Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)
Reid, M J; Webster-Stratton, C; Beauchaine, T P
The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior intervention studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly to either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups). Families in both conditions were assessed using home observations of parent-child interactions and parent reports of parenting style and discipline strategies and child behavior problems in the fall (baseline) and spring (postintervention) of the children's Head Start year. Families were reassessed 1 year later. Following treatment, intervention mothers were observed to be more positive, less critical, more consistent, and more competent in their parenting than were control mothers. Additionally, children of intervention parents were observed to exhibit fewer behavior problems than were control children. Differences in treatment response across ethnic groups were few, and did not exceed the number expected by chance. Parents from all groups reported high satisfaction levels following the parenting program. Results indicate that the Incredible Years Program is accepted by and effective with diverse populations.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...
Lewis, Kandia; Sandilos, Lia E.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Sawyer, Brook E.; Méndez, Lucía I.
Research Findings: This study explored the relations between Spanish-English dual language learner (DLL) children's home language and literacy experiences and their expressive vocabulary and oral comprehension abilities in Spanish and in English. Data from Spanish-English mothers of 93 preschool-age Head Start children who resided in central…
One-quarter of the Head Start population has a mother who participated in the program as a child. This study uses experimental Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) data on 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 2,849) to describe multigenerational Head Start families and their program experiences. In sharp contrast to full-sample HSIS findings, Head Start has large,…
Shea, Sarah E.; Coyne, Lisa W.
Maternal dysphoria predicts behavioral difficulties in preschool-aged children, and may contribute to negative child outcomes by exacerbating parenting stress. Parenting stress increases the likelihood of maladaptive parenting practices, especially when mothers face multiple contextual stressors. We explored maternal experiential avoidance (EA) as…
Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.
This guide contains suggested criteria for planning, designing, and renovating Head Start centers so that they are safe, child-oriented, developmentally appropriate, beautiful, environmentally sensitive, and functional. The content is based on the U.S. General Services Administration's Child Care Center Design Guide, PBS-P140, which was intended…
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...
This article uses the history of debates over the US Head Start programme (1965), Early Head Start (1994) and the UK Sure Start initiative (1998), as a window on to policy transfer. In all the three, the aim was that early intervention could offer a means of boosting children's educational attainment and of countering the wider effects of poverty…
Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.
Part 1 of this manual on coordinating health care services for Head Start children provides an overview of what Head Start health staff should do to meet the medical, mental health, nutritional, and/or dental needs of Head Start children, staff, and family members. Offering examples, lists, action steps, and charts for clarification, part 2…
Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth
This Technical Report is designed to provide technical detail to support the analysis and findings presented in the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2010). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Head Start Impact Study and its findings. Chapter 2 provides technical information on the…
McAllister, Carol L.; Thomas, Tammy L.; Green, Beth L.
Racial differences in school readiness are a form of health disparity. By examining, from the perspective of low-income minority families participating in an Early Head Start study, community and policy environments as they shape and inform lived experiences, we identified several types of social and economic dislocation that undermine the efforts of parents to ready their children for school. The multiple dislocations of community triggered by housing and welfare reform and “urban renewal” are sources of stress for parents and children and affect the health and development of young children. Our findings suggest that racial differences in school readiness result not from race but from poverty and structural racism in American society. PMID:19059871
... into Head Start and from Head Start to public school. 1308.21 Section 1308.21 Public Welfare... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START... Standards § 1308.21 Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to...
... importance of the early years of a child's growth and development. On December 12, 2007, the Improving Head... education, serving nearly one million of our nation's most vulnerable young children and their families. It... Administration for Children and Families 45 CFR Part 1307 Head Start Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register...
Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.
Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…
Hines, Jeanne Morris
Johnson's "War on Poverty" administrative team campaigned for committee members to join the War on Poverty efforts to create and develop programs for children born into poverty (Zigler, 2003). Poverty based programs, such as the Head Start program, continue to put into place proactive measures to increase preschooler's cognitive…
Bojczyk, Kathryn Elizabeth; Haverback, Heather Rogers; Pae, Hye K.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between mothers' self-efficacy beliefs, their preschool children's home learning environments, and literacy skills. A sample of 112 mother-child dyads was recruited from Head Start centers in rural and urban communities. The measures included maternal self-efficacy and maternal perceptions of…
Berlin, Lisa J; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Roggman, Lori A; Green, Beth L; Robinson, JoAnn; Spieker, Susan
This study examined maternal depression, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on four parenting outcomes assessed at age three. Participants (N = 947) were drawn from six sites of the Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation Project, a multi-site randomized trial. Findings suggest more positive program effects for mothers with less initial attachment avoidance or attachment anxiety. First, baseline attachment avoidance moderated Early Head Start program effects on observed maternal supportiveness, such that program mothers with lower baseline attachment avoidance were rated as more supportive of their three-year-olds than program mothers with higher baseline attachment avoidance. Second, program effects on spanking varied depending on mothers' baseline attachment anxiety.
Head Start programs provide poor children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Each year, programs are required to submit a Program Information Report (PIR) to the Office of Head Start on participating children, pregnant women, and families, as well as the staff serving the Head Start population. In 2013, the…
Connors, Maia C.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Morris, Pamela A.; Page, Lindsay C.; Feller, Avi
This study seeks to answer the following question: Are impacts on Head Start classroom quality associated with impacts of Head Start on children's learning and development? This study employs a variety of descriptive and quasi-experimental methods to explore the role of classroom quality as a mediator or mechanism of Head Start impacts. This…
Morris, Pamela A.; Connors, Maia C.; McCoy, Dana Charles; Gomez, Celia J.; Yoshikawa, Hiro; Aber, J. Lawrence
This paper capitalizes on the addition of geocodes for Head Start centers in which children were randomly assigned to address questions about the role of neighborhood characteristics in moderating impacts of assignment to the Head Start program. Researchers explore the extent to which impacts of assignment to Head Start on outcomes for children…
Muccio, Leah S.; Kidd, Julie K.; White, C. Stephen; Burns, M. Susan
This study considered the facilitators and barriers of successful inclusion in Head Start classrooms by examining the perspectives and practices of instructional professionals. A cross-sectional survey design was combined with direct observation in inclusive Head Start classrooms. Survey data were collected from 71 Head Start instructional…
McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila
Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…
Bass, William; And Others
Information on the nutritional habits of 154 Head Start children from rural, small city, and metropol tan areas in the central United States was obtained from questionnaires answered by the children's mothers. The information was restricted to what foods the children liked and disliked, except that a determination of the quantity of milk consumed…
Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee
These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…
The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...
This paper studies the effect of the Head Start program on children's achievements in reading and math tests during their first 4 years of schooling after completing the program. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, I found large measurement error in the parental reports of Head Start attendance, which…
Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth
This report summarizes the findings from a study on the impacts of Head Start on children and families during the children's preschool, kindergarten, and 1st grade years. Its study goals were to: (1) Determine the impact of Head Start on children's school readiness, and on parental practices that support children's development; and to (2)…
Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina
In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…
Smith, Jack L.
Three purposes guided compilation of this final report on the nutritional status of New Orleans, Mississippi, and Alabama Head Start children: (1) to evaluate the causes of anemia through detailed studies of urban New Orleans preschool children and their mothers, (2) to study the effect of dietary supplementation of school feeding programs upon…
Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandell, Deborah Lowe
As policy-makers contemplate expanding preschool opportunities for low-income children, one possibility is to fund two, rather than one year of Head Start for children at ages 3 and 4. Another option is to offer one year of Head Start followed by one year of pre-k. We ask which of these options is more effective. We use data from the Oklahoma…
Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandell, Deborah Lowe
As policy-makers contemplate expanding preschool opportunities for low-income children, one possibility is to fund two, rather than one year of Head Start for children at ages 3 and 4. Another option is to offer one year of Head Start followed by one year of pre-k. We ask which of these options is more effective. We use data from the Oklahoma pre-k study to examine these two ‘pathways’ into kindergarten using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of each age-4 program, and propensity score weighting to address selection. We find that children attending Head Start at age 3 develop stronger pre-reading skills in a high quality pre-kindergarten at age 4 compared with attending Head Start at age 4. Pre-k and Head Start were not differentially linked to improvements in children’s pre-writing skills or pre-math skills. This suggests that some impacts of early learning programs may be related to the sequencing of learning experiences to more academic programming. PMID:27076692
Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.
This article discusses the implications of utilizing coaching-mentoring strategies with Head Start teachers identified from the results of a study which used an evidence-based approach to professional development. Early childhood and coaching practices that formed the basis of the study are explained. Implications from the study results regarding…
Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…
Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina
Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…
Pierce, Charles H.; Risley, Todd R.
The free play of 5 black preschool Head Start children was observed. The variables manipulated in the study were delayed instructions and reinforcement for play with selected toys, and specific versus general instructions; the correspondence between the adult's instructions and reinforcement to the children's play was assessed. The data indicated…
Griswold, Cecelia Smalls
The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…
Kawin, Marjorie R.
The Psychological Center provided a family oriented mental health consultation service to 17 delegate agencies who had contracts with Head Start programs in 1966-67. This paper presents an overview of the services which an interdisciplinary staff of 52 professionals provided to 6,780 families and 1,500 agency staff members. Gerald Caplan's (1964)…
The expansion of Project Head Start in Maine to the point of serving nearly 25 percent of eligible children is detailed in this report. Section I describes the expansion and some of its benefits, such as equalization of services across county boundaries and the establishment of a uniform unit cost-per-child for use in appropriating state funds.…
Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Pratt, Megan E.; Schmitt, Sara A.; Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.
The current study examines the effects of Head Start on the development of school readiness outcomes for children living in non-parental care. Data were obtained from the Head Start Impact Study, a randomized controlled trial of Head Start conducted with a nationally representative sample of Head Start programs and families. The sample included…
Aspen Systems Corp., Rockville, MD.
This guide offers Head Start staff a blueprint for developing the skills and methods necessary for a Head Start program's planning and review process. The guide stresses the need for Head Start administrative and managerial leadership to maintain a holistic, integrated approach; use the strength and resources of Head Start team members; identify…
McKey, Ruth Hubbell; And Others
Including all Head Start research (both published and unpublished) and using, when possible, the statistical technique of meta-analysis, this final report of the Head Start Evaluation, Synthesis, and Utilization Project presents findings on the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive and socioemotional development, on child health and health…
DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.
The goals of the present study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N=292; Mage=4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children’s levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers’ levels of preschool competency. Children’s peer interaction partners were intensively observed several times a week over one academic year. Social network analyses revealed that children selected peer interaction partners with similar levels of preschool competency and were influenced over time by their partners’ levels of preschool competency. These effects held even after controlling for several child (e.g., sex and language) and family factors (e.g., financial strain and parent education). Implications for promoting preschool competency among Head Start children are discussed. PMID:26479545
Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Halle, Tamara G.; Barton, Lauren R.; Winsler, Adam
We are delighted to reflect on the 10 papers highlighted in this important special issue of "Early Childhood Research Quarterly" devoted to recent secondary data analyses of the FACES and EHSREP datasets. First, we provide some background on Head Start research and give an overview of the large-scale Head Start and Early Head Start…
Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook
This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care.
The aim of the study was twofold: (a) describe behavioral and psychosocial characteristics of Head Start childcare providers including technology use, physical activity, nutrition, depression, and quality of life and (b) examine associations among these characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design, a nonrandom sample of 80 Head Start childcare providers completed an online survey via SurveyMonkey. About 80.1% were overweight or obese. Nearly all had a computer or smartphone. About 55% met the national physical activity recommendation of 150 min/week. Approximately 56.2% did not know the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables, and 26.3% had ≥3 servings of vegetables per day. About 38.8% had major depression or dysthymia, and 31.3% had depressive symptoms. The top two perceived health needs were weight loss and stress management. Providing a health promotion and stress management program to childcare providers may benefit both providers and children, considering the strong influence of teachers on children.
Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane
Using data ("n" = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this article examined the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes…
Since Head Start's last reauthorization in 2007, the Department of Health and Human Services, which oversees Head Start, has implemented significant reforms that are improving the program. In "Renewing Head Start's Promise: Invest in What Works for Disadvantaged Preschoolers," Sara Mead offers several recommendations to enable…
Over the past decade states have surpassed the federal Head Start program as the primary public funder of preschool slots. This paper investigates trends in Head Start enrollment in the context of increased state investment in early childhood. Using national, longitudinal data I find no evidence Head Start programs in states with expanding state…
Zill, Nicholas; Resnick, Gary; Kim, Kwang; McKey, Ruth Hubbell; Clark, Cheryl; Pai-Samant, Shefali; Connell, David; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; O'Brien, Robert; D'Elio, Mary Ann
The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) is an ongoing, national, longitudinal study of the cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development of Head Start children; the characteristics, well-being, and accomplishments of families; the observed quality of Head Start classrooms; and the characteristics and opinions of Head…
Zill, Nicholas; Resnick, Gary; Kim, Kwang; O'Donnell, Kevin; Sorongon, Alberto; McKey, Ruth Hubbell; Pai-Samant, Shefali; Clark, Cheryl; O'Brien, Robert; D'Elio, Mary Ann
In 1997, Head Start launched the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), a study of a national random sample of Head Start programs, designed to describe characteristics, experiences, and outcomes for children and families served by Head Start. In 2000, FACES began data collection on a new national cohort of 2,800 children and their families…
Mead, Sara; Mitchel, Ashley LiBetti
Head Start is a valuable federal program that improves the lives of our nation's most vulnerable children and their families. Research shows that Head Start programs improve children's learning at school entry and have a positive impact on long-term life outcomes. Research also suggests that Head Start could have a stronger impact on children's…
Bloom, Howard S.; Weiland, Christina
This paper uses data from the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), a nationally representative multisite randomized trial, to quantify variation in effects of Head Start during 2002-2003 on children's cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes relative to the effects of other local alternatives, including parent care. We find that (1) treatment and control…
McKey, Ruth Hubbell; And Others
This report summarizes the results of a study on the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive and socioemotional development, on child health and health institutions in the community, on enrollees' families, and on communities where Head Start programs operate. After discussing the background and methodology of the study, the report concludes…
Miller, Elizabeth B; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J
Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 3540) were used to test for differential benefits of Head Start after one program year and after kindergarten on pre-academic and behavior outcomes for children at risk in the domains targeted by the program's comprehensive services. Although random assignment to Head Start produced positive treatment main effects on children's pre-academic skills and behavior problems, residualized growth models showed that random assignment to Head Start did not differentially benefit the pre-academic skills of children with risk factors targeted by the Head Start service model. The models showed detrimental impacts of Head Start for maternal-reported behavior problems of high-risk children, but slightly more positive impacts for teacher-reported behavior. Policy implications for Head Start are discussed.
Head Start caregivers are responsible for educating and feeding preschoolers enrolled in the Head Start program. Amongst pre-school aged children, portion size served is positively associated with intake of those foods. Researchers conducted eight focus groups with Hispanic and African American Head...
Schlieber, M; Han, J
Sleep has a significant influence on children's development. The objective of this study was to investigate Head Start children's sleeping patterns and the impact on cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Using the 2009 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (N = 2,868), information on sleeping patterns was assessed through parent interviews. Cognitive outcomes were assessed using direct assessments (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IV, the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, and Subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III) in addition to teacher report. Behavioural outcomes were assessed through parent and teacher reports. A multiple regression analysis was performed for each outcome variable. Descriptive findings showed that 89% of children had a regular bedtime at least 4 days per week and that the average amount of sleep per night was 10.41 hr. White mothers were more likely than other racial groups to adhere to a consistent bedtime, and maternal employment predicted less hour of sleep per night. Multiple regression analyses revealed that disrupted sleep had a negative influence on cognitive outcomes, especially in areas of mathematical problem solving, receptive language, teacher-reported literacy behaviours, and approaches to learning. Disrupted sleep was associated with the risk of misbehaviour by increasing teacher and parent ratings on aggressive behaviours, hyperactivity, and withdrawing in addition to decreased scores on overall social skills. Having an inconsistent bedtime negatively predicted expressive vocabulary and teacher-reported literacy behaviours. The findings of this study support the influential role of sleep on children's development. Sleeping through the night and having a consistent bedtime were found to be predictive of many areas of cognitive and behavioural development. Head Start staff can provide the supports to increase parental knowledge on appropriate child sleep practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Fischl, Andrea Rodgers; Choi, Jessica; Schmitt, Patricia L; White, Neil H; Becker, Dorothy; Downs, Julie; Hannan, Margaret; Thurheimer, Jennifer; Sereika, Susan M
Preconception counseling (PC) significantly and inexpensively reduces risks of reproductive-health complications for women with diabetes. Our validated technology-based preconception counseling intervention, READY-Girls , is tailored for female teens with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes and targets decision-making regarding effective family planning and seeking PC. Our teen-focused research was instrumental in changing the American Diabetes Association's Practice Recommendations to specify that preconception counseling should "Start at puberty…". This directive requires support from well-informed mothers of teens. Our goal is to provide both teen girls and their mothers with preconception counseling knowledge, and provide mothers with sex-communication training. Evaluation should focus on mother-daughter dyads. This feasibility study explored mother's and daughter's awareness and knowledge of diabetes and pregnancy, and preconception counseling; and compared mother-daughter responses using dyadic analyses. A mixed-method design was conducted with 10 mothers of daughters with T1D. Mothers were given READY-Girls intervention and completed knowledge and support questionnaires. Their responses were compared to those of their daughter's who were participating in a large randomized, control intervention trial with READY-Girls . The major theme from one-on-one interviews was, "I know nothing about diabetes/pregnancy risks and PC". Mother's and daughter's perceptions of having limited knowledge were confirmed by low knowledge scores. Mothers perceived giving higher levels of support compared to their daughter's perceptions of receiving support. Mothers can play a vital role in initiating discussions regarding reproductive-health with their daughters and reinforcing preconception counseling. Mother-daughter team approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes is feasible. Mother-daughter dyadic analyses can be important to explore
Miller, Elizabeth B
Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 1,141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort ( N = 825) were used to investigate whether Spanish instruction in Head Start differentially increased Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners' (DLLs) academic achievement. Although hypothesized that Spanish instruction would be beneficial for DLLs' early literacy and math skills, results from residualized growth models showed there were no such positive associations. Somewhat surprisingly, DLL children instructed in Spanish had higher English receptive vocabulary skills at the end of the Head Start year than those not instructed, with children randomly assigned to Head Start and instructed in Spanish having the highest scores. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed.
CASSIDY, JUDE; BRETT, BONNIE E.; GROSS, JACQUELYN T.; STERN, JESSICA A.; MARTIN, DAVID R.; MOHR, JONATHAN J.; WOODHOUSE, SUSAN S.
Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions on the broad scale at which they are needed. The Circle of Security–Parenting Intervention (COS-P; Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell, 2009), designed with broad implementation in mind, addresses this gap by training community service providers to use a manualized, video-based program to help caregivers provide a secure base and a safe haven for their children. The present study is a randomized controlled trial of COS-P in a low-income sample of Head Start enrolled children and their mothers. Mothers (N = 141; 75 intervention, 66 waitlist control) completed a baseline assessment and returned with their children after the 10-week intervention for the outcome assessment, which included the Strange Situation. Intent to treat analyses revealed a main effect for maternal response to child distress, with mothers assigned to COS-P reporting fewer unsupportive (but not more supportive) responses to distress than control group mothers, and a main effect for one dimension of child executive functioning (inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility when maternal age and marital status were controlled), with intervention group children showing greater control. There were, however, no main effects of intervention for child attachment or behavior problems. Exploratory follow-up analyses suggested intervention effects were moderated by maternal attachment style or depressive symptoms, with moderated intervention effects emerging for child attachment security and disorganization, but not avoidance; for inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility; and for child internalizing but not externalizing behavior problems. This initial
Cassidy, Jude; Brett, Bonnie E; Gross, Jacquelyn T; Stern, Jessica A; Martin, David R; Mohr, Jonathan J; Woodhouse, Susan S
Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions on the broad scale at which they are needed. The Circle of Security-Parenting Intervention (COS-P; Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell, 2009), designed with broad implementation in mind, addresses this gap by training community service providers to use a manualized, video-based program to help caregivers provide a secure base and a safe haven for their children. The present study is a randomized controlled trial of COS-P in a low-income sample of Head Start enrolled children and their mothers. Mothers (N = 141; 75 intervention, 66 waitlist control) completed a baseline assessment and returned with their children after the 10-week intervention for the outcome assessment, which included the Strange Situation. Intent to treat analyses revealed a main effect for maternal response to child distress, with mothers assigned to COS-P reporting fewer unsupportive (but not more supportive) responses to distress than control group mothers, and a main effect for one dimension of child executive functioning (inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility when maternal age and marital status were controlled), with intervention group children showing greater control. There were, however, no main effects of intervention for child attachment or behavior problems. Exploratory follow-up analyses suggested intervention effects were moderated by maternal attachment style or depressive symptoms, with moderated intervention effects emerging for child attachment security and disorganization, but not avoidance; for inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility; and for child internalizing but not externalizing behavior problems. This initial randomized
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive, longitudinal study including direct assessments, classroom observation, parent and teacher interviews, for a nationally represenative sample of Head...
Kunkel, Kelly K.; Hurtado, Ghaffar A.; Conrad, Stephanie; Routh, Brianna; Joeng, Ju Ri; Harrison, Megan
This article examines the health education implications of targeted nutrition lesson plans at Head Start programs in south central Minnesota. The Head Start program in Mankato and the University of Minnesota Extension collaborated to deliver and evaluate a nutrition education program directed at preschool children and their families. Nine lesson…
Lee, Kyunghee; Calkins, Andrea; Shin, Tae Seob
Objective: Using the Head Start Impact Study data, this study examines Head Start's impacts on social-emotional outcomes for children with disabilities. Method: Among 4,442 children, 570 children were reported to have disabilities. Ordinary least squares regression was used to determine whether the number of disabilities, having an individualized…
Mulholland, Lori; Greene, Andrea
Homeless families with children comprise the fastest growing segment of the United States homeless population. This study evaluated Year 1 of the Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project, designed to meet educational and social needs of homeless children and families, and to assist Head Start agencies in developing effective…
Homeless families with children constitute the fastest growing segment of the United States homeless population. This study evaluated Year 2 of the Arizona Head Start for Homeless Children and Families Project, designed to meet educational and social needs of homeless children and families, and to assist Head Start agencies in developing effective…
Castro, D.C.; Bryant, D.M.; Peisner-Feinberg, E.S.; Skinner, M.L.
The purposes of this study were to determine the extent and types of parent involvement in Head Start programs, and to examine the relations between parent participation and family, teacher and classroom characteristics. Parents (n = 1131) and teachers (n = 59) from four Head Start programs participated. Data were gathered through volunteer logs,…
Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas
This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…
Ziv, Yair; Alva, Soumya; Zill, Nicholas
Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), the relationships between living in a household where a household member had been arrested or incarcerated and conduct problems of preschool children enrolled in Head Start were examined. Children who lived in such households showed more…
Gunn, Barbara; Feil, Ed; Seeley, John; Severson, Herb; Walker, Hill M.
This article reports the results of a pilot intervention to improve the social skills and literacy preparation of behaviorally at-risk Head Start children. Teachers in eight Head Start classrooms in two Oregon communities participated during the 2002-03 school year. Children in eight classrooms were screened and identified for participation using…
Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake
Surprisingly little is known about Head Start teachers; who teaches, why they teach, and how they think and feel about their work. To begin to address these issues, a survey was developed and distributed to Head Start teachers, assistant teachers, and aides in one three-county program to examine their motivation and well-being. Follow-up…
Mickelsen, Olaf; And Others
Concern over the nutritional status of the disadvantaged in America led to this study describing the prevalence of anemia among Head Start children in Pontiac, Michigan. Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, along with measurements of height and weight, were performed on 77 children, 4 to 6 years old, enrolled in Head Start classes. These…
Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo
This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…
Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M; Sexton, Holly R
This study examined whether Head Start, the nation's main two-generation program for low-income families, benefits children in part through positive changes in parents' use of spanking and reading to children. Data were drawn from the 3-year-old cohort of the national evaluation of the Head Start program known as the Head Start Impact Study (N = 2,063). Results indicated that Head Start had small, indirect effects on children's spelling ability at Age 4 and their aggression at Age 4 through an increase in parents' reading to their children. Taken together, the results suggest that parents play a role in sustaining positive benefits of the Head Start program for children's behavior and literacy skills, one that could be enhanced with a greater emphasis on parent involvement and education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Værland, Inger Emilie; Vevatne, Kari; Brinchmann, Berit Støre
To describe fathers' experiences of starting family life with an infant delivered prematurely out of necessity of saving the mother's and infant's lives due to the mother's severe preeclampsia. A descriptive, qualitative design was used. Six fathers were interviewed twice: from 6 to 24 days and from 4 to 22 weeks after delivery. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a reflective lifeworld research approach. The essence of the fathers' experiences of establishing a family with a seriously ill mother and a premature infant can be described as a process of becoming a family through reflection on life and death in a context of separation. The essence specifically comprised the following constituents: (1) starting fatherhood facing existential issues, (2) connecting the family, (3) becoming familiar with your infant, and (4) becoming a father in a public area. The fathers were able to develop their relationship to their infants; this emphasizes the importance of the fathers being able to spend their time in the NICU. The privacy of the fathers were more or less challenged, health professionals should be aware of individualize their approach to the fathers. The study reveals that family life started with separation. Health professionals should try to ensure that the family should be together. Mutual guidelines between the wards that treats mother and child should be implemented. When new mother and child-centers are planned a family friendly environment should be prioritized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded. These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development. This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices. 51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated. The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes. Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices. Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.
