Sample records for headlamps

  1. High-resolution headlamp

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius


    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  2. New headlamp technologies

    Jebas, Christian; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli


    Actual studies show that 40 % of all accidents occur at night, but the part of the drives during the night represent only 20 % of all drives [1]. So the risk potential to be involved in an accident at night is almost three times higher in comparison to daytime. A headlamp is primary used to illuminate the road. Secondary the signal aspect is an identifying feature for other road users. As simple as these tasks seem to be, it is not easy to perform it in every situation because of environmental factors. Especially the weather conditions, but also the type of road and the traffic density causes difficulties. The ambition of the design of a headlamp is an adaptive system which is able to adjust on various factors to perform these tasks. In many cases there are already technical possibilities to realise new adaptive concepts, but up to now only a few cars are equipped with these technology. An example is the levelling system. Every modern car has a manually static or an automatically static levelling system. But because of the vehicle dynamics and the vertical road geometry it would be advisable to integrate an automatically dynamic levelling system. This System is currently used in the cars of the upper class. It would increase the road safety if this technology would be integrated in every car. This study describes the requirements for modern headlamps, discusses already existing systems and shows the technical possibilities to realise new concepts.

  3. Influence of dirt, age and poor aim on glare and illumination intensities of car headlamps in practice

    Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Padmos, P.


    Luminous intensities of dipped car headlamps in directions of the eyes of drivers of oncoming cars (glare intensity) and the right roadside (illumination intensity) were measured (404 cars). The often too high glare intensities are mainly due to dirt and lamp age; the often too low illumination inte

  4. Reflective Optics Design for an LED High Beam Headlamp of Motorbikes

    Peng Ge


    Full Text Available We propose a reflective optics design for an LED motorbike high beam lamp. We set the measuring screen as an elliptical zone and divide it into many small lattices and divide the spatial angle of the LED source into many parts and make relationships between them. According to the conservation law of energy and the Snell’s law, the reflector is generated by freeform optics design method. Then the optical system is simulated by Monte Carlo method using ASAP software. Light pattern of simulation could meet the standard. The high beam headlamp is finally fabricated and assembled into a physical object. Experiment results can fully comply with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE vehicle regulations R113 revision 2 (Class C.

  5. Study of design factors of vehicle headlamp control systems; Zenshoto seigyo system no hyoka shuho no kento

    Kamishima, H.; Miwa, T.; Sasaki, T.; Imai, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sumi, T. [Niles Parts Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The on-and-off timing of vehicle headlamp control systems varies with weather conditions. Cloudy weather has a wider light energy distribution from visible to infrared radiation than clear weather. Silicon photodiodes, which can detect visible to infrared radiation, have larger output currents on cloudy evenings than on clear evenings under the same brightness conditions. The systems should be designed with such factors in mind as spectral characteristics of windshield, filters, sensor, and eyesight. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Stacking illumination of a confocal reflector light emitting diode automobile headlamp with an asymmetric triangular prism.

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Zhou, Jia-Hao; Zhou, Yang


    A confocal reflector lamp with an asymmetric triangular prism was designed for a stacking illumination of a light emitting diode (LED) automobile headlamp fitting ECE R112 asymmetrical regulation. The optical system includes three 1st elliptic reflectors, three 2nd parabolic reflectors, and one asymmetric triangular prism. Three elliptic and parabolic reflectors were assembled with three confocal reflector modules; two modules projected the cut-off line of a 0° angle, and the other module projected the cut-off line of a 15° angle using of an asymmetric triangular prism. The ray tracing, optical simulation, and mockup experiment results exhibited that the illumination distribution met the regulation of ECE R112 class B, and the ideal efficiency could reach 96.8% in theory. The tolerance analysis showed the efficiency remained above 98% under the error values of ±0.2  mm of the position of the LED light source, and the y direction of the up-down movement was more sensitive than the x and z directions. The measurement results of the mockup sample safety factor were all larger than 1.15 and supported the regulation of the ECE R112 Class B.

  7. 汽车前照灯光轴检测偏差补偿策略%Compensation Strategy on Optical Axis Detection Deviation of Automotive Headlamp

    潘嵩岩; 崔怀于; 徐灯福; 蓝志坤; 吴培娣


    分析了汽车前照灯光轴检测的误差来源,提出了汽车轴偏角补偿量、汽车停放角补偿量和汽车停放距离补偿量的测量方法,论述了汽车前照灯光轴检测水平方向误差及垂直方向误差的补偿策略,设计了汽车前照灯检测误差补偿系统。试验结果表明,对检测误差进行补偿后,水平方位角的检测结果方差由1.836×10-1降为0.183×10-1,垂直方位角的检测结果方差由1.53×10-2降为0.39×10-2,验证了汽车前照灯检测误差补偿策略的有效性和准确性。%Sources of headlamp optical axis detection error are analyzed and measurement methods for the compensation values of vehicle wheel setback angle, parking angle and vehicle parking distance are presented. Compensation strategy for the detection errors of vehicle headlamp optical axis in horizontal and vertical direction is discussed, and error compensation system for vehicle headlamp test is designed. The test results show that the variance of the horizontal azimuth declines to 0.183×10 -1from 1.836×10 -1, moreover, the variance of vertical azimuth decreases to 0.39×10 -2 from1.53×10 -2after compensation is made to inspection errors. The feasibility and accuracy of compensation strategy on optical axis inspection deviation of vehicle headlamp are proved.

  8. 采用小功率LED的汽车前照灯光学设计%Optical design of low-power LED automotive headlamps

    朱骞; 朱向冰


    为克服普通灯泡汽车前照灯耗能高、寿命短和现有LED(发光二级管,Light-Emitting Diodes)前照灯成本高的缺点,提出了一套采用小功率LED的汽车前照灯光学设计方案.采用48颗小功率LED,使得每颗LED照亮配光屏上的一块矩形区域.对单颗LED设计自由曲面透镜,光线经透镜出射形成一个矩形光斑.点亮不同的LED以及调整车灯的照射方向可以满足照明要求.模拟结果符合国家标准要求.采用小功率LED比普通灯泡寿命长,比大功率LED前照灯成本低,可靠性强,并且还能部分实现自适应前照灯的功能.%In order to overcome the shortcoming of high energy consumption, short life of ordinary light bulb automotive headlamps and high cost of current LED (Light-Emitting Diodes) headlamps, an optical design scheme of low-power LED headlamps is introduced. 48 pieces of low-power LEDs are used, so that each LED can illuminate one rectangular area on the measuring screen. A free-form lens is designed for one single LED; the lights will generate a rectangular beam region after passing through the lens. Lighting up different LEDs and regulating the irradiation direction of the lamp can satisfy the lighting demands. Ray tracing simulation results comply with the Chinese Regulation. The life of low-power LEDs is longer than ordinary bulb. This lamp is lower cost and higher reliability compared with high-power LED headlamp. Some functions of AFS (Adaptive Front-Lighting System) can also be achieved.

  9. 自由曲面LED汽车前照灯光学透镜设计方法%Design method of LED headlamp freeform optical lens

    王洪; 陈赞吉; 吴衡; 葛鹏


    由于LED配光特性不同于传统光源,为了将LED应用于汽车照明中需对LED进行二次光学设计。文中根据LED汽车前照灯的配光特性,提出了一种自由曲面LED汽车前照灯光学透镜的设计方法。首先由能量守恒原理,在接收屏上的坐标和透镜自由曲面上的坐标之间建立能量的一一对应关系,基于非成像光学理论,采用照度优化设计法,运用数值计算求解出光学透镜曲面各个点坐标的坐标值,并使用三维模型软件制作出透镜光学模型。通过蒙特卡洛模拟法来追迹光线仿真,最后的配光效果完全满足《汽车用LED前照灯》(GB25991-2010)标准,系统的光学效率得到显著提高,可达到91%。%Different from the light distribution characteristics of the traditional light source, LED light characteristics are more complex, the second optical design for LED used in automotive lighting needs to be done. According to the light distribution characteristics of LED automobile headlamp, a freeform optical lens design method for LED headlamp was presented in this paper. By establishing one- to- one relationship between the coordinates of point on the receiving surface and the coordinates of point on the freeform surface of lens according to energy conservation principle, determining the mapping relationship between the energy and the lens, and applying the illumination optimization method, the coordinates of point on the freeform surface of lens was solved out with numerical methods based on non- imaging optics theory, then modeling software was used to establish an optical model for the freeform optical lens. Through tracing the light with Monte Carlo simulation method, the final effect of light distribution fully meets the Automotive headlamps with LED light sources and/or LED modules (GB25991-2010) standards. The simulation results show that the optical efficiency is improved greatly and can be up to 91%.

