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Sample records for head test accident

  1. Head impact in a snowboarding accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, N; Llari, M; Donnadieu, T; Masson, C; Arnoux, P J

    2017-09-01

    To effectively prevent sport traumatic brain injury (TBI), means of protection need to be designed and tested in relation to the reality of head impact. This study quantifies head impacts during a typical snowboarding accident to evaluate helmet standards. A snowboarder numerical model was proposed, validated against experimental data, and used to quantify the influence of accident conditions (speed, snow stiffness, morphology, and position) on head impacts (locations, velocities, and accelerations) and injury risk during snowboarding backward falls. Three hundred twenty-four scenarios were simulated: 70% presented a high risk of mild TBI (head peak acceleration >80 g) and 15% presented a high risk of severe TBI (head injury criterion >1000). Snow stiffness, speed, and snowboarder morphology were the main factors influencing head impact metrics. Mean normal head impact speed (28 ± 6 km/h) was higher than equivalent impact speed used in American standard helmet test (ASTM F2040), and mean tangential impact speed, not included in standard tests, was 13.8 (±7 km/h). In 97% of simulated impacts, the peak head acceleration was below 300 g, which is the pass/fail criteria used in standard tests. Results suggest that initial speed, impacted surface, and pass/fail criteria used in helmet standard performance tests do not fully reflect magnitude and variability of snowboarding backward-fall impacts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05. From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4% reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%, males (73.7%, and motorcyclists (51.3%. More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3% located in the head (20.7% and face (21.6%. Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870 and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061, while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954. Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions.

  3. Rupture tests with reactor pressure vessel head models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talja, H.; Keinaenen, H.; Hosio, E.; Pankakoski, P.H.; Rahka, K.

    2003-01-01

    In the LISSAC project (LImit Strains in Severe ACcidents), partly funded by the EC Nuclear Fission and Safety Programme within the 5th Framework programme, an extensive experimental and computational research programme is conducted to study the stress state and size dependence of ultimate failure strains. The results are aimed especially to make the assessment of severe accident cases more realistic. For the experiments in the LISSAC project a block of material of the German Biblis C reactor pressure vessel was available. As part of the project, eight reactor pressure vessel head models from this material (22 NiMoCr 3 7) were tested up to rupture at VTT. The specimens were provided by Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK). These tests were performed under quasistatic pressure load at room temperature. Two specimens sizes were tested and in half of the tests the specimens contain holes describing the control rod penetrations of an actual reactor pressure vessel head. These specimens were equipped with an aluminium liner. All six tests with the smaller specimen size were conducted successfully. In the test with the large specimen with holes, the behaviour of the aluminium liner material proved to differ from those of the smaller ones. As a consequence the experiment ended at the failure of the liner. The specimen without holes yielded results that were in very good agreement with those from the small specimens. (author)

  4. Head waves in ultrasonic testing. Physical principle and application to welded joint testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustenberg, H.; Erhard, A.

    1984-01-01

    A head wave sensor is developed from distinct emitter and receiver sensors using longitudinal waves under a 70 0 incidence. These heat wave sensors present a high sensitivity for underlying cracks and are not influenced by surface accidents like liquid drops or welding projection. They are multi mode sensors emitting simultaneously longitudinal head waves, a main longitudinal lobe and a transverse wave with a maximum at about 38 0 . This wave combination can be used for automatic testing of welded joints even with austenitic materials for defect detection near internal or external surfaces. This process can substitute or complete liquid penetrant inspection or magnetic inspection for testing pipes (13 references are given) [fr

  5. Head and face injuries and helmet use among injured motorcyclists with road accidents in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Dadkhah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to assess the frequency of head and face injuries in motorcyclists who had an accident and to find out the relationship between helmet use and frequency of these injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-stage sampling method provides data on the injured motorcyclists with road accidents. Data came from a registration form which has documented information of each injured person who had a road accident and hospitalized in the biggest hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Al-Zahra. All the registration forms were surveyed for hospitalization period, treatment costs, severity of injury, and date of accident during 2010 (n = 1626. Later, among the list of injured motorcyclists during the last 3 months of the registration form, 125 cases were randomly selected and interviewed by phone regarding occurrence of the head and face injuries and whether wearing helmet during the accident. Confidence intervals (CI, Chi-square, and Phi and Cramer’s correlation coefficient were applied. The ethical approval was provided. RESULTS: Accident by motorcycle was 31.0% of all road accidents. The frequency of motorcycle accidents was higher in the autumn and among 21-25 year olds. The mean period of hospitalization was 4.3 days and the mean of hospital costs was about 9000000 Rials [about 8200 United States dollar (USD, in 2010]. Of motorcyclist, 35.0% reported they were helmeted when they had the accident. The frequency of head and face injuries was 51.0% among all the injured motorcyclists, 22.0% and 78.0% among the helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, respectively (P = 0.009, r = -0.267. CONCLUSION: Motorcycle accidents comprise a large number of road accidents and cause substantial morbidity and financial impact for the community members. Head and face injuries are the most common trauma in motorcyclists, and the injury rate is higher among non-helmeted motorcyclists.

  6. Modelling of RPV lower head under core melt severe accident condition using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madokoro, Hiroshi; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    Although six years have been passed since the tragic severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi, still large uncertainties exist in modeling of core degradation and reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure. It is extremely important to obtain a better understanding of complex phenomena in the lower head in order to improve accident management measures. The possible failure mode of reactor pressure vessel and its failure time are especially a matter of importance. Thermal behavior of the molten pool can be simulated by the Phase-change Effective Convectivity Model (PECM), which is a distributed-parameter model developed in the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden. The model calculates convective currents not using a pure CFD approach but based on so called “characteristic velocities” that are determined by empirical correlations depending on the geometry and physical properties of the molten pool. At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the PECM has been implemented in the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM in order to receive detailed predictions of a core melt behavior in the RPV lower head under severe accident conditions. An advantage of using OpenFOAM is that it is very flexible to add and modify models and physical properties. In the current work, the solver is extended to couple PECM with a structure analysis model of the vessel wall. The model considers thermal expansion, plasticity, creep and damage. The model and physical properties are based on those implemented in ANSYS. Although the previous implementation had restriction that the amount of and geometry of the melt cannot be changed, our coupled model allows flexibility of the melt amount and geometry. The extended solver was used to simulate the LIVE-L1 and -L7V experiments and has demonstrated good prediction of the temperature distribution in the molten pool and heat flux distribution through the vessel wall. Regarding the vessel failure the model was applied to one of the FOREVER tests

  7. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs

  8. Development of simplified 1D and 2D models for studying a PWR lower head failure under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koundy, V.; Dupas, J.; Bonneville, H.; Cormeau, I.

    2005-01-01

    In the study of severe accidents of nuclear pressurized water reactors, the scenarios that describe the relocation of significant quantities of liquid corium at the bottom of the lower head are investigated from the mechanical point of view. In these scenarios, the risk of a breach and the possibility of a large quantity of corium being released from the lower head exist. This may lead to direct heating of the containment or outer vessel steam explosion. These issues are important due to their early containment failure potential. Since the TMI-2 accident, many theoretical and experimental investigations, relating to lower head mechanical behaviour under severe thermo-mechanical loading in the event of a core meltdown accident have been performed. IRSN participated actively in the one-fifth scale USNRC/SNL LHF and OECD LHF (OLHF) programs. Within the framework of these programs, two simplified models were developed by IRSN: the first is a simplified 1D approach based on the theory of pressurized spherical shells and the second is a simplified 2D model based on the theory of shells of revolution under symmetric loading. The mathematical formulation of both models and the creep constitutive equations used are presented in detail in this paper. The corresponding models were used to interpret some of the OLHF program experiments and the calculation results were quite consistent with the experimental data. The two simplified models have been used to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor lower head under severe accident conditions leading to failure. The average transient heat flux produced by the corium relocated at the bottom of the lower head has been determined using the IRSN HARAR code. Two different methods, both taking into account the ablation of the internal surface, are used to determine the temperature profiles across the lower head wall and their effect on the time to failure is discussed. Using these simplified models

  9. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  10. Severe Accident Test Station Design Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Mary A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Keiser, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the ORNL severe accident test station (SATS) is to provide a platform for evaluation of advanced fuels under projected beyond design basis accident (BDBA) conditions. The SATS delivers the capability to map the behavior of advanced fuels concepts under accident scenarios across various temperature and pressure profiles, steam and steam-hydrogen gas mixtures, and thermal shock. The overall facility will include parallel capabilities for examination of fuels and irradiated materials (in-cell) and non-irradiated materials (out-of-cell) at BDBA conditions as well as design basis accident (DBA) or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. Also, a supporting analytical infrastructure to provide the data-needs for the fuel-modeling components of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program will be put in place in a parallel manner. This design report contains the information for the first, second and third phases of design and construction of the SATS. The first phase consisted of the design and construction of an out-of-cell BDBA module intended for examination of non-irradiated materials. The second phase of this work was to construct the BDBA in-cell module to test irradiated fuels and materials as well as the module for DBA (i.e. LOCA) testing out-of-cell, The third phase was to build the in-cell DBA module. The details of the design constraints and requirements for the in-cell facility have been closely captured during the deployment of the out-of-cell SATS modules to ensure effective future implementation of the in-cell modules.

  11. Severe Accident Test Station Design Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, Mary A.; Yan, Yong; Howell, Michael; Keiser, James R.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ORNL severe accident test station (SATS) is to provide a platform for evaluation of advanced fuels under projected beyond design basis accident (BDBA) conditions. The SATS delivers the capability to map the behavior of advanced fuels concepts under accident scenarios across various temperature and pressure profiles, steam and steam-hydrogen gas mixtures, and thermal shock. The overall facility will include parallel capabilities for examination of fuels and irradiated materials (in-cell) and non-irradiated materials (out-of-cell) at BDBA conditions as well as design basis accident (DBA) or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. Also, a supporting analytical infrastructure to provide the data-needs for the fuel-modeling components of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program will be put in place in a parallel manner. This design report contains the information for the first, second and third phases of design and construction of the SATS. The first phase consisted of the design and construction of an out-of-cell BDBA module intended for examination of non-irradiated materials. The second phase of this work was to construct the BDBA in-cell module to test irradiated fuels and materials as well as the module for DBA (i.e. LOCA) testing out-of-cell, The third phase was to build the in-cell DBA module. The details of the design constraints and requirements for the in-cell facility have been closely captured during the deployment of the out-of-cell SATS modules to ensure effective future implementation of the in-cell modules.

  12. Accident analysis of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Chi, D. Y

    1998-03-01

    Steady state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterment of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. The HANARO fuel test loop was designed to match the CANDU and PWR fuel operating conditions. The accident analysis was performed by RELAP5/MOD3 code based on FTL system designs and determined the detail engineering specification of in-pile test section and out-pile systems. The accident analysis results of FTL system could be used for the fuel and materials designer to plan the irradiation testing programs. (author). 23 refs., 20 tabs., 178 figs.

  13. Hot Cell Installation and Demonstration of the Severe Accident Test Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Zachary M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) capable of examining the oxidation kinetics and accident response of irradiated fuel and cladding materials for design basis accident (DBA) and beyond design basis accident (BDBA) scenarios has been successfully installed and demonstrated in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL), a hot cell facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The two test station modules provide various temperature profiles, steam, and the thermal shock conditions necessary for integral loss of coolant accident (LOCA) testing, defueled oxidation quench testing and high temperature BDBA testing. The installation of the SATS system restores the domestic capability to examine postulated and extended LOCA conditions on spent fuel and cladding and provides a platform for evaluation of advanced fuel and accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding concepts. This document reports on the successful in-cell demonstration testing of unirradiated Zircaloy-4. It also contains descriptions of the integral test facility capabilities, installation activities, and out-of-cell benchmark testing to calibrate and optimize the system.

  14. Steam Oxidation Testing in the Severe Accident Test Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    After the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began conducting high temperature steam oxidation testing of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding in August 2011 [1-11]. The ATF concept is to enhance safety margins in light water reactors (LWR) during severe accident scenarios by identifying materials with 100× slower steam oxidation rates compared to current Zr-based alloys. In 2012, the ORNL laboratory equipment was expanded and made available to the entire ATF community as the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) [4,12]. Compared to the current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system, an ATF alternative would significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident [13-14]. The steam oxidation behavior of candidate materials is a key metric in the evaluation of ATF concepts and also an important input into models [15-17]. However, initial modeling work of FeCrAl cladding has used incomplete information on the physical properties of FeCrAl. Also, the steam oxidation data being collected at 1200°-1700°C is unique as no prior work has considered steam oxidation of alloys at such high temperatures. Also, because many accident scenarios include steadily increasing temperatures, the required data are not traditional isothermal exposures but exposures with varying “ramp” rates. In some cases, the steam oxidation behavior has been surprising and difficult to interpret. Thus, more fundamental information continues to be collected. In addition, more work continues to focus on commercially-manufactured tube material. This report summarizes recent work to characterize the behavior of candidate alloys exposed to high temperature steam, evaluate steam oxidation behavior in various ramp scenarios and continue to collect integral data on FeCrAl compared to conventional Zr-based cladding.

  15. External Cooling of the BWR Mark I and II Drywell Head as a Potential Accident Mitigation Measure - Scoping Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    This report documents a scoping assessment of a potential accident mitigation action applicable to the US fleet of boiling water reactors with Mark I and II containments. The mitigation action is to externally flood the primary containment vessel drywell head using portable pumps or other means. A scoping assessment of the potential benefits of this mitigation action was conducted focusing on the ability to (1) passively remove heat from containment, (2) prevent or delay leakage through the drywell head seal (due to high temperatures and/or pressure), and (3) scrub radionuclide releases if the drywell head seal leaks.

  16. Prediction of thermal margin for external cooling of reactor vessel lower head during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Jun; Suh, Kune Y.

    1998-01-01

    In the TMI-2 accident, approximately nineteen (19) tons of molten core material drained into the lower plenum. One of the major findings from the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project was that one part of the reactor lower head wall estimated to have attained a temperature of 1100 .deg. C for about 30 minutes has seemingly experienced a comparatively rapid cooldown with no major threat to the vessel integrity. In this regard, recent empirical and analytical studies have shifted interests to such in-vessel retention designs or strategies as reactor cavity flooding, in-vessel flooding and engineered gap cooling of the vessel. Accurate thermohydrodynamic and creep deformation modeling and rupture prediction are the key to the success in developing practically useful in-vessel accident management strategies. As an advanced in-vessel design concept, the COrium Attak Syndrome Immunization Structures (COASIS) are being developed as prospective in-vessel retention devices for a next-generation LWR in concert with existing ex-vessel management measures. Both the engineered gap structures in -vessel (COASISI) and ex-vessel (COASISO) were demonstrated to maintain effective heat transfer geometry during molten core debris attack when applied to the TMI-2 and the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) reactors. The likelihood of lower head creep rupture during a severe accident is found to be significantly suppressed by the COASIS options. In studying the in-vessel severe accident phenomena, one of the main goals is to verify the cooling mechanism in the reactor vessel lower plenum and thereby to prevent the vessel failure from thermal attack by the molten debris. This paper presents the first-principle calculation results for the thermal margin for the case of external cooling of the reactor vessel lower head. Adopting the method presented by F.B. Cheung, et al., we calculated the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) for the three cases of pool boiling, flow boiling

  17. Critical heat flux for APR1400 lower head vessel during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sang W.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studied boiling on downward-facing hemispherical vessel with asymmetric thermal insulator. ► Scaled the APR1400 lower head linearly down by 1/10 including ICI tubes and shear keys. ► Performed thermal analysis using ANSYS V11.0 to determine the internal temperature and heat flux. ► Performed tests to obtain the CHF with saturated demineralized water at atmospheric pressure. ► Measured CHF accounting for 3D random flow effect expected in the APR1400 application. -- Abstract: Corium Ablation Stopper Apparatus (CASA) has a downward-facing hemispherical vessel and geometrically asymmetric thermal insulator of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe (APR1400) scaled linearly down by 1/10, as well as sixty-one in-core instrumentation (ICI) tubes and four shear keys. The heated vessel plays a pivotal role in CASA depending on the configuration of the oxide pool and metal layer to bring about the focusing effect expected of a molten pool in the lower head during a severe accident. The heated vessel was designed through a trial-and-error method and thermal analysis. Thermal analysis was performed using ANSYS V11.0 to investigate the effect of the internal temperature and heat flux on the integral hemispherical copper vessel. The CASA tests were carried out to obtain the critical heat flux (CHF) with saturated and demineralized water at the atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa). The CHF in the metal layer through the hemispherical channel was found to be lower than that in the ULPU-2400 configuration V data through the streamlined thermal insulator. The experimental CHF was measured and obtained through the CASA hemispherical heated surface accounting for the three-dimensional random flow effect expected in the APR1400 application

  18. A two dimensional approach for temperature distribution in reactor lower head during severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Zhen; Liu, Xiaojing; Cheng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two dimensional module is developed to analyze integrity of lower head. • Verification step has been done to evaluate feasibility of new module. • The new module is applied to simulate large-scale advanced PWR. • Importance of 2-D approach is clearly quantified. • Major parameters affecting vessel temperature distribution are identified. - Abstract: In order to evaluate the safety margin during a postulated severe accident, a module named ASAP-2D (Accident Simulation on Pressure vessel-2 Dimensional), which can be implemented into the severe accident simulation codes (such as ATHLET-CD), is developed in Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Based on two-dimensional spherical coordinates, heat conduction equation for transient state is solved implicitly. Together with solid vessel thickness, heat flux distribution and heat transfer coefficient at outer vessel surface are obtained. Heat transfer regime when critical heat flux has been exceeded (POST-CHF regime) could be simulated in the code, and the transition behavior of boiling crisis (from spatial and temporal points of view) can be predicted. The module is verified against a one-dimensional analytical solution with uniform heat flux distribution, and afterwards this module is applied to the benchmark illustrated in NUREG/CR-6849. Benchmark calculation indicates that maximum heat flux at outer surface of RPV could be around 20% lower than that of at inner surface due to two-dimensional heat conduction. Then a preliminary analysis is performed on the integrity of the reactor vessel for which the geometric parameters and boundary conditions are derived from a large scale advanced pressurized water reactor. Results indicate that heat flux remains lower than critical heat flux. Sensitivity analysis indicates that outer heat flux distribution is more sensitive to input heat flux distribution and the transition boiling correlation than mass flow rate in external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) channel

  19. Severe accident testing of a personnel airlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.; Parks, M.B.; Julien, J.T.; Peters, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is investigating the leakage potential of mechanical penetrations as part of a research program on containment integrity under severe accident loads for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Barnes et al. (1984) and Shackelford et al. (1985) identified leakage from personnel airlocks as an important failure mode of containments subject to severe accident loads. However, these studies were based on relatively simple analysis methods. The complex structural interaction between the door, gasket, and bulkhead in personnel airlocks makes analytical evaluation of leakage difficult. In order to provide data to validate methods for evaluating the leakage potential, a full-size personnel airlock was subject to simulated severe accident loads consisting of pressure and temperature up to 300 psig and 800 degrees F. The test was conducted at Chicago Bridge and Iron under contract to Sandia. The authors provide a detailed report on the test program

  20. External Cooling of the BWR Mark I and II Drywell Head as a Potential Accident Mitigation Measure – Scoping Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report documents a scoping assessment of a potential accident mitigation action applicable to the US fleet of boiling water reactors with Mark I and II containments. The mitigation action is to externally flood the primary containment vessel drywell head using portable pumps or other means. A scoping assessment of the potential benefits of this mitigation action was conducted focusing on the ability to (1) passively remove heat from containment, (2) prevent or delay leakage through the drywell head seal (due to high temperatures and/or pressure), and (3) scrub radionuclide releases if the drywell head seal leaks.

  1. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 199 [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0335] Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing AGENCY... operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol tests of..., operators must drug and alcohol test each covered employee whose performance either contributed to the...

  2. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  3. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing: Part III. Long-term aluminum hydroxide precipitation tests in borated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.; Natesan, Ken; Klein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aluminum hydroxide precipitation boundary is similar to that for amorphous phase. → Various precipitation tests are combined into one map in temperature-'pH + p[Al] T '. → Flocculation tendency of precipitates depend on pH and total Al concentration. → DLVO theory explains qualitatively the dependency of flocculation tendency on pH. - Abstract: Long-term aluminum (Al) hydroxide precipitation tests were conducted in slightly alkaline solutions containing 2500 ppm boron. The solution temperature was cycled to obtain a temperature history more representative of emergency core cooling system temperatures after a loss-of-coolant accident. The observed Al precipitation boundary was close to predicted results for amorphous precipitates, which are higher than the solubility expected for crystalline forms. Bench-scale and loop head loss test results under various conditions were successfully combined into single map in a temperature - 'pH + p[Al] T ' domain, which yielded two bounding lines for Al hydroxide solubility in borated alkaline water that depend on whether or not loop head loss tests with Al alloy coupons are included. Precipitates were observed to form either as fine, cloudy suspensions, which showed very little tendency to settle, or as flocculated precipitates. The flocculation tendency of the precipitates can be qualitatively explained by a colloid stability theory or a phase diagram for protein solutions.

  4. A Study on the Coupled FEM-Analysis for Reactor Vessel Lower Head of APR1400 under the Severe Accident Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyonam; Namgung, Ihn [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    For the stabilization of the RPV the in-vessel retention strategy with external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) is adopted in APR1400. Under this severe accident condition, a good understanding of the mechanical behavior of the reactor vessel lower head (RVLH) is necessary both for verification of structural integrity and for improving the design applying appropriate accident mitigation strategies. The purpose of this study is to develop the analysis method of the RVLH with thermo-mechanical analysis using FEM tool (ANSYS v.15) in case of core-melting severe accident condition, and then analyze the RVLH of APR1400 including creep behavior. The plastic strain can be the major cause of lower head failure on the reactor vessel, and the creep cannot be not negligible factor of the failure under the severe accident condition. In the study, we applied constant convection coefficient at assumed temperature on the outside wall of RPV and substitute creep data of SA-508. In addition, it was found that the steel ablation at the interface between corium and vessel steel is not only a thermal phenomenon in the METCOR experiments. Corrosion processes and the formation of eutectics lead to the erosion of the vessel steel at temperatures that are significantly lower than the melting temperature of steel. It called thermo-chemical attack of the corium (corrosion). Reduced wall thickness because of the thermo-chemical effect by corium increase the equivalent plastic strain, and decrease the minimum time to reach 20% creep strain.

  5. Causes of several accidents in gamma radiography testing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vykrocil, L.

    1979-01-01

    Three cases are described of radiation accidents in gamma flaw-detection work-places in the West Bohemian Region. The causes of the accidents stemmed from the unsatisfactory technical condition of the materials testing equipment used and nonobservance of regulations for work with radioactive sourr.es. It is necessary for precluding similar accident to improve preventive care of gamma flaw-detection equipment and to educate personnel who would be considered for coping with the situation when control over the radiation source is lost. (Ha)

  6. Development of severe accident analysis code - Development of a finite element code for lower head failure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hoon; Lee, Choong Ho; Choi, Tae Hoon; Kim, Hyun Sup; Kim, Se Ho; Kang, Woo Jong; Seo, Chong Kwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The study concerns the development of analysis models and computer codes for lower head failure analysis when a severe accident occurs in a nuclear reactor system. Although the lower head failure modes consists of several failure modes, the study this year was focused on the global rupture with the collapse pressure and mode by limit analysis and elastic deformation. The behavior of molten core causes elevation of temperature in the reactor vessel wall and deterioration of load-carrying capacity of a reactor vessel. The behavior of molten core and the heat transfer modes were, therefore, postulated in several types and the temperature distributions according to the assumed heat flux modes were calculated. The collapse pressure of a nuclear reactor lower head decreases rapidly with elevation of temperature as time passes. The calculation shows the safety of a nuclear reactor is enhanced with the lager collapse pressure when the hot spot is located far from the pole. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 31 figs. (author)

  7. Leakage potential through mechanical penetrations in a severe accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the findings of an ongoing program, Integrity of Containment Penetrations Under Severe Accident Loads. The program is concerned with the leakage modes as well as the magnitude of leakage through mechanical penetrations in a containment building subject to a severe accident. Seal and gasket tests are used to evaluate the effect of radiation aging, thermal aging, seal geometry, and seal squeeze on seals and gaskets subjected to a hypothesized severe accident. The effects on leakage of the structural response of equipment hatches, personnel airlocks, and drywell heads subjected to severe accident pressures are studied by experiments and analyses. The data gathered during this program will be used to develop methodologies for predicting leakage

  8. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Convertor Heater Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  9. LMFBR post accident heat removal testing needs and conceptual design of a test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeldt, K.; Kuechle, M.; Royl, P.; Werle, H.; Boenisch, G.; Heinzel, V.; Mueller, R.A.; Schramm, K.; Smidt, D.

    1977-03-01

    A study has been carried out in which the needs and requirements for a test facility were derived, enabling detailed investigation of key phenomena anticipated during the post accident heat removal (PAHR) phase as a consequence of a postulated LMFBR whole core accident. Part I of the study concentrates on demonstrating the PAHR phenomena and related testing needs. Three types of experiments were identified which require in-pile testing, ranging from 10 to 70 cm test bed diameter and correspondingly, 30 to 5 W/g minimum power density in the test fuel. In part II a conceptual design for a test facility is presented, emphasizing the capability for accomodating large test beds. This is achieved by a below-reactor-vessel testing device, neutronically coupled to a 100 MWt sodium cooled fast reactor. (orig.) [de

  10. Overview of severe accident research at the USNRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Ader, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) severe accident research activities, in particular, progress made in the past year toward the resolution and/or improved understanding of a number of severe accident issues. The direct containment heating (DCH) is nearing resolution for Combustion Engineering and Babcock and Wilcox type pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are well as for ice condensers. Additionally, two lower pressure DCH tests were conducted recently at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under the NRC/IPSN/FzK sponsorship to provide data regarding intentional depressurization as an accident management strategy to mitigate DCH loads. In the area of lower head integrity, the experimental program to investigate boiling heat transfer on downward facing curved surfaces with insulation was completed. Finally, the SNL program investigating the creep rupture behavior of the lower head under the combined thermo-mechanical loading was completed recently. Additional lower head experiments at SNL are being planned as an OECD project. During the past year, the USNRC participated in two programs aimed at extending the data base on hydrogen combustion into more prototypic situations. Testing was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to investigate detonation transmission at elevated temperatures. In a cooperative program under the sponsorship of NRC/IPSN/FzK, Russian Research Center (RRC) investigated hydrogen combustion issues at large scale at the RUT facility. The experimental program at the SNL to examine the performance of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PARs) was completed also this year. In the fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) area, the experimental work at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to investigate chemical augmentation of FCI energetics was completed as was the experimental work at the University of Wisconsin (UW) involving one-dimensional propagation experiments (similar to KROTOS). The USNRC is

  11. MCC-15: waste/canister accident testing and analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Scott, P.A.

    1985-02-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing standard tests to characterize the performance of nuclear waste forms under normal and accident conditions. As part of this effort, the MCC is developing MCC-15, Waste/Canister Accident Testing and Analysis. MCC-15 is used to test canisters containing simulated waste forms to provide data on the effects of accidental impacts on the waste form particle size and on canister integrity. The data is used to support the design of transportation and handling equipment and to demonstrate compliance with repository waste acceptance specifications. This paper reviews the requirements that led to the development of MCC-15, describes the test method itself, and presents some early results from tests on canisters representative of those proposed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). 13 references, 6 figures

  12. Head injury management guidelines for general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Ganz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete examination of a head injured patient in the hospital requires a number of instruments. These include a stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, ophthalmoscope, otoscope, cotton wool, safety pin, tuning fork, reflex hammer and a small key to test the plantar response. Few of these are required at the accident scene. This is because, in the hospital, the aim is optimal definitive treatment. At the accident scene, the aim is prevention of secondary injury, rapid recording of the most important findings and safe efficient transport to the hospital. This short paper reviews how the local doctor should undertake a neurosurgical assessment of traumatic brain injury patients. Moreover, the primary management at accident scenes is described and the rationale behind the approach is outlined

  13. Characteristics of debris in the lower head of a BWR in different severe accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Viet-Anh; Galushin, Sergey; Raub, Sebastian; Goronovski, Andrei; Villanueva, Walter; Kööp, Kaspar; Grishchenko, Dmitry; Kudinov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Station blackout scenario with delayed recovery of safety systems in a Nordic BWR is considered. • Genetic algorithm and random sampling methods are used to explore accident scenario domain. • Main groups of scenarios are identified. • Ranges and distributions of characteristics of debris bed in the lower head are determined. - Abstract: Nordic boiling water reactors (BWRs) adopt ex-vessel debris cooling to terminate severe accident progression. Core melt released from the vessel into a deep pool of water is expected to fragment and form a coolable debris bed. Characteristics of corium melt ejection from the vessel determine conditions for molten fuel–coolant interactions (FCI) and debris bed formation. Non-coolable debris bed or steam explosion can threaten containment integrity. Vessel failure and melt ejection mode are determined by the in-vessel accident progression. Characteristics (such as mass, composition, thermal properties, timing of relocation, and decay heat) of the debris bed formed in the process of core relocation into the vessel lower plenum define conditions for the debris reheating, remelting, melt-vessel structure interactions, vessel failure and melt release. Thus core degradation and relocation are important sources of uncertainty for the success of the ex-vessel accident mitigation strategy. The goal of this work is improve understanding how accident scenario parameters, such as timing of failure and recovery of different safety systems can affect characteristics of the debris in the lower plenum. Station blackout scenario with delayed power recovery in a Nordic BWR is considered using MELCOR code. The recovery timing and capacity of safety systems were varied using genetic algorithm (GA) and random sampling methods to identify two main groups of scenarios: with relatively small ( 100 tons) amount of relocated debris. The domains are separated by the transition regions, in which relatively small variations of the input

  14. Characteristics of debris in the lower head of a BWR in different severe accident scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Viet-Anh, E-mail: vaphung@kth.se; Galushin, Sergey, E-mail: galushin@kth.se; Raub, Sebastian, E-mail: raub@kth.se; Goronovski, Andrei, E-mail: andreig@kth.se; Villanueva, Walter, E-mail: walterv@kth.se; Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar@safety.sci.kth.se; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Station blackout scenario with delayed recovery of safety systems in a Nordic BWR is considered. • Genetic algorithm and random sampling methods are used to explore accident scenario domain. • Main groups of scenarios are identified. • Ranges and distributions of characteristics of debris bed in the lower head are determined. - Abstract: Nordic boiling water reactors (BWRs) adopt ex-vessel debris cooling to terminate severe accident progression. Core melt released from the vessel into a deep pool of water is expected to fragment and form a coolable debris bed. Characteristics of corium melt ejection from the vessel determine conditions for molten fuel–coolant interactions (FCI) and debris bed formation. Non-coolable debris bed or steam explosion can threaten containment integrity. Vessel failure and melt ejection mode are determined by the in-vessel accident progression. Characteristics (such as mass, composition, thermal properties, timing of relocation, and decay heat) of the debris bed formed in the process of core relocation into the vessel lower plenum define conditions for the debris reheating, remelting, melt-vessel structure interactions, vessel failure and melt release. Thus core degradation and relocation are important sources of uncertainty for the success of the ex-vessel accident mitigation strategy. The goal of this work is improve understanding how accident scenario parameters, such as timing of failure and recovery of different safety systems can affect characteristics of the debris in the lower plenum. Station blackout scenario with delayed power recovery in a Nordic BWR is considered using MELCOR code. The recovery timing and capacity of safety systems were varied using genetic algorithm (GA) and random sampling methods to identify two main groups of scenarios: with relatively small (<20 tons) and large (>100 tons) amount of relocated debris. The domains are separated by the transition regions, in which relatively small

  15. 49 CFR 655.44 - Post-accident testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... best information available at the time of the decision, that the covered employee's performance can be... best available information at the time of the determination that the employee's performance could not... test any other covered employee whose performance could have contributed to the accident, as determined...

  16. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training the head was safely removed and stored and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  17. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training, the head was safely removed and stored; and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities

  18. 49 CFR 572.142 - Head assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceleration versus time history curve shall be unimodal, and the oscillations occurring after the main pulse... for testing. (3) Suspend the head assembly with its midsagittal plane in vertical orientation as shown... head in transverse alignment with the CG, shall be used to ensure that the head transverse plane is...

  19. Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) response to head impacts and potential implications for athletic headgear testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Morr, Douglas; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-09-01

    The Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is the most widely used human impact testing surrogate and has historically been used in automotive or military testing. More recently, this ATD is finding use in applications evaluating athletic helmet protectivity, quantifying head impact dosage and estimating injury risk. But ATD head-neck response has not been quantified in omnidirectional athletic-type head impacts absent axial preload. It is probable that headgear injury reduction that can be quantified in a laboratory, including in American football, boxing, hockey, lacrosse and soccer, is related to a number of interrelated kinetic and kinematic factors, such as head center of gravity linear acceleration, head angular acceleration, head angular velocity, occipito-cervical mechanics and neck stiffness. Therefore, we characterized ATD head-neck dynamic response to direct head impacts in a series of front, oblique front and lateral head impacts. Key findings were: (1) impacts producing highest ATD resultant center of gravity linear acceleration resulted in the lowest resultant occipito-cervical spine bending moment/force. (2) Resultant ATD head angular velocity and angular acceleration did not appear coupled to impact direction at lower impact energy levels; these parameters were coupled at higher energy levels. (3) The ATD had progressively increasing occipito-cervical stiffness in extension, torsion and lateral bending, respectively. Because the ATD neck influenced head and neck impact dosage parameters, testing agencies, manufacturers and researchers should consider using the Hybrid III head form attached to a neck as a means to quantify head and neck injury risks as opposed to systems that do not utilize a neck. This heightened understanding of Hybrid III ATD head-neck response, and consideration of order of stiffest axes in the lateral, oblique and extension directions, respectively, should aid in the development of head and neck injury

  20. The influence of chemistry on severe accident phenomena in integral tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; Osetek, D.J.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of chemical processes on severe accident phenomena in integral tests is reviewed and recommendations for areas of additional work are made. The results reviewed include those from tests conducted in the in-pile facilities at ACRR, PBF, and TREAT and the TMI-2 accident. Progress has been made in understanding the influence of chemistry on important severe accident phenomena such as core melt progression, hydrogen generation, aerosol generation and transport, and fission product release and transport (including revaporization). An example is the chemistry of volatile fission products, especially iodine and tellurium. Areas where understanding is inadequate are also apparent, such as chemical interactions between fission product vapors and aerosols. Influential chemical processes reviewed include oxidation by steam and interactions among control, structural, fuel, fission product, and aerosol materials

  1. Modeling transient streaming potentials in falling-head permeameter tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, Bwalya; Revil, André

    2014-01-01

    We present transient streaming potential data collected during falling-head permeameter tests performed on samples of two sands with different physical and chemical properties. The objective of the work is to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K) and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient (Cl ) of the sand samples. A semi-empirical model based on the falling-head permeameter flow model and electrokinetic coupling is used to analyze the streaming potential data and to estimate K and Cl . The values of K estimated from head data are used to validate the streaming potential method. Estimates of K from streaming potential data closely match those obtained from the associated head data, with less than 10% deviation. The electrokinetic coupling coefficient was estimated from streaming potential vs. (1) time and (2) head data for both sands. The results indicate that, within limits of experimental error, the values of Cl estimated by the two methods are essentially the same. The results of this work demonstrate that a temporal record of the streaming potential response in falling-head permeameter tests can be used to estimate both K and Cl . They further indicate the potential for using transient streaming potential data as a proxy for hydraulic head in hydrogeology applications. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  2. causes and consequences of commercial motorcycle accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Accident associated with the use of motorcycle for commercial transportation in Makurdi metropolis was ... deaths, over speeding accounted for 27 percent of accidents and deaths respectively, .... 10. 7. 5. (a). (b). Possession of wing mirror and Crash helmet. Yes. No. 12 .... reduce the risk of serious head and brain injuries.

  3. LHI (low head safety injection) emergency cooling pump test for the EPR trademark in operation with solid matter loaded water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzmann, I.; Schulte, C.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency cooling pumps are essential and indispensable components of the NPP safety philosophy. In case of a loss-of coolant accident solid matter (debris: fibrous insulation material, concrete dust, pigment particles) might be released into the coolant, LHSI (low head safety injection) pumps have to ensure their performance capacity for a certain amount of debris without damage or loss of power. The authors describe the development of a test facility. The LHSI was tested in continuous operation over a time period of 14 days with a debris content of 1500 ppm (90% mineral wool fibers, 3% concrete dust, 3% pigment particles, 4% microporous insulation material). The pump did not show any damage or loss of hydraulic power. Further tests including thermoshock conditions (temperature changes of 160 C) are planned.

  4. Features of fatal injuries in older cyclists in vehicle-bicycle accidents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2018-01-02

    The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand the features of fatal injuries in cyclists aged 75 years and over involved in collisions with either hood- or van-type vehicles. This study investigated the fatal injuries of cyclists aged 75 years old and over by analyzing accident data. We focused on the body regions to which the fatal injury occurred using vehicle-bicycle accident data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we examined the frequency of fatally injured body region by gender, age, and actual vehicle travel speed. We investigated any significant differences in distributions of fatal injuries by body region for cyclists aged 75 years and over using chi-square tests to compare with cyclists in other age groups. We also investigated the cause of fatal head injuries, such as impact with a road surface or vehicle. The results indicated that head injuries were the most common cause of fatalities among the study group. At low vehicle travel speeds for both hood- and van-type vehicles, fatalities were most likely to be the result of head impacts against the road surface. The percentage of fatalities following hip injuries was significantly higher for cyclists aged 75 years and over than for those aged 65-74 or 13-59 in impacts with hood-type vehicles. It was also higher for women than men in the over-75 age group in impacts with these vehicles. For cyclists aged 75 years and over, wearing a helmet may be helpful to prevent head injuries in vehicle-to-cyclist accidents. It may also be helpful to introduce some safety measures to prevent hip injuries, given the higher level of fatalities following hip injury among all cyclists aged 75 and over, particularly women.

  5. Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladekarl Thomsen, Knud

    1998-03-01

    The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au) 1 tab., 33 ills., 31 refs.

  6. Comparison of two simulation methods for testing of algorithms to detect cyclist and pedestrian accidents in naturalistic data

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Tanja; Christensen, Mads; Sloth Andersen, Camilla; Varhelyi, Andras; Laureshyn, Aliaksei; Moeslund, Thomas; Lahrmann, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic studies can potentially be used to detect accidents of vulnerable road users and thus overcome the large degree of under-reporting in the official accident records. In this study, simulated cycling and walking accidents were performed by a stuntman and with a crash test dummy to test how they differ from each other and the potential implications of using simulated accidents as an alternative to real accidents. The study consisted of simulations of common accident types for cyclis...

  7. Characteristics of severely damaged fuel from PBF tests and the TMI-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Cook, B.A.; Dallman, R.J.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of the TMI-2 reactor accident, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated a research program to investigate phenomena associated with severe fuel damage accidents. This program is sponsored by several countries and includes in-pile and out-of-pile experiments, separate effects studies, and computer code development. The principal in-pile testing portion of the program includes four integral severe fuel damage (SFD) tests in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is also responsible for examining the damaged core in the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, which offers the unique opportunity to directly compare the findings of an experimental program to those of an actual reactor accident. The principal core damage phenomena which can occur during a severe accident are discussed, and examples from the INEL research programs are used to illustrate the characteristics of these phenomena. The preliminary results of the programs are presented, and their impact on plant operability during severe accidents is discussed

  8. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  9. Comparison of two simulation methods for testing of algorithms to detect cyclist and pedestrian accidents in naturalistic data

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Christensen, Mads Bock; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Várhelyi, András; Laureshyn, Aliaksei; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic studies can potentially be used to detect accidents of vulnerable road users and thus overcome the large degree of under-reporting in the official accident records. In this study, simulated cycling and walking accidents were performed by a stunt man and with a crash test dummy to test how they differ from each other and the potential implications of using simulated accidents as an alternative to real accidents. The study consisted of simulations of common accident types for cycli...

  10. Results of stress tests of European nuclear power plants after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Novakova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the European Council laid down the requirement that a transparent and comprehensive risk assessment exercise ('stress tests') be carried out at each European nuclear power plant. The stress tests concentrated on the nuclear power plants' safety margins in the light of the lessons learned from the accident. The reviews focused on natural external events including earthquake, tsunami and extreme weather, loss of safety functions, and severe accident management. The stress test procedure comprised 3 steps: (i) The nuclear facility operators performed the stress tests and prepared proposals for safety improvements. (ii) The national regulators performed independent reviews of the stress tests and prepared national reports. (iii) The reports submitted by the national regulators were subjected to review at a European level. The article describes the scope of the stress tests and their results, verified at the European level. (orig.)

  11. PWR accident management realated tests: some Bethsy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, P.; Chataing, T.; Deruaz, R.

    1993-01-01

    The BETHSY integral test facility which is a scaled down model of a 3 loop FRAMATOME PWR and is currently operated at the Nuclear Center of Grenoble, forms an important part of the French strategy for PWR Accident Management. In this paper the features of both the facility and the experimental program are presented. Two accident transients: a total loss of feedwater and a 2'' cold leg break in case of High Pressure Safety Injection System failure, involving either Event Oriented - or State Oriented-Emergency Operating Procedures (EO-EOP or SO-EOP) are described and the system response analyzed. CATHARE calculation results are also presented which illustrate the ability of this code to adequately predict the key phenomena of these transients. (authors). 13 figs., 11 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Petri, Maximilian; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is possibly an overlooked diagnosis of victims suffering from traffic accidents sustaining serious to severe injuries. This paper investigates the incidence of PTSD after traffic accidents in Germany. Data from an accident research unit were analyzed in regard to collision details, and preclinical and clinical data. Preclinical data included details on crash circumstances and estimated injury severity as well as data on victims' conditions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, breath rate). Clinical data included initial assessment in the emergency department, radiographic diagnoses, and basic life parameters comparable to the preclinical data as well as follow-up data on the daily ward. Data were collected in the German-In-Depth Accident Research study, and included gender, type of accident (e.g. type of vehicle, road conditions, rural or urban area), mental disorder, and AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) head score. AIS represent a scoring system to measure the injury severity of traffic accident victims. A total 258 out of 32807 data sets were included in this analysis. Data on accident and victims was collected on scene by specialized teams following established algorithms. Besides higher AIS Head scores for male motorcyclists compared to all other subgroups, no significant correlation was found between the mean maximum AIS score and the occurrence of PTSD. Furthermore, there was no correlation between higher AIS head scores, gender, or involvement in road traffic accidents and PTSD. In our study the overall incidence of PTSD after road traffic accidents was very low (0.78% in a total of 32.807 collected data sets) when compared to other published studies. The reason for this very low incidence of PTSD in our patient sample could be seen in an underestimation of the psychophysiological impact of traffic accidents on patients. Patients suffering from direct experiences of traumatic events such as a traffic accident

  13. Experiment on performance of upper head injection system with ROSA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Thermo-hydraulic behavior in the primary cooling system of a pressurized water reactor with an upper head injection system (UHI) in a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been studied with ROSA-II test facility. Simulated UHI and internal structures of the pressure vessel were installed to the facility for the experiment. Nine maximum-sized double-ended break tests and one medium-sized split break test were performed for the cold-leg break condition. The results are as follows: (1) Fluid mixing in the upper head is not perfect. (2) Cold water injection into the steam or two-phase fluid causes violent depressurization due to the condensation. Flow pattern in the primary cooling system is largely influenced by the above two. (auth.)

  14. Tests of qualification of national components of nuclear power plants under design basis accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, A.Z.

    1990-01-01

    With the purpose of qualifying national components of nuclear power plants, whose working must be maintained during and after an accident, the Thermohydraulic Division of CDTN have done tests to check the equipment stability, under Design Basis Accident conditions. Until this moment, the following components were tested: electrical junction boxes (connectors); coating systems for wall, inside cover and steel containment; hydraulics components of personnel and equipment airlock. This work describes the test instalation, the tests performed and its results. The components tested, in a general way, fulfil the specified requirements. (author) [pt

  15. Superheated-steam test of ethylene propylene rubber cables using a simultaneous aging and accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.R.; St Clair, S.D.; Gilmore, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    The superheated-steam test exposed different ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and insulation specimens to simultaneous aging and a 21-day simultaneous accident environment. In addition, some insulation specimens were exposed to five different aging conditions prior to the 21-day simultaneous accident simulation. The purpose of this superheated-steam test (a follow-on to the saturated-steam tests (NUREG/CR-3538)) was to: (1) examine electrical degradation of different configurations of EPR cables; (2) investigate differences between using superheated-steam or saturated-steam at the start of an accident simulation; (3) determine whether the aging technique used in the saturated-steam test induced artificial degradation; and (4) identify the constituents in EPR that affect moisture absorption

  16. Test study on safety features of station blackout accident for nuclear main pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiajie; Wang Dezhong; Zhang Jige; Liu Junsheng; Yang Zhe

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental studies of reactor coolant pump accidents encountered nation-wide and world-wide were described. To investigate the transient hydrodynamic performance of reactor coolant pump (RCP) during the period of rotational inertia in the station blackout accident, some theoretical and experimental studies were carried out, and the analysis of the test results was presented. The experiment parameters, conditions and test methods were introduced. The flow-rate, rotate speed and vibrations were analyzed emphatically. The quadruplicate polynomial curve equation was used to simulate the flow-rate,rotate speed along with time. The test results indicate that the flow-rate and rotator speed decrease rapidly at the very beginning of cut power and the test results accord with the regulation of safety standard. The vibrant displacement of bearing seat is intensified at the moment of lose power, but after a certain period rotor shaft libration changes. The test and analysis results help to understand the hydrodynamic performance of nuclear primary pump under lost of power accident, and provide the basic reference for safety evaluation. (authors)

  17. Introduction to Large-sized Test Facility for validating Containment Integrity under Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seongwan; Hong, Seongho; Min, Beongtae

    2014-01-01

    An overall assessment of containment integrity can be conducted properly by examining the hydrogen behavior in the containment building. Under severe accidents, an amount of hydrogen gases can be generated by metal oxidation and corium-concrete interaction. Hydrogen behavior in the containment building strongly depends on complicated thermal hydraulic conditions with mixed gases and steam. The performance of a PAR can be directly affected by the thermal hydraulic conditions, steam contents, gas mixture behavior and aerosol characteristics, as well as the operation of other engineering safety systems such as a spray. The models in computer codes for a severe accident assessment can be validated based on the experiment results in a large-sized test facility. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is now preparing a large-sized test facility to examine in detail the safety issues related with hydrogen including the performance of safety devices such as a PAR in various severe accident situations. This paper introduces the KAERI test facility for validating the containment integrity under severe accidents. To validate the containment integrity, a large-sized test facility is necessary for simulating complicated phenomena induced by an amount of steam and gases, especially hydrogen released into the containment building under severe accidents. A pressure vessel 9.5 m in height and 3.4 m in diameter was designed at the KAERI test facility for the validating containment integrity, which was based on the THAI test facility with the experimental safety and the reliable measurement systems certified for a long time. This large-sized pressure vessel operated in steam and iodine as a corrosive agent was made by stainless steel 316L because of corrosion resistance for a long operating time, and a vessel was installed in at KAERI in March 2014. In the future, the control systems for temperature and pressure in a vessel will be constructed, and the measurement system

  18. Factors affecting accident severity inside and outside urban areas in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Graham, Daniel; Yannis, George

    2012-09-01

    This research aims to identify and analyze the factors affecting accident severity through a macroscopic analysis, with a focus on the comparison between inside and outside urban areas. Disaggregate road accident data for Greece for the year 2008 were used. Two models were developed, one for inside and one for outside urban areas. Because the dependent variable had 2 categories, killed/severely injured (KSI) and slightly injured (SI), the binary logistic regression analysis was selected. Furthermore, this research aims to estimate the probability of fatality/severe injury versus slight injury as well as to calculate the odds ratios (relative probabilities) for various road accident configurations. The Hosmer and Lemeshow statistic and other diagnostic tests were conducted in order to assess the goodness-of-fit of the model. From the application of the models, it appears that inside urban areas 3 types of collisions (sideswipe, rear-end, with fixed object/parked car), as well as involvement of motorcycles, bicycles, buses, 2 age groups (18-30 and older than 60 years old), time of accident, and location of the accident, seem to affect accident severity. Outside urban areas, 4 types of collisions (head-on, rear-end, side, sideswipe), weather conditions, time of accident, one age group (older than 60 years old), and involvement of motorcycles and buses were found to be significant. Factors affecting road accident severity only inside urban areas include young driver age, bicycles, intersections, and collision with fixed objects, whereas factors affecting severity only outside urban areas are weather conditions and head-on and side collisions, demonstrating the particular road users and traffic situations that should be focused on for road safety interventions for the 2 different types of networks (inside and outside urban areas). The methodology and the results of this research may provide a promising tool to prioritize programs and measures to improve road safety in

  19. Safety against releases in severe accidents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, I.; Berg, Oe.; Nonboel, E.

