity gain over the conventional dual-head system at the same total acquisition time, which in turn increases the signal-to-noise ratio by 19%. The segmented slant-hole SPECT system also showed a good performance in lesion detection. In our prototype system, a short hole-length was used to reduce the dead zone between neighboring collimator segments. The measured sensitivity gain is about 17-fold over the conventional dual-head system. Conclusions: The GATE Monte Carlo simulations confirm the feasibility of the proposed stationary cardiac

  5. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  6. Motor activation SPECT for the neurosurgical diseases. Clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Shoichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Imai, Teruhiko; Ohishi, Hajime [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We evaluated and analyzed the motor activation single photon emission computed tomography (M-SPECT) findings on patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). The M-SPECT studies were carried out on 91 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. The M-SPECT study was performed using the finger opposition task in each case. The SPECT images were superimposed on the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each case using Image Fusion Software. The result of the M-SPECT was expressed as positive or negative. The cases with a marked increase of blood flow in the sensorio-motor cortex after the finger opposition task were categorized as positive, and those cases showing no marked increase of blood flow were categorized as negative. Among the 91 cases examined, 53 (58%) were categorized as positive in the M-SPECT study. Among the negative M-SPECT cases treated with revascularization surgery, there were some cases showing positive M-SPECT results postoperatively. The cases without any revascularization surgery did not change the M-SPECT findings in each during the follow-up period. The M-SPECT procedure for examining intracranial lesions could provide the cortical localization of the motor function. The M-SPECT procedure in the ischemic CVDs contributes to knowledge about the choices of treatment and the evaluation of the treatment result. (author)

  7. Evaluation of usefulness of bone SPECT for lumbar spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Osamu; Hashimoto, Manabu; Tomura, Noriaki; Watarai, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 99m Tc-MDP SPECT (bone SPECT) for lumbar spondylolysis. We analyzed 11 cases with 17 lesions. All cases were compared using plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), planar bone scintigraphy (PBS), and bone SPECT. Four lesions that showed a wide defect on CT were negative on bone SPECT and may have been chronic lesions. Thirteen lesions that were positive on bone SPECT were narrow or showed no defect on CT and may have been early lesions. Two cases showed no defect on CT but were positive on bone SPECT, and one of them progressed to bilateral spondylolysis after one year. This may have been a very early lesion. Thus bone SPECT is useful for the diagnosis of lumbar spondylolysis, especially in its early stage. (author)

  8. Evaluation of usefulness of bone SPECT for lumbar spondylolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Osamu; Hashimoto, Manabu; Tomura, Noriaki; Watarai, Jiro [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP SPECT (bone SPECT) for lumbar spondylolysis. We analyzed 11 cases with 17 lesions. All cases were compared using plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), planar bone scintigraphy (PBS), and bone SPECT. Four lesions that showed a wide defect on CT were negative on bone SPECT and may have been chronic lesions. Thirteen lesions that were positive on bone SPECT were narrow or showed no defect on CT and may have been early lesions. Two cases showed no defect on CT but were positive on bone SPECT, and one of them progressed to bilateral spondylolysis after one year. This may have been a very early lesion. Thus bone SPECT is useful for the diagnosis of lumbar spondylolysis, especially in its early stage. (author)

  9. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 05: Calibration of a SPECT/CT camera for quantitative SPECT with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, Émilie; Montégiani, Jean-François; Després, Philippe; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    While quantitation is the norm in PET, it is not widely available yet in SPECT. This work's aim was to calibrate a commercially available SPECT/CT system to perform quantitative SPECT. Counting sensitivity, dead-time (DT) constant and partial volume effect (PVE) of the system were assessed. A dual-head Siemens SymbiaT6 SPECT/CT camera equipped with low energy high-resolution collimators was studied. 99m Tc was the radioisotope of interest because of its wide usage in nuclear medicine. First, point source acquisitions were performed (activity: 30–990MBq). Further acquisitions were then performed with a uniform Jaszczak phantom filled with water at high activity (25–5000MBq). PVE was studied using 6 hot spheres (diameters: 9.9–31.2 mm) filled with 99m Tc (2.8MBq/cc) in the Jaszczak phantom, which was: (1) empty, (2) water-filled and (3) water-filled with low activity (0.1MBq/cc). The data was reconstructed with the Siemens's Flash3D iterative algorithm with 4 subsets and 8 iterations, attenuation-correction (AC) and scatter-correction (SC). DT modelling was based on the total spectrum counting rate. Sensitivity was assessed using AC-SC reconstructed SPECT data. Sensitivity and DT for the sources were 99.51±1.46cps/MBq and 0.60±0.04µs. For the phantom, sensitivity and DT were 109.9±2.3cps/MBq and 0.62±0.13µs. The recovery-coefficient varied from 5% for the 9.9mm, to 80% for the 31.2mm spheres. With our calibration methods, both sensitivity and DT constant of the SPECT camera had little dependence on the object geometry and attenuation. For small objects of known size, recovery-coefficient can be applied to correct PVE. Clinical quantitative SPECT appears to be possible and has many potential applications

  10. Hybrid SPECT/CT: Principle, dosimetry and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapdey, S.; Gardin, I.; Salles, A.; Rousseliere, F.; Edet-Sanson, A.; Vera, P.

    2009-01-01

    The recent introduction of hybrid systems combining a SPECT and a CT in nuclear medicine, greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy for particular clinical indications, due to the possible attenuation and/or scatter correction of the SPECT functional images and the availability of helpful anatomic information. Although the gamma cameras performances are noticeably comparable, the associated CT furnished by the manufacturer are relatively different from each other. Whatever the system is, the introduction of CT in the nuclear diagnostic process results in a significant increase of the patient dose. This dose increase should be justified and optimized considering both the clinical question and the CT settings available on these systems. The installation of a hybrid system must be accompanied by the management of a documentary quality insurance program, jointly developed by the technologists, physicists and physicians, both covering its clinical use and the associated dosimetry issues as monitoring its performances. Particular quality control procedures have to be defined because of the coupling between the two devices. (authors)

  11. Clinical application of cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    1999-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has replaced planar imaging techniques for myocardial scintigraphy. Thallium-201 was the dominant agent employed for myocardial perfusion imaging. Today new technetium-99m labelled radionuclides have been used as excellent alternatives to 201 Tl for detection of coronary artery disease, prognostification, and even assessment of myocardial viability. Pharmacologic stress imaging using either dipyridamole, adenosine or dobutamine is a substitute for exercise stress. Accurate determination of myocardial viability is vitally important for clinical decision making for patients with LV dysfunction who will most benefit from revascularization. Stunned and hibernated myocardium may result in profound regional LTV dysfunction in absence of necrosis. The various approach such as stress-redistribution-reinjection imaging, rest-redistribution imaging and stress-redistribution-24 hours delayed imaging has been utilized to assess myocardial viability with 201 Tl. Quantitative assessment of 99m Tc MIBI uptake reflect the degree of viability. 123 I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analog of norepinephrine, has been used for scintigraphic assessment of regional cardiac adrenergic innervation. Cardiac sympathetic denervation, assessed by 123 I-MIBG, due to ischemia in non-Q myocardial infarction and unstable angina has been shown. Quantitative cardiac MIBG scintigram was shown to have prognostic value in patients with severe congestive heart failure. 23 I-BMIPP (ρ-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid) has been used to assess myocardial fatty acid utilization. BMIPP has the memory function of ischemia in unstable angina, since decreased BMIPP uptake persists several days after ischemic episode. Nuclear cardiology in Japan has experienced an expansion in the techniques including use of new radionuclides, 99m Tc perfusion agents, 123 I-MIBG and 23 I-BMIPP and in associated clinical application to the various cardiac diseases

  12. Application of SPECT to psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT using 99m Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) was applied to psychiatric diseases with aid of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for analysis of data. To evaluate influence of aging on brain perfusion, noninvasive measurements of cerebral blood flow using 99m Tc-ECD were performed in 53 normal volunteers, age 18 to 87 years old. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was 43.9±5.0 ml/100 g/min and showed weak negative correlation with aging (r=0.451). Perisylvian cerebral cortices and medial frontal areas including anterior cingulate gyri showed greater negative correlation than other areas. These findings suggest the necessity of age-matched control regional CBF (rCBF) data to investigate rCBF abnormality in patients. Four drug-naive schizophrenic patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and superior temporal areas and a left infero-posterior temporal area. Haloperidol administration induced flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left parietal areas, while flow increase in bilateral striatal and right hippocampal areas. Ten aged depressive patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left temporo-parietal areas. Even after remission patients showed flow decrease in the left frontal area as compared with normal subjects. Remission induced flow increase in the right frontal, right parietal, and right orbitofrontal areas compared with depression. These results suggest that CBF measurements using 99m Tc-ECD were useful for objective evaluation of regional abnormality in brain function in psychiatric diseases. (author)

  13. Examination of attenuation correction method for cerebral blood Flow SPECT Using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takashi; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2009-01-01

    Authors developed a software for attenuation correction using MR imaging (MRAC) (Toshiba Med. System Engineer.) based on the idea that precision of AC could be improved by the head contour in MRI T2-weighted images (T2WI) obtained before 123 I-iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement. In the present study, this MRAC was retrospectively evaluated by comparison with the previous standard AC methods derived from transmission CT (TCT) and X-CT which overcoming the problem of sinogram threshold Chang method but still having cost and patient exposure issues. MRAC was essentially performed in the Toshiba GMS5500/PI processor where 3D registration was conducted with images of SPECT and MRI of the same patient. The gamma camera for 123 I-IMP SPECT and 99m TcO 4 - TCT was Toshiba 3-detector GCA9300A equipped with the above processor for MRAC and with low energy high resolution (LEHR) fan beam collimator. Machines for MRI and CT were Siemens-Asahi Meditech. MAGNETOM Symphony 1.5T and SOMATOM plus4, respectively. MRAC was examined in 8 patients with images of T1WI, TCT and SPECT, and in 18 of T2WI, CT and SPECT. Evaluation was made by comparison of attenuation coefficients (μ) by the 4 methods. As a result, the present MRAC was found to be closer to AC by TCT and CT than by the Chang method since MRAC, due to exact imaging of the head contour, was independent on radiation count, and was thought to be useful for improving the precision of CBF SPECT. (K.T.)

  14. SPECT in psychiatry; Die Bedeutung der Hirn-SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, S [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Gruenwald, F [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Danos, P [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Bonn (Germany); Walter, H [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Klemm, E [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bruecke, T [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Podreka, I [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Biersack, H J [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1994-10-01

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den vergangenen 15 Jahren wurde durch verschiedene methodologische Ansaetze versucht, die biologischen Ursachen psychiatrischer Erkrankungen naeher zu erforschen. Als eine bedeutende Methode hat sich dabei die Single-Photonen-Emissions-Computertomographie (SPECT) herausgestellt. Waehrend die SPECT-Untersuchungen bereits Eingang in die Routinediagnostik bei Demenzen vom Alzheimer-Typ gefunden haben, konnten fuer weitere psychiatrische Erkrankungen noch keine eindeutigen Befunde etabliert werden. Mit der SPECT-Methode ist es jedoch gelungen, funktionelle Veraenderungen des Gehirns von psychiatrischen Erkrankungen darzustellen, wie z.B. Schizophrenie, Depression, Angsterkrankungen bzw. Substanzmissbrauch. In Forschungsprotokollen wird durch die SPECT-Methode versucht, abzuklaeren, inwieweit es moeglich ist, innerhalb der Erkrankungsentitaeten psychiatrischer Erkrankungen oder auch diese uebergreifend eine Subklassifizierung zu finden und evtl. Gehirnsysteme ausfindig zu machen, die mit einer spezifischen

  15. Myocardial perfusion SPECT for assessment of left ventricular function and volume- comparison with echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xu; Huang Gang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular volume and function by gated SPECT and comparison of the results with echocardiography. Methods: 65 Consecutive patients (49 male, 16 female; mean age 61+11 years) who underwent both gated 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT and echocardiography within a 15 days period were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were any change in clinical status between acquisition of the gated SPECT and echocardiography studies, acute myocardial infarction occurring less than 7 days before study, and surgical procedures occurring within 30 days of the study. The clinical diagnosis of each patient was not considered, as this was not relevant to the purpose of the study. The diagnoses were as follows: coronary artery disease (n=46), hypertensive heart disease (n=8), old myocardial infarction (n=5), myocarditis (n=2), and routine medical examination(n=4). A dose of 740 MBq of 99 Tc m -sestamibi was administered in resting condition. Gated SPECT images were obtained with ADAC Vertex MCD-AC SPECT system. The raw projection images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (ramp filter), without attenuation correction. The data, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) were obtained using AUTOQUANT software (ADAC corporation). The echocardiography study used its standard techniques. Two nuclear medicine physicians processed the raw images respectively to evaluate internal reproducibility of gated SPECT. In order to compare the results of gated SPECT with echocardiography on different left ventricular volumes, all patients were divided into two groups (EDV 90 ml, n=34) based by EDV measurements in echocardiography. Results: The correlation coefficient of LVEF, EDV, ESV between SPECT and echocardiography were 0.77, 0.86 and 0.90 respectively. P 0.07). The reproducibility of gated SPECT was excellent. There were no significant differences in

  16. Towards the Experimental Assessment of the DQE in SPECT Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountos, G. P.; Michail, C. M.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to introduce the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems using a flood source. A Tc-99m-based flood source (Eγ = 140 keV) consisting of a radiopharmaceutical solution of dithiothreitol (DTT, 10-3 M)/Tc-99m(III)-DMSA, 40 mCi/40 ml bound to the grains of an Agfa MammoRay HDR Medical X-ray film) was prepared in laboratory. The source was placed between two PMMA blocks and images were obtained by using the brain tomographic acquisition protocol (DatScan-brain). The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was evaluated using the Iterative 2D algorithm. All imaging experiments were performed in a Siemens e-Cam gamma camera. The Normalized Noise Power spectra (NNPS) were obtained from the sagittal views of the source. The higher MTF values were obtained for the Flash Iterative 2D with 24 iterations and 20 subsets. The noise levels of the SPECT reconstructed images, in terms of the NNPS, were found to increase as the number of iterations increase. The behavior of the DQE was influenced by both MTF and NNPS. As the number of iterations was increased, higher MTF values were obtained, however with a parallel, increase of magnitude in image noise, as depicted from the NNPS results. DQE values, which were influenced by both MTF and NNPS, were found higher when the number of iterations results in resolution saturation. The method presented here is novel and easy to implement, requiring materials commonly found in clinical practice and can be useful in the quality control of SPECT scanners.

  17. Imaging of gene expression in live pancreatic islet cell lines using dual-isotope SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joo Ho; Nguyen, Binh; Wells, R Glenn; Kovacs, Michael S; McGirr, Rebecca; Prato, Frank S; Morgan, Timothy G; Dhanvantari, Savita

    2008-01-01

    We are combining nuclear medicine with molecular biology to establish a sensitive, quantitative, and tomographic method with which to detect gene expression in pancreatic islet cells in vivo. Dual-isotope SPECT can be used to image multiple molecular events simultaneously, and coregistration of SPECT and CT images enables visualization of reporter gene expression in the correct anatomic context. We have engineered pancreatic islet cell lines for imaging with SPECT/CT after transplantation under the kidney capsule. INS-1 832/13 and alphaTC1-6 cells were stably transfected with a herpes simplex virus type 1-thymidine kinase-green fluorescent protein (HSV1-thymidine kinase-GFP) fusion construct (tkgfp). After clonal selection, radiolabel uptake was determined by incubation with 5-(131)I-iodo-1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)uracil ((131)I-FIAU) (alphaTC1-6 cells) or (123)I-FIAU (INS-1 832/13 cells). For the first set of in vivo experiments, SPECT was conducted after alphaTC1-6/tkgfp cells had been labeled with either (131)I-FIAU or (111)In-tropolone and transplanted under the left kidney capsule of CD1 mice. Reconstructed SPECT images were coregistered to CT. In a second study using simultaneous acquisition dual-isotope SPECT, INS-1 832/13 clone 9 cells were labeled with (111)In-tropolone before transplantation. Mice were then systemically administered (123)I-FIAU and data for both (131)I and (111)In were acquired simultaneously. alphaTC1-6/tkgfp cells showed a 15-fold greater uptake of (131)I-FIAU, and INS-1/tkgfp cells showed a 12-fold greater uptake of (123)I-FIAU, compared with that of wild-type cells. After transplantation under the kidney capsule, both reporter gene expression and location of cells could be visualized in vivo with dual-isotope SPECT. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of glucagon- and insulin-positive cells at the site of transplantation. Dual-isotope SPECT is a promising method to detect gene expression in and location of

  18. Chilaiditi's syndrome demonstrated by SPECT/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini S Perumal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chilaiditi’s syndrome is a rare condition commonly diagnosed as an incidental radiological finding. The aim of this report is to show the role of SPECT-CT in this syndrome and state the functional and anatomical role of this hybrid imaging modality. Materials and Methods: A case report. Results: A 49-year-old female patient was referred for gallium-67 citrate for a possible granulomatous myositis and underwent SPECT-CT of the abdomen to assess the area of decreased gallium uptake on planar images of the liver. The combined SPECT and CT modality demonstrated findings consistent with the clinical evidence of Chilaiditi’s syndrome. The anatomical part of this hybrid modality made it easier to evaluate the area of gallium lack of uptake which was due to air in the colon. Conclusion: This case does not only show the role of SPECT-CT in this syndrome but also suggest that the use of such modality should be considered whenever available in the evaluation of patients in whom the localization of active disease becomes imperative.

  19. SPECT and PET in Eating Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Audenaert, Kurt; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like PET and SPECT have been applied for investigation of brain function in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Regional abnormalities have been detected in cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, the availability of several neurotransmitter receptors (serotonin 1A and 2A,

  20. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas ov...

