The visibility of an object is largely determined by the relative contrast between the : object and its background. Thus, it might be assumed that without consideration of : environmental conditions surrounding a target illuminated by a headlamp, tar...
The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.
Götz, M.; Kleinkes, M.
Driving at night is dangerous. Although only 25% of all driving tasks are performed at night, nearly half of all fatal accidents happen in this time. In order to increase safety when driving under poor visibility conditions, automotive front lighting systems have undergone a strong development in the last fifteen years. One important milestone was the introduction of Xenon headlamps in 1992, which provide more and brighter light for road illumination than ever before. Since then the paradigm of simply providing more light has changed toward providing optimised light distributions, which support the driver's perception. A first step in this direction was the introduction of dynamic bend lighting and cornering light in 2003. In 2006 the first full AFS headlamp (Adaptive Front Lighting System) allowed an optimised adoption of the light distribution to the driving situation. These systems use information provided by vehicle sensors and an intelligent algorithm to guide light towards those areas where needed. Nowadays, even more information about the vehicle's environment is available. Image processing systems, for example, allow to detect other traffic participants, their speed and their driving directions. In future headlamp systems these data will be used to constantly regulate the reach of the light distribution thus allowing a maximal reach without providing glare. Moreover, technologies that allow to constantly use a high-beam light distribution are under development. These systems will illuminate the whole traffic area only excluding other traffic participants. LED light sources will play a significant role in these scenarios, since they allow to precisely illuminate certain areas of the road, while neighbouring parts will be left in dark.
Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Rui; Cao, Ye; Gao, Mingqiu
This study concerns the quantized evaluation research of glare from automotive headlamps. In the actual regulations, only one point in the test screen is set for judging whether driver can bear the light caused by headlamps of opposing vehicle. To evaluating practical effect of glare, we accept a glare zone with the probability distribution information of the oncoming driver's eye position. In this focus area, glare level of headlamp is represented by weighted luminous flux. To confirm the most comfortable illuminance value to human eyes at 50 m, we used test point B50L as observation position, and collected 1,000 subjective evaluation data from 20 test personnel in different ages during two months. Basing on the assessment results, we calculated 0.60 lx as recommended value for standardized testing procedure at 25 m. Then we figured out 0.38 lm as optimum value, and 0.25 / 1.20 lm as limiting values depending on regulations. We tested 40 sample vehicles with different levels to verify the sectional nonlinear quantitative evaluation method we designed, and analyzed the typical test results.
A research has been carried out as complete as possible to the validity of all arguments that have been put forward in the literature about the subject white versus yellow head-lamps in the cause of time. This book is an English translation of B 5931, B 5932, B 6507 and B 6703 (IRRD Nos. 211879,
Zhu Xiangbing; Chen Qiaoyun; Ni Jian
The low-beam headlamp is an important component for the automobile safety. With the improvement of optical efficiency and heat dissipation' technology of white LEDs, it becomes feasible to design low-beam headlamps with LEDs. The principle of B-spline surfaces is used to construct the free-form surface reflector meeting the requirement. First, the initial B-spline surface reflector is established on the basis of the light source structure, emitting features and capability of light distribution. Optical simulation is carried out according to the principle of ray tracing. And then the simulation results will be compared with the standard of photometric characteristics. The segmented surfaces fine-tuning method and the method of trial and error are used to trim the part that failed to meet requirements gradually. The vector groups of surfaces are obtained. Finally,the desired free-form surface reflector meeting the ECE regulations is got. The experimental results can meet the standard of photometric characteristics. The impact of the technique showed in this paper in the field of LED illumination design seems to be a very promising topic.
Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Padmos, P.
Luminous intensities of dipped car headlamps in directions of the eyes of drivers of oncoming cars (glare intensity) and the right roadside (illumination intensity) were measured (404 cars). The often too high glare intensities are mainly due to dirt and lamp age; the often too low illumination
Held, Marcel Philipp; Lachmayer, Roland
High-resolution vehicle headlamps represent a future-oriented technology that can be used to increase traffic safety and driving comfort. As a further development to the current Matrix Beam headlamps, LED-based pixel light systems enable ideal lighting functions (e.g. projection of navigation information onto the road) to be activated in any given driving scenario. Moreover, compared to other light-modulating elements such as DMDs and LCDs, instantaneous LED on-off toggling provides a decisive advantage in efficiency. To generate highly individualized light distributions for automotive applications, a number of approaches using an LED array may be pursued. One approach is to vary the LED density in the array so as to output the desired light distribution. Another notable approach makes use of an equidistant arrangement of the individual LEDs together with distortion optics to formulate the desired light distribution. The optical system adjusts the light distribution in a manner that improves resolution and increases luminous intensity of the desired area. An efficient setup for pixel generation calls for one lens per LED. Taking into consideration the limited space requirements of the system, this implies that the luminous flux, efficiency and resolution image parameters are primarily controlled by the lens dimensions. In this paper a concept for an equidistant LED array arrangement utilizing distortion optics is presented. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the influence of lens geometry on the system efficiency whereas the second part investigates the correlation between resolution and luminous flux based on the lens dimensions.
Kamishima, H; Miwa, T; Sasaki, T; Imai, M [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sumi, T [Niles Parts Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
The on-and-off timing of vehicle headlamp control systems varies with weather conditions. Cloudy weather has a wider light energy distribution from visible to infrared radiation than clear weather. Silicon photodiodes, which can detect visible to infrared radiation, have larger output currents on cloudy evenings than on clear evenings under the same brightness conditions. The systems should be designed with such factors in mind as spectral characteristics of windshield, filters, sensor, and eyesight. 4 refs., 9 figs.
