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Sample records for head separation disorder

  1. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  2. Head Injury as Risk Factor for Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlovska, Sonja; Pedersen, Michael Skaarup; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2014-01-01

    . METHOD: The authors used linkable Danish nationwide population-based registers to investigate the incidence of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and organic mental disorders in 113,906 persons who had suffered head injuries. Data were analyzed by survival analysis...... and adjusted for gender, age, calendar year, presence of a psychiatric family history, epilepsy, infections, autoimmune diseases, and fractures not involving the skull or spine. RESULTS: Head injury was associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65, 95% CI=1...

  3. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Francisco FAULIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO. Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III, followed by disk displacement (group II and muscle disorders (group I. There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  4. The association of temporomandibular disorder pain with history of head and neck injury in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dena J; Mueller, Beth A; Critchlow, Cathy W; LeResche, Linda

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of self-reported temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain among adolescents in relation to previous head and/or neck injury. 3,101 enrollees (11 to 17 years of age) of a nonprofit integrated health-care system were interviewed by telephone. Two hundred four cases with self-reported TMD pain and 194 controls without self-reported TMD pain frequency-matched to the cases by age and gender completed standardized in-person interviews and physical examinations in which reports of previous head/neck injuries were recorded. Odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the relative risks of TMD pain associated with prior head and/or neck injuries were calculated using logistic regression. A greater proportion of subjects reporting TMD pain (36%) than controls (25%) had a history of head and/or neck injuries (OR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.1-2.8). In a separate analysis, the presence of TMD based upon the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was assessed in relation to prior head and/or neck injury. Cases reporting TMD pain and meeting the RDC/TMD criteria for myofascial pain and/or arthralgia or arthritis were 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.8) times more likely to have had a prior head injury than were controls with neither self-reported nor RDC/TMD pain diagnoses. The results suggest a modest association of prior head injuries with both self-reported and clinically diagnosed TMD pain in adolescents.

  5. The relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W Y; Okeson, J P; Lindroth, J

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorder symptoms. Thirty-three temporomandibular disorder patients with predominant complaints of masticatory muscle pain were compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Head position was measured from photographs taken with a plumb line drawn from the ceiling to the lateral malleolus of the ankle and with a horizontal plane that was perpendicular to the plumb line and that passed through the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra. The distances from the plumb line to the ear, to the seventh vertebra, and to the shoulder were measured. Two angles were also measured: (1) ear-seventh cervical vertebra-horizontal plane and (2) eye-ear-seventh cervical vertebra. The only measurement that revealed a statistically significant difference was angle ear-seventh cervical vertebra-horizontal plane. This angle was smaller in the patients with temporomandibular disorders than in the control subjects. In other words, when evaluating the ear position with respect to the seventh cervical vertebra, the head was positioned more forward in the group with temporomandibular disorders than in the control group (P < .05).

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TMJ DISORDER AND HEAD AND NECK POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi R. Puspita Dewi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint disorders may be caused by variety of factors; one of which is the posture of head and neck. However, this remains controversial and a subject of debate by experts. The objective of this study was to know whether there was a relation between temporomandibular disorders and the head and neck posture seen radiographically. Subjects were 40 dental students from University of Indonesia who met the inclusion criteria, selected through questionnaire, and subjective examination based on Helkimo’s dysfunction index. Then, lateral cephalometric radiographs were done to all subjects. In the radiogram, a horizontal line was made from the nasion point to the sella tursica, and a vertical line was drawn along the prominent bone of C1 – C5. The angle between the two lines was measured, and used to represent the head and neck posture. The design of the study was cross sectional. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant relationship between the anamnestic dysfunction index as well as the clinical dysfunction index that represented the temporomandibular joint disorders and the posture of the head and neck seen radiographically.

  7. Speech and language deficits in separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roha M. Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Separation anxiety disorder (SAD is one of the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Children with SAD are characterized by excessive anxiety of separation from the primary attachment figure. These children exhibit fear of separation from their parents and display behaviors such as clinging, excessive crying, and tantrums. Children with SAD are found to have significant brain changes. SAD can co-occur with other conditions such as autism spectrum disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Past studies have identified not only cognitive deficits in children diagnosed with SAD, but also speech and language deficits, which vary depending on comorbidities. A team-centered approach is essential in the assessment and treatment of children diagnosed with SAD.

  8. Adult separation anxiety disorder in the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Knappe, S.; Clark, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other DSM-IV anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder (SAD) has been considered a disorder that typically begins in childhood, and could be diagnosed only in adults "if onset is before 18." Moreover, SAD is the only DSM-IV anxiety disorder placed under "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed

  9. Intracranial hemorrhage after blunt head trauma in children with bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lois K; Dayan, Peter S; Gerardi, Michael J; Borgialli, Dominic A; Badawy, Mohamed K; Callahan, James M; Lillis, Kathleen A; Stanley, Rachel M; Gorelick, Marc H; Dong, Li; Zuspan, Sally Jo; Holmes, James F; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    To determine computerized tomography (CT) use and prevalence of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in children with and without congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. We compared CT use and ICH prevalence in children with and without bleeding disorders in a multicenter cohort study of 43 904 children bleeding disorders; all had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 to 15. These children had higher CT rates than children without bleeding disorders and GCS scores of 14 to 15 (risk ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 2.15 to 2.44). Of the children who underwent imaging with CT, 2 of 186 children with bleeding disorders had ICH (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 3.8) , compared with 655 of 14 969 children without bleeding disorders (4.4%; 95% CI, 4.1-4.7; rate ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.98). Both children with bleeding disorders and ICHs had symptoms; none of the children required neurosurgery. In children with head trauma, CTs are obtained twice as often in children with bleeding disorders, although ICHs occurred in only 1.1%, and these patients had symptoms. Routine CT imaging after head trauma may not be required in children without symptoms who have congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of atomic disorder on the magnetic phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshev, A. G.; Arzhnikov, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of disorder on the magnetic phase separation between the antiferromagnetic and incommensurate helical and phases is investigated. The study is based on the quasi-two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model in the presence of atomic disorder (the Anderson–Hubbard model). A model of binary alloy disorder is considered, in which the disorder is determined by the difference in energy between the host and impurity atomic levels at a fixed impurity concentration. The problem is solved within the theory of functional integration in static approximation. Magnetic phase diagrams are obtained as functions of the temperature, the number of electrons and impurity concentration with allowance for phase separation. It is shown that for the model parameters chosen, the disorder caused by impurities whose atomic-level energy is greater than that of the host atomic levels, leads to qualitative changes in the phase diagram of the impurity-free system. In the opposite case, only quantitative changes occur. The peculiarities of the effect of disorder on the phase separation regions of the quasi-two-dimensional Hubbard model are discussed.

  11. Exploding head syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Gautam; Mridha, Banshari; Khan, Asif; Rison, Richard Alan

    2013-01-01

    Exploding head syndrome (EHS) is a rare parasomnia in which affected individuals awaken from sleep with the sensation of a loud bang. The etiology is unknown, but other conditions including primary and secondary headache disorders and nocturnal seizures need to be excluded. A 57-year-old Indian male presented with four separate episodes of awakening from sleep at night after hearing a flashing sound on the right side of his head over the last 2 years. These events were described 'as if there are explosions in my head'. A neurologic examination, imaging studies, and a polysomnogram ensued, and the results led to the diagnosis of EHS. EHS is a benign, uncommon, predominately nocturnal disorder that is self-limited. No treatment is generally required. Reassurance to the patient is often all that is needed.

  12. Personality disorder symptomatology and neuropsychological functioning in closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Swirsky-Sacchetti, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Despite an emerging literature characterizing the neuropsychological profiles of borderline, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders, relations between personality disorder traits and neurocognitive domains remain unknown. The authors examined associations among Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales and eight neuropsychological domains in 161 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation following closed head injury. Most personality disorder scales were associated with some decrement in cognitive function, particularly speeded processing, executive function, and language, while histrionic and narcissistic scales had positive relations with neuropsychological functioning. Results suggest that many personality disorder traits are related to neurocognitive function, particularly those functions subserved by frontal and temporal regions.

  13. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.M.; Morren, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal

  14. Exploding Head Syndrome: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, Gautam; Mridha, Banshari; Khan, Asif; Rison, Richard Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Exploding head syndrome (EHS) is a rare parasomnia in which affected individuals awaken from sleep with the sensation of a loud bang. The etiology is unknown, but other conditions including primary and secondary headache disorders and nocturnal seizures need to be excluded. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old Indian male presented with four separate episodes of awakening from sleep at night after hearing a flashing sound on the right side of his head over the last 2 years. These ev...

  15. The association between head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Susan Armijo; Bravo, Jaime; Magee, David J; Thie, Norman M R; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    To carry out a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between head and cervical posture and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A search of Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted in all languages with the help of a health sciences librarian. Key words used in the search were posture, head posture, cervical spine or neck, vertebrae, cervical lordosis, craniomandibular disorders or temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular disorders, and orofacial pain or facial pain. Abstracts which appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were retrieved and evaluated to ensure they met the inclusion criteria. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles and their references were hand-searched for possible missing articles. Twelve studies met all inclusion criteria and were analyzed in detail for their methodology and information quality. Nine articles that analyzed the association between head posture and TMD included patients with mixed TMD diagnosis; 1 article differentiated among muscular, articular, and mixed symptomatology; and 3 articles analyzed information from patients with only articular problems. Finally, 2 studies evaluated the association between head posture and TMD in patients with muscular TMD. Several methodological defects were noted in the 12 studies. Since most of the studies included in this systematic review were of poor methodological quality, the findings of the studies should be interpreted with caution. The association between intra-articular and muscular TMD and head and cervical posture is still unclear, and better controlled studies with comprehensive TMD diagnoses, greater sample sizes, and objective posture evaluation are necessary.

  16. [Nature and severity of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder as they occur together or separately in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapalme, Mélanie; Déry, Michèle

    2009-09-01

    Co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms are particularly common, which could be related to the greater severity (number and nature of symptoms) of each disorder. Our study aims to determine if oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms vary when they occur together or separately in children. Our study was conducted with 406 children (aged 6 to 13 years) divided in 4 groups (oppositional disorder only, conduct disorder only, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder, control) with no age or sex difference. Structured diagnostic interviews conducted with one parent and each child separately led to assessing the average number of symptoms for each disorder as well as the onset frequency of each symptom. When occurring together, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder appear more severe than when they occur separately, considering the number and nature of symptoms shown. Further, children with an oppositional disorder only or a conduct disorder only also have more frequent symptoms of the other disorder, compared with children in the control group. These results suggest taking into account, at the time of assessment and potential intervention, the presence of both disorders.

  17. Informant Disagreement for Separation Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra; Rutter, Michael; Pickles, Andrew; Angold, Adrian; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To characterize informant disagreement for separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Method: The sample comprised 2,779 8- to 17-year-old twins from a community-based registry. Children and their parents completed a personal interview about the child's psychiatric history. Parents completed a personal interview about their own psychiatric…

  18. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method The sample included 38,993 adults in 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess a range of DSM-IV disorders that included an expanded definition of separation anxiety disorder allowing onsets in adulthood. Analyses focused on prevalence, age at onset, comorbidity, predictors of onset and persistence, and separation anxiety-related role impairment. Results Lifetime separation anxiety disorder prevalence averaged 4.8% across countries (interquartile range [25th–75th percentiles]=1.4%–6.4%), with 43.1% of lifetime onsets occurring after age 18. Significant time-lagged associations were found between earlier separation anxiety disorder and subsequent onset of internalizing and externalizing DSM-IV disorders and conversely between these disorders and subsequent onset of separation anxiety disorder. Other consistently significant predictors of lifetime separation anxiety disorder included female gender, retrospectively reported childhood adversities, and lifetime traumatic events. These predictors were largely comparable for separation anxiety disorder onsets in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and across country income groups. Twelve-month separation anxiety disorder prevalence was considerably lower than lifetime prevalence (1.0% of the total sample; interquartile range=0.2%–1.2%). Severe separation anxiety-related 12-month role impairment was significantly more common in the presence (42.4%) than absence (18.3%) of 12-month comorbidity. Conclusions Separation anxiety disorder is a common and highly comorbid disorder that can have onset across the lifespan. Childhood adversity and lifetime trauma are

  19. [Play therapy for a child with separation anxiety disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y Y; Chiu, Y N; Soong, W T

    1995-06-01

    Separation anxiety disorder is characterized by severe and exceeding anxiety and fear when a child is facing separation with attachment objects. More over, it affected the child in language, emotional and social interest and development. These children usually brought to physician's attention due to refusal to go to school, social withdraw or multiple somatic complaints with attachment behavior wanted to be nearby or closed to the attachment objects. A child's early attachment relationship and previous separation experience play a major role in the formation of separation anxiety disorder. This report presents a psychoanalytically-oriented play therapy for a 2-year-8-month-old boy in 17 months period total of 54 sessions. According to the main themes in each session the process can be divided into 4 stages, namely establishing therapeutic relationship, expressing repressed emotions, management of transference, attachment and conflict in therapy, and self growth and termination. The formulation of this case and management were discussed.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder in caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu; Lin, Pao-Yen; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder in caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer. Study subjects were recruited from a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for head and neck cancer in a medical center from February to July 2012. Caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer were enrolled and assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV, Clinician Version, the Short Form 36 Health Survey, and the Family APGAR index. The main aim of the study was to examine the difference in demographic data and clinical characteristics between the caregivers with and without depressive disorders. In addition, a stepwise forward model of logistic regression was used to test the possible risk factors. One hundred and forty-three caregivers were included in the study. The most prevalent psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder (14.7%), followed by adjustment disorder (13.3%). Nearly one-third of the caregivers had a psychiatric diagnosis. By using logistic regression analysis, it was found that unemployment (odds ratio (OR) = 3.16; 95% CI, 1.04-9.68), lower social functioning (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.18-1.72), and lower educational level (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34) were significant risk factors for the depressive disorder. The clinical implication of our results is the value of using the standardized structured interview for early diagnosis of depressive disorder in caregivers of head and neck cancer patients. Early screening and management of depression in these caregivers will raise their quality of life and capability to care patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Exploding Head Syndrome:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Ganguly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exploding head syndrome (EHS is a rare parasomnia in which affected individuals awaken from sleep with the sensation of a loud bang. The etiology is unknown, but other conditions including primary and secondary headache disorders and nocturnal seizures need to be excluded. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old Indian male presented with four separate episodes of awakening from sleep at night after hearing a flashing sound on the right side of his head over the last 2 years. These events were described ‘as if there are explosions in my head’. A neurologic examination, imaging studies, and a polysomnogram ensued, and the results led to the diagnosis of EHS. Conclusion: EHS is a benign, uncommon, predominately nocturnal disorder that is self-limited. No treatment is generally required. Reassurance to the patient is often all that is needed.

  2. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  3. Bone changes in the condylar head and mandibular fossa in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Helical CT observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimahara, Satoru; Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Shimahara, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether bone changes are present in sites impossible to observe by panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination, namely the medial of the condylar head and mandibular fossa, in patients with type IV temporomandibular joint disorders. We observed the articular fossa using computed tomography, which is able to obtain detailed 3-dimensional information, in patients with type IV temporomandibular disorders. We examined 120 joints of 60 patiens who visited the Department of Oral Surgery, Osaka Medical College Hospital. Each condylar head was clearly visualized in panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination findings, and shown to have possible changes unilaterally. Each joint was diagnosed as type IV, according to the diagnostic guidelines set by Japanese Society for Temporomandibular Joint, and further examined using helical CT. Changes in condylar head; We concluded that bone changes were present with considerable probability in the medial of condylar head in a manner similar to those found in the lateral and center of joints with type IV temporomandibular disorders. Changes in mandibular fossa; The bone changes occurred in various locations of the mandibular fossa, while they appeared significantly more frequently in the condylar head. We think that our finding will contribute to development of treatment strategies for temporomandibular disorders, as they clarify bone changes in sites previously unreported. (author)

  4. Costs of head-end incineration with respect to Kr separation in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Boehnert, R.

    1976-07-15

    The C-incinerations and the Kr-separations during head-end incineration in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements are described. The costs for constructing an operating a head-end incineration of reprocessing capacities with 5,000 to 50,000 MW(e)-HTR power have been determined. The cost estimates are divided into investment and operating costs, further after the fraction of the N/sub 2/-content in the incineration exhaust gas, which strongly affects costs. It appears that, in the case of Kr-separation from the incineration exhaust gas, the investment costs as well as the operating costs of the head-end for N/sub 2/-containing exhaust gas are considerably greater than those for gas without N/sub 2/. The C-incineration of the graphite of the HTR fuel elements should therefore only be performed with influx gas that is free of N/sub 2/.

  5. Mild head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasle, Veronique; Riffaud, Laurent; Longuet, Romain; Martineau-Curt, Marie; Collet, Yann; Le Fournier, Luc; Pladys, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Post-concussion syndrome is a well-described complication following moderate and severe head trauma but whether it occurs after mild head injury in children remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to mild head injury with potential additional risk factors (non-surgical lesion on computed tomographic, high kinetic trauma, or Glasgow Coma Scale <15) is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after the head trauma. This study was performed in an emergency department on children admitted between 2009 and 2013. It compared victims of mild head injury aged 6-16 years with matched children presenting isolated non-surgical forearm fracture (ratio1/2). ADHD was assessed using Conners' Global Index-Parent short version 3-40 months after the trauma. The patients were compared using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, t test or u-test as appropriate with a p value set at 0.05. During the study period, 676 patients were admitted for mild head injury. Among them, 34 (5 %) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were compared with 64 matched patients admitted for a forearm fracture. The groups were comparable. ADHD was observed in both groups (18 % in the mild head injury group, 11 % in the control group) with no significant differences between groups. The prevalence was high when compared to an expected frequency of 3.5-5.6 % in children aged 6-12 years in the general population. These results suggest that pre-existing ADHD may have contributed to injury proneness in both groups and does not argue for a specific risk of ADHD induced by mild head injury. The diagnosis of ADHD should be evoked at admission of children aged 6-16 years presenting with a trauma.

  6. A prospective study of fetal head growth, autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Laura M. E.; Dass, Alena; Alvares, Gail; van der Ende, Jan; Schoemaker, Nikita K.; El Marroun, Hanan; Hickey, Martha; Pennell, Craig; White, Scott; Maybery, Murray T.; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning; McIntosh, Will; Whitehouse, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Altered trajectories of brain growth are often reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly during the first year of life. However, less is known about prenatal head growth trajectories, and no study has examined the relation with postnatal autistic symptom severity. The current study prospectively examined the association between fetal head growth and the spectrum of autistic symptom severity in two large population‐based cohorts, including a sample of individuals with clinically diagnosed ASD. This study included 3,820 children from two longitudinal prenatal cohorts in The Netherlands and Australia, comprising 60 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. Latent growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between fetal head circumference measured at three different time points and autistic traits measured in postnatal life using either the Social Responsiveness Scale or the Autism‐Spectrum Quotient. While lower initial prenatal HC was weakly associated with increasing autistic traits in the Dutch cohort, this relationship was not observed in the Australian cohort, nor when the two cohorts were analysed together. No differences in prenatal head growth were found between individuals with ASD and controls. This large population‐based study identified no consistent association across two cohorts between prenatal head growth and postnatal autistic traits. Our mixed findings suggest that further research in this area is needed. Autism Res 2018, 11: 602–612. © 2018 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Lay Summary It is not known whether different patterns of postnatal brain growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) also occurs prenatally. We examined fetal head growth and autistic symptoms in two large groups from The Netherlands and Australia. Lower initial prenatal head circumference was associated with autistic traits in the Dutch, but not the Australian

  7. A prospective study of fetal head growth, autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Laura M E; Dass, Alena; Alvares, Gail; van der Ende, Jan; Schoemaker, Nikita K; El Marroun, Hanan; Hickey, Martha; Pennell, Craig; White, Scott; Maybery, Murray T; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; McIntosh, Will; White, Tonya; Whitehouse, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Altered trajectories of brain growth are often reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly during the first year of life. However, less is known about prenatal head growth trajectories, and no study has examined the relation with postnatal autistic symptom severity. The current study prospectively examined the association between fetal head growth and the spectrum of autistic symptom severity in two large population-based cohorts, including a sample of individuals with clinically diagnosed ASD. This study included 3,820 children from two longitudinal prenatal cohorts in The Netherlands and Australia, comprising 60 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. Latent growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between fetal head circumference measured at three different time points and autistic traits measured in postnatal life using either the Social Responsiveness Scale or the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. While lower initial prenatal HC was weakly associated with increasing autistic traits in the Dutch cohort, this relationship was not observed in the Australian cohort, nor when the two cohorts were analysed together. No differences in prenatal head growth were found between individuals with ASD and controls. This large population-based study identified no consistent association across two cohorts between prenatal head growth and postnatal autistic traits. Our mixed findings suggest that further research in this area is needed. Autism Res 2018, 11: 602-612. © 2018 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. It is not known whether different patterns of postnatal brain growth in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) also occurs prenatally. We examined fetal head growth and autistic symptoms in two large groups from The Netherlands and Australia. Lower initial prenatal head circumference was associated with autistic traits in the Dutch, but not the Australian, group. No differences

  8. A prospective study of fetal head growth, autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.E. Blanken (Laura); Dass, A. (Alena); Alvares, G. (Gail); J. van der Ende (Jan); N.K. Schoemaker (Nikita); H. El Marroun (Hanan); Hickey, M. (Martha); C.E. Pennell (Craig); White, S. (Scott); Maybery, M.T. (Murray T.); Dissanayake, C. (Cheryl); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); McIntosh, W. (Will); T.J.H. White (Tonya); A.J.O. Whitehouse (Andrew)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAltered trajectories of brain growth are often reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly during the first year of life. However, less is known about prenatal head growth trajectories, and no study has examined the relation with postnatal autistic symptom severity. The

  9. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Objective: The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method: The sample included 38,993 adults in 18

  10. Shining light on the head: Photobiomodulation for brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Hamblin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia, degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder. There is some evidence that all these seemingly diverse conditions can be beneficially affected by applying light to the head. There is even the possibility that PBM could be used for cognitive enhancement in normal healthy people. In this transcranial PBM (tPBM application, near-infrared (NIR light is often applied to the forehead because of the better penetration (no hair, longer wavelength. Some workers have used lasers, but recently the introduction of inexpensive light emitting diode (LED arrays has allowed the development of light emitting helmets or “brain caps”. This review will cover the mechanisms of action of photobiomodulation to the brain, and summarize some of the key pre-clinical studies and clinical trials that have been undertaken for diverse brain disorders.

  11. Disorders of the long head of the biceps tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, N; Wright, R; Yamaguchi, K

    1999-01-01

    Without a clear understanding of the functional role of the biceps tendon, treatment recommendations have been a subject of controversy. An objective review of the available information would suggest that some humeral head stability may be imparted through the tendon. However, the magnitude of this function is likely to be small and possibly insignificant. In contrast, the symptomatic significance of the long head of the biceps is less controversial, and it has become increasingly recognized as an important source of persistent shoulder pain when not specifically addressed. When present, persistent pain from the long head of the biceps is likely to have more negative functional consequences than loss of the tendon itself. Given these concerns, evaluation and treatment of patients with long head of the biceps disorders should be individualized, based on the likelihood that biceps-related pain will resolve. Although not universally accepted, we recommend tenodesis of the long head of the biceps in those cases in which there are either chronic inflammatory or structural changes, which would make it unlikely that the pain would resolve. These clinical situations in which tenodesis would be required include greater than 25% partial thickness tearing of the tendon, chronic atrophic changes of the tendon, any luxation of the biceps tendon from the bicipital groove, any disruption of associated bony or ligamentous anatomy of the bicipital groove that would make autotenodesis likely (i.e., 4-part fracture), and any significant reduction or atrophy of the size of the tendon that is more than 25% of the normal tendon width. Relative indications for biceps tenodesis also include biceps disease in the context of a failed decompression for rotator cuff tendinitis. It should be emphasized that routine tenodesis is not recommended during operative treatment for the rotator cuff. Rather, we avoid tenodesis whenever it is believed that inflammatory changes to the biceps tendon are

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder: Two separate disorders or do they share a common etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan P; Hasue, Renata H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Oliveira, Jorge A

    2015-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been described as the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent childhood movement disorders. The overlap between the two conditions is estimated to be around 50%, with both substantially interfering with functioning and development, and leading to poorer psychosocial outcomes. This review provides an overview of the relationship between ADHD and DCD, discussing the common presenting features, etiology, neural basis, as well as associated deficits in motor functioning, attention and executive functioning. It is currently unclear which specific motor and cognitive difficulties are intrinsic to each disorder as many studies of ADHD have not been screened for DCD and vice-versa. The evidence supporting common brain underpinnings is still very limited, but studies using well defined samples have pointed to non-shared underpinnings for ADHD and DCD. The current paper suggests that ADHD and DCD are separate disorders that may require different treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Charge separation at disordered semiconductor heterojunctions from random walk numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandujano-Ramírez, Humberto J; González-Vázquez, José P; Oskam, Gerko; Dittrich, Thomas; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Mora-Seró, Iván; Bisquert, Juan; Anta, Juan A

    2014-03-07

    Many recent advances in novel solar cell technologies are based on charge separation in disordered semiconductor heterojunctions. In this work we use the Random Walk Numerical Simulation (RWNS) method to model the dynamics of electrons and holes in two disordered semiconductors in contact. Miller-Abrahams hopping rates and a tunnelling distance-dependent electron-hole annihilation mechanism are used to model transport and recombination, respectively. To test the validity of the model, three numerical "experiments" have been devised: (1) in the absence of constant illumination, charge separation has been quantified by computing surface photovoltage (SPV) transients. (2) By applying a continuous generation of electron-hole pairs, the model can be used to simulate a solar cell under steady-state conditions. This has been exploited to calculate open-circuit voltages and recombination currents for an archetypical bulk heterojunction solar cell (BHJ). (3) The calculations have been extended to nanostructured solar cells with inorganic sensitizers to study, specifically, non-ideality in the recombination rate. The RWNS model in combination with exponential disorder and an activated tunnelling mechanism for transport and recombination is shown to reproduce correctly charge separation parameters in these three "experiments". This provides a theoretical basis to study relevant features of novel solar cell technologies.

  14. Avoidant Personality Disorder is a Separable Schizophrenia Spectrum Personality Disorder even when Controlling for the Presence of Paranoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Nuechterlein, K. H.; Asarnow, R. A.; Payne, D. L.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be a separable dimension of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs.

  15. Separation anxiety disorder from the perspective of DSM-5: clinical investigation among subjects with panic disorder and associations with mood disorders spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesi, Camilla; Abelli, Marianna; Cardini, Alessandra; Lari, Lisa; Di Paolo, Luca; Silove, Derrick; Pini, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    High levels of comorbidity between separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) and panic disorder (PD) have been found in clinical settings. In addition, there is some evidence for a relationship involving bipolar disorder (BD) and combined PD and SEPAD. We aim to investigate the prevalence and correlates of SEPAD among patients with PD and whether the presence of SEPAD is associated with frank diagnoses of mood disorders or with mood spectrum symptoms. Adult outpatients (235) with PD were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS), and the Mood Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (MOODS-SR, lifetime version). Of ther 235 subjects, 125 (53.2%) were categorized as having SEPAD and 110 (46.8%) as not. Groups did not differ regarding onset of PD, lifetime prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, simple phobia, BD I and II, or major depressive disorder (MDD). SEPAD subjects were more likely to be female and younger; they showed higher rates of childhood SEPAD, higher PDSS scores, and higher MOODS-SR total and manic component scores than subjects without SEPAD. Discussion SEPAD is highly prevalent among PD subjects. Patients with both PD and SEPAD show higher lifetime mood spectrum symptoms than patients with PD alone. Specifically, SEPAD is correlated with the manic/hypomanic spectrum component. Our data confirm the high prevalence of SEPAD in clinical settings. Moreover, our findings corroborate a relationship between mood disorders and SEPAD, highlighting a relationship between lifetime mood spectrum symptoms and SEPAD.