  1. Brain SPECT with Tl-201 DDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruine, J.F. de.

    1988-01-01

    The development, animal and human experiments and the first clinical results of a new blood flow tracer thallium-201 diethyldithiocarbamate (Tl-201 DDC) are discussed for functional brain imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). 325 refs.; 43 figs.; 22 tabs

  2. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2015-04-13

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  3. Anything wrong with brain SPECT? Not really

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Despite increased evidence about the usefulness of Brain SPECT in Neuro-Psychiatry, it continues to represent only a low percentage of Nuclear Medicine procedures. The prevalent perception is that it is an inadequate diagnostic tool, and/or is not changing patient management. There are objective reasons for this, as the lack of awareness by Psychiatrists about the value of SPECT, but most important is the frequently poor quality of images provided. This can be due to inadequate gamma cameras but is mostly due to poor quality software. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT via triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A combination of commercial software and local optimization was used for the final displays as well as for realignment of sequential brain SPECT studies. Results: We found out that 6 basic software improvements are needed to generate a final display where features can be clearly distinguished and which can be also easily assimilated by the referring physician. 1) Color scales: simple and efficient tools needed to generate user friendly and semiquantitative color shades as needed. Unfortunately various color scales may be needed depending on printer and paper used. 2): 3 D displays allowing, multiple standardized thresholdings, any number of groupings, differential coloring (with functional meaning) and adequate labeling. Should be completely or at least mostly automatic. 3) Automatic realignment of sequential studies: such programs exist in various forms (free WWW versions, proprietary Beta versions, etc.) but are still not supplied by the gamma camera vendors for general use. Should provide SPECT -SPECT and SPECT MRI options. 4) Localization of structures and slices a) Triangulation of structures and b) Identification of section location. 5) Graphics improvement for generating any number of optimized summary displays to accompany reports. 6) Availability of voxel based quantification software

  4. Noise suppressed partial volume correction for cardiac SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chung; Liu, Chi, E-mail: chi.liu@yale.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Liu, Hui [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Grobshtein, Yariv [GE Healthcare, Haifa 3910101 (Israel); Stacy, Mitchel R. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Sinusas, Albert J. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Partial volume correction (PVC) methods typically improve quantification at the expense of increased image noise and reduced reproducibility. In this study, the authors developed a novel voxel-based PVC method that incorporates anatomical knowledge to improve quantification while suppressing noise for cardiac SPECT/CT imaging. Methods: In the proposed method, the SPECT images were first reconstructed using anatomical-based maximum a posteriori (AMAP) with Bowsher’s prior to penalize noise while preserving boundaries. A sequential voxel-by-voxel PVC approach (Yang’s method) was then applied on the AMAP reconstruction using a template response. This template response was obtained by forward projecting a template derived from a contrast-enhanced CT image, and then reconstructed using AMAP to model the partial volume effects (PVEs) introduced by both the system resolution and the smoothing applied during reconstruction. To evaluate the proposed noise suppressed PVC (NS-PVC), the authors first simulated two types of cardiac SPECT studies: a {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scan and a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scan on a dedicated cardiac multiple pinhole SPECT/CT at both high and low count levels. The authors then applied the proposed method on a canine equilibrium blood pool study following injection with {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs at different count levels by rebinning the list-mode data into shorter acquisitions. The proposed method was compared to MLEM reconstruction without PVC, two conventional PVC methods, including Yang’s method and multitarget correction (MTC) applied on the MLEM reconstruction, and AMAP reconstruction without PVC. Results: The results showed that the Yang’s method improved quantification, however, yielded increased noise and reduced reproducibility in the regions with higher activity. MTC corrected for PVE on high count data with amplified noise, although yielded the worst performance among all the methods

  5. Determination of optimum filter in inferolateral view of myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takavar; Eftekhari, M.; Fallahi, B.; Shamsipour, Gh.; Sohrabi, M.; Saghari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging, images are degraded by photon attenuation, distance-dependent collimator, detector response and photon scattering. As filters greatly affect quality of nuclear medicine images, in this study determination of optimum filter for inferolateral view is our prime objective. Materials and Methods: .A phantom simulating heart left ventricle was built. About 1mCi of 99m Tc, was injected into the phantom. Images were taken from this phantom. Parzen, Hamming, Hanning, Butter worth and Gaussian filters were exerted on the images obtained from the phantom.. By defining some criteria such as contrast, signal to noise ratio, and defect size delectability, the best filter was determined for our ADAC spect system at our nuclear medicine center. In this study, 27 patients who previously had undergone coronary angiography were chosen to be included. All of these patients revealed significant stenosis in the left circumflex artery. Myocardial SPECT images of these patients had inferolateral defect. The images of these patients were processed with 12 filters including the optimum filters obtained from phantom study and some other non-optimum filters. A nuclear medicine physician quantified the results by assigmng mark from 0 to 4. to every image. 0 mark for images that didn't show the defect properly and 4 for the best one. The data from patient study were analyzed with non-related, non -parametric Friedman test. Results: Nyquist frequency of 0.325 and 0.5 were obtained as the optimum cut-off frequencies for hamming and Hanning filters respectively. Order 11 and cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order 20. with cut-off frequency of 0.5 were found to be optimum for Butter worth and Gaussian filters. In patient studies it was found that, Butter worth filter with cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order of 11 produced the best quality images. Conclusion: In this study. Butter worth filter with cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order of 11 was the

  6. Ventilation-perfused studies using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwijnenburg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion SPECT studies is decribed and an effort is made to evaluate its usefullness. The technical details of the emthod are described. In the the transaxial reconstructions of the tomographic studies the contour of the lungs is detected and regional values of lung volume, ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion ratios are calculated. The method is operator independent. The lung volume calculations from the SPECT studies are validated by comparing them with lung volume measurements using the helium dilution technique. A good correlation (r=0.91) was found between the two volumes. SPECT volume was greater than the volume measured with helium dilution, which was attributed to non-gas-containing structures in the. lungs. The use of ventilation-perfusion ratio SPECT is described to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the lungs in patients treated with mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Perfusion changes appear as early as 2 months after the start of irradiation. Ventilation changes appear later and relatively minor. No changes are seen outside the radiation portals. The ventilation-perfusion inequality in pulmonary sarcoidosis is treated. It is suggested that the decrease D LCO in these patients may be partly due to an even distribution of ventilation perfusion ratios. An effort is made to establish the properties of a new tracer used for the assessment of the metabolic function of the pulmonary endothelium. The lung uptake of I-123 IMP mimics the distribution of a perfusion tracer and it is suggested that this tracer may be useful for the early detection of pulmonary vascular damage, even when blood flow is still intact. Some aspects of the use of Kr-81m as a ventilation tracer are discussed as well as the effect of noise on Kr-81m SPECT reconstructions. (author). 146 refs.; 39 figs.; 8 tabs

  7. Inverse Monte Carlo: a unified reconstruction algorithm for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, C.E.; Coleman, R.E.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Inverse Monte Carlo (IMOC) is presented as a unified reconstruction algorithm for Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) providing simultaneous compensation for scatter, attenuation, and the variation of collimator resolution with depth. The technique of inverse Monte Carlo is used to find an inverse solution to the photon transport equation (an integral equation for photon flux from a specified source) for a parameterized source and specific boundary conditions. The system of linear equations so formed is solved to yield the source activity distribution for a set of acquired projections. For the studies presented here, the equations are solved using the EM (Maximum Likelihood) algorithm although other solution algorithms, such as Least Squares, could be employed. While the present results specifically consider the reconstruction of camera-based Single Photon Emission Computed Tomographic (SPECT) images, the technique is equally valid for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) if a Monte Carlo model of such a system is used. As a preliminary evaluation, experimentally acquired SPECT phantom studies for imaging Tc-99m (140 keV) are presented which demonstrate the quantitative compensation for scatter and attenuation for a two dimensional (single slice) reconstruction. The algorithm may be expanded in a straight forward manner to full three dimensional reconstruction including compensation for out of plane scatter

  8. Development of the new phantom for evaluation of SPECT performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukukita, H.; Oyamada, H.; Nagaiwa, K.; Kawai, H.; Terui, S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors developed a new Phantom designed to evaluate the SPECT system performances of rotational gamma cameras. This phantom is composed of 5 parts, and each of them has its own purpose; such as measurements of 1) spatial resolution 2) slice thickness, 3) dose linearity, 4) uniformity, and 5) image distortion. These parts are made of Acrylic (0.8 cm in thickness) and each of them has the same disc-shape, measuring 28.4 cm in inner diameter and 7 cm in inner length. For the large field of view cameras, it is possible to set up-to 4 parts together if necessary. Therefore, 4 different parameters can be obtained at one rotation. The phantom was filled with Tc-99m solution, and SPET data were obtained as follows: for the determination of spatial resolution and slice thickness, 128 linear sampling with every 5 0 angular rotation was performed, and 64 linear sampling with every 10 0 angular rotation for dose linearity uniformity, and image distortion. The values obtained with the phantom were FWHM of 19.1 mm for spatial resolution, FWHM of 19.9 mm for slice thickness, and integral uniformity of 36.4%. For dose linearity a good correlating (r=0.99) was obtained. For image distortion it was easy to detect the misalignment of the electrical and mechanical axes. The authors found that this phantom was a suitable tool as a routine quality control and daily maintenance of SPECT system

  9. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  10. 3D composite image, 3D MRI, 3D SPECT, hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Shibata, I.; Sugo, N.; Takano, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D)SPECT imaging technique we have studied and published for the past several years is an analytical tool that permits visual expression of the cerebral circulation profile in various cerebral diseases. The greatest drawback of SPECT is that the limitation on precision of spacial resolution makes intracranial localization impossible. In 3D SPECT imaging, intracranial volume and morphology may vary with the threshold established. To solve this problem, we have produced complimentarily combined SPECT and helical-CT 3D images by means of general-purpose visualization software for intracranial localization. In hydrocephalus, however, the key subject to be studied is the profile of cerebral circulation around the ventricles of the brain. This suggests that, for displaying the cerebral ventricles in three dimensions, CT is a difficult technique whereas MRI is more useful. For this reason, we attempted to establish the profile of cerebral circulation around the cerebral ventricles by the production of combined 3D images of SPECT and MRI. In patients who had shunt surgery for hydrocephalus, a difference between pre- and postoperative cerebral circulation profiles was assessed by a voxel distribution curve, 3D SPECT images, and combined 3D SPECT and MRI images. As the shunt system in this study, an Orbis-Sigma valve of the automatic cerebrospinal fluid volume adjustment type was used in place of the variable pressure type Medos valve currently in use, because this device requires frequent changes in pressure and a change in pressure may be detected after MRI procedure. The SPECT apparatus used was PRISM3000 of the three-detector type, and 123I-IMP was used as the radionuclide in a dose of 222 MBq. MRI data were collected with an MAGNEXa+2 with a magnetic flux density of 0.5 tesla under the following conditions: field echo; TR 50 msec; TE, 10 msec; flip, 30ueK; 1 NEX; FOV, 23 cm; 1-mm slices; and gapless. 3D images are produced on the workstation TITAN

  11. Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mejia, Jorge [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Fazan, Rubens Jr.; Salgado, Hélio Cesar [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Simões, Marcus Vinícius, E-mail: msimoes@fmrp.usp.br [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of myocardial perfusion SPECT for diagnosis of coronary artery disease in Korea: comparison with exercise ECG and coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Jang, Myung Jin; Lee, Myoung Mook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness of myocardial SPECT for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was investigated considering the present and amended costs of myocardial SPECT and exercise ECG in Korea. Four diagnostic tactics such as 1) coronary angiography (CAG) after exercise ECG, 2) CAG after myocardial SPECT, 3) direct CAG, and 4) CAG after myocardial SPECT following exercise ECG were chosen. Costs were calculated using the present costs of various tests and effects represented by Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) were estimated. Difference of QALY (ΔQALY) was calculated by subtracting QALY of diagnosed/treated cases from QALY of undiagnosed cases. Cost/ΔQALY was calculated and compared between four different tactics according to pre-test probability. When pre-test probability was equal to or larger than 0.6, direct CAG was the most cost-effective. When pre-test probability was between 0.2 and 0.6, CAG after myocardial SPECT following exercise ECG was the most cost-effective. CAG after myocardial SPECT was the second most cost-effective. Cost-effectiveness was similar when the costs of exercise ECG were doubled or quadrupled. CAG after exercise ECG was always the least cost-effective. Myocardial SPECT with or without preceding exercise ECG was the most cost-effective method to diagnose coronary artery disease in the present or expected amended cost system

  13. Establishment study of the in vivo imaging analysis with small animal imaging modalities (micro-PET and micro-SPECT/CT) for bio-drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Beomsu; Park, Sanghyeon; Park, Jeonghoon; Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Seolwha; Lee, Yunjong; Choi, Daeseong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we established the image acquisition and analysis procedures of micro-PET, SPECT/CT using the experimental animal (mouse) for the development of imaging assessment method for the bio-drug. We examined the micro-SPECT/CT, PET imaging study using the Siemens Inveon micro-multimodality system (SPECT/CT) and micro-PET with 99m Tc-MDP, DMSA, and 18 F-FDG. SPECT imaging studies using 3 types of pinhole collimators. 5-MWB collimator was used for SPECT image study. To study whole-body distribution, 99m Tc-MDP SPECT image study was performed. We obtained the fine distribution image. And the CT images was obtained to provide the anatomical information. And then these two types images are fused. To study specific organ uptake, we examined 99 mTc-DMSA SPECT/CT imaging study. We also performed the PET image study using U87MG tumor bearing mice and 18 F-FDG. The overnight fasting, warming and anesthesia with 2% isoflurane pretreatment enhance the tumor image through reducing the background uptake including brown fat, harderian gland and skeletal muscles. Also we got the governmental approval for use of x-ray generator for CT and radioisotopes as sealed and open source. We prepared the draft of process procedure for the experimental animal imaging facility. These research results can be utilized as a basic image study protocols and data for the image assessment of drugs including biological drug

  14. Evaluation of the quality of picture in studies of sect brain acquired with various collimators; Evaluacion de la calidad de imagen en estudios de spect cerebral adquiridos con distintos colimadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran Velasco, V.; Prieto Azcarete, E.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Sancho rodriguez, L.; Ribelles Segura, M. J.; Richter echevarria, J. A.; Arbizu Lostao, J.; Marti-Climent, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    On the practice clinic , the performance of the systems SPECT depends on in large measurement of the quality of image. The goal of East study was evaluate how affect the parameters of reconstruction of studies SPECT of perfusion brain acquired with a collimator of holes parallel (LEHR) and other of holes in fan (Fan-Beam). (Author)

  15. Imaging neurochemistry of cerebrovascular disease with PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatazawa, J.; Shimosegawa, E.

    1998-01-01

    Pathophysiology od cerebrovascular disease has been studied by measuring cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). These parameters are measures for brain tissue consisting of heterogeneous components such as neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. It is still difficult to evaluate brain damages specifically involving either neurons or other components. Several trials were recently conducted to visualize neuron-specific injury in cerebrovascular disease by means of 11 C flumazenil for PET and 123 I-iomazenil for SPECT. These tracers selectively bind to central benzodiazepine receptor which is purely neuronal. A reduced accumulation of these ligands was found in the area surrounding the complete infarction and in the cortex remote from putaminal hemorrhage, indicating the existence of neuron specific injury not visualized by CT and MR. Neurological deficits were well correlated with the loss of cortical accumulation of these ligands. These preliminary studies indicated a potential of neurochemical imaging in cerebrovascular disease. Vulnerability to ischemia which may differ among brain tissue components, among subpopulations of neurons, and among pre-synaptic and post-synaptic functions can be more precisely examined. Neurochemical imaging can be also applied to reveal releases and re-organization of each neurotransmitter-acceptor system after stroke

  16. Kinetic parameter estimation from attenuated SPECT projection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutter, B.W.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional analysis of dynamically acquired nuclear medicine data involves fitting kinetic models to time-activity curves generated from regions of interest defined on a temporal sequence of reconstructed images. However, images reconstructed from the inconsistent projections of a time-varying distribution of radiopharmaceutical acquired by a rotating SPECT system can contain artifacts that lead to biases in the estimated kinetic parameters. To overcome this problem the authors investigated the estimation of kinetic parameters directly from projection data by modeling the data acquisition process. To accomplish this it was necessary to parametrize the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the SPECT field of view. In a simulated transverse slice, kinetic parameters were estimated for simple one compartment models for three myocardial regions of interest, as well as for the liver. Myocardial uptake and washout parameters estimated by conventional analysis of noiseless simulated data had biases ranging between 1--63%. Parameters estimated directly from the noiseless projection data were unbiased as expected, since the model used for fitting was faithful to the simulation. Predicted uncertainties (standard deviations) of the parameters obtained for 500,000 detected events ranged between 2--31% for the myocardial uptake parameters and 2--23% for the myocardial washout parameters

  17. Imaging neurochemistry of cerebrovascular disease with PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatazawa, J.; Shimosegawa, E. [Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Pathophysiology od cerebrovascular disease has been studied by measuring cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). These parameters are measures for brain tissue consisting of heterogeneous components such as neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. It is still difficult to evaluate brain damages specifically involving either neurons or other components. Several trials were recently conducted to visualize neuron-specific injury in cerebrovascular disease by means of {sup 11}C flumazenil for PET and {sup 123}I-iomazenil for SPECT. These tracers selectively bind to central benzodiazepine receptor which is purely neuronal. A reduced accumulation of these ligands was found in the area surrounding the complete infarction and in the cortex remote from putaminal hemorrhage, indicating the existence of neuron specific injury not visualized by CT and MR. Neurological deficits were well correlated with the loss of cortical accumulation of these ligands. These preliminary studies indicated a potential of neurochemical imaging in cerebrovascular disease. Vulnerability to ischemia which may differ among brain tissue components, among subpopulations of neurons, and among pre-synaptic and post-synaptic functions can be more precisely examined. Neurochemical imaging can be also applied to reveal releases and re-organization of each neurotransmitter-acceptor system after stroke.

  18. Quantitation of myocardial blood flow and myocardial flow reserve with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi dynamic SPECT/CT to enhance detection of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bailing [University of Missouri-Columbia, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, Columbia, MO (United States); Chen, Fu-Chung; Chen, Chien-Cheng [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua (China); Wu, Tao-Cheng [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); Huang, Wen-Sheng [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Hou, Po-Nien [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lukong Town, Changhua Shien (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lukong Town, Changhua Shien (China); Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China)

    2014-12-15

    Conventional dual-head single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT systems capable of fast dynamic SPECT (DySPECT) imaging have a potential for flow quantitation. This study introduced a new method to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) with DySPECT scan and evaluated the diagnostic performance of detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with perfusion using invasive coronary angiography (CAG) as the reference standard. This study included 21 patients with suspected or known CAD who had received DySPECT, ECG-gated SPECT (GSPECT), and CAG (13 with ≥50 % stenosis in any vessel; non-CAD group: 8 with patent arteries or <50 % stenosis). DySPECT and GSPECT scans were performed on a widely used dual-head SPECT/CT scanner. The DySPECT imaging protocol utilized 12-min multiple back-and-forth gantry rotations during injections of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (MIBI) tracer at rest or dipyridamole-stress stages. DySPECT images were reconstructed with full physical corrections and converted to the physical unit of becquerels per milliliter. Stress MBF (SMBF), rest MBF (RMBF), and MFR were quantified by a one-tissue compartment flow model using time-activity curves derived from DySPECT images. Perfusion images were processed for GSPECT scan and interpreted to obtain summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference score (SDS). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of flow and perfusion. Using the criteria of ≥50 % stenosis as positive CAD, areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of flow assessment were overall significantly greater than those of perfusion. For patient-based analysis, AUCs for MFR, SMBF, SSS, and SDS were 0.91 ± 0.07, 0.86 ± 0.09, 0.64 ± 0.12, and 0.59 ± 0.13. For vessel-based analysis, AUCs for MFR, SMBF, SSS, and SDS were 0.81 ± 0.05, 0.76 ± 0.06, 0.62 ± 0.07, and 0.56 ± 0.08, respectively. The preliminary data suggest that MBF quantitation with a

  19. Assessment of congenital heart disease by a thallium-201 SPECT study in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Iwao; Nakajima, Kenichi; Taki, Junichi; Taniguchi, Mitsuru; Bunko, Hisashi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi; Ohno, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of correlation between the right-to-left ventricular systolic pressure ratios (RVp/LVp) and the thallium-201 right-to-left ventricular ( 201 Tl R/L) count ratios was investigated in children with various congenital heart diseases. High-resolution three-headed SPECT system equipped with either parallel-hole or fan-beam collimators was used. In a total of 102 patients, the correlation between RVp/LVp and 201 Tl R/L average count ratios was good in both planar (r=0.89, p=0.0001) and SPECT studies (r=0.80, p=0.0001). Quantitative analysis of myocardial uptake by SPECT demonstrated the characteristic pattern of each disease as well as the differences in the right ventricular overload types. When the linear regression analysis was performed in each heart disease, ventricular septal defect showed most excellent correlation. Complex heart anomalies also showed positive correlation (r=0.51, p=0.05) with RVp/LVp, and it can be used to estimate right ventricular pressure. After surgical treatment of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis, the decrease of 201 Tl R/L count ratio was in accordance with improvement of right ventricular overload. We conclude that 201 Tl SPECT study can be a good indicator for estimation of right ventricular pressure. (author)

  20. SPECT perfusion brain scintigraphy in dementia: early diagnostic and differential diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klisarova, A.