    1997-12-01

    The work scope of the RAK-2 project has involved research on quantification of the effects of selected severe accident phenomena for Nordic nuclear power plants, development and testing of a computerised accident management support system and data collection and description of various mobile reactors and of different reactor types existing in the UK. The investigations of severe accident phenomena focused mainly on in-vessel melt progression, covering a numerical assessment of coolability of a degraded BWR core, the possibility and consequences of a BWR reactor to become critical during reflooding and the core melt behavior in the reactor vessel lower plenum. Simulant experiments were carried out to investigate lower head hole ablation induced by debris discharge. In addition to the in-vessel phenomena, a limited study on containment response to high pressure melt ejection in a BWR and a comparative study on fission product source term behaviour in a Swedish PWR were performed. An existing computerised accident management support system (CAMS) was further developed in the area of tracking and predictive simulation, signal validation, state identification and user interface. The first version of a probabilistic safety analysis module was developed and implemented in the system. CAMS was tested in practice with Barsebaeck data in a safety exercise with the Swedish nuclear authority. The descriptions of the key features of British reactor types, AGR, Magnox, FBR and PWR were published as data reports. Separate reports were issued also on accidents in nuclear ships and on description of key features of satellite reactors. The collected data were implemented in a common Nordic database. (au)

  20. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 2 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA simulations of water landing impacts. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. EWIT Phase 2 featured a 36-inch aluminum tank head. The tank head was outfitted with one accelerometer, twelve pressure transducers, three string potentiometers, and four strain gages. The tank head was dropped from heights of 1 foot and 2 feet. The focus of this report is the correlation of analytical models against test data. As a measure of prediction accuracy, peak responses from the baseline LS-DYNA model were compared to peak responses from the tests.

  1. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  2. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Kantzos, Pete T.

    2006-01-01

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 W Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  3. Development of CHF models for inner and outer RPV gaps in a meltdown severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Tian, W.X.; Feng, K.; Yu, H.X.; Zhang, Y.P.; Su, G.H.; Qiu, S.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A CHF model was developed to predict the CHF in hemispherical narrow gap. • The computed result was validated by the test data of Park and Köhler. • An analytical CHF model was developed to predict the CHF on the outer surface of the lower head. • The predicted CHF was compared with the experimental data of ULPU-V. • Two CHF models developed for the inner and outer CHF predict the CHF well. - Abstract: During a severe accident, the core melt relocates in the lower head and a hemispherical narrow gap may appear between the crust and the lower head because of the different material expansion ratio. The existence of this gap is very important to the integrity of the lower head. Based on the counter current flow limitation (CCFL) between the vapor phase and the liquid phase, a CHF model was developed to predict the CHF in hemispherical narrow gap. The CHF model developed was validated by the test data of Park and Köhler. The effect of key parameters, including the system pressure, radius of melt, and gap size, on the CHF were investigated. And the TMI-2 accident was also calculated by using the CHF formula. Moreover, based on the interface separation model, an analytical CHF model was developed to predict the CHF on the outer surface of the lower head. The predicted CHF was compared with the experimental data of ULPU-V. It indicated that the CHF models developed for the inner and outer CHF could predict the CHF well

  4. Recent trends of severe head injury in Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank with special reference to road traffic accident. Comparison of clinical features and outcome between Project 1998 and Project 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Junichi; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Kawamata, Tatsuro; Tokutomi, Takashi; Ogawa, Takeki; Shigemori, Minoru; Yamaura, Akira; Nakamura, Norio

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the recent trends of severe head injury in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank (JNTDB) with special reference to traffic accident. In the JNTDB, the number of severely head-injured patients (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less) were 832 in Project 1998 and 797 in Project 2004. Those were divided into 2 groups: traffic accident (TA) group, and non-TA (nTA) group. In addition, the former group was classified into 4 groups: 4 wheel vehicle (4WV) group, motorcycle (MC) group, bicycle (BC) group, and pedestrian (P) group. Analyzed here were cause of injury, age distribution, incidence of alcohol intake, means of transportation, clinical severity (GCS and injury severity score), initial CT findings (Traumatic Coma Data Bank), and outcome at discharge (Glasgow Outcome Scale). In the Project 2004; Traffic accident was less common as the cause of injury. The proportion of younger patients was lower in the TA group, especially in the 4WV and MC groups. Incidence of alcohol intake was lower in the TA group, particularly in the MC groups. Patient transfer by helicopter was more common in both the TA and nTA groups. The proportion of GCS of 3 to 5 was lower in the TA group, especially in the MC group. In the initial CT findings, type 3 of diffuse injury and evacuated mass were less frequent in both groups, and in the 4WV, BC, and P groups. Outcome at discharge: Mortality rate was lower in both groups, and in the 4WV, MC and P groups, but the percentage of good outcomes was unchanged. These results indicated the recent trends of severely head-injured patients who were injured by traffic accident. But there were some problems, such as study protocol and meaningless results, so that further verification is indispensable in the JNTDB study. (author)

  5. The importance of rotational kinematics in pedestrian head to windshield impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mordaka, J.; Kleiven, S.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Lange, R. de; Casanova, L.J.G.; Carter, E.L.; Holst, H. von

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of angular kinematics on head injury in pedestrian head-to-windshield impacts. Three cases of pedestrian head impacts were simulated with FE head and windshield models. The initial impact conditions were obtained from pedestrian accident

  6. Evaluation of the effects of the radial constant-head boundary in slug tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yunfeng; Zhou, Zhifang; Zhao, Yanrong; Cui, Ziteng

    2015-03-01

    A semianalytical model of slug tests, conducted in a completely penetrating well within a radial constant-head boundary, was derived. The model, based on the Cooper et al. (1967) model, estimates the hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient through the matching of type curves. Type curves of the semianalytical solution were plotted, and the effect of the distance of the radial constant-head boundary is discussed. For different storage coefficients, the critical distances of the effect of the constant-head boundary were determined. The effect of the storage coefficient on the response of the water head in slug tests with a radial constant-head boundary of a certain distance is also shown. To verify the model, laboratory slug-test experiments were carried out using a cylindrical test platform, in which an artificial confined coarse-sand aquifer was built. Pumping tests were also executed using the test platform. The Cooper et al. (1967) model and new semianalytical model were used to analyze measurements; the hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient determined using the two methods were compared to demonstrate the importance of the radial constant-head boundary. A model considering the inertial effect was also used to analyze the slug-test measurements, and although the water head response did not oscillate greatly, the inertial effect affected the slug-test calculation result. The laboratory experiments indicate that the proposed semianalytical model is reasonable and reliable. Cooper HH, Bredehoeft JD, Papadopulos IS (1967) Response of a finite-diameter well to an instantaneous charge of water, Water Resour Res 3(1):263-269.

  7. Experiment data report for Test RIA 1-2 (Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, C.L.; White, C.E.; Evans, R.P.

    1979-06-01

    Recorded test data are presented for the second of six planned tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series I, Test RIA 1-2. This test, conducted at the Power Burst Facility, had the following objectives: (1) characterize the response of preirradiated fuel rods during an RIA event conducted at boiling water reactor hot-startup conditions; and (2) evaluate the effect of rod internal pressure on preirradiated fuel rod response during an RIA event. The data from Test RIA 1-2 are graphed in engineering units and have been appraised for quality and validity. These uninterpreted data are presented for use in the nuclear fuel behavior research field before detailed analysis and interpretation have been completed

  8. Severe accident tests and development of domestic severe accident system codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    According to lessons learned from Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, the safety evaluation will be started based on the NRA's New Safety Standards. In parallel with this movement, reinforcement of Severe Accident (SA) Measures and Accident Managements (AMs) has been undertaken and establishments of relevant regulations and standards are recognized as urgent subjects. Strengthening responses against nuclear plant hazards, as well as realistic protection measures and their standardization is also recognized as urgent subjects. Furthermore, decommissioning of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit1 through Unit4 is promoted diligently. Taking into account JNES's mission with regard to these SA Measures, AMs and decommissioning, movement of improving SA evaluation methodologies inside and outside Japan, and prioritization of subjects based on analyses of sequences of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, three viewpoints was extracted. These viewpoints were substantiated as the following three groups of R and D subjects: (1) Obtaining near term experimental subjects: Containment venting, Seawater injection, Iodine behaviors. (2) Obtaining mid and long experimental subjects: Fuel damage behavior at early phase of core degradation, Core melting and debris formation. (3) Development of a macroscopic level SA code for plant system behaviors and a mechanistic level code for core melting and debris formation. (author)

  9. Severe accident tests and development of domestic severe accident system codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    According to lessons learned from Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, the safety evaluation will be started based on the NRA's New Safety Standards. In parallel with this movement, reinforcement of Severe Accident (SA) Measures and Accident Managements (AMs) has been undertaken and establishments of relevant regulations and standards are recognized as urgent subjects. Strengthening responses against nuclear plant hazards, as well as realistic protection measures and their standardization is also recognized as urgent subjects. Furthermore, decommissioning of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit1 through Unit4 is promoted diligently. Taking into account JNES's mission with regard to these SA Measures, AMs and decommissioning, movement of improving SA evaluation methodologies inside and outside Japan, and prioritization of subjects based on analyses of sequences of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, three viewpoints was extracted. These viewpoints were substantiated as the following three groups of R and D subjects: (1) Obtaining near term experimental subjects: Containment venting, Seawater injection, Iodine behaviors. (2) Obtaining mid and long experimental subjects: Fuel damage behavior at early phase of core degradation, Core melting and debris formation. (3) Development of a macroscopic level SA code for plant system behaviors and a mechanistic level code for core melting and debris formation. (author)

  10. Aging, Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), and high potential testing of damaged cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, R.A.; Jacobus, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of high potential testing of cables and to assess the survivability of aged and damaged cables under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. High potential testing at 240 Vdc/mil on undamaged cables suggested that no damage was incurred on the selected virgin cables. During aging and LOCA testing, Okonite ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables with a bonded jacket experienced unexpected failures. The failures appear to be primarily related to the level of thermal aging and the presence of a bonded jacket that ages more rapidly than the insulation. For Brand Rex crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cables, the results suggest that 7 mils of insulation remaining should give the cables a high probability of surviving accident exposure following aging. The voltage necessary to detect when 7 mils of insulation remain on unaged Brand Rex cables is approximately 35 kVdc. This voltage level would almost certainly be unacceptable to a utility for use as a damage assessment tool. However, additional tests indicated that a 35 kvdc voltage application would not damage virgin Brand Rex cables when tested in water. Although two damaged Rockbestos silicone rubber cables also failed during the accident test, no correlation between failures and level of damage was apparent

  11. Computerised tomographic patterns in patients with head injury at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... The clinical severity of head injury is classified based on ... head injury include road traffic accidents (RTA), assaults, ... information in the management of patients with head ... Materials and Methods ... The right cerebral hemisphere was involved in 13 cases .... Nerve palsies – 3rd, 5th, 6th cranial nerves. 3.

  12. NKS/RAK-2. Protection against radioactive release in reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, I.

    1995-01-01

    The work scope of RAK-2 project is divided into three subprojects: 1. Severe accident phenomenology. 2. Computerized accident management. 3. Reactors in Nordic surroundings. All three subprojects are ongoing. The project work on three subareas is in general progressing according to the time schedule and budget. The construction of melt jet breakup test facility at Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan (KTH) has been delayed due to complexity of the test arrangement and due to meeting the necessary safety requirements connected to tests mixing water and high temperature melts. Because of the delay in melt jet break up tests a slight redirection of the KTH work for NKS was taken. The present KTH work concentrates on theoretical studies of melt pool behavior in the lower head and on theoretical/experimental studies on core melt discharge from the pressure vessel failure. It is expected that single drop melt-water interaction experiments to study the thermal fragmentation phenomenon will begin in very early 1996. The recriticality studies are well underway, but the work is proposed to continue in 1996 to get more analyses carried out. (au)

  13. Experimental tests on buckling of ellipsoidal vessel heads under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alix, Michel; Roche, Roland.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen heads made out of metal sheets -by cold working- were tested. Three different metals were used - carbon steel, austenitic steel, and aluminium alloy. Nominal dimensions were: diameter D 500 mm height H 50 and 100 mm thickness to diameter ratio t/D in the range 0.001-0.005. The heads had a good axisymmetric shape, but that the thickness was varying along the ellipse. Material characteristic of each head was given by a tensile test (strain-stress curve). The obtained results are mainly the pressure deflexion recordings, strain measurements and visual observations of the geometrical changes. For thin heads, buckling is a very fast event and the first folding occurs sudently, with a strong perturbation on the pressure-deflexion curve. For the thickest heads, circular waves are slowly forming. In all of these tests, yielding occured before buckling and it was possible to increase the pressure beyond the first buckling pressure without failure. The experimental results agree very well (+-5% except one head) with the empirical formula Psub(c)=70000.(sigma y+sigma u/2)(t/D)sup(5/3)((D/H) 2 -8)sup(-2/3). The following notations being used: Psub(c): critical buckling pressure; sigma y: yield strength; sigma u: ultimate stress (same unit); t: knuckle thickness; D: mean diameter; H: height (same unit) [fr

  14. Evaluation of Head Trauma Cases in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Cokuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics, morbidity and mortality rates of patients admitted to the emergency department with head trauma. Material and Methods: In this study, ambulatory and hospitalized patients over the age of 18 brought to the Emergency Department because of head trauma between 01.12.2009 - 31.12.2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Patient data were recorded to standard data entry form. SPSS 17.0 package program was used for statistical analysis of data. The statistical significance level of all tests was p <0.05. Results: 5200 patients were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 39.97 ± 16.66 years. 4682'si patients (90 % were discharged from the emergency department. The most common reason for admission to the emergency department was falls (41.81 % in the discharged patients. 518 (10 % patients were hospitalized. Gender of these patients was 110 female (21:24% and 408 male (78.76%. 256 patients (48.35% were injured as a result of a traffic accident. 201(38.8% of the cerebral CT were reported as normal and 89 (17.2% of the cerebral CT were reported as traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in hospitalized patients. The fracture of lumbar spine (12 % was detected as an additional pathological disease in patients. 75 patients hospitalized because of head trauma (14.5% had died (1.44 % of all patients. Cervical spine fracture was the most common (14 patients, 18.68 % additional pathology in patients who died. Thoracic trauma was detected as the second most common (13 patients, 17.33 % additional pathology. Conclusion: Most of the patients admitted to the emergency department with head injury had a minor trauma. Patients can be discharged from the emergency department after a thorough physical examination and simple medical intervention. Most of the head injury patients admitted to hospital were male. The most common reason of the patients with head injury admitted to

  15. Safety against releases in severe accidents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, I.; Berg, Oe.; Nonboel, E. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The work scope of the RAK-2 project has involved research on quantification of the effects of selected severe accident phenomena for Nordic nuclear power plants, development and testing of a computerised accident management support system and data collection and description of various mobile reactors and of different reactor types existing in the UK. The investigations of severe accident phenomena focused mainly on in-vessel melt progression, covering a numerical assessment of coolability of a degraded BWR core, the possibility and consequences of a BWR reactor to become critical during reflooding and the core melt behavior in the reactor vessel lower plenum. Simulant experiments were carried out to investigate lower head hole ablation induced by debris discharge. In addition to the in-vessel phenomena, a limited study on containment response to high pressure melt ejection in a BWR and a comparative study on fission product source term behaviour in a Swedish PWR were performed. An existing computerised accident management support system (CAMS) was further developed in the area of tracking and predictive simulation, signal validation, state identification and user interface. The first version of a probabilistic safety analysis module was developed and implemented in the system. CAMS was tested in practice with Barsebaeck data in a safety exercise with the Swedish nuclear authority. The descriptions of the key features of British reactor types, AGR, Magnox, FBR and PWR were published as data reports. Separate reports were issued also on accidents in nuclear ships and on description of key features of satellite reactors. The collected data were implemented in a common Nordic database. (au) 39 refs.

  16. Mechanical properties and examination of cracking in TMI-2 pressure vessel lower head material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    Mechanical tests have been conducted on material from 15 samples removed from the lower head of the Three Mile Island unit 2 nuclear reactor pressure vessel. Measured properties include tensile properties and hardness profiles at room temperature, tensile and creep properties at temperatures of 600 to 1200 degrees C, and Charpy V-notch impact properties at -20 to +300 degrees C. These data, which were used in the subsequent analyses of the margin-to-failure of the lower head during the accident, are presented here. In addition, the results of metallographic and scanning electron microscope examinations of cladding cracking in three of the lower head samples are discussed

  17. Study on severe accident induced by large break loss of coolant accident for pressureized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longfei; Zhang Dafa; Wang Shaoming

    2007-01-01

    Using the best estimate computer code SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 and taking US Westinghouse corporation Surry nuclear power plant as the reference object, a typical three-loop pressurized water reactor severe accident calculation model was established and 25 cm large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) in cold and hot leg of primary loop induced core melt accident was analyzed. The calculated results show that core melt progression is fast and most of the core material melt and relocated to the lower plenum. The lower head of reactor pressure vessel failed at an early time and the cold leg break is more severe than the hot leg break in primary loop during LBLOCA. (authors)

  18. A comparative analysis of reactor lower head debris cooling models employed in the existing severe accident analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.I.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.

    1998-08-01

    MELCOR and MAAP4 are the representative severe accident analysis codes which have been developed for the integral analysis of the phenomenological reactor lower head corium cooling behavior. Main objectives of the present study is to identify merits and disadvantages of each relevant model through the comparative analysis of the lower plenum corium cooling models employed in these two codes. The final results will be utilized for the development of LILAC phenomenological models and for the continuous improvement of the existing MELCOR reactor lower head models, which are currently being performed at the KAERI. For these purposes, first, nine reference models are selected featuring the lower head corium behavior based on the existing experimental evidences and related models. Then main features of the selected models have been critically analyzed, and finally merits and disadvantages of each corresponding model have been summarized in the view point of realistic corium behavior and reasonable modeling. Being on these evidences, summarized and presented the potential improvements for developing more advanced models. The present study has been focused on the qualitative comparison of each model and so more detailed quantitative analysis is strongly required to obtain the final conclusions for their merits and disadvantages. In addition, in order to compensate the limitations of the current model, required further studies relating closely the detailed mechanistic models with the molten material movement and heat transfer based on phase-change in the porous medium, to the existing simple models. (author). 36 refs

  19. Reactor accidents and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.R.; Griffiths, R.F.; Kaiser, G.D.; Kinchin, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    This is a condensed version of a paper, entitled 'The Environmental Impact of Radioactive Releases from Accidents in Nuclear Power Reactors', by the authors, presented to the Nuclear Energy Panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency/United Nations Environmental Programme. Headings include - Effects of ionising radiation on man; number of deaths expected from leukaemia and other cancers; risk estimates for incidence of benign nodules and thyroid cancer; maximum permissible levels and emergency levels of radiation and radioactivity; ICRP recommended dose limits for members of the general public; atmospheric dispersion and modelling; ICRP emergency reference levels for 1 131 , Cs 137 , Ru 106 and Sr 90 ; environmental consequences of accidental releases from nuclear power reactors; environmental impact of accidents to Magnox gas-cooled reactors; environmental impact of accidents to advanced gas-cooled reactors; environmental impact of accidents to fast reactors; and nature of risks. consequences are examined in terms of early and late biological effects on man, and contamination of land areas. Serious accidents are of low probability of occurrence, and the risk of accidents to nuclear power reactors is estimated to be very small. 43 references. (U.K.)

  20. Analysis of constant-head well tests in nonporous fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.; Remer, J.

    1981-01-01

    If one compares the results of steady analyses and transient flowrate analyses, the error in assuming steady flow is less than an order of magnitude for reasonable values of storativity, and this error can be minimized through proper choice of radius of influence. Although the steady flow assumptions do not result in large errors in the calculation of permeability, careful design of constant-head well tests can yield not only storativity, but also qualitative information on the areal extent of permeable zones or fractures tested. Constant-head well tests have several major advantages over other well test techniques in low permeability rock. Unlike pump tests, wellbore storage effects are virtually nonexistant. Provided low-flow measurement apparatus is available, constant-level tests are far more rapid than slug tests and, unlike pulse tests, compliance of equipment is not a factor, since the system is maintained at constant pressure throughout the test

  1. SWR 1000 severe accident control through in-vessel melt retention by external RPV cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, N.I. [Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power, NDSI, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power is being designing a new generation NPP with boiling water reactor SWR1000. Besides of various of modern passive and active safety features the system is also designed for controlling of a postulated severe accident with extreme low probability of occurrence. This work presents the rationales behind the decision to select the external cooling as a safety management strategy during severe accident. Bounding scenery are analyzed regarding the core melting, melt-water interaction during relocation of the melt from the core region into the lower head and the external coolability of the lower head. The conclusion is reached that the external cooling for the SWR1000 is a valuable strategy for accident management during postulated severe accidents. (authors)

  2. SWR 1000 severe accident control through in-vessel melt retention by external RPV cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power is being designing a new generation NPP with boiling water reactor SWR1000. Besides of various of modern passive and active safety features the system is also designed for controlling of a postulated severe accident with extreme low probability of occurrence. This work presents the rationales behind the decision to select the external cooling as a safety management strategy during severe accident. Bounding scenery are analyzed regarding the core melting, melt-water interaction during relocation of the melt from the core region into the lower head and the external coolability of the lower head. The conclusion is reached that the external cooling for the SWR1000 is a valuable strategy for accident management during postulated severe accidents. (authors)

  3. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of class 1E electrical cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of miscellaneous cable types. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal (≅100 degrees C) and radiation (≅0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. A sequential accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation (≅6 kGy/hr) and high temperature steam followed the aging. Also exposed to the accident conditions was a fourth set of cables, which were unaged. The test results indicate that, properly installed, most of the various miscellaneous cable products tested should be able to survive an accident after 60 years for total aging doses of at least 150 kGy or higher (depending on the material) and for moderate ambient temperatures on the order of 45--55 degrees C (potentially higher or lower, depending on material specific activtion energies and total radiation doses). Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation

  4. Comparison of interior crashworthiness observed in passenger train accidents and 8G dynamic seat sled tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration conducts engineering research to address protection of passengers and crew during train accidents. This research includes accident investigations and dynamic seat testing t...

  5. Football helmet drop tests on different fields using an instrumented Hybrid III head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Withnall, Chris; Wonnacott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An instrumented Hybrid III head was placed in a Schutt ION 4D football helmet and dropped on different turfs to study field types and temperature on head responses. The head was dropped 0.91 and 1.83 m giving impacts of 4.2 and 6.0 m/s on nine different football fields (natural, Astroplay, Fieldturf, or Gameday turfs) at turf temperatures of -2.7 to 23.9 °C. Six repeat tests were conducted for each surface at 0.3 m (1') intervals. The Hybrid III was instrumented with triaxial accelerometers to determine head responses for the different playing surfaces. For the 0.91-m drops, peak head acceleration varied from 63.3 to 117.1 g and HIC(15) from 195 to 478 with the different playing surfaces. The lowest response was with Astroplay, followed by the engineered natural turf. Gameday and Fieldturf involved higher responses. The differences between surfaces decreased in the 1.83 m tests. The cold weather testing involved higher accelerations, HIC(15) and delta V for each surface. The helmet drop test used in this study provides a simple and convenient means of evaluating the compliance and energy absorption of football playing surfaces. The type and temperature of the playing surface influence head responses.

  6. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134 Cs and 137 Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134 Cs and 137 Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident

  7. Road accidents involving bicycles: configurations and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzed the most common types of accident involving bicycles and compared the frequency of injuries. The data source was the database of German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Cases consist of bicycles and their riders involved in accidents between 2000 and 2010. In most collisions, the bicycle impacted with a car. The percentage of injured bicyclists was higher in collisions with a heavy vehicle and decreased when the bicycle impacted with lighter vehicles. A high percentage of injured bicyclists in single accidents was observed; the most severe injury was more frequently to head and extremities. Accidents involving a car and a bicycle with the right of way in a bicycle path represented about 20% of involved and injured bicyclists. The ten most frequent configurations represented about 60% of involved and injured bicyclists. These results contribute to understand the dangerous scenarios for bicyclists and to suggest preventive actions.

  8. Secondary school accident reporting in one education authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W R; Latif, A H A; Sibert, J

    2002-01-01

    Secondary schools appear to have very different accident rates when they are compared on the basis of accident report returns. The variation may be as a result of real differences in accident rates or different reporting procedures. This study investigates accident reporting from secondary schools and, in particular, the role of the school nurse. Accident form returns covering a 2-year period were collected for statistical analysis from 13 comprehensive schools in one local education authority in Wales. School sites were visited in the following school year to obtain information about accident records held on site and accident reporting procedures. The main factors determining the number of school accident reports submitted to the education authority relate to differences in recording and reporting procedures, such as the employment of a nurse and the policy of the head teacher/safety officer on submitting accident returns. Accident and emergency department referrals from similar schools may show significant differences in specific injuries and their causes. The level of school accident activity cannot be gauged from reports submitted to the education authority. Lack of incentives for collecting good accident data, in conjunction with the degree of complacency in the current system, suggest that future accident rates and reporting activity are unlikely to change.

  9. SPACE code simulation of ATLAS DVI line break accident test (SB DVI 08 Test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Gyu [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    APR1400 has adopted new safety design features which are 4 mechanically independent DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) systems and fluidic device in the safety injection tanks (SITs). Hence, DVI line break accident has to be evaluated as one of the small break LOCA (SBLOCA) to ensure the safety of APR1400. KAERI has been performed for DVI line break test (SB DVI 08) using ATLAS (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) facility which is an integral effect test facility for APR1400. The test result shows that the core collapsed water level decreased before a loop seal clearance, so that a core uncover occurred. At this time, the peak cladding temperature (PCT) is rapidly increased even though the emergency core cooling (ECC) water is injected from safety injection pump (SIP). This test result is useful for supporting safety analysis using thermal hydraulic safety analysis code and increases the understanding of SBLOCA phenomena in APR1400. The SBLOCA evaluation methodology for APR1400 is now being developed using SPACE code. The object of the development of this methodology is to set up a conservative evaluation methodology in accordance with appendix K of 10 CFR 50. ATLAS SB DVI 08 test is selected for the evaluation of SBLOCA methodology using SPACE code. Before applying the conservative models and correlations, benchmark calculation of the test is performed with the best estimate models and correlations to verify SPACE code capability. This paper deals with benchmark calculations results of ATLAS SB DVI 08 test. Calculation results of the major hydraulics variables are compared with measured data. Finally, this paper carries out the SPACE code performances for simulating the integral effect test of SBLOCA.

  10. [Theory and testing of an accident risk assessment system based on prior experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montresor, Michele; Ricci, Paolo; Giroletti, Elio

    2015-01-01

    to improve the "National Project: Integrated investigations for an indepth analysis of cases of Fatal Accidents", a project which, on one hand, is too open to interpretation of events, while, on the other, does not offer the possibility to analyse external factors which are often at the basis of accidents in the workplace. identification and weighting criteria regarding causes of accident have been established and correlated by means of a specific algorithm, with the aim of making them numerically measurable. This has made it possible to use them as indicators to identify lines of priority in prevention planning. The theoretical model has been tested in an analysis of 35 work accidents which occurred in a firm in Mantova. the model has been evaluated in comparison to the analysis which was previously used to examine cases of work-related accidents and it has proved to be more efficient in the move towards establishing preventative action at the beginning of a chain of events. While maintaining the "Learning from mistakes" model, the method here proposed represents an extension and an implementation of previous practices. It is an effective operative method for companies, offering both a qualitative and quantitative analysis of work-related accidents with a view to their prevention.

  11. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4 fuel behavior report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Martinson, Z.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents and discusses results from the final test in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series, Test RIA 1-4, conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Nine preirradiated fuel rods in a 3 x 3 bundle configuration were subjected to a power burst while at boiling water reactor hot-startup system conditions. The test resulted in estimated axial peak, radial average fuel enthalpies of 234 cal/g UO 2 on the center rod, 255 cal/g UO 2 on the side rods, and 277 cal/g UO 2 on the corner rods. Test RIA 1-4 was conducted to investigate fuel coolability and channel blockage within a bundle of preirradiated rods near the present enthalpy limit of 280 cal/g UO 2 established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The test design and conduct are described, and the bundle and individual rod thermal and mechanical responses are evaluated. Conclusions from this final test and the entire PBF RIA Test Series are presented

  12. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

  13. Experimental tests on buckling of ellipsoidal vessel heads subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Alix, M.

    1980-05-01

    Tests were performed on 17 ellipsoidal vessel heads of three different materials and different geometries. The results include the following: 1) Accurate definition of the geometry and particularly a direct measurement of the thickness along the meridian. 2) The properties of the material of each head, obtained from test specimens cut from the head itself after the test. 3) The recording of deflection/pressure curves with indication of the pressure at which buckling occurred. These results can be used for validation and qualification of methods for calculating the buckling load when plasticity occurs before buckling. It was possible to develop an empirical equation representing the experimental results obtained with satisfactory accuracy. This equation may be useful in pressure vessel design

  14. Structural and containment response to LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Fistedis, S.H.; Baker, L. Jr.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Peak, R.D.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of current developments in analysing the response of reactor structures and containment to LMFBR accidents are presented. The current status of analysis of the structural response of LMFBR's to core disruptive accidents, including head response, potential missile generation and the effects of internal structures are presented. The results of recent experiments to help clarify the thermal response of reactor structures to molten core debris are summarized, including the use of this data to calculate the response of the secondary containment. (author)

  15. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    accident is very hazardous. If the operator initiates F and B operation properly under the combined accident including TLOFW accident, the operators can prevent the core damage. Since F and B operation is last resort to prevent core damage and necessary conditions of F and B operation are very complicated, the consequence of these events should be considered in PSA model to improve emergency response capabilities under the rare events. Dynamic PSA modeling is better to estimate the effects of heading order and timing issues. Especially, dynamic PSA can model accident sequences and estimate their probabilities through integrated, time-dependent, probabilistic and deterministic models of NPPs, based on the thermal-hydraulic processes and operator behavior in accident conditions. We will develop the dynamic PSA model for the combined accident including TLOFW accident in the further study.

  16. Debris interactions in reactor vessel lower plena during a severe accident. II. Integral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.; Henry, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.147-63, 1996. The integral physico-numerical model for the reactor vessel lower head response has been exercised for the TMI-2 accident and possible severe accident scenarios in PWR and BWR designs. The proposed inherent cooling mechanism of the reactor material creep and subsequent water ingression implemented in this predictive model provides a consistent representation of how the debris was finally cooled in the TMI-2 accident and how the reactor lower head integrity was maintained during the course of the incident. It should be recalled that in order for this strain to occur, the vessel lower head had to achieve temperatures in excess of 1000 C. This is certainly in agreement with the temperatures determined by metallographic examinations during the TMI-2 vessel inspection program. The integral model was also applied to typical PWR and BWR lower plena with and without structures under pressurized conditions spanning the first relocation of core material to the reactor vessel failure due to creep without recovery actions. The design application results are presented with particular attention being focused on water ingression into the debris bed through the gap formed between the debris and the vessel wall. As an illustration of the accident management application, the lower plenum with structures was recovered after an extensive amount of creep had damaged the vessel wall. The computed lower head temperatures were found to be significantly lower (by more than 300 K in this particular example) with recovery relative to the case without recovery. This clearly demonstrates the potential for in-vessel cooling of the reactor vessel without a need to externally submerge the lower head should such a severe accident occur as core melting and relocation. (orig.)

  17. Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran: a com-munity-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To identify the main character-istics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in Iran from March 2009 to June 2010. We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents. Data were recorded from the foren-sic medicine registry consisting of demographic and acci-dent-related information. Demographic information con-sisted of name, age, sex, status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger and educational level. Results: Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the foren-sic medicine archives, 542 (23.1% gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents. Mean age of these victims was (31.4±16.5 years, and the male to female ratio was 28. Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims, and overall they tended to have a low level of education. Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years, and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied. This situation may be related to the victims’ low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Motorcycles; Iran

  18. Biomechanical analysis of protective countermeasures in underride motor vehicle accidents - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sri; Enz, Bruce; Ponder, Perry L; Anderson, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Traffic safety has been significantly improved over the past several decades reducing injury and fatality rates. However, there is a paucity of research effort to address the safety issues in underride accidents, specifically the side underride crashes. It is well known that the compromise of occupant space in the vehicle leads to a higher probability of serious or fatal injuries. A better understanding of occupant protection and mechanism of injuries involved in side underride accidents assists in the advancement of safety measures. The present work evaluates the injury potential to occupants during side underride crashes using the car-to-trailer crash methodology. Four crash tests were conducted into the side of a stationary trailer fitted with the side underride guard system (SURG). The SURG used in these tests is 25% lighter than the previous design. A 5th percentile hybrid III female dummy was placed in the driver seat and restrained with the three-point lap and shoulder harness. The anthropometric dummy was instrumented with a head triaxial accelerometer, a chest triaxal accelerometer, a load cell to measure neck force and moment, and a load cell to measure the femur force. The vehicle acceleration was measured using a traxial accelerometer in the rear center tunnel. High speed, standard video and still photos were taken. In all tests, the intrusion was limited to the front structure of the vehicle without any significant compromise to the occupant space. Results indicate that the resultant head and chest accelerations, head injury criterion (HIC), neck force and moment, and femur force were well below the injury tolerance. The present findings support the hypothesis that the SURG not only limits or eliminates the intrusion into the occupant space but also results in biomechanical injury values well below the tolerance limit in motor vehicle crashes.

  19. THE ROAD ACCIDENT FUND AND SERIOUS INJURIES: THE NARRATIVE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Slabbert

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Road Accident Fund Amendment Act 19 of 2005 came into effect on 1 August 2008. This Act limits the Road Accident Fund’s liability for compensation in respect of claims for non-pecuniary loss to instances where a “serious injury” has been sustained. A medical practitioner has to determine whether or not the claimant has suffered a serious injury by undertaking an assessment prescribed in the Regulations to the Act. The practitioner has to complete a RAF 4 report. In doing so the practitioner must assess the injury in terms of the American Medical Association’s Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment (6th ed. If the injury is considered to have resulted in less than 30 per cent of the whole person impairment the medical practitioner should apply the narrative test. The article focuses on the narrative test but also discusses reasons why the regulations do not fulfil the requirements of the Act; reasons why the Guides is not adequate to the task; the impact of the circumstances of an injured person on disability; problems with the existing wording of the narrative test; shortcomings on the RAf 4 form; the administrative process as well as the appeal tribunals.

  20. A Basic Study on the Failure of Lower Head of Nuclear Reactor Vessel by Molten Core in Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jongrea; Bang, Kwanghyun; Bae, Jihoon; Kim, Changsung; Jeon, Jongwon

    2013-01-01

    This paper is analyzed by transient analysis for eight hours. Thermal conditions were carried out to interpret the data obtained from the existing experiment, and the pressures analyses were conducted considering pressure drop by applying the 1MPa. According to the analysis, a portion of the nozzle and the head is soluble, while nozzles and heads were not separated. This structural analysis has a comparative analysis of strain and displacement due to the existence of creep. Without the creep effect, strain shows 2.7% in 2D model and 4.6 % in 3D model. And, strain shows 2.9% in 2D model and 4.7 % in 3D model, in creep effect condition. Both case is satisfied to allowable strain. When comparing both analyses about creep effect, strain differences are 0.2% in 2D model and 0.1% in 3D model. Thus, it can be seen that in these analyses, the effect that creep has is minor. The purpose of this study is to develop the analysis techniques of the reactor vessel lower head under in-vessel pressure loads and thermal loads in severe accident. First, the temperature distribution in accordance with time using the thermal loads imposed on the lower head inner wall for simplified 2D model and 3D model respectively was analyzed. Second, the pressure applied on the lower head inner wall, was calculated by using the simplified 2D model and 3D model respectively. And The results of the analysis are indicated by equivalent von-mises stress and sum of the displacement, respectively. Third, the creep model and parameters used in the calculation were selected as well as the curve fitting of the experimental creep data. The plastic strain is the major cause of failure of the reactor pressure vessel. However, it can be calculated in this study that creep is not an important factor of failure of the reactor pressure vessel given the above mechanical and thermal loads

  1. [Accidents in equestrian sports : Analysis of injury mechanisms and patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, C; Schulte-Sutum, A; Zeckey, C; Winkelmann, M; Krettek, C; Mommsen, P

    2017-02-01

    Equestrian sports are one of the most popular forms of sport in Germany, while also being one of the most accident-prone sports. Furthermore, riding accidents are frequently associated with a high degree of severity of injuries and mortality. Nevertheless, there are insufficient data regarding incidences, demographics, mechanisms of accidents, injury severity and patterns and outcome of injured persons in amateur equestrian sports. Accordingly, it was the aim of the present study to retrospectively analyze these aspects. A total of 503 patients were treated in the emergency room of the Hannover Medical School because of an accident during recreational horse riding between 2006 and 2011. The female gender was predominantly affected with 89.5 %. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 ± 14.9 years and women (24.5 ± 12.5 years) were on average younger than men (40.2 ± 23.9 years). A special risk group was girls and young women aged between 10 and 39 years. The overall injury severity was measured using the injury severity score (ISS). Based on the total population, head injuries were the most common location of injuries with 17.3 % followed by injuries to the upper extremities with 15.2 % and the thoracic and lumbar spine with 10.9 %. The three most common injury locations after falling from a horse were the head (17.5 %), the upper extremities (17.4 %), the thoracic and lumbar spine (12.9 %). The most frequent injuries while handling horses were foot injuries (17.2 %), followed by head (16.6 %) and mid-facial injuries (15.0 %). With respect to the mechanism of injury accidents while riding were predominant (74 %), while accidents when handling horses accounted for only 26 %. The median ISS was 9.8 points. The proportion of multiple trauma patients (ISS > 16) was 18.1 %. Based on the total sample, the average in-hospital patient stay was 5.3 ± 5.4 days with a significantly higher proportion of hospitalized patients in the

  2. Benchmark Calibration Tests Completed for Stirling Convertor Heater Head Life Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Halford, Gary R.; Bowman, Randy R.

    2005-01-01

    A major phase of benchmark testing has been completed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/), where a critical component of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is undergoing extensive experimentation to aid the development of an analytical life-prediction methodology. Two special-purpose test rigs subjected SRG heater-head pressure-vessel test articles to accelerated creep conditions, using the standard design temperatures to stay within the wall material s operating creep-response regime, but increasing wall stresses up to 7 times over the design point. This resulted in well-controlled "ballooning" of the heater-head hot end. The test plan was developed to provide critical input to analytical parameters in a reasonable period of time.

  3. Experimental study of head loss and filtration for LOCA debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Souto, F.J.

    1996-02-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to obtain head loss and filtration characteristics of debris beds formed of NUKON trademark fibrous fragments, and obtain data to validate the semi-theoretical head loss model developed in NUREG/CR-6224. A thermally insulated closed-loop test set-up was used to conduct experiments using beds formed of fibers only and fibers intermixed with particulate debris. A total of three particulate mixes were used to simulate the particulate debris. The head loss data were obtained for theoretical fiber bed thicknesses of 0.125 inches to 4.0 inches; approach velocities of 0.15 to 1.5 ft/s; temperatures of 75 F and 125 F; and sludge-to-fiber nominal concentration ratios of 0 to 60. Concentration measurements obtained during the first flushing cycle were used to estimate the filtration efficiencies of the debris beds. For test conditions where the beds are fairly uniform, the head loss data were predictable within an acceptable accuracy range by the semi-theoretical model. The model was equally applicable for both pure fiber beds and the mixed beds. Typically the model over-predicted the head losses for very thin beds and for thin beds at high sludge-to-fiber mass ratios. This is attributable to the non-uniformity of such debris beds. In this range the correlation can be interpreted to provide upper bound estimates of head loss. This is pertinent for loss of coolant accidents in boiling water reactors

  4. Improvement in post test accident analysis results prediction for the test no. 2 in PSB test facility by applying UMAE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.K.; Petruzzi, A.; Giannotti, W.; D'Auria, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the improvement in the post test accident analysis results prediction for the test no. 2, 'Total loss of feed water with failure of HPIS pumps and operator actions on primary and secondary circuit depressurization', carried-out on PSB integral test facility in May 2005. This is one the most complicated test conducted in PSB test facility. The prime objective of this test is to provide support for the verification of the accident management strategies for NPPs and also to verify the correctness of some safety systems operating only during accident. The objective of this analysis is to assess the capability to reproduce the phenomena occurring during the selected tests and to quantify the accuracy of the code calculation qualitatively and quantitatively for the best estimate code Relap5/mod3.3 by systematically applying all the procedures lead by Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE), developed at University of Pisa. In order to achieve these objectives test facility nodalisation qualification for both 'steady state level' and 'on transient level' are demonstrated. For the 'steady state level' qualification compliance to acceptance criteria established in UMAE has been checked for geometrical details and thermal hydraulic parameters. The following steps have been performed for evaluation of qualitative qualification of 'on transient level': visual comparisons between experimental and calculated relevant parameters time trends; list of comparison between experimental and code calculation resulting time sequence of significant events; identification/verification of CSNI phenomena validation matrix; use of the Phenomenological Windows (PhW), identification of Key Phenomena and Relevant Thermal-hydraulic Aspects (RTA). A successful application of the qualitative process constitutes a prerequisite to the application of the quantitative analysis. For quantitative accuracy of code prediction Fast Fourier Transform Based

  5. Experimental investigation of creep behavior of reactor vessel lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Pilch, M.; Bentz, J.H.; Behbahani, A.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of the USNRC supported Lower Head Failure (LHF) Experiment Program at Sandia National Laboratories is to experimentally investigate and characterize the failure of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head due to the thermal and pressure loads of a severe accident. The experimental program is complemented by a modeling program focused on the development of a constitutive formulation for use in standard finite element structure mechanics codes. The problem is of importance because: lower head failure defines the initial conditions of all ex-vessel events; the inability of state-of-the-art models to simulate the result of the TMI-II accident (Stickler, et al. 1993); and TMI-II results suggest the possibility of in-vessel cooling, and creep deformation may be a precursor to water ingression leading to in-vessel cooling

  6. Numerical module for debris behavior under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.E.; Kobelev, G.V.; Strizhov, V.F.; Vasiliev, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The late phase of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear reactor is characterized by the appearance of porous debris and liquid pools in core region and lower head of the reactor vessel. Thermal hydraulics and heat transfer in these regions are very important for adequate analysis of severe accident dynamics. The purpose of this work is to develop a universal module which is able to model above-mentioned phenomena on the basis of modern physical concepts. The original approach for debris evolution is developed from classical principles using a set of parameters including debris porosity; average particle diameter; temperatures and mass fractions of solid, liquid and gas phases; specific interface areas between different phases; effective thermal conductivity of each phase, including radiative heat conductivity; mass and energy fluxes through the interfaces. The calculation results of several tests on modeling of porous debris behavior, including the MP-1 experiment, are presented in comparison with experimental data. The results are obtained using this module implemented into the Russian best estimate code, RATEG/SVECHA/HEFEST, which was developed for modeling severe accident thermal hydraulics and late phase phenomena in VVER nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Unusual head and neck injury in elevator: autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, B; Türkmen, N; Dokgöz, H

    2012-10-01

    Industrial injuries related to auto-load-carrying vehicles were not frequently reported in the literature. Presented case was, 31-year-old male furniture worker. Deceased was found in awkward position in furniture workshop. Victim was observed on his knees in front of the elevator, head and neck lodged within openings of the elevator, and head and neck structures compressed-guillotined by the lower platform of the elevator were detected. We presented rare case of head and neck compression by elevator. Key words: head - neck - accidents - elevator - autopsy.

  8. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesmans, B.; Auglaire, M.; Snoeck, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  9. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, G

    1995-01-01

    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  10. Causes of fatal accidents for instrument-certified and non-certified private pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bob Siyuan; Guindani, Michele; Boyd, Douglas D

    2014-11-01

    Instrument certification (IFR) enhances a pilot's skills in precisely controlling the aircraft and requires a higher level of standards in maintaining heading and altitude compared with the less stringent private pilot certificate. However, there have been no prior studies to compare fatal accident causes for airmen with, and without, this rating, The NTSB accident database was queried for general aviation fatal accidents for private pilots with, and without IFR certification. Exact Poisson tests were used to calculate whether two rate parameters were equal (ratio of 1), normalized to the number of IFR-rated pilots and flight hours in the given time period. Proportion tests were used to determine whether there were significant differences in fatal accident causes between IFR-certified and non-certified pilots. A logistic regression for log-odds success was used in determining the trend and effect of age on fatal accident rates. IFR certification was associated with a reduced risk of accidents due to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance and spatial disorientation for day and night operations respectively. In contrast, the likelihood of fatal accident due to equipment malfunction during day operations was higher for IFR-certified pilots. The fatal accident rate decreased over the last decade for IFR-certified but not for non-IFR-certified private pilots. However, the overall accident rate for IFR-certified private pilots was more than double that of the cohort lacking this certification. Finally, we found a trend for an increased fatality rate with advancing age for both group of pilots. Our findings informs on where training and/or technology should be focused. Both training for aerodynamic stalls, which causes over a quarter of all fatal accidents, should be intensified for both IFR-certified and non-certified private pilots. Similarly, adherence to minimum safe altitudes for both groups of pilots should be encouraged toward reducing the fatal accidents

  11. Development of New, Low-Head Hydropower Turbine - Modeling & Laboratory Test DE-EE0005426

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krouse, Wayne [Hydro Green Energy, Westmont, IL (United States)

    2014-12-05

    Hydro Green Energy, LLC (HGE) will complete the design, fabrication and laboratory testing of a scaled, vertically stackable, low-head hydropower turbine called the Modular Bulb Turbine (MBT). HGE will also complete a summary report that includes the laboratory testing results and analysis of the tests. Project Goals: Design, model and test modular bulb turbine for installation in numerous HGE low-head hydropower projects at non-powered USACE dams. Project Results: The sub-scale prototype was tested successfully at a leading US hydraulic laboratory. Laboratory data results agreed well with predicted results from numerical modeling.

  12. Vestibulo-ocular reflex and the head impulse test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana T. Maranhão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors highlights the importance of the vestibulo-ocular reflex examination through the head impulse test as a diagnostic method for vestibular dysfunction as well as, and primarily, a bedside semiotic resource capable of differentiating between acute peripheral vestibulopathy and a cerebellar or brainstem infarction in emergency rooms.