Longhurst, Thomas M.; File, Judy J.
In a comparison of expressive language in different settings, 20 economically disadvantaged students in a Head Start program were divided into four groups: single-object picture, toy, multi-object picture, and adult-child conversation. (CL)
Mashburn, Andrew J.
Classroom observations are increasingly common in education policies as a means to assess the quality of teachers and/or education programs for purposes of making high-stakes decisions. This article considers one policy, the Head Start Designation Renewal System (DRS), which involves classroom observations to assess the quality of Head Start…
Head Start Program Performance Standards on Services for Children with Disabilities (45-CFR 1308) [and] Normas de Ejecucion del Programa Head Start Sobre Servicios para Ninos con Discapacidades (45-CFR 1308).
Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.
This document consolidates, clarifies, and updates federal regulations on Head Start services for children with disabilities. The regulations are designed to complement the Head Start Program Performance Standards governing services to all enrolled children. Specifically, these regulations require Head Start programs to: (1) design comprehensive…
Chinn, Courtney Hugh
Head Start and Early Head Start (HS/EHS) programs have partnered with the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry to promote oral health and increase access to dental homes. Preparing HS/EHS staff for issues related to pediatric oral health promises to improve effectiveness of this collaboration. This paper's purpose was to describe the Columbia Head Start Oral Health Program (C-HSOHP) and changes in HS/EHS staff pediatric oral health knowledge and competencies after participating in C-HSOHP. Four HS/EHS grantees in New York City engaged in the 2008-09 C-HSOHP. A convenience sample of 61 staff completed pre- and postself assessments of knowledge and competencies. Significant paired mean improvements were found for staff-reported level of preparation to explain dental issues during pregnancy, the tooth decay process, and preparing parents for their child's first dental visit. Significant improvements were found in staff confidence in teaching parents about children's oral health issues, referring for pediatric dental services, and talking to a dentist about a concern. The Columbia Head Start Oral Health Program was effective in improving Head Start/Early Head Start staff self-confidence and self-perceived preparedness in teaching parents about oral health, applying oral health knowledge to HS/EHS programs, communicating with dental professionals, and improving access to pediatric dental services.
Johnson, L; Bruhn, R; Winek, J; Krepps, J; Wiley, K
Play therapy and filial therapy show promise as effective ways to provide direct services to Head Start, addressing the needs of the children, the families, and the Head Start teachers and staff. This paper examines the utility of play and filial therapies for the Head Start population, presents a systemic explanation for the benefit of filial therapy, and provides a case example for illustration.
Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.
Tooth decay remains the most common chronic disease of childhood. The CincySmiles Foundation (CSF) developed an instrument to evaluate Head Start parents' knowledge of oral health care practices and to identify barriers Head Start parents face when seeking dental treatment for their children. Data from Head Start parents (n = 675) across 3…
Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane
We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social competence and reduced attention problems but not reduced internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. These findings were robust to model specifications (including models with city-fixed effects and propensity-scoring matching). Furthermore, the effects of Head Start varied by the reference group. Head Start was associated with improved cognitive development when compared with parental care or other nonparental care, as well as improved social competence (compared with parental care) and reduced attention problems (compared with other nonparental care). In contrast, compared with attendance at pre-kindergarten or other center-based care, Head Start attendance was not associated with cognitive gains but with improved social competence and reduced attention and externalizing behavior problems (compared with attendance at other center-based care). These associations were not moderated by child gender or race/ethnicity. PMID:21244155
Miller, Elizabeth B.; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.
Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 3540) were used to test for differential benefits of Head Start after one program year and after kindergarten on pre-academic and behavior outcomes for children at risk in the domains targeted by the program’s comprehensive services. Although random assignment to Head Start produced positive treatment main effects on children’s pre-academic skills and behavior problems, residualized growth models showed that random assignment to Head Start did not differentially benefit the pre-academic skills of children with risk factors targeted by the Head Start service model. The models showed detrimental impacts of Head Start for maternal-reported behavior problems of high-risk children, but slightly more positive impacts for teacher-reported behavior. Policy implications for Head Start are discussed. PMID:26379369
Ansari, Arya; Gershoff, Elizabeth
The authors examined the extent to which parent involvement in Head Start programs predicted changes in both parent and child outcomes over time, using a nationally representative sample of 1,020 three-year-old children over 3 waves of the Family and Child Experiences Survey. Center policies that promote involvement predicted greater parent involvement, and parents who were more involved in Head Start centers demonstrated increased cognitive stimulation and decreased spanking and controlling behaviors. In turn, these changes in parenting behaviors were associated with gains in children's academic and behavioral skills. These findings suggest that Head Start programs should do even more to facilitate parent involvement because it can serve as an important means for promoting both parent and child outcomes.
Wen, Xiaoli; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; Korfmacher, Jon
Guided by a developmental-ecological framework and Head Start's two-generational approach, this study examined two dimensions of Head Start program quality, classroom quality and parent involvement and their unique and interactive contribution to children's vocabulary, literacy, and mathematics skills growth from the beginning of Head Start…
Parker, Faith Lamb; Piotrkowski, Chaya S.; Kessler-Sklar, Susan; Baker, Amy J. L.; Peay, Lenore; Clark, Beryl
From its inception, Head Start's legislative mandate called for "maximum feasible participation" of parents in all programmatic efforts and policy decisions. Nevertheless, there has been little research done on the benefits of Head Start to parents and on the role of parents as mediators of child and family outcomes. The Head Start…
Harden, Brenda Jones; Sandstrom, Heather; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel
Persistent disparities exist between African American children and their European American counterparts across developmental domains. Early childhood intervention may serve to promote more positive outcomes among African American children. The current study examined whether and how the Early Head Start (EHS) program benefited African American…
Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly
This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…
Roberts, Amy; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget; DeCoster, Jamie
Research Findings: This study explored the role Head Start teachers' (n = 355) depressive symptoms play in their interactions with children and in children's (n = 2,203) social-emotional development, specifically changes in children's problem behaviors and social skills as reported by parents and teachers during the preschool year. Results of the…
Allar, Ishonté; Jones, Emily; Bulger, Sean
Quality teacher-child interactions are characteristic of effective classrooms resulting in benefits for all children, but may be particularly important for children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of Illinois Head Start teachers related to how "I am Moving, I am Learning" (IMIL) could…
Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Watkins, Katara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Ialongo, Nicholas
This study investigates the role of socioeconomic status, parental mental health, and knowledge of child development on parenting styles and perceived parenting stress in caregivers of children, ages 3 months to 3 years, enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS). Caregivers of EHS students were interviewed using the Knowledge of Infant Development…
Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca
This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…
... and Concussions Follow us A Head Start on Concussion Recovery Life lessons after three pediatric concussions "It would have been easier if he had ... Michelle Marchionni says about her son Sam's first concussion. In the fall of 2012, 8-year-old ...
Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Anthony; Wartella, Ellen
Head Start emphasises parent engagement as a critical strategy in promoting children's long-term learning. Parents can support children's positive development by engaging them in stimulating activities. The following study assessed whether a service that delivered parenting tips via text message could prompt parents of children enrolled in Head…
Berlin, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Boyd, Misty L.; Constantino, John N.; Hallam, Rena A.; Han, Myae; Hustedt, Jason; Harden, Brenda Jones; Raver, C. Cybele; Sarche, Michelle; Vu, Jennifer A.; Watamura, Sarah Enos; Meyer, Aleta; Fortunato, Christine
The Buffering Toxic Stress Consortium was created by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation within the Administration for Children and Families to test preventive interventions for Early Head Start families facing toxic stress, as conceptualized by Shonkoff, Boyce, and McEwen in their influential 2009 article. Because relationships…
Bedger, Jean E.; And Others
This manual is designed to provide fundamental directions for systematic financial reporting and cost analysis for the administrators, accountants, bookkeepers, and staff of day care, Project Head Start, and other programs. The major aims of the manual are to induce day care directors to adopt uniform bookkeeping procedures and to analyze costs…
Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Henson, Sydney R.; Dipper, Allison; Spangler, Hillary; Ash, Sarah L.; Goodell, L. Suzanne
Background: Early education is important for establishing healthy eating behaviors among young children; however, the literature describing nutrition education in the preschool environment is limited. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore teacher experiences related to the incorporation of nutrition education in Head Start preschool…
Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.
Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…
McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele
The present study examined the relationships between caregivers' self-reported positive and negative emotional expressiveness, observer assessments of children's emotion regulation, and teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 97 primarily African American and Hispanic Head Start families. Results…
Rispoli, Mandy; Burke, Mack D.; Hatton, Heather; Ninci, Jennifer; Zaini, Samar; Sanchez, Lisa
Trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) is a procedure for experimentally identifying the function of challenging behavior within applied settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a TBFA teacher-training package in the context of two Head Start centers implementing programwide positive behavior support (PWPBS). Four Head…
The purpose of this ethnographic case study was to study the language development of 4-year-old emergent bilinguals in a bilingual (Spanish/English) Head Start classroom with flexible language practices. Data were collected throughout the 10-month school year by visiting the classroom 2-3 times per week. Data include: field notes (observations and…
Gerde, Hope K.; Powell, Douglas R.
Research Findings: An observational study of 60 Head Start teachers and 341 children (177 boys, 164 girls) enrolled in their classrooms found teachers' book-reading practices to predict growth in children's receptive vocabulary. Multilevel growth analyses indicated that children in classrooms where teachers used more book-focused utterances made…
In order for students to be successful in school, strong foundations are needed at the earliest grades. In a district in central Mississippi, many students entering public school from Head Start were not able to identify alphabet letters or produce letter sounds, based on results of the 2011 Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR).…
Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…
Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.
Federal policy changes for Head Start (HS) elevate the importance of measured academic performance over other traditional program aims, particularly those associated with the social-emotional development of children. Concerned about the possible effects of these changes on children, based on observations and interviews, detailed portraits of…
Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly
Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 Cohort (n = 2,842), this study examined the implications of 3- and 4-year-old's absences from Head Start for their early academic learning. The findings from this study revealed that children who missed more days of school, and especially those who were…
Research Findings: This study examined whether approaches to learning moderate the association between home literacy environment and English receptive vocabulary development. The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort) was used for analysis. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to test a quadratic model of English…
Grotberg, Edith H.; Fowler, Austine
This users' manual, intended for use with a Project Head Start teacher training notebook, describes the purpose, development and field testing of the training materials and suggests procedures for using the notebook as a resource in teacher training sessions. The training notebook to which the users' manual refers is based on 11 questions in the…
Bojczyk, Kathryn E.; Rogers-Haverback, Heather; Pae, Hye; Davis, Anna E.; Mason, Rihana S.
Children from different backgrounds have disparate access to cultural capital, which may influence their academic success. The purpose of this study was to examine the links between family background, home literacy experiences, and emergent literacy skills among preschoolers enrolled in Head Start programmes. The background characteristics studied…
A key component of effective early childhood programs is collaborative relationships between schools, families, and the community (Fiese, Eckert, & Spagnola, 2005). One of these early childhood programs, Head Start, stands out among the others in its efforts to work with children, families, and communities to promote parental involvement. Some…
Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Management Program, Olympia, WA)
This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2004-September 2005. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2004 and 2005 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Thirty-five turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 53 at the Oregon Zoo. Of these, 77 head-started juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2005. Four were held back to attain more growth in captivity. Eleven were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 39 at the Skamania site, and 5 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 257 for the Klickitat ponds, 136 for the Klickitat lake, 206 for the Skamania pond complex, and 255 at Pierce NWR. In 2005, 34 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Twenty-four nests were located and protected; these produced 90 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. During the 2005 field season trapping effort, 486 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 430 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 216 individual painted turtles captured in 2005 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native
Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavens, Kate (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Management Program, Olympia, WA)
This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2005-September 2006. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in 2005 and 2006 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Twenty-six turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 62 at the Oregon Zoo in fall 2005. These turtles joined two that were held back from release in summer 2005 due to their small size. All 90 juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2006. Twenty-eight juvenile turtles were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 19 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 944; 285 for the Klickitat ponds, 158 for the Klickitat lake, 227 for the Skamania pond complex, and 274 at Pierce NWR. In 2006, 20 females from the Klickitat population were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Fifteen nests were located and protected; these produced 55 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. One wild hatchling captured in spring 2006 was placed in the head-start program to attain more growth in captivity. During the 2006 field season trapping effort, 414 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 374 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations
Mattingly, Julie A; Andresen, Pamela A
Low-income American Indian preschoolers are at greatest risk for overweight and obesity among children aged 2-5 years. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) program is an evidence-based intervention that promotes healthy weight development for children enrolled in child care centers. The goal of this continuous quality improvement program is for the child care staff to establish environmental policies and practices that positively influence nutrition and physical activity-related behaviors. A community needs assessment of a Head Start program on an American Indian reservation identified obesity as a priority issue. This project implemented NAP SACC at 15 Head Start sites on the reservation.
Bierman, Karen L; Domitrovich, Celene E; Nix, Robert L; Gest, Scott D; Welsh, Janet A; Greenberg, Mark T; Blair, Clancy; Nelson, Keith E; Gill, Sukhdeep
Forty-four Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to enriched intervention (Head Start REDI-Research-based, Developmentally Informed) or "usual practice" conditions. The intervention involved brief lessons, "hands-on" extension activities, and specific teaching strategies linked empirically with the promotion of: (a) social-emotional competencies and (b) language development and emergent literacy skills. Take-home materials were provided to parents to enhance skill development at home. Multimethod assessments of three hundred and fifty-six 4-year-old children tracked their progress over the course of the 1-year program. Results revealed significant differences favoring children in the enriched intervention classrooms on measures of vocabulary, emergent literacy, emotional understanding, social problem solving, social behavior, and learning engagement. Implications are discussed for developmental models of school readiness and for early educational programs and policies.
Hoffman, Jessica A.; Agrawal, Tara; Thompson, Douglas; Ferguson, Tyler; Grinder, AnnMarie; Carter, Sonia; Healey, Christine; Bhaumik, Urmi; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen
Head Start's performance standards require that the nutrition programs "serve a variety of foods which consider cultural and ethnic preferences and which broaden the child's food experience" (Head Start Program Performance Standards and Other Regulations, 2006). In this study, food service modifications were made via a participatory…
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Wen, Xiaoli; Faria, Ann-Marie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; Korfmacher, Jon
Guided by a developmental and ecological model, the study employed latent profile analysis to identify a multilevel typology of family involvement and Head Start classroom quality. Using the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 1997; N = 1870), six multilevel latent profiles were estimated, characterized…
Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Walker, Virginia; Jamison, Kristen R.
The current study evaluated the peer-to-peer interactions of at-risk children enrolled in Head Start who participated in a social pragmatic intervention targeting skills such as initiations, responses, name use, proximity, and turn-taking skills. Eight Head Start classroom teams received two workshops and two coaching sessions and were taught to…
Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Dooley, Erin E; Sharma, Shreela V; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Butte, Nancy; Hoelscher, Deanna M
Practices and barriers to promoting healthy eating and physical activity at Head Start centers may influence children's energy balance behaviors. We examined differences between directors' and teachers' perspectives on best practices and barriers to promoting healthy eating and physical activity in Head Start centers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of directors (n = 23) and teachers (n = 113) at 23 Head Start centers participating in the baseline assessment of the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration study. Participants completed surveys about practices and barriers to promoting healthy eating and physical activity. Multilevel regression models examined differences between director and teacher responses. More than half of directors and teachers reported meeting most best practices related to nutrition and physical activity; few directors or teachers (foods (especially sweets, salty snacks, and sugary drinks) in front of children" and "Teachers talk to children about trying/enjoying new foods" (P food service staff support, limited time, and insufficient funds (P < .05). More barriers to healthy eating were reported than were barriers to physical activity indicating that more support may be needed for healthy eating. Differences between responses of directors and teachers may have implications for future assessments of implementation of best practices and barriers to implementation related to nutrition and physical activity in early care and education centers.
Mofidi, Mahyar; Zeldin, Leslie P; Rozier, R Gary
We explored the oral health knowledge, attitudes, and activities of Early Head Start (EHS) staff members, parents, and pregnant women, along with their suggestions related to future oral health educational interventions targeting EHS children. Nine focus groups were conducted with EHS staff, parents, and pregnant women. Audiotapes of sessions were transcribed and entered into ATLAS.ti 5.0 for coding and analysis. Attitudes about the importance of children's oral health among parents and pregnant women were mixed. Staff members voiced responsibility for children's oral health but frustration in their inability to communicate effectively with parents. Parents in turn perceived staff criticism regarding how they cared for their children's oral health. Gaps were noted in the oral health activities of EHS programs. Participants expressed confusion regarding the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS. The need for culturally sensitive, hands-on oral health education was highlighted. Tailored, theory-based interventions are needed to improve communication between EHS staff and families. Clear policies on the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS are warranted. Educational activities should address the needs and suggestions of EHS participants.
Droke, Elizabeth A; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Hubbs-Tait, Laura
To evaluate relations among measures of iron and zinc status, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytes in low-income children participating in the Head Start program. Cross-sectional correlational study with samples collected at Head Start centers in May 2003. Forty-seven children (aged 3 to 5 years) attending Head Start centers in three rural communities. Zinc, ferritin, CRP, and complete blood count were analyzed in nonfasting blood samples. Correlations were computed among leukocyte levels, CRP levels, and measures of micronutrient status. Children having two abnormal measures (ie, leukocytes and CRP) were compared by univariate analysis of variance with children having zero or one abnormal measure. Most (72%) of the children had elevated CRP levels. Four percent were anemic (hemoglobinreference value that accounts for the presence of infection was used (serum ferritin
Roggman, Lori A.; Boyce, Lisa; Cook, G. A.; Christiansen, K.; Jones, D.
Research on fathers in Early Head Start (EHS) has provided an opportunity to study fathers from low-income families. We examined father-toddler social toy play in relation to EHS enrollment, fathers' psychosocial well-being, and children's developmental outcomes in a sample of 74 father-toddler dyads. Overall, our results show that father-toddler social toy play was more complex among fathers in an EHS program than among those in a comparison group. Greater complexity in father-toddler social...
Zhai, Fuhua; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Child care programs (including Head Start, pre-Kindergarten [pre-K], and other center-based care) can differ, with patterns of use based on their location. Yet little research has examined how Head Start and pre-K programs affect children’s academic school readiness, including vocabulary and reading skills at school entry, in the South as compared to other regions. To examine this further, secondary data (n = 2,803) collected in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study were examined. Overall findings suggest, regardless of region, that Head Start and pre-K participants had higher academic skills at school entry than their counterparts. In addition, when Head Start was compared to other center-based care and pre-K was compared to other care arrangements, both had larger effects on improving academic skills in the South than in other regions. These findings imply that Head Start and pre-K programs should target children who otherwise would receive non-parental non-center-based care. Future research should focus on why the effects of Head Start and pre-K vary between the South and other regions. PMID:23729917
Mashburn, Andrew J.; Downer, Jason T.
The goals of the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) are to: (1) determine the impacts of Head Start on children's school readiness and parental practices that support children's development; and (2) to determine under what circumstances Head Start achieves its greatest impacts and for which children (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010).…
Glatt, Kevin; Okunseri, Christopher; Flanagan, Diane; Simpson, Pippa; Cao, Yumei; Willis, Earnestine
Home visiting programs promote the education and health of Early Head Start (EHS) children and pregnant women. However, EHS's oral health component is unevenly implemented. We conducted an educational intervention to improve oral health knowledge and motivational interviewing techniques among Wisconsin EHS home visitors. A questionnaire assessing oral health-related knowledge and confidence was administered to home visitors before and after an educational session. Changes between pre/post-responses were analyzed with McNemar's test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. After the intervention there were increases in both knowledge and confidence related to oral health communication. Knowledge increases were observed in such topics as fluoridation, dental caries, and caregivers' role in assisting and supervising children's tooth brushing. A brief educational intervention was associated with increased home visitor knowledge and confidence in communicating oral health messages to EHS caregivers and pregnant women. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Berhenke, Amanda; Miller, Alison L.; Brown, Eleanor; Seifer, Ronald; Dickstein, Susan
Emotions and behaviors observed during challenging tasks are hypothesized to be valuable indicators of young children's motivation, the assessment of which may be particularly important for children at risk for school failure. The current study demonstrated reliability and concurrent validity of a new observational assessment of motivation in young children. Head Start graduates completed challenging puzzle and trivia tasks during their kindergarten year. Children's emotion expression and task engagement were assessed based on their observed facial and verbal expressions and behavioral cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that observed persistence and shame predicted teacher ratings of children's academic achievement, whereas interest, anxiety, pride, shame, and persistence predicted children's social skills and learning-related behaviors. Children's emotional and behavioral responses to challenge thus appeared to be important indicators of school success. Observation of such responses may be a useful and valid alternative to self-report measures of motivation at this age. PMID:21949599
Heima, Masahiro; Ferretti, Margaret; Qureshi, Mehveen; Ferretti, Gerald
Disparities among untreated dental caries exist for children from low-income families in the United States. Understanding of the mechanism of the disparities is required to reduce it and social geographic factors are one of the important influences. Although the effect of fluoridated water has been well reported, studies of other sociogeograpic factors, such as the density of available dentists, are still very limited. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of sociogeographic factors on the number of primary teeth with untreated dental caries among children from low-income families who are enrolled in Head Start programs throughout Northeast Ohio of the United States. This was a cross-sectional chart review study. Three hundred-eighty-eight charts were reviewed, and the number of primary teeth with untreated dental caries (dt) and the children's addresses were retrieved. The sociogeographic variables, including fluoridated water availability and the density of available dentists who accept a government-supported insurance (Medicaid dentists), were collected. The mean (standard deviation) of children's age was 3.51 (1.14) years with a range of 7 months to 5 years. A negative binomial regression model analysis, which used dt as a dependent variable and children's characteristic factors (i.e. age, gender, insurance type, and total number of primary teeth) and sociogeographic factors (i.e. Population, total number of Medicaid dentists, density of Medicaid dentist, and Fluoride water availability) of cities, as independent variables, demonstrated that only the density of Medicaid dentist in the sociogeographic factors indicated a significant effect (Estimated ß-Coefficients (Standard Errors)=-0.003 (0.002), p =0.030). This study demonstrated a significant negative association between the density of available dentists and untreated dental caries among children from low-income families in Head Start programs in Northeast Ohio. Increasing available dentists
Kanghae, H; Thongprajukaew, K; Yeetam, P; Jarit-Ngam, T; Hwan-Air, W; Rueangjeen, S; Kittiwattanawong, K
Optimal feeding frequency was investigated to improve head-started propagation programme of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas). The 15-day-old turtles (25-26 g body weight) were fed for ad libitum intake at one (1MD), two (2MD), three (3MD) or four (4MD) meals daily over a 3-month trial. Responses in growth, feed utilization, faecal characteristics, haematological parameters and carapace elemental composition were used to compare treatment effects. At the end of the feeding trial, no treatment had induced mortality. Growth performance in terms of weight gain and specific growth rate was similar in turtles fed 2MD, 3MD or 4MD (p > 0.05), but 1MD differed from these (p Turtles fed 2MD had significantly lower feed intake than in 3MD and 4MD groups, but the feed conversion ratios were similar. Faecal digestive enzyme analysis indicated higher catabolism of lipid and protein in the deprivation group (1MD), when compared with turtles fed at least twice daily. The feeding frequency did not affect the specific activities of carbohydrate-digesting enzymes. The results on enzymes activities were corroborated by the transition enthalpy characteristics of faeces, indicating nutrients remaining after digestion. The 2MD treatment also improved the haematological characteristics and the carapace quality, relative to low or excess feeding. Overall, the findings indicate that feeding juvenile green turtles twice a day is the preferred option in their head-started propagation. This promotes growth, reduces feed consumption, and improves health and carapace quality. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Lee, Helen; Crowne, Sarah; Faucetta, Kristen; Hughes, Rebecca
The Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation-Strong Start (MIHOPE-Strong Start) is the largest random assignment study to date to examine the effectiveness of home visiting services on improving birth outcomes and infant and maternal health care use for expectant mothers. The study includes local home visiting programs that use one of…
Teel, M. Kay
The Strong Start Study tested an innovative, High-Fidelity Wraparound intervention with families in early recovery from substance use. The Strong Start Wraparound model addressed the complex needs of pregnant and parenting women who were in early recovery to increase the protective factors of parental resilience, social connections, concrete…
Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele; Neuspiel, Juliana M; Kinsel, John
The current article explores the relationship between teachers' perceptions of child behavior problems and preschool teacher job stress, as well as the possibility that teachers' executive functions moderate this relationship. Data came from 69 preschool teachers in 31 early childhood classrooms in 4 Head Start centers and were collected using Web-based surveys and Web-based direct assessment tasks. Multilevel models revealed that higher levels of teachers' perceptions of child behavior problems were associated with higher levels of teacher job stress and that higher teacher executive function skills were related to lower job stress. However, findings did not yield evidence for teacher executive functions as a statistical moderator. Many early childhood teachers do not receive sufficient training for handling children's challenging behaviors. Child behavior problems increase a teacher's workload and consequently may contribute to feelings of stress. However, teachers' executive function abilities may enable them to use effective, cognitive-based behavior management and instructional strategies during interactions with students, which may reduce stress. Providing teachers with training on managing challenging behaviors and enhancing executive functions may reduce their stress and facilitate their use of effective classroom practices, which is important for children's school readiness skills and teachers' health.
Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele; Neuspiel, Juliana M.; Kinsel, John
Research Findings The current article explores the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of child behavior problems and preschool teacher job stress, as well as the possibility that teachers’ executive functions moderate this relationship. Data came from 69 preschool teachers in 31 early childhood classrooms in 4 Head Start centers and were collected using Web-based surveys and Web-based direct assessment tasks. Multilevel models revealed that higher levels of teachers’ perceptions of child behavior problems were associated with higher levels of teacher job stress and that higher teacher executive function skills were related to lower job stress. However, findings did not yield evidence for teacher executive functions as a statistical moderator. Practice or Policy Many early childhood teachers do not receive sufficient training for handling children’s challenging behaviors. Child behavior problems increase a teacher’s workload and consequently may contribute to feelings of stress. However, teachers’ executive function abilities may enable them to use effective, cognitive-based behavior management and instructional strategies during interactions with students, which may reduce stress. Providing teachers with training on managing challenging behaviors and enhancing executive functions may reduce their stress and facilitate their use of effective classroom practices, which is important for children’s school readiness skills and teachers’ health. PMID:28596698
Seidenfeld, Adina M; Johnson, Stacy R; Cavadel, Elizabeth Woodburn; Izard, Carroll E
Emotion knowledge (EK) enables children to identify emotions in themselves and others and its development facilitates emotion recognition in complex social situations. Social-cognitive processes, such as theory of mind (ToM), may contribute to developing EK by helping children realize the inherent variability associated with emotion expression across individuals and situations. The present study explored how ToM, particularly false belief understanding, in preschool predicts children's developing EK in kindergarten. Participants were 60 3- to 5-year-old Head Start children. ToM and EK measures were obtained from standardized child tasks. ToM scores were positively related to performance on an EK task in kindergarten after controlling for preschool levels of EK and verbal ability. Exploratory analyses provided preliminary evidence that ToM serves as an indirect effect between verbal ability and EK. Early intervention programs may benefit from including lessons on ToM to help promote socio-emotional learning, specifically EK. This consideration may be the most fruitful when the targeted population is at-risk.
Lynn B. Wilson
Full Text Available Poor oral health in early childhood can have long-term consequences, and parents often are unaware of the importance of preventive measures for infants and toddlers. Children in rural, low-income families suffer disproportionately from the effects of poor oral health. Participants were 91 parents of infants and toddlers enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS living in rural Hawai'i, USA. In this quasi-experimental design, EHS home visitors were assigned to use either a didactic or family-centered video with parents they served. Home visitors reviewed short segments of the assigned videos with parents over an eight-week period. Both groups showed significant prepost gains on knowledge and attitudes/behaviors relating to early oral health as well as self-reported changes in family oral health routines at a six-week followup. Controlling for pretest levels, parents in the family-centered video group showed larger changes in attitudes/behaviors at posttest and a higher number of positive changes in family oral health routines at followup. Results suggest that family-centered educational videos are a promising method for providing anticipatory guidance to parents regarding early childhood oral health. Furthermore, establishing partnerships between dental care, early childhood education, and maternal health systems offers a model that broadens potential reach with minimal cost.
Ruvalcaba, Elizabeth; Chung, Shang-En; Rand, Cynthia; Riekert, Kristin A; Eakin, Michelle
Asthma disproportionately affects minority groups, low income populations, and young children under 5. Head Start (HS) programs predominantly serve this high-risk population, yet staff are not trained on asthma management. The objective of this study was to assess a 5-year, multicomponent HS staff asthma education program in Baltimore City HS programs. All HS programs were offered annual staff asthma education by a medical research team that included didactic lectures and hands-on training. Attendees received continuing education credits. HS staff were anonymously surveyed on asthma knowledge and skills and asthma medication management practices in Year 1 (preimplementation) and Year 5. There was an estimated response rate of 94% for Year 1 and 82% for Year 5. Compared to staff in Year 1, Year 5 staff were significantly more likely to report they had very good knowledge and skills related to asthma [odds ratio (OR) 1.63; p staff reported higher self-assessed knowledge and skills, self-reports of asthma medication management practices, and self-reports of asthma activities compared to Year 1 staff. HS serves high-risk children with asthma, and a multicomponent program can adequately prepare staff to manage asthma in the child care setting. Our results indicate the feasibility of providing efficacious health skill education into child care provider training to reduce asthma knowledge gaps.
Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary; Zeldin, Leslie P; Preisser, John S
This cross-sectional study examined Early Head Start (EHS) teachers' oral health program activities and their association with teacher and program characteristics. Self-completed questionnaires were distributed to the staff in all EHS programs in North Carolina. Variables for dental health activities for parents (four items) and children (four items) were constructed as the sum of responses to a 0-4 Likert-type scale (never to very frequently). Ordinary least squares regression models examined the association between teachers' oral health program activities and modifiable teacher (oral health knowledge, values, self-efficacy, dental health training, perceived barriers to dental activities) and program (director and health coordinator knowledge and perceived barriers to dental activities) characteristics. Teachers in the parent (n=260) and child (n=231) analyses were a subset of the 485 staff respondents (98 percent response rate). Teachers engaged in child oral health activities (range = 0-16; mean = 9.0) more frequently than parent activities (range = 0-16; mean = 6.9). Teachers' oral health values, perceived oral health self-efficacy, dental training, and director and health coordinator knowledge were positively associated with oral health activities (P oral health activity in EHS programs is less than optimal. Several characteristics of EHS staff were identified that can be targeted with education interventions. Evidence for effectiveness of EHS interventions needs to be strengthened, but results of this survey provide encouraging findings about the potential effects of teacher training on their oral health practices.
Zahnd, Whitney E; Smith, Tracey; Ryherd, Susan J; Cleer, Melissa; Rogers, Valerie; Steward, David E
Schools may be an effective avenue for interventions that prevent childhood obesity. I am Moving I am Learning/Choosy Kids © (IMIL/CK) is a curriculum recommended by Head Start (HS) for education in nutrition, physical activity, and healthy lifestyle habits. We formed an academic-community partnership (ACP), the Springfield Collaborative for Active Child Health, to promote prevention of childhood obesity, in part, to implement the IMIL/CK curriculum in local HS sites. The ACP included a medical school, HS program, public school district, and state health department. Community-based participatory research principles helped identify and organize important implementation activities: community engagement, curriculum support, professional teacher training, and evaluation. IMIL/CK was piloted in 1 school then implemented in all local HS sites. All sites were engaged in IMIL/CK professional teacher training, classroom curriculum delivery, and child physical activity assessments. Local HS policy changed to include IMIL/CK in lesson plans and additional avenues of collaboration were initiated. Furthermore, improvements in physical activity and/or maintenance or improvement of healthy weight prevalence was seen in 4 of the 5 years evaluated. An ACP is an effective vehicle to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention programming in HS sites. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.
This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…
Peterson, Amanda D; Goodell, L Suzanne; Hegde, Archana; Stage, Virginia C
To develop a theory that explains the process of how teachers' perception of multilevel policies may influence nutrition education (NE) teaching strategies in Head Start preschools. Semistructured telephone interviews. North Carolina Head Start preschools. Thirty-two Head Start teachers. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Following a grounded theory approach, authors coded interview data for emergent themes. Two primary themes emerged during analysis, including teachers' policy perceptions and teacher-perceived influence of policy on NE. A theoretical model was developed to explain how teachers' perceptions of policies influenced NE (eg, teaching strategies) in the classroom. Teachers discussed multiple policy areas governing their classrooms and limiting their ability to provide meaningful and consistent NE. How teachers perceived the level of regulation in the classroom (ie, high or low) influenced the frequency with which they used specific teaching strategies. Despite federal policies supporting the provision of NE, teachers face competing priorities in the classroom (eg, school readiness vs NE) and policies may conflict with standardized NE curricula. To understand how Head Start centers develop local policies, additional research should investigate how administrators interpret federal and state policies. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret
Children from low-income families benefit remarkably from exposure to compensatory education that began with Head Start in 1965 and aimed to improve school readiness skills by design. While empirical evidence has supported more instructional time in elementary and secondary schools for low-income students, little is known that whether increasing…
Hoffman, Jessica A.; Agrawal, Tara; Carter, Sonia; Grinder, AnnMarie; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen
One approach to halting the childhood obesity epidemic has been the modification of foods available to children during the school day. In recent years there has been an increased focus on obesity prevention efforts among children ages birth to 5 and the role of child care settings in prevention efforts. Head Start serves as an important venue for…
Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…
Mendez, Julia L.; Lloyd, Blake Te'Neil
This paper describes a theoretically driven approach uniquely suited for the development of research partnerships between university teams and local communities serving children enrolled in Head Start programs. A literature review on dimensions of successful research partnerships provides a backdrop for presenting the Resilience…
Hibbs-Shipp, Sarah K.; Milholland, Michelle; Bellows, Laura
Background: Head Start (HS) staff are ideally positioned to promote healthy behaviors to over one million low-income children each year, however little is understood about their own health. Purpose: To conduct a needs assessment with HS staff to: 1) understand perceptions, barriers and motivators to healthful behaviors; and 2) ascertain interest…
Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.
The current study examined whether Head Start children who experienced a high-quality preschool intervention, "Exceptional Coaching for Early Language and Literacy" ("ExCELL"), as three-year-olds began the subsequent pre-kindergarten (or four-year-old) year with stronger language and literacy skills than same-age peers who…
Fantuzzo, John; Sekino, Yumiko; Cohen, Heather L.
Relations between children's peer play competence and other relevant competencies were investigated using two samples of urban Head Start children. Dimensions of peer play were examined concurrently with emotion regulation, autonomy, and language. Children exhibiting high levels of peer play interaction were found to demonstrate more competent…
Hoehn, Jessica L.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S.; Eakin, Michelle N.
Objective: To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Method: Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled…
This summary describes the Head Start CARES research project, which evaluated three classroom-based approaches to enhancing children's social-emotional development: (1) The Incredible Years Teacher Training Program; (2) Preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies); and (3) Tools of the Mind--Play. The three social-emotional…
Snell, Martha E.; Voorhees, Mary D.; Walker, Virginia L.; Berlin, Rebecca A.; Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.
The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate a universal intervention during teacher-identified routines that were characterized by significant classwide problem behavior. Six Head Start classrooms (seven groups of children, with one classroom divided into two groups) received two workshops and two coaching sessions on universal Positive…
Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Hart, Cassandra M.D.; Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Head Start was designed as a holistic intervention to improve economically disadvantaged, preschool-aged children's cognitive and social development by providing a comprehensive set of educational, health, nutritional, and social services, as well as opportunities for parent involvement (Zigler & Valentine, 1979). Given the current interest in ECE…
Morshed, Alexandra B.; Davis, Sally M.; Keane, Patricia C.; Myers, Orrin B.; Mishra, Shiraz I.
Background: The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise is a multicomponent obesity-prevention intervention, which was evaluated among Head Start (HS) centers in American Indian and predominantly Hispanic communities in rural New Mexico. This study examines the intervention's foodservice outcomes: fruits, vegetables, whole grains,…
Cline, Keely D.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope
Research Findings: The objective of this study was to understand how instructional book-reading style and emotional quality of reading interact and relate to cognitive skills in a sample of at-risk infants and toddlers. Participants were 81 parents and their children participating in Early Head Start programs in the rural Midwest. Correlation and…
Brodhecker, Shirley G.
This practicum report addresses the need to supply Head Start teachers with: (1) specific preschool music objectives; (2) a sequential preschool developmental program in music to match the child's cognitive level; (3) how to choose instructional material to encourage specific basic school readiness skills; and (4) workshops to accomplish these…
Becker, Brandon D; Gallagher, Kathleen C; Whitaker, Robert C
The quality of teachers' relationships with children is a key predictor of children's later social emotional competence and academic achievement. Interventions to increase mindfulness among teachers have focused primarily on the impacts on teachers' subjective well-being, but not on the quality of their relationships with children. Furthermore, none of these interventions have involved preschool teachers. To consider the potential of mindfulness-based interventions to improve the quality of teachers' relationships with preschool-aged children, we examined data from an online survey of 1001 classroom teachers in 37 Pennsylvania Head Start Programs. Using path analysis we investigated the association between teachers' dispositional mindfulness and the quality of their relationships with children (conflict and closeness). We further examined whether this association was mediated by teacher depressive symptoms and moderated by perceived workplace stress. Higher levels of dispositional mindfulness among teachers were associated with higher quality relationships with children (less conflict and greater closeness). The association between greater dispositional mindfulness and less conflict was partially mediated by lower depressive symptoms, and the conditional direct effect of mindfulness on conflict was stronger when perceived workplace stress was lower. These findings suggest that preschool teachers who have higher levels of dispositional mindfulness may experience higher quality relationships with children in their classrooms. Interventions to increase levels of dispositional mindfulness among early childhood educators may improve their well-being along with the quality of their relationships with children, potentially impacting children's educational outcomes. The potential impacts of such interventions may be even stronger if structural and systemic changes are also made to reduce workplace stress. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology
Nicholson, Jody S; Barton, Jennifer M; Simons, Ali L
To investigate whether preschoolers are able to identify and categorize foods, and whether their ability to classify food as healthy predicts their hypothetical food choice. Structured interviews and body measurements with preschoolers, and teacher reports of classroom performance. Six Head Start centers in a large southeastern region. A total of 235 preschoolers (mean age [SD], 4.73 [0.63] years; 45.4% girls). Teachers implemented a nutrition education intervention across the 2014-2015 school year in which children were taught to identify and categorize food as sometimes (ie, unhealthy) and anytime (ie, healthy). Preschooler responses to a hypothetical snack naming, classifying, and selection scenario. Hierarchical regression analyses to examine predictors of child hypothetical food selection. While controlling for child characteristics and cognitive functioning, preschoolers who were better at categorizing food as healthy or unhealthy were more likely to say they would choose the healthy food. Low-contrast food pairs in which food had to be classified based on multiple dimensions were outside the cognitive abilities of the preschoolers. Nutrition interventions may be more effective in helping children make healthy food choices if developmental limitations in preschoolers' abilities to categorize food is addressed in their curriculum. Classification of food into evaluative categories is challenging for this age group. Categorizing on multiple dimensions is difficult, and dichotomous labeling of food as good or bad is not always accurate in directing children toward making food choices. Future research could evaluate further preschoolers' developmental potential for food categorization and nutrition decision making and consider factors that influence healthy food choices at both snack and mealtime. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stratton, Jessica Nicole
Objective: To determine the impact of preschool teacher food-related attitudes and behaviors on child food behaviors. Design: A twelve-week intervention and observational study with teachers completing questionnaires before and after the intervention. Setting: Head Start classrooms throughout Virginia. Participants: 177 preschool Head Start teachers and 1534 children. Intervention(s): Food Friends, a twelve-week social marketing campaign, was conducted by Head Start teac...
Boneberger, Diana; Kirilova, Bogomila
The presented master thesis is an exploratory study on the motivational factors of the Swedish Mumpreneurs to start a business. Providing a nuanced and detailed review of the evolution of the literature on female entrepreneurship, the phenomenon of ‘Mumpreneurship’ is being introduced as a new, internationally widespread concept. Following a close look at this particular contestable subject, the study shows how different internal and external factors can influence the motivation of the Swedis...
Lydon, Megan; Longwe, Monica; Likomwa, Dyson; Lwesha, Victoria; Chimtembo, Lydia; Donohue, Pamela; Guenther, Tanya; Valsangar, Bina
Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi. A total of 152 participants were interviewed in two districts in southern Malawi, Machinga and Thyolo, in April 2015. Focus group discussions (groups = 11, n = 132) were conducted with pregnant women, community members and women who have practiced KMC. In-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with fathers who have practiced KMC, community and religious leaders, and health workers. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to identify participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted. KMC mothers and fathers only learned about KMC and care for preterm newborns after delivery of a child in need of this care. Men typically were not included in KMC counseling due to societal gender roles. Health facilities were the main source of information on KMC, however informal networks among women provided some degree of knowledge exchange. Community leaders were regarded as major facilitators of health information, conveners, key influencers, and policy-makers. Religious leaders were regarded as advocates and emotional support for families with preterm infants. Finally, while many participants initially had negative feelings towards preterm births and KMC, the large majority saw a shift in their perceptions through health counseling, peer modeling, and personal success with KMC. The findings offer several opportunities to improve KMC implementation including 1) earlier introduction of KMC to pregnant women and their families that are
Mckelvey, Lorraine; Schiffman, Rachel F; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Reischl, Thomas M; Hawver, Shelley; Cunningham Deluca, Mary
Infant Mental Health based interventions aim to promote the healthy development of infants and toddlers through promoting healthy family functioning to foster supportive relationships between the young child and his or her important caregivers. This study examined impacts of an Infant Mental Health home-based Early Head Start (IMH-HB EHS) program on family functioning. The sample includes 152 low-income families in the Midwestern United States, expectant or parenting a child younger than 1 year of age, who were randomly assigned to receive IMH-HB EHS services (n = 75) or to a comparison condition (n = 77). Mothers who received IMH-HB EHS services reported healthier psychological and family functioning, outcomes that are consistent with the IMH focus, when their children were between the ages of 3 and 7 years of age. Specifically, mothers in the IMH-HB EHS group reported healthier family functioning and relationships, better coping skills needed to advocate for their families, and less stress in the parenting role versus those in the comparison condition. The study also examined support seeking coping, some of which changed differently over time based on program group assignment. Overall, findings suggest that the gains families achieve from participating in IMH-HB EHS services are maintained after services cease. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Beeber, Linda S.; Schwartz, Todd A.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia; Matsuda, Yui
Formidable barriers prevent low-income mothers from accessing evidence-based treatment for depressive symptoms that compromise their ability to provide sensitive, responsive parenting for their infant or toddler. interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), an evidence-based psychotherapy for depression, was tailored for in-home delivery to mothers…
This article provides a review of problems associated with teachers' talk and indicators of higher quality teachers' talk for use with lower socioeconomic status (SES) Head Start students. Then it shows how one Head Start teacher, called Michele in this article, responded to professional development that was aimed at increasing the quality of…
Goerge, Robert; Datta, A. Rupa; Xia, Kanru; Witte, Ann D.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Milesi, Carolina; Brandon, Richard; Guzman, Lina; Zanoni, Wladimir
The analyses presented in the Technical Report, "Which Centers Participate in Head Start or Public Pre-Kindergarten" characterize centers that have at least one child whose enrollment is funded through Head Start or Public Pre-K funds. This supplement to the technical report provides interested readers with technical details of the…
Lisson, Sarah; Goodell, L Suzanne; Dev, Dipti; Wilkerson, Kristi; Hegde, Archana V; Stage, Virginia C
The purpose of this study was to provide new insight into common barriers to the availability and use of nutrition education (NE) resources in Head Start preschool programs based on administrator and teacher perceptions. In-depth, semistructured phone interviews (n = 63) were conducted with administrators (n = 31) and teachers (n = 32) from North Carolina-based Head Start programs. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis to identify common themes. Five emergent themes were identified within the areas of NE resource availability and use and barriers to NE resource availability and use. Participants expressed desire for greater organization of existing NE material resources, increased community support, and professional development opportunities for teachers specific to NE. Funding and time constraints were reported as affecting NE resources. Creative strategies for addressing NE resource availability and use and barriers (eg, NE integration with educational standards) in Head Start are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCoy, Dana Charles; Connors, Maia C; Morris, Pamela A; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H
Past research has shown robust relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and children's school achievement and social-emotional outcomes, yet the mechanisms for explaining these relationships are poorly understood. The present study uses data from 1,904 Head Start participants enrolled in the Head Start Impact Study to examine the role that classroom structural and relational quality play in explaining the association between neighborhood poverty and children's developmental gains over the preschool year. Results suggest that neighborhood poverty is directly related to lower levels of classroom quality, and lower gains in early literacy and math scores. Indirect relationships were also found between neighborhood poverty and children's social-emotional outcomes (i.e., approaches to learning and behavior problems) via differences in the physical resources and negative student-teacher relationships within classrooms. These findings highlight the need for policy initiatives to consider community characteristics as potential predictors of disparities in classroom quality and children's cognitive and social-emotional development in Head Start.
Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; McKelvey, Lorraine; Lopez, Maya
Research Findings: Family conflict is known to be associated with poor development for young children, but many children appear resilient. This study examined the extent to which high-quality center care during early childhood protects children from these negative consequences. Children participating in center-based sites of the Early Head Start…
Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)
This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling (STHS), particularly concerning head-dependent reservoirs under competitive environment. We propose a novel method, based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), for optimising power generation efficiency. This method considers hydroelectric power generation as a nonlinear function of water discharge and of the head. The main contribution of this paper is that discharge ramping constraints and start/stop of units are also considered, in order to obtain more realistic and feasible results. The proposed method has been applied successfully to solve two case studies based on Portuguese cascaded hydro systems, providing a higher profit at an acceptable computation time in comparison with classical optimisation methods based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). (author)
starting method, extinction , predation, mortality, survivorship Kenneth An Nagy, Scott Hillard University of California - Los Angeles Regents of the...the netting problems were corrected. The remaining two predators were ants : native fire ants (Solenopsis xyloni—already known as hatchling...predators from another study site) and common Harvester Ants , Pogonomyrmex californicus. Both have been controlled when and where necessary by cautious use
Ling, Jiying; B Robbins, Lorraine; Hines-Martin, Vicki
Despite the need for parents to support their children's healthy behaviors, knowledge of factors preventing parents from doing so is still rudimentary. This study primarily aimed to explore perceived parental barriers to and strategies for supporting physical activity and healthy eating among Head Start children. A semi-structured interview format was used with four focus groups conducted at two urban Head Start centers in the Midwestern U.S. A qualitative content analysis of audio-recorded sessions was facilitated using ATLAS.ti7. A convenience sample of 32 parents (Mage = 34.97 years) participated. Over half were female (78.1 %), African Americans (65.6 %), and single (65.6 %). About 61.3 % reported an annual family income parent): lack of time and cooking skills and a tight family budget; and (3) environmental: inaccessible programs, lack of age-appropriate education, electronic media use, and unsafe environment. Parents across all groups expressed high interest in enrolling in a program with their children. Recommendations included: parents' support team; family outings at parks; taking a walk or enrolling in a class with children; and planting a garden. Many parents showed their preference for face-to-face meetings and a support group, but repulsion of counseling. To promote parental support in future interventions with Head Start children, their perceived intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers should be considered as intervention targets. Involving parents through a support group and face-to-face meetings is recommended.
The prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic preschool population remains elevated, particularly among children in low income families below the poverty level. Obesity leads to the early onset of metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. The Head Start population of Texas is largely comprised of this high risk group. Their physical activity level is suboptimal in part due to lack of available outside play areas and time spent watching television and playing sedentary video games. Dietary intake is frequently high in sugar sweetened beverages and low in vegetables. The group is frequently bilingual with limited vocabulary and has not learned to read. Preserving their Mexican American culture is a concern. This article describes the development and assessment of a group of bilingual interactive video interventions to improve age appropriate physical activity while providing basic nutrition education focusing on increasing vegetable and water intake and decreasing sugar sweetened beverages. Suggestions for development and assessment of content were provided by focus groups of Head Start teachers, managers and dietitians in the Texas counties of Bastrop, Hidalgo and McLennon. A demonstration of the videos was conducted in Bastrop County. Teachers, students and managers felt that the videos provided excellent information, improved exercise participation and engaged the children.
Salovey, Peter; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Mowad, Linda; Moret, Marta Elisa; Edlund, Denielle; Andersen, Judith
This article describes the establishment of two community technology centers affiliated with Head Start early childhood education programs focused especially on Latino and African American parents of children enrolled in Head Start. A 6-hour course concerned with computer and cancer literacy was presented to 120 parents and other community residents who earned a free, refurbished, Internet-ready computer after completing the program. Focus groups provided the basis for designing the structure and content of the course and modifying it during the project period. An outcomes-based assessment comparing program participants with 70 nonparticipants at baseline, immediately after the course ended, and 3 months later suggested that the program increased knowledge about computers and their use, knowledge about cancer and its prevention, and computer use including health information-seeking via the Internet. The creation of community computer technology centers requires the availability of secure space, capacity of a community partner to oversee project implementation, and resources of this partner to ensure sustainability beyond core funding.
Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae
The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic preschool population remains elevated, particularly among children in low income families below the poverty level. Obesity leads to the early onset of metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. The Head Start population of Texas is largely comprised of this high risk group. Their physical activity level is suboptimal in part due to lack of available outside play areas and time spent watching television and playing sedentary video games. Dietary intake is frequently high in sugar sweetened beverages and low in vegetables. The group is frequently bilingual with limited vocabulary and has not learned to read. Preserving their Mexican American culture is a concern. This article describes the development and assessment of a group of bilingual interactive video interventions to improve age appropriate physical activity while providing basic nutrition education focusing on increasing vegetable and water intake and decreasing sugar sweetened beverages. Suggestions for development and assessment of content were provided by focus groups of Head Start teachers, managers and dietitians in the Texas counties of Bastrop, Hidalgo and McLennon. A demonstration of the videos was conducted in Bastrop County. Teachers, students and managers felt that the videos provided excellent information, improved exercise participation and engaged the children.
This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Licking Economic Action Development Study (LEADS) Head Start School in Buckeye Lake, Ohio. The objectives of the project were to evaluate...