    2003-01-01

    The present review discusses the role of Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for the early detection and the differential diagnosis of the different types of dementia. The usefulness of the functional imaging is particularly emphasized in the detection of the early changes occurring in Alzheimer's diseases. The early diagnosis is a crucial factor for the treatment in the phase of reversible changes. The correlation between the severity of the diseases and the degree of hypoperfusion of the functional neuroimaging is also subject to review. SPECT and PET are of particular importance for the differential diagnosis of the various kinds of dementia. The imaging models are defined for the different stages of diseases. The functional imaging together with the clinical tests increase the diagnostic accuracy in Alzheimer's disease. The review presents the relation between the development of Alzheimer's disease and some risk factors. The review confirms the usefulness of SPECT and PET in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and the differential diagnosis of the different types of dementia which proves the SPECT appropriateness in the routine clinical practice. The brain structures are more advantageous than the other methods of visualisation (CT and MRI) for the detection of the functional disorders in the brain cortex in a number of diseases of the central nervous system. (author)

  1. Utility of SPECT imaging for determination of vertebral metastases in patients with known primary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, D.L.; Kahn, D.; Huston, B.; Bevering, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    Determining the etiology of a focal lesion seen on bone scan in patients with primary tumors usually requires the use of other imaging procedures or biopsy. Single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) with high resolution multidetector systems can localize the specific site of a vertebral lesion and in this way potentially differentiate between benign and metastatic disease. SPECT images of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine were reviewed for lesion location and intensity by two experienced interpreters. Follow-up data were adequate to ascertain the cause of 71 lesions seen on SPECT in 29 patients. Twenty-six of these lesions were not seen on planar images. Of the 71 lesions, 44 were benign and 27 metastatic. Of the 15 lesions where the pedicle was involved, 11 were found to metastatic. There were a total of 14 facet lesions, 9 of which were present in vertebra with no lesions at sites other than the facets. All 9 of these isolated facet lesions turned out to be benign. Lesion intensity did not distinguish benign from malignant disease. We conclude that SPECT imaging is useful in determining the etiology of focal lesions seen on bone scan in patients with a known primary tumor referred for evaluation of metastatic disease. (orig.)

  2. Technetium-99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT in antiphospholipid syndrome - preliminary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowicz, G.; Lass, P.; Koseda-Dragan, M.; Nowicki, R.; Krajka-Lauer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined as the presence of repeated episodes of arterial or venous thrombosis, recurrent spontaneous abortions and throbocytopenia in patients with elevated antiphospholipid antibodies. An important feature of APS are cerebrovascular disorders of thrombotic origin. The aim of the study was to assess cerebral blood flow changes utilising brain SPECT HMPAO scanning. METHODS: Brain SPECT 99mTc-HMPAO scanning was performed in 20 patients with APS: 12 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 4 with Sneddon's syndrome, 2 with Sjoegren's syndrome, 2 with primary APS. 30 healthy volunteers served as a control group. RESULTS: 19 studies were abnormal, 1 normal. Abnormalities consisted of multifocal perfusion deficits and diffuse decrease of regional blood flow. The average number of focal perfusion deficits was 4.8±1.7. In 7 patients diffuse hypoperfusion of frontal lobes was seen, in 1 patient additionally hypoperfusion of temporal and occipital lobes. There was a correlation between the number of focal perfusion deficits and cognitive impairment in this group of patients. Correlation between SPECT images and clinical data was moderate in cerebellar syndrome and paresis, weak in persistent headache and vertigo. CONCLUSIONS: Those results indicate the high utility of CBF brain SPECT scanning in antiphospholipid syndrome. (author)

  3. Frameless image registration of X-ray CT and SPECT by volume matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuko; Kihara, Tomohiko; Yui, Nobuharu; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Yoshifumi.

    1998-01-01

    Image registration of functional (SPECT) and morphological (X-ray CT/MRI) images is studied in order to improve the accuracy and the quantity of the image diagnosis. We have developed a new frameless registration method of X-ray CT and SPECT image using transmission CT image acquired for absorption correction of SPECT images. This is the automated registration method and calculates the transformation matrix between the two coordinate systems of image data by the optimization method. This registration method is based on the similar physical property of X-ray CT and transmission CT image. The three-dimensional overlap of the bone region is used for image matching. We verified by a phantom test that it can provide a good result of within two millimeters error. We also evaluated visually the accuracy of the registration method by the application study of SPECT, X-ray CT, and transmission CT head images. This method can be carried out accurately without any frames. We expect this registration method becomes an efficient tool to improve image diagnosis and medical treatment. (author)

  4. Changes in the peritumoral hypoperfusion area immediately after radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumor. Analysis using 3D-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Masaaki [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Sixteen patients with single metastatic brain tumor underwent SPECT using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) before and after radiosurgery. Influence of treatment was evaluated using three-dimensional SPECT images, threshold-voxel graphs and changes in the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area. A three-detector type scanner, the PRISM3000, was also used. SPECT scanning was performed for 30 minutes after intravenous administration of {sup 123}I-IMP with sequential scans every 1 minutes. The data obtained 16-30 minutes after administration were processed using a low-pass ramp filter, and three-dimensional SPECT images were constructed from these data using the Application Visualization System (AVS). Furthermore, a threshold-voxel graph was plotted and the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area was calculated. SPECT was performed before radiosurgery, and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after, and these data were compared. Three-dimensional SPECT presented the area of peritumoral hypoperfusion as a deficit image and changes were evaluated visually. Threshold-voxel graphs were evaluated as follows: changes in voxels with a threshold of 40-50% indicated a hypoperfusion area, and changes in voxels with a threshold of 70-95% indicated a hyperperfusion area in the tumor side hemisphere. The volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area was calculated using the voxel difference between the tumor side and normal hemispheres. Our results showed that the peritumoral hypoperfusion area gradually decreased after an initial first-day increase following radiosurgery. Visual three-dimensional SPECT allowed us to monitor both the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area of metastatic brain tumors after radiosurgery by means of a threshold-voxel graph and changes in the peritumoral hypoperfusion area. (author)

  5. Absolute quantitation of myocardial blood flow with 201Tl and dynamic SPECT in canine: optimisation and validation of kinetic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hidehiro; Kim, Kyeong-Min; Nakazawa, Mayumi; Sohlberg, Antti; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Takuya; Watabe, Hiroshi; Eberl, Stefan; Tamura, Yoshikazu; Ono, Yukihiko

    2008-01-01

    201 Tl has been extensively used for myocardial perfusion and viability assessment. Unlike 99m Tc-labelled agents, such as 99m Tc-sestamibi and 99m Tc-tetrofosmine, the regional concentration of 201 Tl varies with time. This study is intended to validate a kinetic modelling approach for in vivo quantitative estimation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and volume of distribution of 201 Tl using dynamic SPECT. Dynamic SPECT was carried out on 20 normal canines after the intravenous administration of 201 Tl using a commercial SPECT system. Seven animals were studied at rest, nine during adenosine infusion, and four after beta-blocker administration. Quantitative images were reconstructed with a previously validated technique, employing OS-EM with attenuation-correction, and transmission-dependent convolution subtraction scatter correction. Measured regional time-activity curves in myocardial segments were fitted to two- and three-compartment models. Regional MBF was defined as the influx rate constant (K 1 ) with corrections for the partial volume effect, haematocrit and limited first-pass extraction fraction, and was compared with that determined from radio-labelled microspheres experiments. Regional time-activity curves responded well to pharmacological stress. Quantitative MBF values were higher with adenosine and decreased after beta-blocker compared to a resting condition. MBFs obtained with SPECT (MBF SPECT ) correlated well with the MBF values obtained by the radio-labelled microspheres (MBF MS ) (MBF SPECT = -0.067 + 1.042 x MBF MS , p 201 Tl and dynamic SPECT. (orig.)

  6. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Gastroenterology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Sias, Alessandro [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Radiology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Marrosu, Francesco [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Neurology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating

  7. Physical factors affecting single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) applied in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.I.; Khalil, W.A.; Hassan, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    many physical factors degrade single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images both qualitatively and quantitatively. Physical properties important for the assessment of the potential of emission computed tomography implemented by collimated detector systems include sensitivity, statistical and angular sampling requirements, attenuation compensation, resolution, uniformity, and multisection design constraints. SPECT has highlighted the used to improve gamma camera performance. Flood field nonuniformity is translated into tomographic the need to improve gamma camera performance. Flood field nonuniformity is translated into tomographic images as major artifacts because it distorts the data obtained at each projection. Also, poor energy resolution translates directly into degraded spatial resolution through reduced ability to reject scattered photons on the basic of pluses height analysis. The aim of this work is study the different and most important acquisition and processing parameters, which affect the quality of the SPECT images. The present study investigates the various parameters effecting SPECT images and experimental results demonstrate that: daily uniformity checks and evaluation are essential to ensure that the SPECT system is working properly. The Core used in the reconstruction process could be correct to avoid data misalignment. 60 mumblers of views gave the best image quality, rather than 20 or 30 views. Time per view (TPV) 30 or 20 sec gave a good image quality, rather than high-resolution collimator, is recommended in order to provide good spatial resolution. On the other hand patient motion could cause serious reconstruction artifacts. A cine display is recommended to identify movement artifacts. In the case of matrix size, matrix 128x128 give the best resolution than matrix 64x64. Energy window width, 15% compared with the standard 20% improved the resolution. Butter worth filter (cut off 0.57 cyc/cm with order 6 ) give the best resolution

  8. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG-PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2003-01-01

    Finding epileptogenic zone is the most important step for the successful epilepsy surgery. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used in the localization of epileptogenic foci. In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT is excellent. However, detection of hippocampal sclerosis by MRI is so certain that use of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT in medial temporal lobe epilepsy is limited for some occasions. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG-PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, FDG-PET and ictal SPECT can have a crucial role in the localization of epileptogenic foci for non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. Interpretation of FDG-PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods can aid the objective diagnosis of epileptogenic foci. lctal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, ictal EEG findings during injection of tracer, and repeated ictal SPECT were important technical issues of ictal SPECT. SPECT can also be used in the evaluation of validity of Wada test

  9. Functional neuroimaging in epilepsy: FDG-PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    Finding epileptogenic zone is the most important step for the successful epilepsy surgery. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used in the localization of epileptogenic foci. In medial temporal lobe epilepsy, the diagnostic sensitivity of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT is excellent. However, detection of hippocampal sclerosis by MRI is so certain that use of FDG-PET and ictal SPECT in medial temporal lobe epilepsy is limited for some occasions. In neocortical epilepsy, the sensitivities of FDG-PET or ictal SPECT are fair. However, FDG-PET and ictal SPECT can have a crucial role in the localization of epileptogenic foci for non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. Interpretation of FDG-PET has been recently advanced by voxel-based analysis and automatic volume of interest analysis based on a population template. Both analytical methods can aid the objective diagnosis of epileptogenic foci. lctal SPECT was analyzed using subtraction methods and voxel-based analysis. Rapidity of injection of tracers, ictal EEG findings during injection of tracer, and repeated ictal SPECT were important technical issues of ictal SPECT. SPECT can also be used in the evaluation of validity of Wada test.

  10. The clinical use of brain SPECT imaging in neuropsychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amen, Daniel G; Wu, Joseph C; Carmichael, Blake

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on brain SPECT imaging in brain trauma, dementia, and temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain SPECT allows clinicians the ability to view cerebral areas of healthy, low, and excessive perfusion. This information can be correlated with what is known about the function or dysfunction of each area. SPECT has a number of advantages over other imaging techniques, including wider availability, lower cost, and high quality resolution with multi-headed cameras. There are a number of issues that compromise the effective use of SPECT, including low quality of some imaging cameras, and variability of image rendering and readings (Au)

  11. I-123 Iofetamine SPECT scan in children with neurological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamini, J.R.; Konkol, R.J.; Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    I-123 Iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the brain in 42 patients (ages 14 days to 23 years) was compared with other localizing studies in children with neurological diseases. All had an EEG and at least one imaging study of the brain (computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both). Seventy-eight percent of the patients had an EEG within 24-72 hours of the IMP-SPECT scan. Thirty-five (83%) had a history of seizures, and the remainder had other neurological conditions without a history of seizures. In most cases, a normal EEG reading with normal CT or MRI result predicted a normal SPECT study. When the EEG was abnormal the majority of the IMP-SPECT scans were abnormal and localized the abnormality to the same region. A comparison with CT and MRI showed that structural abnormalities involving the cortex were usually well demonstrated with IMP-SPECT imaging. Structural lesions confined to the white matter were generally not detectable with IMP-SPECT. In a few cases, SPECT scans revealed abnormalities in deep brain areas not identified by EEG. IMP-SPECT imaging is a valuable technique for the detection and localization of abnormal cerebral metabolic activity in children with seizure disorders. A correlation with CT or MRI is essential for proper interpretation of abnormalities detected with IMP SPECT imaging

  12. 99mTc MDP SPECT-CT-Based Modified Mirels Classification for Evaluation of Risk of Fracture in Skeletal Metastasis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Niazi, Imran Khalid; Butt, Sumera; Qamar, Faisal

    2018-06-01

    Mirels' scoring system quantifies the risk of sustaining a pathologic fracture in osseous metastases of weight bearing long bones. Conventional Mirels' scoring is based on radiographs. Our pilot study proposes Tc MDP bone SPECT-CT based modified Mirels' scoring system and its comparison with conventional Mirels' scoring. Cortical lysis was noted in 8(24%) by SPECT-CT versus 2 (6.3%) on X-rays. Additional SPECT-CT parameters were; circumferential involvement [1/4 (31%), 1/2 (3%), 3/4 (37.5%), 4/4 (28%)] and extra-osseous soft tissue [3%]. Our pilot study suggests the potential role of SPECT-CT in predicting risk of fracture in osseous metastases.

  13. Dosimetry estimation of SPECT/CT for iodine 123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mhiri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the additional radiation exposure in terms of effective dose incurred by patients in the CT (computed tomography portion of 123I-MIBG (123II-metaiodobenzylguanidine study with SPECT/CT (Single photon emission computed tomography associated to computed tomography in some pediatric patients of our department. Methods: Data from 123II-MIBG scans comprising 50 children were presented in this study. The contribution of total effective dose imparted by the nuclear tracer and patient's age was calculated. Effective dose from the CT portion of the examination is also estimated.SPECT acquisitions were performed with a dual-headed SPECT unit with an integrated 2-slice CT scanner (Symbia T E-Cam, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany. The CT acquisition were performed using a tube current modulation system (Care Dose 4D. Parameters used were: tube current of 30 - 60 mAs, slice thickness of 3-5 mm, and tube voltage of 110 kV. Results: Our results show that SPECT dosimetry depends on administered activity and patient’s age and weight. For CT scan, effective dose is affected by tube current (mA, tube potential (kVp, rotation speed, pitch, slice thickness, patient mass, and the exact volume of the patient that is being imaged. Conclusion: For children, 123II-MIBG study with SPECT/CT should be performed using the lowest available voltage and current. A sensible choice of these two parameters used can significantly reduce radiation dose, without any compromise in the quality of the diagnostic information.

  14. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Kewm, Do Hun

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, ρ =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 ± 0.20 vs 3.04 ± 0.27, ρ =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, ρ =0.012, r=-0.924, ρ =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers

  15. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kewm, Do Hun [National Bugok Mental Hospital, Changryung (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-10-15

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, {rho} =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 {+-} 0.20 vs 3.04 {+-} 0.27, {rho} =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, {rho} =0.012, r=-0.924, {rho} =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers.

  16. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  17. Comparative analysis of the sensitivity of the scanner rSPECT: using GAMOS: a Geant4-based framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Turtos, Rosana; Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Arteche, Jossue; Leyva Pernia, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The molecular imaging of cellular processes in vivo using preclinical animal studies and SPECT technique is one of the main reasons for the design of new devices with high spatial resolution. As an auxiliary tool, Monte Carlo simulation has allowed the characterization and optimization of those medical imaging systems effectively. At present there is a new simulation framework called GAMOS (GEANT4-based Architecture for Medicine-Oriented Simulations); which code, libraries and particle transport method correspond to those developed by GEANT4 and contains specific applications for nuclear medicine. This tool has been already validated for PET technique by comparison with experimental data, while not yet been done the correct evaluation of GAMOS for SPECT systems. Present work have demonstrated the potential of GAMOS in obtaining simulated realistic data using this nuclear imaging technique. For this purpose, simulation of a novel installation 'rSPECT' ,dedicated to the study of rodents, has been done. The study comprises the collimation and detection geometries and the fundamental characteristics of the previous published experimental measurements for rSPECT installation. Studies have been done using 99mTc and 20% energy window. Sensitivity values obtained by simulation revealed an acceptable agreement with experimental values. Therefore we can conclude that simulation results have shown good agreement with the real data. This fact allowed to estimate the behavior of the new GEANT4 simulation platform 'GAMOS' in SPECT applications and have demonstrated the feasibility of reproducing experimental data. (author)

  18. Differences in [99mTc]TRODAT-1 SPECT binding to dopamine transporters in patients with multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, Randel L.; Newberg, Andrew B.; Acton, Paul D.; Siderowf, Andrew; Wintering, Nancy; Alavi, Abass; Mozley, P. David; Plossl, Karl; Udeshi, Michelle; Hurtig, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA), a disorder causing autonomic dysfunction, parkinsonism, and cerebellar dysfunction, is difficult to differentiate from other movement disorders, particularly early in the course of disease. This study evaluated whether [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 binding to the dopamine transporter differentiates MSA from other movement disorders. Single-photon emission computed tomographic brain scans were acquired in 25 MSA patients, 48 age-matched controls, and 130 PD patients, 3 h after the injection of 740 MBq (20 mCi) of [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed manually on subregions of both basal ganglia and distribution volume ratios (DVRs) were calculated. Regional DVRs were compared between study groups in MSA patients. Student's ttests were used to compare MSA patients with other study groups. Spearman correlations were used to compare DVRs with NP measures. Based upon various motor scores, MSA and PD patients had comparable motor impairment, and were significantly impaired compared with controls. Mean DVRs in the basal ganglia of MSA patients were significantly less than those of controls, but generally higher (p 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 binding, particularly in the posterior putamen, compared with PD patients and significantly lower binding compared with controls. This may reflect different pathophysiological processes of the two neurodegenerative diseases. (orig.)

  19. Towards adapting a normal patient database for SPECT brain perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N D; Soleimani, M; Mitchell, C N; Holmes, R B; Evans, M J; Cade, S C

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) is a tool which can be used to image perfusion in the brain. Clinicians can use such images to help diagnose dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. Due to the intrinsic stochasticity in the photon imaging system, some form of statistical comparison of an individual image with a 'normal' patient database gives a clinician additional confidence in interpreting the image. Due to the variations between SPECT camera systems, ideally a normal patient database is required for each individual system. However, cost or ethical considerations often prohibit the collection of such a database for each new camera system. Some method of adapting existing normal patient databases to new camera systems would be beneficial. This paper introduces a method which may be regarded as a 'first-pass' attempt based on 2-norm regularization and a codebook of discrete spatially stationary convolutional kernels. Some preliminary illustrative results are presented, together with discussion on limitations and possible improvements

  20. Measurement of lung water with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.Y.L.; Ficken, V.J.; Ekeh, S.U.; Ryals, C.J.; Allen, E.W.; Basmadjian, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of iodoantipyrine (IAP) labeled with radioactive iodine (I-123) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) to measure lung water. I-123 IAP was injected intravenously to six New Zealand White rabbits under anesthesia. After 1 hour, Tc-99m macroaggregates of albumin (MAA) were injected. SPECT imaging was performed in dual-energy mode. After a blood sample was drawn, the animals were sacrificed, and the lungs were removed. Blood samples were assayed for radioactivity. The lungs were weighed, dried, and weighted again to determine water content. The product of area defined by MAA in a tomogram and IAP count rate of central pixels of that region in the corresponding tomogram was taken as the relative amount of IAP in each lung

  1. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    radiolabeled liquid aerosols are not restricted to the presence of obstructive lung disease. Radiolabeled macroaggregated human albumin is the imaging agent of choice for perfusion scintigraphy. An optimal combination of nuclide activities and acquisition times for ventilation and perfusion, collimators......Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas over......, and imaging matrix yields an adequate V/Q SPECT study in approximately 20 minutes of imaging time. The recommended protocol based on the patient remaining in an unchanged position during the initial ventilation study and the perfusion study allows presentation of matching ventilation and perfusion slices...