  10. 前照灯全屏幕照度检测系统改进设计%Improvement of llluminance Detecting System of the Headlamp Based on the Full Screen

    金晅宏; 戴曙光; 周春樵


    Illuminance detecting of the headlamp has become an obligatory step to keep the traffic safety. Now the full screen video method is used in the production line of headlamps of most relevant industries. This article describes an improving design proposal based on the full screen video method to solve its large floor area and the alignment of its center reference point "HV" lowering system measuring precision problems. By analyzing the optical character of Fresnel Lenses and globe lens, an optical simulation software named "LightTools" is used to set up the whole system model. Laboratory result finally shows globe lens in the improved system is better than Fresnel Lenses in the aspect of improving system measuring precision. Besides, this system has a little floor area, and the assembling light property of globe lens can also easily regulate the center reference point "HV". In view of automobile market, this system must have a broad prospect.%为了对汽车前照灯照度进行检测来保证行车的安全,现在相关技术行业主要把全屏幕摄像测试法应用在流水生产线上.针对该检测方法占地面积较大,而且在中心基准点HV对准方面存在影响测量精度的问题,本文提出了在全屏幕测试法的基础上加以改进的设计方案.该方法根据菲涅尔透镜和球透镜的光学特性来对系统进行优化,采用光学软件LightTools进行整个系统的仿真来验证系统设计的正确性.实验结果表明,采用球透镜的改进系统在前照灯照度的测量精度方面优于菲涅尔透镜.由于系统占地面积小,而且球透镜的聚光特性也能很好的解决HV基点的对准问题,所以该系统具有很广泛的市场前景.

  11. 几种典型汽车前照灯用光源的性能试验研究%The Test Research of Several Kinds of Typical Light Sources Used in Automobile Headlamps

    文醉; 赵斌; 何云堂; 吴迪


    针对几种典型的前照灯用光源的光谱特性以及环境气候耐受性进行了分析对比。研究表明,卤素灯, HID灯, LED灯的光谱成分的差异较大,造成了其在色度特性、显色性等方面的不同。通过耐温、盐雾试验的对比分析,得出了卤素灯, HID受环境气候的影响较小,而温度的变化将使LED光源的色度发生漂移、盐雾环境将导致LED光源光通量下降的结论。%The spectral characteristics and environmental climate resistance in allusion to several kinds of typical light sources used in automobile headlamps are analyzed .The research result shows that , the differences are relatively big among spectral components of halogen lamp , HID lamp and LED lamp , which causes the differences in terms of spectral characteristic , color rendering and etc .Through the comparative analysis of temperature resistance test and salt spray test , it comes to the conclusion that there are less impacts to the halogen lamp and HID lamp; while to the LED light source , the temperature change will cause the chroma drift , and the salt-spray environment can lead to luminous flux decline .

  12. LED Automotive Headlamp Driver Design%一种LED汽车前照灯驱动电路设计

    姚帅; 余桂英


    介绍一款采用AT9933芯片的PWM恒流LED汽车前照灯驱动电路,其驱动、拓扑和调光方式分别采用开关型变换器、Boost-buck拓扑和PWM调光方式.负载采用8颗1 W大功率白光LED串联.实验结果表明,当输入电压在9~16V之间变化时,输出恒流大小为342mA,电流精度达2.3%;当输入电压为12V时,输出电压为25.12V,电路转换效率达80.44%.

  13. LED汽车前照灯散热研究现状%Research on Heat Dissipation of LED for Automotive Headlamp

    冯华云; 孟庆恩



  14. The Improvement in Headlamp Fume Problem%一款微型轿车前照灯雾气问题的改善




  15. 75 FR 65053 - Mazda North American Operations, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance


    ..., 2008, failed to meet the requirements of paragraph S7.2(b) of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard... Japan. Paragraph 7.2(b) of FMVSS No. 108 requires: S7.2(b) The lens of each headlamp and of each beam... equipped with the affected headlamps failed to comply with paragraph S7.2(b) of FMVSS No. 108. Mazda...

  16. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.


    ... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. (a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by... specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively....

  17. Determining PACAF Transportation Alternatives to the General Purpose Vehicle


    equipped with specified headlamps, stop lamps, turn signal lamps, reflex reflectors, parking brakes, rear view mirrors, windshields, seat belts, and...Lighting: Quartz-halogen headlamps, front and rear turn signals , high-mount rear brake and taillamps with a 20 second safety delay after vehicle is

  18. Wit of geel licht voor autokoplantaarns? : argumenten bij de discussie omtrent de lichtkleur van autokoplantaarns.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    Arguments in the discussion around the colour of light of headlamps are discussed. The contents of this book were published before in Verkeerskunde; see also B 5931, B 5932, B 6308, B 6507 and B 6703.

  19. Near-infrared operating lamp for intraoperative molecular imaging of a mediastinal tumor


    Background Near-Infrared (NIR) intraoperative molecular imaging is a new diagnostic modality utilized during cancer surgery for the identification of tumors, metastases and lymph nodes. Surgeons typically use headlamps during an operation to increase visible light; however, these light sources are not adapted to function simultaneously with NIR molecular imaging technology. Here, we design a NIR cancelling headlamp and utilize it during surgery to assess whether intraoperative molecular imagi...

  20. Glare Recovery of a Two Dimensional Tracking Task with Respect to Various Colors


    transparent, yellowish tinged crystalline material of complex bio-chemical structure. Yellowing of the lens will continue with age, and thus increase... headlamps to remain on for approximately five seconds. After the end of the five seconds the timer will 29 turn off the headlamps and recycle for the...Comparator button 104 is then pressed high which activates the glare source which consists of two automotive type headlights. The glare source is

  1. High performance LED lamps for the automobile: needs and opportunities

    Pohlmann, Wolfgang; Vieregge, Thomas; Rode, Martin


    Light emitting diodes have been an option in automotive lighting for more than 15 years now. The capacities and colours of LEDs available in the recent past were sufficient to realize interior lighting and rear signalling functions. In the meantime, series applications, such as position or daytime running lights, using white LEDs for signal functions in headlamps, are no longer a rarity. The next step - realizing main lighting functions for series applications - is imminent. LED will offer a multitude of styling options in rear and front lighting, as well as a light colour which differs considerably from that of the previous halogen and xenon headlamp systems. The further advantages of the LED compared with conventional light sources with regard to service life, power efficiency and package space requirements can thus only be sensibly exploited by means of suitable structural and connection techniques. Increasing complexity and installation conditions in an often rough environment are demanding challenge to realize the hardware of LED lamps. In this paper at first the requirements on LEDs and LED modules in automotive exterior lighting will be discussed. Furthermore the status of industrialization and modular concepts for signal lamps and full LED headlamps will be presented. The paper will finish with a discussion of new headlamp active lighting functions like maker light or glare free high beam, implemented in hybrid or with pure LED technology. In the subsequent headlamp integration, from about 2012, freely-addressable LED-Arrays will possibly enable these new types of lighting functions.

  2. Enige overwegingen omtrent de verlichting van fietsen.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    There is no reason to increase the luminance of a headlamp of a bicycle on the basis of traffic safety. It is even possible to decrease the luminance. The free coming energy surplus can be used for signal sights around the bike, to increase the perception of the bicycle. Further research, however,

  3. 78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety


    ... Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Program. 536 Transfer and Trading of Fuel Economy Credits. ] 537 Automotive Fuel... Sealed Beam Headlamp Information. 565 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) Requirements. 566 Manufacturer...: Have we organized the material to suit the public's needs? Are the requirements in the rule...