  16. Radiation-induced camptocormia and dropped head syndrome. Review and case report of radiation-induced movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Clemens; Kuhnt, Thomas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hering, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, camptocormia and dropped head syndrome (DHS) have gained attention as particular forms of movement disorders. Camptocormia presents with involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that typically increases during walking or standing and may severely impede walking ability. DHS is characterized by weakness of the neck extensors and a consecutive inability to extend the neck; in severe cases the head is fixed in a ''chin to chest position.'' Many diseases may underlie these conditions, and there have been some reports about radiation-induced camptocormia and DHS. A PubMed search with the keywords ''camptocormia,'' ''dropped head syndrome,'' ''radiation-induced myopathy,'' ''radiation-induced neuropathy,'' and ''radiation-induced movement disorder'' was carried out to better characterize radiation-induced movement disorders and the radiation techniques involved. In addition, the case of a patient developing camptocormia 23 years after radiation therapy of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen is described. In total, nine case series of radiation-induced DHS (n = 45 patients) and - including our case - three case reports (n = 3 patients) about radiogenic camptocormia were retrieved. Most cases (40/45 patients) occurred less than 15 years after radiotherapy involving extended fields for Hodgkin's disease. The use of wide radiation fields including many spinal segments with paraspinal muscles may lead to radiation-induced movement disorders. If paraspinal muscles and the thoracolumbar spine are involved, the clinical presentation can be that of camptocormia. DHS may result if there is involvement of the cervical spine. To prevent these disorders, sparing of the spine and paraspinal muscles is desirable. (orig.) [de

  17. Disorders of the long head of the biceps: tenotomy versus tenodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Ursolino, André Petry Sandoval; Ramos, Vinicius Ferreira Lima; Takesian, Fernando Hovaguim; Tenor Júnior, Antonio Carlos; Costa, Miguel Pereira da

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of the long head of biceps tendon are common in clinical practice. Their causes could be degenerative, inflammatory, instability (subluxation or luxation) or traumatic. They are generally associated to other diseases of the shoulder, mainly rotator cuff injuries. Currently, there is controversy in the literature regarding the indications for surgical treatment and the choice of the best technique for each case, due to the possibility of esthetic deformity, loss of muscle strength, and residual pain. The objective of this study was to identify the indications for surgical treatment, the best surgical technique, and the advantages and disadvantages of each technique described in the orthopedic literature for the treatment of long head of biceps tendon injuries. A revision of the orthopedic medical literature on the following databases: Biblioteca Regional de Medicina (BIREME), Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar, comprising articles published in the period from 1991 to 2015.

  18. Analysis of the frequency and degree of temporomandibular disorder in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Roberto Pegoraro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Head and neck cancer is responsible for an increasing incidence of primary malignant neoplasm cases worldwide. Radiotherapy is one of the treatments of choice for this type of cancer, but it can cause adverse effects, such as temporomandibular disorder. The objective of this study was to characterize the degree and frequency of temporomandibular disorder in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Method: This research was quantitative, descriptive and exploratory. The sample consisted of 22 patients that answered assessment questions and the Helkimo anamnestic questionnaire, modified by Fonseca (1992. The data were collected from May to October 2014, and statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test, with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results: Of the 22 patients, 86.4 % were male, with a mean age of 58.86 ± 9.41 years. Temporomandibular disorder was present in 31.8% of the subjects, based on the assessment prior to radiotherapy, and in 59.1% in the post-treatment assessment. Among all questions, the most frequent was "Do you use only one side of the mouth to chew?" with 22.7% "yes" answers, both at the first assessment and at the post treatment. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, temporomandibular disorder is a disease that is present with a high prevalence in people diagnosed with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  19. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  20. Ambiguity in the Manifestation of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder Occurring in Complex Anxiety Presentations: Two Clinical Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate

    2009-01-01

    Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…

  1. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Childhood as a Risk Factor for Future Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the association between childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and the risk of the development of psychopathology during young adulthood was conducted. Results showed that SAD contributed to the risk for the development of internalizing disorders, which are panic and depression, but decreased the risk for externalizing…

  2. Automatic Speech Recognition Systems for the Evaluation of Voice and Speech Disorders in Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Maier; Tino Haderlein; Florian Stelzle; Elmar Nöth; Emeka Nkenke; Frank Rosanowski; Anne Schützenberger; Maria Schuster

    2010-01-01

    In patients suffering from head and neck cancer, speech intelligibility is often restricted. For assessment and outcome measurements, automatic speech recognition systems have previously been shown to be appropriate for objective and quick evaluation of intelligibility. In this study we investigate the applicability of the method to speech disorders caused by head and neck cancer. Intelligibility was quantified by speech recognition on recordings of a standard text read by 41 German laryngect...

  3. [Separation anxiety disorder in a sample of children of divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés Amorós, Mireia; Espada Sánchez, José Pedro; Méndez Carrillo, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    Anxiety in children through separation from parents is one of the most frequent psychological problems in the infantile population. Children of divorce are more vulnerable to suffer this disorder due to the abrupt separation from one of the parents after the break-up, which they may experience as a traumatic event that predisposes them to react anxiously in daily separations. The purpose of this study is to examine the presence of symptoms of separation anxiety and general anxiety in a Spanish sample of 95 students of ages between 8 and 12 years. They were compared to a group of children of similar ages and sex whose parents are not divorced. The results show that children of divorce present higher levels of separation anxiety than the children whose parents remain together. Moreover, they show significant levels of generalized anxiety, but similar to that of the other group of children (undivorced parents). The clinical implications of these findings are discussed, emphasizing the importance of cooperation and frequent contact of the children with both parents to promote their security and autonomy.

  4. The Evaluation of Head and Craniocervical Posture among Patients with and without Temporomandibular Joint Disorders- A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddu, Shweta Channavir; Dyasanoor, Sujatha; Valappila, Nidhin J; Ravi, Beena Varma

    2015-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most common non-dental cause of orofacial pain with a multifactorial aetiology. To evaluate the head and craniocervical posture between individuals with and without TMD and its sub types by photographic and radiographic method. Thirty four TMD patients diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD's (RDC/TMD) and were divided into 2 groups: Group I (muscle disorder), Group II (disc displacement). Control group comprised of 34 age and sex matched subjects without TMD. Lateral view photographs were taken and the head posture angle was measured. Craniocervical posture was assessed on lateral skull radiograph with two angles (Craniocervical Angle, Cervical Curvature Angle) and two distances (Suboccipital Space, Atlas-Axis Distance). To compare the results, t-test was used with significance level of 0.05. Head posture showed no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05) between Group I, II and control group in both photographic and radiographic methods. The cervical curvature angle showed significant difference (p = 0.045) in Group I only. Atlas-Axis Distance was statistically significant in Group II (p = 0.001). The present study confirmed that there is a negative association of head posture and TMD whereas, cervical lordosis was present in Group I only.

  5. Head trauma and CT with special reference to diagnosis of complications of head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitose

    1979-01-01

    Cases in which CT was useful for the diagnosis of complications of head trauma were reported. First, complications of head trauma were given an outline, and then, cases of protrusion of the brain, traumatic pneumocephalus, and cerebro-vascular disorders caused by head trauma were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Report on the Recovery of a Personality Problem in a Case with Borderline Personality Disorder after Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nasiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Borderline personality disorder which constantly changes the mood, identity and interpersonal relationship is a mental disorder classified in category B. Besides, it leads to behaviors such as drug abuse, impulsive sex and suicide which make more difficult the treatment of these patients. The aim of this study was to report the recovery of a personality problem in a case with borderline personality disorder after the head trauma. CASE REPORT: The personality signs of a 28-year-old boy who had the full criteria of borderline personality disorder including drug abuse, impulsivity, mood instability, periods of anger and aggression were significantly decreased after hitting. Personality difference and improvement of patient were shown in MMPI test and MRI indicated the structural changes in his brain. He had no problem in 4-year-follow up. CONCLUSION: This report suggested the personality and behavioral changes after head trauma. MRI results indicated that the recovery is probably caused by the destruction area in the frontal lobe and the anterior temporal lobe (near the hippocampus. Thus the importance of neuropsychological factors should be considered in creating the diagnostic criteria.

  7. Parental Attachment, Psychological Separation and Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.

    In this study the relationship of parental attachment and psychological separation to levels of eating disorder symptoms was examined for a sample of college women (N=162) from English classes at a private, urban, coeducational Jesuit university in the northeast. Participants resonded to the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, the Parental…

  8. Super spin-charge separation for class A, C and D disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClair, Andre; Robinson, Dean J

    2008-01-01

    We prove versions of super spin-charge separation for all three of the symmetry groups SU(N), Sp(2N) and SO(N) of disordered Dirac fermions in 2 + 1 dimensions, which involve the supercurrent algebras gl(1|1) N ,osp(2|2) -2N and osp(2|2) N respectively. For certain restricted classes of disordered potentials, the latter supercurrent algebra based conformal field theories can arise as non-trivial low energy fixed points. For all cases with such a fixed point, we compute the density of states exponents as a function of N. (fast track communication)

  9. Radiation-induced camptocormia and dropped head syndrome. Review and case report of radiation-induced movement disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Clemens; Kuhnt, Thomas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hering, Kathrin [Leipzig University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, camptocormia and dropped head syndrome (DHS) have gained attention as particular forms of movement disorders. Camptocormia presents with involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that typically increases during walking or standing and may severely impede walking ability. DHS is characterized by weakness of the neck extensors and a consecutive inability to extend the neck; in severe cases the head is fixed in a ''chin to chest position.'' Many diseases may underlie these conditions, and there have been some reports about radiation-induced camptocormia and DHS. A PubMed search with the keywords ''camptocormia,'' ''dropped head syndrome,'' ''radiation-induced myopathy,'' ''radiation-induced neuropathy,'' and ''radiation-induced movement disorder'' was carried out to better characterize radiation-induced movement disorders and the radiation techniques involved. In addition, the case of a patient developing camptocormia 23 years after radiation therapy of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen is described. In total, nine case series of radiation-induced DHS (n = 45 patients) and - including our case - three case reports (n = 3 patients) about radiogenic camptocormia were retrieved. Most cases (40/45 patients) occurred less than 15 years after radiotherapy involving extended fields for Hodgkin's disease. The use of wide radiation fields including many spinal segments with paraspinal muscles may lead to radiation-induced movement disorders. If paraspinal muscles and the thoracolumbar spine are involved, the clinical presentation can be that of camptocormia. DHS may result if there is involvement of the cervical spine. To prevent these disorders, sparing of the spine and paraspinal muscles is desirable. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren haben Bewegungsstoerungen von Wirbelsaeule und paraspinaler Muskulatur in

  10. Prevalence of communication disorders in HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallail, K James; Downs, David; Scherz, Julie; Sweet, Donna; Zackula, Rosalee E

    2014-01-01

    Few adult patients with HIV/AIDS are evaluated for communication disorders. A broad inventory of the communication disorders was obtained in a convenience sample of 82 adult HIV/AIDS patients who presented for medical appointments. Each participant underwent a head and neck exam and a communications skills evaluation. Speech, language, and cognition were assessed using a 10-item test battery. A 14-item hearing test battery was conducted in a separate session. The primary outcomes were the presence and degree of communication disorders. Head and neck exams revealed 40% with ear-related issues. Only 2 participants showed normal findings on all 24 communication skills assessments. Four demonstrated normal findings on all speech-language-cognitive assessments, whereas 8 had normal findings on the complete hearing test battery. A relatively high prevalence of cognitive and language deficits and central auditory disturbances were found. Clinicians must recognize the potential for communication deficits even in a relatively healthy patient with HIV.

  11. Significance of head CT in neuro-ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Yuichiro; Masuyama, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Yasuko; Fujimoto, Toshiro.

    1979-01-01

    It is important to perform CT purposefully in patients with some neuro-ophthalmological disorders. Using Hitachi CT-H250 with the finer matrix of 256 x 256 and a section thickness of 5 mm and 10 mm, we performed head CT in 98 patients with various kinds of neuro-ophthalmological disorders in these 30 months. Neuro-ophthalmological findings in these patients were visual disturbance, visual field defects (hemianopsia, quandrantanopsia, enlargement of the blind spot, central scotoma), papilledema, optic nerve atrophy, difficulties in ocular movements, and others. In 44 (44.9%) of these 98 patients, abnormal findings were displayed in the head CT, characterizing intracranial tumors, intracranial infarction, aneurysms in intracranial vessels, arterio-venous malformation, enlargement of the ventricle or the cistern. In some cases the head CT was the decisive procedure in ensuring a correct diagnosis. We presented findings in the head CT in several interesting cases. We recognized the necessity of the head CT in patients with neuro-ophthalmological disorders. (author)

  12. Avoidant personality disorder is a separable schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder even when controlling for the presence of paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders The UCLA family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, D L; Nuechterlein, K H; Asarnow, R A; Payne, D L; Subotnik, K L; Jacobson, K C; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S

    2007-03-01

    It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be separable dimensions of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs. Rates of APD among first-degree Rels of Sz probands, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) probands, and community control (CC) probands were examined. Further analyses examined rates when controlling for the presence of schizotypal (SPD) and paranoid (PPD) personality disorders, differences in APD Sxs between relative groups, and whether APD in Rels of Szs reflects a near miss for another Sz-spectrum PD. Three hundred sixty-two first-degree Rels of Sz probands, 201 relatives of ADHD probands, and 245 Rels of CC probands were interviewed for the presence of DSM-III-R Axis I and II disorders. Diagnoses, integrating family history, interview information, and medical records, were determined. APD occurred more frequently in Rels of Sz probands compared to CC probands (pavoids social or occupational activities..." and "exaggerates the potential difficulties..." 65% of the Rels of Sz probands who had diagnoses of APD were more than one criterion short of a DSM-III-R diagnosis of either SPD or PPD. This indicates that APD is a separate Sz-spectrum disorder, and not merely a sub-clinical form of SPD or PPD.

  13. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Is there a relationship between head posture and craniomandibular pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; De Boer, W; Lobbezoo, F; Habets, L L M H; Naeije, M

    2002-11-01

    An often-suggested factor in the aetiology of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) is an anteroposition of the head. However, the results of clinical studies to the relationship between CMD and head posture are contradictory. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine differences in head posture between well-defined CMD pain patients with or without a painful cervical spine disorder and healthy controls. The second aim was to determine differences in head posture between myogenous and arthrogenous CMD pain patients and controls. Two hundred and fifty persons entered the study. From each person, a standardized oral history was taken and blind physical examinations of the masticatory system and of the neck were performed. The participants were only included into one of the subgroups when the presence or absence of their symptoms was confirmed by the results of the physical examination. Head posture was quantified using lateral photographs and a lateral radiograph of the head and the cervical spine. After correction for age and gender effects, no difference in head posture was found between any of the patient and non-patient groups (P > 0.27). Therefore, this study does not support the suggestion that painful craniomandibular disorders, with or without a painful cervical spine disorder, are related to head posture.

  15. A screening algorithm for early detection of major depressive disorder in head and neck cancer patients post-treatment: Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Melissa; Rosberger, Zeev; Ianovski, Lola E; Hier, Michael; Zeitouni, Anthony; Kost, Karen; Mlynarek, Alex; Black, Martin; MacDonald, Christina; Richardson, Keith; Zhang, Xun; Fuhrmann, Fabienne; Chartier, Gabrielle; Frenkiel, Saul

    2018-03-13

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify predictors of Major Depressive Disorder in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients in the immediate post-treatment period (ie, at 3 months post-diagnosis), with a focus on previously unexamined historical and contextual factors. Prospective longitudinal study of 223 consecutive adults (72% participation) newly diagnosed with a first occurrence of primary HNC, including validated psychometric measures, Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM Disorders, and medical chart reviews. The 3-month period prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder was 20.4%; with point prevalences of 6.8% upon HNC diagnosis, 14.2% at 3 months, and 22.6% lifetime. Patients most susceptible to developing Major Depressive Disorder in the immediate post-treatment period: were diagnosed with advanced-stage cancer rather than early-stage cancer (O.R. = 4.94, P = 0.04), received surgery only (O.R. = 8.73, P = 0.04), presented a lifetime history of Anxiety Disorder on SCID-I (O.R. = 6.62; P = 0.01), and indicated higher pre-treatment levels of anxiety on the HADS (O.R. = 0.45, P = 0.05). Our results outline the predominant role of anxiety upon diagnosis as a precursor to post-treatment Major Depressive Disorder, suggesting the need for identification and prophylactic treatment of anxiety upon diagnosis in head and neck cancer patients. Further investigation into pathways by which pre-treatment anxiety predisposes to post-treatment Major Depressive Disorder in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  17. School refusal associated with separation anxiety disorder; an adolescent case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yasin Irmak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In literature, there are lots of studies about separation anxiety disorder (SAD and school refusal. Of the patients in these studies, it is generally known to child age group. In this paper, we aimed to draw attention to an adolescent patient with SAD who admitted to our clinic with complaint of school refusal and there is SAD under his unwillingness to go to school. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 357-360

  18. Automatic Speech Recognition Systems for the Evaluation of Voice and Speech Disorders in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Maier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients suffering from head and neck cancer, speech intelligibility is often restricted. For assessment and outcome measurements, automatic speech recognition systems have previously been shown to be appropriate for objective and quick evaluation of intelligibility. In this study we investigate the applicability of the method to speech disorders caused by head and neck cancer. Intelligibility was quantified by speech recognition on recordings of a standard text read by 41 German laryngectomized patients with cancer of the larynx or hypopharynx and 49 German patients who had suffered from oral cancer. The speech recognition provides the percentage of correctly recognized words of a sequence, that is, the word recognition rate. Automatic evaluation was compared to perceptual ratings by a panel of experts and to an age-matched control group. Both patient groups showed significantly lower word recognition rates than the control group. Automatic speech recognition yielded word recognition rates which complied with experts' evaluation of intelligibility on a significant level. Automatic speech recognition serves as a good means with low effort to objectify and quantify the most important aspect of pathologic speech—the intelligibility. The system was successfully applied to voice and speech disorders.

  19. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cable-driven elastic parallel humanoid head with face tracking for Autism Spectrum Disorder interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Dickstein-Fischer, Laurie; Harrington, Kevin; Fu, Qiushi; Lu, Weina; Huang, Haibo; Cole, Gregory; Fischer, Gregory S

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of new prismatic actuation approach and its application in human-safe humanoid head design. To reduce actuator output impedance and mitigate unexpected external shock, the prismatic actuation method uses cables to drive a piston with preloaded spring. By leveraging the advantages of parallel manipulator and cable-driven mechanism, the developed neck has a parallel manipulator embodiment with two cable-driven limbs embedded with preloaded springs and one passive limb. The eye mechanism is adapted for low-cost webcam with succinct "ball-in-socket" structure. Based on human head anatomy and biomimetics, the neck has 3 degree of freedom (DOF) motion: pan, tilt and one decoupled roll while each eye has independent pan and synchronous tilt motion (3 DOF eyes). A Kalman filter based face tracking algorithm is implemented to interact with the human. This neck and eye structure is translatable to other human-safe humanoid robots. The robot's appearance reflects a non-threatening image of a penguin, which can be translated into a possible therapeutic intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

  1. Patterns of family identification and self-congruence in childhood separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter-Meunier, Judith C; Lavallee, Kristen L; Schneider, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of identification among family members may differ in families with children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD) as compared with healthy children. However, this has not been explored to date. The present study examines identification processes in 199 families: 100 families of children with SAD, 43 families of children with other anxiety disorders, and 56 families of nondisordered children, using the Family Identification Test. Children with SAD and their parents generally identify significantly less with each other and report less desire to be similar to each other than nondisordered children and their parents. Further, children with SAD are less self-congruent than healthy children. There were no significant differences between children with SAD and with other anxiety disorders. Identification and self-congruence distinguish families of children with SAD from families of healthy children. Future studies should aim to determine the direction of effects over time, as well as to determine the contribution of identification and coherence in explaining SAD after accounting for other factors such as attachment and self-esteem. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder and head injury as a dual diagnosis: "islands" of memory as a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N S

    1997-01-01

    This case study describes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and head injury after a road traffic accident involving a pedestrian. Previous studies have proposed two mechanisms by which this dual diagnosis may occur: (1) when post-traumatic amnesia and retrograde amnesia are small or non-existent and (2) when non-declarative memory systems for the traumatic event are in operation. This case study demonstrates a third mechanism--"islands" of memory within post-traumatic amnesia.

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posluszny, Donna M; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Johnson, Jonas T; Argiris, Athanassios; Ferris, Robert L; Baum, Andrew; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer is a life-threatening illness requiring aversive treatments. Despite clear potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in both patients and their partners, research is scant. Newly diagnosed patients and partners (number of dyads = 42) completed questionnaires to assess symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, as well as demographic, medical, and attitudinal variables. Partners had higher average levels of PTSD symptoms than patients (p = .023). More partners (28.6%) met criteria for estimated PTSD caseness than did patients (11.9%). There were no significant differences in levels of other anxiety or depression symptoms. Perceived threat of disease appeared to be a stronger correlate of PTSD symptom levels than medical variables in patients and partners. A diagnosis of head and neck cancer elicits significant levels of PTSD symptoms in patients, and even higher levels among partners. Identified correlates of distress, including perceived threat of disease, are potential intervention targets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Course and Short-Term Outcomes of Separation Anxiety Disorder in a Community Sample of Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L.; Pickles, Andrew; Maes, Hermine M.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the course and short-term outcomes associated with separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a community setting. Method: The subjects were 161 of 2,061 8- to 17-year-old twins with SAD from a community-based twin study. Subjects were born between 1974 and 1983. Subjects and parents were personally interviewed about the subject's…

  5. Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders after Nonsurgical Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira, Marta Halina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy can result in severe swallowing disorders with potential risk for aspiration and can negatively impact the patient's quality of life (QOL. Objective To assess swallowing-related QOL in patients who underwent radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Methods We interviewed 110 patients (85 men and 25 women who had undergone exclusive radiotherapy (25.5% or concomitant chemoradiotherapy (74.5% from 6 to 12 months before the study. The Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders (SWAL-QOL questionnaire was employed to evaluate dysphagia-related QOL. Results The QOL was reduced in all domains for all patients. The scores were worse among men. There was a relationship between oral cavity as the primary cancer site and the fatigue domain and also between advanced cancer stage and the impact of food selection, communication, and social function domains. Chemoradiotherapy association, the presence of nasogastric tube and tracheotomy, and the persistence of alcoholism and smoking had also a negative effect on the QOL. Conclusions According to the SWAL-QOL questionnaire, the dysphagia-related impact on QOL was observed 6 to 12 months after the treatment ended.

  6. The use of botulinum toxin in head and face medicine: An interdisciplinary field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskawi Rainer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this review article different interdisciplinary relevant applications of botulinum toxin type A (BTA in the head and face region are demonstrated. Patients with head and face disorders of different etiology often suffer from disorders concerning their musculature (example: synkinesis in mimic muscles or gland-secretion. This leads to many problems and reduces their quality of life. The application of BTA can improve movement disorders like blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, synkinesis following defective healing of the facial nerve, palatal tremor, severe bruxism, oromandibular dystonias hypertrophy of the masseter muscle and disorders of the autonomous nerve system like hypersalivation, hyperlacrimation, pathological sweating and intrinsic rhinitis. Conclusion The application of botulinum toxin type A is a helpful and minimally invasive treatment option to improve the quality of life in patients with head and face disorders of different quality and etiology. Side effects are rare.

  7. Lifelong opioidergic vulnerability through early life separation: a recent extension of the false suffocation alarm theory of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F

    2014-10-01

    The present paper is the edited version of our presentations at the "First World Symposium On Translational Models Of Panic Disorder", in Vitoria, E.S., Brazil, on November 16-18, 2012. We also review relevant work that appeared after the conference. Suffocation-False Alarm Theory (Klein, 1993) postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. The expanded Suffocation-False Alarm Theory (Preter and Klein, 2008) hypothesizes that endogenous opioidergic dysregulation may underlie the respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in panic disorder. Opioidergic dysregulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. That sudden loss, bereavement and childhood separation anxiety are also antecedents of "spontaneous" panic requires an integrative explanation. Our work unveiling the lifelong endogenous opioid system impairing effects of childhood parental loss (CPL) and parental separation in non-ill, normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vestibular apparatus disorders after external radiation therapy for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, P.; Orecchia, R.; Sannazzari, G.L.; Magnano, M.; Albera, R.

    1992-01-01

    External irradiation of different head and neck cancers may involve parts of the ear. The vestibular function of 25 patients in which the inner ear was comprised in the irradiated volume was investigated by electronystagmography (ENG). Doses administered (3/5 with vertigo) showed vestibular abnormalities to ENG (44% of the total). Altered responses to specific test were as follows : 6 patients to the bithermal caloric stimulation, to pendular-sinusoidal 2, and the other 3 to both of them. Patients were evaluated 3 and 6 months after ending of the radiation therapy course. At the 1st evaluation, abnormalities to caloric test were noted in 3 patients (12%) and to sinusoidal rotary test in 1 patient (4%). At the second rates of abnormal response increased to 36 and 20% respectively. Vestibular disorders seemed to be scantely related to total radiation dose. Data of literature are discussed in order to identify possible implications on treatment planning. (author). 33 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with a history of eating disorders in relation to head circumference and neurocognitive function of the offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Saloua; Hallstrom, Tore; Brismar, Kerstin; Hellström, Per M.; Hirschberg, Angelica Linden

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorders during pregnancy can affect fetal growth and the child?s early development, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with previous eating disorders compared to controls and in relation to head circumference and early neurocognitive development of the offspring. Methods In a longitudinal cohort study, pregnant nulliparous non-smoking women with a...

  10. Childhood separation anxiety disorder and adult onset panic attacks share a common genetic diathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Eaves, Lindon J; Hettema, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Silberg, Judy L

    2012-04-01

    Childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is hypothesized to share etiologic roots with panic disorder. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental sources of covariance between childhood SAD and adult onset panic attacks (AOPA), with the primary goal to determine whether these two phenotypes share a common genetic diathesis. Participants included parents and their monozygotic or dizygotic twins (n = 1,437 twin pairs) participating in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development and those twins who later completed the Young Adult Follow-Up (YAFU). The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment was completed at three waves during childhood/adolescence followed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R at the YAFU. Two separate, bivariate Cholesky models were fit to childhood diagnoses of SAD and overanxious disorder (OAD), respectively, and their relation with AOPA; a trivariate Cholesky model also examined the collective influence of childhood SAD and OAD on AOPA. In the best-fitting bivariate model, the covariation between SAD and AOPA was accounted for by genetic and unique environmental factors only, with the genetic factor associated with childhood SAD explaining significant variance in AOPA. Environmental risk factors were not significantly shared between SAD and AOPA. By contrast, the genetic factor associated with childhood OAD did not contribute significantly to AOPA. Results of the trivariate Cholesky reaffirmed outcomes of bivariate models. These data indicate that childhood SAD and AOPA share a common genetic diathesis that is not observed for childhood OAD, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a specific genetic etiologic link between the two phenotypes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Steric Pressure among Membrane-Bound Polymers Opposes Lipid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Zachary I; Kenyon, Laura E; Carrillo, Adelita; Espinoza, Isai; Nagib, Fatema; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2016-04-19

    Lipid rafts are thought to be key organizers of membrane-protein complexes in cells. Many proteins that interact with rafts have bulky polymeric components such as intrinsically disordered protein domains and polysaccharide chains. Therefore, understanding the interaction between membrane domains and membrane-bound polymers provides insights into the roles rafts play in cells. Multiple studies have demonstrated that high concentrations of membrane-bound polymeric domains create significant lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces. Furthermore, our recent work has shown that lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces opposes the assembly of membrane domains. Building on these findings, here we report that membrane-bound polymers are potent suppressors of membrane phase separation, which can destabilize lipid domains with substantially greater efficiency than globular domains such as membrane-bound proteins. Specifically, we created giant vesicles with a ternary lipid composition, which separated into coexisting liquid ordered and disordered phases. Lipids with saturated tails and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains conjugated to their head groups were included at increasing molar concentrations. When these lipids were sparse on the membrane surface they partitioned to the liquid ordered phase. However, as they became more concentrated, the fraction of GUVs that were phase-separated decreased dramatically, ultimately yielding a population of homogeneous membrane vesicles. Experiments and physical modeling using compositions of increasing PEG molecular weight and lipid miscibility phase transition temperature demonstrate that longer polymers are the most efficient suppressors of membrane phase separation when the energetic barrier to lipid mixing is low. In contrast, as the miscibility transition temperature increases, longer polymers are more readily driven out of domains by the increased steric pressure. Therefore, the concentration of shorter polymers required

  12. Therapeutic applications of botulinum neurotoxins in head and neck disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alshadwi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Botulinum neurotoxin therapy provides viable alternatives to traditional treatment modalities for some conditions affecting the head and neck region that have neurological components. This therapy can overcome some of the morbidities associated with conventional therapy. More research is needed to determine the ideal doses of botulinum neurotoxin to treat different diseases affecting the head and neck regions.