  2. SPECT/CT in pediatric patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadel, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging is becoming the standard of care in pediatric imaging. Indications are mainly for oncologic imaging including mIBG scintigraphy for neuroblastoma and I-123 post surgical imaging of children with thyroid carcinoma, bone scintigraphy for back pain, children referred from sports medicine and neurodevelopmentally delayed children presenting with pain symptoms. The studies provide improved diagnostic accuracy, and oncologic imaging that includes optimized CT as part of the SPECT/CT study may decrease the number of studies and sedation procedures an individual child may need. The studies, however, must be tailored on an individual basis as the addition of the CT study can increase exposure to the child and should only be performed after appropriate justification and with adherence to optimized low dose pediatric protocols. (orig.)

  3. SPECT/CT in pediatric patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, Helen R. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Pediatric Radiologist and Nuclear Medicine Physician, Division of Nuclear Medicine Department of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging is becoming the standard of care in pediatric imaging. Indications are mainly for oncologic imaging including mIBG scintigraphy for neuroblastoma and I-123 post surgical imaging of children with thyroid carcinoma, bone scintigraphy for back pain, children referred from sports medicine and neurodevelopmentally delayed children presenting with pain symptoms. The studies provide improved diagnostic accuracy, and oncologic imaging that includes optimized CT as part of the SPECT/CT study may decrease the number of studies and sedation procedures an individual child may need. The studies, however, must be tailored on an individual basis as the addition of the CT study can increase exposure to the child and should only be performed after appropriate justification and with adherence to optimized low dose pediatric protocols. (orig.)

  4. Adaptive Angular Sampling for SPECT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nan; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach for performing adaptive angular sampling in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. It allows for a rapid determination of the optimum sampling strategy that minimizes image variance in regions-of-interest (ROIs). The proposed method consists of three key components: (a) a set of close-form equations for evaluating image variance and resolution attainable with a given sampling strategy, (b) a gradient-based algor...

  5. Brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libus, P.; Stupalova, J.; Kuzelka, I.; Konrad, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Brain perfusion SPECT is used in differential diagnostics of dementia syndromes. First of all the aim is to distinguish vascular dementia from degenerative dementia and to differentiate dementia from delirium, psychiatric syndromes, depression and secondary dementia, which is important in relation to therapy. The purpose of our study was to detect significance of BP SPECT and include it into the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. Materials and methods: 51 women and 63 men aged 55 - 88 were evaluated in the study. The patients correspond to the general criteria of dementia diagnosis. They were sent to the examination by neurological, internal and psychiatric departments and out-patient departments. All patients were examined by 99mTc ECD SPECT using a double head camera PRISM 200 VP with LEHR collimator. The scintigraphic data were evaluated by the visual and semiquantitative analysis. Results: It was established that most patients in our group had vascular dementia, while Alzheimer's disease was second. In other groups we found out dementia at strategic infarct location, e.g. in gyrus angularis in the dominant hemisphere, frontal temporal lobe dementia and alcoholic dementia. Twenty-four patients had a normal diagnosis. Fifteen of them had a somatic reason of the delirious state and were re-classified into pseudodementia. Nine patients were not diagnostically included and the examination will repeated in four months time. Conclusion: We have found out a good applicability of brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes diagnosis in our work. The best diagnosticable and most specific were the findings in multi-infarct dementia, Alzheimer's disease and frontal temporal lobe dementia. When vascular dementia is concerned we can even distinguish dementia at strategic infarction location, e.g. in thalamus, basal frontal telencefalon, in gyrus angularis of the dominant hemisphere, etc

  6. Multi-pinhole collimator design for small-object imaging with SiliSPECT: a high-resolution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokouhi, S; Peterson, T E; Metzler, S D; Wilson, D W

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a multi-pinhole collimator for a dual-headed, stationary SPECT system that incorporates high-resolution silicon double-sided strip detectors. The compact camera design of our system enables imaging at source-collimator distances between 20 and 30 mm. Our analytical calculations show that using knife-edge pinholes with small-opening angles or cylindrically shaped pinholes in a focused, multi-pinhole configuration in combination with this camera geometry can generate narrow sensitivity profiles across the field of view that can be useful for imaging small objects at high sensitivity and resolution. The current prototype system uses two collimators each containing 127 cylindrically shaped pinholes that are focused toward a target volume. Our goal is imaging objects such as a mouse brain, which could find potential applications in molecular imaging.

  7. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as 123 I and 99 Tc m that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  8. Individual patient dosimetry using quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Oliva, J.; Baum, R.; Fisher, S.

    2002-01-01

    An approach is described to provide individual patient dosimetry for routine clinical use. Accurate quantitative SPECT imaging was achieved using appropriate methods. The volume of interest (VOI) was defined semi-automatically using a fixed threshold value obtained from phantom studies. The calibration factor to convert the voxel counts from SPECT images into activity values was determine from calibrated point source using the same threshold value as in phantom studies. From selected radionuclide the dose within and outside a sphere of voxel dimension at different distances was computed through dose point-kernels to obtain a discrete absorbed dose kernel representation around the volume source with uniform activity distribution. The spatial activity distribution from SPECT imaging was convolved with this kernel representation using the discrete Fourier transform method to yield three-dimensional absorbed dose rate distribution. The accuracy of dose rates calculation was validated by software phantoms. The absorbed dose was determined by integration of the dose rate distribution for each volume of interest (VOI). Parameters for treatment optimization such as dose rate volume histograms and dose rate statistic are provided. A patient example was used to illustrate our dosimetric calculations

  9. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    Tomography in nuclear medicine did not originate after the introduction of X-ray computerized tomography (CT). Even in the days of rectilinear scanner, tomography was attempted with multiple detector heads rotating around the patient, but the counts at each plane were never very high to obtain a satisfactory image. A high resolution focusing collimator can look at different depths but taking several slices in one projection was a time consuming process. Rectilinear scanners lose lot of counts in the collimator to look at one point, at on time, in one plane. It is true that attempts to do tomography with gamma camera really got a boost after the success of CT. By that time, algorithms for doing reconstruction of images also were highly refined and for advanced. Clinical application of SPECT has become widespread now, because of the development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals and improvement in instrumentation. The SPECT provides a direct measure of regional organ function and is performed with nuclides such as {sup 123}I and {sup 99}Tc{sup m} that emit a mono-image photon during their decay. SPECT is far less expensive than positron emission tomography

  10. Blood lipid levels and SPECT of myocardium perfusion to type 2 asymptomatic diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Quian, Yamile; Fernandez-Britto Rodriguez, Jose; Coca Perez, Marco A; Batista Cuellar, Juan F; Rochela Vazquez, Luis Manuel

    2006-01-01

    SPECT, coronary angiography and laboratories test were performed on 31 asymptomatic type 2 diabetes patients, in order to determine the relationship among the lipid levels in blood and the results of the SPECT. Patients were classified in two groups (positive SPECT or negative SPECT). Simple descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables in both groups. Positive SPECT was detected in 35,5% of the patients and negative SPECT in 64,5%.The coronary angiography and SPECT showed good correlation. Low values of HDLc showed significant association with the positive results of the SPECT. The logistical regression showed an increment of the capacity to predict a positive SPECT if the values of HDLc are used. Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrated a significant association among the low levels of HDLc in blood and the positive results of the SPECT. The low values of HDLc could predict the possibility of a positive SPECT in asymptomatic diabetic type 2 patients (au)

  11. Quality control of scintillation cameras (planar and SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaekhoon, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    Regular quality control is one of the corner stones of nuclear medicine and a prerequisite for adequate diagnostic imaging. Many papers have been published on quality control of planar and SPECT imaging system up to now, however only minor attenuation has been given to the assessment of the performance of imaging systems. In this research we are going to discuss a comprehensive set of test procedures including regular quality control. Our purpose is to go through analysis of the methods and results then to test our hypothesis which state that there is strong relationship between regular and proper evaluation of quality control and the continuity of better medical services in nuclear medicine department. The selection of the tests is discussed and the tests are described, then results are presented. In addition action thresholds are proposed. The quality control tests can be applied to systems with either a moving detector or a moving image table, and to both detector with a large field of view and detectors with a small field of view. The tests presented on this research do not required special phantoms or sources other than those used for quality control of stationary gamma camera and SPECT. They can be applied for acceptance testing and for performance testing in a regular quality assurance program. The data has been evaluated based on me diso software in comparing with IAEA expert software and system specification within the reference values. Our final results confirm our hypothesis, there are some comments about the characteristics and performance of this system that being observed and solved, then a departmental protocol for routine quality control (Q.C) has being established.(Author)

  12. Feasibility study of segmented-parallel-hole collimator for stationary cardiac SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Yanfei [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Advanced Imaging Research (UCAIR); Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Zeng, Gengsheng L. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Advanced Imaging Research (UCAIR)

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this research is to propose a stationary cardiac SPECT system using the segmented parallel-beam collimator and to perform some computer simulations to test the feasibility. A stationary system has a benefit of acquiring temporally consistent projections. The most challenging issue in building a stationary system is to provide sufficient projection view-angles. A 2-detector, multi-segment collimator system with 14 view-angles over 180 in the transaxial direction and 3 view-angles in the axial directions was designed, where the two detectors are configured 90 apart in an L-shape. We applied the parallel-beam imaging geometry and used segmented parallel-hole collimator to acquire SPECT data. To improve the system condition due to data truncation, we measured more rays within the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector by using a relatively small detector bin-size. In image reconstruction, we used the maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. The criterion for evaluating the system is the summed pixel-to-pixel distance that measures the discrepancy between the 3D gold-standard image and the reconstructed 3D region of interest (ROI) with truncated data. Effects of limited number of view-angles, data truncation, varying body habitus, attenuation, and noise were considered in the system design. As a result, our segmented-parallel-beam stationary cardiac SPECT system is able to acquire sufficient data for cardiac imaging and has a high sensitivity gain. (orig.)

  13. A SPECT demonstrator—revival of a gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valastyán, I.; Kerek, A.; Molnár, J.; Novák, D.; Végh, J.; Emri, M.; Trón, L.

    2006-07-01

    A gamma camera has been updated and converted to serve as a demonstrator for educational purposes. The gantry and the camera head were the only part of the system that remained untouched. The main reason for this modernization was to increase the transparency of the gamma camera by partitioning the different logical building blocks of the system and thus providing access for inspection and improvements throughout the chain. New data acquisition and reconstruction software has been installed. By taking these measures, the camera is now used in education and also serves as a platform for tests of new hardware and software solutions. The camera is also used to demonstrate 3D (SPECT) imaging by collecting 2D projections from a rotatable cylindrical phantom. Since the camera head is not attached mechanically to the phantom, the effect of misalignment between the head and the rotation axis of the phantom can be studied.

  14. A SPECT demonstrator-revival of a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valastyan, I.; Kerek, A.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.; Vegh, J.; Emri, M.; Tron, L.

    2006-01-01

    A gamma camera has been updated and converted to serve as a demonstrator for educational purposes. The gantry and the camera head were the only part of the system that remained untouched. The main reason for this modernization was to increase the transparency of the gamma camera by partitioning the different logical building blocks of the system and thus providing access for inspection and improvements throughout the chain. New data acquisition and reconstruction software has been installed. By taking these measures, the camera is now used in education and also serves as a platform for tests of new hardware and software solutions. The camera is also used to demonstrate 3D (SPECT) imaging by collecting 2D projections from a rotatable cylindrical phantom. Since the camera head is not attached mechanically to the phantom, the effect of misalignment between the head and the rotation axis of the phantom can be studied

  15. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia; SPECT und PET in der Diagnostik von Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvogt, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-09-15

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, {sup 11}C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed.

  16. Dopamine-transporter SPECT and Dopamine-D2-receptor SPECT in basal ganglia diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, S.; Barthel, H.; Seese, A.; Sabri, O.

    2007-01-01

    The basal ganglia comprise a group of subcortical nuclei, which are essential for motor control. Dysfunction of these areas, especially in dopaminergic transmission, results in disordered movement and neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, or Huntington disease. Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have enhanced the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, but they much more contribute to the early differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Parkinsonian syndrome in routine care. The present article provides dopamine transporter and D 2 receptor SPECT findings in selected movement disorders. (orig.)

  17. Clinical utility of spatially normalized PET and SPECT to evaluate patients with memory and cognitive impairments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Ayumi; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Soeda, Akio; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Shinoda, Jun; Iwama, Toru

    2004-01-01

    We assessed cerebral metabolism and blood flow in patients with memory and other cognitive impairment using the easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) of FDG-PET and SPECT scans. Twenty patients with dementia (12 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 3 diffuse Lewy body disease (DLB), and 2 frontotemporal dementia (FTD)) and twenty with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and cognitive impairments were studied with FDG-PET and ECD-SPECT. All images were analyzed using eZIS with the same processing procedures, including smoothing, normalization, and z-transformation, and compared to a database of normals. Z score maps were super-imposed on 3D MRI brain images. Group analyses were performed using SPM. Age-related declines in cerebral metabolism and blood flow were observed in the anterior cingulate association area. In contrast, reductions in these cerebral functions correlated best with severity of AD in the posterior cingulate association areas. In DLB and FTD, eZIS analysis of PET and SPECT revealed reductions of cerebral functions in specific areas. DAI showed low metabolism and blood flow in mesiofrontal cortex including the anterior cingulate association area. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate association area in DAI, which resembled age-related cognitive decline, may be responsible for cognitive impairments. Overall, PET and SPECT scans showed significant correlations according to the type of dementia. Spatially normalized maps contributed to PET and SPECT image interpretation for patients with memory and cognitive impairments because better 3D visualization allowed more objective and systematic investigations. (author)

  18. Functional brain imaging study in patients with anxiety disorders using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Liu Hongbiao; Li Huichun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of brain function in patients with anxiety disorders. Methods: Regional cerebral perfusion was investigated using SPECT in 65 patients with anxiety disorders dragnosed according to the fourth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (DSMTD) criteria and in a matched control group of 21 healthy volunteers. 65 cases of the patients were further divided into: drug treated group (31 patients) and non-drug treated group (34 patients). The mean ages of the patients and the controls were (39.2±26.1) and (34.4±9.7) years, respectively. The severity of the anxiety was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Anxiety scale (mean: 24.8±5.5 and 24.7±7.5, respectively). After administration of 740-925 MBq 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate direct (ECD) brain SPECT image study was performed. For the semi- quantitative analysis of the data, the ratios of the mean counts/pixel in the different cerebral regions of interest (ROI) to that of cerebellum were calculated respectively as a regional perfusion index (RPI). Some patients had a repeated SPECT after three months of treatment. Results: 93.8% (61/65) patients had relative hypoperfusions in some cerebral regions. Compared with the control group, the patients had a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the bilateral frontal lobes, paralimbic system, temporal lobes and basal ganglia. The course of disease had negatively correlated with the changes of rCBF in both groups of patients. Follow-up SPECT study demonstrated increased rCBF related with the symptomatic improvement. Conclusions: Patients with anxiety disorders had profound dysfunction of the frontal and temporal cortices, and was closely related to the symptom and therapy. 99 Tc m -ECD brain SPECT may offer the most accurate assessment of response to therapy. . (authors)

  19. The effect of acquisition interval and spatial resolution on dynamic cardiac imaging with a stationary SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J; Maddula, R; Clackdoyle, R; DiBella, E; Fu, Z

    2007-01-01

    The current SPECT scanning paradigm that acquires images by slow rotation of multiple detectors in body-contoured orbits around the patient is not suited to the rapid collection of tomographically complete data. During rapid image acquisition, mechanical and patient safety constraints limit the detector orbit to circular paths at increased distances from the patient, resulting in decreased spatial resolution. We consider a novel dynamic rotating slant-hole (DyRoSH) SPECT camera that can collect full tomographic data every 2 s, employing three stationary detectors mounted with slant-hole collimators that rotate at 30 rpm. Because the detectors are stationary, they can be placed much closer to the patient than is possible with conventional SPECT systems. We propose that the decoupling of the detector position from the mechanics of rapid image acquisition offers an additional degree of freedom which can be used to improve accuracy in measured kinetic parameter estimates. With simulations and list-mode reconstructions, we consider the effects of different acquisition intervals on dynamic cardiac imaging, comparing a conventional three detector SPECT system with the proposed DyRoSH SPECT system. Kinetic parameters of a two-compartment model of myocardial perfusion for technetium-99m-teboroxime were estimated. When compared to a conventional SPECT scanner for the same acquisition periods, the proposed DyRoSH system shows equivalent or reduced bias or standard deviation values for the kinetic parameter estimates. The DyRoSH camera with a 2 s acquisition period does not show any improvement compared to a DyRoSH camera with a 10 s acquisition period

  20. The effect of acquisition interval and spatial resolution on dynamic cardiac imaging with a stationary SPECT camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Maddula, R.; Clackdoyle, R.; Di Bella, E.; Fu, Z.

    2007-08-01

    The current SPECT scanning paradigm that acquires images by slow rotation of multiple detectors in body-contoured orbits around the patient is not suited to the rapid collection of tomographically complete data. During rapid image acquisition, mechanical and patient safety constraints limit the detector orbit to circular paths at increased distances from the patient, resulting in decreased spatial resolution. We consider a novel dynamic rotating slant-hole (DyRoSH) SPECT camera that can collect full tomographic data every 2 s, employing three stationary detectors mounted with slant-hole collimators that rotate at 30 rpm. Because the detectors are stationary, they can be placed much closer to the patient than is possible with conventional SPECT systems. We propose that the decoupling of the detector position from the mechanics of rapid image acquisition offers an additional degree of freedom which can be used to improve accuracy in measured kinetic parameter estimates. With simulations and list-mode reconstructions, we consider the effects of different acquisition intervals on dynamic cardiac imaging, comparing a conventional three detector SPECT system with the proposed DyRoSH SPECT system. Kinetic parameters of a two-compartment model of myocardial perfusion for technetium-99m-teboroxime were estimated. When compared to a conventional SPECT scanner for the same acquisition periods, the proposed DyRoSH system shows equivalent or reduced bias or standard deviation values for the kinetic parameter estimates. The DyRoSH camera with a 2 s acquisition period does not show any improvement compared to a DyRoSH camera with a 10 s acquisition period.