  4. Enige overwegingen omtrent de verlichting van fietsen.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    There is no reason to increase the luminance of a headlamp of a bicycle on the basis of traffic safety. It is even possible to decrease the luminance. The consequent energy surplus can be used for signal lights around the bicycle to increase the visibility of the bicycle. Further research, howeve

  5. The scatter of light of different colour in the atmosphere.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    It is often claimed (Devaux) that yellow light is superior to white light for vehicle headlamps. This claim is supported by evidence of a physical, physiological and psychological nature. In most cases, it appears that the advantages of yellow light are small, and can usually be neglected particul

  6. Road lighting and traffic safety : a functional approach.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    Requirements to be made on the traffic facilities in order to reduce the number of night-time accidents are covered. Traffic facilities include apart from public lighting and road lighting by means of headlamps of vehicles, also road markings and signs, marker lights, catadioptric devices and others

  7. 78 FR 59092 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 1988-1996 Alpina B10 Passenger Cars...


    ... Alpina vehicles that were derived from BMW vehicles. These include the 2005-2007 (manufactured before... from the U.S.-model BMW E34 5-series and reprogramming the vehicle computer to operate the necessary... headlamps and front and rear marker lights with components from the U.S.-model BMW E34 5-series,...

  8. Snow and Ice Control (SNIC) Equipment and Its Use by Military Units Worldwide


    a hole in it. 6. The plow lights include a set of dual-beam headlamps and combination park-and- turn signals . When both plow plugs are connected...vehicle and plow parking lamps should be on. • Right turn signal : Both vehicle and plow right-turn lamps should be working. • Left turn signal : Both

  9. Development of a Machine Vision Fire Detection System


    Incandescent Lamps 1. Quartz Tungsten Halogen 2. Sealed Beam - Automotive : 3. Headlamp a. Spotlamp b. Signal c. Light Bar d. Rotating Lights 4. Flashlight a...and pyrotechnic materials fires/explosions. B. BACKGROUND A continuing goal of the Air Force is to advance the technology of fire protection shape, spectral reflectance, and material . The use of physically motivated models for algorithm development provide several important advantages

  10. Experimental Studies of Premixed Flame Structure and Propagation Characteristics in Compressible Flow


    axes to an actual 150 µm pinhole. 4. An automotive halogen headlamp light bulb was used to increase luminosity delivered to the camera CCD. This light...pressure spikes from an undesirable ignition event was driven by the constraints of the window material . The most economical quartz glass material that...testing justified more extensive examination of the test section design problem. The relevant material properties of the Corning 7980 material [54

  11. The Calculation and Co-simulation of Vehicle Adaptive Front-lighting System Based on the Front-rear Wheel Slip Angle%基于前后轮侧偏角的汽车自动转向头灯转角计算及联合仿真研究

    潘斌; 李雄铭


    The angle of Adaptive Front-lighting System is relevant to the motion state of the vehicle. However, the motion state of the vehicle is affected by the tire cornering property. Therefore, we amend the headlamp theory angle by the difference between values of the side slip angles of the front and rear wheels. And then, we build a simulation model of stepper motor in Simulink software and a virtual prototype model of AFS in ADAMS software. After that, we combine the two models into a headlamp angle open-loop control system. We import the headlamp theory angle into the system and get the following result between the actual output angle and the theory angle of the headlamp.%由于汽车前照灯转角和汽车的运动状态有关,而汽车的运动状态又受轮胎侧偏特性的影响,因此本文利用前后轮侧偏角的绝对值之差来修正前照灯理论转角;然后,我们在simulink中建立步进电机仿真模型,在ADAMS中建立前照灯减速机构虚拟样机模型,再通过两者组合成前照灯转角开环控制系统,并把前照灯理论转角输给该开环控制系统,得出了前照灯的实际输出转角对需求理论转角的跟随曲线.

  12. Working Report on Visible and IR Electromagnetic Emissions from HMMWV External Black-Out (BO) Lighting


    with the turn signal on data, (e) Service light on data, (f) Service light with filters mounted data (c) (b) (d) (a) (e) (f) BO Drive Lamp...Front Composite/ Turn signal on Filter mounted Truck-Lite RC First Truck-Lite RC First Visible YES (47) YES (44) NO (50) Data not available Visible...Headlamp Truck-Lite RC First Truck-Lite RC First Front composite Front composite Turn signal Turn signal Visible Detect (63) Not Detect (63) Not

  13. Industrial hygiene walk-through survey report of General Motors Corporation, Fisher Guide Division, Monroe, Louisiana

    McCammon, C.S.; Krishnan, E.R.; Goodman, R.J.


    A walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at the General Motors Corporation Fisher Guide manufacturing facility located in Monroe, Louisiana. The investigation centered on possible exposure to acrylates or methacrylates during the manufacture of adhesive-sealed, flame-sealed, or composite headlamps. Methacrylate-based adhesives and acrylated coatings have been used at the facility since 1981. Both the adhesives and coatings were cured by ultraviolet radiation. Ninety-four employees had potential contact with acrylates or methacrylates during the application of adhesives and coatings. Adhesives were used for sealing the lens/reflector area and the bulb location of the terminal area. Base coats were applied to the composite headlamps to provide an adhering surface for the aluminized coating. Top coats were applied as a protective coating for the aluminum coating. Two cases of chemical dermatitis have been reported at the facility since 1981 due to skin contact with acrylates/methacrylates. When an automated system was used to apply adhesive materials during headlamp assembly, there was a lower potential for employee exposure to the hazardous chemicals. The authors recommend that the company move toward complete automation of this part of the production process. Levels of butyl-acetate should be checked as there was a strong smell of this chemical in part of the production line.

  14. Modeling of reflection-type laser-driven white lighting considering phosphor particles and surface topography.

    Lee, Dong-Ho; Joo, Jae-Young; Lee, Sun-Kyu


    This paper presents a model of blue laser diode (LD)-based white lighting coupled with a yellow YAG phosphor, for use in the proper design and fabrication of phosphor in automotive headlamps. First, the sample consisted of an LD, collecting lens, and phosphor was prepared that matches the model. The light distribution of the LD and the phosphor were modeled to investigate an effect of the surface topography and phosphor particle properties on the laser-driven white lighting systems by using the commercially available optical design software. Based on the proposed model, the integral spectrum distribution and the color coordinates were discussed.

  15. Lighting with laser diodes

    Basu, Chandrajit; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard


    Contemporary white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are much more efficient than compact fluorescent lamps and hence are rapidly capturing the market for general illumination. LEDs are also replacing halogen lamps or even newer xenon based lamps in automotive headlamps. Because laser diodes are inherently much brighter and often more efficient than corresponding LEDs, there is great research interest in developing laser diode based illumination systems. Operating at higher current densities and with smaller form factors, laser diodes may outperform LEDs in the future. This article reviews the possibilities and challenges in the integration of visible laser diodes in future illumination systems.

  16. Detection rates of geckos in visual surveys: Turning confounding variables into useful knowledge

    Lardner, Bjorn; Rodda, Gordon H.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Savidge, Julie A.; Reed, Robert N.


    Transect surveys without some means of estimating detection probabilities generate population size indices prone to bias because survey conditions differ in time and space. Knowing what causes such bias can help guide the collection of relevant survey covariates, correct the survey data, anticipate situations where bias might be unacceptably large, and elucidate the ecology of target species. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate confounding variables for gecko (primarily Hemidactylus frenatus and Lepidodactylus lugubris) counts on 220-m-long transects surveyed at night, primarily for snakes, on 9,475 occasions. Searchers differed in gecko detection rates by up to a factor of six. The worst and best headlamps differed by a factor of at least two. Strong winds had a negative effect potentially as large as those of searchers or headlamps. More geckos were seen during wet weather conditions, but the effect size was small. Compared with a detection nadir during waxing gibbous (nearly full) moons above the horizon, we saw 28% more geckos during waning crescent moons below the horizon. A sine function suggested that we saw 24% more geckos at the end of the wet season than at the end of the dry season. Fluctuations on a longer timescale also were verified. Disturbingly, corrected data exhibited strong short-term fluctuations that covariates apparently failed to capture. Although some biases can be addressed with measured covariates, others will be difficult to eliminate as a significant source of error in longterm monitoring programs.

  17. Matrix light and pixel light: optical system architecture and requirements to the light source

    Spinger, Benno; Timinger, Andreas L.