Liang, Wei-Lun; Su, Guo-Dung J
We propose a train headlamp system using dual half-circular parabolic aluminized reflectors. Each half-circular reflector contains five high-efficiency and small-package light-emitting diode (LED) chips, and the halves are 180° rotationally symmetric. For traffic safety, the headlamp satisfies the Code of Federal Regulations. To predict the pattern of illumination, an analytical derivation is developed for the optical path of a ray that is perpendicular to and emitted from the center of an LED chip. This ray represents the main ray emitted from the LED chip and is located at the maximum illuminance of the spot projected by the LED source onto a screen. We then analyze the design systematically to determine the locations of the LED chips in the reflector that minimize electricity consumption while satisfying reliability constraints associated with traffic safety. Compared to a typical train headlamp system with an incandescent or halogen lamp needing several hundred watts, the proposed system only uses 20.18 W to achieve the luminous intensity requirements.
Ma, Jianshe; Huang, Jianwei; Su, Ping; Cui, Yao
We propose a new method to design freeform light distribution lens for light-emitting diode (LED) automotive headlamp based on digital micro mirror device (DMD). With the Parallel optical path architecture, the exit pupil of the illuminating system is set in infinity. Thus the principal incident rays of micro lens in DMD is parallel. DMD is made of high speed digital optical reflection array, the function of distribution lens is to distribute the emergent parallel rays from DMD and get a lighting pattern that fully comply with the national regulation GB 25991-2010.We use DLP 4500 to design the light distribution lens, mesh the target plane regulated by the national regulation GB 25991-2010 and correlate the mesh grids with the active mirror array of DLP4500. With the mapping relations and the refraction law, we can build the mathematics model and get the parameters of freeform light distribution lens. Then we import its parameter into the three-dimensional (3D) software CATIA to construct its 3D model. The ray tracing results using Tracepro demonstrate that the Illumination value of target plane is easily adjustable and fully comply with the requirement of the national regulation GB 25991-2010 by adjusting the exit brightness value of DMD. The theoretical optical efficiencies of the light distribution lens designed using this method could be up to 92% without any other auxiliary lens.
Szanto, Zs.; Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Futo, I.; Rinyu, L.; Svingor, E.
Complete text of publication follows. The miners' headlamp combines a battery pack for waistbelt mounting with a detachable headlamp/cable unit. The battery that incorporates the Ni/Cd 'gel-cells' and the KOH electrolyte (which acts only as an ion conductor and does not contribute significantly to the cell's reaction) is the most important piece of the lamp. The total reaction of the NiCd cell is: 2NiOOH + 2H 2 O + Cd ↔ 2Ni(OH) 2 + Cd(OH) 2 The preferred charging regime for caplamps is top-up charging with an occasional full discharge cycle. Nickel-cadmium cells are charged by applying direct current with the proper polarity to the cell. That means the charger will deliver a constant amount of current to the battery regardless of its voltage. During the first 70% of the charge cycle, a NiCd battery absorbs almost all of the energy and the battery remains cool. After the 70% charge threshold is reached, less and less energy is absorbed. The cells start to generate excess gases the pressure rises and the temperature increases. The charge acceptance drops further and once full charge is reached, the battery goes into overcharge. The higher the overcharge rate the higher the rate of gas generation. The battery made up of three NiCd cells has the potential for cell reversal problems when the discharge is deep enough to bring one or more of the cells in a battery to zero voltage. If discharge continues beyond this point, the voltage on the depleted cell will reverse polarity. The problem that occurs is the generation of hydrogen gas. As the electrodes change polarity they will generate hydrogen. Since the hydrogen will not recombine, the internal cell pressure will build up to a level that causes the cell to vent if the reverse charge current is maintained for a significant period of time. Due to the potential hazard during underground working gas emission generated into the cells and the amount of vented gas is strictly regulated 1. The three characteristics of cell
Mehri, Ahmad; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Zakerian, Seyed Abolfazl; Mohammadi, Hamzeh; Abbasi, Milad
On 2-lane roads, discomfort glare can cause annoyance, discomfort, inconvenience, stress, and fatigue to drivers, posing a risk of accidents. The aim of this study is to evaluate discomfort glare from the headlamps of cars widely used in Iran. The discomfort glare of new vehicles including Pride Saba model GTX, Pride Model 131SL, Samand Soren, Peugeot 405, Megane, and Peugeot Pars was examined at distances of 5 to 100 m at a background luminance of 50 cd/m 2 (late twilight/early dawn lighting) and 1 cd/m 2 (nighttime) using Schmidt-Clausen and Bindels model and de Boer's subjective scale. According to the de Boer scale, at a background luminance of 50 cd/m 2 , the discomfort glare for all studied vehicles was between 1.98 and 4.05 in high-beam mode and between 3.5 and 5.4 in low-beam mode. At a background luminance of 1 cd/m 2 , discomfort glare was between 0.41 and 2.48 in high-beam mode and between 1.93 and 3.84 in low-beam mode. In high-beam mode, the average levels of discomfort glare of these vehicles gradually increased when the distance between cars was reduced by up to about 20 m. In low-beam mode, there was no discomfort glare up to a vehicle distance of 40 m. In addition, at an angle of 1.15°-5.73° between the line of sight and light of vehicles in high-beam mode, the level of discomfort glare was increased, but at an angle of 5.73°-22.9° the level of discomfort glare was reduced. In low-beam mode at an angle of 2.86°-22.9°, the level of discomfort glare was almost identical. The results show that in high-beam mode and with a 100-m distance between vehicles as well as in low-beam mode at intervals of less than 40 m between cars, discomfort glare is created. It can be concluded that by providing solutions such as installing road lighting system, an increase in luminance of roads, separating or widening road lanes, increasing the lateral distance between vehicles, and increasing the angle between lighted vehicles and drivers can noticeably
Sökmen, Kemal Furkan; Yürüklü, Emrah; Yamankaradeniz, Nurettin
Highlights: • In the study, cooling of LED headlamps in automotive is investigated. • The study is based on free convection cooling of LED module. • Besides free convection, Monte Carlo model is used as radiation model as well. • A new algorithm is presented for designing optimum fin structure. • Suggested algorithm for optimum design is verified by various simulations. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of fin design, fin material, and free and forced convection on junction temperature in automotive headlamp cooling applications of LED lights are researched by using ANSYS CFX 14 software. Furthermore a new methodology is presented for defining the optimum cylindrical fin structure within the given limits. For measuring the performance of methodology, analyses are carried out for various ambient temperatures (25 °C, 50 °C and 80 °C) and different LED power dissipations (0.5 W, 0.75 W, 1 W and 1.25 W). Then, analyses are repeated at different heat transfer coefficients and different fin materials in order to calculate LED junction temperature in order to see if the fin structure proposed by the methodology is appropriate for staying below the given safety temperature limit. As a result, the suggested method has always proposed proper fin structures with optimum characteristics for given LED designs. As another result, for safe junction temperature ranges, it is seen that for all LED power dissipations, adding aluminum or copper plate behind the printed circuit board at low ambient temperatures is sufficient. Also, as the ambient temperature increases, especially in high powered LED lights, addition of aluminum is not sufficient and fin usage becomes essential. High heat transfer coefficient and using copper fin affect the junction temperature positively.