  1. Tomography of positrons with SPECT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoardi, Roberto A.

    1999-01-01

    The tomography for emissions of positrons (PET) demonstrate the clinical uses to provide information in the area of neurology, cardiology and principally, in oncology. This chapter describes the principles of the functioning and instrumentation, clinical applications and the state of the art

  2. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [{sup 123}I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, X.-X. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hwang, J.-J. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.-F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Medical Center, Yungkang City 710, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-C. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw; Chou, Y.-T. [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Tu, K.-Y. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mackey Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan 104 (China); Wey, S.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333 (China); Ting Gann [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao- Yuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2004-11-01

    Background: A novel radioiodine ligand [{sup 123}I] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent for the central nervous system. In this study, the biodistribution of SERTs in the rabbit brain was investigated using [{sup 123}I] ADAM and mapping images of the same animal produced by both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and microautoradiography. A semiquantification method was adopted to deduce the optimum time for SPECT imaging, whereas the input for a simple fully quantitative tracer kinetic model was provided from arterial blood sampling data. Methods: SPECT imaging was performed on female rabbits postinjection of 185 MBq [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The time-activity curve obtained from the SPECT images was used to quantify the SERTs, for which the binding potential was calculated from the kinetic modeling of [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The kinetic data were analyzed by the nonlinear least squares method. The effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on rabbits were also evaluated. After scanning, the same animal was sacrificed and the brain was removed for microautoradiography. Regions-of-interest were analyzed using both SPECT and microautoradiography images. The SPECT images were coregistered manually with the corresponding microautoradiography images for comparative study. Results: During the time interval 90-100 min postinjection, the peak specific binding levels in different brain regions were compared and the brain stem was shown to have the highest activity. The target-to-background ratio was 1.89{+-}0.02. Similar studies with fluoxetine and PCA showed a background level for SERT occupation. Microautoradiography demonstrated a higher level of anatomical details of the [{sup 123}I] ADAM distribution than that obtained by SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain with

  3. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [123I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, X.-X.; Hwang, J.-J.; Hsieh, J.-F.; Chen, J.-C.; Chou, Y.-T.; Tu, K.-Y.; Wey, S.-P.; Ting Gann

    2004-01-01

    Background: A novel radioiodine ligand [ 123 I] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent for the central nervous system. In this study, the biodistribution of SERTs in the rabbit brain was investigated using [ 123 I] ADAM and mapping images of the same animal produced by both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and microautoradiography. A semiquantification method was adopted to deduce the optimum time for SPECT imaging, whereas the input for a simple fully quantitative tracer kinetic model was provided from arterial blood sampling data. Methods: SPECT imaging was performed on female rabbits postinjection of 185 MBq [ 123 I] ADAM. The time-activity curve obtained from the SPECT images was used to quantify the SERTs, for which the binding potential was calculated from the kinetic modeling of [ 123 I] ADAM. The kinetic data were analyzed by the nonlinear least squares method. The effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on rabbits were also evaluated. After scanning, the same animal was sacrificed and the brain was removed for microautoradiography. Regions-of-interest were analyzed using both SPECT and microautoradiography images. The SPECT images were coregistered manually with the corresponding microautoradiography images for comparative study. Results: During the time interval 90-100 min postinjection, the peak specific binding levels in different brain regions were compared and the brain stem was shown to have the highest activity. The target-to-background ratio was 1.89±0.02. Similar studies with fluoxetine and PCA showed a background level for SERT occupation. Microautoradiography demonstrated a higher level of anatomical details of the [ 123 I] ADAM distribution than that obtained by SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain with [ 123 I] ADAM showed

  4. An evaluation of the Monte Carlo simulation of SPECT projection data using MCNP and SimSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.; Dobrzeniecki, A.B.; Yanch, J.C.; Lu, A.; Belanger, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Simulation of the complete nuclear medicine imaging situation for SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) produces synthetic images that are useful in the analysis and improvement of existing imaging systems and in the design of new and improved systems. The simulation methods the authors employ are based on probabilistic numerical calculations (Monte Carlo); they require enormous amounts of computer time and employ highly complex models (the tomographic acquisition of images through intricate collimators). The presentation consists of three parts. In the first, they describe the techniques developed to achieve reasonable simulation times and the tools built to allow interactive and effective analysis and processing of the resultant synthetic images. In the next part, they explore the limitations of such techniques for performing simulations of medical imaging situations. In the final part, they describe the areas of research that are promising for increasing the quality and breadth of the simulation process

  5. Interest of the SPECT-CT to D.M.S.A.-V images merging in the management of thyroid medullary carcinomas; Interets de la fusion d'image TEMP-TDM au DMSA-V dans la prise en charge des carcinomes medullaires de la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemani, A.; Mebarki, M.; Slama, A.; Khellil, N.; Meghelli, S.; Lachachi, B.; Krim, M.; Merad, S.; Berber, N. [CHU Tlemcen, Service de medecine nucleaire (Algeria)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: hybrid imaging associating SPECT and CT, integers functional and anatomical data. The aim of this communication is to present the contribution of the SPECT coupled to CT with D.M.S.A. V. in our daily practice of the medullary thyroid carcinomas management. Conclusions: the SPECT/CT got by a system of images merging allows a better anatomical location and improves the management of thyroid medullary carcinomas. (N.C.)

  6. Frequencies and implications of discordant findings of interictal SPECT and itcal SPECT in patients with intractable epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Lee, S. K.; Jeong, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Interictal SPECT could be used at best as a reference image to ictal SPECT, and cause sometimes confusion if it had given unexplained discordant findings from ictal SPECT. We investigated implications of discordant findings which occurred in 26 among 268 which found their epileptogenic zones using ictal EEG and/or operative outcome. Sensitivity of interictal SPECT was only 36%. Among these 268, 69 patients had no structural lesions on MR, 14 of whom had decreased perfusion on interictal SPECT (8 trues and 6 falses (adjacent or contralateral)). Structural lesion were found in 199 on MR, 103 of whom had decreased perfusion (89 trues and 14 falses). Among 26 having discordant cases, 10 interictal SPECT were proved wrong after operation and/or invasive EEG and the other 16 were on speculation using PET and ictal EEG. Ictal hyperperfusion was observed in 14 patients in these interictal SPECT. Six ictal studies were found postictal accompanied by contralateral propagation or not. Two patients had dual pathology, and the remaining 2 unknown. Interictal SPECT was done on the 2nd day after ictal study(24), the 3rd day (18), the 4th day(16), the 5th day (23). Four among 24 interictal studies (17%) of the 2nd day and the other 4 among 57 of 3rd to 5th day revealed ictal hyperperfusion on interictal SPECT. Six interictal studies (2.7% among 221) acquired on the indifferent day showed also ictal hyperperfusion. We could suggest that the next day is not desirable for interictal SPECT after ictal study, as ictal hyperperfusion on interictal study confounded more than postictal findings of ictal SPECT in the discrete localization than reassuring ictal study

  7. Frequencies and implications of discordant findings of interictal SPECT and itcal SPECT in patients with intractable epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D S; Lee, S K; Jeong, J K; Lee, M C; Ko, C S [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Interictal SPECT could be used at best as a reference image to ictal SPECT, and cause sometimes confusion if it had given unexplained discordant findings from ictal SPECT. We investigated implications of discordant findings which occurred in 26 among 268 which found their epileptogenic zones using ictal EEG and/or operative outcome. Sensitivity of interictal SPECT was only 36%. Among these 268, 69 patients had no structural lesions on MR, 14 of whom had decreased perfusion on interictal SPECT (8 trues and 6 falses (adjacent or contralateral)). Structural lesion were found in 199 on MR, 103 of whom had decreased perfusion (89 trues and 14 falses). Among 26 having discordant cases, 10 interictal SPECT were proved wrong after operation and/or invasive EEG and the other 16 were on speculation using PET and ictal EEG. Ictal hyperperfusion was observed in 14 patients in these interictal SPECT. Six ictal studies were found postictal accompanied by contralateral propagation or not. Two patients had dual pathology, and the remaining 2 unknown. Interictal SPECT was done on the 2nd day after ictal study(24), the 3rd day (18), the 4th day(16), the 5th day (23). Four among 24 interictal studies (17%) of the 2nd day and the other 4 among 57 of 3rd to 5th day revealed ictal hyperperfusion on interictal SPECT. Six interictal studies (2.7% among 221) acquired on the indifferent day showed also ictal hyperperfusion. We could suggest that the next day is not desirable for interictal SPECT after ictal study, as ictal hyperperfusion on interictal study confounded more than postictal findings of ictal SPECT in the discrete localization than reassuring ictal study.

  8. Evaluation of performance quality of SPECT camera in Sharyati Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takavar, A.

    2001-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, there are two methods of imaging, planar and tomography. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) shows better image details and therefore is influenced more by image parameters such as resolution, uniformity, sensitivity, etc. Manufacturers provide customers with data which are obtained by complicated and sometimes secret methods. Marketing companies test and verify these data and buyers perform acceptance testing on installation of system. Since acceptance testing is not usually done in our country, follow up of system performance and therefore setting up of a comprehensive quality control program faces difficulty. In this research which was done sometimes after installation, evaluation of SPECT system was carried out and data obtained were compared with those of manufacturer catalogue. It was found that in most cases our figures do not correspond to those of manufacturer catalogue, therefore acceptance testing using standard and precision devices being carried out by trained personnel is strongly recommended

  9. Pre-evaluation study in SPECT images using a phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Marina de Sa; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi; Abe, Rubens; Moura, Lincoln

    1996-01-01

    An alternative solution for the reconstruction of SPECT images using a Poisson Noise Model is presented. The proposed algorithm was applied on a real phantom and compared to the standard clinical procedures. Results have shown that the proposed method improves the quality of the SPECT images

  10. Ictal cerebral perfusion patterns in partial epilepsy: SPECT subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sang Eun; Seo, Dae Won; Jeong, Seung Cheol; Yi, Ji Young; Hong, Seung Chyul

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the various ictal perfusion patterns and find the relationships between clinical factors and different perfusion patterns. Interictal and ictal SPECT and SPECT subtraction were performed in 61 patients with partial epilepsy. Both positive images showing ictal hyperperfusion and negative images revealing ictal hypoperfusion were obtained by SPECT subtraction. The ictal perfusion patterns of subtracted SPECT were classified into focal hyperperfusion, hyperperfusion-plus, combined hyperperfusion-hypoperfusion, and focal hypoperfusion only. The concordance rates with epileptic focus were 91.8% in combined analysis of ictal hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion images of subtracted SPECT, 85.2% in hyperperfusion images only of subtracted SPECT, and 68.9% in conventional ictal SPECT analysis. Ictal hypoperfusion occurred less frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) than extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Mesial temporal hyperperfusion alone was seen only in mesial TLE while lateral temporal hyperperfusion alone was observed only in neocortical TLE. Hippocampal sclerosis had much lower incidence of ictal hypoperfusion than any other pathology. Some patients showed ictal hypoperfusion at epileptic focus with ictal hyperperfusion in the neighboring brain regions where ictal discharges propagated. Hypoperfusion as well as hyperperfusion in ictal SPECT should be considered for localizing epileptic focus. Although the mechanism of ictal hypoperfusion could be an intra-ictal early exhaustion of seizure focus or a steal phenomenon by the propagation of ictal discharges to adjacent brain areas, further study is needed to elucidate it.=20

  11. Ictal cerebral perfusion patterns in partial epilepsy: SPECT subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sang Eun; Seo, Dae Won; Jeong, Seung Cheol; Yi, Ji Young; Hong, Seung Chyul [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the various ictal perfusion patterns and find the relationships between clinical factors and different perfusion patterns. Interictal and ictal SPECT and SPECT subtraction were performed in 61 patients with partial epilepsy. Both positive images showing ictal hyperperfusion and negative images revealing ictal hypoperfusion were obtained by SPECT subtraction. The ictal perfusion patterns of subtracted SPECT were classified into focal hyperperfusion, hyperperfusion-plus, combined hyperperfusion-hypoperfusion, and focal hypoperfusion only. The concordance rates with epileptic focus were 91.8% in combined analysis of ictal hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion images of subtracted SPECT, 85.2% in hyperperfusion images only of subtracted SPECT, and 68.9% in conventional ictal SPECT analysis. Ictal hypoperfusion occurred less frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) than extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Mesial temporal hyperperfusion alone was seen only in mesial TLE while lateral temporal hyperperfusion alone was observed only in neocortical TLE. Hippocampal sclerosis had much lower incidence of ictal hypoperfusion than any other pathology. Some patients showed ictal hypoperfusion at epileptic focus with ictal hyperperfusion in the neighboring brain regions where ictal discharges propagated. Hypoperfusion as well as hyperperfusion in ictal SPECT should be considered for localizing epileptic focus. Although the mechanism of ictal hypoperfusion could be an intra-ictal early exhaustion of seizure focus or a steal phenomenon by the propagation of ictal discharges to adjacent brain areas, further study is needed to elucidate it.

  12. Prediction of sentinel lymph node status using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) imaging of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiguchi, Mai; Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Fujisue, Mamiko; Shiraishi, Shinya; Inao, Touko; Murakami, Kei-ichi; Honda, Yumi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2016-02-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) improves the anatomical identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs). We aimed to evaluate the possibility of predicting the SN status using SPECT/CT. SN mapping using a SPECT/CT system was performed in 381 cases of clinically node-negative, operable invasive breast cancer. We evaluated and compared the values of SN mapping on SPECT/CT, the findings of other modalities and clinicopathological factors in predicting the SN status. Patients with SNs located in the Level I area were evaluated. Of the 355 lesions (94.8 %) assessed, six cases (1.6 %) were not detected using any imaging method. According to the final histological diagnosis, 298 lesions (78.2 %) were node negative and 83 lesions (21.7 %) were node positive. The univariate analysis showed that SN status was significantly correlated with the number of SNs detected on SPECT/CT in the Level I area (P = 0.0048), total number of SNs detected on SPECT/CT (P = 0.011), findings of planar lymphoscintigraphy (P = 0.011) and findings of a handheld gamma probe during surgery (P = 0.012). According to the multivariate analysis, the detection of multiple SNs on SPECT/CT imaging helped to predict SN metastasis. The number of SNs located in the Level I area detected using the SPECT/CT system may be a predictive factor for SN metastasis.

  13. Study on SPECT image for children with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wenhuang; Xie Zhichun; Chen Yucai; Lin Haoxue; Zheng Aidong; Xie Hui

    1998-01-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of SPECT image for children with cerebral infarction (CCI), comparative research was made on 26 cases undergoing regional cerebral perfusion (rCP) image between SPECT imaging and CT scanning. The results showed that the rCP in the infarct and its distant area was decreased. The positive rate of SPECT and CT were 92.3% (24/26) and 84.5% (22/26) respectively. The difference was not significant (P = 0.67, P>0.05). But, the positive rate of SPECT image 2 days after onset in 9 CCI was 100% (9/9), significantly higher than 55.6% (5/9) in CT scanning (P = 0.04, P<0.05). These findings suggested that the SPECT imaging is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of CCI, and also helpful for observation of the therapeutic effect and evaluation of the prognosis

  14. Radionuclide cisternography: SPECT and 3D-rendering. Radionuklidzisternographie: SPECT- und 3D-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkes, H; Huber, G; Piepgras, U [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hierholzer, J [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Cordes, M [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Belzberg Lab. of Neuroscience

    1991-10-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is indicated in the clinical work-up for hydrocephalus, when searching for CSF leaks, and when testing whether or not intracranial cystic lesions are communicating with the adjacent subarachnoid space. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and diagnostic value of SPECT and subsequent 3D surface rendering in addition to conventional rectilinear CSF imaging in eight patients. Planar images allowed the evaluation of CSF circulation and the detection of CSF fistula. They were advantageous in examinations 48 h after application of {sup 111}In-DTPA. SPECT scans, generated 4-24 h after tracer application, were superior in the delineation of basal cisterns, especially in early scans; this was helpful in patients with pooling due to CSF fistula and in cystic lesions near the skull base. A major drawback was the limited image quality of delayed scans, when the SPECT data were degraded by a low count rate. 3D surface rendering was easily feasible from SPECT data and yielded high quality images. The presentation of the spatial distribution of nuclide-contaminated CSF proved especially helpful in the area of the basal cisterns. (orig.).

  15. [Myokard-Perfusions-SPECT. Myocardial perfusion SPECT - Update S1 guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Oliver; Bengel, Frank; Burchert, Wolfgang; Dörr, Rolf; Hacker, Marcus; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Schäfers, Michael A; Schmidt, Matthias; Schwaiger, Markus; Vom Dahl, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Rainer

    2017-08-14

    The S1 guideline for myocardial perfusion SPECT has been published by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and is valid until 2/2022. This paper is a short summary with comments on all chapters and subchapters wich were modified and amended.

  16. [Application of SPECT/CT in neurosurgical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanov, A V; Kotel'nikova, T M; Melikian, A G; Dolgushin, M B; Sorokin, V S; Soboleva, O I; Khokhlova, E V; Gorlachev, G E; Krasnianskiĭ, S A

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of application of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT in neurosurgery. Combination of these two techniques in the single system provides higher precision of both methods. The novel technique allows assessment of tumor spread in the brain, differential diagnosis of tumor regrowth and radiation-induced necrosis, evaluation of cerebral perfusion in epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and diagnostics of secondary CNS lesions. Examples of primary diagnosis, dynamic follow-up and differential diagnosis of cerebral neoplasms, localization of epileptogenic foci in planning of surgery, prediction of outcome after TBI and evaluation of spread of metastatic skeletal involvement and further application of acquire data are presented.

  17. Vertebral uptake of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) with SPECT/CT occurring in superior vena cava obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karls, Shawn; Hassoun, Hani; Derbekyan, Vilma [Dept. of Nuclear Madicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    A 67-year-old male presented with dyspnea for which lung scintigraphy was ordered to rule out pulmonary embolus. Planar images demonstrated abnormal midline uptake of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin, which SPECT/CT localized to several thoracic vertebrae. Thoracic vertebral uptake on perfusion lung scintigraphy was previously described on planar imaging. Radionuclide venography and contrast-enhanced CT subsequently demonstrated superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction with collateralization through the azygous/hemiazygous system and vertebral venous plexus. SPECT/CT differentiated residual esophageal/tracheal ventilation activity, a clinically insignificant finding, from vertebral uptake indicative of SVC obstruction, a potentially life-threatening condition.