    Modern Automotive headlamps enable improved functionality for more driving comfort and safety. Matrix or Pixel light headlamps are not restricted to either pure low beam functionality or pure high beam. Light in direction of oncoming traffic is selectively switched of, potential hazard can be marked via an isolated beam and the illumination on the road can even follow a bend. The optical architectures that enable these advanced functionalities are diverse. Electromechanical shutters and lens units moved by electric motors were the first ways to realize these systems. Switching multiple LED light sources is a more elegant and mechanically robust solution. While many basic functionalities can already be realized with a limited number of LEDs, an increasing number of pixels will lead to more driving comfort and better visibility. The required optical system needs not only to generate a desired beam distribution with a high angular dynamic, but also needs to guarantee minimal stray light and cross talk between the different pixels. The direct projection of the LED array via a lens is a simple but not very efficient optical system. We discuss different optical elements for pre-collimating the light with minimal cross talk and improved contrast between neighboring pixels. Depending on the selected optical system, we derive the basic light source requirements: luminance, surface area, contrast, flux and color homogeneity.

  18. Forensic discrimination of glass using cathodoluminescence and CIE LAB color coordinates: a feasibility study.

    Bell, Suzanne C; Nawrocki, Heidi D; Morris, Keith B


    Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy has been shown to be useful for differentiating typical evidentiary glass samples. CL occurs when a surface is bombarded with an electron beam as in scanning electron microscopy and most of this luminescence is in the visible range. In effect, CL imparts color to colorless evidence and as a result, proven methods of forensic color analysis can be applied. In this work, spectral data dimensions were reduced to three and plotted in the CIE LAB color space. This approach allows for incorporation of uncertainties generated principally by intra-sample variation. NIST glass standards were used for method development and validation while potential case applications were studied with collections of window, consumer, and auto headlamp glasses. Using refractive index as the initial grouping variable, all of the window and consumer glasses were differentiated as were 6 of 10 automobile headlamp glasses. The potential advantages of CL include low cost instrumentation, its non-destructive nature, and ease of operation. The current limitations of CL in this context are the lack of databases and standards and the relatively low resolution of typical CL spectra.

  19. 汽车照明人眼感受的仿真研究%Simulation Research on Automotive Lighting and Human Eyes Feeling

    刘晨; 刘春子; 万宏


    For analyzing quantitatively the subjective feeling of people and vision comfort during driving, the analysis and evaluation method of the lighting quality of automotive headlamps and the impact of light quality on hu-man eyes subjective feeling are described. In the experiment, the light intensity data of automotive headlamps is ob-tained through light fitting machine. The method of calculating luminous flux, ground illuminance and brightness by using the data is introduced in detail. The advantage and disadvantage analysis of automotive headlamps lighting quality through calculation are obtained. The correctness of the calculation method is verified in simulation. And the brightness correction for human eyes feeling is added to ground brightness simulation to get a better human eyes feeling. So it has an important meaning to automotive lamp production.%为了量化分析人们驾驶汽车时的主观感受,以及对视觉舒适度进行定量分析,描述了对汽车前照灯的灯光质量的分析评价方法,及灯光质量对人眼主观感受的影响。在实验中,通过配光机得到汽车前照灯的光强数据,详细介绍了使用配光机得到的光强数据计算光通量、地面照度、地面亮度的方法。通过计算得到汽车前照灯照明质量的优劣分析。在仿真中,很好地验证了计算方法的正确性,同时对地面亮度仿真中加入了人眼亮度的校正,很好的仿真了人眼感受,因此它对于车灯的生产过程有着很好的指导意义。

  20. Problems in laser repair welding of polished surfaces

    A. Skumavc


    Full Text Available This paper presents problems in laser repair welding of the tools for injection moulding of plastics and light metals. Tools for injection moulding of the car headlamps are highly polished in order to get a desirable quality of the injected part. Different light metals, glasses, elastomers, thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers are injected into the die cavity under high pressures resulting in the surface damages of the tool. Laser welding is the only suitable repair welding technique due to the very limited sputtering during deposition of the filler metal. Overlapping of the welds results in inhomogeneous hardness of the remanufactured surface. Results have shown strong correlation between hardness and surface waviness after final polishing of the repair welded surface.

  1. 车载网络技术对汽车传统电路的影响%Influence of Vehicle Network Technology on Traditional Vehicle electric Circuit



      文章论述了车载网络技术对汽车传统电路的影响。通过比较前照灯的传统电路与自适应前照明系统工作原理和布线方式等方面的不同,说明传统汽车电路已经远远不能满足智能汽车的需要。%The thesis discuss influence of vehicle network technology on traditional vehicle electric circuit. According to comparing with the headlamp traditional electric circuit and adaptive font-lighting system , we conclude that the tradi-tional automobile electric circuit data transmission has been far from satisfying the needs of the smart car.

  2. Novel chip coating approaches to improve white LED technology

    Hartmann, Paul; Schweighart, Marko; Sommer, Christian; Wenzl, Franz-P.; Zinterl, Ernst; Hoschopf, Hans; Pachler, Peter; Tasch, Stefan


    Key market requirements for white LEDs, especially in the general lighting and automotive headlamp segments call for improved concepts and performance of white LEDs based on phosphor conversion. Major challenges are small emission areas, highest possible intensities, long-term color stability, and spatial homogeneity of color coordinates. On the other hand, the increasingly high radiation power of the blue LEDs poses problems for all involved materials. Various thick film coating technologies are widely used for applying the color conversion layer to the semiconductor chip. We present novel concepts based on Silicate phosphors with high performance in terms of spatial homogeneity of the emission and variability of the color temperature. Numerical calculation of the optical properties with the help of state-of-the-art simulation tools was used as a basis for the practical optimization of the layer geometries.

  3. Technical highlights of the C-Class Sports Coupe; Technische Highlights des C-Klasse Sportcoupes

    Claar, K.P.; Colmsee, H.; Dannenberg, M.; Grevener, C. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)


    In mid-March 2001, a newcomer joined the 203-series model family: the new C-Class Sports Coupe. This new model is sportier and more compact in design than the 203 series Saloon. The new exterior styling required a full-scale redesign of all visible body parts including the doors, bonnet, bumper trim, headlamps, rear lights and windows. The substructure of the passenger cell and front end on the other hand was adopted unchanged from the Saloon. (orig.) [German] Mitte Maerz 2001 fuehrte Daimler-Chrysler das neue Sportcoupe der C-Klasse ein, das die Modellfamilie der Baureihe 203 erweitert. Im Vergleich zur Limousine der Baureihe 203 ist es sportlicher und kompakter konzipiert. Die neue aeussere Form erforderte eine vollstaendige Neukonstruktion aller Beplankungsteile einschliesslich der Tueren, Motorhaube, Stossfaengerverkleidungen, Scheinwerfer, Rueckleuchten und Scheiben. Die Bodenanlage der Limousine blieb jedoch im Bereich der Fahrgastzelle und des Vorbaus unveraendert. (orig.)

  4. Color speckle in laser displays

    Kuroda, Kazuo


    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  5. Implementation Of Automatic Wiper Speed Control And Headlight Modes Control Systems Using Fuzzy Logic



    Full Text Available Abstract This research paper describes the design and simulation of the automatic wiper speed and headlight modes controllers using fuzzy logic. This proposed system consists of a fuzzy logic controller to control a cars wiper speed and headlight modes. The automatic wiper system detects the rain and its intensity. And according to the rain intensity the wiper speed is automatically controlled. Headlight modes automatically changes either from low beam mode to high beam mode or form high beam mode to low beam mode depending on the light intensity from the other vehicle coming from the opposite direction. The system comprises of PIC impedance sensor piezoelectric vibration sensor LDR headlamps and a DC motor to accurate the windshield wiper. Piezoelectric sensor is used to detect the rain intensity which is based on the piezoelectric effect. MATLAB software is used to achieve the designed goal.

  6. NEWS, VIEWS, AND REVIEWS: A Tool for My Laser Practice I Simply Can't Do Without: Shining a Light on My Favorite Light (Source).