  13. Assessment of SPACE code for multiple failure accident: 1% Cold Leg Break LOCA with HPSI failure at ATLAS Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Kyung-Doo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Design extension conditions (DECs) is a popular key issue after the Fukushima accident. In a viewpoint of the reinforcement of the defense in depth concept, a high-risk multiple failure accident should be reconsidered. The target scenario of ATLAS A5.1 test was LSTF (Large Scale Test Facility) SB-CL-32 test, a 1% SBLOCA with total failure of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) system of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and secondary side depressurization as the accident management (AM) action, as a counterpart test. As the needs to prepare the DEC accident because of a multiple failure of the present NPPs are emphasized, the capability of SPACE code, just like other system analysis code, is required to expand the DEC area. The objectives of this study is to validate the capability of SPACE code for a DEC scenario, which represents multiple failure accident like as a SBLOCA with HPSI fail. Therefore, the ATLAS A5.1 test scenario was chosen. As the needs to prepare the DEC accident because of a multiple failure of operating NPPs are emphasized, the capability of SPACE code is needed to expand the DEC area. So the capability of SPACE code was validated for one of a DEC scenario. The target scenario was selected as the ATLAS A5.1 test, which is a 1% SBLOCA with total failure of HPSI system of ECCS and secondary side depressurization. Through the sensitivity study on discharge coefficient of break flow, the best fit of integrated mass was found. Using the coefficient, the ATLAS A5.1 test was analyzed using the SPACE code. The major thermal hydraulic parameters such as the system pressure, temperatures were compared with the test and have a good agreement. Through the simulation, it was concluded that the SPACE code can effectively simulate one of multiple failure accidents like as SBLOCA with HPSI failure accident.

  14. Testing of an accident consequence assessment model using field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Takeshi; Tomita, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the application of an accident consequence assessment model, OSCAAR to the Iput dose reconstruction scenario of BIOMASS and also to the Chernobyl 131 I fallout scenario of EMRAS, both organized by International Atomic Energy Agency. The Iput Scenario deals with 137 Cs contamination of the catchment basin and agricultural area in the Bryansk Region of Russia, which was heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This exercise was used to test the chronic exposure pathway models in OSCAAR with actual measurements and to identify the most important sources of uncertainty with respect to each part of the assessment. The OSCAAR chronic exposure pathway models had some limitations but the refined model, COLINA almost successfully reconstructed the whole 10-year time course of 137 Cs activity concentrations in most requested types of agricultural products and natural foodstuffs. The Plavsk scenario provides a good opportunity to test not only the food chain transfer model of 131 I but also the method of assessing 131 I thyroid burden. OSCAAR showed in general good capabilities for assessing the important 131 I exposure pathways. (author)

  15. MELCOR Severe Accident Analysis on the SMART Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Jin, Young Ho; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo; Wang, Ziao; Revankar, Shripad

    2014-01-01

    A severe accident is analyzed for Korea SMR reactor, SMART. Core melt down sequences are analyzed for SMART reactor core using MELCOR version 1.8.5. MELCOR is developed by Sandia National Laboratory for US NRC for the simulation of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Two cases are simulated here and compared between them; one is the case for core having 3 concentric rings and the other is the case for core having 5 concentric rings. One inch break LOCA scenario is simulated and compared between these two core models. Time sequences for the thermal hydraulic behaviors of RPV and thermal heatup behaviors of reactor core are explained in graphically. Thermal hydraulic behavior such as the change of pressure, level, mass, and temperature of RPV is explained. Thermal heatup behavior of reactor core such as oxidation of cladding, hydrogen generation, core slumping down to lower plenum, and finally creep rupture of PRV lower head is explained. Engineered safety features such as safety injection systems (SIS), and Passive residual heat removal systems (PHRS), etc. are assumed to be not working. One inch break of severe accident is simulated on Korean SMR (SMART) Integral PWR with MELCOR code version 1.8.5. Core melt progression and lower head failure time is very slow compared to other commercial reactors. Simulation on 3 and 5 radial rings core models gives very similar pattern in core cell failure timings. Other various accident scenarios (for example, SBO in Fukushima) will be tried further. Containment behaviors and source term behaviors in severe accident conditions will be analyzed in future

  16. The epidemiology and cost analysis of patients presented to Emergency Department following traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül Karadana, Gökçe; Metin Aksu, Nalan; Akkaş, Meltem; Akman, Canan; Üzümcügil, Akın; Özmen, M Mahir

    2013-12-09

    Traffic accidents are ranked first as the cause of personal injury throughout the world. The high number of traffic accidents yielding injuries and fatalities makes them of great importance to Emergency Departments. Patients admitted to Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Adult Emergency Department due to traffic accidents were investigated epidemiologically. Differences between groups were evaluated by Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. A value of paccidents were the most common. In 2004 the rate of traffic accidents (15.3%) was higher than the other years, the most common month was May (10.8%), and the most common time period was 6 pm to 12 am (midnight). About half of the patients (51.5%) were admitted in the first 30 minutes. Life-threatening condition was present in 9.6% of the patients. Head trauma was the most common type of trauma, with the rate of 18.3%. Mortality rate was 81.8%. The average length of hospital stay was 403 minutes (6.7 hours) and the average cost per patient was 983 ± 4364 TL. Further studies are needed to compare the cost found in this study with the mean cost for Turkey. However, the most important step to reduce the direct and indirect costs due to traffic accidents is the prevention of these accidents.

  17. Structural Benchmark Creep Testing for Microcast MarM-247 Advanced Stirling Convertor E2 Heater Head Test Article SN18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Brewer, Ethan J.; Pawlik, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    This report provides test methodology details and qualitative results for the first structural benchmark creep test of an Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) heater head of ASC-E2 design heritage. The test article was recovered from a flight-like Microcast MarM-247 heater head specimen previously used in helium permeability testing. The test article was utilized for benchmark creep test rig preparation, wall thickness and diametral laser scan hardware metrological developments, and induction heater custom coil experiments. In addition, a benchmark creep test was performed, terminated after one week when through-thickness cracks propagated at thermocouple weld locations. Following this, it was used to develop a unique temperature measurement methodology using contact thermocouples, thereby enabling future benchmark testing to be performed without the use of conventional welded thermocouples, proven problematic for the alloy. This report includes an overview of heater head structural benchmark creep testing, the origin of this particular test article, test configuration developments accomplished using the test article, creep predictions for its benchmark creep test, qualitative structural benchmark creep test results, and a short summary.

  18. False-positive head-impulse test in cerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia eKremmyda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this study was to compare the findings of the bedside head impulse test (HIT, passive head rotation gain, and caloric irrigation in patients with cerebellar ataxia (CA. In 16 patients with CA and bilaterally pathological bedside HIT, VOR gains were measured during HIT and passive head rotation by scleral search coil technique. Eight of the patients had pathologically reduced caloric responsiveness, while the other eight had normal caloric responses. Those with normal calorics showed a slightly reduced HIT gain (mean±SD: 0.73±0.15. In those with pathological calorics, gains 80ms and 100 ms after the HIT as well as the passive rotation VOR gains were significantly lower. The corrective saccade after head turn occurred earlier in patients with pathological calorics (111±62 ms after onset of the HIT than in those with normal calorics. (191±17 ms, p=0.0064 We indentified two groups of patients with CA: those with an isolated moderate HIT deficit only, probably due to floccular dysfunction, and those with combined HIT, passive rotation and caloric deficit, probably due to a peripheral vestibular deficit. From a clinical point of view, these results show that the bedside HIT alone can be false positive for establishing a diagnosis of a bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit in patients with CA.

  19. Assessment of ICARE/CATHARE V1 Severe Accident Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelard, Patrick; Fleurot, Joelle; Marchand, Olivier; Drai, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The ICARE/CATHARE code system has been developed by the French 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN) in the last decade for the detailed evaluation of Severe Accident (SA) consequences in a primary system. It is composed of the coupling of the core degradation IRSN code ICARE2 and of the thermal-hydraulics French code CATHARE2. It has been extensively used to support the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA-2) of the 900 MWe PWR. This paper presents the synthesis of the ICARE/CATHARE V1 assessment which was conducted in the frame of the 'International ICARE/CATHARE Users' Club', under the management of IRSN. The ICARE/CATHARE V1 validation matrix is composed of more than 60 experiments, distributed in few thermal-hydraulics non-regression tests (to handle the front end phase of a severe accident), numerous Separate-Effect Tests, about 30 Integral Tests covering both the early and the late degradation phases, as well as a 'circuit' experiment including hydraulics loops. Finally, the simulation of the TMI-2 accident was also added to assess the code against real conditions. This validation task was aimed at assessing the ICARE/CATHARE V1 capabilities (including the stand-alone ICARE2 V3mod1 version) and also at proposing recommendations for an optimal use of this version ('Users' Guidelines'). Thus, with a correct account for the recommended guidelines, it appeared that the last ICARE/CATHARE V1 version could be reasonably used to perform best-estimate reactor studies up to a large corium slumping into the lower head. (authors)

  20. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  1. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -A study on the establishment of severe accident experimental facility-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kune Yull; Ryu, Keon Joong; Park, Chang Kyu; Sim, Seok Ku; Kim, Sang Baek; Nho, Ki Mann; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Rae Jun; Lee, Seong Jae; Kang, Kyung Ho; Jo, Young Ro; Hong, Sung Wan; Jeong, Moon Ki; Park, Chun Kyung; Cheon, Se Young; Kim, In Sik; Moon, Sang Ki; Kim, Jong Hwan; Kim, Seong Ho; Sin, Ki Yeol; Cho, Jae Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    For the first phase (1992-1995) of the current research program under nuclear reactor safety enhancement project, the primary objective was placed on the development of an improved cavity design and on the improvement of theoretical models of the separate effects for major severe accident phenomena occurring in the reactor cavity. Also, during the fourth year of this project, small-scale experiments were performed to visualize the fundamental phenomena of boiling in narrow spaces that may exist between the debris crust and the reactor vessel lower head in preparation for the large-scale in-vessel cooling experiment planned for the second phase of the project (1996-2001). Separate effect tests have been performed during the first phase spanning the high pressure melt ejection (HPME) resulting in the direct containment heating (DCH), crust formation during cooling of the high temperature melt, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) in the process of injecting coolant onto the reactor cavity, and the molten core concrete interaction (MCCI). Some research programs were subcontracted with universities. Steam condensation on the containment inner wall was investigated by the POSTECH, while the experimental technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size and velocity was developed by the KAIST. The second phase experimental projects center about the in-vessel accident management tests SONATA-IV (Simulation of Naturally Arrested Thermal Attack in Vessel) and ex-vessel accident management tests TOCATA-XV (Tests on Cavity Arrested Thermal Attack ex Vessel). In preparation for the second phase in-vessel experimental program, one of our research staff has participated in the PHEBUS-FP program in CEA Cadarache, France. Small-scale scoping tests were performed for the study of in-vessel cooling of debris in the lower head. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. A CLINICAL STUDY OF OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS OF HEAD INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Shamrao Sarawade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to record the prevalence and pattern of various ophthalmic manifestations in patients of head injury and to attempt a correlation between the ocular signs, neurological signs and final outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred and twenty patients with head injury having ocular findings, presenting from December 2014 to July 2016, were taken for study. Detailed ophthalmological examination of the patients was carried out and the results of the study are depicted in the form of percentages, graphs and charts. RESULTS The most common cause of head injury found in our study was road traffic accident. The commonest eye finding was oedema and ecchymosis of eyelids. Prime causal factors affecting visual acuity found in our study were corneal tear, globe rupture, optic nerve injury and avulsion of eyeball. CONCLUSION Head injuries with ocular manifestations occur in younger age group. Road traffic accident was the most common cause. Males have to work outside their home for their jobs more than that of females. So they are more prone to accidents. Oedema and ecchymosis of eyelids constitute the most common ocular finding. Patients with mild ocular injuries pointed towards good visual prognosis. Most of them had mild head injury and hence good prognosis in terms of survival of the patient. The patients with severe ocular injuries like corneal tear, globe rupture and optic nerve injury showed poor visual prognosis.

  3. Drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), is drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, S.C. The test well is scheduled to run between mid-March and early May 2011. When completed, the well will be about 1,000 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Hilton Head area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  4. ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in a neurosurgi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZENWUGO CHIEDOZIE OBIORA

    ocular cranial nerves were the most commonly occurring complication among the cases of head injury seen in Memphys. Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu. Key words: Ocular complications, head injury, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Road traffic accidents have been on the increase in Nigeria. Some studies have attributed this ...

  5. Epidemiological and immunological studies of radiation accidents and nucleare tests participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V. M.; Bronstein, I. E.; Koroleva, T.M.; Strelnicova, T.M.; Sukalskay, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Results of long term studies of epidemiological and immunological problems after radiation accidents in Ural. At Chernobyl and nuclear weapons tests in Semi-palatinsk and Novaya Zemlya nuclear tests sites are presented. Changes in Health and immunity status of emergency team workers (liquida-tors) and participants on nuclear weapon tests were recorded in long term studies af-ter 10 and more years after radiation exposure. Some changes (decrease in ly-sozyme activity, disimmunoglobulinemia) could be attributed to the old age of exam-ined persons and concomitant cardiovasculatory, respiratory and other diseases An-other ones were related to the autoimmune syndromes. Humoral and cellular auto-immune changes were more pronounced in liquidators and participants then in controls. concentrations of antitissue antibodies in exposed cohort was three times higher than in control. Level of antibodies to thyroid antigens (microsoms and thy-roglobulines) were five times higher in liquidators of Chernobyl accident. The pos-sible role of humoral and cell autoimmune changes in the development of cardiovascular, liver, kidney and thyroid is considered. Considerable increase in some cytocine concentrations in blood of participants was found. For example increased concentration of TNF was recorded in half of par-ticipants from Novaya Zemlya in comparison to similar changes in only twenty pro-cents of controls. In half of participants from Semipalatinsk site the virus antigens in epithelium of higher respiratory tract (mostly adenoviruses) were found, with 22% in control group. In health and immunity studies of population from the contaminated areas after accidents and nuclear tests (Ural, Bryansk, Russian arktics) the demographics changes, mortality structure changes, oncological mortality and immunological deficiencies were found. The recorded effects might by considered as a results of combined effect of ra-diological and non-radiological factors. The potentiated effect of chronic

  6. School accidents in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  7. Experimental tests on buckling of torispherical heads comparison with plastic bifurcation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Autrusson, B.

    1984-06-01

    Sixteen torispherical heads have been tested under internal pressure. All these heads were made by cold spinning from mild steel plates. Deflections on the axis and in the knuckle region have been recorded. As an practical result of these experiments, buckling pressure is given for each tested head. It is also indicated the maximum pressure reached during the tests, this pressure is very higher than the buckling pressure. It is also seen that buckling pressure is little sensitive to initial geometric imperfections. These experimental buckling pressure are compared with computation results obtained by plastic bifurcation analysis. Five different models of bifurcation matrix have been considered. If tangent matrix is unconservative, the use of tangent modulus (in lieu of YOUNG's modulus) is overconservative. Finally a mixing of tangent normal modulus and secant shearing modulus seems to be a good enough model (not to far from experimental results, and with not to large standard deviation)

  8. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  9. Tilt angles and positive response of head-up tilt test in children with orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Wang, Yuli; Ochs, Todd; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at examining three tilt angle-based positive responses and the time to positive response in a head-up tilt test for children with orthostatic intolerance, and the psychological fear experienced at the three angles during head-up tilt test. A total of 174 children, including 76 boys and 98 girls, aged from 4 to 18 years old (mean 11.3±2.8 years old), with unexplained syncope, were randomly divided into three groups, to undergo head-up tilt test at the angles of 60°, 70° and 80°, respectively. The diagnostic rates and times were analysed, and Wong-Baker face pain rating scale was used to access the children's psychological fear. There were no significant differences in diagnostic rates of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test (p>0.05). There was a significant difference, however, in the psychological fear at different tilt angles utilising the Kruskal-Wallis test (χ2=36.398, ptest (ptest for vasovagal syncope or for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Hence, it is suggested that a tilt angle of 60° and head-up tilt test time of 45 minutes should be suitable for children with vasovagal syncope.

  10. Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Galtchanskaya, S.A.; Chmal, I.I.; Moloshnikov, A.S.; Gorbunov, Y.S.; Antonova, A.I.; Elkin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove

  11. Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon; Park, Byung Gi; Kim, Chang Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKON TM and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

  12. Measurement of wall thickness with electrodynamic test heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.; Maurer, A.

    1993-01-01

    Starting from the boundary conditions fixed by the physical properties of the electromagnetic/acoustic conversion and the operating limits which result from these for the sensors used, the use of electro-dynamic ultrasonic transducers for measuring wall thickness and double checks in plants for automatic production inspection and production control is shown. The sensor itself is the heart of a test system, but only the equipment and plant concepts surrounding the sensor make economic solution of the test problem possible. The quality of the signals which are supplied by a sensor, determines the quality of a test system. This can only be achieved by optimising all parts of a complex automatic test rig, such as the test head, mechanics, electronics and evaluation for the test problem concerned. (orig./HP) [de

  13. PEDIATRIC HEAD INJURIES, MECHANISM TO MANAGEMENT: EXPERIENCE OF A SINGLE CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Head injury is very common in modern life. Patients of any age group may have head injury however mechanism of head injury, pathophysiology and outcome of head injury is quite different in adults as compared to children. Road traffic accident is a common mode of head injury in adults while fall from height and household abuse is common mode in children. In Western countries, there is a separate registry system for pediatric head injury but there is no such system exist in india. Our present study is focused on pediatric head injury and evaluation of factors that affect the final outcome in pediatric patients.

  14. 10-year evaluation of train accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaş, Meltem; Ay, Didem; Metin Aksu, Nalan; Günalp, Müge

    2011-09-01

    Although less frequent than automobile accidents, train accidents have a major impact on victims' lives. Records of patients older than 16 years of age admitted to the Adult Emergency Department of Hacettepe University Medical Center due to train accidents were retrospectively evaluated. 44 patients (30 males, 14 females) with a mean age of 31.8±11.4 years were included in the study. The majority of the accidents occurred during commuting hours. 37 patients were discharged, 22 of them from the emergency department. The mortality rate was 7/44 (16%). Overall mean Revised Trauma Score (RTS) was 10.5 (3 in deaths and 11.9 in survivors). In 5 patients, the cause of death was pelvic trauma leading to major vascular injury and lower limb amputation. In 1 patient, thorax and abdomen trauma and in 1 patient head injury were the causes of mortality. Primary risk factors for mortality were alcohol intoxication (100%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation on admittance (100%), recurrent suicide attempt (75%), presence of psychiatric illness (60%), and low RTS. In this study, most train accidents causing minor injuries were due to falling from the train prior to acceleration. Nevertheless, train accidents led to a mortality rate of 16% and morbidity rate of 37%. These findings draw attention to the importance of developing preventive strategies.

  15. Isolated posterior dislocation of the radial head in an adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi A

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated posterior dislocation of the radial head was detected on X-ray in a patient following a vehicular accident. Such a dislocation without an associated fracture is extremely rare in adults. Immobilization of the elbow in full pronation and 90 degrees flexion for 4 weeks normalized the position of the head of the radius.

  16. Emergency core cooling system sump chemical effects on strainer head loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.K.; Qiu, L.; Guzonas, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical precipitates formed in the recovery water following a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) have the potential to increase head loss across the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) strainer, and could lead to cavitation of the ECCS pumps, pump failure and loss of core cooling. AECL, as a strainer vendor and research organization, has been involved in the investigation of chemical effects on head loss for its CANDU® and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) customers. The chemical constituents of the recovery sump water depend on the combination of chemistry control additives and the corrosion and dissolution products from metals, concrete, and insulation materials. Some of these dissolution and corrosion products (e.g., aluminum and calcium) may form significant quantities of precipitates. The presence of chemistry control additives such as sodium hydroxide, trisodium phosphate and boric acid can significantly influence the precipitates formed. While a number of compounds may be shown to be thermodynamically possible under the conditions assumed for precipitation, kinetic factors play a large role in the morphology of precipitates. Precipitation is also influenced by insulation debris, which can trap precipitates and act as nucleation sites for heterogeneous precipitation. This paper outlines the AECL approach to resolving the issue of chemical effects on ECCS strainer head loss, which included modeling, bench top testing and reduced-scale testing; the latter conducted using a temperature-controlled variable-flow closed-loop test rig that included an AECL Finned Strainer® test section equipped with a differential pressure transmitter. Models of corrosion product release and the effects of precipitates on head loss will also be presented. Finally, this paper discusses the precipitates found in test debris beds and presents a possible method for chemical effects head loss modeling. (author)

  17. A Basic Study on the Ejection of ICI Nozzle under Severe Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jong Rae; Bae, Ji Hoon; Bang, Kwang Hyun [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Woong [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nozzle injection should be blocked because it affect to the environment if its melting core exposes outside. The purpose of this study is to carry out the thermos mechanical analysis due to debris relocation under severe accidents and to predict the nozzle ejection calculated considering the contact between the nozzle and lower head, and the supports of pipe cables. As a result of analyzing process of severe accidents, there was melting reaction between nozzle and the lower head. In this situation, we might predict the non-uniform contact region of nozzle hole of lower head and nozzle outside, delaying ejection of nozzles. But after melting, the average remaining length of the nozzle was 120mm and the maximum vertical displacement of lower nozzle near the weld is 3.3mm so there would be no nozzle this model, because the cable supports restrains the vertical displacement of nozzle.

  18. Development of instrumentation systems for severe accidents. 4. New accident tolerant in-containment pressure transducer for containment pressure monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masato; Teruya, Kuniyuki; Yoshitsugu, Makoto; Ikeuchi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (TF-1 accident) caused severe situations and resulted in a difficulty in measuring important parameters for monitoring plant conditions. Therefore, we have studied the TF-1 accident to select the important parameters that should be monitored at the severe accident and are developing the Severe Accident Instrumentations and Monitoring Systems that could measure the parameters in severe accident conditions. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD (MHI) developed a new accident tolerant containment pressure monitoring system and demonstrated that the monitoring system could endure extremely harsh environmental conditions that envelop severe accident environmental conditions inside a containment such as maximum operating temperature of up to 300degC and total integrated dose (TID) of 1 MGy gamma. The new containment pressure monitoring system comprises of a strain gage type pressure transducer and a mineral insulated (MI) cable with ceramic connectors, which are located in the containment, and a strain measuring amplifier located outside the containment. Less thermal and radiation degradation is achieved because of minimizing use of organic materials for in-containment equipment such as the transducer and connectors. Several tests were performed to demonstrate the performance and capability of the in-containment equipment under severe accident environmental conditions and the major steps in this testing were run in the following test sequences: (1) the baseline functional tests (e.g., repeatability, non-linearity, hysteresis, and so on) under normal conditions, (2) accident radiation testing, (3) seismic testing, and (4) steam/temperature test exposed to simulated severe accident environmental conditions. The test results demonstrate that the new pressure transducer can endure the simulated severe accident conditions. (author)

  19. The influence of simultaneous or sequential test conditions in the properties of industrial polymers, submitted to PWR accident simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Chenion, J.; Gaussens, G.; Henry, J.Y.

    1986-10-01

    The effect of PWR plant normal and accident operating conditions on polymers forms the basis of nuclear qualification of safety-related containment equipment. This study was carried out on the request of safety organizations. Its purpose was to check whether accident simulations carried out sequentially during equipment qualification tests would lead to the same deterioration as that caused by an accident involving simultaneous irradiation and thermodynamic effects. The IPSN, DAS and the United States NRC have collaborated in preparing this study. The work carried out by ORIS Company as well as the results obtained from measurement of the mechanical properties of 8 industrial polymers are described in this report. The results are given in the conclusion. They tend to show that, overall, the most suitable test cycle for simulating accident operating conditions would be one which included irradiation and consecutive thermodynamic shock. The results of this study and the results obtained in a previous study, which included the same test cycles, except for more severe thermo-ageing, have been compared. This comparison, which was made on three elastomers, shows that ageing after the accident has a different effect on each material [fr

  20. Radiological accident and incident in Thailand: Lesson to be learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-anant, N.; Tiyapun, K.; Saiyut, K.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive materials in Thailand have been used in medicine, research and industry for more than 50 y. Several radiological accident and incidents happened in the past 10 y. A serious one was the radiological accident that occurred in Samut Prakan (Thailand) in 2000. The serious radiological accident occurred when the 60 Co head was partially dismantled, taken from that storage to sell as scrap metal. Three victims died and 10 people received high dose from the source. The lesson learned from the radiological accident in Samut Prakan was to improve in many subjects, such as efficiency in Ministerial Regulations and Atomic Energy Act, emergency response and etc. In addition to the serious accident, there are also some small incidents that occurred, such as detection of contaminated scrap metals from the re-cycling of scrap metals from steel factories. Therefore, the radiation protection infrastructure was established after the accident. Laws and regulations of radiation safety and the relevant regulatory procedures must be revised. (authors)

  1. Right thalamic infarction after closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Takashi; Doi, Terushige; Katsumata, Tsuguo; Kuwayama, Naoto

    1986-01-01

    We reported a case of right thalamic infarction after a closed head injury. A 12-year-old boy was hit by an autotruck. He was semi-comatose, with left temporal scalp swelling and excoriation in the left lower limb. Three days after the accident, he exhibited left hemiparesis. CT scans on the day of the accident showed no abnormality, but on the following day, right thalamic infarction appeared. Right carotid angiography showed only an irregular vascular shadow in the cisternal segment of the right internal carotid artery. Vascular obstruction after closed head injury is rare, especially in the intracranial vessels, and several pathogeneses may be postulated. The right thalamic infarction in this case was supposed to be due to the damage of the perforators from the right posterior communicating artery and the right posterior cerebral artery, which were struck as a contre-coup by the force from the left side. (author)

  2. Relevance of IAEA tests to severe accidents in nuclear fuel cycle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    The design and performance standards for packages used for the transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials, are defined in the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, in order to ensure safety under both normal and accident conditions of transport. The underlying philosophy is that safety is vested principally in the package and the design and performance criteria are related to the potential hazard. Type B packages are high duty packages which are used for the transport of the more radioactive materials, notably spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste (VHLW). Tests are specified in the IAEA Regulations to ensure the integrity of these packages in potential transport accidents involving impacts, fires or immersion in water. The mechanical tests for Type B packages include drop tests onto an unyielding surface without giving rise to a significant release of radioactivity. The objects which a package could impact in real life transport accidents, such as concrete roads, bridge abutments and piers, will yield to some extent and absorb some of the energy of the moving package. Impact tests onto an unyielding surface are therefore relevant to impacts onto real-life objects at much higher speeds. The thermal test specifies that Type B packages should be able to withstand a fully engulfing fire of 8000 C for 30 minutes. Analytical studies backed up by experimental tests have shown that these packages can withstand such conditions without significant release of radioactivity. The Regulations also specify immersion tests for Type B packages; 15 metres for 8 hours without significant release of radioactivity and, in addition for spent fuel and VHLW packages, 200 metres for 1 hour without rupture of the containment. Studies have shown that spent fuel and VHLW casks would meet these conditions. Therefore, there is a large body of evidence to show that the current IAEA Type B test requirements are severe and cover all the situations which can

  3. Out-of-pile test of zirconium cladding simulating reactivity initiated accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, M. H.; Choi, B. K.; Bang, J. K.; Jung, Y. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Mechanical properties of zirconium cladding such as Zircaloy-4 and advanced cladding were evaluated by ring tension test to simulate Reactivity-Initiated Accident (RIA) as an out-pile test. Cladding was hydrided by means of charging hydrogen up to 1000ppm to simulate high-burnup situation, finally fabricated to circumferential tensile specimen. Ring tension test was carried out from 0.01 to 1/sec to keep pace with actual RIA event. The results showed that mechanical strength of zirconium cladding increased at the value of 7.8% but ductility decreased at the 34% as applied strain rate and absorbed hydrogen increased. Further activities regarding out-of-pile testing plans for simulated high-burnup cladding were discussed in this paper.

  4. Test Data for USEPR Severe Accident Code Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Rempe

    2007-05-01

    This document identifies data that can be used for assessing various models embodied in severe accident analysis codes. Phenomena considered in this document, which were limited to those anticipated to be of interest in assessing severe accidents in the USEPR developed by AREVA, include: • Fuel Heatup and Melt Progression • Reactor Coolant System (RCS) Thermal Hydraulics • In-Vessel Molten Pool Formation and Heat Transfer • Fuel/Coolant Interactions during Relocation • Debris Heat Loads to the Vessel • Vessel Failure • Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) and Reactor Cavity Plug Failure • Melt Spreading and Coolability • Hydrogen Control Each section of this report discusses one phenomenon of interest to the USEPR. Within each section, an effort is made to describe the phenomenon and identify what data are available modeling it. As noted in this document, models in US accident analysis codes (MAAP, MELCOR, and SCDAP/RELAP5) differ. Where possible, this report identifies previous assessments that illustrate the impact of modeling differences on predicting various phenomena. Finally, recommendations regarding the status of data available for modeling USEPR severe accident phenomena are summarized.

  5. Essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Neto, Sebastiao Benicio da

    1995-01-01

    The essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania - Brazilian city - occurred in 1987 is consequence of confront of data obtained in two distinct situations having for criterion: time, efficiency and pertinence. Besides of this, they are introduced palografic and the house-tree-person - HTP - tests. These tests aimed at the common psychological characteristics verification to radioactive accident victims' personality of Goiania and to the data existential moment for those people. Among the three tests, the one of Luscher was what obtained the best interviewees acceptance index

  6. Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Galtchanskaya, S.A.; Chmal, I.I.; Moloshnikov, A.S.; Gorbunov, Y.S.; Antonova, A.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center, EREC, Moscow (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V. [RRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG

  7. Ulnar nerve entrapment complicating radial head excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Parfait Bienvenu Bouhelo-Pam

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mechanisms are involved in ischemia or mechanical compression of ulnar nerve at the elbow. Presentation of case: We hereby present the case of a road accident victim, who received a radial head excision for an isolated fracture of the radial head and complicated by onset of cubital tunnel syndrome. This outcome could be the consequence of an iatrogenic valgus of the elbow due to excision of the radial head. Hitherto the surgical treatment of choice it is gradually been abandoned due to development of radial head implant arthroplasty. However, this management option is still being performed in some rural centers with low resources. Discussion: The radial head plays an important role in the stability of the elbow and his iatrogenic deformity can be complicated by cubital tunnel syndrome. Conclusion: An ulnar nerve release was performed with favorable outcome. Keywords: Cubital tunnel syndrome, Peripheral nerve palsy, Radial head excision, Elbow valgus

  8. Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrakova, A.; Vasilev, G.; Khristova, M. N.; Chobanova, N.; Tsenova, T.; Jordanova, M.; Lalova, J.; Vasileva, F.; Mikhajlova, Z.; Trifonova, S.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

  9. Benchmark Tests for Stirling Convertor Heater Head Life Assessment Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Halford, Gary R.; Bowman, Randy R.

    2004-01-01

    A new in-house test capability has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, where a critical component of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is undergoing extensive testing to aid the development of analytical life prediction methodology and to experimentally aid in verification of the flight-design component's life. The new facility includes two test rigs that are performing creep testing of the SRG heater head pressure vessel test articles at design temperature and with wall stresses ranging from operating level to seven times that (see the following photograph).

  10. Economic burden of motorcycle accidents in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudebong, M; Wurapa, F; Nonvignon, J; Norman, I; Awoonor-Williams, J K; Aikins, M

    2011-12-01

    Motorcycles are the most popular means of transportation in northern Ghana, and their accidents are major causes of out-patient attendance and admissions in the Bolgatanga Municipality. This paper estimates the economic burden of motorcycle accidents in the Bolgatanga Municipality in Northern Ghana. Retrospective cross-sectional cost study. Data were collected from Drivers and Vehicle Licensing Authority, the Police, health facilities and motorcycle accident victims. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used for data collection. Cost analysis was based on the standard road accident cost conceptual framework. Ninety-eight percent of vehicles registered in the municipality in 2004 - 2008 were motorcycles. The motorcycles were significantly more than the cars registered. The economic burden of motorcycle accidents was estimated to be about US$1.2 million, of which, 52% were accident-related costs (i.e. property damage and administration) and 48% casualty-related costs (i.e. medical costs, out-of-pocket expenses, lost labour outputs, intangible costs and funeral expenses). Most motorcycle accident victims were in their productive ages and were males. Only a third of the motorcycles were insured. Majority of the riders (71%) did not possess valid driving license and would want to avoid the police. Main motorcycle injuries were head injuries, fractures, lacerations and contusions. Majority of the accidents were caused by lack of formal motorcycle riding training, abuse of alcohol, unrestrained animals and donkey carts. Motorcycle accidents could be reduced through law enforcement, continuous mass education and helmet use.

  11. Epidemiology of deaths due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Malekifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing trend of traffic accidents is one of the most serious problems of public health. The aim of this paper was to investigate the fatal traffic accidents in Kermanshah province. Method: All research data required were obtained from Legal Medicine Organization and analyzed by Stata-11 software. Traffic statistics available on the Road Maintenance and Transportation Organization website were used to study the death rate per month and day according to traffic level on suburban highways. Results: The incidence rate of age-standardized deaths due to road traffic accidents was 26.1per 100,000 people, and the mean age of the dead was 39.98±21.60 years. The mortality rate was higher in men, those more than 40 years old, married, illiterate and self-employed. Considering the traffic rate on suburban roads, the highest death rate occurred in the warmest months of the year during the day. Furthermore, most deaths were due to collisions and the highest frequency of death was reported for the car occupants. In most cases, head injuries and head traumas were the final cause of death. A significant correlation was reported between the type of vehicle and the cause of death and how the accident occurred (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mortality rate due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province is high. Surveillance over the suburban roads in hot seasons and male drivers is of particular importance.

  12. Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1987-02-01

    The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137 Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK)

  13. Post-test investigation result on the WWER-1000 fuel tested under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, A.; Shtuckert, Yu.; Zwir, E.; Stupina, L.

    1996-01-01

    The model bundle of WWER-type were tested under SFD condition in the out-of-pile CORA installation. The objective of the test was to provide an information on the WWER-type fuel bundles behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions. Also it was assumed to compare the WWER-type bundle damage mechanisms with these experienced in the PWR-type bundle tests with aim to confirm a possibility to use the various code systems, worked our for PWR as applied to WWER. In order to ensure the possibility of the comparison of the calculated core degradation parameters with the real state of the tested bundle, some parameters have been measured on the bundle cross-sections under examination. Quantitative parameters of the bundle degradation have been evaluated by digital image processing of the bundle cross-sections. The obtained results are shown together with corresponding results obtained by the other participants of this investigation. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs

  14. Underbelly injury based identification of the driver in a three-rider motorcycle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengxiong; Yin, Zhiyong; Su, Sen; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a three-rider motorcycle accident which took place in a suburb of Chongqing China. In the accident, the motorcycle impacted the terminal of a bridge footpath and led to two riders died and one rider injured. After the accident, one rider received injuries around the groin area including the underbelly area and the perineum area. Another rider suffered from injuries only on the perineum areas. In medico-legal judgments, injuries around the groin area also called groin injuries in victims of motorcycle accidents are usually regarded as "fuel tank injuries" which are commonly found in drivers. But, the injuries around the groin area are sometimes confused with the perineum injuries. Therefore, the perineum injuries are often wrongly reckoned as the "fuel tank injuries" and used to identify the drivers too. Actually, passengers can sometimes suffer from perineum injuries in many head-on impacting motorcycle accidents. It is of vital matters to understand the differences between groin injuries and perineum injuries so that the real driver who should be responsible for the accident can be recognized. In this paper, the three-rider motorcycle accident was presented and the injury information of the three riders was studied in order to distinguish the real driver from the riders. We consider that the groin injury has some differences with the perineum injury and the latter should not always be related to the driver especially in high-speed head-on impacting motorcycle accidents. In addition, the injury on underbelly areas is important to identify the driver. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Millstone Unit 1 plant vulnerabilities during postulated severe nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.

    1993-01-01

    Generic Letter 88-20, Supplement No. 1 (Ref. 1), issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested all licensees holding operating licenses and construction permits for nuclear power reactor facilities to perform Individual Plant Examinations (IPE) of their plant(s) for severe accident vulnerabilities and to submit the results to the Commission. This paper summarizes the major Front-End (Level-1 PRA) and Back-End (Level-2 PRA) insights gained from the Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) IPE study. No major plant vulnerabilities have been identified from a Front-End perspective. The Back-End analysis, however, has identified two potential containment vulnerabilities during postulated events that progress beyond the Design Basis Accidents (DBAs), namely, (1) MP-1 is dominated by early source term releases that would occur within a six-hour time frame from time of accident initiation, or reactor trip, and (2) MP-1 containment is somewhat vulnerable to leak-type failure through the drywell head. As a result of the second finding, a recommendation currently under evaluation, has been made to increase the drywell head bolt's preload from 54 Kips to resist the containment design pressure value (62 psig)

  16. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  17. Review of adult head injury admissions into the intensive care unit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mode of injury was road traffic accident. All the patients admitted to ICU had either moderate or severe head injury, with 73.7% having severe head injury. About 26.3% of the patients had associated cervical spine injuries and 50% had various musculoskeletal and soft tissue injuries. Cranial computed ...

  18. Bottom head failure program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier this year the NRC staff presented a Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan (SECY-89-123) to the Commission and initiated work on that plan. Two of the near-term issues in that plan involve failure of the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel. These two issues are (1) depressurization and DCH and (2) BWR Mark I Containment Shell Meltthrough. ORNL has developed models for several competing failure mechanisms for BWRs. INEL has performed analytical and experimental work directly related to bottom head failure in connection with several programs. SNL has conducted a number of analyses and experimental activities to examine the failure of LWR vessels. In addition to the government-sponsored work mentioned above, EPRI and FAI performed studies on vessel failure for the Industry Degraded Core Rulemaking Program (IDCOR). EPRI examined the failure of a PWR vessel bottom head without penetrations, as found in some Combustion Engineering reactors. To give more attention to this subject as called for by the revised Severe Accident Research Plan, two things are being done. First, work previously done is being reviewed carefully to develop an overall picture and to determine the reliability of assumptions used in those studies. Second, new work is being planned for FY90 to try to complete a reasonable understanding of the failure process. The review and planning are being done in close cooperation with the ACRS. Results of this exercise will be presented in this paper

  19. HITCal: a software tool for analysis of video head impulse test responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Matiño, Eusebi; Perez Fernandez, Nicolás

    2015-09-01

    The developed software (HITCal) may be a useful tool in the analysis and measurement of the saccadic video head impulse test (vHIT) responses and with the experience obtained during its use the authors suggest that HITCal is an excellent method for enhanced exploration of vHIT outputs. To develop a (software) method to analyze and explore the vHIT responses, mainly saccades. HITCal was written using a computational development program; the function to access a vHIT file was programmed; extended head impulse exploration and measurement tools were created and an automated saccade analysis was developed using an experimental algorithm. For pre-release HITCal laboratory tests, a database of head impulse tests (HITs) was created with the data collected retrospectively in three reference centers. This HITs database was evaluated by humans and was also computed with HITCal. The authors have successfully built HITCal and it has been released as open source software; the developed software was fully operative and all the proposed characteristics were incorporated in the released version. The automated saccades algorithm implemented in HITCal has good concordance with the assessment by human observers (Cohen's kappa coefficient = 0.7).

  20. Occupational accidents among mototaxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Camila Rego; de Araújo, Edna Maria; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    The use of motorcycles as a means of work has contributed to the increase in traffic accidents, in particular, mototaxi accidents. The aim of this study was to estimate and characterize the incidence of occupational accidents among the mototaxis registered in Feira de Santana, BA. This is a cross-sectional study with descriptive and census data. Of the 300 professionals registered at the Municipal Transportation Service, 267 professionals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted and the incidence of accidents was estimated based on the variables studied. Relative risks were calculated and statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, considering p accidents were observed in 10.5% of mototaxis. There were mainly minor injuries (48.7%), 27% of them requiring leaves of absence from work. There was an association between the days of work per week, fatigue in lower limbs and musculoskeletal complaints, and accidents. Knowledge of the working conditions and accidents involved in this activity can be of great importance for the adoption of traffic education policies, and to help prevent accidents by improving the working conditions and lives of these professionals.

  1. Accident situations tests HTR fuel with the device Kufa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerbauer, A. I.; Freis, D.

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic and ceramic-like coating materials in modern high-temperature reactor fuel are designed to ensure mechanical stability and retention of fission products under normal and transient conditions, regardless of the radiation damage sustained in-pile. In hypothetical depressurization and loss-of-forced-circulation (D LOFC) accidents, fuel elements of modular high-temperate reactors are exposed to temperatures several hundred degrees higher than during normal operation, causing increased thermo-mechanical stress on the coating layers. At the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission, a vigorous experimental program is being pursued with the aim of characterizing the performance of irradiated HTR fuel under such accident conditions. A cold finger device (Kufa), operational in ITUs hot cells since 2006, has been used to perform heating experiments on eight irradiated HTR fuel pebbles from the AVR experimental reactor and from dedicated irradiation campaigns at the High-Flux Reactor in Petten, the Netherlands. Gaseous fission products are collected in a cryogenic charcoal trap, while volatiles,are plated out on a water-cooled condensate plate. A quantitative measurement of the release is obtained by gamma spectroscopy. We highlight experimental results from the Kufa testing as well as the on-going development of new experimental facilities. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. Resolve. Version 2.5: Flammable Gas Accident Analysis Tool Acceptance Test Plan and Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAVENDER, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    RESOLVE. Version 2 .5 is designed to quantify the risk and uncertainty of combustion accidents in double-shell tanks (DSTs) and single-shell tanks (SSTs). The purpose of the acceptance testing is to ensure that all of the options and features of the computer code run; to verify that the calculated results are consistent with each other; and to evaluate the effects of the changes to the parameter values on the frequency and consequence trends associated with flammable gas deflagrations or detonations

  3. Do head-restraints protect the neck from whiplash injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, F

    1989-01-01

    Over an 11-month period a study was made of all patients presenting to an accident and emergency department who had sustained whiplash as a result of rear-bumper impacts. The patients were analysed with respect to the presence of head-restraints in their vehicles. A significant increase in the incidence of whiplash was found in patients whose vehicles did not have head-restraints fitted. Legislation requiring all passenger cars to have head-restraints fitted as standard would have a major impact in reducing the number of whiplash injuries sustained in rear bumper impacts. PMID:2712983

  4. Development of Electrical Capacitance Sensors for Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Testing at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Maolong; Ryals, Matthew; Ali, Amir; Blandford, Edward; Jensen, Colby; Condie, Keith; Svoboda, John; O' Brien, Robert

    2016-08-01

    A variety of instruments are being developed and qualified to support the Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) program and future transient irradiations at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The University of New Mexico (UNM) is working with INL to develop capacitance-based void sensors for determining the timing of critical boiling phenomena in static capsule fuel testing and the volume-averaged void fraction in flow-boiling in-pile water loop fuel testing. The static capsule sensor developed at INL is a plate-type configuration, while UNM is utilizing a ring-type capacitance sensor. Each sensor design has been theoretically and experimentally investigated at INL and UNM. Experiments are being performed at INL in an autoclave to investigate the performance of these sensors under representative Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions in a static capsule. Experiments have been performed at UNM using air-water two-phase flow to determine the sensitivity and time response of the capacitance sensor under a flow boiling configuration. Initial measurements from the capacitance sensor have demonstrated the validity of the concept to enable real-time measurement of void fraction. The next steps include designing the cabling interface with the flow loop at UNM for Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) ATF testing at TREAT and further characterization of the measurement response for each sensor under varying conditions by experiments and modeling.

  5. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  6. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  7. Primary pump vibration under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.; Currie, T.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the results of an international survey on the subject of vibration in nuclear primary coolant pumps due to two-phase flow, accident conditions. The literature search also revealed few Canadian references other than those of Ontario Hydro. Ontario Hydro's work has been extensive. Confidence in the mechanical integrity of the pumpsets is good, given the extent of the testing. However, conclusions with respect to piping integrity and thermal-hydraulic performance are difficult to determine due to the inexact geometry of the piping and the difficulties in estimating fluid conditions at the pump. The tests help to understand the phenomena and provide background information for analysis, but should be applied with caution to plant analyses. Much of the discussion in the report relates to pump head instability. This is perceived to be the most important flow regime causing vibration, as attested by the emphasis of the reviewed literature. A method for quantitative assessment of the forcing functions acting on the pump-piping system due to void generation and collapse is recommended. A relatively fundamental analytical approach is proposed, supplemented by reduced scale testing in the latter stages. 151 refs

  8. Experimental test of spatial updating models for monkey eye-head gaze shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Van Grootel

    Full Text Available How the brain maintains an accurate and stable representation of visual target locations despite the occurrence of saccadic gaze shifts is a classical problem in oculomotor research. Here we test and dissociate the predictions of different conceptual models for head-unrestrained gaze-localization behavior of macaque monkeys. We adopted the double-step paradigm with rapid eye-head gaze shifts to measure localization accuracy in response to flashed visual stimuli in darkness. We presented the second target flash either before (static, or during (dynamic the first gaze displacement. In the dynamic case the brief visual flash induced a small retinal streak of up to about 20 deg at an unpredictable moment and retinal location during the eye-head gaze shift, which provides serious challenges for the gaze-control system. However, for both stimulus conditions, monkeys localized the flashed targets with accurate gaze shifts, which rules out several models of visuomotor control. First, these findings exclude the possibility that gaze-shift programming relies on retinal inputs only. Instead, they support the notion that accurate eye-head motor feedback updates the gaze-saccade coordinates. Second, in dynamic trials the visuomotor system cannot rely on the coordinates of the planned first eye-head saccade either, which rules out remapping on the basis of a predictive corollary gaze-displacement signal. Finally, because gaze-related head movements were also goal-directed, requiring continuous access to eye-in-head position, we propose that our results best support a dynamic feedback scheme for spatial updating in which visuomotor control incorporates accurate signals about instantaneous eye- and head positions rather than relative eye- and head displacements.

  9. Accident reconstruction to analyze impact of injured drivers during the collision. Ankle fracture in the car-to-car offset frontal collision; Join no jusho jokyo ni kansuru jiko saigen. Joyosha doshi no offset zenmen shototsuji no ashi kansetsu kossetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An accident reconstruction test of car-to-car crash was conducted in order to analyze the impact on the driver in the offset head-on collision. The ankle fracture of the driver resulting from the accident was examined with the test results and the accident data. The test results of the car-to-car crashes indicated that the belted driver`s ankle would have fractured in the early stage of the crash. The detailed information from the accident data, especially the cars` interior deformation and the driver`s X-ray photographs, was also very important in analyzing injury mechanisms of the ankle/foot region. The above results suggested an injury mechanism that the ankle joint fracture was due to dorsiflexion and valgus resulting from the impact and intrusion of the toeboard in the early stage of the crash. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing. Part I. Chemically generated precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.; Natesan, Ken; Klein, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was to evaluate the properties of chemical precipitates proposed by industry that have been used in sump strainer head loss testing. Specific precipitates that were evaluated included aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlOOH) and sodium aluminum silicate (SAS) prepared according to the procedures in WCAP-16530-NP, along with precipitates formed from injecting chemicals into the test loop according to the procedure used by one sump strainer test vendor for U.S. pressurized water reactors. The settling rates of the surrogate precipitates are strongly dependent on their particle size and are reasonably consistent with those expected from Stokes' Law or colloid aggregation models. Head loss tests showed that AlOOH and SAS surrogates are quite effective in increasing the head loss across a perforated pump inlet strainer that has an accumulated fibrous debris bed. The characteristics of aluminum hydroxide precipitate using sodium aluminate were dependent on whether it was formed in high-purity or ordinary tap water and whether excess silicate was present or not.