  18. Evaluation of peripheral pulmonary perfusion decrease of 99m-Tc MAA scintigraphy using SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Kamisaki, Yuichi; Kameda, Keisuke; Seto, Hikaru

    2012-01-01

    We often experienced non-segmented peripheral patchy decrease (NSPPD) in 99m Tc-macro-aggregated albumin (MAA) pulmonary perfusion scan using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT. Seventy cases were evaluated by 99m Tc-MAA SPECT/CT. NSPPD was seen in 22 cases (31.4%), of which 17 were assessed for pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed in 11 cases, which consisted of 3 chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, 2 idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, 2 systemic lupus eryhthematosus and 4 left ventricular heart disease. We suggest that NSPPD may indicate the early stage of pulmonary hypertension (PH). (author)

  19. Accuracy evaluation of fusion of CT, MR, and SPECT images using commercially available software packages (SRS PLATO and IFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongioj, Valeria; Brusa, Anna; Loi, Gianfranco; Pignoli, Emanuele; Gramaglia, Alberto; Scorsetti, Marta; Bombardieri, Emilio; Marchesini, Renato

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A problem for clinicians is to mentally integrate information from multiple diagnostic sources, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), whose images give anatomic and metabolic information. Methods and Materials: To combine this different imaging procedure information, and to overlay correspondent slices, we used commercially available software packages (SRS PLATO and IFS). The algorithms utilize a fiducial-based coordinate system (or frame) with 3 N-shaped markers, which allows coordinate transformation of a clinical examination data set (9 spots for each transaxial section) to a stereotactic coordinate system. The N-shaped markers were filled with fluids visible in each modality (gadolinium for MR, calcium chloride for CT, and 99m Tc for SPECT). The frame is relocatable, in the different acquisition modalities, by means of a head holder to which a face mask is fixed so as to immobilize the patient. Position errors due to the algorithms were obtained by evaluating the stereotactic coordinates of five sources detectable in each modality. Results: SPECT and MR position errors due to the algorithms were evaluated with respect to CT: Δx was ≤ 0.9 mm for MR and ≤ 1.4 mm for SPECT, Δy was ≤ 1 mm and ≤ 3 mm for MR and SPECT, respectively. Maximal differences in distance between estimated and actual fiducial centers (geometric mismatch) were in the order of the pixel size (0.8 mm for CT, 1.4 mm for MR, and 1.8 mm for SPECT). In an attempt to distinguish necrosis from residual disease, the image fusion protocol was studied in 35 primary or metastatic brain tumor patients. Conclusions: The image fusion technique has a good degree of accuracy as well as the potential to improve the specificity of tissue identification and the precision of the subsequent treatment planning

  20. Clinical usefulness of {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT in collagen disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazuki; Zen, Kan [Asahi Univ., Gifu (Japan). Murakami Memorial Hospital; Sugihara, Hiroki (and others)

    2000-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT for detecting cardiac involvement in patients with collagen disease. We studied 12 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 8 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 6 with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) and 3 with allergic granulomatosis and angiitis (AGA). A 111 MBq of {sup 123}I-BMIPP was intravenously injected at rest, and SPECT images were obtained at 15 min after the injection. Seven of 12 SLE, 6 of 8 PSS, 3 of 6 PM/DM and all 3 AGA patients showed an abnormal tracer uptake. The left ventricular ejection fraction was inversely correlated with a BMIPP abnormality. The regional wall motion abnormality was reduced in regions with reduced tracer uptake. These findings suggest that {sup 123}I-BMIPP imaging could be useful for assessment of cardiac involvement in patients with collagen disease. (author)

  1. The Role of Routine Whole Volume SPECT Reconstruction in Comparison to Cine Raw Data in the Detection of Extracardiac Uptake on Myocardial Perfusion Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, M.; Korowlay, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of routine whole volume reconstructed single-photon emission tomography (rSPECT) compared to cine raw data to detect extracardiac uptake of Sestamibi (MIBI). In a retrospective study, the myocardial perfusion studies of 426 patients were inspected separately for extracardiac uptake on cine raw data and rSPECT. The acquisition parameters for all the images were done according to departmental protocol. The whole volume SPECT data was selected and processed by HOSEM iterative reconstruction using the HERMES computer software system. The images were assessed by two observers, a student in training and a senior consultant nuclear medicine physician. The overall mean age and standard deviation of the 426 patients at the time of the study was 60 ± 12 years. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kappa and McNemars tests. The clinical significance of the extracardiac uptake was evaluated using hospital folders and /or laboratory results after viewing images. rSPECT detected 25 patients (5.9%) and cine raw data identified 18 patients (4.2%) with extracardiac uptake. All the areas of extracardiac uptake noted on cine raw data were seen on the rSPECT images. Only 21 of the 25 patients had complete 5-year clinical follow-up. The value of the clinical significance of the extracardiac uptake was limited due to the study being retrospective. The proportion of positives identified by rSPECT was significantly larger than those identified by cine raw data (P = 0.0082). Although our study demonstrates that rSPECT is more sensitive than cine raw data in detecting extracardiac uptake, it also shows that there is no benefit in routine whole volume rSPECT in daily clinical practice

  2. Clinical results of neurotransmission SPECT in extra-pyramidal diseases; Resultats cliniques de la TEMP de la neurotransmission en pathologie extra-pyramidale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier, C.; Tranquart, F.; Guilloteau, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire in vitro, INSERM U316, 37 - Tours (France)

    1999-12-01

    We present some methodological aspects and clinical applications of dopamine D2 receptor and transporter SPECT using new radiotracers radiolabeled with iodine 123. The gamma camera quality control and standardisation has to be adapted to the small volume and deep location of striata, where receptors and transporters are present. Phantom containing hollow spheres of different diameters which can be filled with different amounts of {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 123}I. The semi quantitation of receptor and transporter molecular concentration is based on an equilibrium binding model. According to this model, the binding potential (Bmax. Ka) is equal to the ratio between specific binding in the striatum and circulating activity in a reference region of interest in the occipital cortex. By comparing ECD and ILIS SPECT, it has been shown that striatal ILIS binding does not depend on the local perfusion. The clinical applications mainly concern the extra-pyramidal pathology: ILIS and IBZM SPECT are able to differentiate pre- and post-synaptic lesions. In Parkinson disease the nigrostriatal pathway is damaged and D2 receptors are normal or increased, as shown by normal or elevated IBZM or ILIS uptake. In other extra pyramidal degenerative diseases as progressive supra nuclear palsy or multiple system atrophy striatal D2 receptors are damaged as shown by decreased IBZM or ILIS uptake. In our experience, 88 per cent of patients are correctly classified by ILIS SPECT and 86 per cent with IBZM SPECT. Dopamine transporter SPECT with {beta}CIT and PE2I provides an evaluation of the presynaptic neuronal density in the striatum. One can expect an help for the early diagnosis and the evaluation of Parkinson disease. Another potential application of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT is the evaluation of neuronal loss after hypoxo-ischemia. We conclude that dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT using specific ligands should become a useful diagnosis tool to study a large number of brain

  3. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volume in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: Gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) versus echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, Fatma; Isgoren, S.; Demir, H.; Kozdag, G.; Ural, D.; Komsuoglu, B.

    2005-01-01

    Left ventricular function, volumes and regional wall motion provide valuable diagnostic information and are of long-term prognostic importance in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of 2D-echocardiography and gated single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) for evaluation of these parameters in patients with DCM. Gated SPECT and 2D-echocardiography were performed in 33 patients having DCM. Gated SPECT data, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), were processed using an automated algorithm. Standard technique was used for 2D-echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated using both modalities and was scored by two independent observers using a 16-sement model with a 5-point scoring system. The overall agreement between the two imaging modalities for the assessment of regional wall motion was 56% (298/528 segments). With gated SPECT, LEVF, end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) were 27+-9%, 217+-73mL, respectively, and 30.8%, 195+-58mL and, 137+-48 mL with echocardiography. The correlation between gated SPECT and 2-D-echocardiography was good (r=0.76, P<0.01) for the assessment of LVEF. The correlation for EDV and ESV were also good, but with wider limits of agreement (r=0.72, P<0.01 and r=0.73, P<0.01, respectively) and significantly higher values were obtained with gated SPECT (P<0.01). Gated SPECT and 2D-echocardiography correlate well for the assessment of LV function and LV volumes. Like 2D-echocardiography, gated SPECT provides reliable information about LV function and dimension with the additional advantage of perfusion data. (author)

  4. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyung In [Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  5. 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyung In; Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1994-01-01

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  6. Myocardial Perfusion SPECT 2015 in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchert, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim The working group Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine presents the results of the 7th survey of myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) of the reporting year 2015. Method 268 questionnaires (173 practices [PR], 67 hospitals [HO], 28 university hospitals [UH]) were evaluated. Results of the last survey from 2012 are set in squared brackets. Results MPS of 121 939 [105 941] patients were reported. 98 % [95 %] of all MPS were performed with Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and 2 % [5 %] with Tl-201. 78 % [79 %] of all patients were studied in PR, 14 % [15 %] in HO, and 8 % [6 %] in UH. A pharmacological stress test was performed in 43 % [39 %] (22 % [24 %] adenosine, 20 % [9 %] regadenoson, 1% [6 %] dipyridamole or dobutamine). Attenuation correction was applied in 25 % [2009: 10 %] of MPS. Gated SPECT was performed in 78 % [70 %] of all rest MPS, in 80 % [73 %] of all stress and in 76 % [67 %] of all stress and rest MPS. 53 % [33 %] of all nuclear medicine departments performed MPS scoring by default, whereas 24 % [41 %] did not apply any quantification. 31 % [26 %] of all departments noticed an increase in their counted MPS and 29 % [29 %] no changes. Data from 89 departments which participated in all surveys showed an increase in MPS count of 11.1 % (PR: 12.2 %, HO: 4.8 %, UH: 18.4 %). 70 % [60 %] of the MPS were requested by ambulatory care cardiologists. Conclusion The 2015 MPS survey reveals a high-grade adherence of routine MPS practice to current guidelines. The positive trend in MPS performance and number of MPS already observed in 2012 continues. Educational training remains necessary in the field of SPECT scoring. PMID:27909712

  7. IMP-SPECT at patients with hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podreka, I.; Mamoli, B.; Lesch, O.; Suess, E.; Wimberger, D.; Mayr, N.; Havelec, L.; Mueller, C.; Steiner, M.; Deecke, L.

    1986-01-01

    IMP-SPECT was performed in 14 normal volunteers. A 'regional index=RI' of tracer distribution was calculated for 18 regions in each hemisphere RI=(cts/voxel ROI)/(mean cts/voxel of all ROI's). 30 seizure patients (E) and 12 patients with acoustic, partialy also visual hallucinations (H) were investigated. Regions were defined as hypo- or hyperperfused if the RI exceeded the value of the corresponding normal-RI +- 2 std. EEG was recorded in all (E). 93.3% of EEG-findings were abnormal, 50% showed a focus, 46.7% paroxysmal activity. SPECT detected in 93.3% of (E) hypoperfused regions, mostly located in the temporal lobe. All (H) had decreased rCBF, predominantly in the frontal cortex. ANOVA and t-test revealed significant RI-differences in the frontal lobe, both hippocampi, right and left inferior occipital cortex, and right anterior basal ganglia. (H) had lower RI's in frontal lobes, higher RI's in both hippocampal regions as well as inferior occipital regions and anterior basal ganglia Differences between (E) and (H) were found in the frontal lobe ((H)sub(→)), right superior temporal region ((H)sup(→)), left hippocampus ((H)sup(→)), both inferior occipital regions ((H)sup(→)) and right anterior basal ganglia ((H)sup(→)). The study shows that by means of IMP-SPECT hypo- and hyperperfused areas can be detected in the hemispheres of (E) and (H), corresponding to disturbed brain function. Higher hippocampal CBF in (E) and (H) may be related to the role of this limbic structure in generation of seizures and psychotic states. Hallucinations are associated with increased CBF in the right temporal and associative visual cortex. (Author)

  8. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte

    2014-01-01

    the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume......Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar...

  9. Brain SPECT in neurology: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenstein, P.; Essen Univ.; Weiller, C.; Essen Univ.

    1994-01-01

    SPECT of the brain with radiopharmaceuticals monitoring regional cerebral blood flow, receptor binding and metabolism offers a wide variety of potentially clinically useful applications. These can be found in neuro-oncology, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, extrapyramidal disorders, dementia and the determination of brain death. The evaluation of the benefit of these methods in routine use requires a close cooperation between nuclear medicine physicians and neurologists, not only in the interpretation and analysis of the actual clinical studies, but also in the design and realization of clinically oriented research with large series of patients. (orig.) [de

  10. β-CIT SPECT demonstrates reduced availability of serotonin transporters in patients with fatal familial insomnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeppel, S.; Kovacs, G.G.; Pirker, W.; Bruecke, T.; Almer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare hereditary human prion disease with unique clinical features including progressive sleep impairment and autonomic dysfunction. The serotonergic system is considered to be involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. In this study we demonstrate a reduced availability of serotonin transporters of 57 % and 73 % respectively in a thalamus-hypothalamus region of two FFI patients examined with β-CIT SPECT as compared to age-expected control values. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional total variation norm for SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Mikael; Bone, Dianna; Elmqvist, H.

    2001-01-01

    The total variation (TV) norm has been described in literature as a method for reducing noise in two-dimensional (2D) images. At the same time, the TV-norm is very good at recovering edges in images, without introducing ringing or edge artefacts. It has also been proposed as a 2D regularisation function in Bayesian reconstruction, implemented in an expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm, and called TV-EM. The TV-EM was developed for 2D SPECT imaging, and the algorithm is capable of smoothing noise while maintaining edges without introducing artefacts. We have extended the TV-norm to take into account the third spatial dimension, and developed an iterative EM algorithm based on the three-dimensional (3D) TV-norm, which we call TV3D-EM. This takes into account the correlation between transaxial sections in SPECT, due to system resolution. We have compared the 2D and 3D algorithms using reconstructed images from simulated projection data. Phantoms used were a homogeneous sphere, and a 3D head phantom based on the Shepp-Logan phantom. The TV3D-EM algorithm yielded somewhat lower noise levels than TV-EM. The noise in the TV3D-EM had similar correlation in transaxial and longitudinal sections, which was not the case for TV-EM, or any 2D reconstruction method. In particular, longitudinal sections from TV3D-EM were perceived as less noisy when compared to TV-EM. The use of 3D reconstruction should also be advantageous if compensation for distant dependent collimator blurring is incorporated in the iterative algorithm

  12. Myocardial viability assessed by Tl-201 SPECT. Redistribution versus reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalela, William Azem; Pimentel, Flavio Ferrarini de Oliveira; Uchida, Augusto Hiroshi; Bottega, Augusto; Ramires, Jose Antonio Franchine; Izaki, Marisa; Moraes, Aguinaldo Pereira; Soares Junior, Jose; Giorgi, Maria C. Pinto; Moffa, Paulo Jorge; Bellotti, Giovanni; Giovanni Guido Cerri; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify if a third series of images acquired by reinjection thallium-201, 24 h after conventional myocardial perfusion with the radioisotope, improves the identification of myocardial viability segments. The methods: we studied 30 patients, mean age 57.7 ±9.4 years, with old myocardial infarction using thallium (Tl)-201 SPECT, and we obtained three series of images (stress, redistribution after 4 h and reinjection after 24 h. Cardiac images were divided in 5 segments (apical, lateral, anterior, septal and inferior) and each one received a value by a score system according to the Tl-201 myocardial uptake (0=normal uptake; 1=mild hypoperfusion; 2=moderate hypoperfusion; 3=severe hypoperfusion or no myocardial uptake). We considered viable myocardium when the uptake of Tl-201 in the segment related to te myocardial infarction increases at least 1 point in two different axis of Tl-201 SPECT. The results: seven (23,3%) patients demonstrated increase of Tl-201 uptake only at reinjection images, showing a high efficacy of the method. Nine (30%) patients showed persistent hypoperfusion at all series of images suggesting only fibrosis in the are related to the infarction. Fourteen (46,7%) patients showed increase of Tl-201 concentration at redistribution images; among these patients, six showed improvement of myocardial uptake at reinjection. This condition was interpreted as regional chronic ischemic process: hibernating myocardium. The conclusion was that Tl-201 hypoperfusion at redistribution images without significant changes in relation to the stress images do not represent fibrosis at all. The reinjection technic was better than conventional redistribution in the detection of viable myocardium. This data allows a better therapeutic orientation. (author)

  13. Initial experience with SPECT examinations using [123I]IBZM as a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, M.; Henkes, H.; Hierholzer, J.; Eichstaedt, H.; Felix, R.; Laudahn, D.; Braeu, H.; Girke, W.; Kramp, W.

    1991-01-01

    [ 123 I]IBZM is a new radioactive labelled ligand which has a high affinity and specificity to D2-dopamine receptors. The in vivo kinetics of [ 123 I]IBZM were studied in patients with unilateral and bilateral accentuated idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The uptake in the basal ganglias and the imaging properties of this D2 receptor antagonist as a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT examinations had to be investigated. 5 patients, aged 42-66 years, (2m/3f) were examined. Each patient received 185 MBq [ 123 I]IBZM intravenously. Blood samples were taken 0-120 min post injection (p.i.) and time activity curves were plotted. Three SPECT examinations were performed (I: 30-50 min; II: 50-70 min; and III: 70-90 min p.i.). The count rates (counts/pixel) in the basal ganglias and the cerebellum were measured for each SPECT series on transverse slices using the region-of-interest technique. The time-activity curve of [ 123 I]IBZM shows a rapid decline in plasma during the first 10 min followed by a plateau until 120 min after injection. The SPECT examinations demonstrate the highest count rate in the basal ganglia during SPECT series III (i.e., 70-90 min p.i.). The side-to-side difference of the count rates were in the range of 3 percent in four patients, and 10 percent in one patient. The biokinetic data of [ 123 I]IBZM make this substance capable as a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT examinations. The basal ganglia are best visualized 70-90 min p.i., thus [ 123 I]IBZM seems to be a promising imaging agent for diseases of the D2-dopaminergic receptor system. (author). 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Delayed reflow of an ischemic infarct after spontaneous thrombolysis studied by CBF tomography using SPECT and Tc-99m HMPAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Companioni, J M; Lassen, N A; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1991-01-01

    A patient with a large ischemic infarct in the left middle cerebral artery territory was studied six times in the acute/subacute phase by cerebral blood flow (CBF) tomography using Tc-99m-HMPAO. The SPECT instrument used was a brain dedicated highly sensitive four-camera system (TOMOMATIC 232...

  15. Validity of in vivo [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in detecting MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; de Jeu, Rogier A. M.; de Bruin, Kora; Habraken, Jan B. A.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of a high-resolution pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system, with [(123)I]beta-CIT as a radiotracer, to detect 3,4-methelenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy')-induced loss of serotonin transporters (SERTs) in the living rat brain. In

  16. Motion correction in neurological fan beam SPECT using motion tracking and fully 3D reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, R.R.; Hutton, B.; Eberl, S.; Meikle, S.; Braun, M.; Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW; University of Technology, Sydney, NSW

    1998-01-01

    Full text: We have previously proposed the use of fully three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and continuous monitoring of head position to correct for motion artifacts in neurological SPECT and PET. Knowledge of the motion during acquisition provided by a head tracking system can be used to reposition the projection data in space in such a way as to negate motion effects during reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm must deal with variations in the projection geometry resulting from differences in the timing and nature of motion between patients. Rotational movements about any axis other than the camera's axis of rotation give rise to projection geometries which necessitate the use of a fully 3D reconstruction algorithm. Our previous work with computer simulations assuming parallel hole collimation demonstrated the feasibility of correcting for motion. We have now refined our iterative 3D reconstruction algorithm to support fan beam data and attenuation correction, and developed a practical head tracking system for use on a Trionix Triad SPECT system. The correction technique has been tested in fan beam SPECT studies of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom. Arbitrary movements were applied to the phantom during acquisition and recorded by the head tracker which monitored the position and orientation of the phantom throughout the study. 3D reconstruction was then performed using the motion data provided by the tracker. The accuracy of correction was assessed by comparing the corrected images with a motion free study acquired immediately beforehand, visually and by calculating mean squared error (MSE). Motion correction reduced distortion perceptibly and, depending on the motions applied, improved MSE by up to an order of magnitude. 3D reconstruction of the 128x128x128 data set took 20 minutes on a SUN Ultra 1 workstation. The results of these phantom experiments suggest that the technique can effectively compensate for head motion under clinical SPECT imaging

  17. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huellner, Martin W.; Strobel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  18. Quantitative assessment of 201TlCl myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa

    1987-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of the quantitative analysis of Tl-201 myocardial tomography by SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) was performed in comparison with visual evaluation. The method of quantitative analysis has been already reported in our previous paper. In this study, the program of re-standardization in the case of lateral myocardial infarction was added. This program was useful mainly for the evaluation of lesions in the left circumflex coronary artery. Regarding the degree of diagnostic accuracy of myocardial infarction in general, quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images was highest followed by visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images, and visual evaluation of myocardial planar images. However, in the case of anterior myocardial infarction, visual evaluation of myocardial SPECT images has almost the same detectability as quantitative evaluation of myocardial SPECT images. In the case of infero-posterior myocardial infarction, quantitative evaluation was superior to visual evaluation. As for specificity, quantitative evaluation of SPECT images was slightly inferior to visual evaluation of SPECT images. An infarction map was made by quantitative analysis and this enabled us to determine the infarction site, extent and degree according to easily recognizable patterns. As a result, the responsible coronary artery lesion could be inferred correctly and the calculated infarction score could be correlated with the residual left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  20. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huellner, Martin W. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Strobel, Klaus [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  1. SPECT/CT Fusion in the Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Tamura, Akihisa; Okazaki, Hajime; Kurose, Taichi; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Kuraoka, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze the relationship between the diagnostic ability of fused single photon emission computed tomography/ computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images in localization of parathyroid lesions and the size of adenomas or hyperplastic glands. Five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and 4 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) were imaged 15 and 120 minutes after the intravenous injection of technetium99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI). All patients underwent surgery and 5 parathyroid adenomas and 10 hyperplastic glands were detected. Pathologic findings were correlated with imaging results. The SPECT/CT fusion images were able to detect all parathyroid adenomas even with the greatest axial diameter of 0.6 cm. Planar scintigraphy and SPECT imaging could not detect parathyroid adenomas with an axial diameter of 1.0 to 1.2 cm. Four out of 10 (40%) hyperplastic parathyroid glands were diagnosed, using planar and SPECT imaging and 5 out of 10 (50%) hyperplastic parathyroid glands were localized, using SPECT/CT fusion images. SPECT/CT fusion imaging is a more useful tool for localization of parathyroid lesions, particularly parathyroid adenomas, in comparison with planar and or SPECT imaging