    Bernstein, Eric F


    With laser surgery, what you see is what you get. Visualizing the target for treatment, be it a port-wine stain, a cluster of spider veins, a tattoo or freckles, or simply photodamaged skin requires seeing through surface reflections, dry skin, and often quite dark laser goggles. The tool that has been indispensable to me in my practice is the Syris v900L polarizing and magnifying headlamp. This indispensable tool makes laser treatment more precise, effective, and easier by truly shining a light on the subject of a laser treatment. Future uses of this dynamic, yet simple invention, should be found in all of dermatology and beyond, anywhere that seeing what you are looking at more clearly is important. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):939-944..

  7. Free-form illumination optics

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Hernández, Maikel


    In many illumination problems, the beam pattern needed and/or some geometrical constraints lead to very asymmetric design conditions. These asymmetries have been solved in the past by means of arrangements of rotationally symmetric or linear lamps aimed in different directions whose patterns overlap to provide the asymmetric prescriptions or by splitting one single lamp into several sections, each one providing a part of the pattern. The development of new design methods yielding smooth continuous free-form optical surfaces to solve these challenging design problems, combined with the proper CAD modeling tools plus the development of multiple axes diamond turn machines, give birth to a new generation of optics. These are able to offer the performance and other advanced features, such as efficiency, compactness, or aesthetical advantages, and can be manufactured at low cost by injection molding. This paper presents two examples of devices with free-form optical surfaces, a camera flash, and a car headlamp.

  8. Separation and recovery of thermoplastics by froth floatation

    Karvelas, D. E.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr.; Daniels, E. J.


    This paper describes efforts by Argonne National Laboratory to develop a froth flotation process for separating and recovering plastics from mixed plastics waste streams generated from shredding obsolete appliances and automobiles. A process for recovering and separating equivalent-density ABS and HIPS from obsolete appliances was developed and pilot-tested with a through-put of 1,250 lbs/hr. The basic process is outlined; unit operations and equipment are discussed, and material balances are presented. The resulting ABS product was analyzed and its physical and mechanical properties were established. Its properties resembled those of virgin, mid-grade ABS that is commercially sold today and is widely used by the automotive industry. Injection-molding tests were also conducted by automotive-components suppliers, using the 100% recovered ABS. Headlamp back-cans and automotive ventilation-system duct components were injection molded and the results showed that the recovered ABS met the specifications for these applications. These results confirmed that the recovered ABS can be used as a substitute for virgin plastic materials for molding highly complex automotive component designs, and in parts for other durable goods. Economic analysis of a commercial-scale system was also performed using manufacturers' equipment quotes and operating data from the pilot plant, and it predicts a simple payback of less than 2 years for plants producing about 850 tons per year of ABS.

  9. Rapid prototyping of reflectors for vehicle lighting using laser activated remote phosphor

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander


    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.

  10. Temperature issues with white laser diodes, calculation and approach for new packages

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Stephan, Serge


    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class systems mainly use HID or LED light sources. As a further step laser diode based systems offer a high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new dynamic and adaptive light functions and styling concepts. The use of white laser diode systems in automotive applications is still limited to laboratories and prototypes even though announcements of laser based front lighting systems have been made. But the environment conditions for vehicles and other industry sectors differ from laboratory conditions. Therefor a model of the system's thermal behavior is set up. The power loss of a laser diode is transported as thermal flux from the junction layer to the diode's case and on to the environment. Therefor its optical power is limited by the maximum junction temperature (for blue diodes typically 125 - 150 °C), the environment temperature and the diode's packaging with its thermal resistances. In a car's headlamp the environment temperature can reach up to 80 °C. While the difference between allowed case temperature and environment temperature is getting small or negative the relevant heat flux also becomes small or negative. In early stages of LED development similar challenges had to be solved. Adapting LED packages to the conditions in a vehicle environment lead to today's efficient and bright headlights. In this paper the need to transfer these results to laser diodes is shown by calculating the diodes lifetimes based on the presented model.

  11. Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices

    Zerhau-Dreihoefer, Harald; Haack, Uwe; Weber, Thomas; Wendt, Dierk


    Automotive lighting devices generally have to meet high standards. For example to avoid discomfort glare for the oncoming traffic, luminous intensities of a low beam headlight must decrease by more than one order of magnitude within a fraction of a degree along the horizontal cutoff-line. At the same time, a comfortable homogeneous illumination of the road requires slowly varying luminous intensities below the cutoff line. All this has to be realized taking into account both, the legal requirements and the customer's stylistic specifications. In order to be able to simulate and optimize devices with a good optical performance different light source models are required. In the early stage of e.g. reflector development simple unstructured models allow a very fast development of the reflectors shape. On the other hand the final simulation of a complex headlamp or signal light requires a sophisticated model of the spectral luminance. In addition to theoretical models based on the light source's geometry, measured luminance data can also be used in the simulation and optimization process.

  12. Propagation of angular errors in two-axis rotation systems

    Torrington, Geoffrey K.


    Two-Axis Rotation Systems, or "goniometers," are used in diverse applications including telescope pointing, automotive headlamp testing, and display testing. There are three basic configurations in which a goniometer can be built depending on the orientation and order of the stages. Each configuration has a governing set of equations which convert motion between the system "native" coordinates to other base systems, such as direction cosines, optical field angles, or spherical-polar coordinates. In their simplest form, these equations neglect errors present in real systems. In this paper, a statistical treatment of error source propagation is developed which uses only tolerance data, such as can be obtained from the system mechanical drawings prior to fabrication. It is shown that certain error sources are fully correctable, partially correctable, or uncorrectable, depending upon the goniometer configuration and zeroing technique. The system error budget can be described by a root-sum-of-squares technique with weighting factors describing the sensitivity of each error source. This paper tabulates weighting factors at 67% (k=1) and 95% (k=2) confidence for various levels of maximum travel for each goniometer configuration. As a practical example, this paper works through an error budget used for the procurement of a system at Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. LCD-based digital eyeglass for modulating spatial-angular information.

    Bian, Zichao; Liao, Jun; Guo, Kaikai; Heng, Xin; Zheng, Guoan


    Using programmable aperture to modulate spatial-angular information of light field is well-known in computational photography and microscopy. Inspired by this concept, we report a digital eyeglass design that adaptively modulates light field entering human eyes. The main hardware includes a transparent liquid crystal display (LCD) and a mini-camera. The device analyzes the spatial-angular information of the camera image in real time and subsequently sends a command to form a certain pattern on the LCD. We show that, the eyeglass prototype can adaptively reduce light transmission from bright sources by ~80% and retain transparency to other dim objects meanwhile. One application of the reported device is to reduce discomforting glare caused by vehicle headlamps. To this end, we report the preliminary result of using the reported device in a road test. The reported device may also find applications in military operations (sniper scope), laser counter measure, STEM education, and enhancing visual contrast for visually impaired patients and elderly people with low vision.

  14. Observers' Judgments of the Effects of Glare on Their Visual Acuity for High and Low Contrast Stimuli.

    Sewall, Ashley A Stafford; Borzendowski, Stephanie A Whetsel; Tyrrell, Richard A; Stephens, Benjamin R; Rosopa, Patrick J


    Disability glare refers to a reduction in the ability to discern a stimulus that is positioned near another stimulus that has a much higher luminance. While it is common for drivers to report that they have been "blinded" by oncoming headlights, it is unclear whether observers can accurately judge when they are visually disabled by glare. This experiment sought to quantify the accuracy with which observers can judge when a glare source reduces their visual acuity. Seventeen observers estimated their disability glare threshold (DGT)-the luminance of a glare source that would be just sufficient to impair their ability to discern the orientation of a Landolt C that was surrounded by the glare source. These estimated DGTs were compared to the participant's actual DGTs. Participants consistently underestimated the intensity of glare that was required to impair their acuity. On average, estimates of glare threshold were 88% lower than actual glare threshold intensities. Participants' judgments were affected by stimulus size but not stimulus contrast. These results suggest that observers can exaggerate the debilitating effects of glare and that they can fail to appreciate that high contrast stimuli are more robust to glare. A driver who believes that even the lowest intensities of headlight glare can visually impair an oncoming driver may be reluctant to use high beam headlamps, despite their significant visibility advantages.