Patel, Balvant; Cruz, Jose; Perry, David L.; Himebaugh, Frederic G.
Requirements for automotive head lamp luminous intensity tests are introduced. The rationale for developing a non-goniometric photometric test system is discussed. The design of the Ford photometric vision system (FPVS) is presented, including hardware, software, calibration, and system use. Directional intensity plots and regulatory test results obtained from the system are compared to corresponding results obtained from a Ford goniometric test system. Sources of error for the vision system and goniometer are discussed. Directions for new work are identified.
Pan, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xi-ping; Zheng, Zhe
With the development of photoelectric detection technology, machine vision has a wider use in the field of industry. The paper mainly introduces auto lamps tester calibrator measuring system, of which CCD image sampling system is the core. Also, it shows the measuring principle of optical axial angle and light intensity, and proves the linear relationship between calibrator's facula illumination and image plane illumination. The paper provides an important specification of CCD imaging system. Image processing by MATLAB can get flare's geometric midpoint and average gray level. By fitting the statistics via the method of the least square, we can get regression equation of illumination and gray level. It analyzes the error of experimental result of measurement system, and gives the standard uncertainty of synthesis and the resource of optical axial angle. Optical axial angle's average measuring accuracy is controlled within 40''. The whole testing process uses digital means instead of artificial factors, which has higher accuracy, more repeatability and better mentality than any other measuring systems.
Vega, Etzail; González-Calderón, J. A.; Villegas, Antonio; Montiel, Raúl; Pérez, Elías; Vallejo-Montesinos, Javier
Abstract: Automotive bezels of polycarbonate (PC) were prepared in this work by varying the amount of recycled polymer in order to estimate an acceptable scrap/virgin ratio that maintains the material properties. Conducted tests allow us to define the limit to don't compromise the performance of recycled pieces. The studied properties were their chemical structure, molecular weight distribution, mechanical and surface properties of the samples. Results showed no change in the chemical structu...
... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. (a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by...
... the motorcycle headlighting system location requirements for a single headlamp with multiple light sources. The current standard requires that the light sources contained in a single motorcycle headlamp containing multiple light sources be located on the vertical centerline of the vehicle or horizontally...
Full Text Available This paper presents the operation and specification of gaseous discharge lamps and light emitting diodes applied at the headlamps of road vehicles. On the end it is presented a comparison of different light sources.
Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie A; Rosenberg, Rachel L; Sewall, Ashley Stafford; Tyrrell, Richard A
At night pedestrians tend to overestimate their conspicuity to oncoming drivers, but little is known about factors affecting pedestrians' conspicuity estimates. This study examines how headlamp intensity and pedestrians' clothing influence judgments of their own conspicuity. Forty-eight undergraduate students estimated their own conspicuity on an unilluminated closed road by walking in front of a stationary vehicle to the point at which they judged that they were just recognizable to the driver. Unknown to the participants, high beam intensity was manipulated between subjects by placing neutral density filters on the headlamps. Estimated conspicuity distances did not significantly vary with changes in headlamp intensity even when only 3% of the illumination from the headlamps was present. These findings underscore the need to educate pedestrians about the visual challenges that drivers face at night and the need to minimize pedestrians' exposure to traffic flow at night. © 2013.
... original equipment or replacement equipment. Thus, the submitted information about headlamp light sources... devices and associated equipment,'' part 564 submission are referenced as being the source of information... Standard No. 108, ``Lamps Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment,'' specifies requirements for...
... that the subject HID headlamp kits may not comply with one or more of the regulations enforced by the... systemic, pervasive, and substantial, creating a significant safety risk to the motoring public. Michael F...
Mangkuto, R.A.; Paripurna, A.; Soelami, F.X.N.
Vehicle lamps are vital components which are required to ensure the driver’s safety, particularly at nighttime. However, vehicle lamps may cause glare which can reduce visibility and create discomfort. The objectives of this research are to evaluate glare from car headlamp and motorcycle lamps; and
...: installation of U.S.-model instrument cluster and U.S.-version software. Standard No. 108 Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment: installation of U.S.-model: (a) headlamps; (b) front and rear side marker lamps; and (c) rear high mounted stop lamp and associated wiring. Standard No. 110 Tire Selection...
...: Installation of U.S.-model instrument cluster and U.S.-version software. Standard No. 108 Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment: Installation of U.S.-model: (a) Headlamps; (b) front and rear side marker lamps; and (c) rear high mounted stop lamp and associated wiring. Standard No. 110 Tire Selection...
... including, but not limited to, headlamps, tail lamps, turn signals, and marker (clearance) lamps; typical... use data for any reasonable time period of at least 1 year in determining the relative amount of... calculating the facility-specific emission limit are specified in § 63.4490. In calculating a facility...
A number of physical aspects that have to do with the question whether yellow light or white light is to be preferred for vehicle headlamps is dealt with. It is concluded that the physical phenomena do not give raise to arguments in favour of white or yellow light.