  2. Neuro-Spect and neuropsychological test in the differential diagnosis of dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marroni, B.M.; Louzada, A.G.; Andrea, S.A.; Raupp, A.A.; Sprinz, C.S.; Marroni, S.M.; Canani, L.C.; Zagoury, E.Z.; Borneman, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aim: The role of the Neuro-Spect scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool in central nervous system diseases is well established. However, the simultaneous application of a neuro-psychological test (NPT) may be used to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of the test. The aim of this study was to test if the concomitant use of the NPT may be used to improve the differential diagnostic accuracy of the scintigraphy. Methods: A total of 144 cerebral perfusion studies (CPS) (Tc-ECD, 1110 MBq) were performed between March and October 2001. From this total 63 patients with non-specific complains of memory loss formed the study group. Patients with cancer, psychiatric disturbs or craniotomies were excluded. For analysis the patients were divided in 3 subgroups according to the major complain: a) memory deficit, b) depression and C) organic syndrome that included patients with cerebral stroke, occult hydrocephalus and head trauma. All patients submitted to the Neuro-Spect underwent a simultaneous NPT. The NPT included the following tests: Digit Span (WAIS-R), verbal fluency, clock drawing task, Minimental State Examination (MMSE) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Well-established criteria, such as symmetry and concentration of the Tc-ECD were used for evaluation of the CPS. Concordance of the findings in the CPS and the anatomic lesion was used to reinforce the final conclusions. A scale for Alzheimer's Like Dementia (ALD) from 1 to 8 was developed (where 1=normal and 8 suggests ALD) using as reference the study of Holmann BL. Results: The NPT showed a positive correlation with the Neuro-Spect's probability scale. The tests with the best correlation were the verbal fluency (p<0.001), RAVLT and the memory recall (p<0.01). The MMSE did not show association with the Neuro-Spect probability scale. Conclusions: There is a positive association between the NPT and the Neuro-Spect. These results suggest that the NPT added to the Neuro-Spect may the be useful in the

  3. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84±17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78±10.36), mild defect ( 2 test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients

  4. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  5. Rapid gated Thallium-201 perfusion SPECT - clinically feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B.; Wilkinson, D.; Abatti, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Standard dose energy window optimised Thallium-201 (Tl-201) SPECT has about half the counts of a standard dose from Technetium-99m Sestamibi (Tc99m-Mibi) gated perfusion SPECT. This study investigates the clinical feasibility of rapid energy window optimised Tl-201 gated perfusion SPECT (gated-TI) and compares quantitative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and visually assessed image quality for wall motion and thickening to analogous values obtained from Tc99m-Mibi gated perfusion SPECT (gated - mibi). Methods: We studied 60 patients with a rest gated Tl-201 SPECT (100 MBq, 77KeV peak, 34% window, 20 sec/projection) followed by a post stress gated Sestamibi SPECT (1GBq, 140KeV, 20% window, 20 sec/projection) separate dual isotope protocol. LVEF quantitation was performed using commercially available software (SPECTEF, General Electric). Visual grading of image quality for wall thickening and motion was performed using a three-point scale (excellent, good and poor). Results: LVEF for gated Tl-201 SPECT was 59.6 ± 12.0% (Mean ± SD). LVEF for gated Sestamibi SPECT was 60.4 ±11.4% (Mean ± SD). These were not significantly different (P=0.27, T-Test). There was good correlation (r=0.9) between gated-TI and gated-mibi LVEF values. The quality of gated-Tl images was ranked as excellent, good and poor in 12, 50 and 38% of the patients respectively. Image quality was better in gated-mibi SPECT, with ratings of 12, 62 and 26% respectively. Conclusion: Rapid gated Thallium-201 acquisition with energy window optimisation can be effectively performed on majority of patients and offers the opportunity to assess not only myocardial perfusion and function, as with Technetium based agents, but also viability using a single day one isotope protocol

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical, SPECT and MRI investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascoli, G.; Cinti, P.; Nonni, M.; Rossi, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate psychometric test and neuroimaging technic capacity in subclinical conditions of cerebral affection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; to demonstrate agreement between topographic cerebral site and morphological signs in neuroimaging study; to evaluate agreement between cognitive deficits and rheumatoid severity. Material and Method: We have enrolled 20 patients, 17 pts. (85%) showed low score evocative for executive function limitation; 6 pts. (33%) showed attention anomaly, movement organization and verbal fluency. SPECT acquisition shows frontal lobe uptake in 95% (19/20 pts.) extended to parietal lobs in 42% (8/19pts.); 1 pt. Shows normal uptake and very high score. RMN study shows a specific sign of leukoencephalopaty in 35% (7/20pts.) and liquoral spaces increased in 25% (5/20 pts.). Conclusions: Frequent cognitive functions alteration during rheumatoid arthritis; very high topographic agreement between cognitive deficits and cerebral perfusion uptake showed by SPECT study; significant correlation between severity index and disease activity and cognitive deterioration; necessity of further longitudinal study for greater number of patient; pathogenetic disconnect mechanism cortical-subcortical by vasculitic reason or deafferentation jointed to negative interaction between motor limit and cognitive deficit

  7. Advantage of fan beam collimators for contrast recovery of hyperfixation in clinical SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, P.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the collimator on the contrast recovery of hyperfixation was studied using a dual-headed single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) system with standard clinical acquisition parameters. Three parallel collimator sets and two fan beam collimator sets were tested with a Jaszczak phantom. The six spheres of the phantom were filled with 99m Tc, and four background levels were progressively obtained by adding radioactivity to the cylinder of the phantom, providing four hyperfixation levels. The effects of angular sampling and reconstruction filters have been tested. The statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA). This study demonstrates the advantage of ultra-high resolution fan beam collimators for contrast recovery of hyperfixation with SPECT when using 64 projections over 360 degree, in particular when the contrast is low. The authors also demonstrate that fan beam collimators permit smaller size hyperfixation detection

  8. Determination of both mechanical and electronic shifts in cone beam SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianying Li; Jaszczak, R.J.; Huili Wang; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The difference between the displacement of the centre of rotation (mechanical shift, MS) and the electronic centring misalignment (electronic shift, ES) in cone beam SPECT is evaluated. A method is proposed to determine both MS and ES using the centroid of a projected point source sampled over 360 o C and the Marquardt non-linear fitting algorithm. Both shifts are characterized by two orthogonal components. This method is verified using Monte Carlo simulated point source data with different combinations of mechanical and electronic shifts. Both shifts can be determined correctly. The proposed method was also applied to the authors' cone beam SPECT system to determine both shifts as well as the focal length. The determined ES parameters are then used to correct the projections and the MS parameters are incorporated into a reconstruction algorithm. The point source image are reconstructed and the image resolutions with and without the shift corrections are measured. (Author)

  9. Single-photon-emission-computed-tomography (SPECT) in basal ganglia disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsch, K.

    1997-01-01

    In the past, SPECT investigations of regional cerebral blood flow have played a minor role in the diagnostic work-up of patients with basal ganglia disorders. More recently, however, interest in nuclear medicine procedures has dramatically increased since with the development of selective receptor ligands diagnostic tools have been provided which address the pathology in basal ganglia disorders more specifically than other diagnostic modalities. Evaluations of the pre- and postsynaptic aspects of the dopaminergic system, for example, deliver not only interesting data from the scientific point of view but also for the daily routine work. This paper summarizes some of the experience reported in the literature on SPECT investigations in basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, parkinsonian syndromes of other etiology, Wilson's and Huntington's disease, focal dystonias, and schizophrenia under treatment with neuroleptics. (orig.) [de

  10. Use of 3D reconstruction to correct for patient motion in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, R.R.; Hutton, B.F.; Braun, M.; Ardekani, B.; Larkin, R.

    1994-01-01

    Patient motion occurring during data acquisition in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can cause serious reconstruction artefacts. We have developed a new approach to correct for head motion in brain SPECT. Prior to motion, projections are assigned to conventional projections. When head motion occurs, it is measured by a motion monitoring system, and subsequent projection data are mapped 'virtual' projections. The appropriate position of each virtual projection is determined by applying the converse of the patient's accumulated motion to the actual camera projection. Conventional and virtual projections, taken together, form a consistent set that can be reconstructed using a three-dimensional (3D) algorithm. The technique has been tested on a range of simulated rotational movements, both within and out of the transaxial plane. For all simulated movements, the motion corrected images exhibited better agreement with a motion free reconstruction than did the uncorrected images. (Author)

  11. The role of brain SPECT in children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Liu Yongchang; Lin Xiangtong

    1996-01-01

    The rCBF brain SPECT with 99m Tc-HMPAO was performed in 15 children with interictal epilepsy, and some cases were compared with EEG, X-ray CT and MRI. The results showed that the positive rate of SPECT was the highest (93.33%,), then the EEG (92.31%), and the CT and MRI were the lowest (66.67% and 75%). This study indicated that brain SPECT was an effective method for diagnosis and foci localization in epileptic children, and also was useful to the study of prognosis and relationship between changes of rCBF and progress in clinical pictures

  12. The future of SPECT in a time of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Floris P.; Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    As positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming more prevalent in clinical practice, it is reasonable to ask if there will be a role for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the future. This article considers that question, focusing on areas where SPECT can differentiate itself from PET for fundamental reasons: breadth of available radionuclides, simultaneous imaging of multiple agents, cost-effectiveness and adaptability to specific imaging situations. The conclusion is that SPECT will continue to evolve and exist alongside PET and will grow the field of molecular imaging with improved efficiency and patient workflow

  13. Atlas of Skeletal SPECT/CT Clinical Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The atlas focuses specifically on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in musculoskeletal imaging, and thus illustrates the inherent advantages of the combination of the metabolic and anatomical component in a single procedure. In addition, the atlas provides information on the usefulness of several sets of specific indications. The publication, which serves more as a training tool rather than a textbook, will help to further integrate the SPECT and CT experience in clinical practice by presenting a series of typical cases with many different patterns of SPECT/CT seen in bone scintigraphy

  14. HM-PAO SPECT in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, M.; Rummeny, E.; Reissmann, M.; Fox, K.; Panitz, N.; Pfannenstiel, P.

    1987-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after injection of 99m-Tc-HM-PAO was used to examine 34 patients whose clinical findings could not exclude a cerebrovascular disease. In all patients an X-ray computed tomography examination was inconclusive for the clinical-neurological findings. The regional cerebral bloodflow was pathologically disturbed in 10 of 34 patients in the HM-PAO SPECT examination. The detection of the regional cerebral bloodflow with HM-PAO SPECT is helpful in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease. (orig.) [de

  15. Quantitation of cerebral blood volume by 99mTc-DTPA-HSA SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Machida, Kikuo; Momose, Toshimitsu

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-DTPA-HSA) as an agent for quantitation of cerebral blood volume (CBV) were examined. The radioactivity after decay correction as a percentage of the activity at 10 minutes was 84.3±1.3% at 120 minutes after the injection of 99m Tc-DTPA-HSA. Radioactivity was found exclusively in plasma, with little in blood cells. The blood retention of 99m Tc-DTPA-HSA is sufficient, and its use in the quantitation of CBV omits the need for centrifugation of the blood sample. CBV quantified using the tracer and a SPECT system with a single-head rotating gamma camera was 4.09±0.60 ml/100g brain, similar to values reported previously. Two serial SPECT scans provided similar images, and the CBV values determined by the two scans were closely correlated (p 99m Tc-DTPA-HSA has useful properties for quantitative CBV measurement and that quantitation of CBV by 99m Tc-DTPA-HSA SPECT is feasible using a system with a single-head rotating gamma camera. (author)

  16. Quantitative SPECT reconstruction for brain distribution with a non-uniform attenuation using a regularizing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Bidaut, L.; Raynaud, C.; Le Coq, G.

    1983-06-01

    An analytical solution to the SPECT reconstruction problem, where the actual attenuation effect can be included, was developped using a regularizing iterative method (RIM). The potential of this approach in quantitative brain studies when using a tracer for cerebrovascular disorders is now under evaluation. Mathematical simulations for a distributed activity in the brain surrounded by the skull and physical phantom studies were performed, using a rotating camera based SPECT system, allowing the calibration of the system and the evaluation of the adapted method to be used. On the simulation studies, the contrast obtained along a profile, was less than 5%, the standard deviation 8% and the quantitative accuracy 13%, for a uniform emission distribution of mean = 100 per pixel and a double attenuation coefficient of μ = 0.115 cm -1 and 0.5 cm -1 . Clinical data obtained after injection of 123 I (AMPI) were reconstructed using the RIM without and with cerebrovascular diseases or lesion defects. Contour finding techniques were used for the delineation of the brain and the skull, and measured attenuation coefficients were assumed within these two regions. Using volumes of interest, selected on homogeneous regions on an hemisphere and reported symetrically, the statistical uncertainty for 300 K events in the tomogram was found to be 12%, the index of symetry was of 4% for normal distribution. These results suggest that quantitative SPECT reconstruction for brain distribution is feasible, and that combined with an adapted tracer and an adequate model physiopathological parameters could be extracted

  17. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT or SPECT/CT for lung function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Vera; Heimann, Uwe; Huebner, Ralf-Harto; Kroencke, Thomas J; Maurer, Martin H; Doellinger, Felix; Geisel, Dominik; Hamm, Bernd; Brenner, Winfried; Schreiter, Nils F

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of attenuation correction (AC) of V/P SPECT images for patients with pulmonary emphysema. Twenty-one patients (mean age 67.6 years) with pulmonary emphysema who underwent V/P SPECT/CT were included. AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images were compared visually and semiquantitatively. Visual comparison of AC/non-AC images was based on a 5-point likert scale. Semiquantitative comparison assessed absolute counts per lung (aCpLu) and lung lobe (aCpLo) for AC/non-AC images using software-based analysis; percentage counts (PC = (aCpLo/aCpLu) × 100) were calculated. Correlation between AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images was analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient; differences were tested for significance with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Visual analysis revealed high conformity for AC and non-AC V/P SPECT images. Semiquantitative analysis of PC in AC/non-AC images had an excellent correlation and showed no significant differences in perfusion (ρ = 0.986) or ventilation (ρ = 0.979, p = 0.809) SPECT/CT images. AC of V/P SPECT images for lung lobe-based function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema do not improve visual or semiquantitative image analysis.

  18. Incremental value of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT over whole-body planar scintigraphy and SPECT in patients with neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlic, Mate; Težak, Stanko

    2017-06-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional value of 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT over planar whole-body (WB) scintigraphy and SPECT alone in the detection and accurate localisation of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) lesions. This study included 65 patients with a definitive histological diagnosis of NET prior to scintigraphy. Planar WB scintigraphy, SPECT, and SPECT/CT images were acquired at 4 h post-administration of 670 MBq 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC. Additional SPECT images at 10 min after tracer administration were also acquired. Clinical and imaging follow-up findings were considered as the reference standards (minimum follow-up period, 15 months). Patient and lesion-based analyses of the efficacies of the imaging modalities were performed. While 38 patients exhibited metastasis of NETs, 27 presented no evidence of metastasis. Upon patient-based analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of SPECT/CT were found to be 88.9 and 79.3 %, respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of WB scintigraphy, 4h-SPECT, and SPECT/CT were 72.3, 73.8, and 84.6 %, respectively. The area under curve (AUC) value for SPECT/CT (0.84) was the highest, followed by those for 4h-SPECT (0.75) and WB scintigraphy (0.74). The accuracy and AUC values of SPECT/CT were significantly better compared to those of WB scintigraphy (p < 0.001), 10 min-SPECT (p < 0.001), and 4 h-SPECT (p = 0.001). The findings of SPECT/CT led to the change in treatment plan of 11 patients (16.9 %). The sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of SPECT/CT in the evaluation of NET lesions outperforms planar WB imaging or SPECT alone.

  19. Correction of head motion artifacts in SPECT with fully 3-D OS-EM reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A method which relies on continuous monitoring of head position has been developed to correct for head motion in SPECT studies of the brain. Head position and orientation are monitored during data acquisition by an inexpensive head tracking system (ADL-1, Shooting Star Technology, Rosedale, British Colombia). Motion correction involves changing the projection geometry to compensate for motion (using data from the head tracker), and reconstructing with a fully 3-D OS-EM algorithm. The reconstruction algorithm can accommodate any number of movements and any projection geometry. A single iteration of 3-D OS-EM using all available projections provides a satisfactory 3-D reconstruction, essentially free of motion artifacts. The method has been validated in studies of the 3-D Hoffman brain phantom. Multiple 36- degree acquisitions, each with the phantom in a different position, were performed on a Trionix triple head camera. Movements were simulated by combining projections from the different acquisitions. Accuracy was assessed by comparison with a motion-free reconstruction, visually and by calculating mean squared error (MSE). Motion correction reduced distortion perceptibly and, depending on the motions applied, improved MSE by up to an order of magnitude. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the 128 x 128 x 128 data set took 2- minutes on a SUN Ultra 1 workstation. This motion correction technique can be retro-fitted to existing SPECT systems and could be incorporated in future SPECT camera designs. It appears to be applicable in PET as well as SPECT, to be able to correct for any head movements, and to have the potential to improve the accuracy of tomographic brain studies under clinical imaging conditions

  20. SPECT for smokers brain perfusion evaluation; SPECT para avaliacao da perfusao cerebral em fumantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliska, C.M.; Martins, E.F.; Barros, D.S.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Lourenco, C.; Goncalves, S.; Goncalves, M.B.; Miranda, M.M.B.G.; Neto, L.M.; Penque, E.; Antonucci, J.B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases brain stroke risk, however,five to fifteen years after ceasing this habit, brain perfusion recovers normal pattern. We propose to compare brain perfusion patterns performing brain SPECT scans of smokers and non-smokers. Thirteen volunteers age range 20-30 years old) composed of six non-smokers and seven smokers were studied by brain scans (SPECT).We used ECD- {sup 99m} Tc radiolabelled as recommended by the manufacturer. All patients received 740 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical through intravenous injection, with their eyes opened and their ears unplugged, in a quiet room. We used a one head SPECT camera ( General Electric/ StarCam 4000 and Siemens/ E.Cam) with low-energy ultrahigh resolution collimator. Imaging begin 40 minutes after tracer injection. For reconstruction we used a Butterworth filter.The preliminary results showed brain perfusion deficit areas on five of the smokers while all non- smokers had normal brain perfusion scans. We believe that smoking increases the possibility of brain perfusion deficits. (author)

  1. Use of X-ray CT-defined regions of interest for the determination of SPECT recovery coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.R.; Brown, J.K.; Hasegawa, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    For accurate activity per unit volume measurements in SPECT, recovery coefficients are usually applied based on the size and shape of objects being imaged to properly account for the resolution limitations of the gamma camera. Because of noise and limited spatial resolution, determination of object sizes and boundaries can be difficult using the SPECT images alone. We therefore have developed a technique which determines activity concentrations for SPECT using regions of interest (ROI's) obtained from coregistered X-ray CT images. In this study, experimental phantoms containing cylindrical and spherical objects were imaged on a combined X-ray CT/SPECT system and reconstructed data volumes were registered using the known geometry of the system. ROI's were defined on the registered CT images and used to help quantify activity concentration in localized regions and to measure object volumes. We have derived the recovery curves for these objects and scan technique. We have also tested a technique that demonstrates activity quantitation without the need for object and size dependent recovery coefficients in the case of low background

  2. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C; Bhattacharya, Manojeet

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter

  3. Clinical application of SPECT and PET in cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ra, Young Shin

    2003-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) and positron emission tomography(PET) are modern imaging techniques that allow for both qualitative are quantitative assessment of hemodynamic changes in cerebrovascular diseases. SPECT has been becoming an indispensable method to investigate regional cerebral blood flow because equipment and isotope are easily available in most general hospitals. Acetazolamide stress SPECT has also been proved to be useful to evaluate the cerebrovascular reserve of occlusive cerebrovascular diseases and to select surgical candidate. PET has gained wide spread clinical use in the evaluation of the hemodynamic and metabolic consequences of extracranial or intracranial arterial obstructive disease despite its complexity and limited availability. PET has been established as an invaluable tool in the pathophysilogy investigation of acute ischemic stroke. The potentials, limitations, and clinical applications of SPECT and PET in various cerebrovascular diseases will be discussed in this article with reviews of literatures

  4. Examination of brain function using PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yasuhito; Momose, Toshinitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Oku, Shinya; Nishikawa, Junichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the presentation is to elucidate the unique role of PET (positron emission computed tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) in assessing physiological and biochemical functions of the brain.