  11. Safety evaluation report. Fast Flux Test Facility. Project No. 448

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Information on the safety of the FFTF Reactor is presented under the following chapter headings: site characteristics; design of structures, components, equipment, and systems; reactor; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety features; electric power; auxiliary systems; radioactive waste management systems; radiation protection; conduct of operations; initial test programs; accident analysis; and quality assurance.

  12. Safety evaluation report. Fast Flux Test Facility. Project No. 448

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the safety of the FFTF Reactor is presented under the following chapter headings: site characteristics; design of structures, components, equipment, and systems; reactor; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety features; electric power; auxiliary systems; radioactive waste management systems; radiation protection; conduct of operations; initial test programs; accident analysis; and quality assurance

  13. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear accidents, such as during the Russian Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, or during atomic bomb testing (1951-1958, Marshall Islands; 1951–1970, Nevada Test Site). If you were ...

  14. Proposal of the concept of selection of accidents that release large amounts of radioactive substances in the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masato; Honda, Yuki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Position, construction and equipment of testing and research reactor to be subjected to the use standards for rules Article 53 (prevention of expansion of the accident to release a large amount of radioactive material) generation the frequency is a lower accident than design basis accident, when what is likely to release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation from the facility has occurred, and take the necessary measures in order to prevent the spread of the accident. There is provided a lower accident than frequency design basis accidents, for those that may release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation. (author)

  15. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 3 Plunge Depth of a 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. Phase 3 featured a composite tank head that was tested at a range of heights to verify the ability to predict structural failure of composites. To support planning for Phase 3, a test series was conducted with an aluminum tank head dropped from heights of 2, 6, 10, and 12 feet to verify that the test article would not impact the bottom of the test pool. This report focuses on the comparisons of the measured plunge depths to LS-DYNA predictions. The results for the tank head model demonstrated the following. 1. LS-DYNA provides accurate predictions for peak accelerations. 2. LS-DYNA consistently under-predicts plunge depth. An allowance of at least 20% should be added to the LS-DYNA predictions. 3. The LS-DYNA predictions for plunge depth are relatively insensitive to the fluid-structure coupling stiffness.

  16. Cranial computed tomography utilization in head trauma in a Southern Nigerian tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehimwenma Ogbeide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed tomography (CT is the imaging modality of choice in evaluating patients with acute head trauma. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess CT utilization in head trauma in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH with reference to sociodemographic characteristics and cause of injury. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of patients who had CT scanning done for head trauma in the UBTH, from 2011 to 2013 was undertaken. Medical Records of patients with special emphasis on the patient′s demographic characteristics and detailed information about the cause of injury of the patients were obtained from the accident and emergency department of the hospital. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 1387 patients with male: female ratio of 3.7:1 were studied. The mean age of the patients was 33.2 ± 18.8 years. Road traffic accidents (RTA were the predominant cause of injury among the patients accounting for 62.6% of the cases. Gunshot injury (GSI and patients struck by objects accounted for only 2.7% and 1.3% of the cases, respectively. The Glasgow coma score (GCS of the patients revealed that 42.0%, 26.1%, and 31.9% of patients had severe head injury, moderate injury, and mild injury, respectively. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents involving young adult males constituted the predominant cause of injury in patients that had brain CT in UBTH. There is an urgent need for improvement in the condition of roads and enforcement of the use of protective devices by road users to curb the epidemic of head injury resulting from RTAs.

  17. A novel hunting accident. Discharge of a firearm by a hunting dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A M; Keller, G; Garcia, D

    2001-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 21-year-old man who was killed while duck hunting when a shotgun accidentally discharged, shooting him in the head. The loaded weapon, which had been lying on the ground with the safety off and the muzzle pointed toward a river a few feet away, discharged when a hunting dog stepped on the trigger. Scene investigation confirmed that the victim had been standing in the river, planting decoys, with his head approximately level with the adjacent bank. Autopsy examination and ballistic testing confirmed a range of fire consistent with the witness' statements. Examination of the weapon in question documented a light trigger pull but no mechanical defects. The authors review the epidemiology and causality of hunting accidents and discuss the various safety rules that were violated in this highly unusual case. The importance of a complete death investigation, including autopsy, when dealing with a firearm death is emphasized.

  18. Experiments on the lower plenum response during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Robert E.; Hammersley, Robert J.; Klopp, George T.; Merilo, Mati

    2004-01-01

    Severe accident evaluations for nuclear reactors consider the response when the core materials have been overheated sufficient to melt and change geometry. One possible consequence of this is that molten core debris could drain into the lower plenum, as occurred in the TMI-2 accident. Given this state, several physical processes need to be analyzed, i.e. the extent of debris particulation and cooling, the potential for thermal attack of lower plenum structures, the thermal transient of the RPV and the potential for external cooling of the RPV lower head. These are important and complex processes, the evaluations of which need to be guided by well founded experiments. To support the development of the MAAP codes, recent experiments have been performed on specific issues such as: 1. the response of lower head penetrations submerged in a high temperature melt, 2. the net steam generation rate when molten debris drains into the lower plenum, 3. the formation of a contact resistance when molten debris drains through water and contacts the RPV wall and 4. the potential for external cooling of the RPV lower head. This paper discusses these experiments and their results. More importantly, it discusses how these are used in formulating models to represent the lower plenum response in the MAAP codes. (author)

  19. Criticality accident:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, Susana I.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

  20. Pattern extraction for high-risk accidents in the construction industry: a data-mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Soltanaghaei, Elahe

    2016-09-01

    Accidents involving falls and falling objects (group I) are highly frequent accidents in the construction industry. While being hit by a vehicle, electric shock, collapse in the excavation and fire or explosion accidents (group II) are much less frequent, they make up a considerable proportion of severe accidents. In this study, multiple-correspondence analysis, decision tree, ensembles of decision tree and association rules methods are employed to analyse a database of construction accidents throughout Iran between 2007 and 2011. The findings indicate that in group I, there is a significant correspondence among these variables: time of accident, place of accident, body part affected, final consequence of accident and lost workdays. Moreover, the frequency of accidents in the night shift is less than others, and the frequency of injury to the head, back, spine and limbs are more. In group II, the variables time of accident and body part affected are mostly related and the frequency of accidents among married and older workers is more than single and young workers. There was a higher frequency in the evening, night shifts and weekends. The results of this study are totally in line with the previous research.

  1. ROSA/LSTF Test and RELAP5 Analyses on PWR Cold Leg Small-Break LOCA with Accident Management Measure and PKL Counterpart Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Ohtsu, Iwao [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokaimura (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    An experiment using the Primaerkreislaeufe Versuchsanlage (PKL) was performed for the OECD/NEA PKL-3 Project as a counterpart to a previous test with the large-scale test facility (LSTF) on a cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident with an accident management (AM) measure in a pressurized water reactor. Concerning the AM measure, the rate of steam generator (SG) secondary-side depressurization was controlled to achieve a primary depressurization rate of 200 K/h as a common test condition; however, the onset timings of the SG depressurization were different from each other. In both tests, rapid recovery started in the core collapsed liquid level after loop seal clearing, which caused whole core quench. Some discrepancies appeared between the LSTF and PKL test results for the core collapsed liquid level, the cladding surface temperature, and the primary pressure. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code predicted the overall trends of the major thermal-hydraulic responses observed in the LSTF test well, and indicated a remaining problem in the prediction of primary coolant distribution. Results of uncertainty analysis for the LSTF test clarified the influences of the combination of multiple uncertain parameters on peak cladding temperature within the defined uncertain ranges.

  2. ROSA/LSTF Test and RELAP5 Analyses on PWR Cold Leg Small-Break LOCA with Accident Management Measure and PKL Counterpart Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takeda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment using the Primӓrkreislӓufe Versuchsanlage (PKL was performed for the OECD/NEA PKL-3 Project as a counterpart to a previous test with the large-scale test facility (LSTF on a cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident with an accident management (AM measure in a pressurized water reactor. Concerning the AM measure, the rate of steam generator (SG secondary-side depressurization was controlled to achieve a primary depressurization rate of 200 K/h as a common test condition; however, the onset timings of the SG depressurization were different from each other. In both tests, rapid recovery started in the core collapsed liquid level after loop seal clearing, which caused whole core quench. Some discrepancies appeared between the LSTF and PKL test results for the core collapsed liquid level, the cladding surface temperature, and the primary pressure. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code predicted the overall trends of the major thermal-hydraulic responses observed in the LSTF test well, and indicated a remaining problem in the prediction of primary coolant distribution. Results of uncertainty analysis for the LSTF test clarified the influences of the combination of multiple uncertain parameters on peak cladding temperature within the defined uncertain ranges.

  3. Assessment of head injury of children due to golf ball impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Wang, Fang

    2010-10-01

    Head trauma injury due to impact by a flying golf ball is one of the most severe possible injury accidents on the golf course. Numerical simulations based on the finite element method are presented to investigate head injury in children due to impact by a flying golf ball. The stress and energy flow patterns in a head model during the golf ball impact are computed for various combinations of striking speed, falling angle of the golf ball before impact, and impact location. It is found that a child is more prone to head injury due to golf ball impact on the frontal and side/temporal areas. The simulated results are found to conform to the clinical reports on children's head injuries from flying golf balls.

  4. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing: Part II. Precipitates by in situ aluminum alloy corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.; Natesan, Ken; Klein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Sump strainer head loss testing to evaluate chemical effects. → Aluminum hydroxide precipitates by in situ Al alloy corrosion caused head loss. → Intermetallic particles released from Al alloy can also cause significant head loss. → When evaluating Al effect on head loss, intermetallics should be considered. - Abstract: Vertical loop head loss tests were performed with 6061 and 1100 aluminum (Al) alloy plates immersed in borated solution at pH = 9.3 at room temperature and 60 o C. The results suggest that the potential for corrosion of an Al alloy to result in increased head loss across a glass fiber bed may depend on its microstructure, i.e., the size distribution and number density of intermetallic particles that are present in Al matrix and FeSiAl ternary compounds, as well as its Al release rate. Per unit mass of Al removed from solution, the WCAP-16530 aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ) surrogate was more effective in increasing head loss than the Al(OH) 3 precipitates formed in situ by corrosion of Al alloy. However, in choosing a representative amount of surrogate for plant specific testing, consideration should be given to the potential for additional head losses due to intermetallic particles and the apparent reduction in the effective solubility of Al(OH) 3 when intermetallic particles are present.

  5. Heading Frequency Is More Strongly Related to Cognitive Performance Than Unintentional Head Impacts in Amateur Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Walter F; Kim, Namhee; Ifrah, Chloe; Sliwinski, Martin; Zimmerman, Molly E; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    Compared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost) in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS) symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP) test performance. Active adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year. All participants completed a baseline validated questionnaire ("HeadCount-2w"), reporting 2-week recall of soccer activity, heading and unintentional head impacts. In addition, participants also completed NP tests of verbal learning, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and working memory. Most participants also completed one or more identical follow-up protocols (i.e., HeadCount-2w and NP tests) at 3- to 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Repeated measures General Estimating Equations (GEE) linear models were used to determine if variation in NP tests at each visit was related to variation in either heading or unintentional head impacts in the 2-week period before testing. 308 players (78% male) completed 741 HeadCount-2w. Mean (median) heading/2-weeks was 50 (17) for men and 26 (7) for women. Heading was significantly associated with poorer performance on psychomotor speed ( p  impacts were not significantly associated with any NP test. Results did not differ after excluding 22 HeadCount-2w with reported concussive or borderline concussive symptoms. Poorer NP test performance was consistently related to frequent heading during soccer practice and competition in the 2 weeks before testing. In contrast, unintentional head impacts incurred

  6. Ex-vessel debris coolability test during severe accident (COTELS project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, H.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the COTELS project are for severe accident management, to investigate phenomena of ex-vessel fuel-coolant interactions after reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure and to investigate molten core-concrete interaction when coolant is injected onto molten debris. The project has being cooperated with the National Nuclear Center in the Republic of Kazakstan from 1994 to 1997 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan. Total programs are composed with the following tests. (1) Test 01 was meant to observe flow mode of falling debris. (2) Test A was meant to investigate phenomena of fuel-coolant interactions when molten debris falls into a coolant pool. (3) Test B/C investigated fuel coolant interactions and molten core-concrete interaction when coolant is injected onto debris. Detail data evaluation is underway. The following results were thus for obtained: (1) It was confirmed in Test 01 series that about 60 kg of UO 2 mixture was completely melted and fallen as a continuous jet. (2) No energetic fuel-coolant interaction was observed both in Test A and B series. (3) Debris in which decay heat was simulated was cooled by water injection in Test C series

  7. Assessment of two BWR accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.; Petek, M.

    1991-01-01

    A recently completed Oak Ridge effort proposes two management strategies for mitigation of the events that might occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage in a BWR severe accident. While the probability of such an accident is low, there may be effective yet inexpensive mitigation measures that could be implemented employing the existing plant equipment and requiring only additions to the plant emergency procedures. In this spirit, accident management strategies have been proposed for use of a borated solution for reactor vessel refill should control blade damage occur during a period of temporary core dryout and for containment flooding to maintain the core debris within the reactor vessel if injection systems cannot be restored. The proposed strategy for poisoning of the water used for vessel reflood should injection systems be restored after control blade damage has occurred has great promise, using only the existing plant equipment but employing a different chemical form for the boron poison. The dominant BWR severe accident sequence is Station Blackout and without means for mechanical stirring or heating of the storage tank, the question of being able to form the poisoned solution under accident conditions becomes of supreme importance. On the other hand, the proposed strategy for drywell flooding to cool the reactor vessel bottom head and prevent the core and structure debris from escaping to the drywell holds less promise. This strategy does, however, have potential for future plant designs in which passive methods might be employed to completely submerge the reactor vessel under severe accident conditions without the need for containment venting

  8. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain values in the suppression head impulse test of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Thomas-Arrizabalaga, Izaskun; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Trinidad-Ruiz, Gabriel; Matiño-Soler, Eusebi; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2018-02-15

    To assess whether there are differences in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain for suppression head impulse (SHIMP) and head impulse (HIMP) video head impulse test paradigms, and if so, what are their causes. Prospective multicenter observational double-blind nonrandomized clinical study was performed by collecting 80 healthy subjects from four reference hospitals. SHIMP data was postprocessed to eliminate impulses in which early SHIMP saccades were detected. Differences between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were statistically evaluated. Head impulse maximum velocity, gender, age, direction of impulse, and hospital center were considered as possible influential factors. A small significant statistical difference between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values was found on repeated measures analysis of variance (-0.05 ± 0.006, P gain values and did not find influence between gain values differences and maximum head impulse velocity. Both HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were significant lower (-0.09, P gain values not adequately explained by known gain modification factors. The persistence of this slight but significant difference indicates that there are more factors causing lower SHIMP VOR gain values. This difference must to be considered in further studies as well as in the clinical SHIMP testing protocols. We hypothesized that VOR phasic response inhibition could be the underlying cause of this difference. IIb. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Friction testing for abnormal wet weather accident locations : all Louisiana districts for the period 1995 : technical assistance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report contains the results of friction testing conducted by the pavement/systems group of the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) based on accidents occurring in 1995. This testing is conducted on all Louisiana locations which have ...

  10. Helicopter emergency medical services response to equestrian accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard M; Macauley, Ben; Richardson, Sarah; de Coverly, Richard; Russell, Malcolm

    2015-04-01

    Horse riding is a common leisure activity associated with a significant rate of injury. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) may be called to equestrian accidents. Accurate HEMS tasking is important to ensure appropriate use of this valuable medical resource. We sought to review HEMS response to equestrian accidents and identify factors associated with the need for HEMS intervention or transport of the patient to a major trauma centre. Retrospective case review of all missions flown by Kent, Surrey & Sussex Air Ambulance Trust over a 1-year period (1 July 2011 to 1 July 2012). All missions were screened for accidents involving a horse. Call details, patient demographics, suspected injuries, clinical interventions and patient disposition were all analysed. In the 12-month data collection period there were 47 equestrian accidents, representing ∼3% of the total annual missions. Of the 42 cases HEMS attended, one patient was pronounced life extinct at the scene. In 15 (36%) cases the patient was airlifted to hospital. In four (10%) cases, the patient underwent prehospital anaesthesia. There were no specific predictors of HEMS intervention. Admission to a major trauma centre was associated with the rider not wearing a helmet, a fall onto their head or the horse falling onto the rider. Equestrian accidents represent a significant proportion of HEMS missions. The majority of patients injured in equestrian accidents do not require HEMS intervention, however, a small proportion have life-threatening injuries, requiring immediate critical intervention. Further research is warranted, particularly regarding HEMS dispatch, to further improve accuracy of tasking to equestrian accidents.

  11. Aspects of water and air ingress accidents in HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, J.

    1981-01-01

    The work has contributed towards improving the understanding of the processes taking place during water and air ingress accidents. The favourable design features of the THTR limit the pressure build-up in the primary circuit to values below critical values in water ingress accidents even when the source of water is not identified and shut-off. A pressure reduction by safety valves is in this case not necessary so that the accident consequences remain confined in the primary circuit. The expected air ingress rates following a depressurization accident through an opening in the top head of the PCRV are extremely small in the case of complete integration of the primary circuit in the PCRV. The chemical processes in the primary circuit remain so limited that no danger for the fuel elements and the containment exists. The often feared ''graphite fire'' can be excluded even in the case when the circulators of the after-heat removal systems take in a high percentage of containment atmosphere. The core is cooled down safely

  12. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR ACCIDENTS DUE TO ROCK FALL EVENTS IN CUTTING FACE OF TUNNEL AND STUDY OF THE COUNTERMEASURES FOR SAFETY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Tamate, Satoshi; Toyosawa, Yasuo

    In this paper, we analysed the labour accidents which had casualties due to rock fall events in the headings of tunnel and cleared the condition of the occurrence. It was clearly revealed that the accidents mostly happened when the workers mounted the explosive and the steel arch in the headings of the mountain tunnel. In addition, the dimension of the rocks fallen were averagely 0.6m diameter, it was not so much large. Therefore, the countermeasures based on both soft and hard faces would be useful and effective, such as the displacement measurement of a cutting face of tunnel, securing the sufficient lights to observe the cutting face, boring for drainage and shotcreting in a heading of tunnel.

  13. A computer code for analysis of severe accidents in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The ICARE2 computer code, developed and validated since 1988 at IPSN (nuclear safety and protection institute), calculates in a mechanistic way the physical and chemical phenomena involved in the core degradation process during possible severe accidents in LWR's. The coupling between ICARE2 and the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code CATHARE2 was completed at IPSN and led to the release of a first ICARE/CATHARE V1 version in 1999, followed by 2 successive revisions in 2000 and 2001. This documents gathers all the contributions presented at the first international ICARE/CATHARE users'club seminar that took place in November 2001. This seminar was characterized by a high quality and variety of the presentations, showing an increase of reactor applications and user needs in this area (2D/3D aspects, reflooding, corium slumping into the lower head,...). 2 sessions were organized. The first one was dedicated to the applications of ICARE2 V3mod1 against small-scale experiments such as PHEBUS FPT2 and FPT3 tests, PHEBUS AIC, QUENCH experiments, NRU-FLHT-5 test, ACRR-MP1 and DC1 experiments, CORA-PWR tests, and PBF-SFD1.4 test. The second session involved ICARE/CATHARE V1mod1 reactor applications and users'guidelines. Among reactor applications we found: code applicability to high burn-up fuel rods, simulation of the TMI-2 transient, simulation of a PWR-900 high pressure severe accident sequence, and the simulation of a VVER-1000 large break LOCA scenario. (A.C.)

  14. A computer code for analysis of severe accidents in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The ICARE2 computer code, developed and validated since 1988 at IPSN (nuclear safety and protection institute), calculates in a mechanistic way the physical and chemical phenomena involved in the core degradation process during possible severe accidents in LWR's. The coupling between ICARE2 and the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code CATHARE2 was completed at IPSN and led to the release of a first ICARE/CATHARE V1 version in 1999, followed by 2 successive revisions in 2000 and 2001. This documents gathers all the contributions presented at the first international ICARE/CATHARE users'club seminar that took place in November 2001. This seminar was characterized by a high quality and variety of the presentations, showing an increase of reactor applications and user needs in this area (2D/3D aspects, reflooding, corium slumping into the lower head,...). 2 sessions were organized. The first one was dedicated to the applications of ICARE2 V3mod1 against small-scale experiments such as PHEBUS FPT2 and FPT3 tests, PHEBUS AIC, QUENCH experiments, NRU-FLHT-5 test, ACRR-MP1 and DC1 experiments, CORA-PWR tests, and PBF-SFD1.4 test. The second session involved ICARE/CATHARE V1mod1 reactor applications and users'guidelines. Among reactor applications we found: code applicability to high burn-up fuel rods, simulation of the TMI-2 transient, simulation of a PWR-900 high pressure severe accident sequence, and the simulation of a VVER-1000 large break LOCA scenario. (A.C.)

  15. A computer code for analysis of severe accidents in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The ICARE2 computer code, developed and validated since 1988 at IPSN (nuclear safety and protection institute), calculates in a mechanistic way the physical and chemical phenomena involved in the core degradation process during possible severe accidents in LWR's. The coupling between ICARE2 and the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code CATHARE2 was completed at IPSN and led to the release of a first ICARE/CATHARE V1 version in 1999, followed by 2 successive revisions in 2000 and 2001. This documents gathers all the contributions presented at the first international ICARE/CATHARE users'club seminar that took place in November 2001. This seminar was characterized by a high quality and variety of the presentations, showing an increase of reactor applications and user needs in this area (2D/3D aspects, reflooding, corium slumping into the lower head,...). 2 sessions were organized. The first one was dedicated to the applications of ICARE2 V3mod1 against small-scale experiments such as PHEBUS FPT2 and FPT3 tests, PHEBUS AIC, QUENCH experiments, NRU-FLHT-5 test, ACRR-MP1 and DC1 experiments, CORA-PWR tests, and PBF-SFD1.4 test. The second session involved ICARE/CATHARE V1mod1 reactor applications and users'guidelines. Among reactor applications we found: code applicability to high burn-up fuel rods, simulation of the TMI-2 transient, simulation of a PWR-900 high pressure severe accident sequence, and the simulation of a VVER-1000 large break LOCA scenario. (A.C.)

  16. Heading Frequency Is More Strongly Related to Cognitive Performance Than Unintentional Head Impacts in Amateur Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Stewart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCompared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP test performance.MethodActive adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year. All participants completed a baseline validated questionnaire (“HeadCount-2w”, reporting 2-week recall of soccer activity, heading and unintentional head impacts. In addition, participants also completed NP tests of verbal learning, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and working memory. Most participants also completed one or more identical follow-up protocols (i.e., HeadCount-2w and NP tests at 3- to 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Repeated measures General Estimating Equations (GEE linear models were used to determine if variation in NP tests at each visit was related to variation in either heading or unintentional head impacts in the 2-week period before testing.Results308 players (78% male completed 741 HeadCount-2w. Mean (median heading/2-weeks was 50 (17 for men and 26 (7 for women. Heading was significantly associated with poorer performance on psychomotor speed (p < 0.001 and attention (p = 0.02 tasks and was borderline significant with poorer performance on the working memory (p = 0.06 task. Unintentional head impacts were not significantly associated with any NP test. Results did not differ after excluding 22 HeadCount-2w with reported concussive or borderline concussive symptoms

  17. Assistance to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Immediately after the reactor accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant occurring on March 11, 2011, JAEA started and continues to work with its every possible effort for remediation and has established the head quarter for countermeasure in Fukushima prefecture. The present paper includes main activities of assisting Fukushima area such as environmental monitoring and decontamination, technical advises to Japanese and local government, and others. Some are in cooperation with universities and others with Tokyo Electric Power Company. Towards closing the reactor accident, JAEA is joining the integrated activities for cooling the damaged reactor core and management of storing and disposal of radioactive wastes produced and large amount of remaining contaminated water to find out an adequate method for decontamination and preparing the manual for it. (S. Ohno)

  18. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  19. Characteristics of Syntactic Comprehension Deficits Following Closed Head Injury versus Left Cerebrovascular Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Hinz, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined the ability to assign thematic roles and to coindex referentially dependent noun phrases in closed head injured adults (N=20), adult stroke patients (N=20), and normal adults (N=20). Results suggested that syntactic comprehension disturbances are similar following left cerebral hemisphere infarction and closed head injury.…

  20. Testing two novel stump-lifting heads in a final felling Norway spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Mutikainen, A. (TTS Research, Rajamaeki (Finland)), Email: arto.mutikainen@tts.fi

    2009-07-01

    The use of stump and root wood chips has increased very rapidly in the 21st century in Finland: in the year 2000, the total consumption of stump wood chips for energy generation was 10 GWh, while in 2008 it was around 1.2 TWh. Metsaeteho Oy and TTS Research tested two new stump-lifting devices for lifting stumps in a final felling Norway spruce (picea abies) stand. In the time study with the Vaekevae Stump Processor lifting head, the productivity of stump lifting was 7,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps with a diameter of 30 cm from clayey soil, and 8.3 m3 /E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps from sandy soil. When lifting stumps with a diameter of 40 cm, the stump-lifting productivity was 9.0 m3 /E{sub 0}-h (clay) and 10,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-h (sand). The results of this relatively restricted test indicated that the Vaekevae Stump Processor is s reliable and effective stump-lifting head that enables the harvesting of high-quality stump raw material for energy generation. The stump lifting productivity of the other lifting head (Jaervinen) was lower than that of the Vaekevae Strump Processor. Some development suggestions for the Jaervinen lifting head were presented and discussed. (orig.)

  1. Heat transfer between relocated materials and the RPV lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Kohriyama, T.

    2001-01-01

    Questions about the coolability of a continuous mass of relocated corium were raised during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Post-accident examinations indicate that nearly half of the material that relocated to the vessel lower head during the TMI-2 accident formed a cohesive or ''continuous'' layer. TMI-2 VIP results and other evidence suggest that conduction through this continuous layer of solidified corium materials was assisted by other cooling mechanisms. Because increased knowledge about in-vessel coolability of corium materials may assist reactor designers in demonstrating that their concepts are passively safe, there is international interest in this topic. However, data are needed to identify what cooling mechanism(s) occurred and to develop a validated model for predicting this cooling. Corium cooling models significantly impact predictions for subsequent accident progression, such as the estimated time and mode of vessel failure. Hence, improved cooling models will provide a much needed, missing component of severe accident analyses. This paper provides a critical review of research investigating the coolability of corium relocating to a water-filled lower head. Where possible, existing models and data for predicting cooling are quantitatively compared; and governing relationships are identified. Key phenomena that should be incorporated into models for predicting this heat transfer are discussed, and deficiencies in current models and available data for predicting cooling are noted. Recommendations for improving these models and for obtaining data to validate these models are also provided. (author)

  2. Development of Accident Scenarios and Quantification Methodology for RAON Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongjin; Jae, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The RIsp (Rare Isotope Science Project) plans to provide neutron-rich isotopes (RIs) and stable heavy ion beams. The accelerator is defined as radiation production system according to Nuclear Safety Law. Therefore, it needs strict operate procedures and safety assurance to prevent radiation exposure. In order to satisfy this condition, there is a need for evaluating potential risk of accelerator from the design stage itself. Though some of PSA researches have been conducted for accelerator, most of them focus on not general accident sequence but simple explanation of accident. In this paper, general accident scenarios are developed by Event Tree and deduce new quantification methodology of Event Tree. In this study, some initial events, which may occur in the accelerator, are selected. Using selected initial events, the accident scenarios of accelerator facility are developed with Event Tree. These results can be used as basic data of the accelerator for future risk assessments. After analyzing the probability of each heading, it is possible to conduct quantification and evaluate the significance of the accident result. If there is a development of the accident scenario for external events, risk assessment of entire accelerator facility will be completed. To reduce the uncertainty of the Event Tree, it is possible to produce a reliable data via the presented quantification techniques

  3. Safety analysis of accident localization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A complex safety analysis of accident localization system of Ignalina NPP was performed. Calculation results obtained, results of non-destruct ing testing and experimental data of reinforced concrete testing of buildings does not revealed deficiencies of buildings of accident localization system at unit 1 of Ignalina NPP. Calculations were performed using codes NEPTUNE, ALGOR, CONTAIN

  4. Injury Source and Correlation Analysis of Riders in Car-Electric Bicycle Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiefang Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about the injury source and correlation of riders in car-electric bicycle accident will be helpful in the cross validation of traces and vehicle safety design. In order to know more information about such kind of knowledge, 57 true car-electric bicycle accidents were reconstructed by PC-Crash and then data on injury information of riders were collected directly from the reconstructed cases. These collected data were validated by some existing research results firstly, and then 4 abnormal cases were deleted according to the statistical method. Finally, conclusions can be obtained according to the data obtained from the remaining 53 cases. Direct injuries of the head and right leg are from the road pavement upon low speed; the source laws of indirect head injuries are not obvious. Upon intermediate and high speed, the injuries of the above parts are from automobiles. Injuries of the left leg, femur, and right knee are from automobiles; left knee injuries are from automobiles, the road pavement and automobiles, respectively, upon low, intermediate, and high speed. The source laws of indirect torso injuries are not obvious upon intermediate and low speed, which are from automobiles upon high speed, while direct torso injuries are from the road pavement. And there is no high correlation between all parts of the injury of riders. The largest correlation coefficient was the head-left femur and left femur-right femur, which was 0.647, followed by the head-right femur (0.638 and head-torso which was 0.617.

  5. Injury Source and Correlation Analysis of Riders in Car-Electric Bicycle Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tiefang; Yi, Liang; Cai, Ming; Hu, Lin; Li, Yuelin

    2018-01-01

    The knowledge about the injury source and correlation of riders in car-electric bicycle accident will be helpful in the cross validation of traces and vehicle safety design. In order to know more information about such kind of knowledge, 57 true car-electric bicycle accidents were reconstructed by PC-Crash and then data on injury information of riders were collected directly from the reconstructed cases. These collected data were validated by some existing research results firstly, and then 4 abnormal cases were deleted according to the statistical method. Finally, conclusions can be obtained according to the data obtained from the remaining 53 cases. Direct injuries of the head and right leg are from the road pavement upon low speed; the source laws of indirect head injuries are not obvious. Upon intermediate and high speed, the injuries of the above parts are from automobiles. Injuries of the left leg, femur, and right knee are from automobiles; left knee injuries are from automobiles, the road pavement and automobiles, respectively, upon low, intermediate, and high speed. The source laws of indirect torso injuries are not obvious upon intermediate and low speed, which are from automobiles upon high speed, while direct torso injuries are from the road pavement. And there is no high correlation between all parts of the injury of riders. The largest correlation coefficient was the head-left femur and left femur-right femur, which was 0.647, followed by the head-right femur (0.638) and head-torso which was 0.617.

  6. Accident data study of concrete construction companies' similarities and differences between qualified and non-qualified workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Gibb, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss findings from an analysis of accidents in concrete construction companies in Spain and to compare the accident rates of qualified and non-qualified workers. A total of 125,021 accidents between 2003 and 2008 involving both blue-collar and white-collar workers were analysed, comparing the variables of occupation, age, company staff, length of service, location of the accident, together with the severity of the accidents. Results showed that lack of experience in the first month is more significant in non-qualified workers and experienced supervisors and that head injuries are more likely to lead to fatalities. The most remarkable similarity was that fatal accidents to and from the worksite are a problem common to both groups of workers.

  7. Study on scan timing using a test injection method in head CTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekito, Yuichi; Sanada, Hidenori

    2005-01-01

    In head computed tomographic angiography (CTA), circulation from arterial phase to venous phase is more rapid than that in other regions. Therefore, it is necessary to determine correct scan timing to obtain ideal CTA images. A test injection method makes it possible to set correct scan timing from the time density curve (TDC) for each subject. The method, however, has a weak point that is a time lag in an arrival time at peak point of contrast medium on TDC between the test injection and the primary examination because of the difference in total volume of contrast medium used. The purpose of this study calculated the delay time on the TDC in both scans. We used the test injection method and the bolus tracking method in the primary examination. The average errors in start time (Δt1) and slope change time (Δt2) of the contrast medium on the TDC between test injection and primary examination were 0.15 sec and 3.05 sec, respectively. The results indicated that it was important to grasp the delay time in start time and peak arrival time of the contrast medium between test injection and primary examination to obtain ideal images in head CTA. (author)

  8. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokalski, A.; Kowalski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  9. Femoral head fracture without hip dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Aditya K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Femoral head fractures without dislocation or subluxation are extremely rare injuries. We report a neglected case of isolated comminuted fracture of femoral head without hip dislocation or subluxation of one year duration in a 36-year-old patient who sustained a high en- ergy trauma due to road traffic accident. He presented with painful right hip and inability to bear full weight on right lower limb with Harris hip score of 39. He received cementless total hip replacement. At latest follow-up of 2.3 years, functional outcome was excellent with Harris hip score of 95. Such isolated injuries have been described only once in the literature and have not been classified till now. The purpose of this report is to highlight the extreme rarity, possible mechanism involved and a novel classification system to classify such injuries. Key words: Femur head; Hip dislocation; Classification; Arthroplasty, replacement, hip

  10. Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, A. [EC JRC, (JRC F.5) PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Del Nevo, A., E-mail: alessandro.delnevo@enea.it [ENEA, C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Moretti, F.; D' Auria, F. [GRNSPG, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Elkin, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre, Electrogorsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project 'TACIS 2.03/97', Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

  11. [Chiasma lesions in sport accidents (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmek, R

    1975-09-01

    With reference to a chiasma contusion, proved at autopsy, sustained by a football player after a temporal impression fracture due to contact of a knee with his skull, the pathological mechanism causing chiasma injuries in blunt head injuries is explained. Finally, from our own experience we report on 2 water-sports accidents sustained by young men (a jump from the trampoline, and a fall during water-skiing) where chiasma-lesions were diagnosed from typical field defects.

  12. Reactor accident calculation models in use in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1984-01-01

    The report relates to a subproject under a Nordic project called ''Large reactor accidents - consequences and mitigating actions''. In the first part of the report short descriptions of the various models are given. A systematic list by subject is then given. In the main body of the report chapter and subchapter headings are by subject. (Auth.)

  13. LOFA [loss of flow accident] and LOCA [loss of coolant accident] in the TIBER-II engineering test reactor: Appendix A-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Attaya, H.M.; Corradini, M.L.; Lomperski, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary analysis of LOFA (loss of flow accident) and LOCA (loss of coolant accident) in the TIBER-II engineering test reactor breeding shield. TIBER-II is a compact reactor with a major radius of 3 m and thus requires a thin, high efficiency shield on the inboard side. The use of tungsten in the inboard shield implies a rather high rate of afterheat upon plasma shutdown, which must be dissipated in a controlled manner to avoid the possibility of radioactivity release or threatening the investment. Because the shield is cooled with an aqueous solution, LOFA does not pose a problem as long as natural convection can be established. LOCA, however, has more serious consequences, particularly on the inboard side. Circulation of air by natural convection is proposed as a means for dissipating the inboard shield decay heat. The safety and environmental implications of such a scheme are evaluated. It is shown that the inboard shield temperature never exceeds 510 0 C following LOCA posing no hazard to reactor personnel and not threatening the investment. 7 refs., 6 figs

  14. Aging increases compensatory saccade amplitude in the video head impulse test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Anson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rotational vestibular function declines with age resulting in saccades as a compensatory mechanism to improve impaired gaze stability. Small reductions in rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain that would be considered clinically normal have been associated with compensatory saccades. We evaluated whether compensatory saccade characteristics varied as a function of age, independent of semicircular canal function as quantified by VOR gain.Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 participants age 27-93 from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT. Latency and amplitude of the first saccade (either covert – occurring during head impulse, or overt – occurring following head impulse were measured for head impulses with compensatory saccades (n = 2230 head impulses. The relationship between age and saccade latency, as well as the relationship between age and saccade amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for VOR gain, gender, and race.Results: Older adults (mean age 75.9 made significantly larger compensatory saccades relative to younger adults (mean age 45.0. In analyses adjusted for VOR gain, there was a significant association between age and amplitude of the first compensatory covert saccade (β = 0.015, p = 0.008. In analyses adjusted for VOR gain, there was a significant association between age and amplitude of the first compensatory overt saccade (β = 0.02, p < 0.001. Compensatory saccade latencies did not vary significantly by age. Conclusions: We observed that aging increases the compensatory catch-up saccade amplitude in healthy adults after controlling for VOR gain. Size of compensatory saccades may be useful in addition to VOR gain for characterizing vestibular function in aging adults.

  15. Flight test of a head-worn display as an equivalent-HUD for terminal operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, K. J.; Arthur, J. J.; Prinzel, L. J.; Nicholas, S. N.; Williams, S. P.; Bailey, R. E.

    2015-05-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under NASA's Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as a potential equivalent display to a Head-up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US CFR 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent"' display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). A successful HWD implementation may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A flight test was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Approach and taxi testing was performed on-board NASA's experimental King Air aircraft in various visual conditions. Preliminary quantitative results indicate the HWD tested provided equivalent HUD performance, however operational issues were uncovered. The HWD showed significant potential as all of the pilots liked the increased situation awareness attributable to the HWD's unique capability of unlimited field-of-regard.

  16. An experimental study of the corrosion and precipitation of aluminum in the presence of trisodium phosphate buffer following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Howe, Kerry J.; Leavitt, Janet J.; Hammond, Kyle; Mitchell, Lana; Kee, Ernie; Blandford, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental head loss testing was conducted by aggressively promoting corrosion in loss of coolant accidents. • Blender-processed debris beds have higher head loss but tend to be less reproducible than NEI-processed debris beds. • Precipitation was observed from aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements. • Precipitation results were compared to predictions from Visual MINTEQ. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment of head loss across the sump pump screen with fibrous debris bed over a non-prototypical 10-day post-LOCA incident window. The corrosion head loss experiments (CHLE) is a reduced scaled integral effects testing facility built at the University of New Mexico (UNM) to investigate potential chemical effects on head loss across prepared fibrous debris beds. The results in this paper come from two integral effect tests performed at UNM in order to determine the chemical effects on head loss induced by a zinc source effect and an aluminum precipitation effect (T3: without Zn source case, T4: with Zn source case in containment). The tests were performed with a large surface area of aluminum coupons in the testing facility for an extended period of elevated temperature to accelerate corrosion above that expected under prototypical conditions. These conditions were sufficient to force aluminum precipitation to occur and induce the onset of chemical effects on debris bed head loss. The head loss behavior on two different types of fiber debris beds (blender-processed and NEI-processed debris bed) was evaluated in this study. It was found that the blender-processed bed is much more sensitive in filtering than the NEI-processed bed and consequently had a much higher head loss value across the beds. Aluminum precipitation was observed, with aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements, to form starting on day 7 in Test T3 and on day 6 in Test T4. The onset of aluminum precipitation

  17. An experimental study of the corrosion and precipitation of aluminum in the presence of trisodium phosphate buffer following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Leavitt, Janet J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Alion Science and Technology (United States); Hammond, Kyle; Mitchell, Lana [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Kee, Ernie [South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental head loss testing was conducted by aggressively promoting corrosion in loss of coolant accidents. • Blender-processed debris beds have higher head loss but tend to be less reproducible than NEI-processed debris beds. • Precipitation was observed from aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements. • Precipitation results were compared to predictions from Visual MINTEQ. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment of head loss across the sump pump screen with fibrous debris bed over a non-prototypical 10-day post-LOCA incident window. The corrosion head loss experiments (CHLE) is a reduced scaled integral effects testing facility built at the University of New Mexico (UNM) to investigate potential chemical effects on head loss across prepared fibrous debris beds. The results in this paper come from two integral effect tests performed at UNM in order to determine the chemical effects on head loss induced by a zinc source effect and an aluminum precipitation effect (T3: without Zn source case, T4: with Zn source case in containment). The tests were performed with a large surface area of aluminum coupons in the testing facility for an extended period of elevated temperature to accelerate corrosion above that expected under prototypical conditions. These conditions were sufficient to force aluminum precipitation to occur and induce the onset of chemical effects on debris bed head loss. The head loss behavior on two different types of fiber debris beds (blender-processed and NEI-processed debris bed) was evaluated in this study. It was found that the blender-processed bed is much more sensitive in filtering than the NEI-processed bed and consequently had a much higher head loss value across the beds. Aluminum precipitation was observed, with aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements, to form starting on day 7 in Test T3 and on day 6 in Test T4. The onset of aluminum precipitation

  18. A critical assessment of energy accident studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of two studies conducted ten years apart on energy accidents provides important insights into methodological issues and policy implications. Recommendations for further improvements in energy accident studies are developed including accounting for differences between average and incremental accident damages, testing for appropriate levels of aggregation of accidents, making references and databases publicly available, more precisely defining and reporting different types of economic damages, accounting for involuntary and voluntary risks, reporting normalized damages, raising broader public policy and planning implications and updating existing accident databases.

  19. A critical assessment of energy accident studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, Frank A. [Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    A comparison of two studies conducted ten years apart on energy accidents provides important insights into methodological issues and policy implications. Recommendations for further improvements in energy accident studies are developed including accounting for differences between average and incremental accident damages, testing for appropriate levels of aggregation of accidents, making references and databases publicly available, more precisely defining and reporting different types of economic damages, accounting for involuntary and voluntary risks, reporting normalized damages, raising broader public policy and planning implications and updating existing accident databases. (author)

  20. Most likely failure location during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Allison, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from which finite element calculation results are used in conjunction with analytical calculation results to predict failure in different LWR vessel designs during a severe accident. Detailed analyses are being performed to investigate the relative likelihood of a BWR vessel and drain line penetration to fail during a wide range of severe accident conditions. Analytically developed failure maps, which were developed in terms of dimensionless groups, are applied to consider geometries and materials occurring in other LWR vessel designs. Preliminary numerical analysis results indicate that if ceramic debris relocates within the BWR drain line to a distance below the lower head, the drain line will reach failure temperatures before the vessel fails. Application of failure maps for these debris conditions to other LWR geometries indicate that in-vessel tube melting will occur in either BWR or PWR vessel designs. Furthermore, if this melt is assumed to fill the entire penetration flow area, the melt is predicted to travel well below the lower head in any of the reference LWR penetrations. However, failure maps suggest the result that ex-vessel tube temperatures exceed the penetration's ultimate strength is specific to the BWR drain line because of its material composition and relatively large effective diameter for melt flow

  1. A study into the consequences of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.G.

    1987-07-01

    The nuclear industry in Britain would like to believe, and would like the general public to believe, that major accidents such as that at Chernobyl in 1986, could no happen in Britain, because the design and operating procedure have been made as safe as possible. However, because the designers and operators are human, they can make mistakes. Some of these are mentioned; errors of design, errors of maintenance or inspection and errors of judgement. In spite of protestations to the contrary, a major accident could occur at Sizewell-B reactor. Given that this a real possibility, plans should be drawn up to prepare for the situation. The study considers the possible consequences of a nuclear accident under the headings, human error, how nuclear fission works, radioactivity, the truth about Chernobyl, what patterns of reactor accident are possible, what can be done (this includes meteorological information, the issuing of potassium iodate tables, radiation monitoring and evacuation). Practical issues which should concern the local authorities, especially Wrekin Council, are discussed and a recommendation made for an environmental protection officer to be appointed to keep the matter under continuing review. (U.K.)

  2. Heat transfer between relocated materials and the RPV lower head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kohriyama, T. [INSS, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Questions about the coolability of a continuous mass of relocated corium were raised during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Vessel Investigation Project (VIP) Post-accident examinations indicate that nearly half of the material that relocated to the vessel lower head during the TMI-2 accident formed a cohesive or ''continuous'' layer. TMI-2 VIP results and other evidence suggest that conduction through this continuous layer of solidified corium materials was assisted by other cooling mechanisms. Because increased knowledge about in-vessel coolability of corium materials may assist reactor designers in demonstrating that their concepts are passively safe, there is international interest in this topic. However, data are needed to identify what cooling mechanism(s) occurred and to develop a validated model for predicting this cooling. Corium cooling models significantly impact predictions for subsequent accident progression, such as the estimated time and mode of vessel failure. Hence, improved cooling models will provide a much needed, missing component of severe accident analyses. This paper provides a critical review of research investigating the coolability of corium relocating to a water-filled lower head. Where possible, existing models and data for predicting cooling are quantitatively compared; and governing relationships are identified. Key phenomena that should be incorporated into models for predicting this heat transfer are discussed, and deficiencies in current models and available data for predicting cooling are noted. Recommendations for improving these models and for obtaining data to validate these models are also provided. (author)

  3. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2018-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  4. Nuclear accident response and population protection in The Netherlands: philosophy, solutions, and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baas, J.L.; Bosnjakovic, B.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with under the headings: nuclear energy in the Netherlands; the philosophy underlying the existing organization of response to nuclear accidents and population protection; practical experiences and recent developments; dose estimates; data transmission and lines of communication; international cooperation. (U.K.)

  5. Test of Magnetic Rotation near the band head in ^197,198Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, R.; Clark, R. M.; Deleplanque, M. A.; Diamond, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Lee, I. Y.; Schmid, G. J.; Stephens, F. S.; Vetter, K.; Dewald, A.; Peusquens, R.; von Brentano, P.; Baldsiefen, G.; Chmel, S.; Hübel, H.; Becker, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Hauschild, K.

    1998-04-01

    The concept of magnetic rotation is tested near the band head of shears-bands in ^197,198Pb by means of a lifetime experiment with the recoil distance method (RDM). The experiment was performed using the Gammasphere array in conjunction with the Cologne Plunger. The B(M1) values extracted from the measured lifetimes can prove the applicability of the concept of magnetic rotation for the states near the band head of these shears bands. The RDM results are compared with tilted axis cranking and shell model calculations. Furthermore the results will be used to test earlier DSAM lifetime measurements for states at higher spins. Preliminary results of this topic will be presented. This work is supported by DOE grant numbers DE-AC03-76SF00098 (LBNL), DE-FG02-91ER40609 (Yale), W-7405-ENG-48 (LLNL) and by the German BMBF for Cologne (No. 06 OK 668) and Bonn.

  6. Applicability of modified burst test data to reactivity initiated accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueh, K., E-mail: yuehky@hotmail.com

    2017-05-15

    A comprehensive irradiated cladding mechanical property dataset was generated by a recently developed modified burst test (MBT) under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) loading conditions [1,2]. The test data contains a wide range of test conditions that could bridge the gap between fast transient test reactor data (short pulse and/or low temperature) and prototypical commercial reactor conditions. This paper documents an evaluation performed to demonstrate the applicability of the MBT data to fuel cladding performance under RIA conditions. The current effort includes a comparison of calculated fuel cladding failure/burst strain for tests conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to the MBT dataset, and an evaluation of potential mechanisms on how some NSRR tests survived beyond the cladding loading capacity. A simple shell model, coupled with temperature output from the Falcon fuel performance code, was used to calculate the fuel pellet thermal expansion of NSRR tests at the point of failure. The calculated fuel pellet thermal expansion correlates well directly with the MBT data at similar loading conditions. A 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) model was used to evaluate fuel movement potential during a RIA. The evaluation indicates fuel relocation into the pellet chamfer and later into the dish is possible once a temperature threshold is reached before cladding failure and thus could significantly increase the fuel rod energy absorption capacity in a RIA event.