It is often claimed (Devaux) that yellow light is superior to white light for vehicle headlamps. This claim is supported by evidence of a physical, physiological and psychological nature. In most cases, it appears that the advantages of yellow light are small, and can usually be neglected
... standard requires that certain lamps and reflective devices with certain performance levels be installed on... performance of the device is), aiming devices manufactured or installed by different vehicle and headlamp... vehicle owner's manual. FMVSS No. 110, ``Tire selection and rims.'' This standard specifies requirements...
... limiting the impacts of glare. Our current standard primarily treats a headlamp as a separate piece of...) at any time by going to http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the online instructions for accessing the dockets. You may also read the materials at the Docket Management Facility by going to the street address...
... 1512.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... vehicle headlamps. The use of reflector combinations off the center plane of the bicycle (defined in...) Front reflector. The reflector or mount shall not contact the ground plane when the bicycle is resting...
... Mazda Motor Corporation of Hiroshima, Japan (Mazda), has determined the lens of the headlamps equipped... December 16, 2009. \\1\\ Mazda Motor Corporation of Hiroshima, Japan (Mazda) is the manufacturer of the...-0141; Notice 2] Mazda North American Operations, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...
Royo, Santiago; Arranz, Maria J.; Arasa, Josep; Cattoen, Michel; Bosch, Thierry
The present works depicts a measurement technique intended to enhance the characterization procedures of the photometric emissions of automotive headlamps, with potential applications to any light source emission, either automotive or non-automotive. A CCD array with a precisely characterized optical system is used for sampling the luminance field of the headlamp just a few centimetres in front of it, by combining deflectometric techniques (yielding the direction of the light beams) and photometric techniques (yielding the energy travelling in each direction). The CCD array scans the measurement plane using a self-developed mechanical unit and electronics, and then image-processing techniques are used for obtaining the photometric behaviour of the headlamp in any given plane, in particular in the plane and positions required by current normative, but also on the road, on traffic signs, etc. An overview of the construction of the system, of the considered principle of measurement, and of the main calibrations performed on the unit is presented. First results concerning relative measurements are presented compared both to reference data from a photometric tunnel and from a plane placed 5m away from the source. Preliminary results for the absolute photometric calibration of the system are also presented for different illumination beams of different headlamps (driving and passing beam).
Su, Ping; Song, Yuming; Ma, Jianshe
The DMD (Digital Micro-mirror Device) has the advantages of high refresh rate and high diffraction efficiency, and these make it become an ideal loader of multiple modes illumination. DOEs (Diffractive Optical Element) have the advantages of high degree of freedom, light weight, easy to copy, low cost etc., and can be used to reduce the weight, complexity, cost of optical system. A novel automotive headlamp system using DMD as the light distribution element and a DOE as the light field modulation device is proposed in this paper. The pure phase DOE is obtained by the GS algorithm using Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral model. Based on the standard automotive headlamp light intensity distribution in the target plane, the amplitude distribution of DMD is obtained by numerical simulation, and the grayscale diagram loaded on the DMD can be obtained accordingly. Finally, according to simulation result, the light intensity distribution in the target plane is proportional to the national standard, hence verifies the validity of the novel system. The novel illumination system proposed in this paper provides a reliable hardware platform for the intelligent headlamps.
Lardner, Bjorn; Rodda, Gordon H.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Savidge, Julie A.; Reed, Robert N.
Transect surveys without some means of estimating detection probabilities generate population size indices prone to bias because survey conditions differ in time and space. Knowing what causes such bias can help guide the collection of relevant survey covariates, correct the survey data, anticipate situations where bias might be unacceptably large, and elucidate the ecology of target species. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate confounding variables for gecko (primarily Hemidactylus frenatus and Lepidodactylus lugubris) counts on 220-m-long transects surveyed at night, primarily for snakes, on 9,475 occasions. Searchers differed in gecko detection rates by up to a factor of six. The worst and best headlamps differed by a factor of at least two. Strong winds had a negative effect potentially as large as those of searchers or headlamps. More geckos were seen during wet weather conditions, but the effect size was small. Compared with a detection nadir during waxing gibbous (nearly full) moons above the horizon, we saw 28% more geckos during waning crescent moons below the horizon. A sine function suggested that we saw 24% more geckos at the end of the wet season than at the end of the dry season. Fluctuations on a longer timescale also were verified. Disturbingly, corrected data exhibited strong short-term fluctuations that covariates apparently failed to capture. Although some biases can be addressed with measured covariates, others will be difficult to eliminate as a significant source of error in longterm monitoring programs.
Spinger, Benno; Timinger, Andreas L.
Modern Automotive headlamps enable improved functionality for more driving comfort and safety. Matrix or Pixel light headlamps are not restricted to either pure low beam functionality or pure high beam. Light in direction of oncoming traffic is selectively switched of, potential hazard can be marked via an isolated beam and the illumination on the road can even follow a bend. The optical architectures that enable these advanced functionalities are diverse. Electromechanical shutters and lens units moved by electric motors were the first ways to realize these systems. Switching multiple LED light sources is a more elegant and mechanically robust solution. While many basic functionalities can already be realized with a limited number of LEDs, an increasing number of pixels will lead to more driving comfort and better visibility. The required optical system needs not only to generate a desired beam distribution with a high angular dynamic, but also needs to guarantee minimal stray light and cross talk between the different pixels. The direct projection of the LED array via a lens is a simple but not very efficient optical system. We discuss different optical elements for pre-collimating the light with minimal cross talk and improved contrast between neighboring pixels. Depending on the selected optical system, we derive the basic light source requirements: luminance, surface area, contrast, flux and color homogeneity.