  13. Beliefs regarding child anxiety and parenting competence in parents of children with separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Chantal; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that numerous developmental models have highlighted the role of parental cognitive processes in connection with anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, the role of parents' beliefs about their children and parenting remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the specific association between parental beliefs and child separation anxiety. Parents of children with a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) reported on beliefs and expectations related to their child's fears and own parenting competence. To study the potential specificity of relationships, a clinical control group of mothers of children with social phobia (SoP) and a group of mothers of children without a mental disorder (healthy controls, HC) were included. Results indicated that parents of anxious children had significantly higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs than the parents in the HC group. Mothers of children with SAD showed lower levels of parenting self-efficacy than mothers of children with SoP. They also demonstrated lower parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction compared to mothers of healthy children. Parental dysfunctional beliefs about child anxiety and paternal parenting self-efficacy were significantly positively associated with child anxiety. The effects remained significant after controlling for parental anxiety and depression. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causality of the found effects cannot be inferred. Data suggest that children's anxiety and parents' beliefs about their child's anxiety, coping skills and parenting are strongly associated. Further research is needed to investigate whether addressing parental cognitions in addition to parents' anxiety may improve prevention and intervention of child anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (ppork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  15. Renormalization-group study of superfluidity and phase separation of helium mixtures immersed in a disordered porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatnikova, A.; Berker, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Superfluidity and phase separation in 3 He- 4 He mixtures immersed in aerogel are studied by renormalization-group theory. The quenched disorder imposed by aerogel, both at the atomic level and at the geometric level, is included. The calculation is conducted via the coupled renormalization-group mappings, near and away from aerogel, of the quenched probability distributions of random interactions. Random-bond effects on the onset of superfluidity and random-field effects on superfluid-superfluid phase separation are seen. The quenched randomness causes the λ line of second-order phase transitions of superfluidity onset to reach zero temperature, in agreement with general predictions and experiments. The effects of the atomic and geometric randomness of aerogel are investigated separately and jointly. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Separation from parents during childhood trauma predicts adult attachment security and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R A; Creamer, M; O'Donnell, M; Forbes, D; Felmingham, K L; Silove, D; Malhi, G; van Hoof, M; McFarlane, A C; Nickerson, A

    2017-08-01

    Prolonged separation from parental support is a risk factor for psychopathology. This study assessed the impact of brief separation from parents during childhood trauma on adult attachment tendencies and post-traumatic stress. Children (n = 806) exposed to a major Australian bushfire disaster in 1983 and matched controls (n = 725) were assessed in the aftermath of the fires (mean age 7-8 years) via parent reports of trauma exposure and separation from parents during the fires. Participants (n = 500) were subsequently assessed 28 years after initial assessment on the Experiences in Close Relationships scale to assess attachment security, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was assessed using the PTSD checklist. Being separated from parents was significantly related to having an avoidant attachment style as an adult (B = -3.69, s.e. = 1.48, β = -0.23, p = 0.013). Avoidant attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.31, p = 0.045), avoidance (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p = 0.001) and numbing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p post-traumatic psychopathology.

  17. Autonomic functioning in mothers with interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder in response to separation-reunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S; Moser, Dominik A; McCaw, Jaime E; Myers, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    This study characterizes autonomic nervous system activity reactive to separation-reunion among mothers with Interpersonal Violence-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (IPV-PTSD). Heart-rate (HR) and high frequency heart-rate-variability (HF-HRV) were measured in 17 IPV-PTSD-mothers, 22 sub-threshold-mothers, and 15 non-PTSD mother-controls while interacting with their toddlers (12-48 months). Analyses showed IPV-PTSD-mothers having generally lower HR than other groups. All groups showed negative correlations between changes in HR and HF-HRV from sitting- to standing-baseline. During initial separation, controls no longer showed a negative relationship between HR and HF-HRV. But by the second reunion, the negative relationship reappeared. IPV-PTSD- and sub-threshold-mothers retained negative HR/HF-HRV correlations during the initial separation, but stopped showing them by the second reunion. Results support that mother-controls showed a pattern of autonomic regulation suggestive of hypervigilance during initial separation that resolved by the time of re-exposure. PTSD-mothers showed delayed onset of this pattern only upon re-exposure, and were perhaps exhibiting defensive avoidance or numbing during the initial separation/reunion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pyrochemical head-end treatment for spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    A program based upon thermodynamic values and scouting experiments at Argonne National Laboratory is proposed for development of a pyrochemical head-end treatment of spent nuclear fuels to replace the proposed chopping and leaching operation in the Purex process. The treatment consists of separation of the cladding from the oxide fuel by dissolution into liquid zinc; oxide reduction of uranium and plutonium and dissolution into a zinc--magnesium alloy; separation of alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth fission products into a molten salt; and, finally, separation and recovery of the plutonium and uranium in the alloy. Uranium and plutonium would be separated from the fuel cladding and selected fission products in a form readily dissolvable in nitric acid. The head-end process could be developed eventually into an optimum method for recovering uranium, plutonium, and selected fission products and for minimizing wastes as compact, stable solids. Developmental expenses are not known clearly, but the potential advantages of the process are impressive

  19. Head posture and cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology in patients with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggare, J A; Raustia, A M

    1992-07-01

    A relationship between particular characteristics of dental occlusion and craniomandibular disorders (CMD) has been reported, while less attention has been focused on the possible effect of dysfunction of the masticatory system on head posture or cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology. Natural head position roentgen-cephalograms of 16 young adults with complete dentition taken before and after stomatognathic treatment displayed an extended head posture, smaller size of the uppermost cervical vertebrae, decreased posterior to anterior face height ratio, and a flattened cranial base as compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The lordosis of the cervical spine straightened after stomatognathic treatment. The results are an indication of the close interrelationship between the masticatory muscle system and the muscles supporting the head, and lead to speculation on the principles of treating craniomandibular disorders.

  20. Induction and separation of motion artifacts in EEG data using a mobile phantom head device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson S; Schlink, Bryan R; Hairston, W David; König, Peter; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) can assess brain activity during whole-body motion in humans but head motion can induce artifacts that obfuscate electrocortical signals. Definitive solutions for removing motion artifact from EEG have yet to be found, so creating methods to assess signal processing routines for removing motion artifact are needed. We present a novel method for investigating the influence of head motion on EEG recordings as well as for assessing the efficacy of signal processing approaches intended to remove motion artifact. We used a phantom head device to mimic electrical properties of the human head with three controlled dipolar sources of electrical activity embedded in the phantom. We induced sinusoidal vertical motions on the phantom head using a custom-built platform and recorded EEG signals with three different acquisition systems while the head was both stationary and in varied motion conditions. Recordings showed up to 80% reductions in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and up to 3600% increases in the power spectrum as a function of motion amplitude and frequency. Independent component analysis (ICA) successfully isolated the three dipolar sources across all conditions and systems. There was a high correlation (r > 0.85) and marginal increase in the independent components' (ICs) power spectrum (∼15%) when comparing stationary and motion parameters. The SNR of the IC activation was 400%-700% higher in comparison to the channel data SNR, attenuating the effects of motion on SNR. Our results suggest that the phantom head and motion platform can be used to assess motion artifact removal algorithms and compare different EEG systems for motion artifact sensitivity. In addition, ICA is effective in isolating target electrocortical events and marginally improving SNR in relation to stationary recordings.

  1. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  2. Movement disorders secondary to craniocerebral trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades it has been recognized that traumatic brain injury may result in various movement disorders. In survivors of severe head injury, post-traumatic movement disorders were reported in about 20%, and they persisted in about 10% of patients. The most frequent persisting movement disorder in this population is kinetic cerebellar outflow tremor in about 9%, followed by dystonia in about 4%. While tremor is associated most frequently with cerebellar or mesencephalic lesions, patients with dystonia frequently have basal ganglia or thalamic lesions. Moderate or mild traumatic brain injury only rarely causes persistent post-traumatic movement disorders. It appears that the frequency of post-traumatic movement disorders overall has been declining which most likely is secondary to improved treatment of brain injury. In patients with disabling post-traumatic movement disorders which are refractory to medical treatment, stereotactic neurosurgery can provide long-lasting benefit. While in the past the primary option for severe kinetic tremor was thalamotomy and for dystonia thalamotomy or pallidotomy, today deep brain stimulation has become the preferred treatment. Parkinsonism is a rare consequence of single head injury, but repeated head injury such as seen in boxing can result in chronic encephalopathy with parkinsonian features. While there is still controversy whether or not head injury is a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease, recent studies indicate that genetic susceptibility might be relevant. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  4. PEDIATRIC HEAD INJURIES, MECHANISM TO MANAGEMENT: EXPERIENCE OF A SINGLE CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Head injury is very common in modern life. Patients of any age group may have head injury however mechanism of head injury, pathophysiology and outcome of head injury is quite different in adults as compared to children. Road traffic accident is a common mode of head injury in adults while fall from height and household abuse is common mode in children. In Western countries, there is a separate registry system for pediatric head injury but there is no such system exist in india. Our present study is focused on pediatric head injury and evaluation of factors that affect the final outcome in pediatric patients.

  5. Separating generalized anxiety disorder from major depression using clinical, hormonal, and structural MRI data: A multimodal machine learning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Kevin; Lueken, Ulrike; Muehlhan, Markus; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-03-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is difficult to recognize and hard to separate from major depression (MD) in clinical settings. Biomarkers might support diagnostic decisions. This study used machine learning on multimodal biobehavioral data from a sample of GAD, MD and healthy subjects to differentiate subjects with a disorder from healthy subjects (case-classification) and to differentiate GAD from MD (disorder-classification). Subjects with GAD ( n  = 19), MD without GAD ( n  = 14), and healthy comparison subjects ( n  = 24) were included. The sample was matched regarding age, sex, handedness and education and free of psychopharmacological medication. Binary support vector machines were used within a nested leave-one-out cross-validation framework. Clinical questionnaires, cortisol release, gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) volumes were used as input data separately and in combination. Questionnaire data were well-suited for case-classification but not disorder-classification (accuracies: 96.40%, p   .22). The opposite pattern was found for imaging data (case-classification GM/WM: 58.71%, p  = .09/43.18%, p  > .66; disorder-classification GM/WM: 68.05%, p  = .034/58.27%, p  > .15) and for cortisol data (38.02%, p  = .84; 74.60%, p  = .009). All data combined achieved 90.10% accuracy ( p  < .001) for case-classification and 67.46% accuracy ( p  = .0268) for disorder-classification. In line with previous evidence, classification of GAD was difficult using clinical questionnaire data alone. Particularly cortisol and GM volume data were able to provide incremental value for the classification of GAD. Findings suggest that neurobiological biomarkers are a useful target for further research to delineate their potential contribution to diagnostic processes.

  6. Families, Head Injury, and Cognitive-Communicative Impairments: Issues for Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePompei, Roberta; Zarski, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for the incorporation of family counseling into rehabilitation programs treating cognitive-communicative disorders in head-injured individuals. The paper describes general family responses that may be anticipated when a family system experiences head injury, functional versus dysfunctional family responses to a crisis, and three…

  7. Biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with a history of eating disorders in relation to head circumference and neurocognitive function of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Saloua; Hällström, Tore; Brismar, Kerstin; Hellström, Per M; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2015-11-27

    Eating disorders during pregnancy can affect fetal growth and the child's early development, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with previous eating disorders compared to controls and in relation to head circumference and early neurocognitive development of the offspring. In a longitudinal cohort study, pregnant nulliparous non-smoking women with a history of anorexia nervosa (n = 20), bulimia nervosa (n = 17) and controls (n = 59) were followed during pregnancy and their children's growth and neurocognitive development were followed up to five years of age. We investigated maternal serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress (ferritin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 1) in blood samples collected during early pregnancy and compared between groups (ANOVA, LSD post-hoc test). The results were related to previous data on head circumference at birth and neurocognitive development at five years of age of the offspring (Spearman rank correlation or Pearson correlation test). Serum levels of ferritin in the women with previous anorexia nervosa, but not in those with a history of bulimia nervosa, were significantly lower than in the controls (p children (rs = -0.70, p children in the bulimia nervosa group (r = 0.48, p anorexia nervosa group (r = 0.42, p = 0.07), but not in the controls (r = 0.006). There were no significant differences in cortisol or the other biomarkers between groups. Low maternal serum ferritin in women with previous anorexia nervosa may be of importance for impaired memory capacity in the offspring at five years of age. Our results also indicate that thyroxin levels in pregnant women with previous eating disorders are positively associated with fetal head growth.

  8. 3-Dimensional Reproducibility of Natural Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    the “Six Elements to Orofacial Harmony”. He advocated using his Element II Analysis with natural head orientation for treatment planning, since “it...temporomandibular disorders, neck pain , headache, dentofacial structures, mandibular length, mandibular position, mandibular divergency and overjet (Cuccia, 2009

  9. Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures after Head Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scévola

    2009-01-01

    another medical illness. The gold standard for PNES diagnosis is video electroencephalogram (Video-EEG. PNESs are defined by modern psychiatry as conversion and dissociative disorders but these disorders may coexist with many others psychiatric disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. It is well known that epileptic seizures are a frequent and well-studied complication of traumatic head injury (THI. However, THI may also generate psychic symptoms including PNES. In this paper we describe a patient who developed PNES after THI in a bus accident and received a diagnosis of refractory epilepsy for 24 years until she underwent Video-EEG.

  10. Gait Balance Disorder by Thalamic Infarction with the Disorder of Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Wada, K.; Nagaoka, M.

    2011-01-01

    The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients. PMID:21769260

  11. Gait Balance Disorder by Thalamic Infarction with the Disorder of Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients.

  12. Long-lasting effects of maternal separation on an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: effects on memory and hippocampal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.

  13. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Aix Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille (France); Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Chabrol, Brigitte [AP-HM Timone, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  14. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Nadine; Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe; Chabrol, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  15. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

  16. Computerized tomography and head growth curve infantile macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eda, Isematsu; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takashima, Sachio; Takeshita, Kenzo

    1982-01-01

    Macrocephaly was defined as a head measuring larger than 98th percentile. We have evaluated CT findings and head growth curves in 25 infants with large heads. Ten (40%) of 25 infants with large heads were normal developmentally and neurologically. Five (20%) of those were mentally retarded. The other 10 infants (40%) included hydrocephalus (4 cases), malformation syndrome (3 cases), brain tumor (1 case), metabolic disorder (1 case) and degenerative disorder (1 case). Their head growth curves were typed as (I), (II) and (III): Type (I) (excessive head growth curve to 2 SDs above normal); Type (II) (head growth curve gradually approached to 2 SDs above normal); Type (III) (head growth curve parallel to 2 SDs above normal). Ten of macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development were studied clinically and radiologically in details. They were all male. CT pictures of those showed normal or various abnormal findings: ventricular dilatations, wide frontal and temporal subdural spaces, wide interhemispheric fissures, wide cerebral sulci, and large sylvian fissures. CT findings in 2 of those, which because normal after repeated CT examinations, resembled benign subdural collection. CT findings in one of those were external hydrocephalus. Head growth curves were obtained from 8 of those. Six cases revealed type (II) and two cases did type (III). The remaining 2 cases could not be followed up. We consider that CT findings of infants showed macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development reveals normal or various abnormal (ventricular dilatations, benign subdural collection, external hydrocephalus) and their head growth curves are not at least excessive. Infants with mental retardation showed similar CT findings and head growth curves as those with normal psychomotor development. It was difficult to distinguish normal from mentally retarded infants by either CT findings or head growth curves. (author)

  17. Spasm of the near reflex associated with head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Christopher; Sachdev, Arun; Gottlob, Irene

    2002-03-01

    Spasm of the near reflex is characterized by intermittent miosis, convergence spasm and pseudomyopia with blurred vision at distance. Usually, it is a functional disorder in young patients with underlying emotional problems. Only rarely is it caused by organic disorder. We report a patient who developed convergent spasm associated with miosis after head trauma at the age of 84 years.

  18. Childhood separation anxiety and the pathogenesis and treatment of adult anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Barbara; Markowitz, John C; Gerber, Andrew J; Cyranowski, Jill; Altemus, Margaret; Shapiro, Theodore; Hofer, Myron; Glatt, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety disorder in childhood leads to adult panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. The prevailing pathophysiological model of anxiety disorders, which emphasizes extinction deficits of fear-conditioned responses, does not fully consider the role of separation anxiety. Pathological early childhood attachments have far-reaching consequences for the later adult ability to experience and internalize positive relationships in order to develop mental capacities for self-soothing, anxiety tolerance, affect modulation, and individuation. Initially identified in attachment research, the phenomenon of separation anxiety is supported by animal model, neuroimaging, and genetic studies. A role of oxytocin is postulated. Adults, inured to their anxiety, often do not identify separation anxiety as problematic, but those who develop anxiety and mood disorders respond more poorly to both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. This poorer response may reflect patients' difficulty in forming and maintaining attachments, including therapeutic relationships. Psychotherapies that focus on relationships and separation anxiety may benefit patients with separation anxiety by using the dyadic therapist-patient relationship to recapture and better understand important elements of earlier pathological parent-child relationships.

  19. Paediatric Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among children and are associated with serious morbidity. Lifetime prevalence of paediatric anxiety disorders is about fifteen percent. Social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder are included in the triad of paediatric anxiety disorders. Specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder are also commonly seen in children. Overprotection by parents, parental death or separation, female sex, low educational status, family history of anxiety disorder, financial stress in family and adverse childhood experiences are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders. If not diagnosed and managed at the earliest, paediatric anxiety disorders can cause life threatening problems in the future. Hence early and scientific management of anxiety disorders is essential. Cognitive behavioural therapy is the effective evidence based treatment for paediatric anxiety disorders.

  20. Thyroid disorders in patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: A retrospective analysis of seventy-three patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterio, Daniela; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Franchi, Benedetta; D'Onofrio, Alberto Sc.D.; Piazzi, Valeria; Rondi, Elena; Ciocca, Mario; Gibelli, Bianca; Grosso, Enrica; Tradati, Nicoletta; Mariani, Luigi; Boboc, Genoveva Ionela; Orecchia, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of thyroid disorders and dose distribution to the thyroid in patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck carcinomas. Methods and Materials: A retrospective evaluation of data from 73 patients treated for head-and-neck cancers in our department was performed. Thyroid function was evaluated mainly by the measurement of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]). A retrospective analysis of treatment plans was performed for 57 patients. Percentages of thyroid glandular volume absorbing 10, 30, and 50 Gy (V10, V30, and V50 respectively) were considered for statistical analysis. Results: A majority of patients (61%) had a normal thyroid function whereas 19 patients (26%) had hypothyroidism. Mean thyroid volume was 30.39 cc. Point 3 (located at isthmus) absorbed lower doses compared with other points (p < 0.0001). Median values of V10, V30, and V50 were 92% (range, 57-100%), 75% (range, 28.5-100%), and 35% (range, 3-83%) respectively. Gender was associated with toxicity (presence of any kind of thyroid disorders) (p < 0.05), with females displaying higher levels of TSHr (relative TSH = patient's value/maximum value of the laboratory range) (p = 0.0005) and smaller thyroid volume (p 0.0012) compared with male population. TSHr values were associated with thyroid volume, and the presence of midline shielding block in the anterior field was associated with relative free thyroxine (FT4r = patient's value/maximum value of the laboratory range) values. Conclusions: Gender and thyroid volume seem to play an important role in the occurrence of thyroid toxicity, but further studies on dose-effect relationship for radiotherapy-induced thyroid toxicity are needed

  1. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y.; Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  2. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Child Protection Programs, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  3. [The family. The poorest households with female heads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Diaz, F

    1992-01-01

    Data from the household questionnaire of the 1987 Mexican Fertility and Health Survey were the basis for an analysis of the characteristics of households headed by women. 14.1% of households were headed by women in 1987, of which 14% were in rural and 86% in urban areas. 41.9% of the households headed by women contained only a woman and her children. Child care responsibilities are the main determinant of discrimination in the labor market for these women and oblige them to accept jobs that are not adequately paid. The social disadvantage of households headed by women is also related to their age and marital and educational status. Among male and female household heads respectively, 16.3% and 36.5% were over age 60, 16.4% and 27.5% were illiterate, and 92.7% and 8.4% were married or in union. 15.5% of the female heads were single, 24.7% were divorced or separated, and 51.4% were widows. Among employed female household heads, 49.2% were salaried, 36.5% were self-employed, and 10.1% were domestic workers. 63.8% of female and 46.3% of male household heads earned one minimum salary or less per month. The average size of households headed by women was 3.9 members, compared to 5.4 for households headed by men.

  4. Risk of mild head injury in preschool children: relationship to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Hatice; Altun, İdiris

    2018-04-25

    To investigate whether there is an association between mild head injury (MHI) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in preschool children. The study included a patient group of 30 children aged 3-6 years with mild head trauma and a control group of 30 healthy and age- and sex-matched children. The symptoms of ADHD were evaluated using the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised Long (CPRS-RL) form. The mean age was 4.73 ± 1.13 years in the patient group and 4.65 ± 0.99 years in the control group. No significant differences were determined between the groups in terms of age, gender, parents' age and education (p > 0.05). The total subscale points as reported by the parents of the children with MHI were significantly higher than those for the control group in terms of the following subscales: oppositional, cognitive problems/inattention, hyperactivity, social problems, ADHD index, Conners' Global Index (CGI)-Irritability-Impulsiveness, CGI-Emotional Lability, CGI-Total and DSM-IV ADHD symptoms (p < 0.05). A history of previous trauma treated in emergency services was determined in eight of the 30 patients (26.7%). The findings of this study suggest that preschool children with MHI have more pre-injury ADHD symptoms and oppositional and emotional-behavioural symptoms than healthy children without trauma. Clinicians should screen children with MHI for ADHD symptoms and refer them for treatment when necessary. Evaluation of children presenting with MHI by a child psychiatrist may prevent repetition of injuries.

  5. Innovative Prototype for Separate Harvesting of Cynara Cardunculus Achenes and Stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pari, L.; Fedrizzi, M.; Pansini, L. (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unita di Ricerca per l' Ingegneria Agraria, Monterotondo, RM (Italy))

    2008-10-15

    The CRA-ING took part to the Cynara cardunculus harvesting tests organized in Spain in 2007, where UPM has experimental cultivations in the Instituto Madrileno de Investigacion y Desarrollo Rural, Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDRA) de la Consejeria de Economia y Innovacion Tecnologica de la Comunidad de Madrid in El Encin, near Alcala De Henarez. The harvesting tests were carried out in week 33 (August 13th-17th); the cultivation was found part in good condition of maturity, part still not ready for harvesting. The test was carried out on the dried part of the crops. The tests aimed at evaluating a new mechanical equipment (head) working connected to a selfpropelled combine for separated harvesting of the different fractions obtainable by the cultivation assigned to different transformation: oil extraction from seeds and energy production from epigeous biomass combustion. During the tests carried out in 2006 in Portugal and Spain, it was observed how a combine harvester with a maize head was able to separate the seed with good accuracy. Likewise the difficulty of collecting the lignocellulosic fraction after its passage was highlighted. A combine with a wheat head could cut the stalk in an appropriate height range, but could not separate the head from the stalk. A sunflower head cut the capitula, but not the stalk. The project concept, supplied to a Firm that already builds heads for maize, wheat, sunflowers, soybean and so on, included the upper devices of a maize head and a classic wheat head (without the paddle wheel) in the lower part, to obtain capitula detachment and effective threshing and, at the same time, the stalk cut. Some modifications were specified to allow the cut of the stalk next to the ground and its successive tier in the space between the front wheels, where the discharge system of the threshing device would then provide to drop the remains of the capitula threshing. The basic concept of the machine, to separate and thresh the capitula and to drop

  6. Head-dependent asymmetries in Munster Irish prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Iosad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose an analysis of stress in Munster Irish which builds on two important premises. First, I argue for a distinction between the notion ‘head of a constituent’ and the notion of ‘stress’: these are separate entities, and the typologically frequent isomorphic distribution of the two is just one possible outcome of the phonological computation. Second, I propose to employ a particular family of constraints requiring head-dependent asymmetries (Dresher and van der Hulst 1998 to account for the mismatch between the placement of foot heads and stress in Munster Irish. Overall, the paper is an argument for elaborate abstract structure as an explanatory factor in phonology, as opposed to relatively shallow, substance-based representations.

  7. Live Speech Driven Head-and-Eye Motion Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Binh H; Ma, Xiaohan; Deng, Zhigang

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a fully automated framework to generate realistic head motion, eye gaze, and eyelid motion simultaneously based on live (or recorded) speech input. Its central idea is to learn separate yet interrelated statistical models for each component (head motion, gaze, or eyelid motion) from a prerecorded facial motion data set: 1) Gaussian Mixture Models and gradient descent optimization algorithm are employed to generate head motion from speech features; 2) Nonlinear Dynamic Canonical Correlation Analysis model is used to synthesize eye gaze from head motion and speech features, and 3) nonnegative linear regression is used to model voluntary eye lid motion and log-normal distribution is used to describe involuntary eye blinks. Several user studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed speech-driven head and eye motion generator using the well-established paired comparison methodology. Our evaluation results clearly show that this approach can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art head and eye motion generation algorithms. In addition, a novel mocap+video hybrid data acquisition technique is introduced to record high-fidelity head movement, eye gaze, and eyelid motion simultaneously.

  8. Head injury as a PTSD predictor among Oklahoma City bombing survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walilko, Timothy; North, Carol; Young, Lee Ann; Lux, Warren E; Warden, Deborah L; Jaffee, Michael S; Moore, David F

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the Oklahoma City (OKC) bombing retrospective review was to investigate the relationship between physical injury, environmental contributors, and psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an event-based, matched design study focused on injury. The 182 selected participants were a random subset of the 1,092 direct survivors from the OKC bombing. Only 124 of these 182 cases had a full complement of medical/clinical data in the OKC database. These 124 cases were assessed to explore relationships among PTSD diagnoses, levels of blast exposure, and physical injuries. Associations among variables were statistically tested using contingency analysis and logistic regression. Comparison of the PTSD cases to symptoms/diagnoses reported in the medical records reveals a statistically significant association between PTSD and head/brain injuries associated with head acceleration. PTSD was not highly correlated with other injuries. Although blast pressure and impulse were highly correlated with head injuries, the correlation with PTSD was not statistically significant. Thus, a correlation between blast pressure and PTSD may exist, but higher fidelity pressure calculations are required to elucidate this potential relationship. This study provides clear evidence that head injury is associated with subsequent PTSD, giving caregivers' information on what physical injuries may suggest the development of psychologic disorders to aid them in developing a profile for the identification of future survivors of terrorist attacks and Warfighters with brain injuries and potential PTSD.