  15. Optical design of LED-based automotive tail lamps

    Domhardt, André; Rohlfing, Udo; Klinger, Karsten; Manz, Karl; Kooß, Dieter; Lemmer, Uli


    The application of ultra bright monochromatic and white High-Power-LEDs in the range of automotive lighting systems is now state of the art. These LEDs offer new possibilities in optical design and engineering within different fields of automotive lighting, e.g., tail lamps, signal lamps, headlamps and interior lighting. This contribution describes the process of the optical design of an automotive LED tail lamp based on a practical example. We will elaborate the principal geometric approach, the radiometric conditions and the optical design by using standard and advanced mathematical optimization methods. Special attention will be paid to the following topics: efficient light coupling from the LED into the optical device, adaptation of the illuminance and optimization with respect to the requirements from SAE/ECE regulations. It will be shown that the development of LED-lamps requires the complex interaction of several factors. The challenge for the optical designer is to fulfill the technical demands while also considering the appearance of the final product desired by the customer. Further design specifications emerge from the electrical and thermal layout of the lamp.

  16. From advanced driver assistance to autonomous driving: perspectives for photonics sensors

    Cochard, Jacques; Bouyé, Clémentine


    Optics components entered in the automotive vehicle one century ago with headlamps and since then move towards even more sophisticated designs in lighting functions. Photonics sensors are just entering now in this market through driver assistance, in complement of incumbent ultrasonic and radar technologies. Gain of market shares is expected for this components with autonomous driving, that was few years ago a nice dream and whose early results exceed surprisingly expectations of roadmaps and historic OEM have quickly joined the course launched by Google Company 5 years ago. Technological components, among them CMOS camera followed by Laser Scanners, cost-effective flash LIDAR are already experimenting their first miles in real condition and new consumers in South Asia plebiscite this new way to drive cars .The issue is still for photonics companies to move from well suited technological solution to mass-production components with corresponding cost reduction. MEMS components that follow the same curve 15 years ago (with market entries in airbags, tire pressure monitoring systems…) experimented the hard pressure on price for wide market adoption. Besides price, which is a CFO issue, photonic technologies will keep in place if they can both reassure OEM CEO and let CTO and designers dream. Reassurance will be through higher level of standardization and reliability of these components whereas dream will be linked to innovative sensing application, e.g spectroscopy.

  17. An investigation into the Paulding Mystery Lights

    Bos, Jeremy P.; Norkus, William; Maurer, Michael; Sims, Douglas; Middlebrook, Christopher; Roggeman, Michael C.


    The Paulding Mystery Lights are a purportedly unexplained optical phenomenon, occurring nightly, deep in the woods of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The Michigan Tech Student Chapter of the SPIE initiated a project in 2008 to understand the cause of the Paulding Lights. Previous investigations by skeptics attributed the lights to headlights without explicitly identifying a source location. Our team applied a number of straightforward techniques to identify and then verify the source location of the Paulding Light. Beginning with observation through a telescope, the team moved to using tools such as detailed topographical maps and more common tools such as Google Street View to identify a candidate source location. The candidate source location was then validated by first recreating the light using a vehicle parked in that location. Additional verification was achieved by examining the correlation between the occurrence of the light and the passing of cars at the source location. A spectrometer was also used to compare the visible spectrum of the light to automotive headlamps. Our findings, presented here, indicate that the source of the Paulding light is automobile traffic on a stretch of road about 7 km from the viewing location.

  18. Halstedian technique revisited. Innovations in teaching surgical skills.

    Barnes, R W; Lang, N P; Whiteside, M F


    This paper reviews the laboratory models used to teach fundamental surgical skills in our general surgery residency. The laboratory modules allow supervision and self-instruction, practice, and videotape monitoring of the following techniques: skin incision, suturing, knot tying, hemostasis, vascular anastomosis, and intestinal anastomosis. Pigs' feet simulate human skin for exercises in skin incision, lesion excision, suturing, and basic plastic surgical techniques. Latex tubing and penrose drains allow experience in suturing, knot tying, and hemostasis. Polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prostheses permit quantification of the precision of needle passage and suturing by measurement of leakage of water through a vascular anastomosis. Reconstituted, lyophilized, irradiated bovine arteries and ileum provide models of biologic tissue for creating handsewn vascular anastomoses and sutured or stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses. A headlamp videocamera allows unobstructive recording of the resident's technical performance and provides subsequent visual feedback for self-improvement when compared to reference instructional videotapes. We feel that these innovations may enhance surgical dexterity of residents without the need for animal sacrifice. Our goal is to foreshorten the learning curve for basic surgical skills and improve performance in the clinical operating room.

  19. Persistent phosphor SrAl₂O₄:Eu,Dy in outdoor conditions: saved by the trap distribution.

    Botterman, Jonas; Smet, Philippe F


    Persistent phosphors are a specific type of luminescent materials having the unique ability to emit light long after the excitation has ended. They are commonly used as emergency signage in near ideal, isothermal indoor situations. Recently, their energy storage capacity was relied on for outdoor situations, e.g. for glow-in-the-dark road marks and in combination with solar cells and photo catalytic processes. In this work the influence of temperature, illumination intensity and the duration of the night is critically evaluated on the performance of afterglow phosphors. The persistent luminescence of SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy green emitting phosphors is studied under realistic and idealized conditions. It is found that the light output profile is hardly influenced by the ambient temperature in a wide range. This is due to the presence of a broad trap depth distribution, which is beneficial to cover the longer and colder winter nights. Temperature drops during the night are however detrimental. For traffic applications, the total light output of glow-in-the-dark road marks at the end of the night is not sufficient for the studied compound, although re-charging by the car's headlamps partially alleviates this. For energy storage applications, the trap density should be improved and tunneling recombination processes might be needed to overcome overnight temperature drops.

  20. Projection systems with a cut-off line for automotive applications

    Kloos, G.; Eichhorn, K.


    The lighting systems of a car provide a variety of challenges from the point of view of illumination science and technology. Engineering work in this field has to deal both with reflector and lens design as well as with opto-mechanical design and sensor technology. It has direct implications on traffic safety and the efficiency in which energy is used. Therefore, these systems are continuously improved and optimized. In this context, adaptive systems that we investigate for automotive applications gain increasing importance. The properties of the light distribution in the vicinity of the cut-off line are of key importance for the safe and efficient operation of automotive headlamps. An alternative approach is proposed to refine the description of these properties in an attempt to make it more quantitative. This description is intended to facilitate intercomparison between different systems and/or to study environmental influences on the cut-off line of a system under investigation. Designing projection systems it is necessary to take a delicate trade-off between efficiency, light-distribution characteristics, mechanical boundary conditions, and legal requirements into account. Considerations and results on optical properties of three-axial reflectors in dependence of layout parameters will be given. They can serve as a guideline for the optical workshop and for free-form optimization.

  1. GaInN LEDs: straight way for solid state lighting

    Zehnder, U.; Hahn, B.; Baur, J.; Peter, M.; Bader, S.; Lugauer, H. J.; Weimar, A.


    With the new Generation of InGaN-based thinfilm Chips efficacies of 110/lm/W and output power of 32 mW at 20 mA (5 mm Radial lamp, 438nm, chip-size 255μm x 460μm) are reached. Due to the scalability of the ThinGaN concept chip brightness and efficiency are scalable to larger chip sizes: the brightness achieved for a 1 mm2 ThinGaN Power chip at 350 mA were 495mW (445nm) and 202mW or 100 lm (527nm). White LEDs with phosphorus achieved 102 lm at 350mA, mounted in an OSTAR module with six LED chips 1200 lm were demonstrated at 1000 mA driving current. White emitting automotive headlamp modules with 620lm (5x 1mm2 chip at 700mA) and 41 MCd/m2 as well as green emitting projection modules with 57 MCd/m2 at 2A/mm2 drive current and 12mm2 chip area are realized. These technological improvements demonstrate the straight way of GaInN-LEDs for Solid State lighting.