Javier GÃ¡mez GarcÃa
Full Text Available Resumen: Dentro de la automatizaciÃ³n del proceso de ensamblaje de piezas, de cara a obtener un producto ï¬nal que cumpla con unas expectativas dimensionales, existe una problemÃ¡tica asociada cuando los elementos a ensamblar presentan variaciones geomÃ©tricas dimensionales apreciables. Estos errores dimensionales de los componentes pueden suponer unos sobre costes de producciÃ³n al desechar el producto ï¬nal obtenido por no cumplir las especiï¬caciones, e incluso un deterioro de la imagen de la empresa fabricante. La contribuciÃ³n de este trabajo consiste en el desarrollo de una nueva metodologÃa para el ensamblaje de piezas con desviaciones dimensionales. Se propone un sistema automÃ¡tico que compense dinÃ¡micamente la posiciÃ³n de los componentes a ensamblar, es decir, que mida durante el ensamblaje las dimensiones de las piezas y ajuste las posiciones de Ã©stas, dentro del rango de movimiento permitido, para que al ensamblarse se consiga un producto ï¬nal que cumpla las dimensiones requeridas en su conjunto.Para la validaciÃ³n experimental se ha desarrollado un prototipo de mÃ¡quina de ensamblaje de faros de vehÃculo el cual ha sido implantado y validado en una lÃnea de producciÃ³n industrial. De esta forma se ha demostrado, a nivel de empresa, que la metodologÃa propuesta presenta una mejora de su competitividad ya que reduce notablemente el nÃºmero de productos ï¬nales defectuosos motivados por las desviaciones dimensionales de sus componentes. Abstract: The automatic assembly of parts can create some problems because of the dimensional variations of the elements to be assembled (mainly because of mechanical inconsistencies. A representative example of this kind of assembly problem can be found in the production of vehicle headlamps, where one of the main stages is the assembly of the cover lens, which is made of polycarbonate, over a black housing made of polypropylene. This
Stamatacos, Catherine; Harrison, Janet L
The use of high-intensity illumination via Light-Emitting Diode (LED) headlamps is gaining in popularity with dentists and student dentists. Practitioners are using LED headlamps together with magnifying loupes, overhead LED illumination and fiber-optic dental handpieces for long periods of time. Although most manufacturers of these LED illuminators advertise that their devices emit "white" light, these still consist of two spectral bands--the blue spectral band, with its peak at 445 nm, and the green with its peak at 555 nm. While manufacturers suggest that their devices emit "white" light, spectral components of LED lights from different companies are significantly different. Dental headlamp manufacturers strive to create a white LED, and they advertise that this type of light emitted from their product offers bright white-light illumination. However, the manufacturing of a white LED light is done through selection of a white LED-type based on the peak blue strength in combination with the green peak strength and thus creating a beam-forming optic, which determines the beam quality. Some LED illuminators have a strong blue-light component versus the green-light component. Blue-light is highly energized and is close in the color spectrum to ultraviolet-light. The hazards of retinal damage with the use of high-intensity blue-lights has been well-documented. There is limited research regarding the possible ocular hazards of usage of high-intensity illuminating LED devices. Furthermore, the authors have found little research, standards, or guidelines examining the possible safety issues regarding the unique dental practice setting consisting of the combined use of LED illumination systems. Another unexamined component is the effect of high-intensity light reflective glare and magnification back to the practitioner's eyes due to the use of water during dental procedures. Based on the result of Dr. Janet Harrison's observations of beginning dental students in a
Klinger, Karsten D.; Lemmer, Uli
Increasingly, cars are fitted with interior ambient lighting which is switched on while driving. This special kind of interior light emphasizes the interior design of the car, it makes a car look special and gives the buyers a new option to personalize their automobiles. But how does ambient interior light influence the driver? We conducted a series of over 50 tests to study the influence of interior ambient light on contrast perception under different illumination levels, colors and positions of the illuminated areas. Our tests show that in many cases the ambient lighting can improve the visual contrast for seeing objects in the headlamp beam. But the test persons mentioned that the tested brightness looked too bright and that they felt glared. The measured values instead proved that no disability glare exists. Therefore, provided that the drivers can adjust the intensity of the ambient light to avoid glare, the ambient light has no negative effect on the drivers' contrast perception.
At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).
Full Text Available This paper presents problems in laser repair welding of the tools for injection moulding of plastics and light metals. Tools for injection moulding of the car headlamps are highly polished in order to get a desirable quality of the injected part. Different light metals, glasses, elastomers, thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers are injected into the die cavity under high pressures resulting in the surface damages of the tool. Laser welding is the only suitable repair welding technique due to the very limited sputtering during deposition of the filler metal. Overlapping of the welds results in inhomogeneous hardness of the remanufactured surface. Results have shown strong correlation between hardness and surface waviness after final polishing of the repair welded surface.
Full Text Available Abstract This research paper describes the design and simulation of the automatic wiper speed and headlight modes controllers using fuzzy logic. This proposed system consists of a fuzzy logic controller to control a cars wiper speed and headlight modes. The automatic wiper system detects the rain and its intensity. And according to the rain intensity the wiper speed is automatically controlled. Headlight modes automatically changes either from low beam mode to high beam mode or form high beam mode to low beam mode depending on the light intensity from the other vehicle coming from the opposite direction. The system comprises of PIC impedance sensor piezoelectric vibration sensor LDR headlamps and a DC motor to accurate the windshield wiper. Piezoelectric sensor is used to detect the rain intensity which is based on the piezoelectric effect. MATLAB software is used to achieve the designed goal.
Today LED headlamps, armbands and ankle-bands, shoe-lights etc. have become very popular. These find extensive use in search and rescue operations, mining, carving, etc. and are also used by individuals during hiking, trekking, running, etc. during dark hours. They serve two main purposes: they provide sufficient illumination in low light conditions and they are used to indicate the presence of a person after dark. These have the same basic requirements. They must produce sufficient light, have high durability, long battery life, must be light weight and energy efficient. This paper discusses possibilities of designing a universal LED fixture can be designed so that it meets the respective needs of everyone irrespective of their background and industry. It discusses the materials to be used for its different body parts, innovative clip design for attachment with support structures like head and armbands, helmets, shoes, etc.