Stoneman, Z; Brody, G H; Churchill, S L; Winn, L L
This study examined the influence that residential dislocations have on child behavior problems, depression, peer competence, cognitive competence, and the quality of sibling relations in a sample of 70 Head Start children, aged 32 to 67 months, and their older brothers and sisters, aged 48 to 155 months. This was the first study to investigate the sibling relationship in the context of high residential mobility. Information on child characteristics was obtained from mothers and teachers. Sibling data (warmth/harmony and conflict) were obtained from coding videotaped interactions. Child emotionality was found to be an important moderator of the effects of residential mobility on young, poor children and their siblings; caregiver conflict was a less powerful moderator of these effects. Residential instability seemed to compromise the warmth/harmony of the sibling relationship. It was concluded that the effects of residential instability are complex and cannot be understood without considering child characteristics, such as temperament, and the family context in which the child lives.
Nutriendo la Promesa: Materiales Para la Aplicacion de las Normas de Ejecucion del Programa Head Start. Guia Para la Utilizacion de los Materiales [y] Transparencias (Nurturing the Promise: Set of Training Materials on the Head Start Program Performance Standards. User's Guide [and] Set of Transparencies).
Educational Services, Inc., Washington, DC.
Since 1975, the Head Start Program Performance Standards have defined the services that local programs are required to provide to enrolled children and families. With revisions effective in 1998, the Program Performance Standards translate the Head Start vision into quality practices implemented at the local level. This document is comprised of a…
Holly E. Brophy-Herb
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite slight decreases in obesity prevalence in children, nearly 25% of preschool-aged children are overweight or obese. Most interventions focused on promoting family meals as an obesity-prevention strategy target meal planning skills, knowledge and modeling of healthy eating without addressing the practical resources that enable implementation of family meals. There is a striking lack of evidence about what level of resources low-income parents need to implement family meals. This study will identify resources most effective in promoting family meals and, subsequently, test associations among the frequency of family meals, dietary quality and children’s adiposity indices among children enrolled in Head Start. Methods The Multiphase Optimization Strategy, employed in this study, is a cutting-edge approach to maximizing resources in behavioral interventions by identifying the most effective intervention components. We are currently testing the main, additive and interactive effects of 6 intervention components, thought to support family meals, on family meal frequency and dietary quality (Primary Outcomes as compared to Usual Head Start Exposure in a Screening Phase (N = 512 low-income families. Components yielding the most robust effects will be bundled and evaluated in a two-group randomized controlled trial (intervention and Usual Head Start Exposure in the Confirming Phase (N = 250, testing the effects of the bundled intervention on children’s adiposity indices (Primary Outcomes; body mass index and skinfolds. The current intervention components include: (1 home delivery of pre-made healthy family meals; (2 home delivery of healthy meal ingredients; (3 community kitchens in which parents make healthy meals to cook at home; (4 healthy eating classes; (5 cooking demonstrations; and (6 cookware/flatware delivery. Secondary outcomes include cooking self-efficacy and family mealtime barriers. Moderators of the
Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred; Contreras, Dawn; Kerver, Jean; Kaciroti, Niko; Stein, Mara; Lee, Hannah Jong; Motz, Brittany; Hebert, Sheilah; Prine, Erika; Gardiner, Candace; Van Egeren, Laurie A; Lumeng, Julie C
Despite slight decreases in obesity prevalence in children, nearly 25% of preschool-aged children are overweight or obese. Most interventions focused on promoting family meals as an obesity-prevention strategy target meal planning skills, knowledge and modeling of healthy eating without addressing the practical resources that enable implementation of family meals. There is a striking lack of evidence about what level of resources low-income parents need to implement family meals. This study will identify resources most effective in promoting family meals and, subsequently, test associations among the frequency of family meals, dietary quality and children's adiposity indices among children enrolled in Head Start. The Multiphase Optimization Strategy, employed in this study, is a cutting-edge approach to maximizing resources in behavioral interventions by identifying the most effective intervention components. We are currently testing the main, additive and interactive effects of 6 intervention components, thought to support family meals, on family meal frequency and dietary quality (Primary Outcomes) as compared to Usual Head Start Exposure in a Screening Phase (N = 512 low-income families). Components yielding the most robust effects will be bundled and evaluated in a two-group randomized controlled trial (intervention and Usual Head Start Exposure) in the Confirming Phase (N = 250), testing the effects of the bundled intervention on children's adiposity indices (Primary Outcomes; body mass index and skinfolds). The current intervention components include: (1) home delivery of pre-made healthy family meals; (2) home delivery of healthy meal ingredients; (3) community kitchens in which parents make healthy meals to cook at home; (4) healthy eating classes; (5) cooking demonstrations; and (6) cookware/flatware delivery. Secondary outcomes include cooking self-efficacy and family mealtime barriers. Moderators of the intervention include family functioning and
West, Allison L; Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda
Implementation of evidence-based interventions in "real-world" settings is enhanced when front-line staff view the intervention as acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. This qualitative study addresses Early Head Start (EHS) home visitors' perceptions and experiences of an evidence-based parenting intervention, the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up program (M. Dozier, O. Lindhiem, & J. Ackerman, 2005), when added to EHS services as usual within the context of a research-practice partnership. Thematic analysis of in-depth, qualitative interviews indicates that home visitors experienced the intervention as positive and helpful for EHS families. Some challenges included scheduling and uncertainty regarding the goals of the intervention. Concerns over participation in the research centered on information exchange, confidentiality, and time limitations. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Using a subsample of the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006, this study examined the associations between the amount of teacher instruction in 292 Head Start classrooms with changes in young children’s (n = 936) early academic achievement and learning-related social skills from ages 3 to 5. In general, during the early years, children exhibited relatively stable academic and learning-related social skills. Although the amount of teacher instruction did not predict children’s short-term academic growth directly, it did predict it indirectly through improvements in learning-related social skills, with benefits lasting through the end of kindergarten. These findings demonstrate that gains in children’s learning-related social skills may be necessary before academic gains can be realized. PMID:26692657
McCloskey, Morgan; Johnson, Susan L; Benz, Cristen; Thompson, Darcy A; Chamberlin, Barbara; Clark, Lauren; Bellows, Laura L
To describe child use and parents' beliefs and comfort with young children's use of mobile devices in low-income, rural communities. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The survey, which consisted of 18 multiple-part questions, was distributed to families at 5 Head Start/preschool centers in Colorado. In total, 192 surveys were returned (28.5% response rate). Most children (92%) used a smartphone or tablet at some frequency and most parents (90%) had downloaded apps specifically for their child. Education and ethnicity were related to parents' technology beliefs. Parent comfort with technology was positively associated with greater child use of technology (P Mobile device use was relatively high in this sample. Mobile devices appear to be a feasible platform to offer nutrition and physical activity education for this audience. Ensuring parent comfort with technology and apps will be important. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gurajada, Navya; Reed, Debra B; Taylor, Ashlee L
Background: In US, approximately 23% of children between the ages of 2-5 years are overweight or obese. Parents need access to information to create healthy home environments for obesity prevention, yet participation for in-person education programs is challenging. Web-based interventions are promising educational tools due to 24/7 availability. However, information is limited on their development and evaluation. Design and Methods: This study reports on a rigorous development process that included six focus group discussions (FGD) with stakeholders (three FGD each with parents and teachers) to assess education needs and inform the development of the Jump2Health Website ™ by a multidisciplinary team. After development, the Website was evaluated by telephone interviews with stakeholders (five parents and six teachers) and reviewed by an expert panel of five Registered Dietitians. Results: Twenty Head Start parents and 22 Head Start teachers participated in the FGD. To address the needs identified by these stakeholders, the Website was designed to include components that were enabling and motivating, such as descriptions of health benefits by achieving the desired behaviours, short videos on easy meal preparation, and tip sheets on how to achieve healthy behaviours in easy, economical ways. Stakeholder evaluation of the Website indicated that the information was helpful, easy to use, and would be beneficial for parents. Conclusions: The development of Jump2Health Website ™ was strengthened by FGD with stakeholders that assessed educational needs. Interviews with stakeholders and an expert panel review showed that the Website may be an effective educational method to teach parents about healthy behaviours related to obesity prevention.
Full Text Available Background: In US, approximately 23% of children between the ages of 2-5 years are overweight or obese. Parents need access to information to create healthy home environments for obesity prevention, yet participation for in-person education programs is challenging. Web-based interventions are promising educational tools due to 24/7 availability. However, information is limited on their development and evaluation. Design and Methods: This study reports on a rigorous development process that included six focus group discussions (FGD with stakeholders (three FGD each with parents and teachers to assess education needs and inform the development of the Jump2Health Website™ by a multidisciplinary team. After development, the Website was evaluated by telephone interviews with stakeholders (five parents and six teachers and reviewed by an expert panel of five Registered Dietitians. Results: Twenty Head Start parents and 22 Head Start teachers participated in the FGD. To address the needs identified by these stakeholders, the Website was designed to include components that were enabling and motivating, such as descriptions of health benefits by achieving the desired behaviours, short videos on easy meal preparation, and tip sheets on how to achieve healthy behaviours in easy, economical ways. Stakeholder evaluation of the Website indicated that the information was helpful, easy to use, and would be beneficial for parents. Conclusions: The development of Jump2Health Website™ was strengthened by FGD with stakeholders that assessed educational needs. Interviews with stakeholders and an expert panel review showed that the Website may be an effective educational method to teach parents about healthy behaviours related to obesity prevention.
Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Zhang Peiqun; Chai Zhifang
Twenty-seven pairs of head from mothers and their new-born infants were collected at the time of delivery in a hospital in Beijing. The total mercury content in the hair samples was determined by INAA. The correlation between mercury content in hair of mothers and their new-born infants has been investigated. In addition, the change of Hg content in pregnant women's hair during their pregnancy was also studied by INAA and SRXRF. The results indicate a significant positive correlation between the mercury content in maternal and infant head hairs (r = +0.862, p < 0.001). The average content of Hg in infant and maternal hairs was (0.66 +- 0.31) μg/g and (0.59 +- 0.25) μg/g, respectively. The infant level exceeded the maternal by 12%. The Hg content in maternal head hair gradually reduced during pregnancy. Further, the methylmercury (Me-Hg) content in 3 maternal hair samples was analyzed by GC(EC). The Me-Hg was in accordance with the total mercury content. Thus a conclusion can be drawn that damage to the infant from Hg occurred in the early stages of pregnancy
Feng, W.Y.; Qian, Q.F.; Zhang, P.Q.; Chai, C.F.
Twenty-seven pairs of head hair from mothers and their new-born infants were collected at the time of delivery in a hospital in Beijing. The total mercury content in the hair samples was determined by INAA. The correlation between mercury content in hair of mothers and their new-born infants has been investigated. In addition, the change of Hg content in pregnant women's hair during their pregnancy was also studied by INAA and SRXRF. The results indicate a significant positive correlation between the mercury content in maternal and infant head hairs (r = +0.862, p< 0.001). The average content of Hg in infant and maternal hairs was 0.66 ± 0.31 μg/g and 0.59 ± 0.25 μg/g, respectively. The infant level exceeded the maternal by 12%. The Hg content in maternal head hair gradually reduced during pregnancy. Further, the methylmercury (Me-Hg) content in 3 maternal hair samples was analyzed by GC(EC). The Me-Hg was in accordance with the total mercury content. Thus a conclusion can be drawn that damage to the infant from Hg occurred in the early stages of pregnancy. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Crespo-Picazo, J L; García-Parraga, D; Domènech, F; Tomás, J; Aznar, F J; Ortega, J; Corpa, J M
Diseases associated to external parasitosis are scarcely reported in sea turtles. During the last decades several organism have been documented as a part of normal epibiont community connected to sea turtles. The copepod Balaenophilus manatorum has been cited as a part of epibiont fauna with some concern about its parasitic capacity. This study serves three purposes, i.e. (i) it sheds light on the type of life style that B. manatorum has developed with its hosts, particularly turtles; (ii) it makes a cautionary note of the potential health risks associated with B. manatorum in sea turtles under captivity conditions and in the wild, and (iii) it provides data on effective treatments against B. manatorum. We report for the first time a massive infestation of the copepod B. manatorum and subsequent acute mortality in a group of loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings. Four-month-old turtles from a head-starting program started exhibiting excitatory and fin rubbing behavior preceding an acute onset of lethargy, skin ulceration and death in some animals. All the individuals (n = 57) were affected by severe copepod load and presented different degrees of external macroscopic skin lesions. The ventral area of front flippers, axillar and pericloacal skin were mostly affected, and were the main parasite distribution regions. Copepods were also detected on plastron and carapace sutures. The gut contents of B. manatorum reacted positively for cytokeratin, indicating consumption of turtle skin. Severe ulcerative necrotic dermatitis and large amount of bacteria presence were the major histopathological findings. Individual fresh water immersion for 10 min and lufenuron administration (0.1 ppm) to the water system every 2 weeks proved effective for removing turtle parasites and to control re-infestation, respectively. The results from our study clearly indicated that B. manatorum individuals consume turtle skin. The pathological effects of this agent and the potential implications
Love, John M.; Constantine, Jill; Paulsell, Diane; Boller, Kimberly; Ross, Christine; Raikes, Helen; Brady-Smith, Christy; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In 1994, the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Services for Families with Infants and Toddlers set forth a vision for Early Head Start programs in declaring that all child care settings used by Early Head Start families, whether or not the program provides the care directly, must meet the high standards of quality embodied in the Head Start…
White, Lisa J; Alexander, Alexandra; Greenfield, Daryl B
Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills. To address this gap, this study examined the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and three aspects of language: syntax, vocabulary, and language learning. A diverse sample of 182 children (67% Latino and 33% African American) attending Head Start were assessed on both EF and language ability. Findings demonstrated that EF related to a comprehensive latent construct of language composed of vocabulary, syntax, and language learning. EF also related to each individual component of language. This study furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between language and cognitive development by measuring EF as it relates to various components of language in a sample of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burgette, Jacqueline M; Preisser, John S; Weinberger, Morris; King, Rebecca S; Lee, Jessica Y; Rozier, R Gary
To examine the effects of North Carolina Early Head Start (EHS), an early education program for low-income children younger than 3 years and their families, on dental care use among children. We performed a quasi-experimental study in which we interviewed 479 EHS and 699 non-EHS parent-child dyads at baseline (2010-2012) and at a 24-month follow-up (2012-2014). We estimated the effects of EHS participation on the probability of having a dental care visit after controlling for baseline dental care need and use and a propensity score covariate; we included random effects to account for EHS program clustering. The odds of having a dental care visit of any type (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.74, 3.48) and having a preventive dental visit (adjusted OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.84, 3.63) were higher among EHS children than among non-EHS children. In addition, the adjusted mean number of dental care visits among EHS children was 1.3 times (95% CI = 1.17, 1.55) the mean number among non-EHS children. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that EHS participation increases dental care use among disadvantaged young children.
Zhai, Fuhua; Raver, C Cybele; Li-Grining, Christine
Preschool teachers' job stressors have received increasing attention but have been understudied in the literature. We investigated the impacts of a classroom-based intervention, the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), on teachers' perceived job stressors and confidence, as indexed by their perceptions of job control, job resources, job demands, and confidence in behavior management. Using a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the CSRP provided multifaceted services to the treatment group, including teacher training and mental health consultation, which were accompanied by stress-reduction services and workshops. Overall, 90 teachers in 35 classrooms at 18 Head Start sites participated in the study. After adjusting for teacher and classroom factors and site fixed effects, we found that the CSRP had significant effects on the improvement of teachers' perceived job control and work-related resources. We also found that the CSRP decreased teachers' confidence in behavior management and had no statistically significant effects on job demands. Overall, we did not find significant moderation effects of teacher race/ethnicity, education, teaching experience, or teacher type. The implications for research and policy are discussed.
Hoehn, Jessica L; Riekert, Kristin A; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S; Eakin, Michelle N
To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled from a larger trial examining the effectiveness of a motivational-interviewing intervention in reducing child's SHSe. Counseling sessions were qualitatively coded to identify barriers and motivators to implementing a home smoking ban or quitting smoking. African-American families identified several themes that were either or both barriers and motivators for SHSe reduction, including: asking others not to smoke, other family living in the home, neighborhood safety, absence of childcare, cost/availability of cessation tools, physician support and prevention of health problems. Urban, low-income African-American families face numerous barriers to reducing SHSe. Families were able to identify many motivators for reducing SHSe, suggesting an awareness of the importance for SHSe reduction but uncertainty in their confidence to change behaviors. Counseling should include tailoring to be most effective in supporting health behavior change. Greater emphasis on motivators is needed, such as low-cost/free cessation tools, engagement from physicians and greater involvement of extended family members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Roggman, Lori A; Cook, Gina A; Innocenti, Mark S; Jump Norman, Vonda; Boyce, Lisa K; Christiansen, Katie; Peterson, Carla A
Home-visiting programs aiming to improve early child development have demonstrated positive outcomes, but processes within home visits to individual families are rarely documented. We examined family-level variations in the home-visiting process (N = 71) from extant video recordings of home visits in two Early Head Start programs, using an observational measure of research-based quality indicators of home-visiting practices and family engagement, the Home Visit Rating Scales (HOVRS). HOVRS scores, showing good interrater agreement and internal consistency, were significantly associated with parent- and staff-reported positive characteristics of home visiting as well as with parenting and child language outcomes tested at program exit. When home-visiting processes were higher quality during the program, home visit content was more focused on child development, families were more involved in the overall program, and most important, scores on measures of the parenting environment and children's vocabulary were higher at the end of the program. Results showed that home visit quality was indirectly associated with child language outcomes through parenting outcomes. Observation ratings of home visit quality could be useful for guiding program improvement, supporting professional development, and increasing our understanding of the links between home-visiting processes and outcomes. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Green, Beth L.; Ayoub, Catherine; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Von Ende, Adam; Furrer, Carrie; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Vallotton, Claire; Klevens, Joanne
The high societal and personal costs of child maltreatment make identification of effective early prevention programs a high research priority. Early Head Start (EHS), a dual generational program serving low-income families with children prenatally through age three years, is one of the largest federally funded programs for infants and toddlers in the United States. A national randomized trial found EHS to be effective in improving parent and child outcomes, but its effectiveness in reducing child maltreatment was not assessed. The current study used administrative data from state child welfare agencies to examine the impact of EHS on documented abuse and neglect among children from seven of the original seventeen programs in the national EHS randomized controlled trial. Results indicated that children in EHS had significantly fewer child welfare encounters between the ages of five and nine years than did children in the control group, and that EHS slowed the rate of subsequent encounters. Additionally, compared to children in the control group, children in EHS were less likely to have a substantiated report of physical or sexual abuse, but more likely to have a substantiated report of neglect. These findings suggest that EHS may be effective in reducing child maltreatment among low-income children, in particular, physical and sexual abuse. PMID:26744550
Schechter, Daniel S; Kaminer, Tammy; Grienenberger, John F; Amat, Jose
This case-study presents in detail the clinical assessment of a 29-year-old mother and her daughter who first presented to infant mental health specialists at age 16-months, with a hospital record suggesting the presence of a dyadic disturbance since age 8-months. Data from psychiatric and neurological assessments, as well as observational measures of child and mother are reviewed with attention to issues of disturbed attachment, intergenerational trauma, and cultural factors for this inner-city Latino dyad. Severe maternal affect dysregulation in the wake of chronic, early-onset violent-trauma exposure manifested as psychogenic seizures, referred to in the mother's native Spanish as "ataques de nervios," the latter, an idiom of distress, commonly associated with childhood trauma and dissociation. We explore the mechanisms by which the mothers' reexperiencing of violent traumatic experience, together with physiologic hyperarousal and associated negative affects, are communicated to the very young child and the clinician-observer via action and language from moment to moment during the assessment process. The paper concludes with a discussion of diagnostic and treatment implications by Drs. Marshall, Gaensbauer, and Zeanah.
Children of incarcerated mothers are considered one of the most at risk populations for delinquency. Parenting may play a key role in this intergenerational transmission of delinquency. The aim of this dissertation was to examine problems faced by families affected by maternal incarceration, and to
Iruka, Iheoma U.
Research Findings: This study analyzed data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study (EHSRES) to examine whether the association between family structural characteristics (maternal education, number of parents, employment status, and number of children), parenting practices (sensitive and negative parenting, cognitively stimulating…
Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.
With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…
Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret
Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…
This study measured food security and hunger of households enrolled in Head Start in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama and assessed factors that could affect food security. Interviewers collected data from primary caregivers on demographic characteristics, dietary intake, and the six-item US f...
Baumgarten, Thomas L.; Minix, Quinella
The Texas Education Agency awarded twenty competitive grants to Head Start programs in the state. The focus of the grants was on emergent literacy and pre-reading skills. Teachers, mentors, and administrators underwent intensive training. To investigate whether children emerged from the grant programs ready to enter school reading, an outside…
Full Text Available The prevalence of early childhood obesity has increased dramatically particularly among the Mexican American population. Obesity leads to earlier onset of related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The Head Start population of Texas is largely Mexican American. Dietary intake in this population demonstrated a diet very low in fiber, high in salt, and containing excessive calories with a low intake of fruit and vegetables. This study was performed in a Texas Head Start population to evaluate a bilingual pictorial nutrition education game. Acceptance of the bilingual concept and the game had been previously studied in a Head Start population in five Texas counties. The effectiveness in producing a change in eating habits was studied as a pilot project 413 children and their parents at the Bastrop County Head Start. Parents were asked to supply data about at home food frequency at the beginning and the end of the school year and the results compared. The parents were given a demonstration of the educational objectives and the students played the game throughout the year. By the end of the school year there was a statistically significant increase in the vegetables offered to this population both during the week at home (p = 0.009 and on the weekends (p = 0.02.
The prevalence of early childhood obesity has increased dramatically particularly among the Mexican American population. Obesity leads to earlier onset of related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The Head Start population of Texas is largely Mexican American. Dietary intake in this population demonstrated a diet very low in fiber, high in salt, and containing excessive calories with a low intake of fruit and vegetables. This study was performed in a Texas Head Start population to evaluate a bilingual pictorial nutrition education game. Acceptance of the bilingual concept and the game had been previously studied in a Head Start population in five Texas counties. The effectiveness in producing a change in eating habits was studied as a pilot project 413 children and their parents at the Bastrop County Head Start. Parents were asked to supply data about at home food frequency at the beginning and the end of the school year and the results compared. The parents were given a demonstration of the educational objectives and the students played the game throughout the year. By the end of the school year there was a statistically significant increase in the vegetables offered to this population both during the week at home (p = 0.009) and on the weekends (p = 0.02).
Beatty, Barbara; Zigler, Edward
In this article, Edward Zigler, interviewed by Barbara Beatty, talks about a turning point in the history of Head Start that reveals how policy choices, bureaucracy, and science came together when he was told to phase out the program in 1970. New to Washington, Zigler learned that President Richard M. Nixon's domestic policy advisor Daniel Patrick…
Stoneman, Zolinda; Brody, Gene H.; Churchill, Susan L.; Winn, Laura L.
Examined influence of residential dislocations on child behavior problems, depression, peer competence, cognitive competence, and quality of sibling relationships among Head Start children and their older siblings. Found that child emotionality moderated the effects of residential mobility. Caregiver conflict was a less powerful moderator.…
Gettinger, Maribeth; Stoiber, Karen C.
This study examined the effects of coaching with versus without demonstrations of evidence-based book-reading practices on teachers' use of strategies during independent book-reading periods. A total of 22 Head Start teachers were randomly assigned to one of two cohorts. One cohort (n = 12) participated in biweekly coaching sessions that included…
Derrick-Mills, Teresa; Winkler, Mary K.; Healy, Olivia; Greenberg, Erica
Head Start has long focused on assessing and improving program quality to ensure that the children served receive the best possible preparation for school and life. Most research has been focused inside the classroom--the classroom environment, teacher qualifications, and teacher interactions. Of course, the classroom is important because that is…
Li, Xiaoming; Atkins, Melissa S.; Stanton, Bonita
Data from 122 Head Start children were analyzed to examine the impact of computer use on school readiness and psychomotor skills. Children in the experimental group were given the opportunity to work on a computer for 15-20 minutes per day with their choice of developmentally appropriate educational software, while the control group received a…
Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine
The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…
Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.