  5. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko

    1993-01-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-d,l-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was performed twice in a 78-year-old man clinically diagnosed as brain death according to the standard criteria of the Japanese Ministry of Welfare. The first brain SPECT demonstrated the tracer accumulation in the brain, indicating preserved cerebral blood flow. The second brain SPECT performed 3 days later revealed cessation of the blood flow. In patients with preserved cerebral blood flow, the diagnosis of brain death cannot be made, even if they meet the existing criteria, because previous report noted the recovery in some of those patients. Brain perfusion SPECT plays an important role as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of brain death. (author)

  6. Two dimensional polar display of cardiac blood pool SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Takishima, Teruo; Hasegawa, Noriko; Hashimoto, Masanori; Ohno, Ken

    1989-01-01

    A new method of ECG gated cardiac blood pool SPECT to illustrate the left ventricular (LV) wall motion in a single static image, two dimensional polar display (2DPD), was described. Circumferential profiles of the difference between end diastolic and end systolic short axis images of the LV were displayed in a similar way to the bull's eye plot of 201 Tl myocardial SPECT. The diagnoses by 2DPDs agreed with those by cinematic displays of ECG gated blood pool SPECT in 74 out of 84 segments (85.5%) of abnormal motion, and 155 out of 168 segments (80.3%) of normal motion. It is concluded that 2DPD can evaluate regional wall motion by a single static image in a significant number of patients, and is also useful in comparing with the bull's eye image of 201 Tl myorcardial SPECT. (orig.)

  7. Clinical application of SPECT and PET in cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ra, Young Shin [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) and positron emission tomography(PET) are modern imaging techniques that allow for both qualitative are quantitative assessment of hemodynamic changes in cerebrovascular diseases. SPECT has been becoming an indispensable method to investigate regional cerebral blood flow because equipment and isotope are easily available in most general hospitals. Acetazolamide stress SPECT has also been proved to be useful to evaluate the cerebrovascular reserve of occlusive cerebrovascular diseases and to select surgical candidate. PET has gained wide spread clinical use in the evaluation of the hemodynamic and metabolic consequences of extracranial or intracranial arterial obstructive disease despite its complexity and limited availability. PET has been established as an invaluable tool in the pathophysilogy investigation of acute ischemic stroke. The potentials, limitations, and clinical applications of SPECT and PET in various cerebrovascular diseases will be discussed in this article with reviews of literatures.

  8. SPECT/CT in the Diagnosis of Skull Base Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Praveen; Jaganthan, Sriram; Patnecha, Manish; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Bandopadhyaya, Gurupad; Malhotra, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Skull base osteomyelitis is a potentially fatal disease. We demonstrate here the utility of SPECT/CT in diagnosing this entity, which was not obvious on a planar bone scan. A 99mT c MDP bone scan with SPECT/CT was carried out on a patient with clinically suspected skull base osteomyelitis. Findings were correlated with contrast enhanced CT (CECT) and MRI. Planar images were equivocal, but SPECT/CT showed intense uptake in the body of sphenoid and petrous temporal bone as well as the atlas corresponding to irregular bone destruction on CT and MRI. These findings indicate that SPECT/CT may have an additional role beyond planar imaging in the detection of skull base osteomyelitis.

  9. Evaluation and reduction of respiratory motion artifacts in small animal SPECT with GATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-L.; Park, S.-J.; Kim, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of image quality caused by respiration is a major impediment to accurate lesion detection in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of lung motion on image quantification. A small animal SPECT system with NaI(Tl) was modeled in the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) simulation for a lung lesion using a 4D mouse whole-body phantom. SPECT images were obtained using 120 projection views acquired from 0 o to 360 o with a 3 o step. Slices were reconstructed using ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) without attenuation correction with five iterations and four subsets. Image quality was compared between the static mode without respiratory motion, and dynamic mode with respiratory motion in terms of spatial resolution was measured by the full width at half maximum (FWHM), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The FWHM of the non-gated image and the respiratory gated image were also compared. Spatial resolution improved as activity increased and lesion diameter decreased in the static and dynamic modes. The SNR and CNR increased significantly as lesion activity increased and lesion diameter decreased. Our results show that respiratory motion leads to reduced contrast and quantitative accuracy and that image quantification depends on both the amplitude and the pattern of the respiratory motion. We verified that respiratory motion can have a major effect on the accuracy of measurement of lung lesions and that respiratory gating can reduce activity smearing on SPECT images

  10. Task Equivalence for Model and Human-Observer Comparisons in SPECT Localization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anando; Kalantari, Faraz; Gifford, Howard C.

    2016-06-01

    While mathematical model observers are intended for efficient assessment of medical imaging systems, their findings should be relevant for human observers as the primary clinical end users. We have investigated whether pursuing equivalence between the model and human-observer tasks can help ensure this goal. A localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study tested prostate lesion detection in simulated In-111 SPECT imaging with anthropomorphic phantoms. The test images were 2D slices extracted from reconstructed volumes. The iterative ordered sets expectation-maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used with Gaussian postsmoothing. Variations in the number of iterations and the level of postfiltering defined the test strategies in the study. Human-observer performance was compared with that of a visual-search (VS) observer, a scanning channelized Hotelling observer, and a scanning channelized nonprewhitening (CNPW) observer. These model observers were applied with precise information about the target regions of interest (ROIs). ROI knowledge was a study variable for the human observers. In one study format, the humans read the SPECT image alone. With a dual-modality format, the SPECT image was presented alongside an anatomical image slice extracted from the density map of the phantom. Performance was scored by area under the LROC curve. The human observers performed significantly better with the dual-modality format, and correlation with the model observers was also improved. Given the human-observer data from the SPECT study format, the Pearson correlation coefficients for the model observers were 0.58 (VS), -0.12 (CH), and -0.23 (CNPW). The respective coefficients based on the human-observer data from the dual-modality study were 0.72, 0.27, and -0.11. These results point towards the continued development of the VS observer for enhancing task equivalence in model-observer studies.

  11. Statistical parametric mapping of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlakow, A.; Scott, A.M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Sonkila, C.; Wardill, T.D.; Crowley, K.; Abbott, D.; Egan, G.F.; McKay, W.J.; Hughes, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The clinical value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow studies in cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders has been well described. Currently, interpretation of these studies relies on qualitative or semi- quantitative techniques. The aim of our study is to generate statistical measures of regional cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly using statistical parametric mapping (Friston et al, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) in order to facilitate the objective analysis of cerebral blood flow studies in patient groups. A cohort of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, aged 68 to 81 years, was prospectively selected on the basis of normal physical examination and neuropsychological testing. Subjects with risk factors, or a history of cognitive impairment were excluded from our study group. All volunteers underwent SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging, 30 minutes following the administration of 370 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO, on a Trionix Triad XLT triple-headed scanner (Trionix Research Laboratory Twinsburg, OH) using high resolution, fan-beam collimators resulting in a system resolution of 10 mm full width at half-maximum (FWHM). The SPECT cerebral blood flow studies were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software specifically developed for the routine statistical analysis of functional neuroimaging data. The SPECT images were coregistered with each individual's T1-weighted MR volume brain scan and spatially normalized to standardised Talairach space. Using SPM, these data were analyzed for differences in interhemispheric regional cerebral blood flow. Significant asymmetry of cerebral perfusion was detected in the pre-central gyrus at the 95th percentile. In conclusion, the interpretation of cerebral blood flow studies in the elderly should take into account the statistically significant asymmetry in interhemispheric pre-central cortical blood flow. In the future, clinical studies will be compared to statistical data sets in age

  12. Statistical parametric mapping of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turlakow, A.; Scott, A.M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Sonkila, C.; Wardill, T.D.; Crowley, K.; Abbott, D.; Egan, G.F.; McKay, W.J.; Hughes, A. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET Neurology and Clinical Neuropsychology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The clinical value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow studies in cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders has been well described. Currently, interpretation of these studies relies on qualitative or semi- quantitative techniques. The aim of our study is to generate statistical measures of regional cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly using statistical parametric mapping (Friston et al, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) in order to facilitate the objective analysis of cerebral blood flow studies in patient groups. A cohort of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, aged 68 to 81 years, was prospectively selected on the basis of normal physical examination and neuropsychological testing. Subjects with risk factors, or a history of cognitive impairment were excluded from our study group. All volunteers underwent SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging, 30 minutes following the administration of 370 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO, on a Trionix Triad XLT triple-headed scanner (Trionix Research Laboratory Twinsburg, OH) using high resolution, fan-beam collimators resulting in a system resolution of 10 mm full width at half-maximum (FWHM). The SPECT cerebral blood flow studies were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software specifically developed for the routine statistical analysis of functional neuroimaging data. The SPECT images were coregistered with each individual`s T1-weighted MR volume brain scan and spatially normalized to standardised Talairach space. Using SPM, these data were analyzed for differences in interhemispheric regional cerebral blood flow. Significant asymmetry of cerebral perfusion was detected in the pre-central gyrus at the 95th percentile. In conclusion, the interpretation of cerebral blood flow studies in the elderly should take into account the statistically significant asymmetry in interhemispheric pre-central cortical blood flow. In the future, clinical studies will be compared to statistical data sets in age

  13. Investigation of Collimator Influential Parameter on SPECT Image Quality: a Monte Carlo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banari Bahnamiri Sh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obtaining high quality images in Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT device is the most important goal in nuclear medicine. Because if image quality is low, the possibility of making a mistake in diagnosing and treating the patient will rise. Studying effective factors in spatial resolution of imaging systems is thus deemed to be vital. One of the most important factors in SPECT imaging in nuclear medicine is the use of an appropriate collimator for a certain radiopharmaceutical feature in order to create the best image as it can be effective in the quantity of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM which is the main parameter in spatial resolution. Method: In this research, the simulation of the detector and collimator of SPECT imaging device, Model HD3 made by Philips Co. and the investigation of important factors on the collimator were carried out using MCNP-4c code. Results: The results of the experimental measurments and simulation calculations revealed a relative difference of less than 5% leading to the confirmation of the accuracy of conducted simulation MCNP code calculation. Conclusion: This is the first essential step in the design and modelling of new collimators used for creating high quality images in nuclear medicine

  14. Brain SPECT with /sup 123/I-isopropyl amphetamine in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Rasche, A.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.; Froescher, W.; Kluenenberg, H.

    1983-04-01

    Ten patients were studied with N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out by hand of a rotating gamma camera system (Gammatome T9000/CGR, high resolution collimator). During 1 rotation (360/sup 0/) 64 frames (4k matrix) were acquired within 20 min 1 hour after injection of 6.5 mCi I-123 labeled amphetamine. The content of I-124 was less than 2%. After reconstruction of transverse slices coronar and sagittal reconstructions were rapidly performed using an array processor. Nine patients suffered from epilepsy and one from severe migraine. Excellent differentiation between gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia was evident in all of the cases. In 2 out of 3 patients with epilepsy and negative CT results SPECT revealed circumscribed areas with increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the EEG findings. In 4 out of 6 cases with positive CT findings SPECT lesions with diminished amphetamine uptake could be established. One patient with severe migraine showed focal increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the respective clinical results.

  15. SPECT imaging of 131I (364 keV): importance of collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.P.; Saw, C.B.; Leong, L.K.; Serafini, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    A low sensitivity medium energy collimator (LSMEC) designed with thick septa and long bore (theoretical leakage 131 I for a SPECT system operated in both planar and tomographic imaging modes. The collimator was designed to minimize the influence of photon penetration on spatial resolution, in particular the resolution index FWTM. Overall spatial resolution for the planar imaging mode at 10 cm from the collimator face was found to be 11.6 mm FWHM and 21.6 mm FWTM. The corresponding transverse plane and slice thickness resolution was of the order of 17 mm FWHM and 31 mm FWTM, for a radius of rotation of 16 cm. A SPECT resolution phantom was imaged. Two quadrants of cold rods were well resolved, with rod dimensions of 16 and 12.7 mm respectively, the resolution being comparable to that obtained using 99 Tcsup(m) (140 keV) and a low-energy high-resolution collimator. NEMA sensitivity obtained was 75 cpm/μCi 131 I. The resolution measurements obtained suggest that this collimator should be useful for SPECT imaging with 131 I in either radioimmunoimaging or radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  16. Differential diagnosis of regional cerebral hyperfixation of TC-99m HMPAO on SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirazi, P.; Konopka, L.; Crayton, J.W. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Accurate diagnostic evaluation of patients with neurologic and neuropsychiatric disease is important because early treatment may halt disease progression and prevent impairment or disability. Cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO has been ascribed to luxury perfusion following ischemic infarction. The present study sought to identify other conditions that also display radiotracer hyperfixation in order to develop a differential diagnosis of this finding on SPECT imaging. Two hundred fifty (n=250) successive cerebral SPECT images were reviewed for evidence of HMPAO hyperfixation. Hyperfixation was defined as enhanced focal perfusion surrounded by a zone of diminished or normal cerebral perfusion. All patients were scanned after intravenous injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m HMPAO. Volume-rendered and oblique images were obtained with a Trionix triple-head SPECT system using ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Thirteen (13/250; 5%) of the patients exhibited regions of HMPAO hyperfixation. CT or MRI abnormalities were detected in 6/13 cases. Clinical diagnoses in these patients included intractable psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and narcotic dependence, major depression, acute closed-head trauma, hypothyroidism, as well as subacute ischemic infarction. A wide variety of conditions may be associated with cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO. These conditions include neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses, and extend the consideration of hyperfixation beyond ischemic infarction. Consequently, a differential diagnosis of HMPAO hyperfixation may be broader than originally considered, and this may suggest a fundamental role for local cerebral hyperperfusion. Elucidation of the fundamental mechanism(s) for cerebral hyperperfusion requires further investigation.

  17. Assessment of left ventricular performance by ECG-gated SPECT. Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadamura, Eiji; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kubo, Shigeto; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    In the measurement of a left ventricular volume, MIBI-QGS was compared with MRI. Because it became clear by the experiment using phantom that a volume calculated with QGS was smaller than the actual volume, data of clinical study were corrected. Subjects were 20 patients with coronary artery disease. Fourteen patients had anamnesis of myocardial infarct. ECG-gated SPECT was performed one hour after intravenous injection of MIBI (600 MBq) in rest. End diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated using QGS. Cine-MR image was obtained by using MR system of 1.5 Tesla within 1 week after SPECT. A condition was as follows; segmented k-space gradient echo with view sharing, TR=11 ms, TE=1.4 ms, flip angle 20 degree, field of view 32 cm, matrix 256 x 196, 8 lines per segment. LVEF, ESV and EF were analysed by Bland-Altman method, and the difference between MIBI-gated-SPECT and MRI was no problem. Horizontal dislocation image and vertical major axis dislocation image were provided. Minor axis crossing images of 10-12 slice were also filmed in order to cover all left ventricles. As a result, availability of MIBI-QGS became clear. Some factors which produces the measurement error are examined. (K.H.)

  18. Tc-99m MAG3 SPECT on transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jong Gul; Kim, Soon; Zeon, Seok Kil

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of a technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed on transplanted kidney. Thirty renal transplant patients were included in this study. Planar scan was performed for 30 minutes using 555 MBq Tc-99m MAG3. A post-voiding SPECT scan was acquired on the third, seventh, fourteenth and twenty eighth day after transplantation. SPECT scan showed interpretable image quality in 26 of 30 patients (86.7%) and 84 in 120 scans (70%). Fourteen of 26 patients with interpretable SPECT image showed decreased or increased radioactivity, but only 5 had abnormal findings on the planar scan. Focal SPECT defects were seen in allografts with normal function (n=3), acute tubular necrosis (n=3), and acute rejection (n=2). The defects are thought to reflect focally underperfused renal parenchyme or, in normal allografts, an artifact from uneven radioactivity distribution. Four of 10 paints with renal arterial variation showed focally decreased radioactivity and SPECT helped guide further studies that confirmed the exact cause. Five of 10 patients with acute tubular necrosis or acute rejection showed focally decreased radioactivity, but its relation to the patients' clinical course was not clear. Focally increased radioactivity was observed in 5 allografts with normal function and 1 with double ureter in which local clearance delay was observed. Tc-99m MAG3 SPECT renal scan can detect additional focal abnormalities compared to planar scan. Further study is necessary to elucidate the exact clinical significance of the SPECT findings

  19. MRI and SPECT findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukada, F.; Sawada, H.; Seriu, N.; Shindou, K.; Nishitani, N.; Kameyama, M.

    1992-01-01

    MRI was performed in 21 patients and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p- 123 I iodoamphetamine in 16 patients, to visualize upper motor neurone lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal along the course of the pyramidal tract in the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in 4 of 21 patients. SPECT images were normal in 4 patients, but uptake was reduced in the cerebral cortex that includes the motor area in 11. (orig.)

  20. Brain SPECT using dipyridamole for evaluation of vascular reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Yoon, Soo Hwan; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Cho, Kyung Kee

    1997-01-01

    Baseline and stress brain SPECT studies using CO 2 inhalation, acetazolamide (Diamox R ) and adenosine administrations have been used in the evaluation of cerebral vascular reserve. Recently dipyridamole (Persantine R ) which is one of the pharmacologic myocardial perfusion SPECT agents as a potent vasodilator is suggested as another cerebral vasodilator. IV Diamox R is not available in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate dipyridamole in stress brain SPECT in patients with Moya Moya disease. Eight patients with angiographically proven Moya Moya disease were studied. Their ages ranged from 7 to 62 year old. There were 4 males and 4 females. Each patient had a baseline and persantine brain SPECT studies with 1 to 3 days' interval. Dipyridamole was given intravenously at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg over 4 minutes while watching vital signs such as blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram. Three minutes after the completion of the infusion, 99mTc-ECD (0.2 mCi/Ib body weight) was injected. Brain SPECT was performed 30 minutes later using a tripple head gamma camera equipped with LEHR collimators. A total of 128 projections with an acquisition time of 30 second per projection was obtained and reconstructed by filtered back projections without attenuation correction. The difference between the baseline an