  9. CO-OCCURRENCE OF CHRONIC HEAD, FACE AND NECK PAIN, AND DEPRESSION IN WAR VETERANS WITH POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Vukšić, Željka; Simonić-Kocijan, Sunčana; Braut, Vedrana; Braut, Alen; Uhač, Ivone

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between chronic head, face and neck pain, and the level of depression in Croatian war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The presence of self-reported pain, pain on digital palpation, and pain severity in masticatory and neck muscles, temporomandibular joints and sinuses, as well as the level of depression were assessed in a group of war veterans with PTSD (n=52). Control groups consisted of war veterans without PTSD (n=50) and healthy men that were not engaged in war actions and were free from PTSD (n=50). The number of self-reported pain and number of painful sites were correlated with the level of depression. More self-reported pain and painful sites were recorded in the group of war veterans with PTSD as compared with either war veterans without PTSD or healthy men. Furthermore, PTSD patients mostly suffered from severe depression. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between all investigated pain parameters and level of depression. As the most important finding, the present study demonstrated chronic head, face and neck pain to be related to depression in PTSD patients.

  10. Comparative efficacy and safety of methylphenidate and atomoxetine for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Meta-analysis based on head-to-head trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Fang, Qingqing; Qin, Lili

    2017-11-01

    Comparative efficacy and safety are important issues for appropriate drug selection for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. Therefore we conducted a meta-analysis, where we compared atomoxetine (ATX) and methylphenidate (MPH) for ADHD treatment in children and adolescents. Literature retrieval was conducted in relevant databases from their inception to April 2016 to select head-to-head trials that compared ATX and MPH in children and adolescents. Outcomes like response rate, ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) score, and adverse events were compared between ATX and MPH treatments. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio (RR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as the effect size for continuous data or dichotomous data, respectively. Eleven eligible randomized-controlled trials were included, and two of them were double-blind, while the remaining were open-label. Compared to ATX, MPH showed a higher response rate (RR = 1.14, 95% CI [1. 09, 1.20]), decreased inattention (SMD = -0.13, 95% CI [-0.25, -0.01]) and lower risk of adverse events (drowsiness: RR = 0.17, 95% CI [0.11, 0.26; nausea: RR = 0.49; 95% CI [0.29, 0.85; vomiting: RR = 0.41, 95% CI [0.27, 0.63]). However, MPH presented a higher risk of insomnia than ATX (RR = 2.27, 95% CI [1.63, 3.15], p < .01). Results of the meta-analysis add additional evidence of the effectiveness of both ATX and MPH and suggest that MPH should be a first treatment option in most patients with ADHD.

  11. Taste dysfunction in irradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wen-Kai; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Komiyama, Sohtaro

    2002-01-01

    Taste disorders caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are common. This prospective study of 40 patients with head and neck cancer assessed changes in taste sensations during radiation therapy. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied. The taste recognition threshold and supra-threshold taste intensity performance for the four basic tastes were measured using the whole-mouth taste method before, during, and after radiation therapy. Bitter taste was affected most. An increase in threshold for sweet taste depended upon whether the tip of tongue was included within the radiation field. The slope of the taste intensity performance did not change during or after radiotherapy. The pattern of salivary dysfunction was different from that of taste dysfunction. The main cause of taste disorders during radiation support the hypothesis that taste dysfunction is due to damage to the taste buds in the radiation field. (author)

  12. Taste dysfunction in irradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wen-Kai; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Komiyama, Sohtaro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Inokuchi, Akira [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Taste disorders caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are common. This prospective study of 40 patients with head and neck cancer assessed changes in taste sensations during radiation therapy. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied. The taste recognition threshold and supra-threshold taste intensity performance for the four basic tastes were measured using the whole-mouth taste method before, during, and after radiation therapy. Bitter taste was affected most. An increase in threshold for sweet taste depended upon whether the tip of tongue was included within the radiation field. The slope of the taste intensity performance did not change during or after radiotherapy. The pattern of salivary dysfunction was different from that of taste dysfunction. The main cause of taste disorders during radiation support the hypothesis that taste dysfunction is due to damage to the taste buds in the radiation field. (author)

  13. Disorders of taste and smell induced by head trauma in six cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nin, Tomomi; Umemoto, Masanori; Negoro, Atsushi; Miuchi, Shinya; Sakagami, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    Post-traumatic dysnosmia and dysgeusia are often caused by head injury. They were disregarded by both the patients and physicians because of the head injury and the frequent co-occurrence of other visceral or orthopedic injuries requiring immediate treatment. Since there have been so few reports about such cases, the those mechanisms have not been clear. In this study, 6 patients who complained of dysnosmia and dysgeusia after head injury were analyzed. They consisted of 3 males and 3 females, and their ages ranged from 29 to 63 years with a mean of 48.0 years. At the first visit, an olfactory and taste function test, SDS (sell-rating depression scale), measurement of serum zinc, iron and copper, and head MRI were performed. Two thirds cases (66.7%) had changes at the frontal lobe and 1/3 cases (33.3%) had changes at the temporal lobes in head MRI. The recognition thresholds were worse than detection thresholds in both the olfactory and taste function test. It indicated that post-traumatic dysnosmia and dysgeusia were caused by damage not only of direct neurotransmission system but also central nervous including limbic system damage. In half the patients, the taste function tended to improve, but there was no recovery of olfactory function in any case. Post-traumatic dysgeusia improves more frequently than post-traumatic dysnosmia. Post-traumatic dysgeusia is often caused by inc and iron deficiency after fasting. In these cases, it could be improved with administration of zinc and iron. More data will be needed for resolution of post-traumatic dysnosmia and dysgeusia. (author)

  14. Maternal Daily Diary Report in the Assessment of Childhood Separation Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD…

  15. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  16. [Head posture in orthodontics: physiopathology and clinical aspects 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabiano, M; Verzi, P; Scire Scappuzzo, G

    1989-01-01

    The Authors review in orthodontic respects present knowledges about head posture involvement in craniofacial morphogenesis and pathology. Relationships between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, craniomandibular posture, cervical spine curvature, hyoid bone position and posture of whole body in space are shown, in attempt to explain conditions such as "forward head posture", mouth breathing and some occlusal disorders. Main methods to evaluate craniocervical relations on lateral skull radiographs are analysed. Pathogenesis of pain syndromes associated with abnormal craniocervical and craniomandibular mechanics are also briefly treated.

  17. Characterizing occipital condyle loads under high-speed head rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie

    2005-11-01

    Because of the need to evaluate anthropomorphic test device (ATD) biofidelity under high-head angular accelerations, the purpose of the present investigation was to develop appropriate instrumentation for intact post mortem human subject (PMHS) testing, validate the instrumentation, and obtain information to characterize the response of the head-neck complex under this loading scenario. A series of rigid-arm pendulum, inertially loaded ATD tests was conducted. Head and neck ATD hydraulic piston chin pull tests were conducted. Subsequently, a series of PMHS tests was conducted to derive the response of the human head-neck under high-rate chin loading. Finally, Hybrid III and THOR-NT ATD head-neck systems were evaluated under the same scenario as the PMHS. A parametric analysis for center of gravity (CG) location and accelerometer orientation determined that even small errors (+/- 3 mm or 2 degrees), produced errors in the force and moment calculations by as much as 17 %. If the moment of inertia (MOI) term was varied by 5 %, resulting moment calculations were affected by as much as 8 %. If the 5 % error in MOI was used to compute occipital condyle moments, and results compared to upper load cell derived moments, peaks differed by as much as 24 %. The head CG and mass MOI should be directly measured for each preparation to obtain accurate results. The injury run on each specimen resulted in predominantly C1-C2 separations or partial separations. The 50(th) percentile probability of AIS=2+ neck injury using tensile force was about 2400 N; for AIS=3+ neck injury the 50(th) percentile risk was about 3180 N. When inserting extension moment as the criteria, the 50(th) percentile probability of an AIS=2+ injury was 51 Nm. The AIS=3+ extension moment at the 50(th) percentile probability was 75 Nm. The new THOR-NT ATD head-neck produced more biofidelic responses with an alternate head-neck junction design compared to the Hybrid III ATD.

  18. Evaluation of the multi-bunch kink instability in ILC head-on collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoly, O.; Payet, J.; Rippon, C.

    2006-04-01

    An interaction region with head-on collisions is considered an alternative to the baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider which includes 2 interaction regions with finite crossing-angles (2 and 20 mrad). Although more challenging from the point of view of the beam extraction, the head-on scheme is favoured by the experiments because it allows an easier optimization of the detector configuration, particularly in the forward region. The optics of the head-on extraction is revisited, as compared to the TESLA-TDR, by separating e + and e - beams horizontally, first by electrostatic separators operated at their LEP nominal field and then using a defocusing quadrupole of the final focus line. In this way the septum magnet is protected from the Bremsstrahlung power. The influence of parasitic collisions is shown to lead to a region of stable collision parameters. (authors)

  19. Liposomal treatment of xerostomia, odor, and taste abnormalities in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Hofauer, Benedikt; Scherer, Elias; Schukraft, Johannes; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Smell and taste disorders, sicca symptoms, can be detected in patients with head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of local liposomal application in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancers. Ninety-eight patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. The groups were defined as: group 1 = only surgery; group 2 = surgery + adjuvant radiochemotherapy; and group 3 = primarily radiochemotherapy. All patients had finished cancer treatment and received liposomal sprays for the nose and mouth for 2 months (LipoNasal, LipoSaliva; Optima Pharmaceutical GmbH, Germany) and suffered from taste and smell disorders. We performed tests with "Sniffin' Sticks," "Taste Strips," and a xerostomia questionnaire before and after treatment. After application of liposomes, patients demonstrated a statistically significant increase in smell and taste, and reduced xerostomia. Our results demonstrate that using nonpharmaceutical liposomal sprays improve smell, taste, and symptoms of xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1232-E1237, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Response to emotional expressions in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder: evidence for separate disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Karina; Shaywitz, Jonathan; Smith, Bruce W; Rhodes, Rebecca; Geraci, Marilla; Jones, Matthew; McCaffrey, Daniel; Vythilingam, Meena; Finger, Elizabeth; Mondillo, Krystal; Jacobs, Madeline; Charney, Dennis S; Blair, R J R; Drevets, Wayne C; Pine, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    Generalized social phobia involves fear/avoidance, specifically of social situations, whereas generalized anxiety disorder involves intrusive worry about diverse circumstances. It remains unclear the degree to which these two, often comorbid, conditions represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single, core underlying pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessed the neural response to facial expressions in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder. Individuals matched on age, IQ, and gender with generalized social phobia without generalized anxiety disorder (N=17), generalized anxiety disorder (N=17), or no psychopathology (N=17) viewed neutral, fearful, and angry expressions while ostensibly making a simple gender judgment. The patients with generalized social phobia without generalized anxiety disorder showed increased activation to fearful relative to neutral expressions in several regions, including the amygdala, compared to healthy individuals. This increased amygdala response related to self-reported anxiety in patients with generalized social phobia without generalized anxiety disorder. In contrast, patients with generalized anxiety disorder showed significantly less activation to fearful relative to neutral faces compared to the healthy individuals. They did show significantly increased response to angry expressions relative to healthy individuals in a lateral region of the middle frontal gyrus. This increased lateral frontal response related to self-reported anxiety in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. These results suggest that neural circuitry dysfunctions differ in generalized social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder.

  1. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  2. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  3. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many processes and problems contribute to APD in children. In adults, neurological disorders such as stroke, tumors, degenerative disease (such as multiple sclerosis), and head trauma can contribute to APD. APD in children and adults often is best managed by a ...

  4. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  5. Adult separation anxiety in treatment nonresponders with anxiety disorders: delineation of the syndrome and exploration of attachment-based psychotherapy and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrod, Barbara; Altemus, Margaret; Gross, Charles; Busch, Fredric; Silver, Gabrielle; Christos, Paul; Stieber, Joshua; Schneier, Franklin

    2016-04-01

    Clinically significant separation anxiety [SA] has been identified as being common among patients who do not respond to psychiatric interventions, regardless of intervention type (pharmacological or psychotherapeutic), across anxiety and mood disorders. An attachment formation and maintenance domain has been proposed as contributing to anxiety disorders. We therefore directly determined prevalence of SA in a population of adult treatment non-responders suffering from primary anxiety. In these separation anxious nonresponders, we pilot-tested an SA-focused, attachment-based psychotherapy for anxiety, Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], and assessed whether hypothesized biomarkers of attachment were engaged. We studied separation anxiety [SA] in 46 adults (ages 23-70 [mean 43.9 (14.9)]) with clinically significant anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]≥15), and reporting a history of past non-response to psychotherapy and/or medication treatments. Thirty-seven (80%) had clinically significant symptoms of separation anxiety (Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms [SCI-SAS] score≥8). Five of these subjects completed an open clinical trial of Panic Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], a 21-24 session, 12-week manualized attachment-focused anxiolytic psychodynamic psychotherapy for anxiety. Patients improved on "adult threshold" SCI-SAS (current separation anxiety) (p=.016), HARS (p=0.002), and global severity, assessed by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (p=.0006), at treatment termination. Salivary oxytocin levels decreased 67% after treatment (p=.12). There was no significant change in high or low frequency HRV after treatment, but change in high frequency HRV inversely correlated with treatment change in oxytocin (ppsychotherapy, potentially supporting the clinical relevance of attachment dysfunction in this sample. The large decrease in oxytocin levels with

  6. Atomoxetine could improve intra-individual variability in drug-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comparably with methylphenidate: A head-to-head randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Hwang Gu, Shoou-Lian; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Huang, Hui-Chun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-05-01

    Intra-individual variability in reaction time (IIV-RT) is common in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be improved by stimulants. However, the effects of atomoxetine on IIV-RT are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the effects of atomoxetine on IIV-RT, and directly compared its efficacy with methylphenidate in adults with ADHD. An 8-10 week, open-label, head-to-head, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 52 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, who were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: immediate-release methylphenidate (n=26) thrice daily (10-20 mg per dose) and atomoxetine once daily (n=26) (0.5-1.2 mg/kg/day). IIV-RT, derived from the Conners' continuous performance test (CCPT), was represented by the Gaussian (reaction time standard error, RTSE) and ex-Gaussian models (sigma and tau). Other neuropsychological functions, including response errors and mean of reaction time, were also measured. Participants received CCPT assessments at baseline and week 8-10 (60.4±6.3 days). We found comparable improvements in performances of CCPT between the immediate-release methylphenidate- and atomoxetine-treated groups. Both medications significantly improved IIV-RT in terms of reducing tau values with comparable efficacy. In addition, both medications significantly improved inhibitory control by reducing commission errors. Our results provide evidence to support that atomoxetine could improve IIV-RT and inhibitory control, of comparable efficacy with immediate-release methylphenidate, in drug-naïve adults with ADHD. Shared and unique mechanisms underpinning these medication effects on IIV-RT awaits further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Adult Separation Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain—is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater

  8. Head Pose Estimation Using Multilinear Subspace Analysis for Robot Human Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Tonislav; Matthies, Larry; Vasilescu, M. Alex O.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile robots, operating in unconstrained indoor and outdoor environments, would benefit in many ways from perception of the human awareness around them. Knowledge of people's head pose and gaze directions would enable the robot to deduce which people are aware of the its presence, and to predict future motions of the people for better path planning. To make such inferences, requires estimating head pose on facial images that are combination of multiple varying factors, such as identity, appearance, head pose, and illumination. By applying multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher-order tensors, we can separate these factors and estimate head pose regardless of subject's identity or image conditions. Furthermore, we can automatically handle uncertainty in the size of the face and its location. We demonstrate a pipeline of on-the-move detection of pedestrians with a robot stereo vision system, segmentation of the head, and head pose estimation in cluttered urban street scenes.

  9. Decomposing of Socioeconomic Inequality in Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Study into Female-Headed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisani, Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Connection between socioeconomic statuses and mental health has been reported already. Accordingly, mental health asymmetrically is distributed in society; therefore, people with disadvantaged condition suffer from inconsistent burden of mental disorders. In this study, we aimed to understand the determinants of socioeconomic inequality of mental health in the female-headed households and decomposed contributions of socioeconomic determinants in mental health. In this cross-sectional study, 787 female-headed households were enrolled using systematic random sampling in 2014. Data were taken from the household assets survey and a self-administered 28 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as a screening tool for detection of possible cases of mental disorders. Inequality was measured by concentration index (CI) and as decomposing contribution in inequality. All analyses were performed by standard statistical software Stata 11.2. The overall CI for mental health in the female-headed households was -0.049 (95% CI: -0.072, 0.025). The highly positive contributors for inequality in mental health in the female-headed households were age (34%) and poor household economic status (22%). Socioeconomic inequalities exist in mental health into female-headed households and mental health problems more prevalent in women with lower socioeconomic status.

  10. A primitive study on unsupervised anomaly detection with an autoencoder in emergency head CT volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Nomura, Yukihiro; Takenaga, Tomomi; Miki, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Abe, Osamu

    2018-02-01

    Purpose: The target disorders of emergency head CT are wide-ranging. Therefore, people working in an emergency department desire a computer-aided detection system for general disorders. In this study, we proposed an unsupervised anomaly detection method in emergency head CT using an autoencoder and evaluated the anomaly detection performance of our method in emergency head CT. Methods: We used a 3D convolutional autoencoder (3D-CAE), which contains 11 layers in the convolution block and 6 layers in the deconvolution block. In the training phase, we trained the 3D-CAE using 10,000 3D patches extracted from 50 normal cases. In the test phase, we calculated abnormalities of each voxel in 38 emergency head CT volumes (22 abnormal cases and 16 normal cases) for evaluation and evaluated the likelihood of lesion existence. Results: Our method achieved a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 88%, with an area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87. It shows that this method has a moderate accuracy to distinguish normal CT cases to abnormal ones. Conclusion: Our method has potentialities for anomaly detection in emergency head CT.

  11. Exploding Head Syndrome in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Kara; Ng, Marcus C

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of paroxysmal events in epilepsy patients is often made through video-telemetry electroencephalography in the epilepsy monitoring unit. This case report describes the first-ever diagnosis of exploding head syndrome in a patient with longstanding epilepsy and novel nocturnal events. In this report, we describe the presentation of exploding head syndrome and its prevalence and risk factors. In addition, the prevalence of newly diagnosed sleep disorders through video-telemetry electroencephalography in the epilepsy monitoring unit is briefly reviewed. This report also illustrates the novel use of clobazam for the treatment of exploding head syndrome.

  12. Design of an interaction region with head-on collisions for the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R; Jackson, F; Alabau-Pons, M; Bambade, P; Brossard, J; Dadoun, O; Rimbault, C; Keller, L; Nosochkov, Y; Seryi, Andrei; Payet, J; Napoly, O; Rippon, C; Uriot, D

    2006-01-01

    An interaction region (IR) with head-on collisions is considered as an alternative to the baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider (ILC) which includes two IRs with finite crossing-angles (2 and 20 mrad). Although more challenging for the beam extraction, the head-on scheme is favoured by the experiments because it allows a more convenient detector configuration, particularly in the forward region. The optics of the head-on extraction is revisited by separating the e+ and e- beams horizontally, first by electrostatic separators operated at their LEP nominal field and then using a defocusing quadrupole of the final focus beam line. In this way the septum magnet is protected from the beamstrahlung power. Newly optimized final focus and extraction optics are presented, including a first look at post-collision diagnostics. The influence of parasitic collisions is shown to lead to a region of stable collision parameters. Disrupted beam and beamstrahlung photon losses are calculated along the ext...

  13. A novel mechanical model for phase-separation in debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physics of phase-separation between solid and fluid phases as a two-phase mass moves down slope is a long-standing challenge. Here, I propose a fundamentally new mechanism, called 'separation-flux', that leads to strong phase-separation in avalanche and debris flows. This new model extends the general two-phase debris flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) to include a separation-flux mechanism. The new flux separation mechanism is capable of describing and controlling the dynamically evolving phase-separation, segregation, and/or levee formation in a real two-phase, geometrically three-dimensional debris flow motion and deposition. These are often observed phenomena in natural debris flows and industrial processes that involve the transportation of particulate solid-fluid mixture material. The novel separation-flux model includes several dominant physical and mechanical aspects that result in strong phase-separation (segregation). These include pressure gradients, volume fractions of solid and fluid phases and their gradients, shear-rates, flow depth, material friction, viscosity, material densities, boundary structures, gravity and topographic constraints, grain shape, size, etc. Due to the inherent separation mechanism, as the mass moves down slope, more and more solid particles are brought to the front, resulting in a solid-rich and mechanically strong frontal surge head followed by a weak tail largely consisting of the viscous fluid. The primary frontal surge head followed by secondary surge is the consequence of the phase-separation. Such typical and dominant phase-separation phenomena are revealed here for the first time in real two-phase debris flow modeling and simulations. However, these phenomena may depend on the bulk material composition and the applied forces. Reference: Pudasaini, Shiva P. (2012): A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03010, doi: 10.1029/2011JF002186.

  14. Continuous countercurrent extraction and particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A flow-through continuous countercurrent extraction or particle separation device consists of a coiled tube or spiral coplanar channel revolving around a main axis and rotating around its own axis at the same angular velocity and in the same direction. In a flow-through centrifuge for continuous countercurrent extraction, with two solvent phases A and B, there are 5 flow tubes: 1) a feed tube for phase B located at the head end of a helical separation column, 2) a return tube for phase A located at the head end, 3) a feed tube for phase A located at the tail end, 4) a return tube for phase B located at the tail end, and 5) a sample feed tube located at the middle portion of the column. The column is mounted on a hollow rotary shaft and the axis of revolution is defined by a stationary hollow central shaft. The 5 flow tubes are led through the hollow rotary shaft, and then through the stationary central shaft. In this way, the flow tubes from the rotary shaft are allowed to rotate freely without interference or twisting. (author)

  15. Treating hoarding disorder in a 12-year-old boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tanja Margrethe Gjerlev; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2017-01-01

    In this case report hoarding disorder is described in a 12-year-old boy who suffered from obsessive collection of things. The disorder is a separate diagnostic entity in DSM-5, and it will probably be a separate disorder in ICD-11 called hoarding disorder. The disorder is generally considered...

  16. Stochastic Signatures of Involuntary Head Micro-movements Can Be Used to Classify Females of ABIDE into Different Subtypes of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B. Torres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The approximate 5:1 male to female ratio in clinical detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD prevents research from characterizing the female phenotype. Current open access repositories [such as those in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE I-II] contain large numbers of females to help begin providing a new characterization of females on the autistic spectrum. Here we introduce new methods to integrate data in a scale-free manner from continuous biophysical rhythms of the nervous systems and discrete (ordinal observational scores.Methods: New data-types derived from image-based involuntary head motions and personalized statistical platform were combined with a data-driven approach to unveil sub-groups within the female cohort. Further, to help refine the clinical DSM-based ASD vs. Asperger's Syndrome (AS criteria, distributional analyses of ordinal score data from Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-based criteria were used on both the female and male phenotypes.Results: Separate clusters were automatically uncovered in the female cohort corresponding to differential levels of severity. Specifically, the AS-subgroup emerged as the most severely affected with an excess level of noise and randomness in the involuntary head micro-movements. Extending the methods to characterize males of ABIDE revealed ASD-males to be more affected than AS-males. A thorough study of ADOS-2 and ADOS-G scores provided confounding results regarding the ASD vs. AS male comparison, whereby the ADOS-2 rendered the AS-phenotype worse off than the ASD-phenotype, while ADOS-G flipped the results. Females with AS scored higher on severity than ASD-females in all ADOS test versions and their scores provided evidence for significantly higher severity than males. However, the statistical landscapes underlying female and male scores appeared disparate. As such, further interpretation of the ADOS data seems problematic, rather suggesting the

  17. Radiographic Study on the Bony Changes of Mandibular Condyle Head in Temporomandibular Disorder Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moo Soon; You, Dong Soo

    1989-01-01

    The author has studied radiographic bony changes of mandibular condyle head in temporomandibular disorder patients using Oblique lateral transcranial projection, Orthopantomography, and Tomography. The bony change types and the frequencies of occurrence and the incidences of bony changes in three different radiographic techniques were examined. The coincidences of body change types between the Oblique lateral transcranial projection and the lateral part of Tomogram, the Orthopantomogram and the medial part of Tomogram were also examined. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age of patients was 31.7 years and under 40 years were 24 patients, women were 27 patients, men were 4 patients. 2. The observable cases of bony changes in all three radiographic techniques were 19 cases (50%) of 38 cases and the observable cases of bony changes in only Tomography were 5 cases (13.2%). 3. The most frequent radiographic bony change type was osteophyte and next orders were flattening, erosion, concavity. 4. The positional incidences of bony changes in Tomogram were 31 cases in lateral part and 27 cases in central part. 5. The coincidence of bony change types between the oblique lateral transcranial projection and the lateral part of Tomogram was 80%, and the coincidence between the Orthopantomogram and the medial part of Tomogram was 76.9%.

  18. Developmental aspects of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, D B; Zanarini, M C

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether patients with borderline personality disorder and controls with other personality disorders remember their childhoods differently with respect to separation difficulties, evocative memory, temperamental factors such as frustration tolerance and mood reactivity, and onset of symptoms. Two hundred and ninety patients with borderline personality disorder and 72 with other personality disorders were assessed using an instrument to rate memories of separation difficulties, temperamental problems, and onset of symptoms before age 18. Patients with borderline personality disorder remembered more difficulties with separation between ages 6 and 17 years, more mood reactivity and poorer frustration tolerance between ages 6 and 17, and the onset of more symptoms (most prominently sadness, depression, anxiety, and suicidality) before age 18 than did patients with other personality disorders. The groups did not differ in reports of evocative memory before age 18. These results indicate that many of the features of adult patients with borderline personality disorder may initially appear during childhood and adolescence and that these features may be used to differentiate borderline from other personality disorders.

  19. Facial preservation following extreme mummification: Shrunken heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, Tobias M R; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction. Sixty-five human shrunken heads were assessed: 6 ceremonial, 36 commercial, and 23 ambiguous. Investigations included manual inspection, multi-detector computerised tomography, infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence and microscopic hair analysis. The mummification process disfigures the outer face, cheeks, nasal root and bridge form, including brow ridge, eyes, ears, mouth, and nose projection. Melanin depletion, epidermal degeneration, and any applied staining changes the natural skin complexion. Papillary and reticular dermis separation is possible. Normal hair structure (cuticle, cortex, medulla) is retained. Hair appears longer (unless cut) and more profuse following shrinkage. Significant features retained include skin defects, facial creases, hairlines and earlobe form. Hair conditions that only affect living scalps are preserved (e.g. nits, hair casts). Ear and nose cartilage helps to retain some morphological information. Commercial heads appear less distorted than ceremonial tsantsa, often presenting a definable eyebrow shape, vermillion lip shape, lip thickness (if mouth is open), philtrum form, and palpebral slit angle. Facial identification capabilities are considered limited, and only perceived possible for commercial heads. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  1. Influence of owners' attachment style and personality on their dogs' (Canis familiaris separation-related disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Konok

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that owners' attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners' attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD, Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners' higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners' attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog's needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss.

  2. Influence of Owners’ Attachment Style and Personality on Their Dogs’ (Canis familiaris) Separation-Related Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konok, Veronika; Kosztolányi, András; Rainer, Wohlfarth; Mutschler, Bettina; Halsband, Ulrike; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that owners’ attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD) attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners’ attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian) dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD), Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners’ higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners’ attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog’s needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss. PMID:25706147

  3. Comorbid ADHD and mental health disorders: are these children more likely to develop reading disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Florence; Young, Deidra J; Bennett, Kelly S; Martin, Neilson C; Hay, David A

    2013-03-01

    While attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with both internalizing and externalizing childhood behaviour disorders, the specific relationship of these comorbid disorders to ADHD and reading problems is less well defined. The present study analysed data from the Australian Twin ADHD Project, which utilized DSM-IV-based ratings of ADHD, separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder for twins and siblings aged 6 to 18 years. While differences between children with and without ADHD were demonstrated for those with separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and a reading disorder, for all age groups, regression analysis of ADHD diagnostic subtypes by age and reading disorder showed that only generalized anxiety disorder remained significant after controlling for ADHD subtypes. Analysis of the mean reading disorder scores in children with and without ADHD showed that children with conduct disorder had significantly more reading problems, as did children with multiple comorbid disorders. In summary, both age and ADHD diagnosis were associated with variations in these comorbid disorders, and multiple comorbid disorders were associated with greater reading impairment.