The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…
Günay, H; Dmoch-Bockhorn, K; Günay, Y; Geurtsen, W
The aim of this three-phase prospective study was to determine the effects of a primary-primary prevention program on the oral health of children. Eighty-six pregnant women from various social backgrounds participated in the first phase of this study. In the second phase (at 3 years of age) 54 of the mother-child couples and in the third phase (at 4 years of age) 47 of the mother-child couples remained. Participants were recalled every 6 months and received individual prophylactic care. The following clinical parameters were assessed at each examination period for mother and child: DMF-S or dmf-s, proximal plaque index, and the salivary level of Streptococcus mutans (Dentocult SM). The control group consisted of 65 (at 3 years of age) and 45 (at 4 years of age) children from various kindergartens. All children in the second phase of the study group revealed a naturally healthy dentition with an API of 0-25% and a salivary S. mutans score of 0 (0-10(3) cfu/ml). In the third phase, only four of the 47 children of the study group showed caries, with a mean dmf-s of 1.5. No S. mutans could be detected in 20 (42.6%) children. Ten (21.3%) children of the study group showed a S. mutans score of > or = 2 (> 10(5) cfu/ml). In contrast, only 53 of the 65 children of the control group (second phase) and 26 of the 45 control children (third phase) revealed a naturally healthy dentition. The remaining 19 children of the control group revealed a mean dmf-s of 7.0 at 4 years of age. In the control group, no S. mutans could be detected in 25 (38.5%) children at 3 years of age whereas 21 (32.3%) children showed a S. mutans score of > or = 2. In the third phase, a salivary S. mutans score of > or = 2 was found in 27 (60%) children of the control group. The statistical comparison between the study and the control groups revealed significant differences for all results determined (P mutans colonization. From our data we conclude that a pre- and postnatal prevention program (primary
Hall Sharon K
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies conducted with ethnically diverse, low-income samples have found that parents with indulgent feeding styles had children with a higher weight status. Indulgent parents are those who are responsive to their child's emotional states but have problems setting appropriate boundaries with their child. Because the processes through which styles impact child weight are poorly understood, the aim of this study was to observe differences in the emotional climate created by parents (including affect, tone of voice, and gestures and behavioral feeding practices among those reporting different feeding styles on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. A secondary aim was to examine differences on child weight status across the feeding styles. Methods Participants were 177 Head Start families from Houston, Texas (45% African-American; 55% Hispanic. Using an observational approach, the relationship between the observed emotional climate of the meal, behavioral feeding practices, and self-reported parent feeding styles were examined. Mean age of the children was 4.4 years (SD = 0.7 equally distributed across gender. Families were observed on 3 separate dinner occasions. Heights and weight were measured on the parents and children. Results Parents with self-reported indulgent feeding styles made fewer demands on their children to eat during dinner and showed lower levels of negative affect and intrusiveness. Surprisingly, these parents also showed higher levels of emotional detachment with their children during dinner. Hispanic boys with indulgent parents had significantly higher BMI z scores compared to Hispanic boys in the other three feeding style groups. No other differences were found on child weight status. Conclusions Results suggest that the emotional climate created by indulgent parents during dinner and their lack of demands on their children to eat may play an important role in how young children become
Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hall, Sharon K; Shewchuk, Richard M
A number of studies conducted with ethnically diverse, low-income samples have found that parents with indulgent feeding styles had children with a higher weight status. Indulgent parents are those who are responsive to their child's emotional states but have problems setting appropriate boundaries with their child. Because the processes through which styles impact child weight are poorly understood, the aim of this study was to observe differences in the emotional climate created by parents (including affect, tone of voice, and gestures) and behavioral feeding practices among those reporting different feeding styles on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. A secondary aim was to examine differences on child weight status across the feeding styles. Participants were 177 Head Start families from Houston, Texas (45% African-American; 55% Hispanic). Using an observational approach, the relationship between the observed emotional climate of the meal, behavioral feeding practices, and self-reported parent feeding styles were examined. Mean age of the children was 4.4 years (SD = 0.7) equally distributed across gender. Families were observed on 3 separate dinner occasions. Heights and weight were measured on the parents and children. Parents with self-reported indulgent feeding styles made fewer demands on their children to eat during dinner and showed lower levels of negative affect and intrusiveness. Surprisingly, these parents also showed higher levels of emotional detachment with their children during dinner. Hispanic boys with indulgent parents had significantly higher BMI z scores compared to Hispanic boys in the other three feeding style groups. No other differences were found on child weight status. Results suggest that the emotional climate created by indulgent parents during dinner and their lack of demands on their children to eat may play an important role in how young children become overweight. Numerous observed emotional climate and behavioral
Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.
This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…
Administration for Children & Families, 2015
This report draws on newly available data from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE) to describe early care and education (ECE) centers that participate in two prominent publicly-funded ECE initiatives: Head Start and publicly-funded pre-kindergarten. Although a great deal is known about Head Start programs, and there are sources…
Hindin, Toby J; Contento, Isobel R; Gussow, Joan Dye
To evaluate whether a media literacy nutrition education curriculum about the effects of television advertising on children's food choices influenced the behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of Head Start parents. Participants were a convenience sample of 35 parents from Head Start programs. This study used a pretest-posttest, comparison condition-intervention condition design. The 35 parents participated in both a four-week food safety curriculum (to serve as an educational placebo, comparison condition) that was followed immediately by a four-week media literacy nutrition education curriculum (intervention condition). Evaluation measures included parents' understanding of the persuasive techniques of commercials; ability to distinguish between truths and claims in advertising; and outcome expectations, values, self-efficacy, and behaviors in relation to talking about television advertisements with children while co-viewing or in response to purchase requests in the grocery store. Paired t tests, analysis of covariance, and chi(2) analyses were used. The media literacy nutrition education intervention curriculum had significant effects in terms of Head Start parents' understanding television advertising (Padvertisements (PTV mediation behaviors (P<.001), and understanding of, and ability to read, food labels (P<.001). Results suggest that a media literacy nutrition education curriculum can be easily conducted by dietitians. Dietitians can modify the curriculum to teach parents how to critically analyze many other forms of media (supermarket magazines, brochures, newspapers, Web sites) that sell nutrition misinformation to the public.
Koblinsky, S A; Morgan, K M; Anderson, E A
The child-rearing practices of homeless and low-income housed mothers of preschool children in Head Start were compared. Overall, homeless mothers provided less learning and academic stimulation, less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and a less positive physical environment for their children than did housed mothers. Mothers in both living arrangements provided more language stimulation to daughters than to sons. Implications of the findings for working with homeless families are discussed.
Hovdestad, W; Shields, M; Williams, G; Tonmyr, L
Young mothers' families are at increased risk of child maltreatment and other poor health and social outcomes. Chi-square analyses of pooled child welfare services data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003; CIS-2008) were used to compare 284 teen mothers (18 years or younger) and 800 young mothers (19-21 years) and their families with 5752 families where the mother was 22 years or older. Twenty-six percent of young mothers were 18 years or younger. Most (68% of teen-mother families and 57% of families with a young adult mother) received social assistance as their main source of income compared with 36% of families with a mother aged 22 years or older. Teen and young adult mothers were more likely than those aged 22 or older to have childhood histories of out-of-home care (31% and 23% vs. 10%) and were more likely to have risk factors such as alcohol abuse (25% and 23% vs. 18%) and few social supports (46% and 41% vs. 37%). Secondary caregivers in families with young mothers also had more risk factors. Teen and young adult mother families were more likely to have their child placed out-of-home during the investigation (29% and 27% vs. 17%). All were equally likely to be victims of domestic violence and to have mental health issues. Within this sample of high-risk families, young mothers' families were more at risk than comparison families. Mothers' youth may be a useful criterion to identify families for targeted interventions.
Full Text Available Introduction: Young mothers' families are at increased risk of child maltreatment and other poor health and social outcomes. Methods: Chi-square analyses of pooled child welfare services data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003; CIS-2008 were used to compare 284 teen mothers (18 years or younger and 800 young mothers (19-21 years and their families with 5752 families where the mother was 22 years or older. Results: Twenty-six percent of young mothers were 18 years or younger. Most (68% of teen-mother families and 57% of families with a young adult mother received social assistance as their main source of income compared with 36% of families with a mother aged 22 years or older. Teen and young adult mothers were more likely than those aged 22 or older to have childhood histories of out-of-home care (31% and 23% vs. 10% and were more likely to have risk factors such as alcohol abuse (25% and 23% vs. 18% and few social supports (46% and 41% vs. 37%. Secondary caregivers in families with young mothers also had more risk factors. Teen and young adult mother families were more likely to have their child placed out-of-home during the investigation (29% and 27% vs. 17%. All were equally likely to be victims of domestic violence and to have mental health issues. Conclusion: Within this sample of high-risk families, young mothers' families were more at risk than comparison families. Mothers' youth may be a useful criterion to identify families for targeted interventions.
In the Third World millions of malnourished, overworked women and girls are excluded from the circles of power, and they are out of touch with the other half of humanity approaching 5 billion. In the villages of South Asia they face poverty, constant toil, and continual pregnancies. The plight of those women is an scathing indictment on how these societies value their female citizens. There can be no long-term development anywhere on this planet unless women are fully involved in the design of the societies. To be involved they must be healthy, respected citizens. The centrality members is not clearly enough understood or recognized. Maternal mortality is too often the end-result of a life diminished by discrimination from the moment of birth to early marriage. If women are to be healthy they must have increased access to education, training, credit, health care, and legal protection. The poorer women are, the more vulnerable they are to exploitation from unfair labor practices, prostitution, and physical violence. In Peru, 70% of all crimes reported comprise women beaten by their partners. In India, police recorded 1,786 dowry deaths in 1987, but a women's action group estimates the figure is over 1000 in Gujarat state alone. Women must be brought into the mainstream of our societies. One way of doing so is to use the model of the Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women adopted by the UN General Assembly 10 years ago that gives legal guidelines to enhance women's rights and status.
deShazo, Richard D; Minor, Wilson F Bill; Smith, Robert; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin
By 1965, the policies and programs of Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society brought optimism to black physicians and a new wave of resistance against black civil rights advocates in the American South. The largest of the first Head Start programs, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM), had its roots in Freedom Summer 1964 and the Medical Committee for Human Rights. Like other proposed programs with strong medical components, CDGM was caught in a legislative Bermuda triangle created by the powerful Mississippi congressional delegation to maintain white supremacy and plantation economics. Physician-led investigations exposed the extraordinary level of poor health among Mississippi's black children, supported Head Start as a remedy, and awakened the white medical establishment to health disparities of the Jim Crow period. It was also the beginning of positive change in the previously silent white medical community in the South and their support of civil justice in health. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KNOCHE, LISA L.; SHERIDAN, SUSAN M.; CLARKE, BRANDY L.; EDWARDS, CAROLYN POPE; MARVIN, CHRISTINE A.; CLINE, KEELY D.; KUPZYK, KEVIN A.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a relational intervention (the Getting Ready intervention) on parenting behaviors supporting the parent–infant relationship for families enrolled in Early Head Start home-based programming. Two-hundred thirty-four parents and their children participated in the randomized study, with 42% of parents reporting education of less than a high-school diploma. Brief, semistructured parent–child interaction tasks were videotaped every 4 months over a16-month intervention period. Observational codes of parent–infant relationship behaviors included quality of three parental behaviors: warmth and sensitivity, support for learning, and encouragement of autonomy; two appropriateness indicators: support for learning and guidance/directives; and one amount indicator: constructive behaviors. Parents who participated in the Getting Ready intervention demonstrated higher quality interactions with their children that included enhanced quality of warmth and sensitivity, and support for their children’s autonomy than did parents in the control group. They also were more likely to use appropriate directives with their children and more likely to demonstrate appropriate supports for their young children’s learning. Results indicate an added value of the Getting Ready intervention for Early Head Start home-based programming for families of infants and toddlers. PMID:24644374
Ispa, Jean M.; Su-Russell, Chang; Palermo, Francisco; Carlo, Gustavo
Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a cross-lag mediation model was tested to examine longitudinal relations among low-income mothers' sensitivity; toddlers' engagement of their mothers; and toddler's self-regulation at ages 1, 2, and 3 years (N = 2,958). Age 1 maternal sensitivity predicted self-regulation at…
Howes, Carollee; Vu, Jennifer A.; Hamilton, Claire
Continuity and intergenerational transmission of representations of attachment were examined in a longitudinal sample of 88 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children who participated in the local intervention group of the Early Head Start Evaluation Study. The authors interviewed mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Parent…
Sharma, Deepali; Silbereisen, Rainer K
Much of the documented work on families headed by single mothers is based on empirical evidence from North America and a few Anglo-Saxon countries. Many researchers consider single-mother families to be at a disadvantage because of nonsupportive family policies. This paper uses data from a social context that differed hugely in this respect-the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The GDR provided extensive state support to single-mother families and, thus, was vastly different from other countries. Based on a literature review and using Hill's family stress theory, this paper is based on the hypothesis that adolescents living in mother-headed single-parent families and those living with their biological parents would have near-similar social outcomes (display of psychosomatic symptoms, perception of stress, display of delinquent behaviour, life satisfaction, academic self-efficacy, and academic grades) and family-related outcomes (relationship with parents and perception of family environment). Further, it was hypothesized that adolescents from stepfather families would display more negative social and family-related outcomes when compared with respondents from the other two family types. The sample comprised 1302 adolescents (M = 13.82 years, SD = 1.88) who were recruited from the city of Leipzig in the year immediately following German unification, 1991. Respondents reported on measures of psychosomatic symptoms, stress, delinquency, life satisfaction, academic achievement, and family-related variables. ANCOVAs, with a control for income adjusted for household size, indicated adolescents from single-mother families to have very similar experiences to respondents living with their biological parents on all measures except for their assessment of family environment. Adolescents living in stepfather families reported the least favourable experiences. Results are indicative of a social context in Germany that, despite unification and the early hardships for
Nix, Robert L; Bierman, Karen L; Domitrovich, Celene E; Gill, Sukhdeep
This study examined processes of change associated with the positive preschool and kindergarten outcomes of children who received the Head Start REDI intervention, compared to "usual practice" Head Start. In a large-scale randomized-controlled trial (N = 356 children, 42% African American or Latino, all from low-income families), this study tests the logic model that improving preschool social-emotional skills (e.g., emotion understanding, social problem solving, and positive social behavior) as well as language/emergent literacy skills will promote cross-domain academic and behavioral adjustment after children transition into kindergarten. Validating this logic model, the present study finds that intervention effects on three important kindergarten outcomes (e.g., reading achievement, learning engagement, and positive social behavior) were mediated by preschool gains in the proximal social-emotional and language/emergent literacy skills targeted by the REDI intervention. Importantly, preschool gains in social-emotional skills made unique contributions to kindergarten outcomes in reading achievement and learning engagement, even after accounting for the concurrent preschool gains in vocabulary and emergent literacy skills. These findings highlight the importance of fostering at-risk children's social-emotional skills during preschool as a means of promoting school readiness. The REDI (Research-Based, Developmentally-Informed) enrichment intervention was designed to complement and strengthen the impact of existing Head Start programs in the dual domains of language/emergent literacy skills and social-emotional competencies. REDI was one of several projects funded by the Interagency School Readiness Consortium, a partnership of four federal agencies (the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Administration for Children and Families, the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the Department of Health and Human Services, and the
Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L
Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age children and significantly improved motor skills while participating in outdoor recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children's learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success.
Robinson, Leah E.; Palmer, Kara K.; Bub, Kristen L.
Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age children and significantly improved motor skills while participating in outdoor recess was not effective. CHAMP could help contribute to children’s learning-related skills and physical development and subsequently to their academic success. PMID:27660751
Leah Elizabeth Robinson
Full Text Available Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 + 6.5 months; 49.5% males were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68 or control (n = 45 program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-minute sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time*treatment interaction (p < .001. In regards to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < .05, but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < .001. Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < .05. CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that may be an approach to enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation. This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool age
Krebber, Anne-Marie H; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Melissant, Heleen C; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Becker-Commissaris, Annemarie; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M
Recent results of a randomized clinical trial showed that a guided self-help intervention (based on problem-solving therapy) targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients is effective. This study qualitatively explored motivation to start, experiences with and perceived outcomes of this intervention. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews of 16 patients. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed individually by two coders and coded into key issues and themes. Patients participated in the intervention for intrinsic (e.g. to help oneself) and for extrinsic reasons (e.g. being asked by a care professional or to help improve health care). Participants indicated positive and negative experiences with the intervention. Several participants appreciated participating as being a pleasant way to work on oneself, while others described participating as too confrontational. Some expressed their disappointment as they felt the intervention had brought them nothing or indicated that they felt worse temporarily, but most participants perceived positive outcomes of the intervention (e.g. feeling less distressed and having learned what matters in life). Cancer patients have various reasons to start a guided self-help intervention. Participants appreciated the guided self-help as intervention to address psychological distress, but there were also concerns. Most participants reported the intervention to be beneficial. The results suggest the need to identify patients who might benefit most from guided self-help targeting psychological distress and that interventions should be further tailored to individual cancer patients' requirements.
Mendez, Julia L
An intervention was developed to promote parent involvement with ethnic minority families of children attending Head Start preschool programs. Two hundred eighty-eight predominantly African American families from a small southern city were included in this study. Parent satisfaction with the program was high, yet engagement was less than optimal. Some effects were found for the program, despite low levels of participation. Ethnic minority parents who received the intervention increased the frequency of reading to their child as compared with parents in a comparison group who did not receive the program. The quality of the parent-teacher relationship was significantly correlated with parental participation in the intervention. Program participation and the parent-teacher relationship were correlated with higher levels of children's school readiness abilities. Children in the intervention condition showed stronger end-of-year receptive vocabulary and parent-rated social competence as compared with children who did not receive treatment. This research documents the challenges involved in engaging parents in prevention programs. Strategies for maximizing the benefits of preschool for ethnic minority families and their children are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Harnack Lisa J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption of preschool aged children are needed. Objectives Evaluate the independent effects of the following meal service strategies on intake of fruits and vegetables of preschool children: 1. Serving fruits and vegetables in advance of other menu items as part of traditional family style meal service; and 2. Serving meals portioned and plated by providers. Methods Fifty-three preschool aged children completed a randomized crossover experiment conducted at a Head Start center in Minneapolis, MN. Over a six week trial period each of the experimental meal service strategies (serving fruits and vegetable first and serving meals portioned by providers was implemented during lunch service for two one-week periods. Two one-week control periods (traditional family style meal service with all menu items served at once were also included over the six week trial period. Childrens lunch intake was observed as a measure of food and nutrient intake during each experimental condition. Results Fruit intake was significantly higher (p Conclusions Serving fruits in advance of other meal items may be a low cost easy to implement strategy for increasing fruit intake in young children. However, serving vegetables first does not appear to increase vegetable intake. Results provide support for current recommendations for traditional family style meal service in preschool settings.
Esquivel, Monica Kazlausky; Nigg, Claudio R; Fialkowski, Marie K; Braun, Kathryn L; Li, Fenfang; Novotny, Rachel
To quantify the Head Start (HS) teacher mediating and moderating influence on the effect of a wellness policy intervention. Intervention trial within a larger randomized community trial. HS preschools in Hawaii. Twenty-three HS classrooms located within 2 previously randomized communities. Seven-month multi-component intervention with policy changes to food served and service style, initiatives for employee wellness, classroom activities for preschoolers promoting physical activity (PA) and healthy eating, and training and technical assistance. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) classroom scores and teacher questionnaires assessing on knowledge, beliefs, priorities, and misconceptions around child nutrition and changes in personal health behaviors and status were the main outcome measures. Paired t tests and linear regression analysis tested the intervention effects on the classroom and mediating and moderating effects of the teacher variables on the classroom environment. General linear model test showed greater intervention effect on the EPAO score where teachers reported higher than average improvements in their own health status and behaviors (estimate [SE] = -2.47 (0.78), P teacher health status and behaviors included in a multi-component policy intervention aimed at child obesity prevention may produce a greater effect on classroom environments. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roehrig, Gillian H.; Dubosarsky, Mia; Mason, Annie; Carlson, Stephan; Murphy, Barbara
Despite many scholars' recommendations, science is often avoided during early childhood education. Among the reasons provided by early childhood teachers for the exclusion of science from their daily routines included science anxiety, low self-efficacy with respect to teaching science, lack of experience participating in science activities as students, or the notion that literacy and language are more important during the early years. In minority populations the problem is even greater due to identification of science with the `culture of. This article presents results from Ah Neen Dush, a sustained and transformative professional development program for Head Start teachers on an American Indian Reservation. The goal of the program is to support early childhood teachers in developing inquiry-based and culturally-relevant teaching practices. Through analysis of teachers' classroom practices, surveys and interviews, we explore changes in teachers' attitudes toward science and inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations were conducted using CLASS (Classroom assessment Scoring System), a tool used to evaluate the quality of classroom interactions. After 1 year of professional development teachers' attitudes were found to improve and after 2 years teachers classroom practices were more inquiry-based with statistically significant increases in CLASS observation scores.
Haines, Shana Jackson
This qualitative case study investigated and described the views of both Head Start staff and a refugee family regarding adult fostering of foundational skills leading to self-determination in a young child at risk for disability as well as how these adults worked together in partnership. Chapter 1 provides an overview of this dissertation. It…
The author examined age, gender, and ethnic differences in the self-perceptions of 112 low-income children who were assessed with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) at Head Start and kindergarten. Children's self-ratings of competence were overly optimistic across the 4 subscales of the PSPCSA during the 2…
Song, Won O; Song, SuJin; Nieves, Violeta; Gonzalez, Andie; Crockett, Elahé T
Children enrolled in Migrant and Seasonal Head Start (MSHS) programs are at high risks of health problems. Although non-family child care providers play important roles on children's health status as role models, educators, program deliverers, and information mediators, little is known about their nutritional health attitudes and behaviors, and weight status. Therefore, we investigated nutritional health attitudes and behaviors and their associations with overweight/obesity among child care providers in Michigan MSHS centers. A total of 307 child care providers aged ≥ 18 years working in 17 Michigan MSHS centers were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. An online survey questionnaire was used to collect data on nutritional health attitudes and behaviors of child care providers. Weight status was categorized into normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) based on child care providers' self-reported height and weight. Factor analysis was performed to investigate patterns of nutritional health attitudes and behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of overweight/obesity across tertiles of pattern scores taking the lowest tertile group as the reference group after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Three patterns of nutritional health attitudes and behaviors were identified: pattern 1) "weight loss practices with weight dissatisfaction", pattern 2) "healthy eating behaviors", and pattern 3) "better knowledge of nutrition and health". The pattern 1 scores were positively associated with overweight/obesity (Tertile 2 vs. Tertile 1: OR = 5.81, 95 % CI = 2.81-12.05; Tertile 3 vs. Tertile 1: OR = 14.89, 95 % CI = 6.18-35.92). Within the pattern 2, the OR for overweight/obesity in individuals with the highest scores was 0.37 (95 % CI = 0.19-0.75) compared with those with the lowest scores. However, the
Becker, Christine; Klaering, Hans-Peter; Schreiner, Monika; Kroh, Lothar W.; Krumbein, Angelika
This study investigated the effect of low-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; 43–230 μmol m–2 s–1) on the major phenolic compounds of red leaf lettuce in three growth stages, before, during, and after head formation, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 and evaluating via multiple regression analysis. Generally, the light-related increase of flavonoid glycosides was structure and growth stage-dependent. In detail, an interaction was detected between plant age and PPFD regarding cyanidin-3-O-(6″...
This study investigated the effect of low-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; 43–230 μmol m–2 s–1) on the major phenolic compounds of red leaf lettuce in three growth stages, before, during, and after head formation, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 and evaluating via multiple regression analysis. Generally, the light-related increase of flavonoid glycosides was structure and growth stage-dependent. In detail, an interaction was detected between plant age and PPFD regarding cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside concentration: the increase was strongest before head formation. The relationship between PPFD and quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside concentration was linear, whereas the increase of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and -3-O-glucuronide concentrations abated with increasing PPFD. Independent of growth stage, the caffeic acid derivatives concentration was not related to PPFD. All major phenolic compounds decreased with plant age. These results show the differential regulation of cyanidin, quercetin, and caffeic acid derivatives in lettuce, although closely connected biosynthetically, and emphasize the importance of ontogeny in the study of plant physiology. PMID:24382136
Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...
Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...
Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles
Ans Merens; Freek Bucx
Original title: Werken aan de start Women in the Netherlands have been outperforming men in education for many years now. However, this superior educational achievement does not translate into a better position on the labour market. More women work today than in the past, but still fewer than men.
Das, Marjolijn; de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva-Maria
Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit
Das, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Merz, E.-M.
Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit
This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”
... environment. The Committee recommended incorporating a practical classroom observation tool and effective..., reliable, and practical classroom observation tool, we should incorporate it into the designation renewal... a valid, reliable, and practical classroom observation tool. ACF believes that a low score on CLASS...
... readiness of low-income children by enhancing their cognitive, social, and emotional development through the... and the definition of homeless child to be used to determine eligibility. However, the current... identified risk factors; and will continue to use our authority to suspend or terminate grantees where...
Vik, Kari; Braten, Stein
By sometimes evoking self-absorbed and avoidance behaviors in new mothers, postnatal depression affects the quality of mother-infant interaction, which in turn may invoke distress and avoidance in the infant and cause even more lasting impairment in the child's development. Three depressed mothers, A, B, and C, are reported upon after having been offered counseling in accordance with the Marte Meo approach through jointly watching with the therapist video replays of themselves interacting with their newborns. Clinical vignettes are offered which indicate how empathic and positive support of a sensitive therapist can be helpful in inviting the mother's recognition of her importance to her infant and facilitating mutually gratifying interaction between mother and child. Protocol analyses of select sessions of video-related therapy reveal that two of the mothers sometimes complete the therapist's unfinished statements in an other-centered manner, thereby transcending their initial self-centered state. This is most dramatic in the case of Mother A, who starts out in the first session almost incapable of speech, merely nodding or shaking her head. In addition to other indications of improved mother-infant interaction, comparison of pre- and postguidance windows regarding the three mothers' holding behaviors reveals a shift from an avoidance or anxious stance to closer and more secure holding. Copyright © 2009 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
... illnesses and coinfections Recent HIV infection Pregnancy All pregnant women with HIV should take HIV medicines to prevent mother-to- ... protect the health of the pregnant woman. All pregnant women with HIV should start taking HIV medicines as soon as ...
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Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material
Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... for immediate assistance. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...
Exploration of the relationship between parent/guardian sociodemographics, intention, and knowledge and the oral health status of their children/wards enrolled in a Central Florida Head Start Program.