Permal, Anithambigai; Devarajan, Mutharasu; Hung, Huong Ling; Zahner, Thomas; Lacey, David; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi
Thermal management in light-emitting diode (LED) has been extensively researched recently. This study is intended to develop an effective thermally conductive epoxy composite as thermal interface material (TIM) for headlamp LEDs. Silane-functionalized aluminum oxide (Al2O3) powder of different average particle sizes (44 and 10 µm) was studied for its feasibility as filler at its maximum loading. A detailed comparison of three different methods of particle dispersions, hand-mix, speed-mix and calendaring process (3-roll mill), has been reported. The dispersion of Al2O3 particles, the thermal conductivity and thermal degradation characteristics of the composites were investigated and explained in detail. At 75 wt.% filler loading, 10 and 44 µm Al2O3 achieved composite thermal conductivities of 1.13 and 2.08 W/mK, respectively, which is approximately 528 and 1055% of enhancement with respect to neat epoxy. The package-level thermal performance of the LED employing the Al2O3-filled TIMs was carried out using thermal transient analysis. The experimental junction-to-ambient thermal resistances ( R thJ-A) achieved were 6.65, 7.24, and 8.63 K/W for Al2O3_44µm, Al2O3_10µm and neat epoxy, respectively. The results revealed that the Al2O3_44µm fillers-filled composite performed better in both material-level and package-level thermal characteristics.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a vehicle light detection method using a hyperspectral camera instead of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD or Complementary metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS camera for adaptive car headlamp control. To apply Intelligent Headlight Control (IHC, the vehicle headlights need to be detected. Headlights are comprised from a variety of lighting sources, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, High-intensity discharge (HID, and halogen lamps. In addition, rear lamps are made of LED and halogen lamp. This paper refers to the recent research in IHC. Some problems exist in the detection of headlights, such as erroneous detection of street lights or sign lights and the reflection plate of ego-car from CCD or CMOS images. To solve these problems, this study uses hyperspectral images because they have hundreds of bands and provide more information than a CCD or CMOS camera. Recent methods to detect headlights used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM, Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM, and Euclidean Distance Mapper (EDM. The experimental results highlight the feasibility of the proposed method in three types of lights (LED, HID, and halogen.
Cochard, Jacques; Bouyé, Clémentine
Optics components entered in the automotive vehicle one century ago with headlamps and since then move towards even more sophisticated designs in lighting functions. Photonics sensors are just entering now in this market through driver assistance, in complement of incumbent ultrasonic and radar technologies. Gain of market shares is expected for this components with autonomous driving, that was few years ago a nice dream and whose early results exceed surprisingly expectations of roadmaps and historic OEM have quickly joined the course launched by Google Company 5 years ago. Technological components, among them CMOS camera followed by Laser Scanners, cost-effective flash LIDAR are already experimenting their first miles in real condition and new consumers in South Asia plebiscite this new way to drive cars .The issue is still for photonics companies to move from well suited technological solution to mass-production components with corresponding cost reduction. MEMS components that follow the same curve 15 years ago (with market entries in airbags, tire pressure monitoring systems…) experimented the hard pressure on price for wide market adoption. Besides price, which is a CFO issue, photonic technologies will keep in place if they can both reassure OEM CEO and let CTO and designers dream. Reassurance will be through higher level of standardization and reliability of these components whereas dream will be linked to innovative sensing application, e.g spectroscopy.
Bridge, Candice M.; Powell, Joseph; Steele, Katie L.; Sigman, Michael E.
Glass samples of four types commonly encountered in forensic examinations have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the purpose of discriminating between samples originating from different sources. Some of the glass sets were also examined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Refractive index (RI) measurements were also made on all glass samples and the refractive index data was combined with the LIBS and with the LA-ICP-MS data to enhance discrimination. The glass types examined included float glass taken from front and side automobile windows (examined on the non-float side), automobile headlamp glass, automobile side-mirror glass and brown beverage container glass. The largest overall discrimination was obtained by employing RI data in combination with LA-ICP-MS (98.8% discrimination of 666 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence), while LIBS in combination with RI provided a somewhat lower discrimination (87.2% discrimination of 1122 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence). Samples of side-mirror glass were less discriminated by LIBS due to a larger variance in emission intensities, while discrimination of side-mirror glass by LA-ICP-MS remained high
Karthaus, Daniela; Giehl, Markus; Sandfuchs, Oliver; Sinzinger, Stefan
The objective of applying transmission holograms in automotive headlamp systems requires the adaptation of holograms to divergent and polychromatic light sources like light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, four different options to describe the scalar light waves emitted by a typical automotive LED are regarded. This includes a new approach to determine the LED's wavefront from interferometric measurements. Computer-generated holograms are designed considering the different LED approximations and recorded into a photopolymer. The holograms are reconstructed with the LED and the resulting images are analyzed to evaluate the quality of the wave descriptions. In this paper, we show that our presented new approach leads to better results in comparison to other wave descriptions. The enhancement is evaluated by the correlation between reconstructed and ideal images. In contrast to the next best approximation, a spherical wave, the correlation coefficient increased by 0.18% at 532 nm, 1.69% at 590 nm, and 0.75% at 620 nm.
Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander
Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.
Rammohan, A.; Kumar, C. Ramesh
Illumination of any light is measured using a different kind of calibrated equipment’s available in the market such as a goniometer, spectral radiometer, photometer, Lux meter and camera based systems which directly display the illumination of automotive headlights light distribution in the unit of lux, foot-candles, lumens/sq. ft. and Lambert etc., In this research, we dealt with evaluating the photo resistor or Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) and phototransistor whether it is useful for sensing light patterns of Automotive Halogen and Xenon bulbs. The experiments are conducted during night hours under complete dark space. We have used the headlamp setup available in TATA SUMO VICTA vehicle in the Indian market and conducted the experiments separately for Halogen and Xenon bulbs under low and high beam operations at various degrees and test points within ten meters of distance. Also, we have compared the light intensity of halogen and xenon bulbs to prove the highest light intensity between halogen and Xenon bulbs. After doing a rigorous test with these two sensors it is understood both are good to sensing beam pattern of automotive bulbs and even it is good if we use an array of sensors or a mixed combination of sensors for measuring illumination purposes under perfect calibrations.