  4. Pharyngeal diameter in various head and neck positions during exercise in sport horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In equine athletes, dynamic stenotic disorders of the upper airways are often the cause for abnormal respiratory noises and/or poor performance. There are hypotheses, that head and neck flexion may influence the morphology and function of the upper airway and thus could even induce or deteriorate disorders of the upper respiratory tract. Especially the pharynx, without osseous or cartilaginous support is prone to changes in pressure and airflow during exercise. The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring the pharyngeal diameter in horses during exercise, in order to analyse whether a change of head-neck position may have an impact on the pharyngeal diameter. Results Under the assumption that the width of the epiglottis remains constant in healthy horses, the newly developed method for calculating the pharyngeal diameter in horses during exercise is unsusceptible against changes of the viewing-angle and distance between the endoscope and the structures, which are to be assessed. The quotient of the width of the epiglottis and the perpendicular from a fixed point on the dorsal pharynx to the epiglottis could be used to determine the pharyngeal diameter. The percentage change of this quotient (pharynx-epiglottis-ratio; PE-ratio) in the unrestrained head-neck position against the reference position was significantly larger than that of any other combination of the head-neck positions investigated. A relation between the percentage change in PE-ratio and the degree of head and neck flexion could not be confirmed. Conclusions It could be shown, that the pharyngeal diameter is reduced through the contact position implemented by the rider in comparison to the unrestrained head and neck position. An alteration of the pharyngeal diameter depending on the degree of head and neck flexion (represented by ground and withers angle) could not be confirmed. PMID:24886465

  5. Additive property of separative power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Kanagawa, Akira

    1980-01-01

    A separative power of a separating element, whose heads and tails separation factors are α and β, is expressed by phi sub(b)(α, β) = [α(β - 1)1n α - (α - 1)1n β]/(αβ - 1) for the unit flow of the desired material and phi sub(a)(α, β) (= phi sub(b)(β, α)) for that of undesired material. The additive properties of the functions phi sub(b) and phi sub(a) were demonstrated by calculations of various types of ideal cascades, but the origin of the property is not obvious. The present study has furnished the mathematical basis of the additivity based on the special functional equation. First, for symmetric processes (α = β), the functional equation which describes the function representing the quality of separation f(α, α) concerning the desired material was obtained and solved to give the functional form of f(α, α). The result was extented to the function f(α, β) representing the quality of asymmetric separation (α not equal β). The derived function f(α, β) was demonstrated to be equal to phi sub(b)(α, β), and it was verified that functions phi sub(b)(α, β) and phi sub(a)(α, β) have the additive property in themselves. (author)

  6. Bird-Headed Dwarf of Seckel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Vardhan B

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is an extremely rare inherited disorder characterized by growth delays prior to birth resulting in low birth weight. Growth delays continue after birth resulting in short stature (dwarfism. This syndrome is associated with an abnormally small head, varying degrees of mental retardation and unusual "beak like" protrusion of nose. Other facial features may include abnormally large eyes, a narrow face, malformed ears and an unusually small jaw. This syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. A case of the Seckel syndrome is presented.

  7. Symmetric visualization of the femoral heads in reticuloendothelial bone marrow scanning in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munz, D L; Hoer, G

    1983-03-01

    Two hundred and twenty seven consecutive patients of either sex aged 15-84 suffering from various benign and malignant disorders were studied by sup(99m)Tc-HSA-MM reticuloendothelial bone marrow scintigraphy. In all patients, symmetric findings concerning visualization or nonvisualization of the femoral heads could be seen. Femoral heads were clearly visualized in 48%, nonvisualized in 43%, and equivocally visualized in 9%. In patients with clearly visualized femoral heads, the bone marrow showed peripheral extension in 81%, whereas in patients with nonvisualized femoral heads, bone marrow extension was observed in only 42%. There was a correlation between the degree of bone marrow extension and the ability to visualize femoral heads. There was no obvious difference between males and females, nor patients with various diseases or treatments, amongst nor between different age groups. Two hypotheses are suggested to explain the correspondence between presence of bone marrow tissue in the femoral heads and peripheral extension of the bone marrow organ. Nonvisualization of the femoral heads alone is insufficient to establish the diagnosis of avascular necrosis.

  8. Head banging persisting during adolescence: A case with polysomnographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Head banging is a sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder of unknown etiology. It is common during infancy; however, available literature suggests that prevalence decreases dramatically after childhood. We report the case of a 16-year-old male who presented with head banging. The symptoms were interfering with his functioning and he had been injured because of the same in the past. We are presenting the video-polysomnographic data of the case. Possible differential diagnoses, etiology, and treatment modalities are discussed. The boy was prescribed clonazepam and followed up for 3 months. Parents did not report any episode afterward.

  9. Early or late appearance of "dropped head syndrome" in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourie-Devi, M; Nalini, A; Sandhya, S

    2003-05-01

    "Dropped head syndrome" caused by neck extensor weakness has been reported in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Previously published reports include isolated cases with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this report, nine patients with ALS and dropped head syndrome seen during a 20 year period are described. PATIENTS AND INVESTIGATIONS: Between 1981 and 2000, 683 patients with ALS were diagnosed, based on El Escorial criteria. Nine of these had profound neck extensor weakness observed as an early feature, or developing during the later stages of the disease. The protocol for evaluation included detailed clinical history, neurological examination, electromyography, and nerve conduction studies. Investigations were undertaken to exclude malignancy, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid dysfunction, and collagen vascular disease. The incidence of dropped head syndrome was 1.3%. The mean (SD) age of the affected patients was 53.3 (10.3) years (range 33 to 65), with an equal distribution of cases in the fourth to seventh decades. In six patients, head drop was an early feature (mean interval from onset of illness 11.6 months (range 3 to 24)); in three it was late (between three and eight years after onset). In five patients, mild neck flexor weakness was present in addition to severe extensor weakness. In all nine patients there were diffuse upper and lower motor neurone signs. None of the patients had difficulty in breathing but all had difficulty in swallowing and social embarrassment, both of which could be corrected by simple measures. Dropped head syndrome is an important clinical sign and usually occurs as an early feature within the first one to two years after the onset of ALS. The cause of dropped head syndrome in these nine cases could be easily established as ALS by the presence of generalised signs.

  10. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  11. [Anxiety disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders.

  12. Development of heading/ripping systems and immediate roadway support (Report on ECSC contract 6220-62/8/801)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The development of a combined heading and ripping system to enable the heading to be advanced while the coal and dirt were taken and discharged separately is discussed. A rotary head ripping machine fitted with cutting picks, dirt stowing machinery and ancillary equipment were developed. Work on the design and testing of powered roadway supports around roadheading machines showed that the problems arising may outweigh any of the possible advantages.

  13. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  14. Functional outcomes from a head-to-head, randomized, double-blind trial of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and atomoxetine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and an inadequate response to methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter; Häge, Alexander; Coghill, David R; Caballero, Beatriz; Adeyi, Ben; Anderson, Colleen S; Sikirica, Vanja; Cardo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in multiple domains of patients' lives. A secondary objective of this randomized, active-controlled, head-to-head, double-blind, dose-optimized clinical trial was to compare the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) and atomoxetine (ATX) on functional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD. Patients aged 6-17 years with an ADHD Rating Scale IV total score ≥ 28 and an inadequate response to methylphenidate treatment (judged by investigators) were randomized (1:1) to once-daily LDX or ATX for 9 weeks. Parents/guardians completed the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report (WFIRS-P) at baseline and at week 9 or early termination. p values were nominal and not corrected for multiple comparisons. Of 267 randomized patients, 200 completed the study (LDX 99, ATX 101). At baseline, mean WFIRS-P total score in the LDX group was 0.95 [standard deviation (SD) 0.474; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87, 1.03] and in the ATX group was 0.91 (0.513; 0.82, 1.00). Scores in all WFIRS-P domains improved from baseline to endpoint in both groups, with least-squares mean changes in total score of -0.35 (95% CI -0.42, -0.29) for LDX and -0.27 (-0.33, -0.20) for ATX. The difference between LDX and ATX was statistically significant (p ADHD; LDX was statistically significantly more effective than ATX in two of six domains and in total score.

  15. Congenital imprinting disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Netchine, Irène; Temple, I Karen

    2015-01-01

    Imprinting disorders (IDs) are a group of eight rare but probably underdiagnosed congenital diseases affecting growth, development and metabolism. They are caused by similar molecular changes affecting regulation, dosage or the genomic sequence of imprinted genes. Each ID is characterised...... by specific clinical features, and, as each appeared to be associated with specific imprinting defects, they have been widely regarded as separate entities. However, they share clinical characteristics and can show overlapping molecular alterations. Nevertheless, IDs are usually studied separately despite...... EUCID.net (European network of congenital imprinting disorders) now aims to promote better clinical care and scientific investigation of imprinting disorders by establishing a concerted multidisciplinary alliance of clinicians, researchers, patients and families. By encompassing all IDs and establishing...

  16. Saccadic entropy of head impulses in acute unilateral vestibular loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Li-Chun; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Guo-She

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the complexity of vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) in patients with acute unilateral vestibular loss (AUVL) via entropy analysis of head impulses. Horizontal head impulse test (HIT) with high-velocity alternating directions was used to evaluate 12 participants with AUVL and 16 healthy volunteers. Wireless electro-oculography and electronic gyrometry were used to acquire eye positional signals and head velocity signals. The eye velocity signals were then obtained through differentiation, band-pass filtering. The approximate entropy of eye velocity to head velocity (R ApEn ) was used to evaluate chaos property. VOR gain, gain asymmetry ratio, and R ApEn asymmetry ratio were also used to compare the groups. For the lesion-side HIT of the patient group, the mean VOR gain was significantly lower and the mean R ApEn was significantly greater compared with both nonlesion-side HIT and healthy controls (p Entropy and gain analysis of HIT using wireless electro-oculography system could be used to detect the VOR dysfunctions of AUVL and may become effective methods for evaluating vestibular disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

    2012-09-25

    Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle

  18. Clinical and anatomical observations of a two-headed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K R; Partlow, G D; Walker, A F

    1986-04-01

    The clinical and anatomical features of a live-born diprosopic lamb are described. There are no complete anatomical analyses of two-faced lambs in the literature despite the frequency of conjoined twinning in sheep. The lamb had two heads fused in the occipital region. Each head had two eyes. The pinnae of the medial ears were fused. Caudal to the neck the lamb appeared grossly normal. The lamb was unable to raise its heads or stand. Both heads showed synchronous sucking motions and cranial reflexes were present. Nystagmus, strabismus, and limb incoordination were present. The respiratory and heart rates were elevated. There was a grade IV murmur over the left heart base and a palpable thrill on the left side. Each head possessed a normal nasopharynx, oropharynx, and tongue. There was a singular laryngopharnyx and esophagus although the hyoid apparatus was partially duplicated. The cranial and cervical musculature reflected the head duplications. The aortic trunk emerged from the right ventricle just to the right of the conus arteriosus. A ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus were present along with malformed atrioventricular valves. Brainstem fusion began at the cranial medulla oblongata between cranial nerves IX and XII. The cerebella were separate but small. The ventromedial structures from each medulla oblongata were compressed into an extraneous midline remnant of tissue which extended caudally to the level of T2. The clinical signs therefore reflected the anatomical anomalies. A possible etiology for this diprosopus might be the presence early in development of an excessively large block of chordamesoderm. This would allow for the formation of two head folds and hence two "heads."

  19. Coupling between myosin head conformation and the thick filament backbone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Taylor, Dianne W; Edwards, Robert J; Taylor, Kenneth A

    2017-12-01

    The recent high-resolution structure of the thick filament from Lethocerus asynchronous flight muscle shows aspects of thick filament structure never before revealed that may shed some light on how striated muscles function. The phenomenon of stretch activation underlies the function of asynchronous flight muscle. It is most highly developed in flight muscle, but is also observed in other striated muscles such as cardiac muscle. Although stretch activation is likely to be complex, involving more than a single structural aspect of striated muscle, the thick filament itself, would be a prime site for regulatory function because it must bear all of the tension produced by both its associated myosin motors and any externally applied force. Here we show the first structural evidence that the arrangement of myosin heads within the interacting heads motif is coupled to the structure of the thick filament backbone. We find that a change in helical angle of 0.16° disorders the blocked head preferentially within the Lethocerus interacting heads motif. This observation suggests a mechanism for how tension affects the dynamics of the myosin heads leading to a detailed hypothesis for stretch activation and shortening deactivation, in which the blocked head preferentially binds the thin filament followed by the free head when force production occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group. Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms, Children′s Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software package (v. 20. Results: CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children′s reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping

  1. Multi-sector thermo-physiological head simulator for headgear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René M.; Annaheim, Simon

    2017-02-01

    A novel thermo-physiological human head simulator for headgear testing was developed by coupling a thermal head manikin with a thermo-physiological model. As the heat flux at head-site is directly measured by the head manikin, this method provides a realistic quantification of the heat transfer phenomena occurring in the headgear, such as moisture absorption-desorption cycles, condensation, or moisture migration across clothing layers. Before coupling, the opportunities of the head manikin for representing the human physiology were evaluated separately. The evaluation revealed reduced precision in forehead and face temperature predictions under extreme heterogeneous temperature distributions and no initial limitation for simulating temperature changes observed in the human physiology. The thermo-physiological model predicted higher sweat rates when applied for coupled than for pure virtual simulations. After coupling, the thermo-physiological human head simulator was validated using eight human experiments. It precisely predicted core, mean skin, and forehead temperatures with average rmsd values within the average experimental standard deviation (rmsd of 0.20 ± 0.15, 0.83 ± 0.34, and 1.04 ± 0.54 °C, respectively). However, in case of forehead, precision was lower for the exposures including activity than for the sedentary exposures. The representation of the human sweat evaporation could be affected by a reduced evaporation efficiency and the manikin sweat dynamics. The industry will benefit from this thermo-physiological human head simulator leading to the development of helmet designs with enhanced thermal comfort and, therefore, with higher acceptance by users.

  2. Multi-sector thermo-physiological head simulator for headgear research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René M; Annaheim, Simon

    2017-02-01

    A novel thermo-physiological human head simulator for headgear testing was developed by coupling a thermal head manikin with a thermo-physiological model. As the heat flux at head-site is directly measured by the head manikin, this method provides a realistic quantification of the heat transfer phenomena occurring in the headgear, such as moisture absorption-desorption cycles, condensation, or moisture migration across clothing layers. Before coupling, the opportunities of the head manikin for representing the human physiology were evaluated separately. The evaluation revealed reduced precision in forehead and face temperature predictions under extreme heterogeneous temperature distributions and no initial limitation for simulating temperature changes observed in the human physiology. The thermo-physiological model predicted higher sweat rates when applied for coupled than for pure virtual simulations. After coupling, the thermo-physiological human head simulator was validated using eight human experiments. It precisely predicted core, mean skin, and forehead temperatures with average rmsd values within the average experimental standard deviation (rmsd of 0.20 ± 0.15, 0.83 ± 0.34, and 1.04 ± 0.54 °C, respectively). However, in case of forehead, precision was lower for the exposures including activity than for the sedentary exposures. The representation of the human sweat evaporation could be affected by a reduced evaporation efficiency and the manikin sweat dynamics. The industry will benefit from this thermo-physiological human head simulator leading to the development of helmet designs with enhanced thermal comfort and, therefore, with higher acceptance by users.

  3. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Armijo-Olivo; David Magee

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maxima...

  5. Prevalence of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in Average-IQ Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Marín, Jorge; Rodríguez-Franco, Montserrat Alviani; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita; Magán Maganto, María; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Canal Bedia, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Since their separation as independent diagnostics, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have been conceptualized as mutually exclusive disorders. Similarities between both disorders can lead to misdiagnosis, especially when it comes to average-IQ adults who were not identified during childhood. The aim of this…

  6. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury predictive of subsequent development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Analysis with brain-image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, E. H.; Megalooikonomou, V.; Davatzikos, C.; Chen, A.; Bryan, R. N.; Gerring, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between the spatial distribution of lesions detected at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in children after closed-head injury and the development of secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained from 76 children without prior history of ADHD were analyzed. MR images were obtained 3 months after closed-head injury. After manual delineation of lesions, images were registered to the Talairach coordinate system. For each subject, registered images and secondary ADHD status were integrated into a brain-image database, which contains depiction (visualization) and statistical analysis software. Using this database, we assessed visually the spatial distributions of lesions and performed statistical analysis of image and clinical variables. RESULTS: Of the 76 children, 15 developed secondary ADHD. Depiction of the data suggested that children who developed secondary ADHD had more lesions in the right putamen than children who did not develop secondary ADHD; this impression was confirmed statistically. After Bonferroni correction, we could not demonstrate significant differences between secondary ADHD status and lesion burdens for the right caudate nucleus or the right globus pallidus. CONCLUSION: Closed-head injury-induced lesions in the right putamen in children are associated with subsequent development of secondary ADHD. Depiction software is useful in guiding statistical analysis of image data.

  7. Separation of cognitive impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into 2 familial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsi, Jonna; Wood, Alexis C; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Johnson, Katherine A; Andreou, Penelope; Albrecht, Björn; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Sergeant, Joseph A; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J; Uebel, Henrik; van der Meere, Jaap J; Banaschewski, Tobias; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip

    2010-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with widespread cognitive impairments, but it is not known whether the apparent multiple impairments share etiological roots or separate etiological pathways exist. A better understanding of the etiological pathways is important for the development of targeted interventions and for identification of suitable intermediate phenotypes for molecular genetic investigations. To determine, by using a multivariate familial factor analysis approach, whether 1 or more familial factors underlie the slow and variable reaction times, impaired response inhibition, and choice impulsivity associated with ADHD. An ADHD and control sibling-pair design. Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. A total of 1265 participants, aged 6 to 18 years: 464 probands with ADHD and 456 of their siblings (524 with combined-subtype ADHD), and 345 control participants. Performance on a 4-choice reaction time task, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a choice-delay task. The final model consisted of 2 familial factors. The larger factor, reflecting 85% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 98% to 100% of the familial influences on mean reaction time and reaction time variability. The second, smaller factor, reflecting 13% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 62% to 82% of the familial influences on commission and omission errors on the go/no-go task. Choice impulsivity was excluded in the final model because of poor fit. The findings suggest the existence of 2 familial pathways to cognitive impairments in ADHD and indicate promising cognitive targets for future molecular genetic investigations. The familial distinction between the 2 cognitive impairments is consistent with recent theoretical models--a developmental model and an arousal-attention model--of 2 separable underlying processes in ADHD. Future research that tests the familial model within a developmental framework may inform

  8. Cortical Volume Alterations in Conduct Disordered Adolescents with and without Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Olvera, Rene; Glahn, David; O'Donnell, Louise; Bearden, Carrie; Soares, Jair; Winkler, Anderson; Pliszka, Steven

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that bipolar disorder (BD) and conduct disorder (CD) are co-occurring disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging has revealed differences in the structure and function of the frontal cortex in these disorders when studied separately; however, the impact of BD comorbidity on brain structure in adolescents with CD has not yet been examined. METHOD: We conducted an optimized voxel based morphometry (VBM) study of juvenile offenders with the following diagnoses...

  9. MR imaging in pancreas head cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hajime; Yamanouchi, Baisetsu; Takarada, Akira; Tonami, Hisao; Okimura, Tetsuro; Miyamura, Toshio; Yamamoto, Itaru; Kinami, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    To reduce artifacts associated with MRI, we used abdominal belts and anticholinergic during the examinations in patients with pancreas head cancer. In selected cases, foric pyrophosphate was injected into the common bile duct as a contrast medium. We made a comparative study of the results of MRI with those of CT with regard to lesion detectability and diagnostic ability of tumor invasion. MR examinations were performed at 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences. Eleven patients with pancreas head cancer were enrolled in this study. As to the lesion detectability, eight cases (73%) were detected clearly or moderately clearly on MRI, almost corresponding to 9 cases (82%) on CT. With regard to the neoplastic infiltration to the surrounding area, MRI and CT were almost equally efficient as to the capsular and the arterial invasion. However, as to the invasion to the posterion surface of pancreas and the portal system, MRI was a little superior to CT. In patients to whom foric pyrophosphate was injected, the choledochal duct was clearly separated from the tumor. In conclusion, our results suggest that MRI using abdominal belts, anticholinergic and foric pyrophosphate solution is extremely effective in the diagnosis of pancreas head cancer and is almost as efficient as CT. (author)

  10. Turning semicircular canal function on its head: dinosaurs and a novel vestibular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, Justin A; Sipla, Justin S; Forster, Catherine A

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function.

  11. Turning semicircular canal function on its head: dinosaurs and a novel vestibular analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A Georgi

    Full Text Available Previous investigations have correlated vestibular function to locomotion in vertebrates by scaling semicircular duct radius of curvature to body mass. However, this method fails to discriminate bipedal from quadrupedal non-avian dinosaurs. Because they exhibit a broad range of relative head sizes, we use dinosaurs to test the hypothesis that semicircular ducts scale more closely with head size. Comparing the area enclosed by each semicircular canal to estimated body mass and to two different measures of head size, skull length and estimated head mass, reveals significant patterns that corroborate a connection between physical parameters of the head and semicircular canal morphology. Head mass more strongly correlates with anterior semicircular canal size than does body mass and statistically separates bipedal from quadrupedal taxa, with bipeds exhibiting relatively larger canals. This morphologic dichotomy likely reflects adaptations of the vestibular system to stability demands associated with terrestrial locomotion on two, versus four, feet. This new method has implications for reinterpreting previous studies and informing future studies on the connection between locomotion type and vestibular function.

  12. ACCELERATING COLUMN FOR SEPARATION OF ETHANOL FROM FACTIONS OF INTERMEDIATE AND HEAD IMPURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Agafonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Nowadays purification of ethanol from the head and intermediate impurities is done with the selection of fractions of fusel alcohol and fusel oil from the distillation column and head and intermediate fractions impurities from condenser Epuration column operating accord-ing to the hydro-selection method. Due to this the fraction contains at least 13% ethyl alcohol, resulting in a reduced yield of the final product. Distillation of these fractions in the known acceleration columns requires increased consumption of heating steam for 6-8 kg / dal and increasing installation metal content. In this paper we investigate the process of distillation fraction from the condenser of Epura-tion column, fusel alcohol from the distillation column and subfusel liquid layer from the decanter, which is fed on a plate of supply of new accelerating column (AC, which operates on Epuration technology with the supply of hydro-selection water on the top plate and has in its composition concentration, boiling and stripping parts, a dephlagmator, a condenser, a boiler. Material balance equations of the column were obtained and ethyl alcohol concentration on its plates were determined by them. Having converted the material balance equations, we determined the dependences for the impurities ratio being drawn from the accelerating column with the Luther flows and ethyl alcohol fraction. Then we received the equation for determining the proportion of impurities taken from the column condenser with fraction. These calculations proved that the studied impurities are almost completely selected with this faction, ethyl alcohol content of it being 0.14% of the hourly output.

  13. Thermal comfort zone of the hands, feet and head in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuha, Urša; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2017-10-01

    The present study compared the thermal comfort zones (TCZ) of the hands, feet and head in eight male and eight female participants, assessed with water-perfused segments (WPS). On separate occasions, and separated by a minimum of one day, participants were requested to regulate the temperature of three distal skin regions (hands, feet and head) within their TCZ. On each occasion they donned a specific water-perfused segment (WPS), either gloves, socks or hood for assessing the TCZ of the hands, feet and head, respectively. In the absence of regulation, the temperature of the water perfusing the WPS changed in a saw-tooth manner from 10 to 50°C; by depressing a switch and reversing the direction of the temperature at the limits of the TCZ, each participant defined the TCZ for each skin region investigated. The range of regulated temperatures (upper and lower limits of the TCZ) did not differ between studied skin regions or between genders. Participants however maintained higher head (35.7±0.4°C; p˂0.001) skin temperature (Tsk) compared to hands (34.5±0.8°C) and feet (33.8±1.1°C). When exposed to normothermic conditions, distal skin regions do not differ in ranges of temperatures, perceived as thermally comfortable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Penetrating missile-type head injury from a defective badminton racquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Dante; Murray, Elizabeth; Cimpello, Lynn Babcock; Conners, Gregory

    2009-06-01

    Injuries occurring during badminton are rarely serious and primarily involve the lower extremities. We report an instance wherein a patient suffered serious brain injury related to playing with a defective badminton racquet. The possibility of similar injuries following the separation of the racquet head and shaft from the handle needs to be disseminated.

  15. Separation, storage and disposal of krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Technical means available for the retention of 85 Kr and its immobilization, storage and disposal are reviewed. Cryogenic processes for the separation of krypton and xenon from diluting gases are discussed in more detail. Besides the cryogenic processes, a liquid adsorption process for reprocessing off-gases and charcoal adsorption and membrane processes for reactor off-gases are also dealt with. The retained krypton can be stored in pressurized containers with air or water cooling. The containers can be kept in engineered storage facilities for an intermediate period or until the 85 Kr has decayed. Alternatively, the krypton may be encapsulated in a solid. The injection of gases containing krypton into suitable geologic strata may also be possible. Much of the equipment required for the separation and storage of krypton, well known from ordinary technology, often needs some adaptation. Further R and D work is, however, needed to solve some problems which are specific to highly concentrated fission krypton. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: methods available for the separation of krypton from off-gases; separation of krypton from reactor off-gas; separation of krypton from reprocessing off-gas; conditioning methods; engineering storage; transportation; disposal

  16. Behavioral pattern separation and its link to the neural mechanisms of fear generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Iris; Goossens, Liesbet; Michielse, Stijn; Bakker, Jindra; Lissek, Shmuel; Papalini, Silvia; Verhagen, Simone; Leibold, Nicole; Marcelis, Machteld; Wichers, Marieke; Lieverse, Ritsaert; van Os, Jim; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Schruers, Koen

    2017-11-01

    Fear generalization is a prominent feature of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is defined as enhanced fear responding to a stimulus that bears similarities, but is not identical to a threatening stimulus. Pattern separation, a hippocampal-dependent process, is critical for stimulus discrimination; it transforms similar experiences or events into non-overlapping representations. This study is the first in humans to investigate the extent to which fear generalization relies on behavioral pattern separation abilities. Participants (N = 46) completed a behavioral task taxing pattern separation, and a neuroimaging fear conditioning and generalization paradigm. Results show an association between lower behavioral pattern separation performance and increased generalization in shock expectancy scores, but not in fear ratings. Furthermore, lower behavioral pattern separation was associated with diminished recruitment of the subcallosal cortex during presentation of generalization stimuli. This region showed functional connectivity with the orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Together, the data provide novel experimental evidence that pattern separation is related to generalization of threat expectancies, and reduced fear inhibition processes in frontal regions. Deficient pattern separation may be critical in overgeneralization and therefore may contribute to the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and PTSD. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Craniocervical posture analysis in patients with temporomandibular disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Iunes,DH; Carvalho,LCF; Oliveira,AS; Bevilaqua-Grossi,D

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare head positioning and cervical spine alignment between individuals with and without temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), by means of positional evaluation using photographs, radiographs and visual observation, and to investigate whether the type of TMD influences head posture and cervical spine positioning. METHODS: Ninety randomly chosen women were diagnosed using the research diagnostic criteria for TMDs (RDC/TMD) by a trained examiner and were divided into three groups:...