Weatherwax, J A; Bray, K K; Williams, K B; Gadbury-Amyot, C C
The purpose of this study was to identify possible relationships between parent/guardian sociodemographics, intention, knowledge, and the oral health status of their child/ward. Intention includes three factors as defined in the Theory of Planned Behavior: attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control, and oral health status was measured by decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) scores. A convenience sample of parent/guardian with child/ward with age of three to five (n = 181 dyads) enrolled in a Head Start program in the state of Florida participated. A cross-sectional observational study comprised of two components, parent/guardian questionnaire and an oral health status form for recording dmft scores of participating child/ward was employed. Parent/guardian race/ethnicity and years of education were significantly related to dmft of child/ward. The highest rates of severe early childhood caries (ECC) were found in child/ward whose parent/guardian is Hispanic and parent/guardian with less than a high school education. Multivariate regression analysis found that increased education level of parent/guardian was significantly associated with lower dmft in this population. No significant relationship was found between parent/guardian self-reported intention (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control), knowledge and dmft scores of the child/ward. Researchers have called for greater attention to the impact of parental influences in the aetiology of ECC. Results from this study were consistent with current studies where parent/guardian race/ethnicity and educational level served as predictors of oral health status of children. In this study population, parent/guardian intention and knowledge were not shown to significantly impact the oral health status of their child/ward. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...
Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine
To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy.
Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx (voice box), throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Start here to find information on head and neck cancer treatment in adults and children, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.
Does Learning the Alphabet in Kindergarten Give Children a Head Start in the First Year of School? A Comparison of Children's Reading Progress in Two First Grade Classes in State and Montessori Schools in Switzerland
Elben, Judy; Nicholson, Tom
The main purpose of this study was to examine whether the age at which children start to learn to read affects their later progress. The study was conducted in Zürich, Switzerland, and compared a first grade class in a local school with two first grade classes in a Montessori school. It was found that although the Montessori children had an…
Fuller, Taleria R.
Women's economic responsibility for their families has increased as more married women contribute to family income and more mothers head families alone. In view of this fact, a study compared the characteristics of Black, White, and Hispanic working mothers and the factors affecting working mothers' wages. Black working mothers were much less…
The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) plasma fusion experiment is now operational at AEA Fusion's Culham Laboratory. It is the world's first experiment to explore an extreme limit of the tokamak - the Spherical Tokamak - which theoretical studies predict may have substantial advantages in the search for economic fusion power. The Head of the START project, describes the concept, some of the initial experimental results and the possibility of developing a spherical tokamak power reactor. (author)
Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…
Beeber, Linda S; Schwartz, Todd A; Martinez, Maria I; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia S
Low-income mothers develop depressive symptoms at higher rates than the general population, adding to the existing risk that economic hardship places on their infants and toddlers. Emphasizing a few key intervention targets, an approach that is especially relevant to mothers when depressive symptoms compromise their energy and concentration, can improve interventions with populations facing adversity. The goal of this study was to identify contextual risk factors that significantly contributed to depressive symptoms and that, in combination with depressive symptoms, were associated with compromised parenting. Using baseline data from 251 ethnically diverse mothers from six Early Head Start programs in the Northeastern and Southeastern US, who were recruited for a clinical trial of an in-home intervention, Belsky's ecological framework of distal to proximal levels of influence was used to organize risk factors for depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression models. Under stress, mothers of toddlers reported more severe depressive symptoms than mothers of infants, supporting the need for depressive symptom screening and monitoring past the immediate postpartum period. Multivariate models revealed intervention targets that can focus depression prevention and intervention efforts, including helping mothers reduce chronic day-to-day stressors and conflicts with significant others, and to effectively handle challenging toddler behaviors, especially in the face of regional disciplinary norms. Presence of a live-in partner was linked to more effective parenting, regardless of participants' depressive symptom severity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།
Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.
Anand Sonia S
Full Text Available Abstract Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.
Deterding, Nicole Marie
How do returning college students navigate the rapidly diversifying landscape of higher education options available to them today? Adopting a life course perspective, I argue that the college persistence of non-traditional students must be understood within historical, institutional, and personal context. I use longitudinal survey data from approximately 750 respondents and 130 in-depth life history interviews from over 100 participants in the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) Proje...
Chang, Yiting; Fine, Mark A
This study investigated parenting stress trajectories among low-income young mothers and the factors that are associated with change and stability of parenting stress as children aged from 14 to 36 months old. With a sample of 580 young mothers who applied to the Early Head Start Program, growth mixture modeling identified 3 trajectory classes of parenting stress: a chronically high group (7% of the sample), an increasing group (10% of the sample), and a decreasing group (83% of the sample). Maternal personal resources distinguished between the increasing and decreasing classes, whereas maternal personal resources, child characteristics, and contextual influences explained differences between the chronically high and decreasing trajectory classes. Findings suggest that for interventions to be effective, programs need to assess maternal, child, and contextual factors to better address the particular unique needs of young mothers.
Full Text Available In the late 1980s a practising painter who is also a practising psychoanalyst reflected upon the significance of events occurring in her painting and being reflected upon in her notebooks to evolve a major theoretical intervention in psychoanalytical thinking at the intersections of British Object Relations (Bion, Laing, Winnicott in which she was trained at the Tavistock and Parisian Lacanian and post Lacanian thinking (Laplanche, Guattari, Aulagnier, Dolto. Supplementing the then dominant understanding of Lacan's phallic Symbolic, defined by the sovereignty of the phallus as the sole signifier, Bracha Ettinger proposed a further symbol, the Matrix and its non-phallic, non-Oedipal process, metramorphosis. The matrixial enables us to catch up into theoretical knowledge another, shifting but not excluding dimension of subjectivity that is the effect , on all subjects, irrespective of later, Oedipalised gender or sexuality, of the feminine sexual specificity of human generation in the non-prohibited intimacy of the feminine-becoming-maternal-in co-emergence-with an-unknown-becoming-partial-other. Moving beyond the theoretical engagements of object relations with early mother-child, hence post-natal relations between subjects, hence beyond intersubjectivity, Ettinger has been exploring, for almost two decades, the implications for theories of subjectivity and hence for ethics and even the politics of our multiple moments of transsubjective co-affections and co-effects, of the proposition that the feminine, understood as this sexual specificity of the severality of mutual co-effecting becoming of life, has something profound to offer our understanding of the human, its ethics, aesthetics and even politics. Daring to theorize the gift to later subjectivities of the prolonged encounter-event between pre-natality and pre-maternity, Ettinger has contributed to debates about the maternal, the feminine and human subjectivity in general. In
Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan
The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The ma...... and the final business model. In other words: The start-up must first nail the problem together with the customers, then develop the solution and test, and then in the end scale it to a full-grown business model.......The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...
Cabrera, Natasha J; Karberg, Elizabeth; Malin, Jenessa L; Aldoney, Daniela
Using data from a diverse sample of low-income families who participated in the Early Head Start Research Evaluation Project (n = 73), we explored the association between mothers' and fathers' playfulness with toddlers, toddler's affect during play, and children's language and emotion regulation at prekindergarten. There were two main findings. First, fathers' playfulness in toddlerhood was associated with children's vocabulary skills in prekindergarten whereas mothers' playfulness was related to children's emotion regulation. Cross-parental effects were found only for mothers. The association between mothers' playfulness and children's vocabulary and emotion regulation was strengthened when fathers engaged in more pretend play and when children were affectively positive during the play. These findings show that playfulness is an important source of variation in the vocabulary and emotion regulation of children growing up in low-income families. They also point to domain-specific ways that mothers and fathers promote children's regulatory and vocabulary skills, and highlight the importance of children's positive engagement in play. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Elman, Roberta J
Starting an aphasia center can be an enormous challenge. This article provides initial issues to review and consider when deciding whether starting a new organization is right for you. Determining the need for the program in your community, the best size and possible affiliation for the organization, and available resources, as well as developing a business plan, marketing the program, and building awareness in the community, are some of the factors that are discussed. Specific examples related to starting the Aphasia Center of California are provided. © Thieme Medical Publishers.
... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...
de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá
Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...
Getting Started with Unity is written in an easy-to-follow tutorial format.""Getting Started with Unity"" is for[ 3D game developers[/color] who would like to learn how to use Unity3D and become familiar with its core features. This book is also suitable for intermediate users who would like to improve their skills. No prior knowledge of Unity3D is required.
Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S
To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....
Used coercion theory to investigate aversive mother- child interactions. Literature indicated younger children produced higher rates of aversive interactions with their mothers. Mothers' role satisfaction varied as a function of such rates. Observation data showed mothers of aggressive children encountered higher rates of aversive interactions…
Elias, Cindy V; Power, Thomas G; Beck, Ashley E; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Papaioannou, Maria A; Hughes, Sheryl O
Maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty are associated with negative effects on general development and cognitive functioning in children. The study examined associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and maternal feeding behaviors in a population at elevated risk for childhood obesity. Participants were 138 low-income black and Hispanic mothers and their children (ages 3-5) participating in an observational study of mealtimes among Head Start families. Three dinnertime observations were conducted over 2 weeks on each family and audio/videotaped for coding. Coding included eating influence attempts and other food- and nonfood-related interactions exhibited by the mother during dinner. Mothers completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty. Linear regressions were conducted, examining associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and coded parent feeding behaviors. Mothers reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms used more verbal pressure to get their child to eat during meals, were more likely to discourage child independence, and less likely to enforce table manners. Mothers reporting higher perceptions of child difficulty were less likely to have nonfood-related discussions during meals and to try to get the child to eat a different food. This study is one of the first to investigate associations between maternal depression, perceptions of child difficulty, and mother's feeding behaviors during meals using observational methodology. These results may help researchers identify specific parental characteristics and feeding practices on which to intervene when developing tailored intervention programs for reducing childhood obesity.
Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4–5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills (including numeracy skills) of these children at least up to age
Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.
Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our
Garner, Pamela W.; Carter McLean, Marsha; Waajid, Badiyyah; Pittman, Evelyn R.
The objective of this project was to develop and pilot a small-scale professional development program that incorporated substantial group and one-on-one mentoring aimed at preparing rurally based preschool teacher assistants to earn the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential. Using a framework that emphasized the relational, developmental,…
Miles, Joan; Bailey-McKenna, Mary-Catherine
As the complexity and cultural diversity in contemporary Canadian schools increases, educators are challenged to respond to the unique cultural, socioemotional, and learning needs of students whose families are fleeing hardship, global conflict, or persecution to seek safe haven in Canada. Like those in most major urban centres in Canada, schools…
Fischer, Melissa Anne; Gillespie, Catherine Wilson
Contends that early childhood educators need to understand how exposure to computers and constructive computer programs affects the development of children. Specifically examines: (1) research on children's technology experiences; (2) determining best practices; and (3) addressing educators' concerns about computers replacing other developmentally…
... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...
No, not the Chinese boardgame, the programming language that ironically Google made difficult to google for. You may have heard of Golang, and are wondering whether you should learn it. The answer is that of course you should, and this talk should explain why and point you at the best resources to get started.
The Asian Pacific Basin region has the highest rate of growth of anywhere in the world and its need for electricity is staggering. This is leading, noted a senior Korean official speaking at the 10th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, to a ''renaissance of nuclear power'' in Asia. Judging by the optimism in evidence at the conference, perhaps it has already started. (Author)
Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Buysse, Virginia; Kotch, Jonathan; Maxwell, Kelly; Neenan, Peter; Noblit, George; Orthner, Dennis; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Telfair, Joseph
Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years of age and their families. This report describes the comprehensive plan to evaluate the state and local goals and objectives of the program, focusing on the components addressing the…
The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.
If you are an Android developer who wants to learn how to use UDOO to build Android applications that are capable of interacting with their surrounding environment, then this book is ideal for you. Learning UDOO is the next great step to start building your first real-world prototypes powered by the Android operating system.
Venture capitalists pour $1 billion a year into health care--and that investment may be the most overlooked indicator of new business opportunities. Signs show that companies focused on consolidation and cost-cutting are off the A list for risk capital. Instead, venture capitalists are targeting start-ups that save money on the front lines by truly managing care.
Olsen, Nanna J; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Händel, Mina N
. Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2-6 years, who are yet normal weight, but have high predisposition for future overweight......, and to intervene not only by improving diet and physical activity, but also reduce stress and improve sleep quality and quantity. METHODS: Based on information from the Danish national birth registry and administrative birth forms, children were selected based on having either high birth weight, a mother who......-going, but it is estimated that 394 children will be included. The intervention took place over on average 11/2 year, between 2009 and 2011, and consisted of optional individual guidance in optimizing diet and physical activity habits, reducing chronic stress and stressful events and improving sleep quality and quantity...
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane
Using data (n = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this paper examined the impact of Head Start on children’s cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes through first grade contingent on the child care arrangements used by children who were randomly assigned to the control group (i.e., parental care, relative/non-relative care, another Head Start program, or other center-based care). A principal score matching approach was adopted to identify children assigned to Head Start who were similar to children in the control group with a specific care arrangement. Overall, the results showed that the effects of Head Start varied substantially contingent on the alternative child care arrangements. Compared to children in parental care and relative/non-relative care, Head Start participants generally had better cognitive and parent-reported behavioral development, with some benefits of Head Start persisting through first grade; in contrast, few differences were found between Head Start and other center-based care. The results have implications regarding the children for whom Head Start is most beneficial as well as how well Head Start compares to other center-based programs. PMID:25329552
This practical and easy-to-understand learning tutorial is one big exciting exercise for students and engineers that are always short on their schedules and want to regain some lost time with the help of Simulink.This book is aimed at students and engineers who need a quick start with Simulink. Though it's not required in order to understand how Simulink works, knowledge of physics will help the reader to understand the exercises described.
his book is a fast-paced, practical guide full of step-by-step examples which are easy to follow and implement.This book is for programmers with a basic grasp of C++. The examples start at a basic level, making few assumptions beyond fundamental C++ concepts. Those without any experience with C++ should be able to follow and construct the examples, although you may need further support to understand the fundamental concepts.
Written as a step-by-step guide, Getting Started with Hazelcast will teach you all you need to know to make your application data scalable.This book is a great introduction for Java developers, software architects, or developers looking to enable scalable and agile data within their applications. You should have programming knowledge of Java and a general familiarity with concepts like data caching and clustering.
Marchl, A.; Krebs, W.D.; Aleite, W.
The start-up procedure will be shown on a pressurized water reactor, although most of the activities will occur similarly in other reactor types. The commissioning time can be divided into 5 sections, the phases A to E together lasting 26 months. Subsequently there are a test run of one month and the handling-over of the plant to the operator. A survey of the commissioning sections with several important main events is shown. (orig./TK) [de
Sedykh, S V
Early breast-feeding is a standard of perinatal care currently. After cesarean section it can be possible in case of early mother activation (verticalization). Assessment of perioperative analgesia influence on activation timing was the aim of our research. We included 120 parturient women. It was proved, that local analgesia using in postoperative period promotes early mother verticaliration, and optimal breast-feeding starting.
Burcharth, Ana; Smith, Pernille; Frederiksen, Lars
How do laid-off employees become entrepreneurs after receiving a dream start into self-employment? This question is relevant for policy makers and entrepreneurship researchers alike since it raises the possibility of a reverse entrepreneurial opportunity, in which the chance of becoming an entrep......How do laid-off employees become entrepreneurs after receiving a dream start into self-employment? This question is relevant for policy makers and entrepreneurship researchers alike since it raises the possibility of a reverse entrepreneurial opportunity, in which the chance of becoming...... an entrepreneur emerges before the discovery of a profitable opportunity. We empirically examine this question on the unique setting of a corporate entrepreneurship program. In the midst of a corporate crisis, Nokia supported laid-off employees to start their own ventures under favorable conditions. We...... persevered in their endeavors and eventually became comfortable with their new career prospects. We discuss the psychological factors that impact career transition after organizational closure and theorize weather they encourage or discourage entrepreneurship....
Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros
Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.
Early Head Start serves newborns through toddlers. It is an offshoot of Head Start, the 44-year-old federal program for low-income children ages 3 through 5. Social scientists studying brain development and emotional growth increasingly identify early education as critical to preparing children for kindergarten. As well, researchers have linked it…
Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.
In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…
Sievertsen, Hans Henrik
I Danmark er det muligt at afvige fra reglen om, at barnet skal starte i skole det kalenderår, hvor barnet fylder 6 år. Det gør 10-15 procent af en årgang, mens 80-90 procent af børnene følger normen, og 2-3 procent starter i skole et år tidligere end normen, viser en analyse baseret på børn født i...
Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi
Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that's taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here! Inside, you'll learn about: Interaction design and physical computingThe Arduino hardware and software development environmentBasics of electricity and electronicsPrototyping on a solderless breadboardDrawing a schematic diagram Getting started
Start building electronics projects with Netduino, the popular open source hardware platform that's captured the imagination of makers and hobbyists worldwide. This easy-to-follow book provides the step-by-step guidance you need to experiment with Netduino and the .NET Micro Framework. Through a set of simple projects, you'll learn how to create electronic gadgets-including networked devices that communicate over TCP/IP. Along the way, hobbyists will pick up the basics of .NET programming, and programmers will discover how to work with electronics and microcontrollers. Follow the projects in
Senanayake, M P; Arachchi, J K; Wickremasinghe, V P
To describe the problems faced by children during separation from their imprisoned mothers, and evaluate the health of children who accompanied their mothers into prison. A prospective observational study. Welikada Prison, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 200 randomly selected mothers who had left their children at home were interviewed using a questionnaire. During a period of 8 months 30 children living with their mothers in prison underwent physical and developmental examination and tuberculin testing. The living conditions within the prison were evaluated. During 18 months from January 1999, 4089 women were imprisoned. 88% were remanded, 20% awaited trial for more than one year in prison. 2416 were mothers. 1411 had at least one child under 12 years of age. The 200 mothers interviewed had 262 children under 12 years at home. Their care arrangements were: a relative (69%), father (16%), older sibling (4%), religious organisation (2.7%), neighbour (1.3%). None had received social services support. 70 children accompanied mothers into prison. In the 30 children followed up regularly 23% had scabies, 10% pediculosis, and 7% impetigo. No severe malnutrition was found and screening for tuberculosis was negative. 70% were breastfed. The child-friendly dormitory was inadequate to accommodate all children. Care arrangements and schooling were affected and no counselling services were provided during the imprisoned mothers' absence. The children within the prison enjoyed close bonds with the mothers and their physical needs were met. The child's best interest had not always been considered by court when deciding on custody during the mothers' imprisonment.
Many people including some health workers and physicians believe bottle feeding is just as good as breast feeding, even though bottle feeding poses some dangers to infants. Further, health workers in hospital often are too busy to counsel new mothers in breast feeding or are simply not trained to do so. Moreover, young women often live in areas away from their family and friends thus not living close to women with whom they are familiar and who could guide them in mastering breast feeding skills. So new mothers who want to breast feed have no support, lack confidence, and/or feel they cannot do so because they work or have other responsibilities. Support groups for new breast feeding mothers can provide them with the needed confidence to breast feed by allowing them to discuss concerns with other new mothers and an experienced leader and to learn the advantages of breast feeding, e.g., a breast fed infant is never constipated. A confident experienced woman in breast feeding is best suited to start a support group in a community. She needs to promote the group by talking to health workers and physicians and advertising at maternity hospitals, women's organizations, and health centers. Once the support group has become successful, several mothers can undergo training to start and lead new support groups. If no national breast feeding promotion organization exists to offer advice on starting a support group, the article provides addresses of international organizations. At support group meetings, mothers learn how to breast feed, how to express and store breast milk, breast feed inconspicuously in public, how their bodies work, and about child growth and development. Support group members from the Philippines, Belize, Trinidad and Tobago, Australia, and singapore share their experiences.
From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.
This has been an excellent week for the LHC, with a succession of fills rapidly increasing the number of proton bunches to 194 per beam. This has allowed the experiments to reach a peak luminosity of 2.5 × 1032 cm-2s-1, thereby surpassing the record for 2010 where we reached 2.0 × 1032 cm-2s-1. At the time of writing, the integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2011 is around 28 inverse picobarns, which is already more than half of the total 2010 dataset. These are impressive numbers, but what impresses me most is how quickly the LHC operators are now able to turn the machine around between fills, and how well LHC running has been incorporated into the overall operation of CERN’s accelerator complex. The flexibility of the LHC was illustrated on Thursday when we started a short phase of running at 1.38 TeV per beam, equivalent to the energy-per-nucleon of a lead-ion run. This lower energy data will be used by the experiments, in particular by ALICE, to compare...
Della Mussia, S
The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...
Agrawal, Tara; Farrell, Tracy Jean; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol M
Significant changes in work and family conditions over the last three decades have important implications for understanding how young children are fed. The new conditions of work and family have placed pressures on families. The aim of this study was to explore the work and family pressures shaping the ways parents feed their young children on a day-to-day basis. Twenty-two purposively recruited low-income employed mothers of 3-4 year old children from a rural county Head Start program in Upstate New York reported details about the context of their children's eating episodes in a 24-h qualitative dietary recall. Participating mothers were employed and/or in school at least 20 h a week and varied in partner and household characteristics. Interview transcripts were open coded using the constant comparative method for usual ways of feeding children. A typology of three emergent child feeding routines was identified based on mothers' accounts of the recurring ways they fed their child. Mothers' feeding routines were distinguished by a combination of four recurring key strategies - planning ahead, delegating, making trade-offs, and coordinating. Work schedule predictability and other adults helped mothers maintain feeding routines. Unexpected daily events, such as working overtime or waking up late, disrupted child feeding routines and required modifications. These findings suggest that understanding how young children are fed requires recognizing the socio-ecological environments that involve working mothers' daily schedules and household conditions and the multiple ways that mothers manage food and feeding to fit environmental constraints. There is a need to look at more than just family meals to understand parents' daily strategies for feeding young children and their implications for child nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Kok, I.A.
The thesis explores individual differences in listening behavior and how these differences can be used in the development and evaluation of listener response prediction models for embodied conversational agents. The thesis starts with introducing methods to collect multiple perspectives on listening
This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)
Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.
The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs
Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa
Little knowledge is available about the experiences of the commissioning mothers during the process of surrogacy; thus, the present study was conducted in order to explore and analyze this process. This study was conducted in a referral institute in Tehran with a qualitative approach and using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected through 39 unstructured, in-depth interviews that were conducted with 15 gestational commissioning mothers, two of their husbands, four surrogates, and five of the personnel at centers for assisted reproduction (some participants were interviewed more than once). Sampling started purposively and then continued theoretically. The analysis revealed the main concern of these mothers to be the feeling of "insecurity about becoming a mother" and their predominant strategy for dealing with it to be "seeking security about becoming a mother," which emerged as a core concept. The consequences of the mothers' adopted strategies and the effects of the intervening factors included "reaching a state of relative peace," "a continuing threat to one's identity," and "mental and physical exhaustion." Identifying the demands of this group of mothers can help medical personnel, particularly nurses, adopt better plans for the future and to optimize the care they provide to these patients. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne
This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...
Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte
contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...
Temkin, Deborah A.; Princiotta, Daniel; Ryberg, Renee; Lewin, Daniel S.
Background: Although adolescents generally get less than the recommended 9 hours of sleep per night, research and effort to delay school start times have generally focused on high schools. This study assesses the relation between school start times and sleep in middle school students while accounting for potentially confounding demographic…
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Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.
Klein, J. Theodore
The teaching context is analogous to the context of maternal practice, reflecting the nature of the relationship between adult and child; and as such, the appropriate practice of mother love is seen as an ideal for teaching. (IAH)
Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth
Objective Despite efforts to improve continued breastfeeding, the percentages of exclusively breastfeeding remain low. To help the breastfeeding mother and reshape professional practice, we need more knowledge of maternal experiences of breastfeeding in the first months. The objective...... was to explore mothers' early breastfeeding experiences. Method Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data from 108 Danish first time mothers who had answered an open-ended question 6 months after birth. Results All the mothers started breastfeeding. We identified three overlapping phases presented...... as dominant themes: (1) on shaky ground, characterised by breastfeeding interwoven with mothering, painful breastfeeding, and conflicting advice, (2) searching for a foothold, characterised by reading the baby's cues, concerns about milk production, for or against breastfeeding, and looking for professional...
For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...
Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Vrieze, O.J.; Kallenberg, L.C.M.
We address the single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs subject to target start times. Target start times are essentially release times that may be violated at a certain cost. The goal is to minimize an objective function that is composed of total completion time and maximum
Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E
In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the
First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...
Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs can be reduced by 50% to 70% with sufficient periconceptional intake of folic acid. Hispanic women are up to 3 times more likely than non-Hispanics to have a child affected by NTDs. This disparity is complicated by health literacy, as women impacted by this disparity are also at-risk for low health literacy. The purpose of this project was to pilot advertisements to promote multivitamins, increasing folic acid consumption, among Hispanic adolescents. The advertisements for Hispanic adolescents and their mothers focused on broad benefits of a multivitamin, downplaying folic acid’s role in prenatal health. Participants were Hispanic mothers (n = 25 and adolescents (n = 25 at a clinic in the Southwestern United States. Likert-type survey items and an open-ended question were used to assess attitudes toward multivitamins and advertisements. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS was used to assess participants’ health literacy. Participants’ impressions of the ads were positive. Both groups expressed the intent to start taking a daily multivitamin after viewing the ads—adolescents for themselves and mothers to start their daughters on a daily multivitamin. There was no relationship between participants’ health literacy and perceptions of the advertisements or intentions to begin a multivitamin habit. This research illustrates the potential of messages that rely on peripheral health benefits to overcome communication barriers posed by health literacy and address serious health problems such as NTDs.
... News Legal Issues Search for: About PADs A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is a legal document that ... decisions during a mental health crisis. Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...