  7. In-pile TREAT Test L04: simulating a lead sub-assembly in an unprotected LMFBR loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylka, J.P.; Bauer, T.H.; Wright, A.E.; Davies, A.L.; Herbert, R.; Woods, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Test L04 in the PFR/TREAT series is the first multi-pin, in-pile simulation of a LMFBR transient undercooling/overpower (TUCOP) accident using full length prototypic fuel irradiated in a fast reactor. L04 is a gridded 7-pin bundle test performed in the ANL Mk-III integral loop in a flowing sodium environment and uses prototypic, bottom plenum, UK reactor fuel, preirradiated in the PFR to an axial peak burn-up of 4.2 a/o. The objective of L04 was the study, by simulation, of coolant voiding and fuel motion during the initiating phase of a hypothetical TUCOP accident in a large LMFBR. Test L04 is intended to study the behavior of a centrally located, lead subassembly with the highest power-to-flow ratio

  8. First days of the Chernobyl accident. Private experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpan, Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Ex-deputy chief engineer of Chernobyl NPP described the time-series personal experience of the fourth unit accident on 26 April, 1986. He was informed the accident at home at 4 o'clock. He came to the plant at 7 o'clock. He and other newcomers were no informed about what happened at the plant and about details of the accident from top manager of the plant. He gathered important information about the accident from people that were eyewitness of the accident and recorded their evidences. He reported to head engineer and his deputy that solution of boron acid could be brought into reactor for suppression of the chain reaction. Director of NPP asked authorities to bring boron acid to the plant, but the boron acid was not received before the chain reaction. The critical state began approximately 20 in the evening. After 4 hours of the critical state exposition dose rate of gamma radiation was ten times from 20 R/h in the morning and middle of day to 200 R/h. He consider as the first fault of the Governmental Commission was the absence of efforts for bringing boron to gorges of fuel and to shaft of reactor. The second fault was that protective countermeasures for city population protection were not undertaken. The authorities of Chernobyl began to wait for decisions of higher authorities. This means that responsibility was moved to them. (N.T)

  9. Severe accident research and management in Nordic Countries - A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the status of severe accident research and accident management development in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The emphasis is on severe accident phenomena and issues of special importance for the severe accident management strategies implemented in Sweden and in Finland. The main objective of the research has been to verify the protection provided by the accident mitigation measures and to reduce the uncertainties in risk dominant accident phenomena. Another objective has been to support validation and improvements of accident management strategies and procedures as well as to contribute to the development of level 2 PSA, computerised operator aids for accident management and certain aspects of emergency preparedness. Severe accident research addresses both the in-vessel and the ex-vessel accident progression phenomena and issues. Even though there are differences between Sweden and Finland as to the scope and content of the research programs, the focus of the research in both countries is on in-vessel coolability, integrity of the reactor vessel lower head and core melt behaviour in the containment, in particular the issues of core debris coolability and steam explosions. Notwithstanding that our understanding of these issues has significantly improved, and that experimental data base has been largely expanded, there are still important uncertainties which motivate continued research. Other important areas are thermal-hydraulic phenomena during reflooding of an overheated partially degraded core, fission product chemistry, in particular formation of organic iodine, and hydrogen transport and combustion phenomena. The development of severe accident management has embraced, among other things, improvements of accident mitigating procedures and strategies, further work at IFE Halden on Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system, as well as plant modifications, including new instrumentation. Recent efforts in Sweden in this area

  10. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1996-09-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation is confirmed by further tests at high temperatures as well as by finite element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation is confirmed by finite element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure is developed and validated by tests under varying temperature and pressure loading expected during severe accidents

  11. Accidents on board merchant ships. Suggestions based on Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleone, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This statistical study was performed to find out the occurrence of accidents on board ships assisted by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) during the years 2010-2015, with the aim of providing suggestions in accident prevention, based on such a wide experience. The case histories of CIRM in the years 2010-2015 were examined. The total number of accidents per year was calculated and compared as a percentage with the total number of cases assisted by CIRM per year. The incidence of accidents on board in these years ranged between 14.4% and 18.4% of total cases assisted per year, which is constantly increasing. The most common injuries on board among cases treated by CIRM were contusions and wounds. Also burns and eye injuries were significantly represented. Multiple injuries and head injuries were found to be the most frequent cause of death on board due to an accident. More information on the occurrence and type of accidents and on the body injured areas should represent the basis for developing strategies and campaigns for their prevention.

  12. The development of severe accident analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heuy Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Kim, Sang Baek; Park, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kyu Jung; Park, Lae Joon; Hu, Hoh; Hong, Sung Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the development of severe accident analysis technology is to understand the severe accident phenomena such as core melt progression and to provide a reliable analytical tool to assess severe accidents in a nuclear power plant. Furthermore, establishment of the accident management strategies for the prevention/mitigation of severe accidents is also the purpose of this research. The study may be categorized into three areas. For the first area, two specific issues were reviewed to identify the further research direction, that is the natural circulation in the reactor coolant system and the fuel-coolant interaction as an in-vessel and an ex-vessel phenomenological study. For the second area, the MELCOR and the CONTAIN codes have been upgraded, and a validation calculation of the MELCOR has been performed for the PHEBUS-B9+ experiment. Finally, the experimental program has been established for the in-vessel and the ex-vessel severe accident phenomena with the in-pile test loop in KMRR and the integral containment test facilities, respectively. (Author).

  13. Predicting brain mechanics during closed head impact : numerical and constitutive aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, D.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Annually, motor vehicle crashes world wide cause over a million fatalities and over a hundred million injuries. Of all body parts, the head is identified as the body region most frequently involved in life-threatening injury. To understand how the brain gets injured during an accident, the

  14. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 4 – Integrated chemical effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward, E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Integrated test explored the material release of a postulated large break LOCA. • Aluminum concentration was very low (<0.1 mg/L) throughout the test duration. • Zinc concentration was low (<1 mg/L) in TSP-buffered system. • Calcium release showed two distinguished release zones: prompt and meta-stable. • Copper and iron has no distinguishable concentration up to first 24 h of testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment executed under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at the Vogtle nuclear power plant, operated by the Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNOC). This test was conducted for closure of a series of bench scale experiments conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum (Howe et al., 2015) and zinc (Pease et al., 2015) from metallic surfaces, and calcium from NUKON fiberglass insulation (Olson et al., 2015) . The integrated test was performed in the Corrosion/Chemical Head Loss Experimental (CHLE) facility with representative amounts of zinc, aluminum, carbon steel, copper, NUKON fiberglass, and latent debris. The test was conducted using borated TSP-buffered solution under a post-LOCA prototypical temperature profile lasting for 30 days. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests under TSP conditions. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test. Samples of metal coupons and fiberglass were selected for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy

  15. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 4 – Integrated chemical effects testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel; Blandford, Edward; Howe, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated test explored the material release of a postulated large break LOCA. • Aluminum concentration was very low (<0.1 mg/L) throughout the test duration. • Zinc concentration was low (<1 mg/L) in TSP-buffered system. • Calcium release showed two distinguished release zones: prompt and meta-stable. • Copper and iron has no distinguishable concentration up to first 24 h of testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment executed under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at the Vogtle nuclear power plant, operated by the Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNOC). This test was conducted for closure of a series of bench scale experiments conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum (Howe et al., 2015) and zinc (Pease et al., 2015) from metallic surfaces, and calcium from NUKON fiberglass insulation (Olson et al., 2015) . The integrated test was performed in the Corrosion/Chemical Head Loss Experimental (CHLE) facility with representative amounts of zinc, aluminum, carbon steel, copper, NUKON fiberglass, and latent debris. The test was conducted using borated TSP-buffered solution under a post-LOCA prototypical temperature profile lasting for 30 days. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests under TSP conditions. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test. Samples of metal coupons and fiberglass were selected for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy

  16. Development and qualification of a thermal-hydraulic nodalization for modeling station blackout accident in PSB-VVER test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghafi, Mahdi [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghofrani, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: ghofrani@sharif.edu [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); D’Auria, Francesco [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), University of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291, San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A thermal-hydraulic nodalization for PSB-VVER test facility has been developed. • Station blackout accident is modeled with the developed nodalization in MELCOR code. • The developed nodalization is qualified at both steady state and transient levels. • MELCOR predictions are qualitatively and quantitatively in acceptable range. • Fast Fourier Transform Base Method is used to quantify accuracy of code predictions. - Abstract: This paper deals with the development of a qualified thermal-hydraulic nodalization for modeling Station Black-Out (SBO) accident in PSB-VVER Integral Test Facility (ITF). This study has been performed in the framework of a research project, aiming to develop an appropriate accident management support tool for Bushehr nuclear power plant. In this regard, a nodalization has been developed for thermal-hydraulic modeling of the PSB-VVER ITF by MELCOR integrated code. The nodalization is qualitatively and quantitatively qualified at both steady-state and transient levels. The accuracy of the MELCOR predictions is quantified in the transient level using the Fast Fourier Transform Base Method (FFTBM). FFTBM provides an integral representation for quantification of the code accuracy in the frequency domain. It was observed that MELCOR predictions are qualitatively and quantitatively in the acceptable range. In addition, the influence of different nodalizations on MELCOR predictions was evaluated and quantified using FFTBM by developing 8 sensitivity cases with different numbers of control volumes and heat structures in the core region and steam generator U-tubes. The most appropriate case, which provided results with minimum deviations from the experimental data, was then considered as the qualified nodalization for analysis of SBO accident in the PSB-VVER ITF. This qualified nodalization can be used for modeling of VVER-1000 nuclear power plants when performing SBO accident analysis by MELCOR code.

  17. Accident management for severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Pratt, W.T.; Lehner, J.; Leonard, M.; Disalvo, R.; Sheron, B.

    1988-01-01

    The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs

  18. Description of the blowdown test facility COG program on in-reactor fission product release, transport, and deposition under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, P.J.; Wood, J.C.

    1987-06-01

    Loss-of-coolant accidents with additional impairment of emergency cooling would probably result in high fuel temperatures leading to severe fuel damage (SFD) and significant fission product activity would then be transported along the PHTS to the break where a fraction of it would be released and transport under such conditions, there are many interacting and sometimes competing phenomena to consider. Laboratory simulations are being used to provide data on these individual phenomena, such as UO 2 oxidation and Zr-UO 2 interaction, from which mathematical models can be constructed. These are then combined into computer codes to include the interaction effects and assess the overall releases. In addition, in-reactor tests are the only source of data on release and transport of short-lived fission product nuclides, which are important in the consequence analysis of CANDU reactor accidents. Post-test decontamination of an in-reactor test facility also provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate techniques and obtain decontamination data relevant to post-accident rehabilitation of CANDU power reactors. Specialized facilities are required for in-reactor testing because of the extensive release of radioactive fission products and the high temperatures involved (up to 2500 degrees Celsius). To meet this need for the Canadian program, the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) has been built in the NRU reactor at Chalk River. Between completion of construction in mid-1987 and the first Zircaloy-sheathed fuel test in fiscal year 1987/88, several commissioning tests are being performed. Similarly, extensive development work has been completed to permit application of instrumentation to irradiated fuel elements, and in support of post-test fuel assembly examination. A program of decontamination studies has also been developed to generate information relevant to post-accident decontamination of power reactors. The BTF shared cost test program funded by the COG High Temperature

  19. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Favarò

    Full Text Available Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017. The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  20. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarò, Francesca M; Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  1. Analysis of severe accidents on fast reactor test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenerini, R.; Verzelletti, G.; Curioni, S.

    1975-01-01

    The Pec reactor is a sodium cooled fast reactor which is being designed for the primary purpose of accomodating closed sodium cooled test loops for the developmental and proof testing of fast reactor fuel assemblies. The test loops are located in the central test region of reactor. The basic function for which the loop is designed is burn-up to failure testing of fuel under advanced performance conditions. It is therefore necessary to design the loop for failure conditions. Basically two types of accidents can occur within the loops: rupture of gas plenum in the fuel pins and coolant starvation. Explosive tests on Pec loop, whose first set is described in this report, are devoted to investigate the effects of an accidental energy release on loop containment. The loop model reproduces in the test section the prototype dimensions in radial scale 1:1. Using a wire explosive charge of 300mm, the height of test section is sufficient for determining the containment capability of the loop that has a nearly constant deformation in a length of. 3-4 time the diameter. The inertial effects of the coolant column are reproduced by two tubes at the extremities of test section, closed with top plugs. Some tests has been performed by wrapping around the test section four layers of steel wire in order to evaluate the influence on the containment of tungsten wire that is foreseen in prototype loop. The influence of the coolant around the loop was evaluated by inserting the model in water. Dummy sub-assemblies was used and explosive substitutes the central rods. Piezoelectric pressure transducers were mounted on the three plugs and radial deformation was measured directly at different height. From experiments performed it resulted the importance of harmonic wires and inertial reaction of external water on loop containment; maximum containable energy is about 50 Cal with E.1 explosive

  2. Incidence and severity of head and neck injuries in victims of road traffic crashes: In an economically developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Rahman, Yassir S Abdul; Mitra, Biswadev

    2009-01-01

    Head and neck injuries following the road traffic crashes (RTCs) are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed and developing countries and may also result in temporary or permanent disability. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence pattern of head and neck injuries, investigate its trend and identify the severity of injuries involved with road traffic crashes (RTCs) during the period 2001-2006. This is a retrospective descriptive hospital based study. The patients with head and neck injuries were seen and treated in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Hamad General Hospital and other Trauma Centers of the Hamad Medical Corporation following the road traffic crashes during the period 2001-2006. This study is a retrospective analysis of 6709 patients attended and treated at the Accident and Emergency and Trauma centers for head and neck injuries over a 6 year period. Head and neck injuries were determined according to the ICD 10 criteria. Of these, 3013 drivers, 2502 passengers, 704 pedestrians and 490 two wheel riders (motor bike and cyclists). Details of all the road traffic crash patients were compiled in the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and the data of patients with head and neck injuries were extracted from this database. A total of 6709 patients with head and neck injuries was reported during the study period. Majority of the victims were non-Qataris (68.7%), men (85.9%) and in the age group 20-44 years (68.5%). There were statistical significant differences in relation to age, nationality, gender, and accident during week ends for head and neck injuries (pQatar from road traffic crashes. The incidence of head and neck injuries is still very high in Qatar, but the severity of injury was mild in most of the victims. The findings of the study highlighted the need for taking urgent steps for safety of people especially drivers and passengers.

  3. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Paul A., E-mail: paul.demkowicz@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, MS 3860, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Laug, David V.; Scates, Dawn M.; Reber, Edward L.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Walter, John B.; Harp, Jason M. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, MS 3860, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Morris, Robert N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A system has been developed for safety testing of irradiated coated particle fuel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FACS system is designed to facilitate remote operation in a shielded hot cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System will measure release of fission gases and condensable fission products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuel performance can be evaluated at temperatures as high as 2000 Degree-Sign C in flowing helium. - Abstract: The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 Degree-Sign C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated

  4. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  5. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  6. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M.

    1966-01-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [fr

  7. Testing the dual-route model of perceived gaze direction: Linear combination of eye and head cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Mareschal, Isabelle; Clifford, Colin W G

    2016-06-01

    We have recently proposed a dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction (Otsuka, Mareschal, Calder, & Clifford, 2014; Otsuka, Mareschal, & Clifford, 2015), which computes perceived gaze direction as a linear combination of eye orientation and head orientation. By parametrically manipulating eye orientation and head orientation, we tested the adequacy of a linear model to account for the effect of horizontal head orientation on perceived direction of gaze. Here, participants adjusted an on-screen pointer toward the perceived gaze direction in two image conditions: Normal condition and Wollaston condition. Images in the Normal condition included a change in the visible part of the eye along with the change in head orientation, while images in the Wollaston condition were manipulated to have identical eye regions across head orientations. Multiple regression analysis with explanatory variables of eye orientation and head orientation revealed that linear models account for most of the variance both in the Normal condition and in the Wollaston condition. Further, we found no evidence that the model with a nonlinear term explains significantly more variance. Thus, the current study supports the dual-route model that computes the perceived gaze direction as a linear combination of eye orientation and head orientation.

  8. Probabilistic Approach to Conditional Probability of Release of Hazardous Materials from Railroad Tank Cars during Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-13

    This paper describes a probabilistic approach to estimate the conditional probability of release of hazardous materials from railroad tank cars during train accidents. Monte Carlo methods are used in developing a probabilistic model to simulate head ...

  9. Lateral car collisions : characteristics of lateral car collisions based on SWOV accident investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1979-01-01

    During 1976 and part of 1977 the Dutch institute for road safety research SWOV carried out the field work for an accident study involving passenger cars. The purpose of this crash injury investigation was to evaluate the influence of relevant crash safety factors (like safety belts and head

  10. What one should know about radiation. Comparison of radiation burden from the Chernobyl accident and the atomic weapons test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtscher, A

    1986-01-01

    The natural radiation burden, that due to the Chernobyl accident and the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in Austria are compared. The overall Chernobyl burden is estimated at 50-70% of the annual natural burden and thus less than the burden from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. (G.Q.).

  11. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -The development of a severe accident analysis code-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heui Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Park, Jong Hwa; Hong, Sung Wan; Yoo, Dong Han; Hwang, Moon Kyoo; Noh, Kee Man; Song, Yong Man

    1995-07-01

    For prevention and mitigation of the containment failure during severe accident, the study is focused on the severe accident phenomena, especially, the ones occurring inside the cavity and is intended to improve existing models and develop analytical tools for the assessment of severe accidents. A correlation equation of the flame velocity of pre mixture gas of H 2 /air/steam has been suggested and combustion flame characteristic was analyzed using a developed computer code. For the analysis of the expansion phase of vapor explosion, the mechanical model has been developed. The development of a debris entrainment model in a reactor cavity with captured volume has been continued to review and examine the limitation and deficiencies of the existing models. Pre-test calculation was performed to support the severe accident experiment for molten corium concrete interaction study and the crust formation process and heat transfer characteristics of the crust have been carried out. A stress analysis code was developed using finite element method for the reactor vessel lower head failure analysis. Through international program of PHEBUS-FP and participation in the software development, the research on the core degradation process and fission products release and transportation are undergoing. CONTAIN and MELCOR codes were continuously updated under the cooperation with USNRC and French developed computer codes such as ICARE2, ESCADRE, SOPHAEROS were also installed into the SUN workstation. 204 figs, 61 tabs, 87 refs. (Author)

  12. Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehad, H; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Sh; Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A; Moghadam Dehnadi, A; Hemati, H; Mohtasham-Amiri, Z

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are a vulnerable road user group with high mortality and morbidity in road crash. The aim of this study was to show pattern of road traffic injuries in this special aging group. In a cross sectional study, pre-hospital emergency system reports, hospital and police records of all motor vehicle collisions injured above 60 years old who were admitted to Pour-Sina hospital from April 2011 to March 2012 were studied. Demographic data, characteristic of road traffic incidents and in-hospital medical profiles were derived. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 18. Differences between demographic and injuries situation were calculated by chi square test. A p-value of road accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad traffic injuries in this group especially in pedestrians should be taken into consideration and strategies aimed at the road-user safety including periodic medical examination and improvement of road structure and facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Factors Influencing Helmet Use, Head Injury, and Hospitalization Among Children Involved in Skateboarding and Snowboarding Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders.

  14. Reporting and analysis of NMAs - a tool for accidents prevention (case studies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougaonkar, A.; Vincy, M.U.; Pisharody, N.N.; Varshney, Aloke; Khot, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is a Public Sector Enterprise under Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India. NPCIL is operating 21 nuclear power plants and 5 nuclear power plants are under construction. NPCIL has an established organizational set-up to implement Industrial and Fire Safety requirements as per the applicable statutes and regulations. As part of industrial activities, sometimes there could be accidents due to unsafe conditions, unsafe acts or both. However, most of the accidents are preventable. The organization has issued a Head Quarter Instruction (HQI) for reporting and investigation of all types of accidents including Near Miss Accidents (NMAs). NMAs are the unplanned events, which have occurred, but did not result into injury or damage. It is very important that all NMAs are identified, reported, analyzed and corrective action taken to eliminate unsafe conditions or unsafe acts, which have caused these incidents. 'Reporting, analyzing and correcting the causes of NMAs' is one of such efforts enhanced in NPCIL to prevent accidents. Also, there exists a system for dissemination of information on incidents including NMAs among the NPCIL Units. This paper gives case study on some NMAs reported at NPCIL units during the year -2015 demonstrating the importance of the accidents prevention program. (author)

  15. Cerebrovascular accidents associated with sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Muhammad W; Isufi, Iris; Peccerillo, Jennifer; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2011-01-01

    Sorafenib is an oral angiogenetic multikinase inhibitor approved in the treatment of renal and hepatocellular carcinoma. Bleeding and venous thrombotic events have been described with angiogenetic agents but cerebrovascular accidents are rarely reported. We report two cases of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who developed a cerebrovascular accident while on sorafenib. Neither patient had any risk factors for the cerebrovascular events apart from gender and age in the second patient. Laboratory data were noncontributory. The head CT scan did not reveal acute abnormalities. No hemodynamically significant stenosis was visible in the carotid ultrasound, and the echocardiogram showed normal size of the heart chambers and normal systolic function of the left ventricle. Sorafenib was discontinued in both cases. Physicians should monitor patients receiving sorafenib for neurologic symptoms, and in the absence of other etiology, prompt discontinuation of this drug should be considered.

  16. Delayed symptoms and death after minor head trauma with occult vertebral artery injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Auer, R N; Krcek, J; Butt, J C

    1994-01-01

    Head injury without loss of consciousness is seldom accompanied by grave complications. We report the case of an 18 year old cyclist who was struck by a car in a minor road traffic accident, suffered minor head injury without loss of consciousness, and died unexpectedly seven weeks later with vomiting and coma. Necropsy revealed an expanding cerebellar infarct and vertebral artery thrombosis, superimposed on an old dissecting intramural haematoma of the right vertebral artery in the atlantoax...

  17. Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) Unit Test Report For HPAC Version 6.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ronald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Division; Morris, Robert W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Division; Sulfredge, Charles David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Division

    2015-12-01

    This is a unit test report for the Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) model for the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) version 6.3. NFAC’s responsibility as an HPAC component is three-fold. First, it must present an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) by which users can view and edit the definition of an NFAC incident. Second, for each incident defined, NFAC must interact with RTH to create activity table inputs and associate them with pseudo materials to be transported via SCIPUFF. Third, NFAC must create SCIPUFF releases with the associated pseudo materials for transport and dispersion. The goal of NFAC unit testing is to verify that the inputs it produces are correct for the source term or model definition as specified by the user via the GUI.

  18. Touch-sensitive colour graphics enhance monitoring of loss-of-coolant accident tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedden, M.D.; Mead, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A stand-alone computer-based system with an intelligent colour termimal is described for monitoring parameters during loss-of-coolant accident tests. Colour graphic displays and touch-sensitive control have been combined for effective operator interaction. Data collected by the host MODCOMP II minicomputer are dynamically updated on colour pictures generated by the terminal. Experimenters select system functions by touching simulated switches on a transparent touch-sensitive overlay, mounted directly over the face of the colour screen, eliminating the need for a keyboard. Switch labels and colours are changed on the screen by the terminal software as different functions are selected. Interaction is self-prompting and can be learned quickly. System operation for a complete set of 20 tests has demonstrated the convenience of interactive touchsensitive colour graphics

  19. Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) Unit Test Report For HPAC Version 6.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ronald W.; Morris, Robert W.; Sulfredge, Charles David

    2015-01-01

    This is a unit test report for the Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) model for the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) version 6.3. NFAC's responsibility as an HPAC component is three-fold. First, it must present an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) by which users can view and edit the definition of an NFAC incident. Second, for each incident defined, NFAC must interact with RTH to create activity table inputs and associate them with pseudo materials to be transported via SCIPUFF. Third, NFAC must create SCIPUFF releases with the associated pseudo materials for transport and dispersion. The goal of NFAC unit testing is to verify that the inputs it produces are correct for the source term or model definition as specified by the user via the GUI.

  20. Thermal hydraulic behavior of a PWR under beyond-design-basis accident conditions: Conclusions from an experimental program in a 4-loop test facility (PKL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.J.; Kastner, W.; Mandl, R.M.; Weber, P.

    1993-01-01

    Within the scope of German reactor safety research, extensive experiments covering the behavior of nuclear power plants under accident conditions have been carried out in the PKL test facility which simulates a 4-loop, 1,300 MWe KWU-designed PWR. While the investigations dealing with design-basis accidents and with the efficiency of the emergency core cooling systems have been largely completed, the main interest nowadays concentrates on the investigation of beyond-design-basis accidents to demonstrate the safety margins of nuclear power plants and to investigate the contribution of the built-in safety features for a further reduction of the residual risk. The thermal hydraulic behavior of a PWR under these extreme accident conditions was experimentally investigated within the PKL III B test program. This paper presents the fundamental findings with some of the most important results being discussed in detail. Future plans are also outlined

  1. Dosimetric and medical aspects of the radiological accident in Goiania in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    In September 1987, in Goiania, a city of one million inhabitants and capital of the Brazilian State of Goias, a rotating assembly of the shielding head of a teletherapy unit was removed and the capsule containing 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) of {sup 137}Cs was dismantled. This serious radiological accident resulted in four fatalities, injuries to many people, and the widespread contamination of the central part of Goiania. This TECDOC describes the dosimetric and medical aspects of the Goiania accident, including the experience of some of the scientists and physicians who were involved in the management, monitoring and treatment of the victims. Many scientific papers have been published on the subject in different journals. This publication compiles up to data conclusions on the 10 year follow-up of the Goiania accident victims, and summarizes the experience that was acquired Refs, figs, tabs

  2. Dosimetric and medical aspects of the radiological accident in Goiania in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    In September 1987, in Goiania, a city of one million inhabitants and capital of the Brazilian State of Goias, a rotating assembly of the shielding head of a teletherapy unit was removed and the capsule containing 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) of 137 Cs was dismantled. This serious radiological accident resulted in four fatalities, injuries to many people, and the widespread contamination of the central part of Goiania. This TECDOC describes the dosimetric and medical aspects of the Goiania accident, including the experience of some of the scientists and physicians who were involved in the management, monitoring and treatment of the victims. Many scientific papers have been published on the subject in different journals. This publication compiles up to data conclusions on the 10 year follow-up of the Goiania accident victims, and summarizes the experience that was acquired

  3. Pressure and Temperature of the Room 1 for the Pipe Break Accidents of the 3-Pin Fuel Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Chi, D. Y.; Sim, B. S.; Park, K. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, H. R

    2005-08-15

    This report deals with the prediction of the pressure and temperature of the room 1 for the pipe break accidents of the 3-pin fuel test loop. The 3-pin fuel test loop is an experimental facility for nuclear fuel tests at the operation conditions similar to those of PWR and CANDU power plants. Because the most processing systems of the 3-pin fuel test loop are placed in the room 1. The structural integrity of the room 1 should be evaluated for the postulated accident conditions. Therefore the pressures and temperatures of the room 1 needed for the structural integrity evaluation have been calculated by using MARS code. The pressures and temperatures of the room 1 have been calculated in various conditions such as the thermal hydraulic operation parameters, the locations of pipe break, and the thermal properties of the room 1 wall. It is assumed that the pipe break accident occurs in the letdown operation without regeneration, because the mass and energy release to the room 1 is expected to be the largest. As a result of the calculations the maximum pressure and temperature are predicted to be 208kPa and 369.2K(96.0 .deg. C) in case the heat transfer is considered in the room 1 wall. However the pressure and temperature are asymptotically 243kPa and 378.1K(104.9 .deg. C) assuming that the heat transfer does not occur in the room 1 wall.

  4. Fukushima accident - reasons and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima accident influenced dramatically the current view on safety of nuclear facilities. Consideration about possible impacts of natural catastrophe in design of nuclear facilities seems to be much more important than before. European commission is focused on the stress-tests at nuclear power plants. His paper will go more in details having in mind reasons and impacts of Fukushima accident (Author)

  5. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcilesi, David J.; Ham, Tae Kyu; Kim, In Hun; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Oh, Chang H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1/8th geometric-scale test facility that models the VHTR hot plenum is proposed. • Geometric scaling analysis is introduced for VHTR to analyze air-ingress accident. • Design calculations are performed to show that accident phenomenology is preserved. • Some analyses include time scale, hydraulic similarity and power scaling analysis. • Test facility has been constructed and shake-down tests are currently being carried out. - Abstract: A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time

  6. Full-length fuel rod behavior under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Panisko, F.E.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents an assessment of the severe accident phenomena observed from four Full-Length High-Temperature (FLHT) tests that were performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. These tests were conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Severe Accident Research Program. The objectives of the test were to simulate conditions and provide information on the behavior of full-length fuel rods during hypothetical, small-break, loss-of-coolant severe accidents, in commercial light water reactors

  7. Experimental data report for Test TS-1 Reactivity Initiated Accident Test in NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Sobajima, Makoto; Fujishiro, Toshio; Horiki, Ohichiro; Yamahara, Takeshi; Ichihashi, Yoshinori; Kikuchi, Teruo

    1992-01-01

    This report presents experimental data for Test TS-1 which was the first in a series of tests, simulating Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) conditions using pre-irradiated BWR fuel rods, performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in October, 1989. Test fuel rod used in the Test TS-1 was a short-sized BWR (7 x 7) type rod which was fabricated from a commercial rod provided from Tsuruga Unit 1 power reactor. The fuel had an initial enrichment of 2.79 % and burnup of 21.3 GWd/t (bundle average). Pulse irradiation was performed at a condition of stagnant water cooling, atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature using a newly developed double container-type capsule. Energy deposition of the rod in this test was evaluated to be about 61 cal/g·fuel (55 cal/g·fuel in peak fuel enthalpy) and no fuel failure was observed. Descriptions on test conditions, test procedures, fuel burnup measurements, transient behavior of the test rod during pulse irradiation and results of post pulse irradiation examinations are contained in this report. (author)

  8. Depressurization as an accident management strategy to minimize the consequences of direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Golden, D.W.; Chambers, R.; Miller, J.D.; Hallbert, B.P.; Dobbe, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have identified severe accidents for nuclear power plants that have the potential to cause failure of the containment through direct containment heating (DCH). Prevention of DCH or mitigation of its effects may be possible using accident management strategies that intentionally depressurize the reactor coolant system (RCS). The effectiveness of intentional depressurization during a station blackout TMLB' sequence was evaluated considering the phenomenological behavior, hardware performance, and operational performance. Phenomenological behavior was calculated using the SCDAP/RELAP5 severe accident analysis code. Two strategies to mitigate DCH by depressurization of the RCS were considered. One strategy, called early depressurization, assumed that the reactor head vent and pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) were latched open at steam generator dryout. The second strategy, called late depression, assumed that the head vent and PORVs were latched open at a core exit temperature of ∼922 K (1200 degree F). Depressurization of the RCS to a low value that may mitigate DCH was predicted prior to reactor pressure vessel breach for both early and late depressurization. The strategy of late depressurization is preferred over early depressurization because there are greater opportunities to recover plant functions prior to core damage and because failure uncertainties are lessened. 22 refs., 38 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Depressurization as an accident management strategy to minimize the consequences of direct containment heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Golden, D.W.; Chambers, R.; Miller, J.D.; Hallbert, B.P.; Dobbe, C.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have identified severe accidents for nuclear power plants that have the potential to cause failure of the containment through direct containment heating (DCH). Prevention of DCH or mitigation of its effects may be possible using accident management strategies that intentionally depressurize the reactor coolant system (RCS). The effectiveness of intentional depressurization during a station blackout TMLB' sequence was evaluated considering the phenomenological behavior, hardware performance, and operational performance. Phenomenological behavior was calculated using the SCDAP/RELAP5 severe accident analysis code. Two strategies to mitigate DCH by depressurization of the RCS were considered. One strategy, called early depressurization, assumed that the reactor head vent and pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) were latched open at steam generator dryout. The second strategy, called late depression, assumed that the head vent and PORVs were latched open at a core exit temperature of {approximately}922 K (1200{degree}F). Depressurization of the RCS to a low value that may mitigate DCH was predicted prior to reactor pressure vessel breach for both early and late depressurization. The strategy of late depressurization is preferred over early depressurization because there are greater opportunities to recover plant functions prior to core damage and because failure uncertainties are lessened. 22 refs., 38 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Thinnes, G.L.; Allison, C.M.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure in order to determine (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of reactor designs and thermodynamic conditions using analytic closed-form approximations to assess the important governing parameters in non-dimensional form. Preliminary results illustrate the importance of vessel and tube geometrical parameters, material properties, and external boundary conditions on predicting vessel failure. Thermal analyses indicate that steady-state temperature distributions will occur in the vessel within several hours, although the exact time is dependent upon vessel thickness. In-vessel tube failure is governed by the tube-to-debris mass ratio within the lower head, where most penetrations are predicted to fail if surrounded by molten debris. Melt penetration distance is dependent upon the effective flow diameter of the tube. Molten debris is predicted to penetrate through tubes with a larger effective flow diameter, such as a boiling water reactor (BWR) drain nozzle. Ex-vessel tube failure for depressurized reactor vessels is predicted to be more likely for a BWR drain nozzle penetration because of its larger effective diameter. At high pressures (between ∼0.1 MPa and ∼12 MPa) ex-vessel tube rupture becomes a dominant failure mechanism, although tube ejection dominates control rod guide tube failure at lower temperatures. However, tube ejection and tube rupture predictions are sensitive to the vessel and tube radial gap size and material coefficients of thermal expansion

  11. Unusually extensive head trauma in a hydraulic elevator accident: post-mortem MSCT findings, autopsy results and scene reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christina; Schön, Corinna A; Kneubuehl, Beat; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin

    2008-10-01

    Accidental or intentional falls from a height are a form of blunt trauma and occur frequently in forensic medicine. Reports describing elevator accidents as a small subcategory of falls from heights are rare in the medical literature and no report on injury patterns or scene reconstruction of such an accident was found. A case of an accident in a hydraulic elevator with a man falling 3m was examined using post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and autopsy. The man suffered an unusually extensive trauma and died at the scene. Post-mortem MSCT examination showed a comminute fracture of the skull, the right femur and the first lumbar vertebra. Severe lacerations of the brain with epidural, subdural and subarachnoidal haemorrhages over both hemispheres were diagnosed. Autopsy confirmed these findings. To reconstruct the accident we used radiological and autopsy results as well as findings at the scene.

  12. [Effect of post-traumatic disorders of the victims and causes of traffic accidents in the early stages of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigała, Dawid Konrad; Ziołek, Jakub; Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    Poland is a country in which every year there is a lot of motor vehicle accidents, number of victims is one of the highest in European union. Helping patients after motor vehicle accidents should base on cooperation of doctors and psychologists because holistic approach to patient enables rapid and effective rehabilitation. To show connection between physical damage cause in motor vehicle accident with mental trauma, which increase on process of full recovery. There were 31 victims who were involved in motor vehicle accidents not more than one month ago. In the second group there were people who was never involved in motor vehicle accident. The procedure consisted on filling demographic questionnaire, state traite anxety inventory and aqute stress disorder questionnare. In the second part of the research was to accomplish the emotional Stroop task, which based on selecting the name of the color of a word, which was on the screen. There were two types of the words: negative related to motor vehicle accident and neutral. Participants from the research group had higher level of anxiety than participants from control group and they had significantly longer reaction time in particular on words associated to accident, which could be the signal of problems with cognitive processes because of the anxiety. Furthermore participants with head injuries and upper limbs (whitout dominant limb) have had longer reaction times in Stroop test than participants with leg injuries, it indicating on higher level of anxiety and feeling of insecurity. It should be noted that looking on a character an range of a injuries, role that participant attend in accident (victims have more emotional disturbance), because it could determinate rate of recovery and the way communication with the patient.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  14. Use of the GPK cutter loader to drive headings. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' tsov, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Mine drivage work is described at the Novovolynskaya mine of the Ukrzapadugol' organization with an output of 520,000 t/y, daily output 1457 t. Two seams 0.6-1.8 m thick are worked at depths of 360-380 m. There is a catagory I methane hazard and a hazard of coal dust explosions. Almost all heading drivage is performed using the GPK cutter loader. The AKP-3/9.2 yielding arch support is used in headings, with an interval of 0.8 m between arches. Local ventilation blowers provide air through 600 mm pipes. Suction dust collectors and spraying are used at the face. Details are given of work organization and maintenance procedures. No serious or fatal accidents were recorded during heading drivage between 1981 and 1984.

  15. The coolability limits of a reactor pressure vessel lower head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Syri, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Configuration II of the ULPU experimental facility is described, and from a comprehensive set of experiments are provided. The facility affords full-scale simulations of the boiling crisis phenomenon on the hemispherical lower head of a reactor pressure vessel submerged in water, and heated internally. Whereas Configuration I experiments (published previously) established the lower limits of coolability under low submergence, pool-boiling conditions, with Configuration II we investigate coolability under conditions more appropriate to practical interest in severe accident management; that is, heat flux shapes (as functions of angular position) representative of a core melt contained by the lower head, full submergence of the reactor pressure vessel, and natural circulation. Critical heat fluxes as a function of the angular position on the lower head are reported and related the observed two-phase flow regimes.

  16. Pedestrian injury causation study (pedestrian accident typing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    A new computerized pedestrian accident typing procedure was tested on 1,997 cases from the Pedestrian Injury Causation Study (PICS). Two coding procedures were used to determine the effects of quantity and quality of information on accident typing ac...

  17. New design head pendulum test rig for window airbag development; Neu entwickelte Kopfpendel-Testanlage fuer die Window-Airbag -Auslegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundheber, C. [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Lindstromberg, M. [Siemens Restraint Systems, Alzenau (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Comparisons between vehicle crash tests and pendulum tests demonstrate good correlation. The head pendulum rig presents a faster, more economical alternative to the usual sled facilities. This is above all due to the simpler test set-up, which only considers the body parts relevant to the window airbag development, i.e. dummy head, neck and shoulder. The tuning of the system to new baseline values can also be carried out very quickly, by specific adjustments to the spring-damper arrangement. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of Video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) Gains Between Two Commercially Available Devices and by Different Gain Analytical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Park, Jun Woo; Kang, Byung Chul; Yang, Chan Joo; Kang, Woo Suk; Ahn, Joong Ho; Chung, Jong Woo; Park, Hong Ju

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate whether video head impulse test (vHIT) gains are dependent on the measuring device and method of analysis. Prospective study. vHIT was performed in 25 healthy subjects using two devices simultaneously. vHIT gains were compared between these instruments and using five different methods of comparing position and velocity gains during head movement intervals. The two devices produced different vHIT gain results with the same method of analysis. There were also significant differences in the vHIT gains measured using different analytical methods. The gain analytic method that compares the areas under the velocity curve (AUC) of the head and eye movements during head movements showed lower vHIT gains than a method that compared the peak velocities of the head and eye movements. The former method produced the vHIT gain with the smallest standard deviation among the five procedures tested in this study. vHIT gains differ in normal subjects depending on the device and method of analysis used, suggesting that it is advisable for each device to have its own normal values. Gain calculations that compare the AUC of the head and eye movements during the head movements show the smallest variance.

  19. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  20. Eye-head stabilization mechanism for a humanoid robot tested on human inertial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    they keep the image stationary on the retina. In this work we present the first complete model of eye-head stabilization based on the coordination of VCR and VOR. The model is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. Tests on a simulated humanoid platform replicating...

  1. Influence of impact speed on head and brain injury outcome in vulnerable road user impacts to the car hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Zhang, Liying; Boström, Ola; Yang, King

    2007-10-01

    EuroNCAP and regulations in Europe and Japan evaluate the pedestrian protection performance of cars. The test methods are similar and they all have requirements for the passive protection of the hood area at a pedestrian to car impact speed of 40 km/h. In Europe, a proposal for a second phase of the regulation mandates a brake-assist system along with passive requirements. The system assists the driver in optimizing the braking performance during panic braking, resulting in activation only when the driver brakes sufficiently. In a European study this was estimated to occur in about 50% of pedestrian accidents. A future system for brake assistance will likely include automatic braking, in response to a pre-crash sensor, to avoid or mitigate injuries of vulnerable road users. An important question is whether these systems will provide sufficient protection, or if a parallel, passive pedestrian protection system will be necessary. This study investigated the influence of impact speed on head and brain injury risk, in impacts to the carhood. One car model was chosen and a rigid adjustable plate was mounted under the hood. Free-flying headform impacts were carried out at 20 and 30 km/h head impact velocities at different under-hood distances, 20 to 100 mm; and were compared to earlier tests at 40 km/h. The EEVC WG17 adult pedestrian headform was used for non-rotating tests and a Hybrid III adult 50th percentile head was used for rotational tests where linear and rotational acceleration was measured. Data from the rotational tests was used as input to a validated finite element model of the human head, the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM). The model was utilized to assess brain injury risk and potential injury mechanism in a pedestrian-hood impact. Although this study showed that it was not necessarily true that a lower HIC value reduced the risk for brain injury, it appeared, for the tested car model, under-hood distances of 60 mm in 20 km/h and 80 mm

  2. Experimental data report for Test TS-2 reactivity initiated accident test in NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Sobajima, Makoto; Fujishiro, Toshio; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sukegawa, Tomohide; Kikuchi, Teruo

    1993-02-01

    This report presents experimental data for Test TS-2 which was the second test in a series of Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) condition test using pre-irradiated BWR fuel rods, performed at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in February, 1990. Test fuel rod used in the Test TS-2 was a short sized BWR (7x7) type rod which was fabricated from a commercial rod irradiated at Tsuruga Unit 1 power reactor. The fuel had an initial enrichment of 2.79% and a burnup of 21.3Gwd/tU (bundle average). A pulse irradiation of the test fuel rod was performed under a cooling condition of stagnant water at atmospheric pressure and at ambient temperature which simulated a BWR's cold start-up RIA event. The energy deposition of the fuel rod in this test was evaluated to be 72±5cal/g·fuel (66±5cal/g·fuel in peak fuel enthalpy) and no fuel failure was observed. Descriptions on test conditions, test procedures, transient behavior of the test rod during the pulse irradiation, and, results of pre and post pulse irradiation examinations are described in this report. (author)

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  4. Clear lens extraction for the treatment of persistent accommodative spasm after head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Catherine J; Burley, Celeste D; Elder, Mark J

    2004-12-01

    We report the case of a 28-year-old man with decreased visual acuity after closed head trauma sustained in a motor vehicle accident 16 weeks earlier. Several structures thought to be associated with the control of accommodation were injured. The patient had a persistent accommodative spasm causing up to 7.0 diopters of pseudomyopia. We present the patient's progress through the clinic, including manifest and cycloplegic refractions and results of a trial with atropine drops, and successful transition to bilateral pseudophakia 2 years and 9 months after the accident.

  5. Postulated accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, W.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

  6. HIV surveillance in needlestick accidents with health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lane Amadei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the occurrence of needlestick accidents with health professionals submitted to rapid HIV tests. Methods: A descriptive, epidemiological study, carried out by notification of the occurrence of needlestick accidents in the Epidemiology Sector of the State Health Secretariat, in 2008. The following variables were assessed: gender, age, exposed biological material, type of exposure, source patient, and injured patient, progression of the case, accident situation, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE, 180 days serology and occupational area. Results: There have been reports of 143 accidents, prevailing in nursing, female, 20 to 30 years, involving the blood and biological material by percutaneous puncture. We found no standardization in the use of PPE. The HIV test revealed no positive cases. Conclusion: This study helped to characterize the occurrence of accidents reported in health care professionals and evaluate the protocol of care given. It also revealed non-contamination by HIV.

  7. Thermal Behavior of the Reactor Vessel Penetration Under External Vessel Cooling During a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Rae-Joon; Kim, Jong-Tae; Min, Byung-Tae; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the thermal behavior of reactor vessel penetration have been performed under external vessel cooling during a severe accident in the Korean next-generation reactor APR1400. Two types of tests, SUS-EXT and SUS-DRY with and without external vessel cooling, respectively, have been performed using sustained heating by an induction heater. Three tests have been carried out varying the cooling conditions at the vessel outer surface in the SUS-EXT tests. The experimental results have been thermally estimated using the LILAC computer code. The experimental results indicate that the inner surface of the vessel was ablated by the 45-mm thickness in the SUS-DRY test. Despite the total ablation of the welding material, the penetration was not ejected outside the vessel, which could be attributed to the thermal expansion of the penetration. Unlike the SUS-DRY test, the thickness of the ablation was ∼15 to 20 mm at most, so the welding was preserved in the SUS-EXT tests. It is concluded from the experimental results that the external vessel cooling highly affected the ablation configuration and the thermal behaviors of the vessel and the penetration. An increase in coolant mass flow rate from 0.047 to 0.152 kg/s had effects on the thermal behavior of the lower head vessel and penetration in the SUS-EXT tests. The LILAC analytical results on temperature distribution and ablation depth in the lower head vessel and penetration were very similar to the experimental results

  8. Accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J.; Monty, B.S.; Liparulo, N.J.; Desaedeleer, G.

    1989-01-01

    The foundation of the framework for a Severe Accident Management Program is the contained in the Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) or the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE) for a specific plant. The development of a Severe Accident Management Program at a plant is based on the use of the information, in conjunction with other applicable information. A Severe Accident Management Program must address both accident prevention and accident mitigation. The overall Severe Accident Management framework must address these two facets, as a living program in terms of gathering the evaluating information, the readiness to respond to an event. Significant international experience in the development of severe accident management programs exist which should provide some direction for the development of Severe Accident Management in the U.S. This paper reports that the two most important elements of a Severe Accident Management Program are the Emergency Consultation process and the standards for measuring the effectiveness of individual Severe Accident Management Programs at utilities

  9. Factors associated with non-return to work in the severely injured victims 3 years after a road accident: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, C; Fort, E; Fontana, L; Charbotel, B; Hours, M

    2017-09-01

    Road accidents may impact victims' physical and/or mental health and socio-occupational life, particularly the capacity to return to work. The purpose of our study is to assess modifiable medical and socio-occupational factors of non-return to work in the severely injured 3 years after a road accident. Among1,168 road accidents casualties in the Rhône administrative Département of France followed for five years, 141 of the 222 severely injured (Maximal Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥ 3) aged more than 16 years who were in work at the time of the accident, reported whether they had returned to work in the 3 years following the accident. The subgroups of those who had (n=113) and had not returned to work (n=28) were compared for socio-occupational (gender, age, educational level, marital status, socio-occupational group) accident-related medical factors (type of road user, type of journey, responsibility in the accident, initial care) and post-accident medical factors (pain intensity, post-traumatic stress disorder, physical sequelae, quality of life) by using standardized tools. Severity of initial head, face and lower-limb injury, intense persistent pain, post-traumatic stress disorder, poor self-assessed quality of life and health status at 3 years were associated with non-return to work on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, severity of initial head and lower-limb injury, intense persistent pain at 3 years and post-traumatic stress disorder were significantly associated with non-return to work 3 years following severe road-accident injury. Post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain were essential modifiable medical determinants of non-return to work in the severely injured after a road accident: early adapted management could promote return to work in the severely injured. Improve early adapted treatment of pain and PTSD in the rehabilitation team should help the severely injured return to work following a road accident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  10. Synergy effect in accident simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, C.; Carlin, F.; Chenion, J.; Gaussens, G.; Le Meur, M.; Petitjean, M.