  18. Fundamental examinations for the mechanisation of the support work in headings by blasting and by using selective cut heading machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoecker, H.M.; Luerig, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Starting from the results of a stock-taking of the support methods used up to now and from exact analyses of the situation in the heading field, a concept will be elaborated with the aim, in addition to the reduction of the well-known high physical strain by the setting of the support, of rationalization of this partial procedure in case of conventional heading. The principal item is a floor-connected transportation and erection-vehicle with electro-hydraulic drive and an adjustable erection deck, which permits a fully mechanised setting of the support inclusive the side sections. By a transversible novel drilling equipment hung up at the roof of a drift a parallelization of different procedures and therewith a rationalization effect can be reached at the same time. The concept of this realizability will be demonstrated at a volume - right and power - right heading model on a scale 1:5. The developed equipment consist of operationally approved single aggregates and for the test they can also be used separately. Therewith a gradual introduction of the system is possible. At the beginning a provisional safety equipment for the direct at the face area will be introduced for the selective cut heading machine driving. According to the actual stage of the first considerations the main disadvantage of the safety equipment is the insufficient stock safety and its outrigger at the support already set.

  19. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  20. Disordered vortex phases in YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Olsson, R. J.; Karapetrov, G.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A.; Tobos, V.; Moulton, W. G.

    2000-01-01

    The disordered vortex phases induced by line and point pinning in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x are explored. At high defect densities there is a single disordered solid separated from the liquid phase by a melting line. At low defect densities the topology of the phase diagram changes dramatically, with a vortex lattice phase adjoining disordered phases at high or low field. Critical points at the termination of first order melting separate the lattice and disordered phases. The line defect disordered phases follow the expected Bose glass behavior, while the point defect disordered phases do not exhibit the expected vortex glass behavior

  1. The Relationship between Concurrent Substance Use Disorders and Eating Disorders with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Courbasson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current pilot study investigated whether patients with concurrent substance use disorders and eating disorders (SUD and ED who experienced a reduction in SUD and ED symptoms following treatment for SUD and ED also experienced a reduction in personality disorder (PD symptoms. Method: Twenty patients with SUD and ED and PD were assessed pre and post treatment using clinical interviews, self-report questionnaires, and a therapist questionnaire on DSM-IV-TR symptoms for PD. Results: Symptoms for the personality disorders were reduced following treatment. This reduction was correlated with a decrease in the number of symptoms of ED at post treatment. Discussion: Chronic concurrent SUD and ED may make it difficult to separate PD symptoms from co-occurring disorders. Many features attributed to PDs may be reduced when problematic substance use and disordered eating are addressed, a fact that may increase clinician and patients’optimism about therapeutic change.

  2. Innovative Separations Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Soelberg, N.; Wigeland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  3. Innovative Separations Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland

    2011-05-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  4. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  5. Less head motion during MRI under task than resting-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbers, Willem; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Boenniger, Meta M; Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Breteler, Monique M B

    2017-02-15

    Head motion reduces data quality of neuroimaging data. In three functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments we demonstrate that people make less head movements under task than resting-state conditions. In Experiment 1, we observed less head motion during a memory encoding task than during the resting-state condition. In Experiment 2, using publicly shared data from the UCLA Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics LA5c Study, we again found less head motion during several active task conditions than during a resting-state condition, although some task conditions also showed comparable motion. In the healthy controls, we found more head motion in men than in women and more motion with increasing age. When comparing clinical groups, we found that patients with a clinical diagnosis of bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, move more compared to healthy controls or patients with ADHD. Both these experiments had a fixed acquisition order across participants, and we could not rule out that a first or last scan during a session might be particularly prone to more head motion. Therefore, we conducted Experiment 3, in which we collected several task and resting-state fMRI runs with an acquisition order counter-balanced. The results of Experiment 3 show again less head motion during several task conditions than during rest. Together these experiments demonstrate that small head motions occur during MRI even with careful instruction to remain still and fixation with foam pillows, but that head motion is lower when participants are engaged in a cognitive task. These finding may inform the choice of functional runs when studying difficult-to-scan populations, such as children or certain patient populations. Our findings also indicate that differences in head motion complicate direct comparisons of measures of functional neuronal networks between task and resting-state fMRI because of potential differences in data quality. In practice, a task to reduce head motion

  6. Headaches and myofascial temporomandibular disorders: overlapping entities, separate managements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, P C R; Costa, Y M; Gonçalves, D A; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    There are relevant clinical overlaps between some of the painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache conditions that may hamper the diagnostic process and treatment. A non-systematic search for studies on the relationship between TMD and headaches was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Important pain mechanisms contributing to the close association and complex relationship between TMD and headache disorders are as follows: processes of peripheral and central sensitisation which take place in similar anatomical areas, the possible impairment of the descending modulatory pain pathways and the processes of referred pain. In addition, the clinical examination does not always provide distinguishing information to differentiate between headaches and TMD. So, considering the pathophysiology and the clinical presentation of some types of headache and myofascial TMD, such overlap can be considered not only a matter of comorbid relationship, but rather a question of disorders where the distinction lines are sometimes hard to identify. These concerns are certainly reflected in the current classification systems of both TMD and headache where the clinical consequences of diagnosis such as headache attributed to or associated with TMD are uncertain. There are several similarities in terms of therapeutic strategies used to manage myofascial TMD and headaches. Considering all these possible levels of interaction, we reinforce the recommendation for multidisciplinary approaches, by a team of oro-facial pain specialists and a neurologist (headache specialist), to attain the most precise differential diagnosis and initiate the best and most efficient treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Process and device for the ultrasonic testing of slotted screws screwed into a head of a nuclear reactor fuel element for cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenberg, R.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve correct echo signals, a test head is set separately on each area limited by a slot of the top of the slotted screw and the screw head is ultrasonically sounded in the direction of the suspected cracks. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Psychosocial consequences of head injury in children and adolescents: implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, M G; McCabe, R J

    1990-01-01

    Studies measuring psychosocial outcome in children and adolescents have shown that head injury leads to cognitive impairment which is directly related to the severity of injury in those with very severe head injury. Psychiatric disorders are also related to the severity of injury but here the relationship suggests that mediating factors are involved. No specific pattern of post-traumatic psychological/psychiatric dysfunction emerges from the studies, but it is clear that, as with adults, psychosocial recovery lags behind physical. Head injury affects the functioning of the young person in the family, at school, and within the wider community, often resulting in a secondary handicap of low self-esteem. The multitude of deficits which are a consequence of severe head injury present a challenge for rehabilitation specialists. A multi-disciplinary, multi-specialist, and multi-agency response is required. As a result, families are often presented with a bewildering array of treatments and programmes at different agencies. A case manager can be helpful in ensuring the appropriate use of available resources and can be the one professional in charge of a coordinating case record.

  9. Three-dimensional motion of the uncovertebral joint during head rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamoto, Yukitaka; Ishii, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sakaura, Hironobu; Moritomo, Hisao; Fujimori, Takahito; Kashii, Masafumi; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2012-10-01

    The uncovertebral joints are peculiar but clinically important anatomical structures of the cervical vertebrae. In the aged or degenerative cervical spine, osteophytes arising from an uncovertebral joint can cause cervical radiculopathy, often necessitating decompression surgery. Although these joints are believed to bear some relationship to head rotation, how the uncovertebral joints work during head rotation remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate 3D motion of the uncovertebral joints during head rotation. Study participants were 10 healthy volunteers who underwent 3D MRI of the cervical spine in 11 positions during head rotation: neutral (0°) and 15° increments to maximal head rotation on each side (left and right). Relative motions of the cervical spine were calculated by automatically superimposing a segmented 3D MR image of the vertebra in the neutral position over images of each position using the volume registration method. The 3D intervertebral motions of all 10 volunteers were standardized, and the 3D motion of uncovertebral joints was visualized on animations using data for the standardized motion. Inferred contact areas of uncovertebral joints were also calculated using a proximity mapping technique. The 3D animation of uncovertebral joints during head rotation showed that the joints alternate between contact and separation. Inferred contact areas of uncovertebral joints were situated directly lateral at the middle cervical spine and dorsolateral at the lower cervical spine. With increasing angle of rotation, inferred contact areas increased in the middle cervical spine, whereas areas in the lower cervical spine slightly decreased. In this study, the 3D motions of uncovertebral joints during head rotation were depicted precisely for the first time.

  10. [Skull cult. Trophy heads and tzantzas in pre-Columbian America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    2012-07-16

    The skull cult is a cultural tradition that dates back to at least Neolithic times. Its main manifestations are trophy heads, skull masks, moulded skulls and shrunken heads. The article reviews the skull cult in both pre-Columbian America and the ethnographic present from a neuro-anthropological perspective. The tradition of shaping and painting the skulls of ancestors goes back to the Indo-European Neolithic period (Natufian culture and Gobekli Tepe). In Mesoamerica, post-mortem decapitation was the first step of a mortuary treatment that resulted in a trophy head, a skull for the tzompantli or a skull mask. The lithic technology utilised by the Mesoamerican cultures meant that disarticulation had to be performed in several stages. Tzompantli is a term that refers both to a construction where the heads of victims were kept and to the actual skulls themselves. Skull masks are skulls that have been artificially modified in order to separate and decorate the facial part; they have been found in the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. The existence of trophy heads is well documented by means of iconographic representations on ceramic ware and textiles belonging to the Paraca, Nazca and Huari cultures of Peru. The Mundurucu Indians of Brazil and the Shuar or Jivaroan peoples of Amazonian Ecuador have maintained this custom down to the present day. The Shuar also shrink heads (tzantzas) in a ritual process. Spanish chroniclers such as Fray Toribio de Benavente 'Motolinia' and Gaspar de Carvajal spoke of these practices. In pre-Columbian America, the tradition of decapitating warriors in order to obtain trophy heads was a wide-spread and highly developed practice.

  11. [Current emergency medicine for neurological disorders in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamura, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the number of pediatric outpatients consulting our hospital during non-practice hours increased by 218.1% of that in 1996. The number of pediatric inpatients during non-practice hours in 2006 increased by 71.3% of that in 1996. In 2006, the number of patients who were admitted with neurological disorders in children during non-practice hours increased to 213.3% of that in 1996. The proportion of these pediatric patients among those who were admitted during non-practice hours was 16.6% in our hospital, suggesting the importance of neurological disorders in pediatric emergency medicine. More than 60% of inpatients with neurological disorders in children were 3 years old or younger. The most common neurological symptoms observed at admission included convulsion (81.6%) and disturbance of consciousness (8.5%). The disorders were mainly febrile seizure (41.4%) and epilepsy (29.0%). Most patients with severe disorders requiring emergency medicine, such as head bruise, acute encephalitis/encephalopathy, purulent meningitis, and head trauma, were admitted during non-practice hours. The prognoses of most neurological disorders in children were favorable. However, patients with sequelae (especially, hypoxic encephalopathy, acute encephalitis/encephalopathy) showed an unfavorable neurological prognosis. Early rehabilitation during admission was useful as a support method for their families. In the future, a comprehensive rehabilitation program for children with acquired brain injury should be established and laws to promote home care must be passed.

  12. Fatigue During Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy: Prospective Study on 117 Consecutive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Santoro, Luigi; Alterio, Daniela; Franchi, Benedetta; Fiore, Maria Rosaria; Fossati, Piero; Kowalczyk, Anna; Canino, Paola; Ansarin, Mohssen; Orecchia, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Fatigue is an underevaluated cancer-related and treatment-related symptom. We analyzed fatigue in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 117 patients were enrolled (mean age, 58 years). Radiation therapy (median dose, 66 Gy) was given with either exclusive or postoperative intent in 52 and 65 patients, respectively. Chemotherapy (CT) was added before and/or during RT in 61 patients. The patients completed a 20-item questionnaire (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI-20]) before, during (weekly), and after RT. The impact of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors on fatigue was evaluated with unifactorial and multifactorial tests. Results: Fatigue level increased during RT reaching a maximum at Week 6 and then slowly decreased. In multivariate stepwise regression analysis age (inversely related, p < 0.05), psychologic disorders (p < 0.005), and previous head-and-neck surgery (inversely related, p < 0.005) were correlated with higher pre-RT fatigue level. Pre-RT fatigue score (p < 0.0001), induction and/or concomitant CT (p = 0.035), need of cortisone during RT (p = 0.005), and thyroid disorders (p = 0.032) were correlated with higher during-RT fatigue level. Pre-RT fatigue score (p < 0.0001), induction and/or concomitant CT (p < 0.001), and need of cortisone during RT (p < 0.005) were correlated with higher post-RT fatigue level. No impact of gender, performance status, comorbidities other than psychologic and thyroid, tumor stage/site, RT intent, dose, volume, duration, or toxicity was observed. Conclusion: Fatigue affects all patients undergoing RT for head-and-neck cancer, reaches maximum score at the 6th week of RT, and slowly decreases thereafter. Age, thyroid dysfunction, psychologic disorders, pre-RT fatigue score, CT, and cortisone use are correlated with RT-related fatigue levels

  13. Family Correlates of Oppositional and Conduct Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith; Rathouz, Paul J.; Judice, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention…

  14. Effects of neurosurgical treatment and severity of head injury on cognitive functioning, general health and incidence of mental disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Sajjad; Asgari, Karim; Yousefzadeh, Shahrokh; Moosavi, Heshmat-Allah; Kazemnejad, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Neurosurgical treatment and the severity of head injury (HI) can have remarkable effect on patients' neuropsychiatric outcomes. This research aimed to study the effect of these factors on cognitive functioning, general health and incidence of mental disorders in patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this descriptive, longitudinal study, 206 TBI patients entered the study by consecutive sampling; they were then compared according to neurosurgery status and severity of their HI. Both groups underwent neurosurgical and psychological examinations. The mini mental state examination (MMSE) and general health questionnaire-28 items (GHQ-28) were administered to the study participants. At follow-up, four months later, the groups underwent a structured clinical interview by a psychiatrist based on the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria regarding the presence of mental disorders. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) were performed and adjusted for the effect of confounding variables (age, gender, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) , and level of education). The severity of HI had the most significant effect for the following variables; cognitive functioning and physical symptoms (P < 0.05). The effect of the neurosurgical treatment factor was not significant; however, the interaction effect of the two variables on social dysfunction, and total score of the GHQ-28 questionnaire appeared to be significant (P < 0.05). Fisher's exact test indicated that after a four month follow-up period, no significant differences were seen between the two groups (with or without neurosurgery) in the incidence of mental disorders, while χ(2) Test showed that having a more severe HI is significantly correlated with the incidence of mental disorders (P < 0.01). The implications of this study should be discussed with an emphasis on negative, effective factors on the cognitive

  15. Gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Ryan T; Sitler, Michael R; Swanik, C Buz; Swanik, Kathleen A; Higgins, Michael; Torg, Joseph

    2005-02-01

    Recent epidemiological research has revealed that gender differences exist in concussion incidence but no study has investigated why females may be at greater risk of concussion. Our purpose was to determine whether gender differences existed in head-neck segment kinematic and neuromuscular control variables responses to an external force application with and without neck muscle preactivation. Forty (20 females and 20 males) physically active volunteers participated in the study. The independent variables were gender, force application (known vs unknown), and force direction (forced flexion vs forced extension). The dependent variables were kinematic and EMG variables, head-neck segment stiffness, and head-neck segment flexor and extensor isometric strength. Statistical analyses consisted of multiple multivariate and univariate analyses of variance, follow-up univariate analyses of variance, and t-tests (P Gender differences existed in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head angular acceleration. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration (50%) and displacement (39%) than males despite initiating muscle activity significantly earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment muscle activity (79% peak activity and 117% muscle activity area). The head-neck segment angular acceleration differences may be because females exhibited significantly less isometric strength (49%), neck girth (30%), and head mass (43%), resulting in lower levels of head-neck segment stiffness (29%). For our subject demographic, the results revealed gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration in response to an external force application. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration and displacement than males despite initiating muscle activity earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment

  16. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Angélica M; Nascimento, Antônio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23467711

  17. Case vignettes of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    This paper reports five movement disorders cases to serve as a basis for discussion of the problems encountered in the clinical management of these cases, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these disorders as presented. Case 1 is a description of the subjective experience of a patient with acute orofacial dystonia from promethazine. Case 2 is the use of clonazepam is post-head injury tics. Case 3 is the complication from discontinuation of haloperidol and benztropine mesylate treatment. Case 4 is myoclonus in subacute sclerosing Panencephalitis, and Case 5 is rebound tremor from withdrawal of a beta-adrenergic blocker.

  18. Validating a benchmarking tool for audit of early outcomes after operations for head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tighe, D.; Sassoon, I.; McGurk, M.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 2013 all UK surgical specialties, with the exception of head and neck surgery, published outcome data adjusted for case mix for indicator operations. This paper reports a pilot study to validate a previously published risk adjustment score on patients from separate UK cancer centres. METHODS A case note audit was performed of 1,075 patients undergoing 1,218 operations for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma under general anaesthesia in 4 surgical centres. A logistic regressi...

  19. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  20. Development of a dry-mechanical graphite separation process and elimination of the separated carbon for the reprocessing of spherical HTR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronschnabel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Due to the C-14 distribution the separation of the particle-free outer region of the spherical HTR fuel element with subsequent solidification of the separated carbon makes it possible to reduce by half the remaining C-14 inventory in the inner particle region to be further treated. Separation of the particle-free outer region by a newly developed sphere-peeling milling machine, conditioning the graphite into compacts and in-situ cementation into a salt-mine are the basic elements of this head-end process variation. An annual cavern volume of approx. 2000 m 3 will be needed to ultimately store the graphite of the particle-free outer region, which corresponds to a reprocessing capacity of 50 GWsub(e) installed HTR power. The brush-disintegration of the remaining inner particle region and the resulting peel-brush-preparation are capable of separating 95% of the graphite without any heavy metal losses. With the mentioned reprocessing capacity an annual cavern volume of approx. 16.500 m 3 is required. (orig.) [de

  1. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  2. Geometric calibration method for multiple-head cone-beam SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, P.; Grangeat, P.; Guillemaud, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the geometrical parameters of cone beam systems with multiple heads, each head having its own orientation. In tomography, for each head, the relative position of the rotation axis and f the collimator do not change during the data acquisition. The authors thus can separate the parameters into intrinsic parameters and extrinsic parameters. The intrinsic parameters describe the detection system geometry and the extrinsic parameters the position of the detection system with respect to the rotation axis. Intrinsic parameters must be estimated each time the acquisition geometry is modified. Extrinsic parameters are estimated by minimizing the distances between the measured position of a point source projection and the computed position obtained using the estimated extrinsic parameters. The main advantage of this method is that the extrinsic parameters are only weakly correlated when the intrinsic parameters are known. Thus the authors can use any simple least square error minimization method to perform the estimation of the extrinsic parameters. Giving a fixed value to the distance between the point source and the rotation axis in the estimation process, ensures the coherence of the extrinsic parameters between each head. They show that with this calibration method, the full width at half maximum measured with point sources is very close to the theoretical one, and remains almost unchanged when more than one head is used. Simulation results and reconstructions on a Jaszczak phantom are presented that show the capabilities of this method

  3. Imaging of the head and neck. 2. rev. and enl. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafee, M.F.; Valvassori, G.E. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Becker, M. [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    Remarkable advances in medical diagnostic imaging have been made during the past three decades. The development of new imaging techniques and continuous improvements in the display of digital images have opened new horizons in the study of head and neck anatomy and pathology. The American Society of Head and Neck Radiology (ASHNR) and its European and Asiatic counterparts evolved because of the emerging awareness of the roles that head and neck radiologists play in the diagnosis and management of head and neck, base of the skull, neuro-ophthalmologic and neuro-otologic diseases. This edition continues the tradition of excellence set by the first edition of Valvassori's Head and Neck Imaging (which was also the first textbook in head and neck radiology), and provides a comprehensive review of the most pertinent and up-to-date knowledge in the field of head and neck imaging. The content of this edition has been organized into 12 chapters according to anatomic regions. It now includes new material on the temporomandibular joint, the lacrimal drainage system, dental scanning, fibro-osseous and cartilaginous lesions of the head and neck, MRI sialography, MR interventional technique, and thyroid and parathyroid glands. All chapters have been expanded to address new developments in the field and to stress the importance of imaging anatomy, pathologic correlation, and pertinent clinical data. For each anatomic region, the embryology and anatomy are introduced, followed by congenital and developmental disorders, inflammatory processes, benign and malignant neoplastic diseases, trauma, and postoperative changes. The detailed reference lists in each chapter include key references and are as recent as possible. Care has been taken to include exquisitely reproduced illustrations that provide the maximum of pertinent information. It is our hope that this textbook will be useful to students and physicians in the fields of radiology, otolaryngology, neurootology, rhinology

  4. Imaging of the head and neck. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafee, M.F.; Valvassori, G.E.; Becker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Remarkable advances in medical diagnostic imaging have been made during the past three decades. The development of new imaging techniques and continuous improvements in the display of digital images have opened new horizons in the study of head and neck anatomy and pathology. The American Society of Head and Neck Radiology (ASHNR) and its European and Asiatic counterparts evolved because of the emerging awareness of the roles that head and neck radiologists play in the diagnosis and management of head and neck, base of the skull, neuro-ophthalmologic and neuro-otologic diseases. This edition continues the tradition of excellence set by the first edition of Valvassori's Head and Neck Imaging (which was also the first textbook in head and neck radiology), and provides a comprehensive review of the most pertinent and up-to-date knowledge in the field of head and neck imaging. The content of this edition has been organized into 12 chapters according to anatomic regions. It now includes new material on the temporomandibular joint, the lacrimal drainage system, dental scanning, fibro-osseous and cartilaginous lesions of the head and neck, MRI sialography, MR interventional technique, and thyroid and parathyroid glands. All chapters have been expanded to address new developments in the field and to stress the importance of imaging anatomy, pathologic correlation, and pertinent clinical data. For each anatomic region, the embryology and anatomy are introduced, followed by congenital and developmental disorders, inflammatory processes, benign and malignant neoplastic diseases, trauma, and postoperative changes. The detailed reference lists in each chapter include key references and are as recent as possible. Care has been taken to include exquisitely reproduced illustrations that provide the maximum of pertinent information. It is our hope that this textbook will be useful to students and physicians in the fields of radiology, otolaryngology, neurootology, rhinology, head

  5. Defining Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV. Methods: We…

  6. Topological approach to separate order from disorder in simulated atomic arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodin, Vladimir A.

    2003-01-01

    Computer simulations involving transitions between ordered (crystalline) and disordered phases in solids are common in material science. Usually, it is of interest to know, which atoms in simulated atomic arrays belong to crystalline phase and which are in 'disordered' state (melt, amorphous pockets, individual point defects, etc.). In this paper we discuss a possible strategy to achieve this knowledge, using only information about simulated atomic positions and applying topological processing of the local atomic environments. The steps in practical realization of this strategy are discussed in more detail

  7. Vallejo-Nágera (1926-1990) and the concept of 'soteric neurosis': a forgotten sketch of hoarding disorder in the obsessive-compulsive spectrum literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2016-02-01

    Juan Antonio Vallejo-Nágera, psychiatrist, painter and writer, wrote a widely adopted textbook of psychiatry in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries, particularly during the 1970s, the famous Introducción a la psiquiatría. There, he advanced the concept of soteric neurosis, a condition regarded as a 'mirror image' of phobias and similar to the diagnostic entity described in DSM-5 under the heading of hoarding disorder. Indeed, much earlier than the recent nosological discussions on hoarding, Vallejo-Nágera already reported soteric neurosis to be distinct from obsessive-compulsive disorder and to be associated with excessive attachment to objects and positive affect (pleasure), leading to accumulation, decreased treatment seeking, increasing interference in daily activities and blurred boundaries with normality. Vallejo-Nágera also made several predictions, including the propensity soteric neurosis patients may have towards the development of separation anxiety, obesity and other 'masked' symptoms. In the light of his original and insightful contributions to the concept of hoarding disorder, it would be interesting to assess his hypotheses in future studies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder According to the Crime Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KARADAG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the relation between the crimes committed, and the childhood behavioral problems, current clinical characteristics and anger levels of patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD. One hundred and fifty-three patients with ASPD were enrolled. The diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV criteria. DSM-IV conduct disorder criteria and life history inventory was used to assess childhood characteristics. The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS was used to assess experience, expression, and control of anger. The main differences between crime groups were as follows: A head trauma history was more frequent in ASPD patients who had a crime history of physical assault. Loss of a parent in childhood was more frequent in individuals who committed burglary. Divorce or separation of the parents in childhood was more frequent in those who committed murder. The usage of weapons in fight during childhood was significantly higher in those who committed murder and aggravated assault. According to STAS scores, the anger control scores were significantly lower in those who committed murder. Childhood and behavioral characteristics of ASPD patients is not homogenous. There is a need for further studies to demonstrate these differences and make a new classification for ASPD. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 13-21

  9. Brain SPECT in severs traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, F.; Eder, V.; Pottier, J.M.; Baulieu, J.L.; Fournier, P.; Legros, B.; Chiaroni, P.; Dalonneau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of the early brain scintigraphy in traumatic brain injury to the long term neuropsychological behavior. Twenty four patients had an ECD-Tc99m SPECT, within one month after the trauma; scintigraphic abnormalities were evaluated according to a semi-quantitative analysis. The neuropsychological clinical investigation was interpreted by a synthetic approach to evaluate abnormalities related to residual motor deficit, frontal behavior, memory and language disorders. Fourteen patients (58%) had sequela symptoms. SPECT revealed 80 abnormalities and CT scan only 31. Statistical analysis of uptake values showed significantly lower uptake in left basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with sequela memory disorders. We conclude that the brain perfusion scintigraphy is able to detect more lesions than CT and that it could really help to predict the neuropsychological behavior after severe head injury. Traumatology could become in the future a widely accepted indication of perfusion SPECT. (authors)

  10. Otologic disorders following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Motoyoshi, Kazumi; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy is widely accepted as the first choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Delayed otitis of both external and middle ears is sometimes seen as a complication after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, especially for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. They are usually hard to manage and some produces cochlear damages, finally resulting in a sensorineural hearing loss. However, these otologic disorders are tends to be overlooked, because physicians pay less attention to them than the concerning for cancer recurrence. Therefore, studies on the otologic disorders following radiotherapy are lacking. In this study, we analyzed 24 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases retrospectively to clarify the incidence of otologic disorders induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  11. [Anxiety disorders in DSM-5: an overview on changes in structure and content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, H-U; Heinig, I; Beesdo-Baum, K

    2014-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) "anxiety, obsessive-compulsive spectrum, posttraumatic, and dissociative disorders" work group addressed reconceptualization issues regarding all anxiety-related disorders. Based on systematic literature reviews, reanalyses of available data and evaluation of results following the DSM-5 principles it was decided to rearrange the disorder spectrum into separate groupings for the classical anxiety disorders, trauma- and stressor-related disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and dissociative disorders. Among the classical anxiety disorders DSM-5 now also includes selective mutism and separation anxiety disorder. A major change from DSM-IV is a drastically simplified classification of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Both conditions can be separately coded in DSM-5 and the overlap is disclosed by a comorbid double diagnosis. The anxiety disorder criteria have been generally harmonized regarding content and order. It was assured that criteria are applicable to all age, gender and cultural groups. Furthermore, diagnosis-specific and cross-cutting dimensional anxiety scales have been developed to supplement categorical diagnosis which appears to facilitate assessment of severity and course of treatment.

  12. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Botti, F M; Panichi, R; Barmack, N H

    2011-08-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5-5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, "open loop." Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during "closed loop" HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement.

  13. A separation process for hydrogen fluoride from its mixtures with 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, J.M.; Perdriau, R.; Rouzies, D.

    1994-03-11

    When decanting the mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane (F133a) at a temperature between -40 deg C and -10 deg C, a lower organic phase, poor in HF, and a superior phase, rich in HF, are obtained (the reaction may be activated with trichlorethylen); the superior phase can be directly recycled in the fluorination reactor or distilled in order to separate the HF-F133a azeotrope (the head), which is sent back to the decanter, and a quasi-pure HF (the ends). The lower phase distillation produces HF-F133a (head) and a mixture of F133a and trichlorethylen (ends); this mixture is then distilled and pure F133a is separated from trichlorethylen. 9 p., 2 fig.