This article discussed a choir formed by Cape Breton miners in Nova Scotia in 1966. The choir was formed during a time when mines and local communities were struggling. The region had been associated with coal mining since the 1700s. Mining operations in the region fluctuated with the rise and fall of coal prices. At its peak, the region produced 6.6 million tons of ore and employed 12,000 workers. Songs selected by the choir focused on the region's history as well as the lives lost in coal mines during mining disasters. Songs were also selected to reflect the daily lives of coal miners. Members of the choir perform wearing coveralls, workboots, and headlamps. Called The Men of the Deeps, the choir has performed in both China and Kosovo on behalf of the United Nations Children's Fund. The choir has also appeared in short films produced by the National Film Board of Canada. 1 fig.
Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Stephan, Serge
Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class systems mainly use HID or LED light sources. As a further step laser diode based systems offer a high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new dynamic and adaptive light functions and styling concepts. The use of white laser diode systems in automotive applications is still limited to laboratories and prototypes even though announcements of laser based front lighting systems have been made. But the environment conditions for vehicles and other industry sectors differ from laboratory conditions. Therefor a model of the system's thermal behavior is set up. The power loss of a laser diode is transported as thermal flux from the junction layer to the diode's case and on to the environment. Therefor its optical power is limited by the maximum junction temperature (for blue diodes typically 125 - 150 °C), the environment temperature and the diode's packaging with its thermal resistances. In a car's headlamp the environment temperature can reach up to 80 °C. While the difference between allowed case temperature and environment temperature is getting small or negative the relevant heat flux also becomes small or negative. In early stages of LED development similar challenges had to be solved. Adapting LED packages to the conditions in a vehicle environment lead to today's efficient and bright headlights. In this paper the need to transfer these results to laser diodes is shown by calculating the diodes lifetimes based on the presented model.
Kloos, G.; Eichhorn, K.
The lighting systems of a car provide a variety of challenges from the point of view of illumination science and technology. Engineering work in this field has to deal both with reflector and lens design as well as with opto-mechanical design and sensor technology. It has direct implications on traffic safety and the efficiency in which energy is used. Therefore, these systems are continuously improved and optimized. In this context, adaptive systems that we investigate for automotive applications gain increasing importance. The properties of the light distribution in the vicinity of the cut-off line are of key importance for the safe and efficient operation of automotive headlamps. An alternative approach is proposed to refine the description of these properties in an attempt to make it more quantitative. This description is intended to facilitate intercomparison between different systems and/or to study environmental influences on the cut-off line of a system under investigation. Designing projection systems it is necessary to take a delicate trade-off between efficiency, light-distribution characteristics, mechanical boundary conditions, and legal requirements into account. Considerations and results on optical properties of three-axial reflectors in dependence of layout parameters will be given. They can serve as a guideline for the optical workshop and for free-form optimization.
Torrington, Geoffrey K.
Two-Axis Rotation Systems, or "goniometers," are used in diverse applications including telescope pointing, automotive headlamp testing, and display testing. There are three basic configurations in which a goniometer can be built depending on the orientation and order of the stages. Each configuration has a governing set of equations which convert motion between the system "native" coordinates to other base systems, such as direction cosines, optical field angles, or spherical-polar coordinates. In their simplest form, these equations neglect errors present in real systems. In this paper, a statistical treatment of error source propagation is developed which uses only tolerance data, such as can be obtained from the system mechanical drawings prior to fabrication. It is shown that certain error sources are fully correctable, partially correctable, or uncorrectable, depending upon the goniometer configuration and zeroing technique. The system error budget can be described by a root-sum-of-squares technique with weighting factors describing the sensitivity of each error source. This paper tabulates weighting factors at 67% (k=1) and 95% (k=2) confidence for various levels of maximum travel for each goniometer configuration. As a practical example, this paper works through an error budget used for the procurement of a system at Sandia National Laboratories.
Rizvi, Sadiq; Knöchelmann, Marvin; Ley, Peer-Phillip; Lachmayer, Roland
HID, LED and laser-based high resolution automotive headlamps, as of late known as `pixel light systems', are at the forefront of the developing technologies paving the way for autonomous driving. In addition to light distribution capabilities that outperform Adaptive Front Lighting and Matrix Beam systems, pixel light systems provide the possibility of image projection directly onto the street. The underlying objective is to improve the driving experience, in any given scenario, in terms of safety, comfort and interaction for all road users. The focus of this work is to conduct a short survey on this state-of-the-art image projection functionality. A holistic research regarding the image projection functionality can be divided into three major categories: scenario selection, technological development and evaluation design. Consequently, the work presented in this paper is divided into three short studies. Section 1 provides a brief introduction to pixel light systems and a justification for the approach adopted for this study. Section 2 deals with the selection of scenarios (and driving maneuvers) where image projection can play a critical role. Section 3 discusses high power LED and LED array based prototypes that are currently under development. Section 4 demonstrates results from an experiment conducted to evaluate the illuminance of an image space projected using a pixel light system prototype developed at the Institute of Product Development (IPeG). Findings from this work can help to identify and advance future research work relating to: further development of pixel light systems, scenario planning, examination of optimal light sources, behavioral response studies etc.