This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer
In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...
Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Eastman, Christina M.
The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), a seminal arms control agreement that substantially reduced the levels of deployed strategic nuclear arms in the United States and Russia, will expire in December 2009. At this time, it is unclear what - if anything - will replace it. While the treaty remains relevant, more than a simple extension is appropriate. Instead the authors advocate for a successor regime that builds on the START I legacy but does not rely on the traditional tools of arms control. This paper examines the strategic context in which a successor regime would be developed and proposes several recommendations for future action
Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo
A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents  . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5].  D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009.  A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187.  P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304  M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on
Full Text Available A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case study follows his evolution from birth until the research started, the focus of the study revolving around the four fundamental rights of the child: the right to be raised by the parents, the right to education, the right to health and the right to protection against abuses.
Full Text Available Towards the end of the 20th century, the protection of mother and child’s rights has evolved from some national regulations to international regulations – a delayed remedy for flagrant and persistent abuse on the child and woman. In this sense, international law starts from recognizing the child and the woman as subjects of law, and as such, their ability to enjoy all civil, political, cultural, economic, social rights, etc. At the same time, the particularities of child – becoming a person (i.e. the lack of discernment and intellectual maturity, which limits his / her legal competence, – and women-mothers (with specific psycho-physiological are underlined. This requires the establishment and regulation of certain assistance, protection and care measures, as well as of some institutions through which they would be able to harness their rights without being in any way harmed or injured.
Tomlin, A M; Passman, R H
To test whether maternal grandmothers' advice affects mothers' punishing of their children and whether mothers' disciplinary actions influence subsequent suggestions by these grandmothers, 40 three-generational families were examined. After receiving advice purportedly from the grandmothers, mothers rewarded and punished their 10-year-olds' successes and errors on a task. Participants were in separate rooms so that simulated information about the grandmothers' advice, mothers' disciplinary decisions, and children's performances could be systematically manipulated under controlled conditions. The grandmothers' sham "suggestions" to mothers about punishing appeared either to begin leniently but progressively intensify or to start harshly but gradually mollify. Information to grandmothers about the mothers' "punishing" likewise either became increasingly severe or indulgent. All children, however, appeared to continue performing uniformly. Mothers generally modified their disciplining to correspond to the grandmothers' apparent advice, and grandmothers' actual suggestions conformed toward the mothers' simulated discipline. Grandmothers appear to be one of many influences affecting mothers' decisions about their children.
Moors, A.; Skov, L.
Debates about the presence of students wearing head scarves in public schools in West Europe started in the late 1980s; about a decade later, the employment of women wearing head scarves also became the focus of attention. These debates need to be seen within a context in which a new generation of
Barbara G. Ryder, professor of computer science at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, will become the computer science department head at Virginia Tech, starting in fall 2008. She is the first woman to serve as a department head in the history of the nationally ranked College of Engineering.
Mathers, Sherry; And Others
Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…
Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily
This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…
This article explores how issues of learning and mothering emerged in research with women students. First it develops the notion of 'a motherhood standpoint'. It then considers how Foucault's concept of 'counter-memory', and, in particular, its reworking in feminist cultural theory as 'countermemory', can be used to explain why students…
under-five mortality rate by more than half since 1990. ... children in sub-Saharan Africa. ... In Limpopo Province, South Africa, the prevention of mother-to-child ... had attended antenatal care, 28 (93%) stated that their HIV results were negative ... (16%) mothers signed refusal of hospital treatment, three (12%) started ARV ...
Chen, Jieyan V; Megraw, Timothy L
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Fong et al. (2014) present evidence for a model of centriole duplication whereby the cartwheel-the starting building block in centriole biogenesis-assembles within the lumen of the mother centriole before templating the daughter centriole to ensure a single duplication event per cell cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF WORKING MOTHERS AND ON THE FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE THEM TO SEEK PAID EMPLOYMENT IS PROVIDED THROUGH 20 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. AMONG THE NEARLY 27 MILLION WOMEN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES IN MARCH 1966 WERE 9.9 MILLION MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE. THESE WORKING MOTHERS CONSTITUTED 36 PERCENT OF ALL…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine first-time mothers' postpartum stress and its correlates following discharge from the hospital or clinic after vaginal delivery. One hundred and eightythree first-time mothers were enrolled from hospitals and clinics in Kaohsiung City. All first-time mothers reported normal pregnancies and vaginal deliveries, delivered healthy infants at term, and were surveyed during their postpartum periods after discharge from hospitals or clinics. The Hung Postpartum Stress Scale was used to examine first-time mothers' postpartum stress and stressors during their postpartum periods. The top ten postpartum stressors perceived by the women were: “the baby getting sick suddenly”, “the flabby flesh of my belly”, “the unpredictability of the baby's schedule”, “interrupted sleep”, “the shape of the baby's head due to the sleeping position”, “not sleeping enough”, “lack of information regarding infant's growth and development”, “the baby's crying”, “my life is restricted”, and “the baby choking during feeding”. There were no significant differences between the first-time mothers' demographic characteristics and their postpartum stress and its three components (negative body changes, maternal role attainment, lack of social support, respectively. Insight into the study results of first-time mothers' post- partum stress and stressors provides a reference for health professionals that the development of programs and resources addressing primiparous women's unique needs are required.
Negayama, Koichi; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T; Momose, Keiko; Ishijima, Konomi; Kawahara, Noriko; Lux, Erin J; Murphy, Andrew; Kaliarntas, Konstantinos
This study examines the early development of cultural differences in a simple, embodied, and intersubjective engagement between mothers putting down, picking up, and carrying their infants between Japan and Scotland. Eleven Japanese and ten Scottish mothers with their 6- and then 9-month-old infants participated. Video and motion analyses were employed to measure motor patterns of the mothers' approach to their infants, as well as their infants' collaborative responses during put-down, pick-up, and carry phases. Japanese and Scottish mothers approached their infants with different styles and their infants responded differently to the short duration of separation during the trial. A greeting-like behavior of the arms and hands was prevalent in the Scottish mothers' approach, but not in the Japanese mothers' approach. Japanese mothers typically kneeled before making the final reach to pick-up their children, giving a closer, apparently gentler final approach of the torso than Scottish mothers, who bent at the waist with larger movements of the torso. Measures of the gap closure between the mothers' hands to their infants' heads revealed variably longer duration and distance gap closures with greater velocity by the Scottish mothers than by the Japanese mothers. Further, the sequence of Japanese mothers' body actions on approach, contact, pick-up, and hold was more coordinated at 6 months than at 9 months. Scottish mothers were generally more variable on approach. Measures of infant participation and expressivity indicate more active participation in the negotiation during the separation and pick-up phases by Scottish infants. Thus, this paper demonstrates a culturally different onset of development of joint attention in pick-up. These differences reflect cultures of everyday interaction.
Jackson, Robyn R.
Starting where your students are means understanding how currencies are negotiated and traded in the classroom. Any behavior that students use to acquire the knowledge and skills needed in the classroom functions as currency. Teachers communicate the kinds of currencies they accept in their classrooms, such as getting good grades; students do…
After giving a general description of Rapsodie this report presents the conditions in which the start-up occurred and in which the tests were carried out. A chronological account is given of the operations and of the main events which occurred. The modifications made to the reactor during this period are described and a synthesis of the results obtained is presented. (author) [fr
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...
Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...
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Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...
Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...
Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without
A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...
von der Lippe, Charlotte; Frich, Jan C; Harris, Anna; Solbraekke, Kari Nyheim
In Norway, boys with hemophilia usually begin treatment after their first bleeding episode. Boys with severe hemophilia usually start prophylactic treatment around 18-24 months. Health professionals administer factor concentrate initially, but when boys are around 4 years old most parents start treating their children at home. There is a lack of research on how parents, and especially how carrier mothers, experience the medical treatment for their sons' hemophilia. Our aim was to investigate how carrier mothers experience this treatment in the hospital setting and at home. In this qualitative study, we interviewed 16 mothers of boys or men with hemophilia A or B. Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed using an inductive thematic analytical approach. Mothers experienced both practical and emotional challenges in relation to their sons' treatment, and repeated venipuncture was especially difficult emotionally. Parents preferred home treatment to hospital treatment because it was less time-consuming, less disruptive to family life, and provided a greater sense of control. Encountering healthcare professionals who were unfamiliar with hemophilia was a second major stress factor, especially when parents felt that health professionals lacked competence and were unwilling to seek advice. While home treatment for hemophilia enables freedom, flexibility, and autonomy for the boys as well as for the family, mothers may experience treatment of hemophilia as a burden. Health professionals should provide tailored practical and emotional support to parents by probing into their experiences with treating their sons' hemophilia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In many countries, women are poorly nourished and have a high rate of reproductive morbidity. However, during war and other disaster situations, women and children become even more vulnerable. Most of the world's refugees and internally displaced people are women and children. Many women refugees are malnourished and during the emergency and exodus phases, many are starving. Severe malnutrition in a pregnant woman causes fetal malnutrition. Infants born to a malnourished mother are of low birth weight and will grow up malnourished if they stay in the same deprived environment as their mothers. Households headed by women tend to obtain the least food and the children of such households tend to be poorly nourished. Many of the problems and obstacles women face during peacetime and non-emergency situations are simply exacerbated during disasters and war. It may not be possible to head off disasters which result in massive social upheaval, but preparations can nonetheless be made to mollify conditions once disaster hits. Responsible organizations and agencies should research the situation and plan for the worst. This paper discusses how women lose social and economic power during periods of armed conflict, the often lack of even basic reproductive health care during armed conflict and emergencies, coping in an emergency, and living in a refugee camp.
Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u
The procedure is briefly characterized of jobs in nuclear power plant start-up and the differences are pointed out from those used in conventional power generation. Pressure tests are described oriented to tightness, tests of the secondary circuit and of the individual nodes and facilities. The possibility is shown of increased efficiency of such jobs on an example of the hydraulic tests of the second unit of the Dukovany nuclear power plant where the second and the third stages were combined in the so-colled integrated hydraulic test. (Z.M.). 5 figs
Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.
The US Department of Energy effort to extend the operational lives of commercial nuclear power plants has examined methods for predicting the performance of specific equipment. This effort focuses on performance prediction as a means for reducing equipment surveillance, maintenance, and outages. Realizing these goals will result in nuclear plants that are more reliable, have lower maintenance costs, and have longer lives. This paper describes a monitoring system that has been developed to predict starting performance in emergency diesels. A prototype system has been built and tested on an engine at Sandia National Laboratories. 2 refs
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Masood, Sumaira; Mahmood-ur-Rahman; Mahmood, Humaira; Faisal, Tayyaba; Maroof, Saira; Qureshi, Azhar Masood
Breastfeeding is a physiological phenomenon; nonetheless, this act is a learned behaviour that requires continuous active support to make it successful. This study determines the frequency of mothers practicing successful breastfeeding according to the WHO ten steps at tertiary care hospital. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Obstetrics department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi over six month duration from July to December 2014. Booked mothers aged 15-49 years, having given birth to healthy, singleton baby were included in the study. Questions were asked after taking written informed consent from the mothers after delivery. Data was entered and analysed on SPSS version 20. Out of 148 mothers, 35 (23.7%) mothers were following successful breastfeeding, i.e., knew 7 or more steps. A total of 100 (67.6%) mothers received support for breastfeeding by healthcare staff during their stay in hospital while 19 (12.8%) mothers started breastfeeding within one hour. About 71% had started formula milk along with breastfeeding. About 127 (85.8%) reported that they fed their children on demand and 144 (97.3%) did not use dummies. Statistically significant difference was observed as housewife mothers gave no top feed (p = 0.005) and multiparous mothers started breastfeeding within one hour of delivery (p = 0.04). The steps to achieve successful breastfeeding are followed to a small extent among mothers. Delayed initiation of breastfeeding and increasing trend towards use of formula feed was observed. Employed, primiparous mothers are the most sensitive group to be focused during antenatal period.
Masood, S.; Rahman, M.U.; Mahmood, H.; Faisal, T.; Maroof, S.; Qureshi, A.M.
Background: Breast feeding is a physiological phenomenon, nonetheless, this act is a learned behaviour that requires continuous active support to make it successful. This study determines the frequency of mothers practicing successful breast feeding according to the WHO ten steps at tertiary care hospital. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Obstetrics department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi over six month duration from July to December 2014. Booked mothers aged 15-49 years, having given birth to healthy, singleton baby were included in the study. Questions were asked after taking written informed consent from the mothers after delivery. Data was entered and analysed on SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 148 mothers, 35 (23.7 percentage) mothers were following successful breast feeding, i.e., knew 7 or more steps. A total of 100 (67.6 percentage) mothers received support for breast feeding by healthcare staff during their stay in hospital while 19 (12.8 percentage) mothers started breast feeding within one hour. About 71 percentage had started formula milk along with breast feeding. About 127 (85.8 percentage) reported that they fed their children on demand and 144 (97.3 percentage) did not use dummies. Statistically significant difference was observed as housewife mothers gave no top feed (p=0.005) and multiparous mothers started breast feeding within one hour of delivery (p=0.04). Conclusion: The steps to achieve successful breast feeding are followed to a small extent among mothers. Delayed initiation of breast feeding and increasing trend towards use of formula feed was observed. Employed, primiparous mothers are the most sensitive group to be focused during antenatal period. (author)
Because the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role has been changed or eliminated in many hospital organizations, many CNSs in career transition are considering establishing collaborative or independent nursing consultation practices. Opportunities for consultants exist in diverse practice settings and specialties. Before starting a consultation practice, the CNS should carefully examine goals, identify resources, and begin contacting potential referral sources. He or she must also decide what form of business organization to establish and write a business plan to solidify ideas and prepare for the unexpected. Most CNS consultants rely on personal savings to cover initial business and personal expenses, and many continue working as a CNS until the consultation practice is established. Fees can be set based on community standards, what the market will bear, desired projected income, or a third-party payor's fee schedule. The consultation practice can be marketed by word of mouth, inexpensive advertising techniques such as distributing flyers and business cards, direct mall, and media advertising. In today's healthcare marketplace, opportunities abound for the CNS risk-taker interested in starting a nursing consultation practice.
The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments. For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...
... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...
A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs
Full Text Available Objective: Giving birth and training to a child with Mental Retardation (MR can be stressful for mothers. Therefore mothers need role models and adequate preparation to effectively teach the child to function at optimum level within the environment. Nurses are in a strategic position to assume a vital role in a assisting these mothers. With observation, problem solving, and decision making. There is a lack of studies about mothers' experiences of having a child with MR. This study was preformed to investigate mother's experiences of having a child with MR and how explore and describe the experienced mothers with mental retarded child. Materials & Methods: A phenomenographic approach was used. The study was preformed at an exceptional school in Tehran. Twelve mothers were interviewed using guided interviews. Results: From 336 thematic sentences, Six categories emerged, the first having three subcategories and the second having twenty subcategories., the third having three, the fourth category having six, the fifth having two, and the sixth having two subcategories. Mother's experiences of having a child with MR, describes informants a variety of feelings, often ambivalent (acceptance and UN acceptance. In such a situation, attention to God and prayer are the most important coping strategies for positive adaptation in mothers' experiences of having a child with MR, but this perception can not effect to accept him alone. They emphasis on educational and psychological needs for better life. Conclusions: The findings of this study could be used in mothers education to promote understanding of mothers’ experiences and how best to help them. They could also be used in the general media to improve public understanding.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting aid...
Djafarova, Elmira; Trofimenko, Oxana
Majority of parents use social media platforms, with young mothers being the most active users. Academic research has only recently started addressing the impact of social media on mothers, although they are one of the most engaged online audiences. Instagram and Facebook perceived as positive types of social media, where users post positive content to increase encouraging response from their subscribers and thus enhance their self-esteem. This also relates to mothers portraying positive self...
Used interviews with a diverse group of parents of children who struggled academically in school to examine the effects of school troubles on mothers. Overall, the material and emotional burden for children's schoolwork fell to the mothers, many of whom felt overwhelmed and believed that the demands of schooling had diminished their quality of…
Kalmar, Magda; And Others
This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…
Literacy Work, 1974
Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)
D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather
This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…
Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others
Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…
Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...
Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...
Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.
This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof
Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Fischl, Andrea Rodgers; Choi, Jessica; Schmitt, Patricia L.; White, Neil H.; Becker, Dorothy; Downs, Julie; Hannan, Margaret; Thurheimer, Jennifer; Sereika, Susan M.
Background Preconception counseling (PC) significantly and inexpensively reduces risks of reproductive-health complications for women with diabetes. Our validated technology-based preconception counseling intervention, READY-Girls, is tailored for female teens with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes and targets decision-making regarding effective family planning and seeking PC. Our teen-focused research was instrumental in changing the American Diabetes Association's Practice Recommendati...
Bourgou, S; Halayem, S; Bouden, A; Halayem, M B
Initiating psychiatric treatment depends on several factors including clinical, personal, familial and economic factors. In the case of a first psychotic episode in an adolescent, parents, especially mothers, have a critical role in initiating psychiatric treatment for their child. In this study, we investigated mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode. Participants were adolescents consulting the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Razi hospital in Tunisia. They were aged from 12 to 19 years at the onset of their medical follow-up. Their diagnoses were schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and schizophreniform disorder according to DSM-IV. A questionnaire was submitted to patients' mothers after their approval. It was divided into two parts. The first part was used to collect information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the mothers and their children. The second part was composed of the following four questions in Tunisian dialect: (1) what did you think was the matter when you first noticed psychotic symptoms in your child? (2) what was the main reason for which you thought psychiatric treatment was necessary? (3) what obstacles did you perceive in initiating psychiatric treatment? (4) do you have any advice or suggestions for caregivers on how they could facilitate an early start of treatment? Twenty-two mothers were included. The mean age of the mothers at onset of the follow-up of their child was 42 years (SD: 4.81). Ten mothers had never been schooled, five had primary school level, four had secondary school level, three had bachelor's degree and two had a diploma of doctorate; 63.6% of the mothers were housewives. The mean age of patients was 13.77 years at the start of their medical follow-up (SD= ± 2.14). Most of the patients were male (14 males for eight girls). Most patients were diagnosed as having schizophrenia (91%); 4.5% were diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and 4.5% with
Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…
Illustrated by many drawings and graphs, this report describes and comments all operations and measurements to be performed for starting up the Saturne synchrotron until particle acceleration exclusively. The author reports the study of beam as it goes out of the Van de Graaff: experiment of position and stability of the beam axis, study of beam current and geometric characteristics (calibration of the induction probe), experiment of mass separation and proton percentage, and adjustment of regulation and Van de Graaff fall law. In a second part, he reports the optics alignment and the study of optics property (installation of the different sectors, study of inflector end voltage, and influence of inflector position in the chamber). The third part addresses the examination of phenomena associated with injection: injection method and definition of the initial instant, search for injection optimum conditions, study of particle lifetime and of phenomena on the inner probe. The fourth part proposes theoretical additional elements regarding the movement of particles at the injection in the useful area, and phenomena occurring on targets and on the inner probe
Seo, Kyung Ho
The objective of this study is to improve the standard independent component analysis when applied to real-world signals. Independent component analysis starts from the assumption that signals from different physical sources are statistically independent. But real-world signals such as EEG, ECG, MEG, and fMRI signals are not statistically independent perfectly. By definition, standard independent component analysis algorithms are not able to estimate statistically dependent sources, that is, when the assumption of independence does not hold. Therefore before independent component analysis, some preprocessing stage is needed. This paper started from simple intuition that wavelet transformed source signals by 'well-tuned' mother wavelet will be simplified sufficiently, and then the source separation will show better results. By the correlation coefficient method, the tuning process between source signal and tunable mother wavelet was executed. Gamma component of raw EEG signal was set to target signal, and wavelet transform was executed by tuned mother wavelet and standard mother wavelets. Simulation results by these wavelets was shown
Correia, Maria Teresa Pinto Esteves Maia
ABSTRACT Background Mental health promotion is supported by a strong body of knowledge and is a matter of public health with the potential of a large impact on society. Mental health promotion programs should be implemented as soon as possible in life, preferably starting during pregnancy. Programs should focus on malleable determinants, introducing strategies to reduce risk factors or their impact on mother and child, and also on strengthening protective factors to increase resilienc...
Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.
MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip
Liska, K.; Anton, P.
The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs
Opara, P I; Eke, G K; Akani, N A
Sexuality education is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy. It develops young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It also equips children to face developmental challenges and empowers them against the ills of abuse, exploitation, unwanted pregnancies amongst others. Mothers who are the primary caregivers should be well informed about sexuality issues. The objective of the study is to determine mothers' perception of sexuality education in children, in Port Harcourt. A structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire, used as instrument for data collection, was distributed amongst a convenient sample of women attending a Christian women's convention in Port Harcourt. One hundred and fifty eight women participated in the study. Most of them were married (80.4%), and belonged to the 30-49 years age bracket. Seventy one (44.9%) of the respondents had tertiary education. Over 80% agreed that children needed sexuality education but only 15 women (9.5%) had a good knowledge of the concept of sexuality education. One hundred and eleven (70.2%) believed it was the responsibility of both parents to educate their children and over 70% acknowledged that the home was the best place for such education. 64 (40.5%) believed that 6-10 years was the ideal age for starting sex education while 49% thought that the ideal age was 11-15 years. 65% of respondents discussed sexuality issues with their children at least occasionally, the content mostly involved description of body parts and reproductive organs. The average age of menarche amongst respondents was 14.0. One hundred (63%) of the women had prior knowledge of menstruation before menarche. About half of them had received information from their mothers. The study highlights the need for enlightenment of women on sexuality education
Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Willford, Jennifer A; Leech, Sharon L; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L
Children born to teenage mothers are at risk for more physical and cognitive problems than those born to adult mothers. Our objective was to examine differences in size and intelligence between two cohorts of offspring born to adolescent (n = 357) and adult mothers (n = 668) who attended the same prenatal clinic. Two prospective study cohorts assessed children from gestation through age 6 years. The adult cohort was studied in the mid-1980's and the teen cohort was evaluated in the mid-1990's. Both samples were of low socio-economic status. The same study design and measures allowed us to adjust for the covariates of size and IQ. Offspring of adolescent mothers had a significantly smaller mean head circumference (5 mm) (HC) and higher body mass index (BMI) than offspring of adult mothers. Offspring of adolescent mothers scored significantly lower than the offspring of adult mothers on the Stanford-Binet (SBIS) composite score (4 points), and the quantitative (6.2 points), verbal reasoning (4.8 points), and short-term memory (3.9 points) area scores. Additional predictors of child IQ were maternal IQ, home environment, race, and number of siblings. When child HC was entered into our final regression model for the SBIS, maternal age and HC significantly predicted the composite score, the verbal reasoning, and short-term memory area scores. A 1 cm decrease in HC predicted a 1 point decrease in the SBIS composite score. Compared to offspring of adult women, children of adolescent mothers have lower mean scores on cognitive measures, smaller head circumference, and higher BMI. These differences were significant after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Adolescent mothers and their children would benefit from interventions such as parenting support, education about nutritional needs, and advice on enriching the environments of their children.
Migliaccio, Americo A; Schubert, Michael C; Clendaniel, Richard A; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C; Minor, Lloyd B; Zee, David S
The goal of this study was to assess how the axis of head rotation, Listing's law, and eye position influence the axis of eye rotation during brief, rapid head rotations. We specifically asked how the axis of eye rotation during the initial angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) changed when the pitch orientation of the head relative to Earth-vertical was varied, but the initial position of the eye in the orbit and the orientation of Listing's plane with respect to the head were fixed. We measured three-dimensional eye and head rotation axes in eight normal humans using the search coil technique during head-and-trunk (whole-body) and head-on-trunk (head-only) "impulses" about an Earth-vertical axis. The head was initially oriented at one of five pitch angles (30 degrees nose down, 15 degrees nose down, 0 degrees, 15 degrees nose up, 30 degrees nose up). The fixation target was always aligned with the nasooccipital axis. Whole-body impulses were passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 80 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 1000 degrees /s2. Head-only impulses were also passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 150 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 3000 degrees /s2. During whole-body impulses, the axis of eye rotation tilted in the same direction, and by an amount proportional (0.51 +/- 0.09), to the starting pitch head orientation (P rotation could be predicted from vectorial summation of the gains (eye velocity/head velocity) obtained for rotations about the pure yaw and roll head axes. Thus, even when the orientation of Listing's plane and eye position in the orbit are fixed, the axis of eye rotation during the VOR reflects a compromise between the requirements of Listing's law and a perfectly compensatory VOR.
Çiftçi, Esra K; Arikan, Duygu
This study was conducted to determine the effect of training administered to working mothers and its duration on maternal anxiety levels and breastfeeding habits. Within the scope of Health for All in the 21st Century project, a goal was set to increase the rate of infants fed exclusively by breastfeeding during the first six months of life to 80% by the year 2015. A randomised design with repeated measures. During collection of pretest data, a Personal Information Form, a Questionnaire Form and a State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to the mothers in the experimental and control groups. Five home visits were conducted starting two weeks before the date when mothers returned to work and ending when the infants became six months old. Breastfeeding techniques were taught to these mothers. Data were subjected to Proc MEAN, FREQ, anova and GENMOD procedures. The rate of natural feeding (breastfeeding exclusively) among trained mothers was greater than untrained mothers. The frequency of breastfeeding affects maternal anxiety levels; the anxiety level of mothers decreased with increasing frequency of breastfeeding. Educating working mothers about breastfeeding reduces their anxiety levels and influences positively their breastfeeding habits. With the support of health-care staff to increase awareness and knowledge on the value and sufficiency of breast milk, the rate and period of natural feeding increased significantly among working mothers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article Body ... for a time when drugs may be offered. Drug abuse prevention starts with parents learning how to talk ...