  2. Hyperspectral Image-Based Night-Time Vehicle Light Detection Using Spectral Normalization and Distance Mapper for Intelligent Headlight Control

    Heekang Kim


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a vehicle light detection method using a hyperspectral camera instead of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD or Complementary metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS camera for adaptive car headlamp control. To apply Intelligent Headlight Control (IHC, the vehicle headlights need to be detected. Headlights are comprised from a variety of lighting sources, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, High-intensity discharge (HID, and halogen lamps. In addition, rear lamps are made of LED and halogen lamp. This paper refers to the recent research in IHC. Some problems exist in the detection of headlights, such as erroneous detection of street lights or sign lights and the reflection plate of ego-car from CCD or CMOS images. To solve these problems, this study uses hyperspectral images because they have hundreds of bands and provide more information than a CCD or CMOS camera. Recent methods to detect headlights used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM, Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM, and Euclidean Distance Mapper (EDM. The experimental results highlight the feasibility of the proposed method in three types of lights (LED, HID, and halogen.

  3. Design method for automotive high-beam LED optics

    Byzov, Egor V.; Moiseev, Mikhail A.; Doskolovich, Leonid L.; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L.


    New analytical method for the calculation of the LED secondary optics for automotive high-beam lamps is presented. Automotive headlamps should illuminate the road and the curb at the distance of 100-150 meters and create a bright, flat, relatively powerful light beam. To generate intensity distribution of this kind we propose to use TIR optical element (collimator working on the total internal reflection principle) with array of microlenses (optical corrector) on the upper surface. TIR part of the optical element enables reflection of the side rays to the front direction and provides a collimated beam which incidents on the microrelief. Microrelief, in its turn, dissipates the light flux in horizontal direction to meet the requirements of the Regulations 112, 113 and to provide well-illuminated area across the road in the far field. As an example, we computed and simulated the optical element with the diameter of 33 millimeters and the height of 22 millimeters. Simulation data shows that three illuminating modules including Cree XP-G2 LED and lens allow generating an appropriate intensity distribution for the class D of UNECE Regulations.

  4. High-power LED package requirements

    Wall, Frank; Martin, Paul S.; Harbers, Gerard


    Power LEDs have evolved from simple indicators into illumination devices. For general lighting applications, where the objective is to light up an area, white LED arrays have been utilized to serve that function. Cost constraints will soon drive the industry to provide a discrete lighting solution. Early on, that will mean increasing the power densities while quantum efficiencies are addressed. For applications such as automotive headlamps & projection, where light needs to be tightly collimated, or controlled, arrays of die or LEDs will not be able to satisfy the requirements & limitations defined by etendue. Ultimately, whether a luminaire requires a small source with high luminance, or light spread over a general area, economics will force the evolution of the illumination LED into a compact discrete high power package. How the customer interfaces with this new package should be an important element considered early on in the design cycle. If an LED footprint of adequate size is not provided, it may prove impossible for the customer, or end user, to get rid of the heat in a manner sufficient to prevent premature LED light output degradation. Therefore it is critical, for maintaining expected LED lifetime & light output, that thermal performance parameters be defined, by design, at the system level, which includes heat sinking methods & interface materials or methdology.

  5. Over 40 years of underground music

    Sabourin, M.


    This article discussed a choir formed by Cape Breton miners in Nova Scotia in 1966. The choir was formed during a time when mines and local communities were struggling. The region had been associated with coal mining since the 1700s. Mining operations in the region fluctuated with the rise and fall of coal prices. At its peak, the region produced 6.6 million tons of ore and employed 12,000 workers. Songs selected by the choir focused on the region's history as well as the lives lost in coal mines during mining disasters. Songs were also selected to reflect the daily lives of coal miners. Members of the choir perform wearing coveralls, workboots, and headlamps. Called The Men of the Deeps, the choir has performed in both China and Kosovo on behalf of the United Nations Children's Fund. The choir has also appeared in short films produced by the National Film Board of Canada. 1 fig.

  6. Performance of high power LEDs based on Ce:YAG ceramics for automotive application%基于YAG陶瓷封装的大功率车用LED的发光性能

    张晔明; 芶立; 时佳男; 高江东


    5 W blue light LED chips based on InGaN were packaged using the Ce:YAG ceramics with different Ce doping levels. The luminescent properties of packaged LED beads were evaluated. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the ceramic-packaged LEDs show that Ce:YAG ceramic is a more compact and efficient fluorescent material. More activation centers of Ce3+can be contained in ceramic with a low doping concentration at a small volume. With a concentration of x=0.03 (Cex:Y3-xAl5O12) and a thickness of 0.4 mm, YAG ceramic-packaged LED shows a high luminous efficiency of 88.2 lm/W. The optical performance of this kind of LEDs based on YAG ceramic makes them promising in automotive headlamps.%不同掺杂量的Ce:YAG陶瓷与5 W蓝光芯片封装后得到发光二极管(LED)灯珠并表征了其发光性能。这种陶瓷灯珠的电致发光光谱结果表明,Ce:YAG陶瓷是一种更加紧凑高效的荧光材料,在较低的Ce3+掺杂量和较小体积下可容纳更多的激活中心。采用Ce3+掺杂量为x=0.03(Cex:Y3-xAl5O12),厚度为0.4 mm的YAG陶瓷封装的LED灯珠发光效率可以达到88.2 lm/W,此种陶瓷灯珠在LED车大灯应用领域有很大潜力。

  7. 汽车LED前照灯智能控制系统设计%Intelligent Control System of Automotive LED Lights

    郭全民; 杨惠; 王健


    针对传统汽车照明系统在恶劣环境或复杂路况易发生交通事故等问题,设计了一种L ED前照灯智能控制系统。通过各个传感器输入电路实现信号的采集,采用各开关量输入电路实现车灯的自动开闭,利用步进电机驱动电路实现车灯的左右偏转,将模糊控制策略引入系统中,构造前照灯水平偏转模糊控制器。仿真结果表明,L ED前照灯智能控制系统可以实现会车时远近光灯自动切换,转弯时前照灯照射方向左右自动调整,具有实用价值。%In order to solve the problems that good lighting can not be provided in time in the complicated road situation the bad driving environment ,an automotive LED lighting control system is preseated .The signals are collected by each sensor input circuit the lights switch on and off automatically by the switch input circuit ,the stepper motor driver circuit is used to deflect the lights .The fuzzy control strategy is introduced in the system to design the fuzzy logic controller for the lamp deflection in the horizontal direction .The experimental results show that the system can realize automatic switch between the high beam and low beam lights .T he lighting direction of the headlamps can be adjusted automatically w hen cars turning .T he design is of practical value .

  8. Current State of the Art in High Brightness LEDs

    Craford, George


    LED's have been commercially available since the 1960's. For many years they were used primarily for indicator applications. The remarkable increase in materials technology and efficiency that has been achieved since the early 1990's for AlInGaP red and amber LEDs, and InGaN green and blue LEDs, has enabled the penetration of markets such as outdoor display, signaling, and automotive brake light and turn signal applications. White LEDs, which are either blue LEDs combined with a phosphor, or a combination of red, green, and blue LEDs, are being used in emerging applications such as cell phone flash, television backlights, projection, and automotive headlights. In addition, to efficiency improvements these applications have required the development of higher power packages and, in some of these applications which are etendue limited, higher luminance devices. High power devices are commercially available which are capable of 140 lumens output and have an efficacy of around 70 lm/W for white emission. New package and chip technologies have been demonstrated which have a luminance of 38 mega nits (Mcd/m^2), approximately 50% more luminance than that of an automotive headlamp halogen bulb (˜25 mega nits). The recent progress in materials technology, packaging, and chip technology makes it clear that LED's will become important for general illumination applications. The rate of LED penetration of this market will depend upon continued increases in performance and lower costs as well as better control of the white spectral emission. Efficiency, current density, and costs are closely linked because the cost in dollars/lumen is inversely proportional to how many lumens can be realized from each unit of device area for a given device type. Performance as high as 138 lm/W, and over 40% wall plug efficiency, has been reported for low power research devices and over 90 lm/W for high power research devices. It is clear that high power commercial products with performance in

  9. Modifications of transaxillary approach in endoscopic da Vinci-assisted thyroid and parathyroid gland surgery.

    Al Kadah, Basel; Piccoli, Micaela; Mullineris, Barbara; Colli, Giovanni; Janssen, Martin; Siemer, Stephan; Schick, Bernhard