  14. Effectiveness of Sand-Therapy on the Attenuation of Separation anxiety Signs in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Shariat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The present research was conducted with the aim of determining effect of Sand-therapy on the attenuation of separation anxiety signs among pre-school children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: The statistical society consists of all pre-school children who had separation anxiety disorder and Among100 children, 30 persons were selected using available sampling. The method of this research is quasi-experimental with one group and pre-test and post-test plan. After performing pre-test of separation anxiety disorder scale, the experimental group were trained under sand-therapy training in 10 sessions of 60 minutes for a period of two months and after that, post-test of separation anxiety disorder scale was performed. The research tool consists of the questionnaire CSI-4 of child’s morbid signs. Wilcoxon method was used to analysis the results. Results: The research findings showed that there was a meaningful different (P=0.008 between pre- test & post-test scores of anxiety signs for study group.Conclusion: As a practical message, we can mention that sand therapy is as an interesting and practical playing for the children and it is a meaningful therapy related to attenuation of separation anxious signs. Keywords: Sand therapy, separation anxiety, pre-school-children

  15. Suspected alcohol and addictive narcotic use were more at risk to severe head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Cedera kepala menyebabkan dampak seperti gangguan kognitif, perilaku dan keterbatasan fisik. Tujuan studi ini untuk menentukan faktor utama yang berkontribusi terhadap keparahan cedera kepala pada pasien yang dirawat inap di rumah sakit. Metode: Studi ini merupakan bagian dari penelitian “Pengembangan Database Registri Trauma sebagai Penunjang Sistem Surveilans Cedera”. Data dikumpulkan dengan cara abstraksi dari rekam medis oleh petugas terlatih dengan formulir registri pada pasien cedera yang dirawat inap di 3 rumah sakit dari bulan Januari – Agustus 2010. Keparahan cedera diklasifikasikan berdasarkan Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS dengan batasan nilai 3-9 mengalami cedera kepala berat, 10-12 cedera kepala sedang dan 13-15 cedera kepala ringan. Hasil: Dari 450 pasien cedera rawat inap terdapat 36 pasien (8% yang mengalami cedera kepala berat. Pasien dengan indikasi mengkonsumsi alkohol/narkotik mempunyai risiko hampir 5 kali mengalami cedera kepala berat [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 4,77; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,04–21,75] dibanding tanpa indikasi. Pasien yang tidak dirujuk mempunyai risiko 5,5 kali  mengalami cedera kepala berat (ORa=5,50; 95% CI=2,28–13,27 dibanding pasien yang dirujuk. Pasien cedera karena kecelakaaan lalu lintas dibanding bukan kecelakaan lalu lintas mempunyai risiko 3 kali mengalami cedera kepala berat (ORa=3,43; 95% CI=1,14–10,32. Kesimpulan: Indikasi mengkonsumsi alkohol/narkotik berkontribusi paling besar terhadap keparahan cedera kepala. Kampanye anti alkohol/narkotik dan perlu dilakukan untuk mencegah cedera kepala berat. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:34-40   Abstract Background: The impact of head injuries were cognitive disorder, behavioral disorder and physical limitation. The objective of this study was to identify a major factor that contributes to head injury severity in hospitalized patients. Methods: This study was part of research "Development of Trauma Registry Databases as a

  16. What are Head Cavities? - A History of Studies on Vertebrate Head Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly.

  17. Should OCD leave the anxiety disorders in DSM-V? The case for obsessive compulsive-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Eric; Braun, Ashley; Simeon, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    Recently in 2006, a group of experts in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) convened in Washington, DC, to review existing data on the relationships between these various disorders, and to suggest approaches to address the gaps in our knowledge, in preparation for the upcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (Fifth Edition) (DSM-V). As a result of this meeting, the Research Planning Agenda for DSM-V: OCRD Work Group suggested removing OCD from the anxiety disorders, where it is currently found. This proposal is in accordance with the current International Classification of Mental Disorders (ICD-10) classification of OCD as a separate category from the anxiety disorders. Although the ICD-10 places both OCD and the anxiety disorders under the umbrella category of "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders," they are two separate categories, distinct from one another. As OCD and other putative OCRDs share aspects of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurotransmitter/peptide systems, neurocircuitry, familial and genetic factors, and treatment response, it was proposed to create a new category in DSM-V entitled OCRDs. Alternatively, the OCRDs might be conceptualized as a new category within the broader category of anxiety disorders. Future studies are needed to better define the relationships among these disorders, and to study boundary issues for this proposed category. There are both advantages and disadvantages in creating a new diagnostic category in DSM-V, and these are discussed in this article.

  18. What's left feels right: Studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body integrity identity disorder (BIID).

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade the nosology status of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders has been topic of debate. Whereas in DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder, in DSM-V it is classified as a separate entity with compulsivity as the main symptom. The first part of this thesis consists of studies that contributed to this debate, investigating the prevalence of obsessions in the general popul...

  19. Intraindividual variability as an indicator of malingering in head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Esther; Slick, Daniel J; Levy-Bencheton, Judi; Hunter, Michael; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F

    2002-07-01

    The utility of various measures of malingering was evaluated using an analog design in which half the participants (composed of three groups: naive healthy people, professionals working with head-injured people, individuals who suffered a head injury but not currently in litigation) were asked to try their best and the remainder was asked to feign believable injury. Participants were assessed with the Reliable Digit Span (RDS) task, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), and the Computerized Dot Counting Test (CDCT) on three separate occasions in order to determine whether repeat administration of tests improves prediction. The results indicated that regardless of an individual's experience, consideration of both level of performance (particularly on forced-choice symptom validity tasks) and intraindividual variability holds considerable promise for the detection of malingering.

  20. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  1. Preparative separation of cacao bean procyanidins by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxi; Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Li, Yuanyuan; Luo, Lanxin; Zhou, Peiyu; Sun, Baoshan

    2016-11-15

    In this work, an efficient method for preparative separation of procyanidins from raw cacao bean extract by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed. Under the optimized solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1:50:50, v/v/v) with a combination of head-tail and tail-head elution modes, various procyanidins fractions with different polymerization degrees were successfully separated. UPLC, QTOF-MS and 1 H NMR analysis verified that these fractions contained monomer up to pentamer respectively. Dimeric procyanidin B2 (purity>86%) could be isolated by HSCCC in a single run. Other individual procyanidins in these fractions could be further isolated and purified by preparative HPLC. The developed HSCCC together with preparative HPLC techniques appeared to be a useful tool for large preparation of different procyanidins from cacao beans. Furthermore, by antioxidant activity assays, it was proved that both fractions and individual procyanidins possessed greater antioxidant activities compared to standard trolox. The antioxidant activities of procyanidins increase as the increase of their polymerization degree. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging of connective tissue diseases of the head and neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We review the imaging appearance of connective tissue diseases of the head and neck. Bilateral sialadenitis and dacryoadenitis are seen in Sjögren’s syndrome; ankylosis of the temporo-mandibular joint with sclerosis of the crico-arytenoid joint are reported in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus panniculitis with atypical infection are reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Relapsing polychondritis shows subglottic stenosis, prominent ear and saddle nose; progressive systemic sclerosis shows osteolysis of the mandible, fibrosis of the masseter muscle with calcinosis of the subcutaneous tissue and dermatomyositis/polymyositis shows condylar erosions and autoimmune thyroiditis. Vascular thrombosis is reported in antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome; cervical lymphadenopathy is seen in adult-onset Still’s disease, and neuropathy with thyroiditis reported in mixed connective tissue disorder. Imaging is important to detect associated malignancy with connective tissue disorders. Correlation of the imaging findings with demographic data and clinical findings are important for the diagnosis of connective tissue disorders. PMID:26988082

  3. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kee Jeong [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ''Buttonholing'' of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. (orig.)

  4. Depth sensitivity and source-detector separations for near infrared spectroscopy based on the Colin27 brain template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial and depth sensitivity of non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measurements to brain tissue-i.e., near-infrared neuromonitoring (NIN - is essential for designing experiments as well as interpreting research findings. However, a thorough characterization of such sensitivity in realistic head models has remained unavailable. In this study, we conducted 3,555 Monte Carlo (MC simulations to densely cover the scalp of a well-characterized, adult male template brain (Colin27. We sought to evaluate: (i the spatial sensitivity profile of NIRS to brain tissue as a function of source-detector separation, (ii the NIRS sensitivity to brain tissue as a function of depth in this realistic and complex head model, and (iii the effect of NIRS instrument sensitivity on detecting brain activation. We found that increasing the source-detector (SD separation from 20 to 65 mm provides monotonic increases in sensitivity to brain tissue. For every 10 mm increase in SD separation (up to ~45 mm, sensitivity to gray matter increased an additional 4%. Our analyses also demonstrate that sensitivity in depth (S decreases exponentially, with a "rule-of-thumb" formula S=0.75*0.85(depth. Thus, while the depth sensitivity of NIRS is not strictly limited, NIN signals in adult humans are strongly biased towards the outermost 10-15 mm of intracranial space. These general results, along with the detailed quantitation of sensitivity estimates around the head, can provide detailed guidance for interpreting the likely sources of NIRS signals, as well as help NIRS investigators design and plan better NIRS experiments, head probes and instruments.

  5. Charge pattern matching as a ‘fuzzy’ mode of molecular recognition for the functional phase separations of intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Brady, Jacob P.; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Chan, Hue Sun

    2017-11-01

    Biologically functional liquid-liquid phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is driven by interactions encoded by their amino acid sequences. Little is currently known about the molecular recognition mechanisms for distributing different IDP sequences into various cellular membraneless compartments. Pertinent physics was addressed recently by applying random-phase-approximation (RPA) polymer theory to electrostatics, which is a major energetic component governing IDP phase properties. RPA accounts for charge patterns and thus has advantages over Flory-Huggins (FH) and Overbeek-Voorn mean-field theories. To make progress toward deciphering the phase behaviors of multiple IDP sequences, the RPA formulation for one IDP species plus solvent is hereby extended to treat polyampholyte solutions containing two IDP species plus solvent. The new formulation generally allows for binary coexistence of two phases, each containing a different set of volume fractions ({φ }1,{φ }2) for the two different IDP sequences. The asymmetry between the two predicted coexisting phases with regard to their {φ }1/{φ }2 ratios for the two sequences increases with increasing mismatch between their charge patterns. This finding points to a multivalent, stochastic, ‘fuzzy’ mode of molecular recognition that helps populate various IDP sequences differentially into separate phase compartments. An intuitive illustration of this trend is provided by FH models, whereby a hypothetical case of ternary coexistence is also explored. Augmentations of the present RPA theory with a relative permittivity {ɛ }{{r}}(φ ) that depends on IDP volume fraction φ ={φ }1+{φ }2 lead to higher propensities to phase separate, in line with the case with one IDP species we studied previously. Notably, the cooperative, phase-separation-enhancing effects predicted by the prescriptions for {ɛ }{{r}}(φ ) we deem physically plausible are much more prominent than that entailed by common

  6. Social skills training and play group intervention for children with oppositional-defiant disorders/conduct disorder: Mediating mechanisms in a head-to-head comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmann, Josepha; Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Hautmann, Christopher; Doepfner, Manfred

    2018-01-19

    Social-cognitive information processing, social skills, and social interactions are problem-maintaining variables for aggressive behavior in children. We hypothesized that these factors may be possible mediators of the mechanism of change in the child-centered treatment of conduct disorders (CDs). The aim of the present study (Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01406067) was to examine putative mechanisms of change for the decrease in oppositional-defiant behavior resulting from child-centered treatment of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) or CD. 91 children (age 6-12 years) with ODD/CD were randomized to receive either social skills training or to a resource activating play group. Mediator analyses were conducted using path analyses. The assumed mediating effects were not significant. However, alternative models with the putative mediators and outcome in reversed positions showed significant indirect effects of the oppositional-defiant symptoms as mediator for the decrease of disturbance of social-information processing, social skills, and social interactions. The proposed model for mechanisms of change could not be confirmed, with the results pointing to a reversed causality. Variables other than those hypothesized must be responsible for mediating the effects of the intervention on child oppositional-defiant behavior. Possible mechanisms of change were discussed.

  7. Ear, nose, and throat disorders in a nigerian rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Atilade Adegbiji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of ear, nose, and throat with head and neck diseases in a rural community in Oyo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective community-based study of ear, nose, and throat diseases. The study was carried out over a period of 3 months (January to March 2017. Verbal consent was obtained from the village head and participants. A total of 738 individuals were enrolled into the study. Interview-assisted questionnaire was administered to obtain bio data and otorhinolaryngological history from all participants, followed by examination and investigation. Data obtained were collated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 738 consented participants had various forms of ear, nose, and throat disorders. They constituted 435 (58.9% males and 303 (41.1% females, with a male: female ratio of 1:1. Majority of enrollee were dependent age groups. These age groups were 27.4% (1–10, 25.5% (11–20, and 14.1% (51–60. The occupational status revealed that 28.9% were employed; 9.3% were retired; 45.5% were children/students/apprenticeship; and 16.3% were artisans, homemakers, and farmers. Nasal diseases (34.4% were the most common otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders while ear, nose, and throat with head and neck diseases were responsible for 43.4%, 14.6%, and 7.6%, respectively. The common diseases were wax impaction (11.7%, sinusitis (14.4%, and allergic rhinitis (22.6%. Less prevalent otorhinolaryngological, head and neck diseases were vertigo/balance disorder (0.9%, cervical spondylosis (1.6%, and pharyngitis/tonsillitis (2.0%. Common procedures performed included impacted earwax removal (22.8%, aural toilet/dressing (14.4%, pure tone audiometry (32.5%, tympanometry (18.4%, endoscopy (9.8%, and antral irrigation (5.7%. Referred cases of 7.2% were recorded. The barriers experienced by these villagers in seeking otorhinolaryngological

  8. ‘YES YES HEAD TREMOR’ case developing after cerebellar infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uygar Utku

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders, developing after cerebellar infarctions, are rare. One of them is 'Yes / Yes tremor' head tremor. A 73-year-old female patient was brought to the emergency department of our hospital with complaints of dizziness, nausea and vomiting. There was hypertension on her past history. She was taking anti-hypertension drug. Her neurological examination was normal except for right dysmetria, disdiadikokinesia and damaged knee-heel test. Electrocardiography was atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. On the right cerebellar hemisphere, brain computerized tomography revealed consistent lesions with acute ischemic stroke. The patient showed clinically significant improvement in time and discharged with coumadine. When she came for drug control after two weeks, we detected her ‘Yes / Yes’ revealed style of head tremor started three days ago. The tremor was resting-postural. Its activity increased with excitement, decreased after resting and stopped while sleeping. She was intolerant although we initiated the treatment with primidone 250 mg tablets divided into eight. After continuing the treatment with gabapentine titrated 300 mg tablets, the head tremor of patient improved remarkedly in a short period of time. The phenomenon is presented due to its rarity and remarkableness.

  9. Medieval times' influencing figure Rhaze's approach to head injuries in Liber Almansoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acıduman, Ahmet; Aşkit, Cağatay; Belen, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    To present the chapter "On wound of the head and fracture of the head bone" of Kitāb al-Manṣūrī / Liber Almansoris, which was one of the early works of Rhazes. Both Arabic (Süleymaniye Manuscript Library, Ayasofya collection, Nr. 3751 and Millet Library, Feyzullah Efendi collection, Nr. 1327) and the Latin (Basileae, 1544) texts of Kitāb al-Manṣūrī / Liber Almansoris were studied, and the 26th section of the 7th chapter, entitled "Fī al-shajja kasr al-'aẓm al-ra's / De plagis capitis et fractura cranei / On wound of the head and fracture of the head bone" was translated into English and English text created. Rhazes underlined removing bone fragments in depressed and separated fractures of cranium along with protection of the dura, but he did not describe any surgical technique in this chapter. Galen's contemplation for the care of the dura with its integrity and as well his proposal to remove the bone fragments for preventing the dura from injury were the golden standards at the time that Rhazes also followed in the treatment of skull fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The interaction of Matrix Reasoning and Social Motivation as predictors of Separation anxiety in boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F

    2018-06-01

    It has been suggested that higher cognitive functioning based in the pre-frontal cortex is implicated in the ability of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to understand and communicate in social situations. Low motivation to engage in social interaction may also be influential in this process. Although both of these factors have been argued to influence the levels of comorbid anxiety in young people with ASD, no detailed examination of those relationships has been reported to date. A sample of 90 boys with ASD (aged 6 to 12 yr) and 29 of their non-ASD peers, matched for age and IQ, completed tests of cognitive function and anxiety. Only one form of anxiety-fear of being separated from their parents- was significantly associated with cognitive function, at the Full Scale IQ and Matrix Reasoning levels, plus motivation to engage in social interactions, and only for the ASD boys. These data represent a complex interaction between the neurobiological aspects of ASD, fluid reasoning, social motivation, and Separation Anxiety in boys with ASD. As such, they bring a new perspective to understanding and treating anxious behaviour in these boys. Copyright © 2018 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Problems attract problems: a network perspective on mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, A.O.J.; Borsboom, D.; Scott, R.A.; Kosslyn, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    What is the nature of mental disorders such as major depression and panic disorder? Are mental disorders analogous to tumors, in that they exist as separate entities somewhere in people's minds? Do mental disorders cause symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue? Until very recently, it was exactly this

  12. Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients, alcohol dependence (30 patients, or pathological gambling (35 patients, were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27 for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups.

  13. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  14. Heading-vector navigation based on head-direction cells and path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubie, John L; Fenton, André A

    2009-05-01

    Insect navigation is guided by heading vectors that are computed by path integration. Mammalian navigation models, on the other hand, are typically based on map-like place representations provided by hippocampal place cells. Such models compute optimal routes as a continuous series of locations that connect the current location to a goal. We propose a "heading-vector" model in which head-direction cells or their derivatives serve both as key elements in constructing the optimal route and as the straight-line guidance during route execution. The model is based on a memory structure termed the "shortcut matrix," which is constructed during the initial exploration of an environment when a set of shortcut vectors between sequential pairs of visited waypoint locations is stored. A mechanism is proposed for calculating and storing these vectors that relies on a hypothesized cell type termed an "accumulating head-direction cell." Following exploration, shortcut vectors connecting all pairs of waypoint locations are computed by vector arithmetic and stored in the shortcut matrix. On re-entry, when local view or place representations query the shortcut matrix with a current waypoint and goal, a shortcut trajectory is retrieved. Since the trajectory direction is in head-direction compass coordinates, navigation is accomplished by tracking the firing of head-direction cells that are tuned to the heading angle. Section 1 of the manuscript describes the properties of accumulating head-direction cells. It then shows how accumulating head-direction cells can store local vectors and perform vector arithmetic to perform path-integration-based homing. Section 2 describes the construction and use of the shortcut matrix for computing direct paths between any pair of locations that have been registered in the shortcut matrix. In the discussion, we analyze the advantages of heading-based navigation over map-based navigation. Finally, we survey behavioral evidence that nonhippocampal

  15. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition: contributions from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, N; Mehta, S

    2014-12-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder has been included as a separate diagnostic entity in the chapter of 'Depressive Disorders' of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). The antecedent, concurrent, and predictive diagnostic validators of premenstrual dysphoric disorder have been reviewed by a sub-workgroup of the DSM-5 Mood Disorders Work Group, which includes a panel of experts on women's mental health. Contributions from the Asian continent have been mainly in the form of prevalence studies. Genetic and neurobiological domains of premenstrual dysphoric disorder largely remain untouched in Asia and offer a potential area for investigation.

  16. Head injury: audit of a clinical guideline to justify head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydon, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Head injury causes significant morbidity and mortality, and there is contention about which patients to scan. The UK National Health Service Clinical Guideline (CG) 56 provides criteria for selecting patients with clinically important brain injury who may benefit from a head CT scan, while minimising the radiation and economic burden of scanning patients without significant injury. This study aims to audit the documentation of the use of these guidelines in a busy UK trauma hospital and discusses the comparison with an Australian (New South Wales (NSW) ) head injury guideline. A retrospective cohort study of 480 patients presenting with head injury to the emergency department over 2 months was performed. The patient notes were assessed for documentation of each aspect of the clinical guidelines. Criteria were established to assess the utilisation of the CG 56. A database of clinical data was amalgamated with the head CT scan results for each patient. For the UK CG 56, 73% of the criteria were documented, with the least documented being 'signs of basal skull fracture' and 'amnesia of events'. Thirty-two per cent of patients received head CT and of these, 24% (37 patients) were reported to have pathology. Twenty-four patients underwent head CT without clinical justification being documented, none of which had reported pathology on CT. The study shows that the head injury guidelines are not being fully utilised at a major UK trauma hospital, resulting in 5% of patients being exposed to ionising radiation without apparent documented clinical justification. The NSW guideline has distinct differences to the CG 56, with a more complex algorithm and an absence of specific time frames for head CT completion. The results suggest a need for further education and awareness of head injury clinical guidelines.

  17. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  18. Chinese version of the separation-individuation inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the separation-individuation process in object relations theory is well known in disciplines of psychology, counseling, and human development. Based on the Separation-Individuation Inventory of Christenson and Wilson, which measures the manifestations of disturbances in this process, a Chinese version of the inventory was developed. For college students Cronbach coefficient alpha was .89, and test-retest reliability over 28 days was .77. The scores of the inventory had positive correlations with both the number of borderline personality characteristics and the Individualism-Collectivism Scale, respectively. Also, the mean score on the inventory of patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder was significantly higher than that of the two normal control groups (ns = 564). Thus the inventory possessed satisfactory construct validity. Cultural differences regarding the separation-individuation process need to be investigated further.

  19. Flying Drosophilamelanogaster maintain arbitrary but stable headings relative to the angle of polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Timothy L; Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2018-05-11

    Animals must use external cues to maintain a straight course over long distances. In this study, we investigated how the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster selects and maintains a flight heading relative to the axis of linearly polarized light, a visual cue produced by the atmospheric scattering of sunlight. To track flies' headings over extended periods, we used a flight simulator that coupled the angular velocity of dorsally presented polarized light to the stroke amplitude difference of the animals' wings. In the simulator, most flies actively maintained a stable heading relative to the axis of polarized light for the duration of 15 min flights. We found that individuals selected arbitrary, unpredictable headings relative to the polarization axis, which demonstrates that D . melanogaster can perform proportional navigation using a polarized light pattern. When flies flew in two consecutive bouts separated by a 5 min gap, the two flight headings were correlated, suggesting individuals retain a memory of their chosen heading. We found that adding a polarized light pattern to a light intensity gradient enhanced flies' orientation ability, suggesting D . melanogaster use a combination of cues to navigate. For both polarized light and intensity cues, flies' capacity to maintain a stable heading gradually increased over several minutes from the onset of flight. Our findings are consistent with a model in which each individual initially orients haphazardly but then settles on a heading which is maintained via a self-reinforcing process. This may be a general dispersal strategy for animals with no target destination. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Panic disorder and agoraphobia: An overview and commentary of DSM-5 changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmundson, G.J.G.; Taylor, S.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The recently published DSM-5 contains a number of changes pertinent to panic disorder and agoraphobia. These changes include separation of panic disorder and agoraphobia into separate diagnoses, the addition of criteria and guidelines for distinguishing agoraphobia from specific phobia, the addition

  1. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  2. Effect of head restraint backset on head-neck kinematics in whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2006-03-01

    Although head restraints were introduced in the 1960s as a countermeasure for whiplash, their limited effectiveness has been attributed to incorrect positioning. The effect of backset on cervical segmental angulations, which were previously correlated with spinal injury, has not been delineated. Therefore, the practical restraint position to minimize injury remains unclear. A parametric study of increasing head restraint backset between 0 and 140mm was conducted using a comprehensively validated computational model. Head retraction values increased with increasing backset, reaching a maximum value of 53.5mm for backsets greater than 60mm. Segmental angulation magnitudes, greatest at levels C5-C6 and C6-C7, reached maximum values during the retraction phase and increased with increasing backset. Results were compared to a previously published head restraint rating system, wherein lower cervical extension magnitudes from this study exceeded mean physiologic limits for restraint positions rated good, acceptable, marginal, and poor. As head restraint contact was the limiting factor in head retraction and segmental angulations, the present study indicates that minimizing whiplash injury may be accomplished by limiting head restraint backset to less than 60mm either passively or actively after impact.

  3. A 90-year-old man with factious disorder: Separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amladi, Anjani K; DePry, Dwayne R

    2018-07-01

    Objective Factitious disorders are known to exist in the medical community but are not commonly diagnosed in clinical practice. The majority of the literature on factitious disorder comes from case reports or case series. This particular case is unusual because it describes a patient who initially presented with purely physical complaints, but over time, the symptoms transitioned into predominantly psychiatric concerns. This case describes the patient's unique presentation and is followed by a discussion of the management of factitious disorder. Methods The patient was seen during the course of an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. Electronic chart review was conducted, and information from each prior hospitalization was gathered between the dates of first initial documented presentation available in the electronic record in 1995 to most recent hospitalization in 2017. Results The patient still continues to present to the emergency department. Upon each presentation, staff work to objectively assess his complaints to be sure that there is no true underlying medical emergency. There is also a focus on providing non-judgmental, supportive, and compassionate care. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of corroborating objective findings with the patient's subjective reports gathered during a history and physical, and to recognize that patients with this disorder can present to any specialty. Thus, the collaboration between specialties is critical in the care of these patients to minimize unnecessary, costly, and sometimes dangerous interventions.

  4. Hierarchical online appearance-based tracking for 3D head pose, eyebrows, lips, eyelids, and irises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orozco, Javier; Rudovic, Ognjen; Gonzalez Garcia, Jordi; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper, we propose an On-line Appearance-Based Tracker (OABT) for simultaneous tracking of 3D head pose, lips, eyebrows, eyelids and irises in monocular video sequences. In contrast to previously proposed tracking approaches, which deal with face and gaze tracking separately, our OABT can

  5. Separating Fact from Fiction: An Empirical Examination of Six Myths About Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Sar, Vedat; Stavropoulos, Pam; Krüger, Christa; Korzekwa, Marilyn; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Middleton, Warwick

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex, posttraumatic, developmental disorder for which we now, after four decades of research, have an authoritative research base, but a number of misconceptualizations and myths about the disorder remain, compromising both patient care and research. This article examines the empirical literature pertaining to recurrently expressed beliefs regarding DID: (1) belief that DID is a fad, (2) belief that DID is primarily diagnosed in North America by DID experts who overdiagnose the disorder, (3) belief that DID is rare, (4) belief that DID is an iatrogenic, rather than trauma-based, disorder, (5) belief that DID is the same entity as borderline personality disorder, and (6) belief that DID treatment is harmful to patients. The absence of research to substantiate these beliefs, as well as the existence of a body of research that refutes them, confirms their mythical status. Clinicians who accept these myths as facts are unlikely to carefully assess for dissociation. Accurate diagnoses are critical for appropriate treatment planning. If DID is not targeted in treatment, it does not appear to resolve. The myths we have highlighted may also impede research about DID. The cost of ignorance about DID is high not only for individual patients but for the whole support system in which they reside. Empirically derived knowledge about DID has replaced outdated myths. Vigorous dissemination of the knowledge base about this complex disorder is warranted.

  6. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Prodromal Neurodegeneration - Where are We Headed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Postuma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by loss of normal atonia during REM sleep, such that patients appear to act out their dreams. The most important implication of research into this area is that patients with idiopathic RBD are at very high risk of developing synucleinmediated neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson's disease [PD], dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB], and multiple system atrophy, with risk estimates that approximate 40–65% at 10 years. Thus, RBD disorder is a very strong feature of prodromal synucleinopathy. This provides several opportunities for future research. First, patients with REM sleep behavior disorder can be studied to test other predictors of disease, which could potentially be applied to the general population. These studies have demonstrated that olfactory loss, decreased color vision, slowing on quantitative motor testing, and abnormal substantia nigra neuroimaging findings can predict clinical synucleinopathy. Second, prospectively studying patients with RBD allows a completely unprecedented opportunity to directly evaluate patients as they transition into clinical neurodegenerative disease. Studies assessing progression of markers of neurodegeneration in prodromal PD are beginning to appear. Third, RBD are very promising subjects for neuroprotective therapy trials because they have a high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, which provides an opportunity for early intervention. As RBD research expands, collaboration between centers will become increasingly essential.