A study, performed with the department of orthopaedics of the Rome Catholic University, has found out the two possible parameters mainly responsible for head breaking, i. e. errors in conical mating between head and stem, and cracks in the heads. This study has been continued in the frame of the STRIDE-CETMA project, aimed at founding and developing a centre for technologically advanced materials in Brindisi Technology Park (Italy). This report starts a systematic mechanical analysis of the above mentioned head, with the purpose of characterizing it exhaustively. The evaluations made lead to the conclusion that in nomimal conditions, the head is largely overdimensioned, taking into account the maximum load applied to the prosthesis
Bruno Bonnechere, Benoit Beyer, Marcel Rooze, Jan Serge Van Sint
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of three different sprint start patterns to determine the safest position in term of neck injury and Sport-Related Concussion (SRC. The second objective was to collect data on the learning process effect between football players and non-players. Three different sprint initial positions adopted by football players were studied (i.e., 4-, 3- and 2-point positions. Twenty five young healthy males, including 12 football players, participated to this study. A stereophotogrammetric system (i.e., Vicon was used to record motion patterns and body segments positions. Various measurements related to head and trunk orientation, and player field-of-view were obtained (e.g., head height, trunk bending, time to reach upright position, head speed (vertical direction and body speed (horizontal direction. Learning process was found to have no influence on studied parameters. Head redress is also delayed when adopting a 4-point position leading to a reduce field-of-view during the start and increasing therefore the probability of collision. Concerning the three different positions, the 4-point position seems to be the more dangerous because leading to higher kinetic energy than the 2- and 3-point start positions. This study proposes a first biomechanical approach to understand risk/benefit balance for athletes for those three different start positions. Results suggested that the 4-point position is the most risky for football players.
This paper presents an analysis of the temporal alignment be- tween head movements and associated speech segments in the NOMCO corpus of first encounter dialogues . Our results show that head movements tend to start slightly before the onset of the corresponding speech sequence and to end...... slightly after, but also that there are delays in both directions in the range of -/+ 1s. Various factors that may influence delay duration are investigated. Correlations are found between delay length and the duration of the speech sequences associated with the head movements. Effects due to the different...
Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...
Sharpless, Brian A
Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...
Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...
Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...
Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...
Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...
Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).
Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...
Transitional periods, such as lesson starts, are necessary steps from one activity to another, but they also compete with time for actual learning. The aim of the present study was to replicate a previous pilot study on lesson starts and explore possible disturbances. In total, 130 lesson starts in Finnish basic education in grades 1-9 were…
Dascalu, Mihai; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Soto, Christian M.; Allen, Laura K.; Dai, Jianmin; Guerrero, Tricia A.; McNamara, Danielle S.
iSTART is a web-based reading comprehension tutor. A recent translation of iSTART from English to Spanish has made the system available to a new audience. In this paper, we outline several challenges that arose during the development process, specifically focusing on the algorithms that drive the feedback. Several iSTART activities encourage…
Green, M W
This article reviews the features of an uncommon malady termed "the exploding head syndrome." Sufferers describe terrorizing attacks of a painless explosion within their head. Attacks tend to occur at the onset of sleep. The etiology of attacks is unknown, although they are considered to be benign. Treatment with clomipramine has been suggested, although most sufferers require only reassurance that the spells are benign in nature.
Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.
This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)
... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...
Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...
... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...
Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty
Dubravka Mahaček; Maja Martinko Lihtar
A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may ...
The report describes the existing four agreements on nuclear disarmament: START I (1991). START II (1993), SORT (2002) and NEW START (2010). The chapter on the dependence between nuclear disarmament and strategic stability covers the issues mutual assured destruction (MAD), credibility, overkill capacity; the role of nuclear weapons in the national strategies of the USA and NATO, Russia, Great Britain, France, China and the other nuclear states. Ways out of MAD include disarmament, de-alerting and mutual assured protection (MAP).
Breheny, Mary; Stephens, Christine
Teenage motherhood is routinely discussed in medical and nursing journals as a cause for concern and a social problem. Taking these accounts as a starting point, this paper uses discursive analysis to understand how the teenage mother is produced as an unsuitable mother. Beginning with a 'Public Health' discourse, early motherhood is understood as a disease requiring surveillance and a public health response. Using an 'Economic' discourse, teenage mothers are positioned as a financial drain on society and early motherhood as a cost to the mothers themselves. An 'Ethnicity' discourse classifies young mothers into ethnic groups and explains differential fertility rates through the resistance of appropriate reproductive technology among minority group members. These understandings are reflected in a 'Eugenics' discourse, which engages metaphors of parenting as a biological priority and highlights the unsuitability of young mothers as parents. An examination of these discourses shows that concern about teenage motherhood is as much about the wrong sort of young women becoming mothers, as mothering too soon.
Cornelius, Judith Bacchus
This exploratory study examined single mothers' ideas on the development of a faith-based sexuality program. Twenty African American single mothers with adolescent children (11 to 13 years of age) who were of the same faith and members of one church, participated in two focus groups about how a faith-based sexuality program could be designed and implemented. The findings call attention to the need for research on the design of faith-based sexuality education programs for ethnic minority families headed by single mothers.
Riordan, Rebecca M
Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind
Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics
Examined how 52 nondistressed families managed spontaneous verbal conflicts during family dinners. Found conflict initiation to be evenly distributed across family roles. Extension of conflict was constrained by constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing…
Morland, Lyn; Ives, Nicole; McNeely, Clea; Allen, Chenoa
The current research on the benefits of high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) leaves little doubt that early interventions have both short- and long-term advantages. Quality ECEC can have substantial positive impacts on young children's social, emotional, cognitive, and language development, with long-term effects on educational…
Brian, Ali; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Logan, Jessica A.; Sutherland, Sue
Purpose: Children from disadvantaged settings are at risk for delays in their object-control (OC) skills. Fundamental motor skill interventions, such as the Successful Kinesthetic Instruction for Preschoolers (SKIP) Program, are highly successful when led by motor development experts. However, few preschools employ such experts. This study…
Zan, Betty; Donegan-Ritter, Mary
In this study we examined the impact of a year long model of professional development comprised of a monthly cycle of video-based self-reflection, peer coaching, and mentoring and bimonthly workshops focused on selected Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) dimensions. Education supervisors were trained and supported by project staff to lead…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a compilation of several data sets related to the Galveston Texas Seaturtle Headstart program. Most notable is the Kemp's ridley headstart program...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains a summary of captive reared Kemp's ridley sea turtles recovered after release. The database contains information on the growth, release and...
Howe, Heather; Barnett, David
This consultation description reports parent and teacher problem solving for a preschool child with no typical speech directed to teachers or peers, and, by parent report, normal speech at home. This child's initial pattern of speech was similar to selective mutism, a low-incidence disorder often first detected during the preschool years, but…
Addressing the needs of preschoolers with behavioral problems is important, as these issues often have long-term impacts on the outcomes of students (Fox et al., 2002). Self-monitoring strategies and techniques have the potential to improve the outcomes of this population of children. Self-monitoring requires students to pay attention to a…
Smith, Stephanie C.
In the United States, progressive education programs have historically failed to take hold among low-income families, even when that population has been their initial focus. Instead, these programs tend to become popular among middle-class or affluent families. Some research suggests that working-class/poor families' expectations of education may…
Wines, Michael P; Johnson, Valerie M; Lock, Brad; Antonio, Fred; Godwin, James C; Rush, Elizabeth M; Guyer, Craig
Optimal husbandry techniques are desirable for any headstart program, but frequently are unknown for rare species. Here we describe key reproductive variables and determine optimal incubation temperature and diet diversity for Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi) grown in laboratory settings. Optimal incubation temperature was estimated from two variables dependent on temperature, shell dimpling, a surrogate for death from fungal infection, and deviation of an egg from an ovoid shape, a surrogate for death from developmental anomalies. Based on these relationships and size at hatching we determined optimal incubation temperature to be 26°C. Additionally, we used incubation data to assess the effect of temperature on duration of incubation and size of hatchlings. We also examined hatchling diets necessary to achieve optimal growth over a 21-month period. These snakes exhibited a positive linear relationship between total mass eaten and growth rate, when individuals were fed less than 1711 g of prey, and displayed constant growth for individuals exceeding 1711 g of prey. Similarly, growth rate increased linearly with increasing diet diversity up to a moderately diverse diet, followed by constant growth for higher levels of diet diversity. Of the two components of diet diversity, diet evenness played a stronger role than diet richness in explaining variance in hatchling growth. These patterns document that our goal of satiating snakes was achieved for some individuals but not others and that diets in which total grams consumed over the first 21 months of life is distributed equivalently among at least three prey genera yielded the fastest growth rates for hatchling snakes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
...; parent, family, and community engagement; and quality teaching and learning. D. Quality Assurance... and involvement, health and disabilities services and cultural and linguistic responsiveness. The ECSD...
Jawhar, Salwa Baker
My goal in undertaking this research was to contribute to strengthening kindergarten educational practices in Kuwait with particular focus on literacy development. I was interested in the instructional techniques, tools, methods, language activities that would make sense to Arabic kindergartners and help them learn the formal, written register (i.e., formal literary Arabic) required in Kuwait. To this end, I used part of my graduate studies in education visiting and observing several kinderga...
Dufrene, Brad A.; Parker, Kizzy; Menousek, Kathryn; Zhou, Qi; Harpole, Lauren Lestremau; Olmi, D. Joe
Chronic disruptive behaviors during early childhood are associated with many poor developmental outcomes including, but not limited to, school dropout and conduct disorder during adolescence. Much is known regarding effective intervention procedures for disruptive classroom behaviors by preschool children. Unfortunately, evidence-based…
Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Day, Jeanne D.
Research suggests that executive functioning skills may enhance the school readiness of children from disadvantaged homes. Questions remain, however, concerning both the structure and the stability of executive functioning among preschoolers. In addition, there is a lack of research addressing potential predictors of longitudinal change in…
White, Lisa J.; Greenfield, Daryl B.
A growing percentage of low-income children in the United States come from Spanish-speaking homes and are dual language learners (DLLs). Recent research shows that bilingual children, compared to monolinguals, have enhanced executive functioning (EF), a set of foundational cognitive skills that predict higher social-emotional competence and…
Shantz, Carolyn U.
The construct of egocentrism within Piaget's theory of intellectual development was evaluated as to its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity within the concrete-operational stage. A total of eighty Negro children drawn from grades one through four in low and middle socioeconomic level schools, were tested individually on a total of…
King, Nicole Colette
The "school readiness gap" has been attributed to differences in family life, home-school connections, and social inequalities. The current school-parent partnership model fails to acknowledge the ways in which parent roles in education, and the home-school relations in which they are embedded, reflect broader social inequalities that…
Xiao, Lin; Jouffroy, Jerome
This paper presents a study on the development and testing of a model-based heading controller for a sailing yacht. Using Fossen's compact notation for marine vehicles, we first describe a nonlinear 4-DOF dynamic model for a sailing yacht, including roll. Starting from this model, we then design...
Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C
Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism.
Schwartz, Scott C
The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.
Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Hermanns, J.; Reitz, E.; Prinzie, P.; van den Akker, A.L.
The present study aimed to (1) determine the long-term effectiveness of Home-Start, a preventive parenting program, and (2) test the hypothesis that changes in maternal sense of competence mediate the program's effects. Participants were 124 mothers (n = 66 intervention, n = 58 comparison). Four
Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L
This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to share lessons learned in setting up three different peer online writing centers in three different contexts (EFL, Generation 1.5, and ESL. In each center the focus was on the language learner as a peer online writing advisor and their needs in maintaining centers “for and by” learners. Technology affordances and constraints for local contexts, which promote learner autonomy, are analyzed. The open-source platforms (Moodle, Drupal, and Google Apps are compared in terms of usability for peer writing center work, particularly centers where groups co-construct feedback for writers, asynchronously. This paper is useful for readers who would like a head start or deeper understanding of potential logistics and decision-making involved in establishing a peer online writing center within coursework and/or a self-access learning center.
Hjorth-Hansen, Anna; Salvesen, Øyvind; Engen Hanem, Liv Guro; Eggebø, Torbjørn; Salvesen, Kjell Å; Vanky, Eszter; Ødegård, Rønnaug
Metformin is used in an attempt to reduce pregnancy complications associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Little is known about the effect of metformin on fetal development and growth. To compare the effect of metformin versus placebo on fetal growth and birth anthropometrics in PCOS offspring compared with a reference population in relation to maternal body mass index (BMI). Post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. 258 offspring born to mothers with PCOS. 2000 mg metformin (n = 131) or placebo (n = 121) from first trimester to delivery. Mean abdominal diameter and biparietal diameter (BPD) at gestational weeks 19 and 32. Head circumference (HC), birth length, and weight related to a reference population of healthy offspring, expressed as gestational age- and sex-adjusted z-scores. Metformin- versus placebo-exposed offspring had larger heads at gestational week 32 (BPD, 86.1 mm versus 85.2 mm; P = 0.03) and at birth (HC, 35.6 cm versus 35.1 cm; P mothers. Among normal-weight mothers, the effect of metformin compared with placebo was reduced length (z-score = -0.96 versus -0.42, P = 0.04) and weight (z-score = -0.44 versus 0.02; P = 0.03). Compared with the reference population, offspring born to PCOS mothers (placebo group) had reduced length (z-score = -0.40; 95% confidence interval, -0.60 to -0.40), but similar birth weight and HC. Metformin exposure resulted in larger head size in offspring of overweight mothers, traceable already in utero. Maternal prepregnancy BMI modified the effect of metformin on offspring anthropometrics. Anthropometrics of offspring born to PCOS mothers differed from those of the reference population. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society
The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here i...
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Reilink, Rob; Visser, L.C.; Bennik, J.; Carloni, Raffaella; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano
This video shows the results of the project on the mechatronic development of the Twente humanoid head. The mechanical structure consists of a neck with four degrees of freedom (DOFs) and two eyes (a stereo pair system) which tilt on a common axis and rotate sideways freely providing a three more
A practical and fast-paced guide, Getting Started with SBT for Scala walks you through the setup of Scala projects in SBT with sample code for common as well as critical scenarios.Getting Started with SBT for Scala is for developers working on Scala projects who are interested in learning and utilizing Simple Build Tool to manage the build process.
Lowman, Betsy; Bryant, Donna; Zolotor, Adam
Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years and their families. This study examined characteristics of families participating in Smart Start, their child care arrangements and family activities, and their need for and use of community…
Griffith, M J; Baloff, N
The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.
Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa
Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)
Turck, D; Vidailhet, M; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U
The prevalence of breastfeeding in France is one of the lowest in Europe: 65% of infants born in France in 2010 were breastfed when leaving the maternity ward. Exclusive breastfeeding allows normal growth until at least 6 months of age, and can be prolonged until the age of 2 years or more, provided that complementary feeding is started after 6 months. Breast milk contains hormones, growth factors, cytokines, immunocompetent cells, etc., and has many biological properties. The composition of breast milk is influenced by gestational and postnatal age, as well as by the moment of the feed. Breastfeeding is associated with slightly enhanced performance on tests of cognitive development. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months is associated with a lower incidence and severity of diarrhoea, otitis media and respiratory infection. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months is associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis) during the first 2 to 3 years of life in at-risk infants (infants with at least one first-degree relative presenting with allergy). Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence, as well as with a lower blood pressure and cholesterolemia in adulthood. However, no beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been shown. Maternal infection with hepatitis B and C virus is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, as opposed to HIV infection and galactosemia. A supplementation with vitamin D and K is necessary in the breastfed infant. Very few medications contraindicate breastfeeding. Premature babies can be breastfed and/or receive mother's milk and/or bank milk, provided they receive energy, protein and mineral supplements. Return to prepregnancy weight is earlier in breastfeeding mothers during the 6 months following delivery. Breastfeeding is also associated with a decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in the
Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz
Twenty children aging 2-9 years old--four boys with short hair and 16 girls with long hair--were included in a clinical test on the efficacy of a product against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). Their hair were exposed to Licatack, which is a recently developed new anti-louse medicinal product containing extracts of grapefruits besides high quality shampoo components. Prior to this field trial, the product Licatack was tested dermatologically to be skin safe receiving the grade "very good". The children's mothers combed the kids prior to the start of the test in order to confirm that they were all lice-infested. The obtained lice were used for in vitro tests. All children were heavily infested. After combing and preservation of the living lice, the hair was wet with tap water. Then, 50 ml of the Licatack shampoo was placed onto the top of each child's head. Then, the mothers distributed the rather fluid product all over the hair thoroughly from their base at the skin until the free end. During this process, a type of massage, the product became foamy and it was easily recognized where the product covered the hair, thus, avoiding untreated spots. The hair of half of the treated children were washed with tap water after 10 min of exposition; while in the other half of the children, the exposition period was prolonged to 20 min before washing. When combing the kids with a metal louse comb after the washing, the lice were found immobile and they did not recover during the following observation period of 4 h. Only two lice from the group with an exposition time of only 10 min showed some slight leg movements after they had been combed off, but they died within the next 2 h. Thus, this new anti-louse medicinal product has a very quick and efficient activity besides its advantages of being non-inflammable, skin safe, and nice smelling. None of the kids claimed any burning at the skin or other side effects, although the skin showed, prior to treatment, lots of scars
Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.
Dahl, Bente; Malterud, Kirsti
. Results: Analysis showed that ordinary tokens of recognition created feelings of being included, whilelesbian self-confidence played a major role in awkward encounters. Being neither father nor biologicalmother sometimes challenged parental identity. Being women helped co-mothers understand what...
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... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...
At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush`s historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R&D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.
At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.
Wren, C; Birrell, G; Hawthorne, G
Objective: To compare the prevalence at live birth and the spectrum of cardiovascular malformations in infants born to diabetic mothers with pre-existing diabetes with that in infants of non-diabetic mothers.
Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others
Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)
Fritzell, Sara; Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Fritzell, Johan; Burström, Bo
The deep recession in Sweden in the early 1990s led to high unemployment levels. In addition, policy changes and reductions in welfare benefits increased costs of living. These changes may have affected lone mothers to a greater extent than other groups. How have these changes in the social context and policy context impacted on the health of lone mothers in comparison with couple mothers in Sweden between 1983 and 2001? Survey data on 19,192 mothers over the period of 1983-2001 were used to study changes in individual economic and social circumstances and self-rated health (SRH) with multivariate logistic regression. In addition, all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality and severe morbidity were studied using registers for the whole population. Three cohorts of mothers aged 20-54 years (starting 1985, 1990 and 1996) were formed. Age-adjusted risk ratios were calculated using Poisson regression. The employment rate among lone mothers declined from 1983 to 2001. At the same time, prevalence of self-reported financial problems and exposure to violence increased. Lone mothers reported worse SRH and had higher risks of hospitalisation and mortality than couple mothers in all time periods. Despite changes in social context and policy context causing an increase of health detrimental exposures, and deteriorated levels of SRH 1980-2001 for lone mothers, there was no evidence of increased differentials over time between lone and couple mothers in less than good SRH, hospitalisation or mortality. Three alternative explanations are discussed: the Swedish welfare state still acts as a buffer for ill health; latency makes the follow-up time too short; and finally, the lack of increased differentials is due to methodological reasons.
Currier, Todd; Ma, Ganzhong; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
An experimental study is conducted on a robotic fish designed to emulate the fast-start response. The fish body is constructed of 3D printed ribs and a light spring steel spine. The body is actuated using a series of pressured pistons. A total of four pistons are supplied with pressure through lightweight high pressure service lines. The source of pressure is carbon dioxide with a 700 psi peak operating pressure resulting in a body response that can cycle a c-start maneuver in milliseconds. The motion of the fish is precisely controlled through the use of solenoids with a control signal produced by a programmable microprocessor. The fish is constrained in all translational degrees of freedom but allowed to rotate about a vertical axis. The influence of the point of rotation is studied with different mounting points along the length of the head of the fish. The forces are measured in two perpendicular in-plane directions. A high speed camera is used to capture the response of the fish and the corresponding flow around it. Comparison is made with the kinematics observed in live fish.
With one of Europe's largest reserves of brown coal and a treasure trove of various minerals, Kosovo should be heading for a bright future. However, the energy and mining industries have been neglected and the infrastructure is outdated. Reactivating these industries will take foreign investors, good management and large amounts of money.
Bohr, Yvonne; BinNoon, Noam
This community pilot study was designed to evaluate a small group intervention, Right From The Start (RFTS), in terms of the benefits it provides to adolescent mothers specifically. The effectiveness of the programme was examined in the areas of maternal sensitivity, parenting confidence, parenting stress, and postnatal depression. RFTS has been…
Hong, Jin Kyo [Shin Wha Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.
Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.
Hong, Jin Kyo
In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.
Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.
Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L
The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.
The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry's participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology
Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker
Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...
Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas
Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...
A healthy pregnancy begins before you ever become pregnant. Give yourself the best chance for a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby before you start down the road to motherhood. If you smoke, now’s a great time to quit.
Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases, inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection, and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current
Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian
To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.
Goduscheit, René Chester
Lean start-up is an emergent perspective on how entrepreneurs can bring new products and services to the market. This approach challenges the dominant role of lengthy business plans, linear product development processes, and seeking complete overview of the potential of the new products....../services before market launch. Instead it suggests that start-ups could benefit from a ‘minimum-viable product’ approach where products and services are launched when they contain critical features. The emphasis in the lean start-up approach is on business models rather than the elaborate business plan...... at the companies (strategy meetings, development workshops etc.). The aim is to shed light on the implications for companies that seek to employ lean start-up. These implications will be aimed at aspects like innovation management, organizational structure, customer relations etc....
Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra
We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…
Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen
This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Capital Investment Program--New Starts... apportionment of the FY 2011 Capital Investment (New Starts and Small Starts) program funds. The funds will be... FY 2011, $1,596,800,000 was appropriated for the Capital Investments Grant Account, which includes...
Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.
Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12)
Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar
The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...
Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Maruyama, Akiko; Sawada, Yuko; Ishi, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie
This paper is a report of a longitudinal study of the relationship of working mothers' parenting style to their children's social competence and vocabulary/ motor/intellectual development. With an increasing number of women choosing to remain in the workforce after starting a family, there has been a concomitant increase in use of non-parental childcare facilities to help look after the child while the mother is at work. This increase in non-parental care has led to a dramatic change in the traditional child-rearing environment. Long-term investigations were conducted over a period of 2 years in 41 Japanese government-licensed childcare facilities. Child development was evaluated by childcare professionals and parenting style was assessed by questionnaire. A total of 504 children and their mothers participated in the study. Data collection was carried out in 2004 and 2006. We found that the changes in parenting style were statistically significantly related to children's development after 2 years. For instance, changes in the parent-child playing routine contributed to the child's social competence (odds ratio = 11.088). Variation in working mothers' disciplinary practices was also associated with children's vocabulary development after 2 years (odds ratio = 2246). Working mothers should increase interactions with their children in their free time to reduce the risk of developmental delay. Daily childcare support provided by family members or social organizations for long-term working mothers is helpful in mediating the negative relationship of mothers' working with children's development.
Liu, Bin; Xu, Yun; Liang, Jian-Ming; Voss, Courtney; Xiao, Huan-Yu; Sheng, Wei-Yang; Sun, Yan-Hong; Wang, Zi-Lian
To investigate the relationship between maternal overweight and fetal insulin resistance. Nineteen overweight and 30 lean pregnant women were recruited in the present study. Maternal and fetal insulin resistance were determined by measuring sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in maternal venous or umbilical cord serum, respectively. Maternal age, gestational age, height, pre-gravidity weight, pre-partum weight, as well as fetal gender, birth weight, birth height, and head circumference were collected as clinical data. Fetuses of overweight mothers had larger birth weight (3.58±0.55kg vs 3.32±0.42, adjusted P=0.006) and lower SHBG concentrations (26.64±3.65 vs 34.36±7.84, adjusted P=0.007) than those of lean mothers after values were adjusted for potential cofactors. Fetal SHBG level was negatively correlated with pre-gravidity body mass index (R=-0.392, adjusted P=0.025) and weight gain during pregnancy (R=-0.332, adjusted P=0.026) even with adjustment for potential cofactors. Among the 29 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus, the overweight mothers had higher H1AC levels than their lean counterparts (6.47±0.44 vs 5.74±0.52, adjusted P=0.004). Intrauterine insulin resistance is more prominent in fetuses of overweight mothers, an effect that is decreased by weight gain control during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Purdy, Laura M
The morality of surrogate mothering is analyzed from a "consequentialist" framework which attempts to separate those consequences that invariably accompany a given act from those that accompany it only in particular circumstances. Critics of surrogacy argue that it transfers the burden and risk of pregnancy onto another woman, separates sex and reproduction, and separates reproduction and childrearing; none of these acts is necessarily wrong, either morally or for women's or society's basic interests. While surrogate mothering can be rendered immoral if women are coerced into the practice or become victims of subordinating or penalizing contracts, it has the potential to empower women and increase their status in society by providing a job that is less risky and more enjoyable than other jobs women are forced to take and by achieving greater social recognition for reproductive labor.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.
The following are some of the findings based on the results of the annual survey of marital and family characteristics of workers: (1) about 27.6 million of 62.7 million children had mothers in the labor force (over 2 million more than in March 1970); (2) 1.1 million of 6.5 million children under six were in families headed by women (71 percent…