    1984-05-01

    Accidental breaking of PWR coolant canalization would entail water vaporization into confinement enclosure. Equipments would be simultaneously subjected to temperature and pressure increase, chemical spray, and radiation action of reactor core products. Some equipments have to work after accident in order to stop reactor running and blow out water calories. Usually, in France, accident simulation tests are carried out sequentialy: irradiation followed by thermodynamical and chemical tests. Equipments working is essentially due to those polymer materials behaviour. Is the polymers behaviour the same when they are either subjected to sequential test, or an accident (simultaneous action of irradiation and thermodynamical and chemical sequence). In order to answer to this question, nine polymer materials were subjected to simultaneous and sequential test in CESAR cell. Experiments were carried out in CESAR device with thermodynamical chocks and a temperature and pressure decrease profil in presence or without irradiation. So, the test is either simultaneous or sequential. Mechanical properties change are determined for the following polymeric materials. Two polyamide-imide varnishes used in motors and coils; one epoxydic resin, glass fiber charged (electrical insulating); polyphenylene sulfide, glass fiber charged, the Ryton R4 (electrical insulating); three elastomeric materials: Hypalon, fire proof by bromine or by alumina EPDM (cables jacket); VAMAC which is a polyethylene methyl polymethacrylate copolymer; then a silicon thermoset material glass fiber charged (electrical insulating). After test, usually, mechanical and electrical properties change of polymer materials show sequential experiment is more severe than simultaneous test however, Hypalon does not follow this law. For this polymer simultaneous test appears more severe than sequential experiment [fr

  11. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  12. Contribution of prototypic material tests on the Plinius platform to the study of nuclear reactor severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    The PLINIUS experimental platform at CEA Cadarache is dedicated to the experimental study of nuclear reactor severe accidents thanks to experiments between 2000 and 3500 K with prototypic corium. Corium is the mixture that would be formed by an hypothetical core melting and its mixing with structural materials. Prototypical corium has the same chemical composition as the corium corresponding to a given accident scenario but has a different isotopic composition (use of depleted uranium,...). Research programs and test series have been performed to study corium thermophysical properties, fission product behaviour, corium spreading, solidification and interaction with concrete as well as its coolability. It was the frame of research training of many students and was realized within national, European and international collaborations. (author)

  13. Diffuse vascular injury in fatal road traffic accident victims: its relationship to diffuse axonal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittella, José E H; Gusmão, Sebastião N S

    2003-05-01

    The authors have reported a macro- and microscopic study of brain lesions in 120 victims of fatal road traffic accidents, independent of the survival time. Diffuse vascular injury (DVI) was found in 14 patients (11.7%). All patients with DVI died within 24 h after the accident. The 14 patients with DVI also showed severe (Grade 2 or 3) diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Since DVI is restricted to road traffic accidents and incompatible with life, the high frequency observed in our series could be explained by the fact that all 120 patients were victims of road traffic accidents, and 69.2% had died within 24 h after the accident. The association between DVI and severe DAI (Grades 2 and 3) suggests that both lesions depend on the same mechanism, with the degree of axonal and vascular damage being determined by the intensity of the head acceleration. Our results show a relationship between DVI and DAI that suggest there may be a spectrum or at least a continuum between these entities as distinct from DVI being a separate entity.

  14. Current status of accident analysis for Korean HCCR TBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Mu-Young, E-mail: myahn74@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyung Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Shuk; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Korea has decided to test Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER and design of the TBM with its ancillary systems, i.e. Test Blanket System (TBS), is under progress. Since the TBM is operated at elevated temperature with high heat load, safety consideration is essential in design procedure. In this paper, preliminary accident analysis results for the current HCCR TBS design on selected scenarios are presented as an important part of safety assessments. To simulate transient thermo-hydraulic behavior, GAMMA-FR code which has been developed in Korea for fusion applications was used. The main cooling and tritium extraction circuit systems, as well as the TBM, were simulated and the main components in the TBS were modeled as the associated heat structures. The important accident scenarios were produced and summarized in the paper considering the HCCR TBS design and ITER conditions, which cover in-vessel Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), in-box LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA, Loss Of Flow Accident (LOFA), Loss Of Heat Sink Accident (LOHSA) and purge pipe rupture case. The accident analysis based on the selected scenarios was performed and it was found that the current design of the HCCR TBS meets the thermo-hydraulic safety requirements.

  15. Current status of accident analysis for Korean HCCR TBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Mu-Young; Jin, Hyung Gon; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Dong Won; Ku, Duck Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Shuk; Lee, Youngmin

    2014-01-01

    Korea has decided to test Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER and design of the TBM with its ancillary systems, i.e. Test Blanket System (TBS), is under progress. Since the TBM is operated at elevated temperature with high heat load, safety consideration is essential in design procedure. In this paper, preliminary accident analysis results for the current HCCR TBS design on selected scenarios are presented as an important part of safety assessments. To simulate transient thermo-hydraulic behavior, GAMMA-FR code which has been developed in Korea for fusion applications was used. The main cooling and tritium extraction circuit systems, as well as the TBM, were simulated and the main components in the TBS were modeled as the associated heat structures. The important accident scenarios were produced and summarized in the paper considering the HCCR TBS design and ITER conditions, which cover in-vessel Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), in-box LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA, Loss Of Flow Accident (LOFA), Loss Of Heat Sink Accident (LOHSA) and purge pipe rupture case. The accident analysis based on the selected scenarios was performed and it was found that the current design of the HCCR TBS meets the thermo-hydraulic safety requirements

  16. Face masks in radiotherapy of head and neck cancers: Comparative test of different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewald, M.; Lehmann, W.; Scharding, B.; Berberich, W.; Schnabel, K.; Leetz, H.K.; Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar

    1986-01-01

    A most precise immobilisation of the patient's head is indispensabel in order to reach a high degree of exactness and reproducibility in radiotherapy of malignant head and neck tumors. Face masks made of different synthetic materials have proved to be a simple and economical solution for this problem. Based on our own experiences with ''Baycast Longuettes'' (manufacturing firm: Johnson and Johnson, Duesseldorf), eleven substances have been tested in the phantom (compound of plaster and synthetic resin, thermoplast, polyurethane foam, compounds of cotton and synthetic resin and fibre glass compounds). An appropriate material was ''Hexcelite'' (manufacturing firm: Medimex, Hamburg), a reticulated thermoplast which after warming up can be easily adapted to the patient's face and which guarantees a very good fixation of the head. As compared to solid masks, there is only a slight superposition of the depth dose of Co-60 gamma radiation by secondary electrons from the mask material. So that an increased rate of radiogenic dermatitides is not to be expected. (orig.) [de

  17. Grouping of body areas affected in traffic accidents. A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Alba Luz; Ascuntar-Tello, Johana; Valderrama-Molina, Carlos Oliver; Giraldo, Nelson Darío; Constaín, Alfredo; Puerta, Andrés; Restrepo, Camilo; Jaimes, Fabián

    2018-03-01

    Traffic accidents are considered a public health problem and, according to the World Health Organization, currently is the eighth cause of death in the world. Specifically, pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists contribute half of the fatalities. Adequate clinical management in accordance with aggregation patterns of the body areas involved, as well as the characteristics of the accident, will help to reduce mortality and disability in this population. Secondary data analysis of a cohort of patients involved in traffic accidents and admitted to the emergency room (ER) of a high complexity hospital in Medellín, Colombia. They were over 15 years of age, had two or more injuries in different areas of the body and had a hospital stay of more than 24 h after admission. A cluster analysis was performed, using Ward's method and the linfinity similarity measure, to obtain clusters of body areas most commonly affected depending on the type of vehicle and the type of victim. Among 2445 patients with traffic accidents, 34% (n = 836) were admitted into the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the overall hospital mortality rate was 8% (n = 201). More than 50% of the patients were motorcycle riders but mortality was higher in pedestrian-car accidents (16%, n = 34). The clusters show efficient performance to separate the population depending on the severity of their injuries. Pedestrians had the highest mortality after having accidents with cars and they also had the highest number of body parts clustered, mainly on head and abdomen areas. Exploring the cluster patterns of injuries and body areas affected in traffic accidents allow to establish anatomical groups defined by the type of accident and the type of vehicle. This classification system will accelerate and prioritize ER-care for these population groups, helping to provide better health care services and to rationalize available resources.

  18. Thermal Load Analysis of Multilayered Corium in the Lower Head of Reactor Pressure Vessel during Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Seok Won; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Tae Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In-Vessel Retention (IVR) is one of the severe accident management strategies to terminate or mitigate the severe accident which is also called 'core-melt accident'. The reactor vessel would be cooled by flooding the cavity with water. The molten core mixture is divided into two or three layers due to the density difference. Light metal layer which contains Fe and Zr is on the oxide layer which is consist of UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}. Heavy metal layer which contains U, Fe and Zr is located under the oxide layer. In oxide layer, the crust which is solidified material is formed along the boundary. The assessment of IVR for nuclear power plant has been conducted with lumped parameter method by Theofanous, Rempe and Esmaili. In this paper, the numerical analysis was performed and verified with the Esmaili's work to analyze thermal load of multilayered corium in pressurized reactor vessel and also to examine the condition of in-vessel corium characteristic before the vessel failure that lead to ex-vessel severe accident progression for example, ex-vessel debris bed cooling. The in-vessel coolability analysis for several scenarios is conducted for the plant which has higher power than AP1000. Two sensitivity analyses are conducted, the first is emissivity of light metal layer and the second is the heat transfer coefficient correlations of oxide layer. The effect of three layered system also investigated. In this paper, the numerical analysis was performed and verified with Esmaili's model to analyze thermal load of multilayered corium in pressurized reactor vessel. For two layered system, thermal load was analyzed according to the severe accident scenarios, emissivity of the light metal layer and heat transfer correlations of the.

  19. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response

  20. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

  1. CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON PWR SUMP STRAINER BLOCKAGE AFTER A LOSS-OF-COOLANT ACCIDENT: REVIEW ON U.S. RESEARCH EFFORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHI BUM BAHN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Industry- or regulatory-sponsored research activities on the resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI-191 were reviewed, especially on the chemical effects. Potential chemical effects on the head loss across the debris-loaded sump strainer under a post-accident condition were experimentally evidenced by small-scale bench tests, integrated chemical effects test (ICET, and vertical loop head loss tests. Three main chemical precipitates were identified by WCAP-16530-NP: calcium phosphate, aluminum oxyhydroxide, and sodium aluminum silicate. The former two precipitates were also identified as major chemical precipitates by the ICETs. The assumption that all released calcium would form precipitates is reasonable. CalSil insulation needs to be minimized especially in a plant using trisodium phosphate buffer. The assumption that all released aluminum would form precipitates appears highly conservative because ICETs and other studies suggest substantial solubility of aluminum at high temperature and inhibition of aluminum corrosion by silicate or phosphate. The industry-proposed chemical surrogates are quite effective in increasing the head loss across the debris-loaded bed and more effective than the prototypical aluminum hydroxide precipitates generated by in-situ aluminum corrosion. There appears to be some unresolved potential issues related to GSI-191 chemical effects as identified in NUREG/CR-6988. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, however, concluded that the implications of these issues are either not generically significant or are appropriately addressed, although several issues associated with downstream in-vessel effects remain.

  2. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  3. Structural evaluation of electrosleeved tubes under severe accident transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1999-01-01

    A flow stress model was developed for predicting failure of Electrosleeved PWR steam generator tubing under severe accident transients. The Electrosleeve, which is nanocrystalline pure nickel, loses its strength at temperatures greater than 400 C during severe accidents because of grain growth. A grain growth model and the Hall-Petch relationship were used to calculate the loss of flow stress as a function of time and temperature during the accident. Available tensile test data as well as high temperature failure tests on notched Electrosleeved tube specimens were used to derive the basic parameters of the failure model. The model was used to predict the failure temperatures of Electrosleeved tubes with axial cracks in the parent tube during postulated severe accident transients

  4. Evaluation of Low or High Permeability of Fractured Rock using Well Head Losses from Step-Drawdown Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Geon Young; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Hyoung Soo

    2012-01-01

    The equation of the step-drawdown test 's w = BQ+CQ p ' written by Rorabaugh (1953) is suitable for drawdown increased non-linearly in the fractured rocks. It was found that value of root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and calculated drawdowns was very low. The calculated C (well head loss coefficient) and P (well head loss exponent) value of well head losses (CQ p ) ranged 3.689 x 10 -19 - 5.825 x 10 -7 and 3.459 - 8.290, respectively. It appeared that the deeper depth in pumping well the larger drawdowns due to pumping rate increase. The well head loss in the fractured rocks, unlike that in porous media, is affected by properties of fractures (fractures of aperture, spacing, and connection) around pumping well. The C and P value in the well head loss is very important to interpret turbulence interval and properties of high or low permeability of fractured rock. As a result, regression analysis of C and P value in the well head losses identified the relationship of turbulence interval and hydraulic properties. The relationship between C and P value turned out very useful to interpret hydraulic properties of the fractured rocks.

  5. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O.; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents’ dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama. PMID:28931022

  6. Determination of Optimal Flow Paths for Safety Injection According to Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Kim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Dong Yeong; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Seop; Kim, Changhwoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In case severe accidents happen, major safety parameters of nuclear reactors are rapidly changed. Therefore, operators are unable to respond appropriately. This situation causes the human error of operators that led to serious accidents at Chernobyl. In this study, we aimed to develop an algorithm that can be used to select the optimal flow path for cold shutdown in serious accidents, and to recover an NPP quickly and efficiently from the severe accidents. In order to select the optimal flow path, we applied a Dijkstra algorithm. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to find the path of minimum total length between two given nodes and needs a weight (or length) matrix. In this study, the weight between nodes was calculated from frictional and minor losses inside pipes. That is, the optimal flow path is found so that the pressure drop between a starting node (water source) and a destination node (position that cooling water is injected) is minimized. In case a severe accident has happened, if we inject cooling water through the optimized flow path, then the nuclear reactor will be safely and effectively returned into the cold shutdown state. In this study, we have analyzed the optimal flow paths for safety injection as a preliminary study for developing an accident recovery system. After analyzing the optimal flow path using the Dijkstra algorithm, and the optimal flow paths were selected by calculating the head loss according to path conditions.

  7. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, Didier; Viktorov, Alexandre; Tuomainen, Minna; Ducamp, Francois; Chevalier, Sophie; Guigueno, Yves; Tasset, Daniel; Heinrich, Marcus; Schneider, Matthias; Funahashi, Toshihiro; Hotta, Akitoshi; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro; Chung, Dae-Wook; Kuriene, Laima; Kozlova, Nadezhda; Zivko, Tomi; Aleza, Santiago; Jones, John; McHale, Jack; Nieh, Ho; Pascal, Ghislain; ); Nakoski, John; Neretin, Victor; Nezuka, Takayoshi; )

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  8. TMI-2 reactor-vessel head removal and damaged-core-removal planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, J.A.; Hultman, C.W.; Lewis, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    A major milestone in the cleanup and recovery effort at TMI-2 will be the removal of the reactor vessel closure head, planum, and damaged core fuel material. The data collected during these operations will provide the nuclear power industry with valuable information on the effects of high-temperature-dissociated coolant on fuel cladding, fuel materials, fuel support structural materials, neutron absorber material, and other materials used in reactor structural support components and drive mechanisms. In addition, examination of these materials will also be used to determine accident time-temperature histories in various regions of the core. Procedures for removing the reactor vessel head and reactor core are presented

  9. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  10. Characterization of the Infiltration Capacity of Porous Concrete Pavements with Low Constant Head Permeability Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio C. Andres-Valeri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous concrete (PC has been extensively used as a surface layer in permeable pavements. The effectiveness of this material in managing stormwater runoff depends not only on subsurface storage, but on infiltration capacity during rainfall events. A variety of tests have been traditionally used for assessing their infiltration capacity, however, there is still uncertainty about whether these tests produce representative performance results under real conditions. This study aims to propose a methodology based on saturated and unsaturated low constant head (LCH permeability tests, in order to characterize in detail the infiltration performance of PC materials during storm events and predict their infiltration behavior over time. To this end, three different infiltration tests were performed on PC specimens, both in newly built conditions and after being clogged. These experiments included unsaturated LCH, Laboratorio Caminos Santander (LCS (one falling head permeameter and saturated LCH tests. The results achieved were analyzed to describe the infiltration performance of the PC pavements tested. Finally, the correlation between the results obtained from on-site tests and laboratory scale devices was studied, providing the regression equations required to apply the infiltration models developed with easily measurable parameters. Consequently, the outputs of this research showed the suitability of the proposed methodology for assessing the infiltration behavior of PC pavements during storm events.

  11. Testing to determine the leakage behavior of inflatable seals subject to severe accident loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing test validated methods to predict the pressure capacity, at elevated temperatures, of light water reactor (LWR) nuclear containment vessels subject to loads well beyond their design basis - the so-called severe accident. Scale model tests of containments with the major penetrations represented have been carried to functional failure by internal pressurization. Also, combined pressure and elevated temperature tests of typical compression seals and gaskets, a full size personnel airlock, and of typical electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs), have been conducted in order to better understand the leakage behavior of containment penetrations. Because inflatable seals are also a part of the pressure boundary of some containments, it is important to understand their leakage behavior as well. This paper discusses the results of tests that were performed to better define the leakage behavior of inflatable seals when subjected to loads well beyond their design basis

  12. Analysis of pressurized water reactor accidents in reactivity disturbances. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinka, I.

    1978-01-01

    The logic structure of program FATRAP is described. The time course of reactivity temporal and spatial distributions of neutron flux density and power, characteristic temperatures of the individual reactor zones and the heat flux density from cladding to the coolant can be obtained as the main results. The basic program funcitons were tested for a point and a one-dimensional model. In the basic test the absorption rod was removed uncontrollably at a preset speed for 0.5 s with the reactivity feedback operative. A second test simulated the action of the accident protection system with a delay of 0.1 s started when the 7500 MW power had been obtained. The last test consisted in simulating a start-up accident with an initial power of 2.25 MW. For the said chosen accident models reactivity feedback is responsible for the formation of the appropriate power peak while the accident protection attendance alone can considerably reduce temperatures during the process. (J.F.)

  13. Upper plenum dump during reflood in PWR loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio; Griffith, Peter.

    1981-01-01

    Upper plenum dump during reflood in a large break loww-of-coolant accident of PWR is studied with the emergency core coolant injection into the upper plenum in addition to the cold leg. Transient experiments were carried out by injecting water into the upper plenum and the simple analysis based on a one-dimensional model was done using the drift flux model in order to investigate the conditions under which water dump through the core occurs during reflood. The most significant result is an upper plenum dump occurs when the pressure (hydrostatic head) in the upper plenum is greater than that in the lower plenum. Under those circumstances the flow regime isco-current down flow in which the upper plenum is rapidly emptied. On the other hand, when the upper plenum pressure (hydrostatic head) is less than the lower plenum pressure (hydrostatic head), the co-current down flow is not realized but a counter-current flow occurs. With subcooled water injection to the upper plenum, co-current down flow is realized even when the upper plenum hydrostatic head is less than the lower plenum hydrostatic head. The importance of this effect varies according to the magnetude of water subcooling. (author)

  14. Darlington NGD fuel handling head eight acceptance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, P.H.; Sie, T.

    1996-01-01

    Darlington NGD requires eight fuelling machine heads to fuel the four 932 MW reactors. Six heads are used on the three fuelling machine trolleys for normal fuelling operations. A further two heads are required to allow for maintenance and to provide for such reactor face activities as PIPE and CIGAR. Seven heads were successfully delivered to site from the head supplier. During acceptance testing, stalls on the charge tube screw assembly of the eighth and final head prevented its delivery to site. Replacement of the charge tube screw with a spare screw did not alleviate the problem. An in depth series of tests were undertaken at site, at the supplier and at the screw sub-supplier to determine the root cause of the problem. These tests included taking torque measurements under different operating conditions and using different components to assess the effects of the changes on torque levels. An assessment of the effects of changing chemical conditions (particularly crud levels) was also made. To ensure that the results of the testing were well understood, additional torque testing was also completed on a head and screw assembly at site that was known to work well. Based on all of the above series of tests, a recommendation was made to re-machine the charge tube screw(s). The original charge tube screw from Head eight was subsequently returned to the sub-supplier for re-work. Follow-up torque measurements and acceptance testing showed that the screw rework was effective and that Head eight could be successfully delivered to site. This paper focuses on the results of the head/screw test program. Results of the acceptance testing are also discussed. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  15. Darlington NGD fuel handling head eight acceptance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, P H; Sie, T [Ontario Hydro, Bowmanville (Canada). Darlington Nuclear Generating Station; Pilgrim, J [Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Darlington NGD requires eight fuelling machine heads to fuel the four 932 MW reactors. Six heads are used on the three fuelling machine trolleys for normal fuelling operations. A further two heads are required to allow for maintenance and to provide for such reactor face activities as PIPE and CIGAR. Seven heads were successfully delivered to site from the head supplier. During acceptance testing, stalls on the charge tube screw assembly of the eighth and final head prevented its delivery to site. Replacement of the charge tube screw with a spare screw did not alleviate the problem. An in depth series of tests were undertaken at site, at the supplier and at the screw sub-supplier to determine the root cause of the problem. These tests included taking torque measurements under different operating conditions and using different components to assess the effects of the changes on torque levels. An assessment of the effects of changing chemical conditions (particularly crud levels) was also made. To ensure that the results of the testing were well understood, additional torque testing was also completed on a head and screw assembly at site that was known to work well. Based on all of the above series of tests, a recommendation was made to re-machine the charge tube screw(s). The original charge tube screw from Head eight was subsequently returned to the sub-supplier for re-work. Follow-up torque measurements and acceptance testing showed that the screw rework was effective and that Head eight could be successfully delivered to site. This paper focuses on the results of the head/screw test program. Results of the acceptance testing are also discussed. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Unavoidable Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    In negligence law, "unavoidable accident" is the risk that remains when an actor has used due care. The counterpart of unavoidable accident is "negligent harm." Negligence law makes parties immune for unavoidable accident even when they have used less than due care. Courts have developed a number of methods by which they "sort" accidents to unavoidable accident or to negligent harm, holding parties liable only for the latter. These sorting techniques are interesting in their own right and als...

  17. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Varsier, Nadege; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  18. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France; Prevention des causes et des consequences d'un accident de criticite - solutions adoptees en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y; Lavie, J M

    1966-07-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [French] La surete relative aux risques d'accidents de criticite presente deux aspects: la prevention des causes et les parades aux consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies. L'effort consenti a la prevention des causes decoule de l'importance des consequences humaines economiques et psychologiques possibles d'un eventuel accident. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, d'une part devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention des causes, d'autre part constituent la seule base realiste disponible d'evaluation des consequences et de mise au point des parades a ces consequences. Les auteurs presentent une analyse des

  19. [Drugs and occupational accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C

    1996-02-01

    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship.

  20. NIRS report of the criticality accident in a uranium conversion test plant in Tokai-mura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report is a detailed account of the roles that National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) played at the criticality accident in the title, which occurred at around 10:35, on Sep. 30, 1999 and resulted in death of two workers after all, and is published to discharge NIRS responsibilities in regards to the accident. The accident caused many residents concern on their health and rumors had both social and economic consequences. The report involves chapters of detailed outline of the accident; demand for acceptance of the victims and communications until the identification of the criticality'' accident; the acceptance and initial treatment; the exposure dose estimation (based on acute symptoms, on physics, on chromosomal analyses and on neutron-activated dental metals, and detailed analyses for dose distribution); decision made for therapeutic strategies; cooperation with the Network Council for Radiation Emergency and with other medical facilities; the urgent import of medicine; treatment and processes (patients, nursing system and radiation injuries); radiation protection in medical facilities; response to nearby residents of the Plant; international response; press release; Uranium Processing Plant Criticality Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Management Committee organized by the Nuclear Safety Commission; handling of information; and radiation emergency medical preparedness at the NIRS (future issues and prospect). The report is hopefully useful in preventing the occurrence of future accidents. (N.I.)

  1. The relationships between organizational and individual variables to on-the-job driver accidents and accident-free kilometres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, J K; Kline, T J

    2004-12-01

    Highway fatalities are the leading cause of fatal work injuries in the US, accounting for approximately 1 in 4 of the 5900 job-related deaths during 2001. The present study focused on the contribution of organizational factors and driver behaviours to on-the-job driving accidents in a large Western Canadian corporation. A structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was used which allows researchers to test a complex set of relationships within a global theoretical framework. A number of scales were used to assess organizational support, driver errors, and driver behaviours. The sample of professional drivers that participated allowed the recording of on-the-job accidents and accident-free kilometres from their personnel files. The pattern of relationships in the fitted model, after controlling for exposure and social desirability, provides insight into the role of organizational support, planning, environment adaptations, fatigue, speed, errors and moving citations to on-the-job accidents and accident-free kilometres. For example, organizational support affected the capacity to plan. Time to plan work-related driving was found to predict accidents, fatigue and adaptations to the environment. Other interesting model paths, SEM limitations, future research and recommendations are elaborated.

  2. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  3. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes a...

  4. Diagnostic Role of Head-Bending and Lying-Down Tests in Lateral Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetiser, Sertac; Ince, Dilay

    2015-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of the head-bending test (HBT), lying-down positioning test (LDPT) and patient's report to identify the affected canal in video-nystagmographically (VNG) confirmed patients with lateral canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (LC-BPPV). Case series with chart review. Head-bending, lying-down positioning and the head-roll maneuver (HRM) under VNG guidance. The data were collected in a referral community hospital. Seventy-eight patients (32 apogeotropic and 46 geotropic nystagmus) with LC-BPPV who had been recruited between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in the study. Patients were tested with the HRM and then were asked about subjectively worse side. Later, they were subjected to HBT when sitting and the LDPT. The results were compared and studied with the 1-way ANOVA and chi-square tests. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Affected side was identified by HRM in 75% of patients with apogeotropic nystagmus and 95.6% of patients with geotropic nystagmus. Approximately 65.6% of patients with apogeotropic and 52% of patients with geotropic nystagmus had nystagmus during LDPT. However, its comparability with HRM was low. However, treatment plan based on LDPT results alone provided relief of symptoms in additional 12.5% of patients with apogeotropic and in 2.2% of patients with geotropic nystagmus. Approximately 63% of patients with apogeotropic and 56% of patients with geotropic nystagmus were able to tell the worse side. Nystagmus comparable with HRM during HBT was low and not diagnostic. HRM has the greatest diagnostic value of positioning tests in LC-BPPV in this study. LDPT provides some contribution in the diagnosis of LC-BPPV but much less than HRM. Patients' subjective feeling of vertigo was also a useful test. However, HBT was not as sensitive as other measures in uncertain cases.

  5. Insights Gained from Forensic Analysis with MELCOR of the Fukushima-Daiichi Accidents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Nathan C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauntt, Randall O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Since the accidents at Fukushima-Daiichi, Sandia National Laboratories has been modeling these accident scenarios using the severe accident analysis code, MELCOR. MELCOR is a widely used computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories since ~1982 for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Insights from the modeling of these accidents is being used to better inform future code development and potentially improved accident management. To date, our necessity to better capture in-vessel thermal-hydraulic and ex-vessel melt coolability and concrete interactions has led to the implementation of new models. The most recent analyses, presented in this paper, have been in support of the of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency’s (OECD/NEA) Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF) Project. The goal of this project is to accurately capture the source term from all three releases and then model the atmospheric dispersion. In order to do this, a forensic approach is being used in which available plant data and release timings is being used to inform the modeled MELCOR accident scenario. For example, containment failures, core slumping events and lower head failure timings are all enforced parameters in these analyses. This approach is fundamentally different from a blind code assessment analysis often used in standard problem exercises. The timings of these events are informed by representative spikes or decreases in plant data. The combination of improvements to the MELCOR source code resulting from analysis previous accident analysis and this forensic approach has allowed Sandia to generate representative and plausible source terms for all three accidents at Fukushima Daiichi out to three weeks after the accident to capture both early and late releases. In particular, using the source terms developed by MELCOR, the MACCS software code, which models atmospheric dispersion and

  6. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Dubreuil, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  7. 49 CFR 572.122 - Head assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... head CG may not be less than 245 G or more than 300 G. The resultant acceleration vs. time history... and the head must be oriented to an incline of 62 ±1 deg. between the “D” plane as shown in Figure N1 and the plane of the impact surface. The 1.57 mm (0.062 in) diameter holes located on either side of...

  8. Evaluation of LLNL's Nuclear Accident Dosimeters at the CALIBAN Reactor September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, D.P.; Wysong, A.R.; Heinrichs, D.P.; Wong, C.T.; Merritt, M.J.; Topper, J.D.; Gressmann, F.A.; Madden, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses neutron activation elements in a Panasonic TLD holder as a personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). The LLNL PNAD has periodically been tested using a Cf-252 neutron source, however until 2009, it was more than 25 years since the PNAD has been tested against a source of neutrons that arise from a reactor generated neutron spectrum that simulates a criticality. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at the CEA Valduc Silene reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at CEA Valduc. The reactor generated neutron irradiations for the 2010 exercise were performed at the Caliban reactor. The Caliban results are described in this report. The procedure for measuring the nuclear accident dosimeters in the event of an accident has a solid foundation based on many experimental results and comparisons. The entire process, from receiving the activated NADs to collecting and storing them after counting was executed successfully in a field based operation. Under normal conditions at LLNL, detectors are ready and available 24/7 to perform the necessary measurement of nuclear accident components. Likewise LLNL maintains processing laboratories that are separated from the areas where measurements occur, but contained within the same facility for easy movement from processing area to measurement area. In the event of a loss of LLNL permanent facilities, the Caliban and previous Silene exercises have demonstrated that LLNL can establish field operations that will very good nuclear accident dosimetry results. There are still several aspects of LLNL's nuclear accident dosimetry program that have not been tested or confirmed. For instance, LLNL's method for using of biological samples (blood and hair) has not been verified since the method was first developed in the 1980's. Because LLNL and the other DOE

  9. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  10. Crash tests for passenger cars and their relationship to the actual accident occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, Hermann; Lutter, Gerhard; Sigmund, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Current consensus about crash tests implies that, for verification of self-protection of a vehicle or its occupants, at least three full size tests with the following specifications are necessary:(1)frontal impact against a rigid, non-moving 0 -barrier with 100% overlap;(2)frontal offset impact against a rigid, non-moving 15 -barrier with 50% overlap (impact speed between 50 and 55kmh -1 );(3)side impact of a moving deformable barrier; preferably according to EEVC-method (impact speed 50kmh -1 ).From the social general view it is not sufficient to test only the self-protection of the vehicle and to give most importance to the front of the vehicle. The other factors of passive safety, partner protection and compatibility, respectively, have to be included, as two thirds of the cost of injuries originates from car-to-car accidents, and only one third from vehicle collisions against fixed objects. It follows that at least one additional test of compatibility has to be added to those mentioned above. It has to be investigated whether this compatibility test could be a frontal impact against a controllably deformable barrier and could substitute one or even two of the first-mentioned tests. ((orig.))

  11. Plan for IER-443 Testing of the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garbett, S. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Auld, G. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Horrne, A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Beller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haught, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodrow, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This document provides the scope and details of the “Plan for Testing the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor”. Due to the relative simplicity of the testing goals, scope, and methodology, the NCSP Manager approved execution of the test when ready. No preliminary CED-1 or final design CED-2 reports were required or issued. The test will subject Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors supplied by Y- 12 and AWE to very intense and short duration mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. The goals of the test will be to (1) substantiate functionality, for both existing and newly acquired Y- 12 CAAS detectors, and (2) the ability of the AWE detectors to provide quality temporal dose information after a hypothetical criticality accident. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 states that the “system shall be sufficiently robust as to actuate an alarm signal when exposed to the maximum radiation expected”, which has been defined at Y-12, in Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs), to be a dose rate of 10 Rad/s. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 further states that “alarm actuation shall occur as a result of a minimum duration transient” which may be assumed to be 1 msec. The pulse widths and dose rates which will be achieved in this test will exceed these requirements. Pulsed radiation fields will be produced by the Godiva IV fast metal burst reactor at the National Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The magnitude of the pulses and the relative distances to the detectors will be varied to afford a wide range of radiation fluence and pulse widths. The magnitude of the neutron and gamma fields will be determined by reactor temperature rise to fluence and dose conversions which have been previously established through extensive measurements performed under IER-147. The requirements for CAAS systems to detect and alarm under a “minimum accident of concern” as well as other

  12. Performance Analysis Review of Thorium TRISO Coated Particles during Manufacture, Irradiation and Accident Condition Heating Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    Thorium, in combination with high enriched uranium, was used in all early high temperature reactors (HTRs). Initially, the fuel was contained in a kernel of coated particles. However, particle quality was low in the 1960s and early 1970s. Modern, high quality, tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles with thorium oxide and uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) had been manufactured since 1978 and were successfully demonstrated in irradiation and accident tests. In 1980, HTR fuels changed to low enriched uranium UO 2 TRISO fuels. The wide ranging development and demonstration programme was successful, and it established a worldwide standard that is still valid today. During the process, results of the thorium work with high quality TRISO fuel particles had not been fully evaluated or documented. This publication collects and presents the information and demonstrates the performance of thorium TRISO fuels.This publication is an outcome of the technical contract awarded under the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Near Term and Promising Long Term Options for Deployment of Thorium Based Nuclear Energy, initiated in 2012. It is based on the compilation and analysis of available results on thorium TRISO coated particle performance in manufacturing and during irradiation and accident condition heating tests

  13. PNNL Results from 2010 CALIBAN Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    This document reports the results of the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on September 20-23, 2010. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique (CEA) Valduc Center near Dijon, France on September 20-23, 2010. The intercomparison exercise was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the lead Laboratory. PNNL was one of six invited DOE Laboratory participants. The other participating Laboratories were: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The goals of PNNL's participation in the intercomparison exercise were to test and validate the procedures and algorithm currently used for the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeters (PNADs) on the metallic reactor, CALIBAN, to test exposures to PNADs from the side and from behind a phantom, and to test PNADs that were taken from a historical batch of Hanford PNADs that had varying degrees of degradation of the bare indium foil. Similar testing of the PNADs was done on the Valduc SILENE test reactor in 2009 (Hill and Conrady, 2010). The CALIBAN results are reported here.

  14. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  15. Experimental data report for test TS-3 Reactivity Initiated Accident test in the NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Fujishiro, Toshio; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sukegawa, Tomohide; Kikuchi, Teruo; Sobajima, Makoto.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents experimental data for Test TS-3 which was the third test in a series of Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) tests using pre-irradiated BWR fuel rods, performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in September, 1990. Test fuel rod used in the Test TS-3 was a short-sized BWR (7 x 7) type rod which was re-fabricated from a commercial rod irradiated in the Tsuruga Unit 1 power reactor of Japan Atomic Power Co. The fuel had an initial enrichment of 2.79 % and a burnup of 26 Gwd/tU. A pulse irradiation of the test fuel rod was performed under a cooling condition of stagnant water at atmospheric pressure and at ambient temperature which simulated a BWR's cold start-up RIA event. The energy deposition of the fuel rod in this test was evaluated to be 94 ± 4 cal/g · fuel (88 ± 4 cal/g · fuel in peak fuel enthalpy) and no fuel failure was observed. Descriptions on test conditions, test procedures, transient behavior of the test rod during the pulse irradiation, and results of pre-pulse and post-pulse irradiation examinations are described in this report. (author)

  16. PWR-related integral safety experiments in the PKL 111 test facility SBLOCA under beyond-design-basis accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.; Umminger, K.J.; Schoen, B. [Siemens AG Power Generation Group (KWU), Erlangen (France)

    1995-09-01

    The thermal hydraulic behavior of a PWR during beyond-design-basis accident scenarios is of vital interest for the verification and optimization of accident management procedures. Within the scope of the German reactor safety research program experiments were performed in the volumetrically scaled PKL 111 test facility by Siemens/KWU. This highly instrumented test rig simulates a KWU-design PWR (1300 MWe). In particular, the latest tests performed related to a SBLOCA with additional system failures, e.g. nitrogen entering the primary system. In the case of a SBLOCA, it is the goal of the operator to put the plant in a condition where the decay heat can be removed first using the low pressure emergency core cooling system and then the residual heat removal system. The experimental investigation presented assumed the following beyond-design-basis accident conditions: 0.5% break in a cold leg, 2 of 4 steam generators (SGs) isolated on the secondary side (feedwater- and steam line-valves closed), filled with steam on the primary side, cooldown of the primary system using the remaining two steam generators, high pressure injection system only in the two loops with intact steam generators, if possible no operator actions to reach the conditions for residual heat removal system activation. Furthermore, it was postulated that 2 of the 4 hot leg accumulators had a reduced initial water inventory (increased nitrogen inventory), allowing nitrogen to enter the primary system at a pressure of 15 bar and nearly preventing the heat transfer in the SGs ({open_quotes}passivating{close_quotes} U-tubes). Due to this the heat transfer regime in the intact steam generators changed remarkably. The primary system showed self-regulating system effects and heat transfer improved again (reflux-condenser mode in the U-tube inlet region).

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  18. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France; Prevention des causes et des consequences d'un accident de criticite - solutions adoptees en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M

    1966-07-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [French] La surete relative aux risques d'accidents de criticite presente deux aspects: la prevention des causes et les parades aux consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies. L'effort consenti a la prevention des causes decoule de l'importance des consequences humaines economiques et psychologiques possibles d'un eventuel accident. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, d'une part devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention des causes, d'autre part constituent la seule base realiste disponible d'evaluation des consequences et de mise au point des parades a ces consequences

  19. Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu

    2011-01-01

    The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A modular structure to accident identification using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Estrada, Cassius Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    This work uses the accident identification method based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as basic blocks of a modular structure, allowing the inclusion of new accidents to be identified without modifying the ANN already trained. This structure comprises several modules for accident identification and one module for analysis. Each identification module follows the structure of the basic block. The identification modules are responsible for the recognition of an accident belonging to the specific set of events for which it were trained. The analysis module processes the output from the identification module to determine the system response. In order to test this structure it was proposed a transient identification problem comprising fifty accidents distributed in five identification modules. The results have demonstrated that the accident identification method used as basic block of a modular structure allows the inclusion of new sets of accidents, or variations of a same accident, without modifying the ANN already trained. For this, it is enough to include into the system an specific module for this new set of accidents. (author)

  1. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  2. The Live program - Results of test L1 and joint analyses on transient molten pool thermal hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, M.; Buerger, M. [Univ Stuttgart, Inst Kernenerget and Energiesyst, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Miassoedov, A.; Gaus-Liu, X.; Palagin, A. [IRSN Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Godin-Jacqmin, L. [CEA Cadarache, DEN STRI LMA, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Tran, C. T.; Ma, W. M. [KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Chudanov, V. [Nucl Safety Inst, Moscow 113191 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The development of a corium pool in the lower head and its behaviour is still a critical issue. This concerns, in general, the understanding of a severe accident with core melting, its course, major critical phases and timing, and the influence of these processes on the accident progression as well as, in particular, the evaluation of in-vessel melt retention by external vessel flooding as an accident mitigation strategy. Previous studies were especially related to the in-vessel retention question and often just concentrated on the quasi-steady state behaviour of a large molten pool in the lower head, considered as a bounding configuration. However, non-feasibility of the in-vessel retention concept for high power density reactors and uncertainties e. g. due to layering effects even for low or medium power reactors, turns this to be insufficient. Rather, it is essential to consider the whole evolution of the accident, including e. g. formation and growth of the in-core melt pool, characteristics of corium arrival in the lower head, and molten pool behaviour after the debris re-melting. These phenomena have a strong impact on a potential termination of a severe accident. The general objective of the LIVE program at FZK is to study these phenomena resulting from core melting experimentally in large-scale 3D geometry and in supporting separate-effects tests, with emphasis on the transient behaviour. Up to now, several tests on molten pool behaviour have been performed within the LIVE experimental program with water and with non-eutectic melts (KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}) as simulant fluids. The results of these experiments, performed in nearly adiabatic and in isothermal conditions, allow a direct comparison with findings obtained earlier in other experimental programs (SIMECO, ACOPO, BALI, etc. ) and will be used for the assessment of the correlations derived for the molten pool behaviour. Complementary to other international programs with real corium melts, the results

  3. Overview of main accident parameters in car-to-cyclist accidents for use in AEB-system test protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    The number of fatalities in road traffic accidents in Europe is decreasing. Unfortunately, the number of fatalities among cyclists does not follow this trend with the same rate [1]. The au-tomotive industry is making a significant effort in the development and implementation of safety systems in

  4. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  5. Incorporation of phenomenological uncertainties in probabilistic safety analysis - application to LMFBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, B; Theofanous, T G; Rumble, E T; Atefi, B

    1984-08-01

    This report describes a method for quantifying frequency and consequence uncertainty distribution associated with core disruptive accidents (CDAs). The method was developed to estimate the frequency and magnitude of energy impacting the reactor vessel head of the Clinch River Breeder Plant (CRBRP) given the occurrence of hypothetical CDAs. The methodology is illustrated using the CRBR example.

  6. Ischemic Retinopathy and Neovascular Proliferation Secondary to Severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Coban-Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case with severe head trauma and perforating globe injury in one eye and ischemic retinopathy and neovascular proliferation in the other eye. A 37-year-old male was brought to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident with severe maxillofacial trauma. Ophthalmic examination revealed hematoma of the left eyelids as well as traumatic rupture and disorganization of the left globe. On the right eye, anterior segment and fundoscopic examination were normal. Primary globe repair was performed. At postoperative one-month visit, the right eye revealed no pathology of the optic disc and macula but severe neovascularization in the temporal peripheral retina. The patient was diagnosed as ischemic retinopathy and neovascular proliferation due to head trauma.

  7. Fuel temperature analysis method for channel-blockage accident in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, So; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Sudo, Yukio; Kiso, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Hitoshi

    1994-01-01

    During operation of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), coolability must be maintained without core damage under all postulated accident conditions. Channel blockage of a fuel element was selected as one of the design-basis accidents in the safety evaluation of the reactor. The maximum fuel temperature for such a scenario has been evaluated in the safety analysis and is compared to the core damage limits.For the design of the HTTR, an in-core thermal and hydraulic analysis code ppercase[flownet/trump] was developed. This code calculates fuel temperature distribution, not only for a channel blockage accident but also for transient conditions. The validation of ppercase[flownet/trump] code was made by comparison of the analytical results with the results of thermal and hydraulic tests by the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) multi-channel test rig (T 1-M ), which simulated one fuel column in the core. The analytical results agreed well with the experiments in which the HTTR operating conditions were simulated.The maximum fuel temperature during a channel blockage accident is 1653 C. Therefore, it is confirmed that the integrity of the core is maintained during a channel blockage accident. ((orig.))

  8. Analysis of heavy radiological accidents in NPP and gamma-irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelov, V [Civil Defence Administration, Sofia (Bulgaria); Semova, T; Bonchev, Ts [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet

    1996-12-31

    A review of several heavy radiological accidents, their cause, character, radioactivity emission, victims and economical impact is presented in the form of uniform tables. Eleven cases of incidents in power plants and 4 cases of accidents involving powerful gamma irradiators are considered. Radiological accidents in Bulgaria, not connected with the Kozloduy NPP, are listed. The human factor has been identified as the main cause for most of the accidents. It is stressed that the probability of heavy accident increases at the time of reactor refuelling, repair or testing. Technical failures could be eliminated by improved check and diagnostics procedures. 2 tabs., 12 refs.

  9. Analysis of heavy radiological accidents in NPP and gamma-irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, V.; Semova, T.; Bonchev, Ts.

    1995-01-01

    A review of several heavy radiological accidents, their cause, character, radioactivity emission, victims and economical impact is presented in the form of uniform tables. Eleven cases of incidents in power plants and 4 cases of accidents involving powerful gamma irradiators are considered. Radiological accidents in Bulgaria, not connected with the Kozloduy NPP, are listed. The human factor has been identified as the main cause for most of the accidents. It is stressed that the probability of heavy accident increases at the time of reactor refuelling, repair or testing. Technical failures could be eliminated by improved check and diagnostics procedures. 2 tabs., 12 refs

  10. Cesium-137: psychological and social consequences of the Goiania's accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Suzana; Costa Neto, Sebastiao Benicio da

    1995-01-01

    The book care for radioactive accident occurred in 1987 in Goiania - brazilian city. The accident had origin by the hospitable equipment incorrect handling which contained a stainless steel capsule, in which interior there was cesium-137 chloride. The main boarded aspects are: psychological and social aspects verified after the accident; psychological and social analysis of population of Goiania three years after the accident; essay on the pertinence of Luscher's abbreviate test in psychological evaluation of the radioactive accident victims of Goiania; and psychological and mobile evaluation of intra-uterus children exposed to the radiation with cesium-137

  11. Prevention of heavy missiles during severe PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1994-01-01

    For future pressurized water reactors, which should be designed against core melt down accidents, missiles generated inside the containment present a severe problem for its integrity. The masses and geometries of the missiles as well as their velocities may vary to a great extend. Therefore, a reliable proof of the containment integrity is very difficult. To overcome this problem the potential sources of missiles are discussed. In section 5 it is concluded that the generation of heavy missiles must be prevented. Steam explosions must not damage the reactor vessel head. Thus fragments of the head cannot become missiles endangering the containment shell. Furthermore, during a melt-through failure of the reactor vessel under high pressure the resulting forces must not catapult the whole vessel against the containment shell. Only missiles caused by hydrogen explosions might be tolerable, but shielding structures which protect the containment shell might be required. Here further investigations are necessary. Finally, measures are described showing that the generation of heavy missiles can indeed be prevented. In section 6 investigations are explained which will confirm the strength of the reactor vessel head. In section 7 a device is discussed keeping the fragments of a failing reactor vessel at its place. (author). 12 refs., 8 figs

  12. Identification of NPP accidents using support vector classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Ju Hyun; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In case of the accidents that happens in a nuclear power plants (NPPs), it is very important to identify its accidents for the operator. Therefore, in order to effectively manage the accidents, the initial short time trends of major parameters have to be observed and NPP accidents have to accurately be identified to provide its information to operators and technicians. In this regard, the objective of this study is to identify the accidents when the accidents happen in NPPs. In this study, we applied the support vector classification (SVC) model to classify the initiating events of critical accidents such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), total loss of feedwater (TLOFW), station blackout (SBO), and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). Input variables were used as the initial integral value of the signal measured in the reactor coolant system (RCS), steam generator, and containment vessel after reactor trip. The proposed SVC model is verified by using the simulation data of the modular accident analysis program (MAAP4) code. In this study, the proposed SVC model is verified by using the simulation data of the modular accident analysis program (MAAP4) code. We used an initial integral value of the simulated sensor signals to identify the NPP accidents. The training data was used to train the SVC model. And, the trained model was confirmed using the test data. As a result, it was known that it can accurately classify five events.

  13. High Temperature Steam Oxidation Testing of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parkison, Adam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels in order to overcome the inherent shortcomings of light water reactor (LWR) fuels when exposed to beyond design basis accident conditions. The campaign has invested in development of experimental infrastructure within the Department of Energy complex capable of chronicling the performance of a wide range of concepts under prototypic accident conditions. This report summarizes progress made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in FY13 toward these goals. Alternative fuel cladding materials to Zircaloy for accident tolerance and a significantly extended safety margin requires oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥1200°C for short times. At ORNL, prior work focused attention on SiC, FeCr and FeCrAl as the most promising candidates for further development. Also, it was observed that elevated pressure and H2 additions had minor effects on alloy steam oxidation resistance, thus, 1 bar steam was adequate for screening potential candidates. Commercial Fe-20Cr-5Al alloys remain protective up to 1475°C in steam and CVD SiC up to 1700°C in steam. Alloy development has focused on Fe-Cr-Mn-Si-Y and Fe-Cr-Al-Y alloys with the aluminaforming alloys showing more promise. At 1200°C, ferritic binary Fe-Cr alloys required ≥25% Cr to be protective for this application. With minor alloy additions to Fe-Cr, more than 20%Cr was still required, which makes the alloy susceptible to α’ embrittlement. Based on current results, a Fe-15Cr-5Al-Y composition was selected for initial tube fabrication and welding for irradiation experiments in FY14. Evaluations of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were conducted up to 1700°C in steam. The reaction of H2O with the alumina reaction tube at 1700°C resulted in Al(OH)3

  14. National report on 'stress tests', NPP Dukovany and NPP Temelin, Czech Republic. Evaluation of safety and safety margins in the light of the accident of the NPP Fukushima. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    The stress tests were performed based on European Commission requirement as a response to the Fukushima-Daiichi accident. The stress tests encompassed the Dukovany and Temelin nuclear power plants and concentrated on the potential impacts of earthquakes, flooding, extreme weather conditions, loss of electrical power and loss of ultimate heat sink, and severe accident management. (P.A.)