Al Kadah, Basel; Piccoli, Micaela; Mullineris, Barbara; Colli, Giovanni; Janssen, Martin; Siemer, Stephan; Schick, Bernhard
Endoscopic surgery for treatment of thyroid and parathyroid pathologies is increasingly gaining attention. The da Vinci system has already been widely used in different fields of medicine and quite recently in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Herein, we report about modifications of the transaxillary approach in endoscopic surgery of thyroid and parathyroid gland pathologies using the da Vinci system. 16 patients suffering from struma nodosa in 14 cases and parathyroid adenomas in two cases were treated using the da Vinci system at the ENT Department of Homburg/Saar University and in cooperation with the Department of General Surgery in New Sant'Agostino Hospital, Modena/Italy. Two different retractors, endoscopic preparation of the access and three different incision modalities were used. The endoscopic preparation of the access allowed us to have a better view during preparation and reduced surgical time compared to the use of a headlamp. To introduce the da Vinci instruments at the end of the access preparation, the skin incisions were over the axilla with one incision in eight patients, two incisions in four patients and three incisions in a further four patients. The two and three skin incisions modality allowed introduction of the da Vinci instruments without arm conflicts. The use of a new retractor (Modena retractor) compared to a self-developed retractor made it easier during the endoscopic preparation of the access and the reposition of the retractor. The scar was hidden in the axilla and independent of the incisions selected, the cosmetic findings were judged by the patients to be excellent. The neurovascular structures such as inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve and vessels, as well as the different pathologies, were clearly 3D visualized in all 16 cases. No paralysis of the vocal cord was observed. All patients had a benign pathology in their histological examination. The endoscopic surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid gland can be
This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry
Qian, Sun; Wei, Yan; Meixin, Feng; Zengcheng, Li; Bo, Feng; Hanmin, Zhao; Hui, Yang
coating procedure, and are suitable for directional lighting, camera flash, streetlighting, automotive headlamps, and otherlighting applications. Project supported financially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61522407, 61534007, 61404156), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2015AA03A102), the Science & Technology Program of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BA2015099, BE2012063), the Suzhou Science & Technology Program (No. ZXG2013042), and the Recruitment Program of Global Experts (1000 Youth Talents Plan). Project also supported technically by Nano-X from SINANO, CAS
Locher, J. [Hella KG Hueck and Co., Paderborn (Germany); Kleinkes, M. [Hella KG Hueck and Co., Lippstadt (Germany)
For a short time now, the L-LAB (Light-LABoratory), a joint research facility of Hella KG and the University of Paderborn, has had a simulator available which allows the evaluation of driver assistance systems and the optimisation of man-machine interfaces. It is an interactive night driver simulator, which can be used to visualise any type of headlamp beam pattern true to the original. A Smart is used as the input medium; image projection is via a 3-channel high-performance beamer projection system onto large screens. Alongside synthetic roads, there is also a digitalised course available, approx. 10 km long, the original of which is actually used by Hella as a proving ground. Road safety indicators can be recorded directly and indirectly. For example, obstacles which suddenly appear force drivers to apply the brakes. The stopping distance required can be interpreted as a direct indicator for safety. In addition, an eye tracking system is used to record the eye movements of the test subjects, which allows additional road safety indicators to be derived. Comparative investigations between the digitalised proving ground and reality allow validation of the simulator. This year, a comprehensive study will be made to optimise the man-machine interface in connection with infrared vision systems in vehicles. The advantages of simulation are not only in the economical implementation possibilities and control of the variables, but also the fact that properties of driver assistance systems can be evaluated which are not even technically possible yet in reality. The use of the simulator developed here is not limited to tests connected with the visibility of obstacles, however. Rather, it allows the investigation and evaluation of a large range of potential driver assistance systems. (orig.) [German] Dem L-LAB (Light-LABoratory), einer gemeinsamen Forschungseinrichtung der Universitaet Paderborn und der Firma Hella KG in Lippstadt, steht seit kurzer Zeit ein Simulator zur
The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three
Equipment of Sealing by Clamp for Compact Fluorescent Lamps Li Jiankang(1-1) A Study on Relationshop between Flicker of Fluorescent Lamp and Visual Fatigue Gu Yimin Zhou Jian et al.(1-7) Development of Photon Multiplication Material Zheng Muzhou(1-11) New Light Sources for Automobiles Wang Erghen(1-15) Artificial Neural Network Applicable for Light Guide Lighting Wang Aiying(1-21) A Comprehensive Method for Evaluating Light Environment in Housing Zhang Yaogen Zhang Jianping et al.(1-25) The Technical Measures of Raising the Illumination Quality for Residences Dai Yuxing(1-29) Simulated Photoelectric System of Colour Vision Liu Enyu(2-1) Measurement of the Temperature Distribution on the Filaments of the Automotive Lamps Using the Spectroscopic Method Zhou Wei Zhou Taiming Lu Zhunhao et al.(2-8) Ecoconstruction Electrical Light Source Yang Shiguang(2-11) The Algorithms of Ray Tracing used in Computer Aided Headlamp Design Yuan Jiao Zhu Minghua(2-17) A Study of Starting Process of Metal Halide Lamp (with auxiliary electrode) When Operating by Ballast-Ignitor System Lou Xiaomei Zhu Dingchang(2-20) The Design and Calculation of Perforated Metal Sheet Zhang Haicong David Chang(2-25) Improving the Relationship between the Fluorescent Lamp's Life-span and It's Burning Point Electrocircuit Wang Haiou et al.(3-1) The Design and Study on Intelligent Multiple Lamp Switch System Wang Lucai et al.(3-6) The Technique of a Si-Al Chemical Compound in Water Solvent Coating Phosphor with It's Controling System Leng Huji et al.(3-9) Self-dosing Technology and Control System-Research for Compact Fluorescet lamp Chen Gang(3-11) The Key Technology of Fluorescent Lamps by Analyzing the Quality of Swizerland FALMA′S Compact Fluorescent lamp Leng Huji et al.(3-13) An Approch to Setting the Time of Technical Performance in Lamp Production Line Zhao Jianyu(3-17) A Study of the Spectral Visual Matching Method He Guoxing(3-20) Examing the Uniformity of the Colour Spaces of CIE CAM97s by Counstructing