    Endoscopic surgery for treatment of thyroid and parathyroid pathologies is increasingly gaining attention. The da Vinci system has already been widely used in different fields of medicine and quite recently in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Herein, we report about modifications of the transaxillary approach in endoscopic surgery of thyroid and parathyroid gland pathologies using the da Vinci system. 16 patients suffering from struma nodosa in 14 cases and parathyroid adenomas in two cases were treated using the da Vinci system at the ENT Department of Homburg/Saar University and in cooperation with the Department of General Surgery in New Sant'Agostino Hospital, Modena/Italy. Two different retractors, endoscopic preparation of the access and three different incision modalities were used. The endoscopic preparation of the access allowed us to have a better view during preparation and reduced surgical time compared to the use of a headlamp. To introduce the da Vinci instruments at the end of the access preparation, the skin incisions were over the axilla with one incision in eight patients, two incisions in four patients and three incisions in a further four patients. The two and three skin incisions modality allowed introduction of the da Vinci instruments without arm conflicts. The use of a new retractor (Modena retractor) compared to a self-developed retractor made it easier during the endoscopic preparation of the access and the reposition of the retractor. The scar was hidden in the axilla and independent of the incisions selected, the cosmetic findings were judged by the patients to be excellent. The neurovascular structures such as inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve and vessels, as well as the different pathologies, were clearly 3D visualized in all 16 cases. No paralysis of the vocal cord was observed. All patients had a benign pathology in their histological examination. The endoscopic surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid gland can be

  10. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Paduada, M.


    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  11. Study on the current population and habitat of the wild Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis)%野生扬子鳄种群及栖息地现状研究

    丁由中; 邵民; 等


    1999年7~8月及2000年8~9月,利用GPS、激光测距仪等,采用夜间灯光照射计数方法,对有野生扬子鳄(Alligator sinensis)存在的安徽省宣州、泾县、广德、郎溪、南陵等5县市的26个地点进行了调查,包括扬子鳄国家级自然保护区的13个指定保护点。结果发现:目前野生扬子鳄主要生存在第一类栖息地(1999年50.7%、2000年40.0%),面积为17.38 hm2;其他两类栖息地的野生扬子鳄分布比率较小(各为1999年24.0%、2000年30.9%、1999年25.3%、2000年29.1%),面积分别为22.04 hm2、19.03 hm2。两年的平均生态密度分别为1.28条/ hm2和1.79条/ hm2,野生扬子鳄种群数量为145条。其种群已明显分为至少18个数量不等且相互隔离的地方种群。建议恢复足够大的栖息地,并放饲养鳄于其中以重新建立有效野生种群。%A survey of wild Chinese Alligator was conducted from July to August 1999 and from August to September 2000 by direct counting after dark (2000pm) using headlamps or a 12v portable spotlight. At each site visited, the authors mapped the ponds using laser rangefinder and compass, characterized the physical nature of the ponds and vegetation, and conducted interviews with local residents. The location of all sites was recorded using a hand-held GPS. There are 26 sites in 5 counties that were surveyed where wild Chinese Alligators still exist in Anhui province, including 13 designated conservation sites of the National Chinese Alligator Reserve. The current wild alligator populations mainly exist in the best type of habitat, which totals 17.4 ha with estimated populations of 50.7% in 1999 and 40.0% in 2000. This can be compared with the other two types of habitat, which total 22.0 ha and 19.0 ha, with their estimated population numbers of 24.0% in 1999 and 30.9% in 2000, and 25.3% in 1999 and 29.1% in 2000 respectively. The average ecological densities of the alligators in the two years

  12. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  13. GaN-on-Si blue/white LEDs: epitaxy, chip, and package

    Qian, Sun; Wei, Yan; Meixin, Feng; Zengcheng, Li; Bo, Feng; Hanmin, Zhao; Hui, Yang


    coating procedure, and are suitable for directional lighting, camera flash, streetlighting, automotive headlamps, and otherlighting applications. Project supported financially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61522407, 61534007, 61404156), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2015AA03A102), the Science & Technology Program of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BA2015099, BE2012063), the Suzhou Science & Technology Program (No. ZXG2013042), and the Recruitment Program of Global Experts (1000 Youth Talents Plan). Project also supported technically by Nano-X from SINANO, CAS

  14. Gazelleri Işığında Bâkî’de Tefâhür Self-Praise in Consideration of His Odes in Baki

    Mustafa KARADENİZ


    Full Text Available Fahriye, which is an Arabic word originally, is, in the traditional sense, a part of eulogies in which poet sing praises of himself and his poetry intensely. Ottoman poet generally priortised praise dignitaries in eulogy. In this chapter called Meddhiyye poets beg for pecuniary or non-pecuniary assistance. In the following chapter called fahriye, Ottoman poets who mentioned their virtues in their poems, imply their superiority to other Ottoman poets by mentioning their own expertise in poetry. It was an opportunity for Ottoman poets to self-praise as fahriyes followed medhiyye chapters in their poems. Besides this general acceptance, poets also give place to couplets containing headlamp in masnavis and lyrics though not in a section like eulogies. The couplets where the Ottoman poets about to praise themselves, are generally pseudonym couplets. Pseudonym couplet particularly gave an opportunity to Ottoman poets to initiate Fahriye besides to introduce the poet. When studied Divan of Baki, who was a renown Ottoman poet in the 16th century, brilliant and gorgeous fahriye couplets can be seen in his pseudonym couplets in his lyrics. Axis of this study, outside of fahriyes of eulogies, will be formed on occasion of lyric poets in which poets finds an opportunity to praise themselves and their poetry. In light of this informations, self-praise and fahriye concepts will be addressed through the pseudonym couplets of Baki’s lyrics. In the introduction, it will be given information about the concept of meaning of words and terms of fahriye and it will be focused on its content and place in tradition of Eulogies. In the final section of our study, it will be focused on manifestations of fahriye tradition as well as the various pseudonyms of Baki's lyrics. Köken itibariyle Arapça bir sözcük olan fahriye, şairin kendisini ve şairliğini övmek maksadıyla yoğunlukla ve geleneksel olarak kasideler içinde yer verdiği bir bölümdür. Divan

  15. 2000年《照明工程学报》总目次


    Equipment of Sealing by Clamp for Compact Fluorescent Lamps Li Jiankang(1-1) A Study on Relationshop between Flicker of Fluorescent Lamp and Visual Fatigue Gu Yimin Zhou Jian et al.(1-7) Development of Photon Multiplication Material Zheng Muzhou(1-11) New Light Sources for Automobiles Wang Erghen(1-15) Artificial Neural Network Applicable for Light Guide Lighting Wang Aiying(1-21) A Comprehensive Method for Evaluating Light Environment in Housing Zhang Yaogen Zhang Jianping et al.(1-25) The Technical Measures of Raising the Illumination Quality for Residences Dai Yuxing(1-29) Simulated Photoelectric System of Colour Vision Liu Enyu(2-1) Measurement of the Temperature Distribution on the Filaments of the Automotive Lamps Using the Spectroscopic Method Zhou Wei Zhou Taiming Lu Zhunhao et al.(2-8) Ecoconstruction Electrical Light Source Yang Shiguang(2-11) The Algorithms of Ray Tracing used in Computer Aided Headlamp Design Yuan Jiao Zhu Minghua(2-17) A Study of Starting Process of Metal Halide Lamp (with auxiliary electrode) When Operating by Ballast-Ignitor System Lou Xiaomei Zhu Dingchang(2-20) The Design and Calculation of Perforated Metal Sheet Zhang Haicong David Chang(2-25) Improving the Relationship between the Fluorescent Lamp's Life-span and It's Burning Point Electrocircuit Wang Haiou et al.(3-1) The Design and Study on Intelligent Multiple Lamp Switch System Wang Lucai et al.(3-6) The Technique of a Si-Al Chemical Compound in Water Solvent Coating Phosphor with It's Controling System Leng Huji et al.(3-9) Self-dosing Technology and Control System-Research for Compact Fluorescet lamp Chen Gang(3-11) The Key Technology of Fluorescent Lamps by Analyzing the Quality of Swizerland FALMA′S Compact Fluorescent lamp Leng Huji et al.(3-13) An Approch to Setting the Time of Technical Performance in Lamp Production Line Zhao Jianyu(3-17) A Study of the Spectral Visual Matching Method He Guoxing(3-20) Examing the Uniformity of the Colour Spaces of CIE CAM97s by Counstructing