  15. Effect of alternative aging and accident simulations on polymer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustard, L.D.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Gaussens, G.; LeMeur, M.

    1985-05-01

    The influence of accident irradiation, steam, and chemical spray exposures on the behavior of twenty-three age-preconditioned polymer sample sets (twenty-one different materials) has been investigated. The test program varied the following conditions: (1) Accident simulations of irradiation and thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) conditions were performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (2) Accident thermodynamic (steam and chemical spray) exposures were performed both with and without air present during the exposures. (3) Sequential accident irradiations were performed both at 28 0 C and 70 0 C. (4) Age preconditioning was performed both sequentially and simultaneously. (5) Sequential aging irradiations were performed both at 27 0 C and 70 0 C. (6) Sequential aging exposures were performed using two sequences: (1) thermal followed by irradiation and (2) irradiation followed by thermal. We report both general trends applicable to a majority of the tested materials as well as specific results for each polymer. Our data base consists of ultimate tensile properties at the completion of the accident exposure for three XLPO and XLPE, five EPR and EPDM, two CSPE (HYPALON), one CPE, one VAMAC, one polydiallylphtalate, and one PPS material. We also report bend test results at completion of the accident exposures for two TEFZEL materials and permanent set after compression results for three EPR, one VAMAC, one BUNA N, one SILICONE, and one VITON material

  16. Full scale simulations of accidents on spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    In 1977 and 1978, five first-of-a-kind full scale tests of spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems were conducted at Sandia Laboratories. The objectives of this broad test program were (1) to assess and demonstrate the validity of current analytical and scale modeling techniques for predicting damage in accident conditions by comparing predicted results with actual test results, and (2) to gain quantitative knowledge of extreme accident environments by assessing the response of full scale hardware under actual test conditions. The tests were not intended to validate the present regulatory standards. The spent fuel cask tests fell into the following configurations: crashes of a truck-transport system into a massive concrete barrier (100 and 130 km/h); a grade crossing impact test (130 km/h) involving a locomotive and a stalled tractor-trailer; and a railcar shipping system impact into a massive concrete barrier (130 km/h) followed by fire. In addition to collecting much data on the response of cask transport systems, the program has demonstrated thus far that current analytical and scale modeling techniques are valid approaches for predicting vehicular and cask damage in accident environments. The tests have also shown that the spent casks tested are extremely rugged devices capable of retaining their radioactive contents in very severe accidents

  17. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephanie M; Bos, Jelte E; Klis, Sjaak F L

    2014-01-01

    To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. To test a new, more simple method of unilateral stimulation with head tilt and the body remaining on axis. During stationary and during 360 deg/s rotation, 12 healthy blindfolded subjects had their heads tilted 30 degrees sideways, positioning one otolithic organ on the axis of rotation after the other. The haptic subjective vertical (SV) was recorded several times by means of a manually adjustable rod. It was found that during stationary the SV tilted about 4 degrees on average in the direction of the head. During rotation, the SV tilted about 9 degrees on average. We therefore estimate the effect of eccentric otolith rotation to be 5 degrees on average. Tilt of the subjective vertical induced by head tilt during on-axis body rotation can provide a relatively uncomplicated alternative to test unilateral otolithic function as compared to body and head translation during rotation. Moreover, unlike eccentric rotation of the entire body, somatosensory cues are minimized by keeping the body fixed on axis and by subtracting the effect of head tilt per se.

  18. Dichotic auditory-verbal memory in adults with cerebro-vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yekta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cerebrovascular accident is a neurological disorder involves central nervous system. Studies have shown that it affects the outputs of behavioral auditory tests such as dichotic auditory verbal memory test. The purpose of this study was to compare this memory test results between patients with cerebrovascular accident and normal subjects.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident aged 50-70 years and 20 controls matched for age and gender in Emam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Dichotic auditory verbal memory test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean score in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.0001. The results indicated that the right-ear score was significantly greater than the left-ear score in normal subjects (p<0.0001 and in patients with right hemisphere lesion (p<0.0001. The right-ear and left-ear scores were not significantly different in patients with left hemisphere lesion (p=0.0860.Conclusion: Among other methods, Dichotic auditory verbal memory test is a beneficial test in assessing the central auditory nervous system of patients with cerebrovascular accident. It seems that it is sensitive to the damages occur following temporal lobe strokes.

  19. Accident Testing of High Temperature Reactor Fuel Elements with the KueFA Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, O.; Laurie, M.; Bottomley, P.D.W.; Ferreira-Teixeira, A.E.; Van Winckel, S.; Rondinella, V.V.; Allelein, H.J.

    2013-06-01

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is characterised by an advanced design with passive safety features. Fuel elements are constituted by a graphite matrix containing sub-mm-sized fuel particles with Tri-Isotropic (TRISO) coating, designed to provide high fission product retention. During a loss of coolant accident scenario in a HTR the maximum temperature is foreseen to be in the range of 1600-1650 deg. C, remaining well below the melting point of the fuel. The Cold Finger Apparatus (KueFA) is used to observe the combined effects of Depressurization and Loss of Forced Circulation (DLOFC) accident scenarios on HTR fuel. Originally designed at the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), an adapted KueFA operates on irradiated fuel in hot cell at JRC-ITU. A fuel pebble is heated in He atmosphere for several hundred hours, mimicking accident temperatures up to 1800 deg. C and realistic temperature transients. Non-gaseous volatile fission products released from the fuel condense on a water cooled stainless steel plate dubbed 'Cold Finger'. Exchanging plates frequently during the experiment and analysing plate deposits by means of HPGe gamma spectroscopy allows a reconstruction of the fission product release as a function of time and temperature. In order to achieve a good quantification of the release, a careful calibration of the setup is mandatory. An especially tailored collimator was designed to perform plate scanning with high spatial resolution, thus yielding information about the fission product distribution on the condensation plates. The analysis of condensation plates from recent KueFA tests shows that fission product release quantification is possible at high and low activity levels. Chemical dissolution has been performed for some condensation plates in order to assess beta nuclides of interest such as 90 Sr and possibly 129 I using an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and to cross check the HPGe gamma spectroscopy measurements

  20. SU-E-J-25: End-To-End (E2E) Testing On TomoHDA System Using a Real Pig Head for Intracranial Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, N; Leick, M; Bonetti, M; Negretti, L [Clinica Luganese, Radiotherapy Center, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the MVCT imaging uncertainty on the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery treatments. To determine the end-to-end (E2E) overall accuracy of the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery. Methods: A pig head was obtained from the butcher, cut coronally through the brain, and preserved in formaldehyde. The base of the head was fixed to a positioning plate allowing precise movement, i.e. translation and rotation, in all 6 axes. A repeatability test was performed on the pig head to determine uncertainty in the image bone registration algorithm. Furthermore, the test studied images with MVCT slice thicknesses of 1 and 3 mm in unison with differing scan lengths. A sensitivity test was performed to determine the registration algorithm’s ability to find the absolute position of known translations/rotations of the pig head. The algorithm’s ability to determine absolute position was compared against that of manual operators, i.e. a radiation therapist and radiation oncologist. Finally, E2E tests for intracranial radiosurgery were performed by measuring the delivered dose distributions within the pig head using Gafchromic films. Results: The repeatability test uncertainty was lowest for the MVCTs of 1-mm slice thickness, which measured less than 0.10 mm and 0.12 deg for all axes. For the sensitivity tests, the bone registration algorithm performed better than human eyes and a maximum difference of 0.3 mm and 0.4 deg was observed for the axes. E2E test results in absolute position difference measured 0.03 ± 0.21 mm in x-axis and 0.28 ± 0.18 mm in y-axis. A maximum difference of 0.32 and 0.66 mm was observed in x and y, respectively. The average peak dose difference between measured and calculated dose was 2.7 cGy or 0.4%. Conclusion: Our tests using a pig head phantom estimate the TomoHDA system to have a submillimeter overall accuracy for intracranial radiosurgery.

  1. SU-E-J-25: End-To-End (E2E) Testing On TomoHDA System Using a Real Pig Head for Intracranial Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, N; Leick, M; Bonetti, M; Negretti, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the MVCT imaging uncertainty on the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery treatments. To determine the end-to-end (E2E) overall accuracy of the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery. Methods: A pig head was obtained from the butcher, cut coronally through the brain, and preserved in formaldehyde. The base of the head was fixed to a positioning plate allowing precise movement, i.e. translation and rotation, in all 6 axes. A repeatability test was performed on the pig head to determine uncertainty in the image bone registration algorithm. Furthermore, the test studied images with MVCT slice thicknesses of 1 and 3 mm in unison with differing scan lengths. A sensitivity test was performed to determine the registration algorithm’s ability to find the absolute position of known translations/rotations of the pig head. The algorithm’s ability to determine absolute position was compared against that of manual operators, i.e. a radiation therapist and radiation oncologist. Finally, E2E tests for intracranial radiosurgery were performed by measuring the delivered dose distributions within the pig head using Gafchromic films. Results: The repeatability test uncertainty was lowest for the MVCTs of 1-mm slice thickness, which measured less than 0.10 mm and 0.12 deg for all axes. For the sensitivity tests, the bone registration algorithm performed better than human eyes and a maximum difference of 0.3 mm and 0.4 deg was observed for the axes. E2E test results in absolute position difference measured 0.03 ± 0.21 mm in x-axis and 0.28 ± 0.18 mm in y-axis. A maximum difference of 0.32 and 0.66 mm was observed in x and y, respectively. The average peak dose difference between measured and calculated dose was 2.7 cGy or 0.4%. Conclusion: Our tests using a pig head phantom estimate the TomoHDA system to have a submillimeter overall accuracy for intracranial radiosurgery

  2. Major Accidents (Gray Swans) Likelihood Modeling Using Accident Precursors and Approximate Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Compared to the remarkable progress in risk analysis of normal accidents, the risk analysis of major accidents has not been so well-established, partly due to the complexity of such accidents and partly due to low probabilities involved. The issue of low probabilities normally arises from the scarcity of major accidents' relevant data since such accidents are few and far between. In this work, knowing that major accidents are frequently preceded by accident precursors, a novel precursor-based methodology has been developed for likelihood modeling of major accidents in critical infrastructures based on a unique combination of accident precursor data, information theory, and approximate reasoning. For this purpose, we have introduced an innovative application of information analysis to identify the most informative near accident of a major accident. The observed data of the near accident were then used to establish predictive scenarios to foresee the occurrence of the major accident. We verified the methodology using offshore blowouts in the Gulf of Mexico, and then demonstrated its application to dam breaches in the United Sates. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbra, R M; Palacios, Adriana; Casal, Joaquim

    2010-11-15

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes are external events (31%) and mechanical failure (29%). Storage areas (35%) and process plants (28%) are by far the most common settings for domino accidents. Eighty-nine per cent of the accidents involved flammable materials, the most frequent of which was LPG. The domino effect sequences were analyzed using relative probability event trees. The most frequent sequences were explosion→fire (27.6%), fire→explosion (27.5%) and fire→fire (17.8%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Accident information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

  5. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  6. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  7. Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    2002-01-01

    Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads

  8. Substance use among Iranian drivers involved in fatal road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.

  9. The report of the criticality accident in a uranium conversion test plant in Tokai-mura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Hajime; Akashi, Makoto

    2002-03-01

    The criticality accident in the title occurred at around 10:35, on Sep. 30, 1999, cost the lives of two workers and caused many residents concern on their health. Moreover, rumors had both social and economic consequences. This report is a detailed account of the roles that many individuals and groups in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) performed in a range of the areas, and is published to discharge NIRS responsibilities in regards to the accident. The report involves chapters of detailed outline of the accident; acceptance of the victims and communications until the identification of the ''criticality'' accident; initial treatment; dose estimation (medical, hematological, physical and biological ones and that by dental metals activated by the neutron); decision making for therapeutic strategies; cooperation with the Network Council for Radiation Emergency Medicine and other medical facilities; emergency importation of medical supplies; treatment and progress (nursing system and radiation injuries); protection from radiation in medical facilities; response to nearby residents of the Plant; international response; press release; Uranium Processing Plant Criticality Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Management Committee organized by the Nuclear Safety Commission; handling of information; and radiation emergency medical preparedness at the NIRS (future issues and prospect). The report is hoped to be useful in preventing the occurrence of future accidents. (K.H.)

  10. [Pediatric victims of traffic accidents admitted to a university hospital: epidemiological and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitas, Juliana Pontes Pinto; Ribeiro, Lindioneza Adriano; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2007-12-01

    This study analyzes epidemiological and clinic characteristics of victims of traffic accidents. Data were obtained from medical records of children under 15 years of age (n = 1,123) admitted to a university hospital in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1999 to 2003. Mean age was eight years, 65.7% were boys, 76.6% were cyclists or pedestrians, 45.9% suffered head injuries, and 9% remained in hospital for more than two weeks. Fourteen (1.2%) died, 78.6% of these within 48 hours of hospitalization, and 85.7% with brain injuries. Among the passengers of motorcycles and larger vehicles, 58.8% were not using security devices properly at the time of the accident. Among the cyclists, 61% suffered isolated limb injuries. Meanwhile, pedestrians tended to suffer multiple lesions (57.5%) and be admitted to intensive care (7.1%), and represented 66.7% of the deaths. Epidemiological data on pediatric traffic victims can be useful for accident prevention programs.

  11. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  12. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian ac-cidents in Fars Province of Iran: a community-based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymani Payam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the epidemio-logical characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province of Iran during a 29-month period from March 2009 to July 2011. The data were from the Fars Forensic Medi-cine Registry. In 4 923 recorded road traffic accident fatalities, 971 deaths were due to pedestrian accidents. The demographic and accident-related information were analyzed by SPSS ver-sion 11.5. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of decedents was (47.2±26.2 years, ranging from 6 months to 103 years old. Males ac-counted for 69.8% of all deaths. Fatal accidents were most common in September; 56.1% of the fatal injuries occurred on intracity roads and 33.1% on extracity roads. Fatal head injuries were present in 60.54% of cases. Evaluation of the injury site and the cause of death found that they were significantly associated with age, interval between injury and death. Besides, the type of roads played an important role in mortality. Conclusion: Although the clinical management of trauma patients has been improved in our country in the recent decade, decreasing the burden of injuries needs co-ordination among trauma system organizations. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiologic studies; Mortality; Iran

  13. Decrease of morbidity in road traffic accidents in a high income country - an analysis of 24,405 accidents in a 21 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstberger, Antonio; Joeris, Alexander; Daigl, Monica; Kiss, Miklos; Angerpointner, Katharina; Nerlich, Michael; Schmucker, Uli

    2015-10-01

    The WHO initiated the "Decade of Action for Road Safety" because the fatality on road traffic accidents could become the fifth leading cause of death in 2030. On the contrary, fatalities continue to decrease in high income countries. The aim of the study was to find evidence for changes in injury severity of passenger car occupants after road traffic accidents in Germany over time, and to find contributing factors. Data from the German In Depth Accident Study (GIDAS), representative for Germany, was used. A total of 24.405 accidents, reported from 1991 until 2011. 44.503 adult passenger car occupants were examined. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to find reasons for observed trends over time. The relative decrease in mortality was 68.8% from 1991 until 2011. Between 2006 and 2011, the percentage of severely injured traffic victims was less than half, both in terms of the whole body and individual body regions. For injuries with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 2, the percentage of persons with lower leg injuries declined by 72.5%, followed by the percentage of persons with pelvic injuries (61.5%), upper extremity injuries (57.7%), head injuries (54.3%), thorax injuries (50.0%), and abdomen injuries (40.0%). The multivariable regression model found 13 independent variables associated with injury prevention (e.g. seat belt use: OR 0.41, CI 95% 0.32-0.49; airbag: OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.75-0.99). The implementation of protective factors increased over time while accident constellations with a high probability for severe injury decreased over time. The decrease of severe injuries after road traffic accidents can be only attributed to a comprehensive approach including the enforcement of road safety policies and innovations in car engineering and emergency medicine. Traffic related measures and alcohol level control, and seat belt usage enforcement next to other technical advances are considered especially important. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Ryan T; Sitler, Michael R; Swanik, C Buz; Swanik, Kathleen A; Higgins, Michael; Torg, Joseph

    2005-02-01

    Recent epidemiological research has revealed that gender differences exist in concussion incidence but no study has investigated why females may be at greater risk of concussion. Our purpose was to determine whether gender differences existed in head-neck segment kinematic and neuromuscular control variables responses to an external force application with and without neck muscle preactivation. Forty (20 females and 20 males) physically active volunteers participated in the study. The independent variables were gender, force application (known vs unknown), and force direction (forced flexion vs forced extension). The dependent variables were kinematic and EMG variables, head-neck segment stiffness, and head-neck segment flexor and extensor isometric strength. Statistical analyses consisted of multiple multivariate and univariate analyses of variance, follow-up univariate analyses of variance, and t-tests (P Gender differences existed in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head angular acceleration. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration (50%) and displacement (39%) than males despite initiating muscle activity significantly earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment muscle activity (79% peak activity and 117% muscle activity area). The head-neck segment angular acceleration differences may be because females exhibited significantly less isometric strength (49%), neck girth (30%), and head mass (43%), resulting in lower levels of head-neck segment stiffness (29%). For our subject demographic, the results revealed gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration in response to an external force application. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration and displacement than males despite initiating muscle activity earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment

  15. Commissioning of the STAR test section for experimental simulation of loss of coolant accident using the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly of the IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maprelian, Eduardo; Torres, Walmir M.; Prado, Adelk C.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Franca, Renato L.; Santos, Samuel C.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: emaprel@ipen.br, E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.br, E-mail: acprado@ipen.br, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br, E-mail: rlfranca@ipen.br, E-mail: samuelcs@ipen.br, E-mail: lamacedo@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The three basic safety functions of Research Reactors (RR) are the safe shutdown of the reactor, the proper cooling of the decay heat of the fuel elements and the confinement of radioactive materials. Compared to Nuclear Power Reactors, RR power release is small, yet its three safety functions must be met to ensure the integrity of the reactor. During a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in pool type RR, partial or complete loss of pool water may occur, with consequent partial or complete uncovering of the fuel assemblies. In such an accident, the decay heat removal safety function must not be compromised. The Test Section for Experimental Simulation of Loss of Coolant Accident (STAR) is in commissioning phase. This test section will provide experimental data on partial and total uncovering of the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly (IFA) irradiated in the IEA-R1. Experimental results will be useful in validation of computer codes for RR safety analysis, particularly on heat removal efficiency aspects (safety function) in accident conditions. STAR comprises a base on which is installed the IFA, the cylindrical stainless steel hull, the compressed air system for the test section emptying and refilling, and the instrumentation for temperature and level measurements. The commissioning tests or pre-operational check, consist of several preliminary tests to verify experimental procedures, the difficulties during assembling of STAR in the pool, the difficulties in control the emptying and refilling velocities, as well as, the repeatability capacity, tests of equipment, valves and systems and tests of instrumentation and data acquisition system. Safety, accuracy and easiness of operation will be checked. (author)

  16. Statistical Analysis And Treatment Of Accident Black Spots: A Case Study Of Nandyal Mandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharshan Reddy, B.; Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, L.; Sreenivasa Reddy, G., Dr

    2017-08-01

    Background: Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. Nandyal Mandal is located in the Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh and well developed in both agricultural and industrial sectors after Kurnool. 567 accidents occurred in the last seven years at 143 locations shows the severity of the accidents in the Nandyal Mandal. There is a need to carry out some work in the Nandyal Mandal to improve the accidents black spots for reducing the accidents. Methods: Last seven years (2010-2016) of accident data collected from Police Stations. Weighted Severity Index (WSI), a scientific method is used for identifying the accident black spots. Statistical analysis has carried out for the collected data using Chi-Square Test to determine the independence of accidents with other attributes. Chi-Square Goodness of fit test conducted for test whether the accidents are occurring by chance or following any pattern. Results: WSI values are determined for the 143 locations. The Locations with high WSI are treated as accident black spots. Five black spots are taken for field study. After field observations and interaction with the public, some improvements are suggested for improving the accident black spots. There is no relationship between the severity of accidents and the other attributes like month, season, day, hours in day and the age group except type of vehicle. Road accidents are distributed throughout the Year, Month and Season. Road accidents are not distributed throughout the day.

  17. Instrumentation Performance during the TMI-2 Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, Joy L.; Knudson, Darrell L.

    2013-06-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI- 2) reactor provided a unique opportunity to evaluate sensors exposed to severe accident conditions. Conditions associated with the release of coolant and the hydrogen burn that occurred during this accident exposed instrumentation to harsh conditions, including direct radiation, radioactive contamination, and high humidity with elevated temperatures and pressures. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a review was completed to gain insights from prior TMI-2 sensor survivability and data qualification efforts. This new effort focused upon a set of sensors that provided critical data to TMI-2 operators for assessing the condition of the plant and the effects of mitigating actions taken by these operators. In addition, the effort considered sensors providing data required for subsequent accident simulations. Over 100 references related to instrumentation performance and post-accident evaluations of TMI-2 sensors and measurements were reviewed. Insights gained from this review are summarized within this paper. As noted within this paper, several techniques were invoked in the TMI-2 post-accident program to evaluate sensor survivability status and data qualification, including comparisons with data from other sensors, analytical calculations, laboratory testing, and comparisons with sensors subjected to similar conditions in large-scale integral tests and with sensors that were similar in design but more easily removed from the TMI-2 plant for evaluations. Conclusions from this review provide important insights related to sensor survivability and enhancement options for improving sensor performance. In addition, this paper provides recommendations related to sensor survivability and the data evaluation process that could be implemented in upcoming Fukushima Daiichi recovery efforts. (authors)

  18. Studying the Epidemiology of Fatal Traffic Accidents in the Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaei Behbahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Traffic accidents with about 1.24 million deaths and 20 to 50 million cases of injury or disability per year are one of the most important public health challenges around the world. In Iran, traffic accidents, with an annual incidence of 32 cases per 100 thousand people, are considered as the second leading cause of death and the most common cause of injury. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological pattern and mortality rate caused by traffic accidents during year 2012 in the Khuzestan province and its cities. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, all data related to fatal traffic accident referrals to legal medicine center of Khuzestan province during year 2012 were obtained and analyzed. Road traffic accidents mortality rate during this year was calculated for the province and its cities. The data were analyzed using Stata 11 statistical software. Results In 2012, one thousand and twenty deaths related to traffic accidents occurred in Khuzestan province. The incidence of deaths due to accidents in Khuzestan province was 22.5 and the standardized age of incidence was 24.3 per 100 thousand people. Regarding gender, 78.24% of the dead individuals were male and 21.76% were female. The most common final causes of death were head trauma (76.27% cases and bleeding (12.55% cases. The most deceased people were drivers (42.55%, passengers (34.90%, and pedestrians (21.27%. The highest traffic accidents mortality rate in Khuzestan province was observed in Hoveizeh (55.43 per one hundred thousand, Omidiye (55.30 per one hundred thousand and Ramhormuz (53.12 per one hundred thousand, and the lowest incidence rates belonged to Lali (5.35 per one hundred thousand and Shadegan (9.78 per one hundred thousand. Conclusions This study showed that drivers, passengers and pedestrians were the most vulnerable road users. Regarding the fact that most of them were illiterate or had primary education and were self-employed or

  19. Continued Testing of Head-Mounted Displays for Deaf Education in a Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Jones, M.; Lawler, J.; Bench, N.; Mangrubang, F. R.

    2013-06-01

    For more than a year now we have been developing techniques for using Head-Mounted Displays (HMD) to help accommodate a deaf audience in a planetarium environment. Our target audience is primarily children from 8 to 13 years of age, but the methodologies can be used for a wide variety of audiences. Applications also extend beyond the planetarium environment. Three tests have been done to determine if American Sign Language (ASL) can be delivered to the HMD and the student view both the planetarium show and the ASL ‘sound track’. From those early results we are now at the point of testing for comprehension improvement on a number of astronomical subjects. We will present a number of these early results.

  20. Testing of the assisting software for radiologists analysing head CT images: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Petr; Mitropolskii, Nikolai; Kukkola, Katri; Gretsch, Monika; Koivisto, Vesa-Matti; Lindgren, Ilkka; Saunavaara, Jani; Reponen, Jarmo; Mäkynen, Anssi

    2017-12-11

    Assessing a plan for user testing and evaluation of the assisting software developed for radiologists. Test plan was assessed in experimental testing, where users performed reporting on head computed tomography studies with the aid of the software developed. The user testing included usability tests, questionnaires, and interviews. In addition, search relevance was assessed on the basis of user opinions. The testing demonstrated weaknesses in the initial plan and enabled improvements. Results showed that the software has acceptable usability level but some minor fixes are needed before larger-scale pilot testing. The research also proved that it is possible even for radiologists with under a year's experience to perform reporting of non-obvious cases when assisted by the software developed. Due to the small number of test users, it was impossible to assess effects on diagnosis quality. The results of the tests performed showed that the test plan designed is useful, and answers to the key research questions should be forthcoming after testing with more radiologists. The preliminary testing revealed opportunities to improve test plan and flow, thereby illustrating that arranging preliminary test sessions prior to any complex scenarios is beneficial.

  1. Aspects of risk analysis application to estimation of nuclear accidents and tests consequences and intervention management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.; Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Rolevich, I.V.; Schneider, T.S.; Sobolev, B.G.

    1996-01-01

    For assessment of accident consequences and a post-accident management a risk analysis methodology and data bank (BARD) with allowance for radiation and non-radiation risk causes should be developed and used. Aspects of these needs and developments are considered. Some illustrative results of health risk estimation made with BARD for the Bryansk region territory with relatively high radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident are presented

  2. Review of Atomic Energy Laws Related to Radiological Accidents and Methods of Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gun Hyun; Kim, Sang Won; Yoo, Jeong; Ahn, Hyoung Jun; Park, Young Sik; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Jang, Ki Won; Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Atomic energy-related laws in Korea have a two pronged management system for radiological accidents. To be specific, the Atomic Energy Act is applicable to all radiological accidents, i.e. accidents pertaining to nuclear facilities and radioactive materials while the Act for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency ('APPRE') applies to accidents related to nuclear materials and large-scale nuclear facilities. The Atomic Energy Act contains three provisions directly related with radiological accidents (Articles 89, 98 and 102). Article 89 provides for the obligations of nuclear licensees or consigned transporters to institute safety measures and file a report to the head of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ('MEST') in the event of any radiological accident during transport or packing of radioactive materials, etc. Article 98 stipulates obligations of nuclear licensees to implement safety procedures and submit a report to the Minister of Education, Science and Technology concerning radiation hazards arising in the event a radiological accident occurs in connection with nuclear projects, as well as the Minister's requests to implement necessary measures. Article 102 explicitly provides for obligations to file a report to the Minister in the event of theft, loss, fire or other accidents involving radioactive materials, etc. in the possession of nuclear licensees. The APPRE classifies radiological accidents according to location and scale of the accidents. Based on location, accidents are divided into accidents inside or outside nuclear facilities. Accidents inside nuclear facilities refer to accidents that occur at nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycling facilities, radioactive waste storage, treatment and disposal facilities, facilities using nuclear materials and facilities related to radioisotopes of not lower than 18.5PBq (Subparagraph 2, Article 2 of the APPRE) while accidents outside nuclear facilities mean accidents

  3. Review of Atomic Energy Laws Related to Radiological Accidents and Methods of Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gun Hyun; Kim, Sang Won; Yoo, Jeong; Ahn, Hyoung Jun; Park, Young Sik; Kim, Hong Suk; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Jang, Ki Won; Kim, Sok Chul

    2009-01-01

    Atomic energy-related laws in Korea have a two pronged management system for radiological accidents. To be specific, the Atomic Energy Act is applicable to all radiological accidents, i.e. accidents pertaining to nuclear facilities and radioactive materials while the Act for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency ('APPRE') applies to accidents related to nuclear materials and large-scale nuclear facilities. The Atomic Energy Act contains three provisions directly related with radiological accidents (Articles 89, 98 and 102). Article 89 provides for the obligations of nuclear licensees or consigned transporters to institute safety measures and file a report to the head of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ('MEST') in the event of any radiological accident during transport or packing of radioactive materials, etc. Article 98 stipulates obligations of nuclear licensees to implement safety procedures and submit a report to the Minister of Education, Science and Technology concerning radiation hazards arising in the event a radiological accident occurs in connection with nuclear projects, as well as the Minister's requests to implement necessary measures. Article 102 explicitly provides for obligations to file a report to the Minister in the event of theft, loss, fire or other accidents involving radioactive materials, etc. in the possession of nuclear licensees. The APPRE classifies radiological accidents according to location and scale of the accidents. Based on location, accidents are divided into accidents inside or outside nuclear facilities. Accidents inside nuclear facilities refer to accidents that occur at nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycling facilities, radioactive waste storage, treatment and disposal facilities, facilities using nuclear materials and facilities related to radioisotopes of not lower than 18.5PBq (Subparagraph 2, Article 2 of the APPRE) while accidents outside nuclear facilities mean accidents that take place on

  4. Computed Tomography of pediatric head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kyoung Hee; Cho, Bum Shin; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1982-01-01

    The development of Computed Tomography (CT) scanning has revolutionized the role of radiology in the management of the pediatric head trauma. The procedure is safe and can be repeated to reasses a changing neurologic picture, thereby correlation the clinical and pathologic changes. This study included evaluation of CT of 178 infants and children with head trauma during the period of 31 months from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University. 1. Age distribution of the total 178 pediatric patients was ranging from one month to 16 years. The pediatric patient population was comprised of 128 males and 50 females, and its male to female ratio was about 2.5 : 1. The incidence of age occurring in 3 to 6 years was 38.2% and 7 to 10 years was 29.2%. Therefore the distribution of age between 3 to 6 years and 7 to 10 years was occurred in two-thirds of all pediatric patients. 2. Of all cases of injuries, traffic accidents were 60.1% and falls were 34.8%. 3. Skull fracture were roentgenographically detected in 61 (34.3%). However, the incidence of fractures in pretoddler group (0-2 years) was 61.1% and 7 to 10 years was 37.8%, 3 to 6 years was 36.8%. More common site of skull fracture was occipital bone,next partietal bone. 4. 54.8% of pediatric head trauma due to a full had a skull fracture, as did 25.2 % of those who were injured in traffic accident. 5. Cerebral Computed Tomography (CT) of the total 178 pediatric patients were revealed as following study.: Normal was 74.2%, epidural hematoma was 8.9%, subdural hematoma was 5.1%, cerebral contusion was 4.5%, intracerebral hematoma was 2.2% etc. 6. Of 25 cases of the epidural and subdural hematoma, supratentorial area was 15 cases, infratentorial area was 10 cases. 7. Most of the epidural hematoma was demonstrated a clear mental state. 8. However, intracerebral hematoma and cerebral contusion were occurred almost impairment of mental state

  5. Process and device for the ultrasonic testing of slotted screws screwed into a head of a nuclear reactor fuel element for cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenberg, R.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve correct echo signals, a test head is set separately on each area limited by a slot of the top of the slotted screw and the screw head is ultrasonically sounded in the direction of the suspected cracks. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Their risk assessment and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kiyoharu.

    1995-05-01

    This document is to explain the severe accident issues. Severe Accidents are defined as accidents which are far beyond the design basis and result in severe damage of the core. Accidents at Three Mild Island in USA and at Chernobyl in former Soviet Union are examples of severe accidents. The causes and progressions of the accidents as well as the actions taken are described. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a method to estimate the risk of severe accidents at nuclear reactors. The methodology for PSA is briefly described and current status on its application to safety related issues is introduced. The acceptability of the risks which inherently accompany every technology is then discussed. Finally, provision of accident management in Japan is introduced, including the description of accident management measures proposed for BWRs and PWRs. (author)

  7. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    As the fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests gradually decreased during the 1970s, the national preparedness and analytical capacity in Norway gradually disintegrated as well. The Chernobyl accident was therefore met without any overall contingency preparedness plan. The affected governmental bodies and other institutions had to improvise their first steps, including information to the public, until necessary coordination had been established. A complicating factor was the change of government during the first days of May 1986, the reasons for this had however nothing to do with the reactor accident. A great deal of uncertainty prevailed about the accident and its consequences especially during the first days after the accident. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the Ministry of the Environment in May 1986 both appointed committees to report on the accident and its impacts and on a future preparedness system, although their terms of reference were not identical. A third committee was appointed in June by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs to report on the information crises in connection with the accident

  8. Dominant accident sequences in Oconee-1 pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearing, J.F.; Henninger, R.J.; Nassersharif, B.

    1985-04-01

    A set of dominant accident sequences in the Oconee-1 pressurized water reactor was selected using probabilistic risk analysis methods. Because some accident scenarios were similar, a subset of four accident sequences was selected to be analyzed with the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to further our insights into similar types of accidents. The sequences selected were loss-of-feedwater, small-small break loss-of-coolant, loss-of-feedwater-initiated transient without scram, and interfacing systems loss-of-coolant accidents. The normal plant response and the impact of equipment availability and potential operator actions were also examined. Strategies were developed for operator actions not covered in existing emergency operator guidelines and were tested using TRAC simulations to evaluate their effectiveness in preventing core uncovery and maintaining core cooling

  9. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  10. The Impact of Driver Cell Phone Use on Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Prieger; Robert W. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Cell phone use is increasing worldwide, leading to a concern that cell phone use while driving increases accidents. We develop a new approach for estimating the relationship between cell phone use while driving and accidents, based on new survey data. We test for selection effects, such as whether drivers who use cell phones are inherently less safe drivers, even when not on the phone. The paper has two key findings. First, the impact of cell phone use on accidents varies across the populatio...

  11. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Pattern of Injuries from Road Traffic Accidents Presented at a Rural Teaching Institution of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to study the pattern of injuries from road traffic accidents presented at the emergency department of a rural teaching institution in Karachi. This descriptive case series was conducted prospectively in the Emergency Department of Fatima Hospital and Baqai Medical University from 1 January 2012 to 21 March 2013. There were 385 patients in the series. All of the patients with recent injuries from road traffic accidents were included. Cases with injuries more than 72 h old were excluded. The majority of patients had lower limb injuries 172 (44.7%), followed by head and neck injuries 107 (27.8%), multiple injuries 62 (16.1%), upper limb injuries 22 (5.7%), abdominoperineal injuries 19 (5%), and chest injuries 3 (0.8%). Majority (229, 59.5%) of patients were given first aid treatment and discharged, while 151 (39.3%) patients were either admitted or referred to better equipped hospitals. Three patients were brought dead, and two patients left against medical advice. The lower limb injuries were the commonest road traffic accidental injuries, followed by head and neck injuries, multiple injuries, upper limb injuries, abdominoperineal injuries, and chest injuries.

  13. Criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility. Think back on JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Keiji

    2003-09-01

    This book is written in order to understand the fundamental knowledge of criticality safety or criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility by the citizens. It consists of four chapters such as critical conditions and criticality accident of nuclear facility, risk of criticality accident, prevention of criticality accident and a measure at an occurrence of criticality accident. A definition of criticality, control of critical conditions, an aspect of accident, a rate of incident, damage, three sufferers, safety control method of criticality, engineering and administrative control, safety design of criticality, investigation of failure of safety control of JCO criticality accident, safety culture are explained. JCO criticality accident was caused with intention of disregarding regulation. It is important that we recognize the correct risk of criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility and prevent disasters. On the basis of them, we should establish safety culture. (S.Y.)

  14. An accident diagnosis algorithm using long short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemin Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accident diagnosis is one of the complex tasks for nuclear power plant (NPP operators. In abnormal or emergency situations, the diagnostic activity of the NPP states is burdensome though necessary. Numerous computer-based methods and operator support systems have been suggested to address this problem. Among them, the recurrent neural network (RNN has performed well at analyzing time series data. This study proposes an algorithm for accident diagnosis using long short-term memory (LSTM, which is a kind of RNN, which improves the limitation for time reflection. The algorithm consists of preprocessing, the LSTM network, and postprocessing. In the LSTM-based algorithm, preprocessed input variables are calculated to output the accident diagnosis results. The outputs are also postprocessed using softmax to determine the ranking of accident diagnosis results with probabilities. This algorithm was trained using a compact nuclear simulator for several accidents: a loss of coolant accident, a steam generator tube rupture, and a main steam line break. The trained algorithm was also tested to demonstrate the feasibility of diagnosing NPP accidents. Keywords: Accident Diagnosis, Long Short-term Memory, Recurrent Neural Network, Softmax

  15. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Core fusion accidents in nuclear power reactors. Knowledge review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Cenerino, Gerard; Jacquemain, Didier; Raimond, Emmanuel; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This reference document proposes a large and detailed review of severe core fusion accidents occurring in nuclear power reactors. It aims at presenting the scientific aspects of these accidents, a review of knowledge and research perspectives on this issue. After having recalled design and operation principles and safety principles for reactors operating in France, and the main studied and envisaged accident scenarios for the management of severe accidents in French PWRs, the authors describe the physical phenomena occurring during a core fusion accident, in the reactor vessel and in the containment building, their sequence and means to mitigate their effects: development of the accident within the reactor vessel, phenomena able to result in an early failure of the containment building, phenomena able to result in a delayed failure with the corium-concrete interaction, corium retention and cooling in and out of the vessel, release of fission products. They address the behaviour of containment buildings during such an accident (sizing situations, mechanical behaviour, bypasses). They review and discuss lessons learned from accidents (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl) and simulation tests (Phebus-PF). A last chapter gives an overview of software and approaches for the numerical simulation of a core fusion accident

  17. SCDAP/RELAP5 modeling of movement of melted material through porous debris in lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefken, L. J.; Harvego, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    A model is described for the movement of melted metallic material through a ceramic porous debris bed. The model is designed for the analysis of severe accidents in LWRs, wherein melted core plate material may slump onto the top of a porous bed of relocated core material supported by the lower head. The permeation of the melted core plate material into the porous debris bed influences the heatup of the debris bed and the heatup of the lower head supporting the debris. A model for mass transport of melted metallic material is applied that includes terms for viscosity and turbulence but neglects inertial and capillary terms because of their small value relative to gravity and viscous terms in the momentum equation. The relative permeability and passability of the porous debris are calculated as functions of debris porosity, particle size, and effective saturation. An iterative numerical solution is used to solve the set of nonlinear equations for mass transport. The effective thermal conductivity of the debris is calculated as a function of porosity, particle size, and saturation. The model integrates the equations for mass transport with a model for the two-dimensional conduction of heat through porous debris. The integrated model has been implemented into the SCDAP/RELAP5 code for the analysis of the integrity of LWR lower heads during severe accidents. The results of the model indicate that melted core plate material may permeate to near the bottom of a 1m deep hot porous debris bed supported by the lower head. The presence of the relocated core plate material was calculated to cause a 12% increase in the heat flux on the external surface of the lower head

  18. Acidentes de trabalho com mototaxistas Occupational accidents among mototaxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rego Amorim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da motocicleta como meio de trabalho vem contribuindo para o aumento no número dos acidentes de trânsito e se constituindo em acidentes de trabalho para os mototaxistas. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a incidência anual de acidentes de trabalho entre mototaxistas cadastrados em Feira de Santana, BA. Trata-se de um estudo de caráter descritivo e censitário. Foram entrevistados 267 profissionais dos 300 cadastrados na Secretaria Municipal de Transporte e Trânsito - SMTT, através de questionário estruturado. Procedeu-se à análise descritiva e foram estimadas incidências anuais de acidentes de trabalho segundo as variáveis de interesse. Calcularam-se os riscos relativos e, como medida de significância estatística, utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson e o teste exato de Fisher, adotando-se p The use of motorcycles as a means of work has contributed to the increase in traffic accidents, in particular, mototaxi accidents. The aim of this study was to estimate and characterize the incidence of occupational accidents among the mototaxis registered in Feira de Santana, BA. This is a cross-sectional study with descriptive and census data. Of the 300 professionals registered at the Municipal Transportation Service, 267 professionals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted and the incidence of accidents was estimated based on the variables studied. Relative risks were calculated and statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, considering p < 0.05. Logistic regression was used in order to perform simultaneous adjustment of variables. Occupational accidents were observed in 10.5% of mototaxis. There were mainly minor injuries (48.7%, 27% of them requiring leaves of absence from work. There was an association between the days of work per week, fatigue in lower limbs and musculoskeletal complaints, and accidents

  19. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  20. Study of typical nuclear containment purge valves in an accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.C.; Steele, R. Jr.; Hill, R.C.; DeWall, K.G.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents the results of the containment purge and vent valve test program, conducted under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The test program investigated butterfly valve operability and leak integrity under light-water-reactor design basis and severe accident conditions. Three nuclear-designed butterfly valves typical of those used in domestic nuclear power plant containment purge and vent applications were tested. For a comparison of response, two valve of the same size with differing internal designs were tested. For extrapolation insights, a larger-sized valve similar to one of the smaller valves was also tested. Dynamic flow tests were performed over the range of design basis accident pressures. Leak integrity testing was also performed at both design basis and severe accident temperatures and pressures. The valve experiments were performed with various piping configurations and valve orientations to the flow to simulate the various installation options in field applications. Testing was also performed in a standard ANSI test section

  1. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, D

    1993-01-01

    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  2. Feedback from practical experience with large sodium fire accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, V.P.; Freudenstein, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the important feedback from the practical experience from two large sodium fires; the first at ALMERIA in Spain and the second in the Na laboratories at Bensberg, Germany. One of the most important sodium fire accidents was the ALMERIA spray fire accident. The origin of this accident was the repair of a valve when about 14 t of sodium was spilled in the plant room over a period of 1/2 hour. The event has been reported (IAEA/IWGFR meeting in 1988) and this presentation gives a short review of important feedback. The Almeria accident was one of the reasons that from that time spray fires had to be taken into account in the safety analyses of nuclear power plants. Due to the fact that spray fire codes were not available in a sufficiently validated state, safety analyses were provisionally based on the feedback from sodium fire tests and also from the Almeria accident itself. The behaviour of spray fires showed that severe destruction, up to melting of metallic structures may occur, but even with a large spray fire is limited roughly within the spray fire zone itself. This could be subsequently be predicted by codes like NABRAND in Germany and FEUMIX in France. Almeria accident has accelerated R and D and code development with respect to spray fires. As example for a code validation some figures are given for the NABRAND code. Another large sodium fire accident happened in 1992 in the test facility at Bensberg in Germany (ILONA). This accident occurred during preheating of a sodium filled vessel which was provisionally installed in the basement of the ILONA test facility at Bensberg. Due to failure of a pressure relief valve the pressure in the vessel increased. As a consequence the plug in a dip tube for draining the vessel failed and about 4,5 t of sodium leaked slowly from the vessel. The plant room was not cladded with steel liners or collecting pans (it was not designed for permanent sodium plant operation). So leaking sodium came directly in

  3. Accident Locations, MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice Bridge, Bay Bridge locations, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Accident Locations dataset current as of 2011. MDTA Accidents, Accidents on MDTA locations, Accidents on I 95, US 50, I 695, Accident on John F Kennedy Highway, Nice...

  4. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a 60 Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  5. The head impulse test as a predictor of videonystagmography caloric test lateralization according to the level of examiner experience: A prospective open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadie, Ashraf; Holdstein, Yehuda; Kaminer, Margalit; Shupak, Avi

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a study to compare how well the head impulse test (HIT), without and with eye-movement recordings, would predict videonystagmographic (VNG) caloric test lateralization when performed by a resident and an experienced otoneurologist. This prospective, open-label, blinded study was conducted in an ambulatory tertiary care referral center. Our study population was made up of 60 patients-29 men and 31 women, aged 20 to 82 years (mean: 56.4 ± 11.4)-with peripheral vestibulopathy who underwent HIT and VNG caloric testing. The HIT was conducted in two protocols: HIT0 and HIT1. The HIT0 was performed with passive brisk movements of the patient's head from the 0° null position to 20° sideways, and the HIT1 was performed toward the center while the null position was a 20° head rotation to the right and to the left. Each protocol was carried out without video eye-movement recordings (HIT0 and HIT1) and with such recordings (rHIT0 and rHIT1). The primary outcome measures were (1) a comparison of the HIT's sensitivity and specificity when performed by the resident and by the experienced otoneurologist and (2) the ability of video-recorded HIT to predict VNG caloric test lateralization. The sensitivity and specificity obtained by the resident were 41 and 81%, respectively, for HIT0 and 41 and 90% for HIT1. The sensitivity and specificity obtained by the experienced otoneurologist were 18 and 89% for HIT0 and 32 and 85% for HIT1. Analysis of the recorded eye-movement clips of the HIT0 and HIT1 obtained by a second experienced otoneurologist found a sensitivity and specificity of 32 and 63% for rHIT0 and 33 and 82% for rHIT1. We conclude that the HIT yields high false-negative rates in predicting significant caloric lateralization. Analysis of the eye-movement recordings was no better than normal testing alone for detecting saccades. The experience of the examining physician had no impact on test performance characteristics.

  6. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  7. Analysis and model testing of Super Tiger Type B packaging in accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Romesberg, L.E.; May, R.A.; Joseph, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Based on previous scale model test results with more rigid systems and the subsystem tests on drums, it is believed that the scaled models realistically replicate full scale system behavior. Future work will be performed to obtain improved stiffness data on the Type A containers. These data will be incorporated into the finite element model, and improved correlation with the test results is expected. Review of the scale model transport system test results indicated that the method of attachment of the Super Tiger to the trailer was the primary cause for detachment of the outer door during the one-eighth scale grade-crossing test. Although the container seal on the scale model of Super Tiger was not adequately modeled to provide a leak-tight seal, loss of the existing seal in a full scale test can be inferred from the results of the one-quarter scale model grade-crossing test. In each test, approximately two-thirds of the model drums were estimated to have deformed sufficiently to predict loss of drum head closure seal, with several partially losing their contents within the overpack. In no case were drums ejected from the overpack, nor was there evidence of material loss in excess of the amount assumed in the WIPP EIS from any of the Super Tiger models tested. 9 figures

  8. Environmental measurements during the TMI-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Although the environmental consequences of the TMI accident were relatively insignificant, it was a major test of the ability of the involved state and federal radiological agencies to make a coordinated environmental monitoring response. This was accomplished largely on an ad hoc basis under the leadership of DOE. With some fine tuning, it is the basis for today's integrated FRMAP monitoring plan, which would be put into operation should another major accident occur at a US nuclear facility

  9. International Experts' Meeting on Decommissioning and Remediation after a Nuclear Accident. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety in Vienna, Austria, in June 2011. The Conference adopted a Ministerial Declaration which, inter alia, requested the Director General to prepare a draft Action Plan covering all the relevant aspects relating to nuclear safety, emergency preparedness and response, and radiation protection of people and the environment, as well as the relevant international legal framework. On 22 September 2011, the IAEA General Conference unanimously endorsed the draft IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety approved by the Board of Governors. The Action Plan sets out a comprehensive programme of work, in 12 major areas, to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide. Under one of these areas, headed 'Enhance transparency and effectiveness of communication and improve dissemination of information', the IAEA Secretariat was requested to organize an International Experts' Meeting (IEM) on decommissioning, cleanup and remediation of nuclear facilities and contaminated lands after a nuclear accident. This IEM was organized in response to that request. The IEM focussed on the complex technical, societal, environmental and economic issues that need to be considered for decommissioning and remediation activities after a nuclear accident, specifically after the emergency exposure situation of an accident has been declared ended. The objective of the IEM is to assist Member States to prepare for and to be able to manage the consequences resulting from a nuclear accident. The meeting highlighted the specific short term and long term issues that may need to be addressed during decommissioning of facilities and remediation of the off-site environment affected by a nuclear accident. It is of interest to a wide range of experts, such as decision makers, regulators, operators

  10. Advances in operational safety and severe accident research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    A project on reactor safety was carried out as a part of the NKS programme during 1999-2001. The objective of the project was to obtain a shared Nordic view of certain key safety issues related to the operating nuclear power plants in Finland and Sweden. The focus of the project was on selected central aspects of nuclear reactor safety that are of common interest for the Nordic nuclear authorities, utilities and research bodies. The project consisted of three sub-projects. One of them concentrated on the problems related to risk-informed deci- sion making, especially on the uncertainties and incompleteness of probabilistic safety assessments and their impact on the possibilities to use the PSA results in decision making. Another sub-project dealt with questions related to maintenance, such as human and organisational factors in maintenance and maintenance management. The focus of the third sub-project was on severe accidents. This sub-project concentrated on phenomenological studies of hydrogen combustion, formation of organic iodine, and core re-criticality due to molten core coolant interaction in the lower head of reactor vessel. Moreover, the current status of severe accident research and management was reviewed. (au)

  11. Joint inversion of hydraulic head and self-potential data associated with harmonic pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueid Ahmed, A.; Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; Dupont, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    Harmonic pumping tests consist in stimulating an aquifer by the means of hydraulic stimulations at some discrete frequencies. The inverse problem consisting in retrieving the hydraulic properties is inherently ill posed and is usually underdetermined when considering the number of well head data available in field conditions. To better constrain this inverse problem, we add self-potential data recorded at the ground surface to the head data. The self-potential method is a passive geophysical method. Its signals are generated by the groundwater flow through an electrokinetic coupling. We showed using a 3-D saturated unconfined synthetic aquifer that the self-potential method significantly improves the results of the harmonic hydraulic tomography. The hydroelectric forward problem is obtained by solving first the Richards equation, describing the groundwater flow, and then using the result in an electrical Poisson equation describing the self-potential problem. The joint inversion problem is solved using a reduction model based on the principal component geostatistical approach. In this method, the large prior covariance matrix is truncated and replaced by its low-rank approximation, allowing thus for notable computational time and storage savings. Three test cases are studied, to assess the validity of our approach. In the first test, we show that when the number of harmonic stimulations is low, combining the harmonic hydraulic and self-potential data does not improve the inversion results. In the second test where enough harmonic stimulations are performed, a significant improvement of the hydraulic parameters is observed. In the last synthetic test, we show that the electrical conductivity field required to invert the self-potential data can be determined with enough accuracy using an electrical resistivity tomography survey using the same electrodes configuration as used for the self-potential investigation.

  12. Head up tilt test in the diagnosis of neurocardiogenic syncope in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Vrajesh; Bavdekar, Manisha; Karia, Samir

    2004-06-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) is a common paroxysmal disorder that is often misdiagnosed as a seizure disorder. Head up tilt test (HUTT) has been used to confirm this diagnosis. There is no data available of its use in children / adolescents from India. To study the usefulness of the HUTT in children and adolescents with suspected NCS. This was a part retrospective and later prospective study set in a tertiary child neurology outpatient department (OPD). Patients with a strong clinical suspicion of syncope were recruited for the study. Clinical and treatment details were either retrieved from the chart or prospectively recorded in later patients. The HUTT was then carried out at baseline and after provocation and the results correlated with the clinical diagnosis. Eighteen children with a mean age of 10.8 years were studied. Eight had precipitating factors. Thirteen had premonitory symptoms. Pallor, temperature change, diaphoresis, headache, tonic / clonic movements, post-ictal confusion and peri-ictal headache were symptoms noticed. Sixteen had a positive HUTT. Seven were on long-term anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Two had epileptiform abnormalities on their electroencephalogram (EEG). The diagnosis of syncope is often confused with epilepsy. Head up tilt test has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of NCS in children / adolescents. It is fairly safe and easy to perform.

  13. Environment radiological monitoring by JNC related to the JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Concerning the criticality accident at JCO Co., Ltd. (JCO) which occurred at 10:35 on 30th Sep. 1999, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) established ''JNC's task force'' at 12:35 on the same data in conjunction with Head Office and Tokai Works. JNC's task force had collaborated on environmental radiological monitoring with the government of Japan and the local governments. This report compiles the results of the environmental monitoring performed by JNC's task force based on the request from the government of Japan and the local governments. (author)

  14. Passenger head in impact with frontal airbag in OOP postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu Soica, Adrian; Toganel, George-Radu

    2017-10-01

    Road accidents represent an aspect of road traffic that may lead negative consequences. In order to solve the problems associated with such events, interdisciplinary knowledge is called for, complex teams of engineers, doctors, lawyers, experts working together in order to reduce the severity of such events. Road safety is a continuous concern for both experts and various government organizations with the aim of protecting the lives of the participants in traffic. It has been estimated that the costs of traffic accidents account for 1-3% of a country GDP, depending on the level of country development [26]. In this paper we analyze a particular class of cases of injuries caused to passengers caused by the inflation of the frontal airbag when they are with the passenger out of position. Head kinematics, accelerations, as well as the severity of injuries expressed by HIC, as related to the AIS scale have been analysed.

  15. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. H.; Kim, H. G.; Jang, H. S.; Moon, S. K.; Park, J. U.

    1993-12-01

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

  16. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S H; Kim, H G; Jang, H S; Moon, S K; Park, J U [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management.

  17. Coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of corium-loaded lower head of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, J.; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2016-01-01

    A severe accident in the pressurised water reactor may lead to the relocation of core materials to the lower head of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The core debris at the bottom of RPV forms a melt pool of corium due to decay heat. The understanding of behaviour of pressure vessel, characterised by failure mode and time to failure, in this scenario is one of the important steps in predicting the accident progression. The most predominant failure mode is multi-axial creep deformation of the vessel with a non-uniform temperature field. Towards this, a numerical analysis methodology is developed for the prediction of pressure vessel deformation during the severe accidents. The methodology involves 2-D finite element modelling under multi-physics environment, which account the creep phenomena using Norton-Bailey creep law with a typical damage model of RPV material. The validation of the methodology is carried out using the results from OLHF experiment carried out in Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), USA, within the framework of an OECD. (author)

  18. Post-accident heat removal research: A state of the art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Schulenberg, T.

    1983-11-01

    For a realistic assessment of the consequence of extremely unlikely reactor accidents resulting in core degradation or core meltdown key questions are how to remove the decay heat from the reactor system and how to retain the radioactive core debris within the containment. Usually, this complex of questions is referred to as Post-Accident Heat Removal (PAHR). In this article the research work on PAHR performed by various institutions during the last decade has been reviewed. The main results have been summarized under the chapter headings ''Accident Scenarios,'' - ''Core Debris Accommodation Concepts,'' and ''PAHR Topics.'' Particular emphasis has been placed on the presentation of the following problems: characteristics and coolability of solid core debris in the vector vessel, heat removal from molten pools of core material, and core-melt interaction with structural materials. Some unresolved or insufficiently answered questions relating to special ''PAHR Topics'' have been mentioned or discussed at the end of the particular Chapter. Problem areas of major uncertainty have been identified and listed at the end of the review article. They include the following subjects: formation of debris beds and bed characteristics, post dryout behaviour of particle beds, long-term availability and proper location of heat sinks, creep rupture of structures under high thermal loads. (orig.) [de

  19. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O.; Nichols, R.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report

  20. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nichols, R.T. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report.

  1. [Accidents and injuries at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standke, W

    2014-06-01

    In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims.

  2. [Emergency care for victims of violence and accidents: differences in the epidemiological profile between the public and private health services. VIVA--Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; da Silveira, Naoko Yanagizawa Jardim; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Baldo, Caroline; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves

    2012-09-01

    The scope of this study is to analyze the differences in the profile of emergency care for external causes between public and private emergency departments. With data come from VIVA-Campinas 2009, the association between the nature of healthcare and the characteristics of the victims was verified using the chi-square test. Using Poisson regression, proportion ratios of care in the public and private network were estimated. In the sample of 1094 victims, 67.8% were treated by public health. Traffic accidents, animal-related accidents, and assaults were 2 times higher in public units, whereas collisions with objects and sprains were 75% and 2.7 times higher in private units. Cranium-encephalic trauma/polytrauma and cuts/lacerations were 3.8 times and 61% more frequent in public care, while victims with no injuries, with dislocations/sprains or fractures being predominant in private care. Head and multiple organ injuries, road accident and work-related injuries, the use of public transport or mobile emergency care services/ambulances were predominant in public care. Revealing significant differences in care in public and private care can contribute to the organization of healthcare.

  3. FOREVER Experiments on Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of a Reactor Pressure Vessel during a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Karbojian, A.; Green, J.A.; Bui, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the FOREVER (Failure Of Reactor Vessel Retention) experimental program, which is currently underway at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS). The objectives of the FOREVER experiments are to obtain data and develop validated models (i) on the melt coolability process inside the vessel, in the presence of water (in particular, on the efficacy of the postulated gap cooling to preclude vessel failure); and (ii) on the lower head failure due to the creep process in the absence of water inside and/or outside the lower head. The facility employs 1/10.-scale carbon steel vessels of 0.4 m diameter, 15 mm thickness and 600 mm height. Up to 20 liters of binary-oxide melts with 100-300 K superheat are employed, as a simulant for the prototypic corium melt, and internal heating is provided by electrical heaters of up to 20 kW power in order to maintain the vessel wall temperatures at 1100-1200 K. Auxiliary systems are designed to provide an overpressure up to 4 MPa in the test vessel. Thus, severe accident scenarios with RCS depressurization are modeled. Creep behavior of the three-dimensional vessel, formation of the gap between the melt pool crust and the creeping vessel, and mechanisms of the gap cooling by water ingression will be the subjects of study and measurements in the FOREVER experimental program. Scaling rationale as well as pre-test analyses of the thermal and mechanical behavior of the FOREVER test vessels are presented. (authors)

  4. Accommodation of potential hydrogen formation in LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepnewski, D.D.; Peak, R.D.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Results of design verification tests for the FFTF reactor cavity liner system are presented which suggest that steel liners would retain their integrity even under certain hypothetical accident conditions, thus avoiding the formation of hydrogen. When liner failures are postulate in hypothetical reactor vessel meltthrough accidents, hydrogen levels can be controlled by an air purging system. The design of a containment purging and effluent scrubbing system is discussed

  5. Biomass accident investigations – missed opportunities for learning and accident prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen a major increase in the production of energy from biomass. The growth has been mirrored in an increase of serious biomass related accidents involving fires, gas explosions, combustible dust explosions and the release of toxic gasses. There are indications that the number...... of bioenergy related accidents is growing faster than the energy production. This paper argues that biomass accidents, if properly investigated and lessons shared widely, provide ample opportunities for improving general hazard awareness and safety performance of the biomass industry. The paper examines...... selected serious accidents involving biogas and wood pellets in Denmark and argues that such opportunities for learning were missed because accident investigations were superficial, follow-up incomplete and information sharing absent. In one particularly distressing case, a facility saw a repeat accident...

  6. Accidental head injuries in children under 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Fischer, T.; Chapman, S.; Wilson, B.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the type and nature of head injuries sustained by children under the age of 5 years who present to a busy accident and emergency (A and E) department following an accidental fall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included all children under the age of 5 years, who over an 8-month period were referred to our A and E Department with head injury following an accidental fall. Data were collected regarding the height of the fall, whether or not stairs were involved, the type of surface that the child landed on and the height of the child. This was correlated with any soft-tissue injury or skull fracture. RESULTS: A total of 72 children (aged 4 months to 4.75 years) fulfilled all the criteria for an accidental fall. The heights of the falls ranged from less than 50 cm to over 3 m, with the majority below 1 m. Of the falls, 49 were onto a hard surface and 23 were onto a soft surface. Of the 72 children, 52 had visible evidence of head injury, 35 (71%) of 49 being the result of falls onto hard surfaces and 17 (74%) of 23 onto soft (carpeted) surfaces. There was no significant difference in the type of surface that resulted in a visible head injury. A visible head injury was seen in all children who fell from a height of over 1.5 m and in 95% of children who fell over 1 m. Of the 72 children, 32 (44%) had skull radiographs performed in accordance with established guidelines and 4 (12.5%) were identified as having a fracture. Of the 3 linear parietal fractures 2 were inflicted by falls of just over 1 m (from a work surface) and 1 by a fall of 80 to 90 cm onto the hard-edged surface of a stone fire surround. The 4th was a fracture of the base of skull following a fall from more than 3 m (from a first-storey window). CONCLUSIONS: In the vast majority of domestic accidents children do not suffer significant harm. Skull fractures are rare and probably occur in less than 5% of cases. To cause a skull fracture the fall needs to be from over 1 m or, if from a

  7. Experimental Setup for Reflood Quench of Accident Tolerant Fuel Claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan; Lee, Kwan Geun; In, Wang Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The concept of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) is a solution to suppress the hydrogen generation in loss of coolant accident (LOCA) situation without safety injection, which was the critical incident in the severe accident in the Fukushima. The changes in fuel and cladding materials may cause a significant difference in reactor performance in long term operation. Properties in terms of material science and engineering have been tested and showed promising results. However, numerous tests are still required to ensure the design performance and safety. Thermal hydraulic tests including boiling and quenching are partly confirmed, but not yet complete. We have been establishing the experimental setup to confirm the properties in the terms of thermal hydraulics. Design considerations and preliminary tests are introduced in this paper. An experimental setup to test thermal hydraulic characteristics of new ATF claddings are established and tested. The W heater set inside the cladding is working properly, exceeding 690 W/m linear power with thermocouples and insulating ceramic sheaths inside. The coolant injection control was also working in good conditions. The setup is about to complete and going to simulate quenching behavior of the ATF in the LOCA situation.

  8. Analyses to demonstrate the structural performance of the CASTOR KN12 in hypothetical accident drop accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diersch, R.; Weiss, M.; Tso, C.F.; Chung, S.H.; Lee, H.Y.

    2004-01-01

    CASTORc ircledR KN-12 is a new cask design by GNB for KHNP-NETEC for dry and wet transportation of up to twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies in Korea. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. It has been designed to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA ST-1 for Type B(U)F packages. Its structural performance was demonstrated against the load cases and boundary conditions as defined in 10 CFR 71 and NRC's Regulatory Guide 7.8, and further explained in NUREG 1617. This included normal conditions of transport load cases - including Hot Environment, Cold Environment, Increased External Pressure (140MPa), Minimum External Pressure (24.5kPa), Vibration and shock, and 0.3m free drop - and the hypothetical accident conditions load cases - including the 9m Free Drop, Puncture, Thermal Fire Accident, 200m Water Immersion and 1.5 x MNOP Internal Pressure. Structural performance were demonstrated by analysis, including state-of-the-art finite element (FE) simulation, and confirmed by tests using a 1/3-scale model. Test results were also used to verify the numerical tool and the methods used in the analyses. All the structural analyses including validation against drop tests were carried out by Arup, and testing were carried out by KAERI. This paper concentrates on the analysis carried out to demonstrate performance in the hypothetical accident 9m free drop scenarios, and results from a small selection of them

  9. Analyses to demonstrate the structural performance of the CASTOR KN12 in hypothetical accident drop accident scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diersch, R.; Weiss, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH (Germany); Tso, C.F. [Arup (United Kingdom); Chung, S.H.; Lee, H.Y. [KHNP-NETEC (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    CASTORc{sup ircledR} KN-12 is a new cask design by GNB for KHNP-NETEC for dry and wet transportation of up to twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies in Korea. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. It has been designed to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA ST-1 for Type B(U)F packages. Its structural performance was demonstrated against the load cases and boundary conditions as defined in 10 CFR 71 and NRC's Regulatory Guide 7.8, and further explained in NUREG 1617. This included normal conditions of transport load cases - including Hot Environment, Cold Environment, Increased External Pressure (140MPa), Minimum External Pressure (24.5kPa), Vibration and shock, and 0.3m free drop - and the hypothetical accident conditions load cases - including the 9m Free Drop, Puncture, Thermal Fire Accident, 200m Water Immersion and 1.5 x MNOP Internal Pressure. Structural performance were demonstrated by analysis, including state-of-the-art finite element (FE) simulation, and confirmed by tests using a 1/3-scale model. Test results were also used to verify the numerical tool and the methods used in the analyses. All the structural analyses including validation against drop tests were carried out by Arup, and testing were carried out by KAERI. This paper concentrates on the analysis carried out to demonstrate performance in the hypothetical accident 9m free drop scenarios, and results from a small selection of them.

  10. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  11. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee

    2016-01-01

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment

  12. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of core exit thermocouple for PWR accident management action in vessel top break LOCA simulation experiment at OECD/NEA ROSA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Presented are experiment results of the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with a focus on core exit thermocouple (CET) performance to detect core overheat during a vessel top break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation experiment. The CET temperatures are used to start accident management (AM) action to quickly depressurize steam generator (SG) secondary side in case of core temperature excursion. Test 6-1 is first test of the OECD/NEA ROSA Project started in 2005, simulating withdraw of a control rod drive mechanism penetration nozzle at the vessel top head. The break size is equivalent to 1.9% cold leg break. The AM action was initiated when CET temperature rose up to 623K. There was no reflux water fallback onto the CETs during the core heat-up period. The core overheat, however, was detected with a time delay of about 230s. In addition, a large temperature discrepancy was observed between the CETs and the hottest core region. This paper clarifies the reason of time delay and temperature discrepancy between the CETs and heated core during boil-off including three-dimensional steam flows in the core and core exit. The paper discusses applicability of the LSTF CET performance to pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions and a possibility of alternative indicators for earlier AM action than in Test 6-1 is studied by using symptom-based plant parameters such as a reactor vessel water level detection. (author)

  14. Forensic medical study on morphology and formative mechanism of blunt head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hong-wei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To study the patterns and morphologic characteristics of blunt head injury and analyse its formative mechanism in attempt to provide references for medicolegal expertise. Methods: The statistical analysis was done in terms of gender, age, as well as the nature, pattern, location, and feature of the injuries. Results: Among the 202 cases of head injury-induced death, 124 were male and 78 female with the age ranging from 1-81 years. Death caused by homicide was dominant (106, 52.5%, followed by suicide (49, 24.3% and accident (44, 21.8%. The majority of suicide-induced death were by falling from height, and traffic crash was responsible for majority of unexpected death cases. The morphology and pathogenesis of the injuries varied according to differences on the mode, magnitude, and orientation of the outside force giving rise to blunt injury as well as the character of vulnerants. Conclusion: Studies on the morphology and its forma-tive rationale of blunt head injury will offer easy access to medicolegal expertise on the mode and character of the injury. Key words: Brain; Head injuries, closed; Cranioce-rebral trauma; Forensic medicine

  15. Comparative analyses of bicyclists and motorcyclists in vehicle collisions focusing on head impact responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghua; Peng, Yong; Yi, Shengen

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the differences of the head impact responses between bicyclists and motorcyclists in vehicle collisions. A series of vehicle-bicycle and vehicle-motorcycle lateral impact simulations on four vehicle types at seven vehicle speeds (30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 km/h) and three two-wheeler moving speeds (5, 7.5 and 10 km/h for bicycle, 10, 12.5 and 15 km/h for motorcycle) were established based on PC-Crash software. To further comprehensively explore the differences, additional impact scenes with other initial conditions, such as impact angle (0, π/3, 2π/3 and π) and impact position (left, middle and right part of vehicle front-end), also were supplemented. And then, extensive comparisons were accomplished with regard to average head peak linear acceleration, average head impact speed, average head peak angular acceleration, average head peak angular speed and head injury severity. The results showed there were prominent differences of kinematics and body postures for bicyclists and motorcyclists even under same impact conditions. The variations of bicyclist head impact responses with the changing of impact conditions were a far cry from that of motorcyclists. The average head peak linear acceleration, average head impact speed and average head peak angular acceleration values were higher for motorcyclists than for bicyclists in most cases, while the bicyclists received greater average head peak angular speed values. And the head injuries of motorcyclists worsened faster with increased vehicle speed. The results may provide even deeper understanding of two-wheeler safety and contribute to improve the public health affected by road traffic accidents.

  16. The international nuclear liability and compensation regime put to the test of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.; Tetley, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It appears that nuclear emergency plans place generally more emphasis on the nuclear safety and radiation protection aspects of the management of an accident, both inside the installation concerned and off-site, than on the particular requirements of local residents who would find themselves suddenly in such an emergency situation and of possible victims of nuclear damage. In a similar vein, studies focusing on the international nuclear third party liability regime usually take a global perspective and leave little room for the treatment of individual cases. The albeit welcome dearth of practical experience in Western countries in providing compensation for accidents of nuclear origin has, however, meant that public and local authorities are not always fully conscious of the importance of this question which should be dealt with in as practical a manner as possible. In order to cover all the legal and practical questions that could arise during the management of the consequences of a nuclear accident with regard to third party liability, insurance and compensation, the OECD/NEA held in co-operation with French authorities a workshop in November 2001. It was decided to organize this workshop according to three main stages: the alert phase, the accident phase and the post-accident phase; and to examine during these three stages the various roles played by local and national authorities, the nuclear operator and his insurer, as well as the nature and form of their respective actions. These questions were addressed both from the angle of applicable domestic legislation and of the relevant international conventions. From the analysis of different national experiences and of the information exchanged during the workshop, a striking diversity may be noted of solutions adopted or envisaged to address various aspects of civil liability, insurance and indemnification of damage in a nuclear emergency situation. This lack of uniformity should not necessarily be

  17. Applicability of simplified human reliability analysis methods for severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, R.; St Germain, S. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Banaseanu, G.; Chatri, H.; Akl, Y. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Most contemporary human reliability analysis (HRA) methods were created to analyse design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants. As part of a comprehensive expansion of risk assessments at many plants internationally, HRAs will begin considering severe accident scenarios. Severe accidents, while extremely rare, constitute high consequence events that significantly challenge successful operations and recovery. Challenges during severe accidents include degraded and hazardous operating conditions at the plant, the shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, the unavailability of plant instrumentation, and the need to use different types of operating procedures. Such shifts in operations may also test key assumptions in existing HRA methods. This paper discusses key differences between design basis and severe accidents, reviews efforts to date to create customized HRA methods suitable for severe accidents, and recommends practices for adapting existing HRA methods that are already being used for HRAs at the plants. (author)

  18. Design parameters and testing techniques for criticality accident detection systems used in various nuclear establishments - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Krishnamony, S.; Krishnamurthi, T.N.; Gopalan, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Accidental criticality excursion is a potential hazard in operations involving fissile material. In this review paper, design criteria for criticality detection systems, associated requirements for reliable functioning of the instrument and recent advances in the field are discussed. Systems based on integrated dose and rate of change of dose rate concepts are explained. A criticality accident simulator using a pneumatically driven 60 Co source for testing the detector is described. The paper also discusses the relative advantages of gamma and neutron sensing devices. (author)

  19. Design parameters and testing techniques for criticality accident detection systems used in various nuclear establishments - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, S.; Krishnamony, S.; Krishnamurthi, T.N.; Gopalan, C.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.)

    Accidental criticality excursion is a potential hazard in operations involving fissile material. In this review paper, design criteria for criticality detection systems, associated requirements for reliable functioning of the instrument and recent advances in the field are discussed. Systems based on integrated dose and rate of change of dose rate concepts are explained. A criticality accident simulator using a pneumatically driven /sup 60/Co source for testing the detector is described. The paper also discusses the relative advantages of gamma and neutron sensing devices.

  20. Fission product behaviour in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Auvinen, A.; Maekynen, J.; Valmari, T.

    1998-01-01

    The understanding of fission product (FP) behaviour in severe accidents is important for source term assessment and accident mitigation measures. For example in accident management the operator needs to know the effect of different actions on the behaviour and release of fission products. At VTT fission product behaviour have been studied in different national and international projects. In this presentation the results of projects in EU funded 4th framework programme Nuclear Fission Safety 1994-1998 are reported. The projects are: fission product vapour/aerosol chemistry in the primary circuit (FI4SCT960020), aerosol physics in containment (FI4SCT950016), revaporisation of test samples from Phebus fission products (FI4SCT960019) and assessment of models for fission product revaporisation (FI4SCT960044). Also results from the national project 'aerosol experiments in the Victoria facility' funded by IVO PE and VTT Energy are reported

  1. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  2. Beam testing of the lab model 2700 head magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheon, R.M.; Gillies, B.A.

    1981-07-01

    A modern cancer therapy electron accelerator unit must satisfy many design constraints, one of which is the isocentric height above floor level. Usually 130 cm is considered the maximum height at which a nurse can work with a patient. The advent of higher energy machines has increasingly made this more difficult to achieve, as higher magnetic fields are required in the magnet that directs the beam onto the patient. A new 270 0 doubly achromatic magnet configuration has been developed which minimizes the isocentre height for a given maximum energy and maximum magnetic field. The system is an asymmetric two magnet configuration, with zero field index, equal fields and a bend of greater than 180 0 in the first magnet. It is compact, easy to manufacture and relatively insensitive to assembly tolerances. Energy defining slits are easily incorporated in the design and can readily be radiation shielded. Input and output beam matching and steering is easily accomplished with a compact input quadrupole doublet and small steering windings. The design and bench testing of such a head magnet for a 25 MeV electron accelerator is described in report AECL-7057. The present report details the testing of the magnet at both 10 and 21 MeV using the variable energy electron beam from the Therac 25 cancer therapy accelerator

  3. Detection of criticality accidents. The Intertechnique EDAC II system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, R.

    1991-01-01

    The chief aim of the new generation of EDAC II criticality accidents detection system is to reduce the risks associated to the handling of fissile material by providing a swift and safe warning of the development of any criticality accident. To this function already devolving on the EDAC system of the previous generation, the EDAC II adds the possibility of storing in memory the characteristics of the accident, providing a daily follow-up of the striking events in the system through the print-out of a log book and providing assistance to the operators during the periodical tests. (Author)

  4. Considerations regarding the implementation of EPR dosimetry for the population in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site based on experience from other radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, Valeriy; Ivannikov, Alexander; Tikunov, Dimitri; Stepanenko, Valeriy; Borysheva, Natalie; Orlenko, Sergey; Nalapko, Mikhail; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    General aspects of applying the method of retrospective dose estimation by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of human tooth enamel (EPR dosimetry) to the population residing in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site are analyzed and summarized. The analysis is based on the results obtained during 20 years of investigations conducted in the Medical Radiological Research Center regarding the development and practical application of this method for wide-scale dosimetrical investigation of populations exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident and other radiation accidents. (author)

  5. Specific features of RBMK severe accidents progression and approach to the accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevskij, V.P.; Nikitin, Yu.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Potapov, A.A.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental construction features of the LWGR facilities (absence of common external containment shell, disintegrated circulation circuit and multichannel reactor core, positive vapor reactivity coefficient, high mass of thermally capacious graphite moderator) predetermining development of assumed heavy non-projected accidents and handling them are treated. Rating the categories of the reactor core damages for non-projected accidents and accident types producing specific grope of damages is given. Passing standard non-projected accidents, possible methods of attack accident consequences, as well as methods of calculated analysis of non-projected accidents are demonstrated [ru

  6. Design of a Kaplan turbine for a wide range of operating head -Curved draft tube design and model test verification-

    Science.gov (United States)

    KO, Pohan; MATSUMOTO, Kiyoshi; OHTAKE, Norio; DING, Hua

    2016-11-01

    As for turbomachine off-design performance improvement is challenging but critical for maximising the performing area. In this paper, a curved draft tube for a medium head Kaplan type hydro turbine is introduced and discussed for its significant effect on expanding operating head range. Without adding any extra structure and working fluid for swirl destruction and damping, a carefully designed outline shape of draft tube with the selected placement of center-piers successfully supresses the growth of turbulence eddy and the transport of the swirl to the outlet. Also, more kinetic energy is recovered and the head lost is improved. Finally, the model test results are also presented. The obvious performance improvement was found in the lower net head area, where the maximum efficiency improvement was measured up to 20% without compromising the best efficiency point. Additionally, this design results in a new draft tube more compact in size and so leads to better construction and manufacturing cost performance for prototype. The draft tube geometry parameter designing process was concerning the best efficiency point together with the off-design points covering various water net heads and discharges. The hydraulic performance and flow behavior was numerically previewed and visualized by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. The simulation was under the assumption of steady-state incompressible turbulence flow inside the flow passage, and the inlet boundary condition was the carefully simulated flow pattern from the runner outlet. For confirmation, the corresponding turbine efficiency performance of the entire operating area was verified by model test.

  7. Large Break LOCA Accident Management Strategies for Accidents With Large Containment Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work is the investigation of the influence of different accident management strategies on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment during a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident with a large containment leak from the beginning of the accident. The increasing relevance of terrorism suggests a closer look at this kind of severe accidents. Normally the course of severe accidents and their associated phenomena are investigated with the assumption of an intact containment from the beginning of the accident. This intact containment has the ability to retain a large part of the radioactive inventory. In these cases there is only a release via a very small leakage due to the un-tightness of the containment up to cavity bottom melt through. This paper represents the last part of a comprehensive study on the influence of accident management strategies on the source term of VVER-1000 reactors. Basically two different accident sequences were investigated: the 'Station Blackout'- sequence and the 'Large Break LOCA'. In a first step the source term calculations were performed assuming an intact containment from the beginning of the accident and no accident management action. In a further step the influence of different accident management strategies was studied. The last part of the project was a repetition of the calculations with the assumption of a damaged containment from the beginning of the accident. This paper concentrates on the last step in the case of a Large Break LOCA. To be able to compare the results with calculations performed years ago the calculations were performed using the Source Term Code Package (STCP), hydrogen explosions are not considered. In this study four different scenarios have been investigated. The main parameter was the switch on time of the spray systems. One of the results is the influence of different accident management strategies on the source term. In the comparison with the sequence with intact containment it was

  8. SEVERE ACCIDENT ISSUES RAISED BY THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND IMPROVEMENTS SUGGESTED

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, JIN HO; KIM, TAE WOON

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits the Fukushima accident to draw lessons in the aspect of nuclear safety considering the fact that the Fukushima accident resulted in core damage for three nuclear power plants simultaneously and that there is a high possibility of a failure of the integrity of reactor vessel and primary containment vessel. A brief review on the accident progression at Fukushima nuclear power plants is discussed to highlight the nature and characteristic of the event. As the severe accide...

  9. Vaporization of structural materials in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Vaporized structural materials form the bulk of aerosol particles that can transport fission products in severe LWR accidents. As part of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a model has been developed based on a mass transport coefficient to describe the transport of materials from the surface of a molten pool. In many accident scenarios, the coefficient can be calculated from existing correlations for mass transfer by natural convection. Data from SASCHA fuel melting tests (Karlsruhe, Germany) show that the partial pressures of many of the melt components (Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Sn) required for the model can be calculated from the vapor pressures of the pure species and Raoult's law. These calculations indicate much lower aerosol concentrations than reported in previous studies

  10. Coupled thermo-mechanical creep analysis for boiling water reactor pressure vessel lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, Walter; Tran, Chi-Thanh; Kudinov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We consider a severe accident in a BWR with melt pool formation in the lower head. ► We study the influence of pool depth on vessel failure mode with creep analysis. ► There are two modes of failure; ballooning of vessel bottom and a localized creep. ► External vessel cooling can suppress creep and subsequently prevent vessel failure. - Abstract: In this paper we consider a hypothetical severe accident in a Nordic-type boiling water reactor (BWR) at the stage of relocation of molten core materials to the lower head and subsequent debris bed and then melt pool formation. Nordic BWRs rely on reactor cavity flooding as a means for ex-vessel melt coolability and ultimate termination of the accident progression. However, different modes of vessel failure may result in different regimes of melt release from the vessel, which determine initial conditions for melt coolant interaction and eventually coolability of the debris bed. The goal of this study is to define if retention of decay-heated melt inside the reactor pressure vessel is possible and investigate modes of the vessel wall failure otherwise. The mode of failure is contingent upon the ultimate mechanical strength of the vessel structures under given mechanical and thermal loads and applied cooling measures. The influence of pool depth and respective transient thermal loads on the reactor vessel failure mode is studied with coupled thermo-mechanical creep analysis. Efficacy of control rod guide tube (CRGT) cooling and external vessel wall cooling as potential severe accident management measures is investigated. First, only CRGT cooling is considered in simulations revealing two different modes of vessel failure: (i) a ‘ballooning’ of the vessel bottom and (ii) a ‘localized creep’ concentrated within the vicinity of the top surface of the melt pool. Second, possibility of in-vessel retention with CRGT and external vessel cooling is investigated. We found that the external vessel

  11. Explanatory memorandum on European Community Document -mutual medical assistance in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report lists the Commissions proposals for further action on its suggestion of mutual health assistance in the event of a nuclear accident. These include surveys and studies, further research on the medical treatment of radiation casualties and the methodology of epidemiological investigations, the promotion of contacts between experts and the attempt to assemble a handbook listing facilities and procedures for mutual assistance. The memorandum explains some of the points further under the headings, ministerial responsibility, legal and procedural issues and policy implications. The United Kingdom position is then stated. The UK government welcomes the proposals provided there is no duplication of work already covered by the IAEA Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  13. Otolith function in patients with head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Dae; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don; Park, Ji Yun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Sung, Ki-Bum

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the otolith function of patients with head trauma, postulating that otolith dysfunction is a cause of nonspecific dizziness after head trauma. We prospectively enrolled 28 patients referred within 3 months after head trauma between March 2007 and December 2009. Pure tone audiometry, caloric testing and otolith function tests, including cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) tests, were performed on all patients. The relationship between otolith function and otologic symptoms was analyzed. Of the 28 patients with head trauma, 18 complained of dizziness and 12 experienced hearing loss, including 6 patients who complained of both. On defining otolith dysfunction as an abnormal cVEMP or abnormal SVV, a significant difference in otolith dysfunction existed between the groups with and without dizziness [72 (13/18) vs. 20% (2/10)]. In contrast, no significant difference in otolith dysfunction was detected between the abnormal and normal hearing groups. A significant number of the patients who complained of nonspecific dizziness after trauma had abnormal otolith function. After trauma, when patients complain of dizziness, vestibular function tests, including otolith function tests, should be considered.

  14. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  15. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  16. Planning for large-scale accidents: learning from the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Decision-making issues raised at the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in Pennsylvania are explored. The organizations involved, their interconnections, and decisions are described. The underlying issues bearing on allocation of effort to pre-accident planning and actual accident responses are also noted. Finally, a framework from this effort is used for guiding the planning of operations for future accidents. (author)

  17. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  18. Investigation of Zircaloy-2 oxidation model for SFP accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: nemoto.yoshiyuki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Ohaza, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Chihiro; Kondo, Keietsu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Ohaza, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Nakashima, Kazuo; Kanazawa, Toru; Tojo, Masayuki [Global Nuclear Fuel – Japan Co., Ltd., 2-3-1, Uchikawa, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa, 239-0836 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    The authors previously conducted thermogravimetric analyses on Zircaloy-2 in air. By using the thermogravimetric data, an oxidation model was constructed in this study so that it can be applied for the modeling of cladding degradation in spent fuel pool (SFP) severe accident condition. For its validation, oxidation tests of long cladding tube were conducted, and computational fluid dynamics analyses using the constructed oxidation model were proceeded to simulate the experiments. In the oxidation tests, high temperature thermal gradient along the cladding axis was applied and air flow rates in testing chamber were controlled to simulate hypothetical SFP accidents. The analytical outputs successfully reproduced the growth of oxide film and porous oxide layer on the claddings in oxidation tests, and validity of the oxidation model was proved. Influence of air flow rate for the oxidation behavior was thought negligible in the conditions investigated in this study. - Highlights: •An oxidation model of Zircaloy-2 in air environment was developed. •The oxidation model was validated by the comparison with oxidation tests using long cladding tubes in hypothetical spent fuel pool accident condition. •The oxidation model successfully reproduced the typical oxidation behavior in air.

  19. Suspected alcohol and addictive narcotic use were more at risk to severe head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2012-07-01

    Support System for Injury Surveillance”. Data collected by abstraction of medical records by trained personnel using registry form in patients who had hospitalized in 3 hospitals from January to August 2010. Severe head injury classified by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score 3-9 diagnosed severe head injury, 10-12 moderate head injury and 13-15 mild head injury. Results: Out of 450 injured patients, 36 patients (8% who had severe head injuries. Patient who was suspected alcohol and addictive narcotic use had nearly 5-fold increase the risk in severe head injury [adjusted odds ratio (ORa=4.77; 95% confidence interval (CI=1.04-21.75] compared to not suspected. Patient who was referred had a 5.5-fold increase the risk in severe head injury (ORa=5.50; 95% CI=2.28-13.27 compared with not referred. Injured person due to traffic accident than other type of accident had 3-fold increase the risk of severe head injury (ORa=3.43; 95% CI=1.14-10.32. Conclusion: Suspected alcohol or addictive narcotic was the highest risk to severe head injury. Campaign against alcohol and addictive narcotic should be done to prevent head injury severity. (Health Science Indones 2011;34-40

  20. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry; Le programme d'intercomparaison internationale de dosimetrie d'accident 10-12 juin 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a {sup 60}Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  1. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) head phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallas, Raya R.; Huenemohr, Nora; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I.; Greilich, Steffen [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany). Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO); Jaekel, Oliver [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany). Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy ''end-to-end'' tests are intended to cover every step from therapy planning through to follow-up in order to fulfill the higher demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the treatment process, established phantoms such as the Alderson head cannot fully be used for those tests and novel phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study of a customizable multimodality head phantom. It is initially intended for ion radiotherapy but may also be used in photon therapy. As basis for the anthropomorphic head shape we have used a set of patient computed tomography (CT) images. The phantom recipient consisting of epoxy resin was produced by using a 3D printer. It includes a nasal air cavity, a cranial bone surrogate (based on dipotassium phosphate), a brain surrogate (based on agarose gel), and a surrogate for cerebrospinal fluid (based on distilled water). Furthermore, a volume filled with normoxic dosimetric gel mimicked a tumor. The entire workflow of a proton therapy could be successfully applied to the phantom. CT measurements revealed CT numbers agreeing with reference values for all surrogates in the range from 2 HU to 978 HU (120 kV). MRI showed the desired contrasts between the different phantom materials especially in T2-weighted images (except for the bone surrogate). T2-weighted readout of the polymerization gel dosimeter allowed approximate range verification.

  2. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) head phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallas, Raya R.; Huenemohr, Nora; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I.; Greilich, Steffen; Jaekel, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy ''end-to-end'' tests are intended to cover every step from therapy planning through to follow-up in order to fulfill the higher demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the treatment process, established phantoms such as the Alderson head cannot fully be used for those tests and novel phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study of a customizable multimodality head phantom. It is initially intended for ion radiotherapy but may also be used in photon therapy. As basis for the anthropomorphic head shape we have used a set of patient computed tomography (CT) images. The phantom recipient consisting of epoxy resin was produced by using a 3D printer. It includes a nasal air cavity, a cranial bone surrogate (based on dipotassium phosphate), a brain surrogate (based on agarose gel), and a surrogate for cerebrospinal fluid (based on distilled water). Furthermore, a volume filled with normoxic dosimetric gel mimicked a tumor. The entire workflow of a proton therapy could be successfully applied to the phantom. CT measurements revealed CT numbers agreeing with reference values for all surrogates in the range from 2 HU to 978 HU (120 kV). MRI showed the desired contrasts between the different phantom materials especially in T2-weighted images (except for the bone surrogate). T2-weighted readout of the polymerization gel dosimeter allowed approximate range verification.

  3. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) head phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Raya R; Hünemohr, Nora; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy "end-to-end" tests are intended to cover every step from therapy planning through to follow-up in order to fulfill the higher demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the treatment process, established phantoms such as the Alderson head cannot fully be used for those tests and novel phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study of a customizable multimodality head phantom. It is initially intended for ion radiotherapy but may also be used in photon therapy. As basis for the anthropomorphic head shape we have used a set of patient computed tomography (CT) images. The phantom recipient consisting of epoxy resin was produced by using a 3D printer. It includes a nasal air cavity, a cranial bone surrogate (based on dipotassium phosphate), a brain surrogate (based on agarose gel), and a surrogate for cerebrospinal fluid (based on distilled water). Furthermore, a volume filled with normoxic dosimetric gel mimicked a tumor. The entire workflow of a proton therapy could be successfully applied to the phantom. CT measurements revealed CT numbers agreeing with reference values for all surrogates in the range from 2 HU to 978 HU (120 kV). MRI showed the desired contrasts between the different phantom materials especially in T2-weighted images (except for the bone surrogate). T2-weighted readout of the polymerization gel dosimeter allowed approximate range verification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Radiological accidents: analysis of the information disseminated by media and public acceptance of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Tauhata, Luiz; Garcia, Marcia Maria

    1995-01-01

    A methodology to treat quantitatively information by Media concerning a nuclear or a radiological accident is presented. It allows us to classify information according to the amount, importance and way of showing, into one indicator, named Information Equivalent. This establishes a procedure for analysis of released information and includes: number of head-lines, illustrations, printed lines, editorials, authorities quoted and so on. Interpretation becomes easier when the evolution and statistical trend of this indicator is observed. The application to evaluate the dissemination of the accident which took place in 1987 in Goiania, Brazil, was satisfactory and allowed us to purpose a model. This will aid the planning, the decision making process and it will improve relationships between technical staff and media during the emergency. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures after Head Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scévola

    2009-01-01

    another medical illness. The gold standard for PNES diagnosis is video electroencephalogram (Video-EEG. PNESs are defined by modern psychiatry as conversion and dissociative disorders but these disorders may coexist with many others psychiatric disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. It is well known that epileptic seizures are a frequent and well-studied complication of traumatic head injury (THI. However, THI may also generate psychic symptoms including PNES. In this paper we describe a patient who developed PNES after THI in a bus accident and received a diagnosis of refractory epilepsy for 24 years until she underwent Video-EEG.

  6. Human Factors in Nuclear Reactor Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    While many people would blame nature for the disaster of the “Fukushima Daiichi” accident, experts considered this accident to be also a human-induced disaster. This confirmed the importance of human errors which have been getting a growing interest in the nuclear field after the Three Mile Island accident. Personnel play an important role in design, operation, maintenance, planning, and management. The interface between machine and man is known as a human factor. In the present work, the human factors that have to be considered were discussed. The effect of the control room configuration and equipment design effect on the human behavior was also discussed. Precise reviewing of person’s qualifications and experience was focused. Insufficient training has been a major cause of human error in the nuclear field. The effective training issues were introduced. Avoiding complicated operational processes and non responsive management systems was stressed. Distinguishing between the procedures for normal and emergency operations was emphasised. It was stated that human error during maintenance and testing activities could cause a serious accident. This is because safety systems do not cover much more risk probabilities in the maintenance and testing activities like they do in the normal operation. In nuclear industry, the need for a classification and identification of human errors has been well recognised. As a result of this, human reliability must be assessed. These errors are analyzed by a probabilistic safety assessment which deals with errors in reading, listening and implementing procedures but not with cognitive errors. Much efforts must be accomplished to consider cognitive errors in the probabilistic safety assessment. The ways of collecting human factor data were surveyed. The methods for identifying safe designs, helping decision makers to predict how proposed or current policies will affect safety, and comprehensive understanding of the relationship

  7. MRI of head trauma. Serial changes and comparison with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Osamu; Sato, Shuji; Suzuki, Takashi; Endo, Shunro; Takaku, Akira.

    1988-08-01

    Sequential changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated in comparison with computed tomography (CT) in 31 cases of head trauma. Twenty-one of them were of acute head trauma; the first MRI study was performed within 48 hours after the accident. Forty-two intracranial lesions were observed in these cases on MRI. The other 10 cases were of chronic subdural hematoma, two cases of which had bilateral lesions. Fourteen lesions of acute head trauma and two lesions of chronic subdural hematoma were detected only by MRI. MRI was superior to CT for the detection of small contusions and thin extra-axial collections, especially those which were located near the bony structures. The abnormal lesions were visualized in MRI during a longer period than in CT. Because the signal intensity of a hematoma changed sequentially, the detection of brain edema was easier than that of a subarachnoid and parenchimal hemorrhage. Judging from this experience, it seems that careful attention should be taken in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic lesions. However, MRI was poor in tissue characterization because of the too-high tissue sensitivity. T/sub 2/-weight SE imaging was essentially sensitive and useful in the early stage.

  8. The protective effect of helmet use in motorcycle and bicycle accidents: a propensity score-matched study based on a trauma registry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-08-07

    Transportation by motorcycle and bicycle has become popular in Taiwan, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of helmet use during motorcycle and bicycle accidents by using a propensity score-matched study based on trauma registry system data. Data of adult patients hospitalized for motorcycle or bicycle accidents between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. These included 7735 motorcyclists with helmet use, 863 motorcyclists without helmet use, 76 bicyclists with helmet use, and 647 bicyclists without helmet use. The primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, and ICU LOS. Normally distributed continuous data were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio using optimal method with a 0.2 caliper width) was performed using NCSS software, adjusting for the following covariates: sex, age, and comorbidities. Further logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of helmet use on mortality rates of motorcyclists and bicyclists, respectively. The mortality rate for motorcyclists with helmet use (1.1%) was significantly lower than for motorcyclists without helmet use (4.2%; odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.37; p Motorcycle helmets provide protection to adult motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents and their use is associated with a decrease in mortality rates and the risk of head injuries. However, no such protective effect of helmet use was observed for bicyclists involved in collisions.

  9. Analytical method and result of radiation exposure for depressurization accident of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, K.; Shiozawa, S.; Mikami, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is now proceeding with the construction design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since the HTTR has some characteristics different from LWRs, analytical method of radiation exposure in accidents provided for LWRs can not be applied directly. This paper describes the analytical method of radiation exposure developed by JAERI for the depressurization accident, which is the severest accident in respect to radiation exposure among the design basis accidents of the HTTR. The result is also described in this paper

  10. [Evaluation of psychological fear in children undergoing head-up tilt test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Li-Jia; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Ping; Li, Fang; Zhu, Li-Ping; Ran, Jing; Zou, Run-Mei; Liu, De-Yu

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of different tilt angles of head-up tilt test (HUTT) and different responses to HUTT on the psychological fear in children undergoing the test. HUTT was performed on children with unexplained syncope or pre-syncope (107 cases: 52 males and 55 females), aged 5.5-17.8 years (mean 12.0±2.8 years). All subjects were randomly assigned to undergo HUTT at an angle of 60°, 70° or 80°; the negative cases underwent sublingual nitroglycerin-provocation HUTT at the same tilt angle. The Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale was used for self-assessment of psychological fear in subjects during HUTT at the end point of the test. The positive rate, hemodynamic changes and distribution of response types showed no significant differences between children at tilt angles of 60°, 70° and 80° (P>0.05). The greater the tilt angle, the higher the degree of psychological fear in children undergoing the test, but there were no significant differences between them (P>0.05). The degree of psychological fear in children who showed a positive response to HUTT (n=76) was significant