  7. Magnetic resonance separation imaging using a divided inversion recovery technique (DIRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, James W

    2010-04-01

    The divided inversion recovery technique is an MRI separation method based on tissue T(1) relaxation differences. When tissue T(1) relaxation times are longer than the time between inversion pulses in a segmented inversion recovery pulse sequence, longitudinal magnetization does not pass through the null point. Prior to additional inversion pulses, longitudinal magnetization may have an opposite polarity. Spatial displacement of tissues in inversion recovery balanced steady-state free-precession imaging has been shown to be due to this magnetization phase change resulting from incomplete magnetization recovery. In this paper, it is shown how this phase change can be used to provide image separation. A pulse sequence parameter, the time between inversion pulses (T180), can be adjusted to provide water-fat or fluid separation. Example water-fat and fluid separation images of the head, heart, and abdomen are presented. The water-fat separation performance was investigated by comparing image intensities in short-axis divided inversion recovery technique images of the heart. Fat, blood, and fluid signal was suppressed to the background noise level. Additionally, the separation performance was not affected by main magnetic field inhomogeneities.

  8. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  9. Vestibular and stabilometric findings in whiplash injury and minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacci, A; Ferrazzi, M; Berrettini, S; Panicucci, E; Matteucci, J; Bruschini, L; Ursino, F; Fattori, B

    2011-12-01

    Vertigo and postural instability following whiplash and/or minor head injuries is very frequent. According to some authors, post-whiplash vertigo cannot be caused by real injury to vestibular structures; other authors maintain that vestibular damage is possible even in the case of isolated whiplash, with vascular or post-traumatic involvement. Furthermore, many of the balance disorders reported after trauma can be justified by post-traumatic modification to the cervical proprioceptive input, with consequent damage to the vestibular spinal reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vestibular condition and postural status in a group of patients (Group A, n = 90) affected with balance disorders following whiplash, and in a second group (Group B, n = 20) with balance disorders after minor head injury associated with whiplash. Both groups were submitted to videonystagmography (VNG) and stabilometric investigation (open eyes - O E, closed eyes - CE, closed eyes with head retroflexed - CER) within 15 days of their injuries and repeated within 10 days after conclusion of cervical physiotherapy treatment. The VNG tests revealed vestibulopathy in 19% of cases in Group A (11% peripheral, 5% central, 3% in an undefined site) and in 60% of subjects in Group B (50% peripheral, 10% central). At the follow-up examination, all cases of non-compensated labyrinth deficit showed signs of compensation, while there were two cases (2%) in Group A and one case (5%) in Group B of PPV. As far as the altered posturographic recordings are concerned, while there was no specific pattern in the two groups, they were clearly pathologic, especially during CER. Both in OE and in CE there was an increase in the surface values and in those pertaining to shifting of the gravity centre on the sagittal plane, which was even more evident during CER. In Group A, the pre-post-physiotherapy comparison of CER results showed that there was a statistically significant improvement in the majority of the

  10. Neurological abnormalities in localized scleroderma of the face and head: a case series study for evaluation of imaging findings and clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Święty, Anna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Arasiewicz, Hubert

    2017-09-01

    Localized scleroderma (LoS) of the face and head is often associated with neurological manifestations and/or imaging abnormalities in the central nervous system (CNS). We present an analysis of 20 cases of LoS affecting the face and head. The CNS symptoms and/or abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were observed in 12 patients (60%). In addition to the mild and unspecific disorders (e.g. headaches), serious neurological complications probably in the course of vasculitis were revealed: epilepsy (in two patients), epilepsy and pyramidal sings (in one patient). Neurological disorders and LoS occurred at the same time (in three patients) or at the course of the disease (nine patients) and no later than 29 years since the onset of the disease. No link between neurological disorders and the LoS clinical morphology, immunological and other laboratory parameters has been established. CNS involvement is not correlated with the clinical course of the facial and head LoS and may occur years after the disease initial symptomatology. Imaging follow-up is not required if there is not any emerging neurological symptom. In some cases, however, both HRCT and MRI are useful for monitoring disease evolution and addressing therapeutic choices.

  11. Predictors of infant foster care in cases of maternal psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M-C; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François

    2013-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study of 1,018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents' pathology and psychosocial context. Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15 %) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: (1) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; (2) maternal psychiatric disorder; (3) paternal psychiatric disorder; (4) maternal lack of good relationship with others; (5) mother receipt of disability benefits; (6) low social class. This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child's protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period.

  12. Virtual reality exposure treatment of agoraphobia: a comparison of computer automatic virtual environment and head-mounted display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Morina, N.; Kerkhof, G.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Wiederhold, B.K.; Bouchard, S.; Riva, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) were investigated in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The level of presence in VRET was compared between using either a head-mounted display (HMD) or a computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE). Results indicate

  13. Lessons from a tarantula: new insights into muscle thick filament and myosin interacting-heads motif structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Koubassova, Natalia; Pinto, Antonio; Gillilan, Richard; Tsaturyan, Andrey; Padrón, Raúl

    2017-10-01

    The tarantula skeletal muscle X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that the myosin heads were helically arranged on the thick filaments. Electron microscopy (EM) of negatively stained relaxed tarantula thick filaments revealed four helices of heads allowing a helical 3D reconstruction. Due to its low resolution (5.0 nm), the unambiguous interpretation of densities of both heads was not possible. A resolution increase up to 2.5 nm, achieved by cryo-EM of frozen-hydrated relaxed thick filaments and an iterative helical real space reconstruction, allowed the resolving of both heads. The two heads, "free" and "blocked", formed an asymmetric structure named the "interacting-heads motif" (IHM) which explained relaxation by self-inhibition of both heads ATPases. This finding made tarantula an exemplar system for thick filament structure and function studies. Heads were shown to be released and disordered by Ca 2+ -activation through myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation, leading to EM, small angle X-ray diffraction and scattering, and spectroscopic and biochemical studies of the IHM structure and function. The results from these studies have consequent implications for understanding and explaining myosin super-relaxed state and thick filament activation and regulation. A cooperative phosphorylation mechanism for activation in tarantula skeletal muscle, involving swaying constitutively Ser35 mono-phosphorylated free heads, explains super-relaxation, force potentiation and post-tetanic potentiation through Ser45 mono-phosphorylated blocked heads. Based on this mechanism, we propose a swaying-swinging, tilting crossbridge-sliding filament for tarantula muscle contraction.

  14. Kleptomania after head trauma: two case reports and combination treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anat; Lowengrub, Katherine; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to add to the growing number of reports about kleptomania occurring in relation to brain injury as well as to present the authors' findings regarding treatment strategies. The authors present two case reports of patients who developed the new onset of kleptomania after closed head trauma. Both patients had comorbid psychiatric symptoms associated with the kleptomania. Antidepressant monotherapy was not beneficial in reducing kleptomania in either patient. Kleptomanic behavior was successfully treated in both patients, however, through combination treatment using an antidepressant agent together with adjunctive cognitive behavioral therapy or adjunctive naltrexone. In one patient, single photon emission tomography showed a perfusion deficit in the left temporal lobe. Various hypotheses regarding this finding and the etiopathology of kleptomania are discussed. Review of current work in the field suggests that kleptomania is a heterogeneous disorder that shares features of both impulse and addiction disorders as well as affective spectrum disorders.

  15. The effects of social pressure and emotional expression on the cone of gaze in patients with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbort, Johannes; Spiegel, Julia; Witthöft, Michael; Hecht, Heiko

    2017-06-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder suffer from pronounced fears in social situations. As gaze perception is crucial in these situations, we examined which factors influence the range of gaze directions where mutual gaze is experienced (the cone of gaze). The social stimulus was modified by changing the number of people (heads) present and the emotional expression of their faces. Participants completed a psychophysical task, in which they had to adjust the eyes of a virtual head to gaze at the edge of the range where mutual eye-contact was experienced. The number of heads affected the width of the gaze cone: the more heads, the wider the gaze cone. The emotional expression of the virtual head had no consistent effect on the width of the gaze cone, it did however affect the emotional state of the participants. Angry expressions produced the highest arousal values. Highest valence emerged from happy faces, lowest valence from angry faces. These results suggest that the widening of the gaze cone in social anxiety disorder is not primarily mediated by their altered emotional reactivity. Implications for gaze assessment and gaze training in therapeutic contexts are discussed. Due to interindividual variability, enlarged gaze cones are not necessarily indicative of social anxiety disorder, they merely constitute a correlate at the group level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. General principles for treatment planning for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Million, R.R.; Bova, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Although squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck represents only 5% of all malignancies, the head and neck area is one of the few anatomical areas remaining where radiotherapy is often used as the only modality for cure and often with substantial doses. There are at least 35 separate anatomical sites for origin of squamous cell carcinoma in the upper respiratory tract, and each site has its own distinctive pattern of spread, incidence of regional and distant metastases, and varying stages of presentation. It would be impossible in this short chapter to cover every contingency for treatment planning, and only general principles are outlined

  17. Three-dimensional computed tomographic evaluation of bilateral sagittal split osteotomy lingual fracture line and le fort I pterygomaxillary separation in orthognathic surgery using cadaver heads: ultrasonic osteotome versus conventional saw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammous, Sophie; Dupont, Quentin; Gilles, Roland

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the quality of the fracture line on the lingual side of the mandible after sagittal split osteotomy and the quality of pterygomaxillary separation after Le Fort I osteotomy using the BoneScalpel ultrasonic osteotome. Bimaxillary procedures, according to the standard protocol, were performed using 10 fresh cadaver heads. The ultrasonic osteotome was used in the study group, and a reciprocating saw was used in the control group. Three-dimensional reconstructions of postoperative computed tomographic scans were obtained. The lingual ramus fracture pattern and the pterygomaxillary separation pattern were observed, classified, and compared. Postoperative dissections of the skulls were performed to assess the integrity of the infra-alveolar nerve and the descending palatine artery. No significant differences were found in the cutting time of bone between the BoneScalpel and the sagittal saw. Of the sagittal split osteotomies in the study group, 90% showed a good pattern (vertical pattern of fracture line extending to the inferior border of the mandible running behind the mandibular canal) compared with 50% of the sagittal split osteotomies in the control group. Ideal separation of the pterygoid plates without fractures was observed in 80% of the Le Fort I osteotomies in the study group compared with 50% of the osteotomies in the control group. High-level fractures occurred in 30% of cases in the control group compared with none in the study group. The integrities of the infra-alveolar nerve and the descending palatine artery were preserved in all cases. Use of the ultrasonic BoneScalpel did not require more time than the conventional method. An improved pattern of lingual fracture lines in mandibular sagittal split osteotomy procedures and the pattern of pterygomaxillary separation in Le Fort I osteotomy procedures were observed. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. Establishing the severity of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, P; Johnson, T

    1996-12-01

    The authors developed a simplified method of rating the severity of personality disorder. The new rating method is based on four levels of severity: no personality disorder, personality difficulty, simple personality disorder, and diffuse personality disorder. The new method was applied to different diagnostic systems and was then compared with an old rating system based on six severity levels. Data were derived from a longitudinal study in which 163 patients with anxiety and depressive disorders had initial assessments of personality status and were followed up over 2 years. Ratings of psychiatric symptoms were made by using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale over this period. The results were analyzed with special attention to linear and quadratic trends. The new system was clinically useful in separating patients' initial assessments and outcomes. Patients with no personality disorder had the lowest initial symptom scores and the best outcomes, and those with diffuse personality disorder had the highest initial levels of symptoms and improved least over the 2 years. When the patients were separated by the old classification system, 72% of the variation between groups was accounted for by linear and quadratic trends; the comparable percentage was 97% when the patients were categorized by the new system. The new system of rating severity of personality disturbance is an improvement on existing methods and allows ratings to be made easily from DSM-IV and ICD-10.

  19. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder complicated by symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Steeber, Jennifer; McBurnett, Keith

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder with significant functional impairment. ADHD is frequently complicated by oppositional symptoms, which are difficult to separate from comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and aggressive symptoms. This review addresses the impact of oppositional symptoms on ADHD, disease course, functional impairment, clinical management, and treatment response. Oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder may be comorbid in more than half of ADHD cases and are more common with the combined than with the inattentive ADHD subtype. Comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in patients with ADHD can have a significant impact on the course and prognosis for these patients and may lead to differential treatment response to both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. Assessment of oppositional symptoms is an essential part of ADHD screening and diagnosis and should include parental, as well as educator, input. Although clinical evidence remains limited, some stimulant and nonstimulant medications have shown effectiveness in treating both core ADHD symptoms and oppositional symptoms. Oppositional symptoms are a key consideration in ADHD management, although the optimum approach to treating ADHD complicated by such symptoms remains unclear. Future research should focus on the efficacy and safety of various behavioral and medication regimens, as well as longitudinal studies to further clarify the relationships between ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

  20. Modern molecular biomarkers of head and neck cancer. Part I. Epigenetic diagnostics and prognostics: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Kasradze, David; Cicciù, Marco; Sudeikis, Aurimas; Banys, Laurynas; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Guobis, Zygimantas

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of the head and neck cancer cases are diagnosed in late stages. Traditional screening modalities have many disadvantages. The aim of the present article was to review the scientific literature about novel head and neck cancer diagnostics - epigenetic biomarkers. A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database. Authors conducted the search of articles in English language published from 2004 to 2015. A total of thirty three relevant studies were included in the review. Fifteen of them concerned DNA methylation alterations, nine evaluation of abundancies in histone expressions and nine miRNA expression changes in HNC. Considerable number of epigenetic biomarkers have been identified in both tumor tissue and salivary samples. Genes with best diagnostic effectiveness rates and further studying prospects were: TIMP3, DCC, DAPK, CDH1, CCNA1, AIM1, MGMT, HIC1, PAX1, PAX5, ZIC4, p16, EDNRB, KIF1A, MINT31, CD44, RARβ , ECAD. Individual histone and miRNA alterations tend to be hnc specific. Prognostic values of separate biomarkers are ambiguous. No established standards for molecular assay of head and neck cancer was found in order to elude the paradoxical results and discrepancies in separate trials.

  1. A Review and Update on Tourette Syndrome: Where Is the Field Headed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset neurologic disorder with manifestations including multiple motor and phonic tics, and in most cases a variety of behavioral comorbidities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and other impulse control disorders. Although it is considered a hereditary disorder, likely modified by environmental factors, genetic studies have yet to uncover relevant causative genes and there is no animal model that mimics the broad clinical phenomenology of TS. There has been a marked increase in the number of neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and other studies on TS. The findings from these studies, however, have been difficult to interpret because of small sample sizes, variability of symptoms across patients, and comorbidities. Although anti-dopaminergic drugs are the most widely used medications in the treatment of TS, there has been increasing interest in other drugs, behavioral therapies, and surgical approaches including deep brain stimulation. Herein, we review the current literature and discuss the complexities of TS and the challenges in understanding its pathophysiology and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. We also offer an expert's view of where the field of TS may be headed.

  2. The Use of Virtual Reality Technology in the Treatment of Anxiety and Other Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Bunnell, Brian E; Kim, Sae-Jin; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate the literature regarding the effectiveness of incorporating virtual reality (VR) in the treatment of psychiatric disorders• Assess the use of exposure-based intervention for anxiety disorders ABSTRACT: Virtual reality (VR) allows users to experience a sense of presence in a computer-generated, three-dimensional environment. Sensory information is delivered through a head-mounted display and specialized interface devices. These devices track head movements so that the movements and images change in a natural way with head motion, allowing for a sense of immersion. VR, which allows for controlled delivery of sensory stimulation via the therapist, is a convenient and cost-effective treatment. This review focuses on the available literature regarding the effectiveness of incorporating VR within the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, with particular attention to exposure-based intervention for anxiety disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted in order to identify studies implementing VR-based treatment for anxiety or other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the history of the development of VR-based technology and its use within psychiatric treatment, the empirical evidence for VR-based treatment, and the benefits for using VR for psychiatric research and treatment. It also presents recommendations for how to incorporate VR into psychiatric care and discusses future directions for VR-based treatment and clinical research.

  3. Core cooling and thermal responses during whole-head, facial, and dorsal immersion in 17 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Gagnon, Dominique D; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2010-10-01

    This study isolated the effects of dorsal, facial, and whole-head immersion in 17 degrees C water on peripheral vasoconstriction and the rate of body core cooling. Seven male subjects were studied in thermoneutral air (approximately 28 degrees C). On 3 separate days, they lay prone or supine on a bed with their heads inserted through the side of an adjustable immersion tank. Following 10 min of baseline measurements, the water level was raised such that the water immersed the dorsum, face, or whole head, with the immersion period lasting 60 min. During the first 30 min, the core (esophageal) cooling rate increased from dorsum (0.29 ± 0.2 degrees C h-1) to face (0.47 ± 0.1 degrees C h-1) to whole head (0.69 ± 0.2 degrees C h(-1)) (p whole-head immersion (114 ± 52% h(-1)) than in either facial (51 ± 47% h-1) or dorsal (41 ± 55% h(-1)) immersion (p whole-head (120.5 ± 13 kJ), facial (86.8 ± 17 kJ), and dorsal (46.0 ± 11 kJ) immersion (p whole head elicited a higher rate of vasoconstriction, the face did not elicit more vasoconstriction than the dorsum. Rather, the progressive increase in core cooling from dorsal to facial to whole-head immersion simply correlates with increased heat loss.

  4. Cylinder head seal for piston engines especially internal combustion engines. Zylinderkopfdichtung fuer Hubkolbenmaschinen, insbesondere Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, H.; Winter, J.

    1991-01-17

    The invention concerns a cylinder head seal for reciprocating piston engines especially internal combustion engines and preferentially those with cylinder sleeves. With performances of internal combustion engines encreasing all the time it is becoming more and more difficult to seal the cylinder heat. The invention proposes a ring seal whose sides are plastically deformed when the cylinder headed screws are tightened. The inner deformations of the cylinder head resulting from the pressure forces inside the cylinder are compensated by means of elastic spring action of the combustion chamber sealing ring. The dimension of land, groove and sides are matched in such a way as to prevent any seal squeezing during plastification which would result in a deformation of the cylinder sleeve. The ring can therefore be set directly into the centering of the cylinder sleeve. Separate centering devices are not required.

  5. Polygenic risk for five psychiatric disorders and cross-disorder and disorder-specific neural connectivity in two independent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianqi; Zhang, Xiaolong; Li, Ang; Zhu, Meifang; Liu, Shu; Qin, Wen; Li, Jin; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi; Liu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Major psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism (AUT), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SZ), are highly heritable and polygenic. Evidence suggests that these five disorders have both shared and distinct genetic risks and neural connectivity abnormalities. To measure aggregate genetic risks, the polygenic risk score (PGRS) was computed. Two independent general populations (N = 360 and N = 323) were separately examined to investigate whether the cross-disorder PGRS and PGRS for a specific disorder were associated with individual variability in functional connectivity. Consistent altered functional connectivity was found with the bilateral insula: for the left supplementary motor area and the left superior temporal gyrus with the cross-disorder PGRS, for the left insula and right middle and superior temporal lobe associated with the PGRS for autism, for the bilateral midbrain, posterior cingulate, cuneus, and precuneus associated with the PGRS for BD, and for the left angular gyrus and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex associated with the PGRS for schizophrenia. No significant functional connectivity was found associated with the PGRS for ADHD and MDD. Our findings indicated that genetic effects on the cross-disorder and disorder-specific neural connectivity of common genetic risk loci are detectable in the general population. Our findings also indicated that polygenic risk contributes to the main neurobiological phenotypes of psychiatric disorders and that identifying cross-disorder and specific functional connectivity related to polygenic risks may elucidate the neural pathways for these disorders.

  6. Clinical identification of the simple sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S

    2007-04-01

    Simple sleep-related movement disorders must be distinguished from daytime movement disorders that persist during sleep, sleep-related epilepsy, and parasomnias, which are generally characterized by activity that appears to be simultaneously complex, goal-directed, and purposeful but is outside the conscious awareness of the patient and, therefore, inappropriate. Once it is determined that the patient has a simple sleep-related movement disorder, the part of the body affected by the movement and the age of the patient give clues as to which sleep-related movement disorder is present. In some cases, all-night polysomnography with accompanying video may be necessary to make the diagnosis. Hypnic jerks (ie, sleep starts), bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder (ie, head banging/body rocking), and nocturnal leg cramps are discussed in addition to less well-appreciated disorders such as benign sleep myoclonus of infancy, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation.

  7. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  8. Should OCD be classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Fineberg, Naomi A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Denys, Damiaan; Lochner, Christine; Nestadt, Gerald; Leckman, James F; Rauch, Scott L; Phillips, Katharine A

    2010-06-01

    In DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder. In ICD-10, OCD is classified separately from the anxiety disorders, although within the same larger category as anxiety disorders (as one of the "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders"). Ongoing advances in our understanding of OCD and other anxiety disorders have raised the question of whether OCD should continue to be classified with the anxiety disorders in DSM-V. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. Evidence is reviewed for retaining OCD in the category of anxiety disorders, and for moving OCD to a separate category of obsessive-compulsive (OC)-spectrum disorders, if such a category is included in DSM-V. Our preliminary recommendation is that OCD be retained in the category of anxiety disorders but that this category also includes OC-spectrum disorders along with OCD. If this change is made, the name of this category should be changed to reflect this proposed change. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Predictors of infant foster care in cases of maternal psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M.-C.; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: This prospective longitudinal study of 1018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant, to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents’ pathology and psychosocial context. Results Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15%) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: i) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; ii) maternal psychiatric disorder; iii) paternal psychiatric disorder; iv) maternal lack of good relationships with others; v) mother receipt of disability benefits; vi) low social class. Conclusions This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child’s protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period. PMID:22706788

  10. Convergence of Artificial Protein Polymers and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuricky, Michael; Roberts, Stefan; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2018-05-01

    A flurry of research in recent years has revealed the molecular origins of many membraneless organelles to be the liquid phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Consequently, protein disorder has emerged as an important driver of intracellular compartmentalization by providing specialized microenvironments chemically distinct from the surrounding medium. Though the importance of protein disorder and its relationship to intracellular phase behavior are clear, a detailed understanding of how such phase behavior can be predicted and controlled remains elusive. While research in IDPs has largely focused on the implications of structural disorder on cellular function and disease, another field, that of artificial protein polymers, has focused on the de novo design of protein polymers with controllable material properties. A subset of these polymers, specifically those derived from structural proteins such as elastin and resilin, are also disordered sequences that undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. This phase separation has been used in a variety of biomedical applications, and researchers studying these polymers have developed methods to precisely characterize and tune their phase behavior. Despite their disparate origins, both fields are complementary as they study the phase behavior of intrinsically disordered polypeptides. This Perspective hopes to stimulate collaborative efforts by highlighting the similarities between these two fields and by providing examples of how such collaboration could be mutually beneficial.

  11. Characterizing head motion in three planes during combined visual and base of support disturbances in healthy and visually sensitive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshner, E A; Dhaher, Y

    2008-07-01

    Multiplanar environmental motion could generate head instability, particularly if the visual surround moves in planes orthogonal to a physical disturbance. We combined sagittal plane surface translations with visual field disturbances in 12 healthy (29-31 years) and 3 visually sensitive (27-57 years) adults. Center of pressure (COP), peak head angles, and RMS values of head motion were calculated and a three-dimensional model of joint motion was developed to examine gross head motion in three planes. We found that subjects standing quietly in front of a visual scene translating in the sagittal plane produced significantly greater (pplane of platform motion significantly increased (phistory of vestibular disorder produced large, delayed compensatory head motion. Orthogonal head motions were significantly greater in visually sensitive than in healthy subjects in the dark (pplanes orthogonal to the direction of a physical perturbation. These results suggest that the mechanisms controlling head orientation in space are distinct from those that control trunk orientation in space. These behaviors would have been missed if only COP data were considered. Data suggest that rehabilitation training can be enhanced by combining visual and mechanical perturbation paradigms.

  12. Post-operative Adult Onset Tic Disorder: A Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Suneet Kumar; Raval, Chintan M; Sharma, Devendra Kumar; Vijayvergiya, Devendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Tics are rapid and repetitive muscle contractions resulting in stereotype movements and vocalizations that are experienced as involuntary. Onset before 18-year is a diagnostic criterion for tic disorders. Children and adolescents may exhibit tic behaviors after a stimulus or in response to an internal urge. Tic behaviors increase during physical or an emotional stress. Adult onset tic disorders are reported by infections, drugs, cocaine, toxins, chromosomal disorders, head injury, stroke, neurocutaneous syndromes, neurodegenerative disorders and peripheral injuries. Only few cases have yet been reported having onset after surgery though surgery brings both physical and emotional stress to the patient. We report a case of a 55-year-old lady who developed tic disorder as post-operative event of cataract surgery. Our patient had a dramatic response to haloperidol which is in contrast to all earlier reports.

  13. The role of Human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer and the impact on radiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    The profound influence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) on the epidemiological pattern and clinical course of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) has led to a change in the traditional understanding of this disease entity. Separate therapeutic strategies based on tumour HPV status are under consideration and in this light provision of knowledge concerning the influence of tumour HPV on the radiation response in HNSCC appears highly relevant. This review provides a summary of the current understanding of the role of HPV in head and neck cancer with specific focus on the viral impact on radiotherapy outcome of HNSCC.

  14. Neural network analysis of head-flow curves in deep well pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelcue, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    In impellers with splitter blades, the difficulty in calculation of the flow area of the impeller is because of the unknown flow rate occurring in the two separate areas when the splitter blades are added. Experimental studies were made to investigate the effects of splitter blade length on deep well pump performance for different numbers of blades. Head-flow curves of deep well pump impellers with splitter blades were investigated using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Gradient descent (GD), Gradient descent with momentum (GDM) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms were used in the networks. Experimental studies were completed to obtain training and test data. Blade number (z), non-dimensional splitter blade length (L-bar ) and flow rate (Q) were used as the input layer, while the output is head (H m ). For the testing data, the root mean squared error (RMSE), fraction of variance (R 2 ) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were found to be 0.1285, 0.9999 and 1.6821%, respectively. With these results, we believe that the ANN can be used for prediction of head-flow curves as an appropriate method in deep well pump impellers with splitter blades.

  15. Non-invasive head fixation for external irradiation of tumors of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, R.J.; Sweeney, R.; Nevinny, M.; Auer, T.; Bluhm, A.; Lukas, P.; Vogele, M.; Thumfart, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To fully utilize the technical capabilities of radiation diagnostics and planning, a precise and reproducible method of head fixation is a prerequisite. Method: We have adapted the Vogele-Bale-Hohner (VBH) head holder (Wellhoefer Dosimetrie, Schwarzenbruck, Germany), originally designed for frameless stereotactic operations, to the requirements of external beam radiotherapy. A precise and reproducible head fixation is attained by an individualized vacuum upper-dental cast which is connected over 2 hydraulic arms to an adjustable head- and rigid base-plate. Radiation field and patient alignment lasers are marked on a relocatable clear PVC localization box. Results: The possibility of craniocaudal adjustment of the head plate on the base plate allows the system to adapt to the actucal position of the patient on the raditherapy couch granting tensionless repositioning. The VBH head holder has proven itself to be a precise yet practicable method of head fixation. Duration of mouthpiece production and daily repositioning is comparable to that of the thermoplastic mask. Conclusion: The new head holder is in routine use at our hospital and quite suitable for external beam radiation of patients with tumors of the head and neck. (orig.) [de

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  19. A revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, L.G.; Bolch, W.E.; Weber, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade, new radiopharmaceutical have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more anthropomorphic model of the human brain and head. Brain and head models developed in the past have been only simplistic representations of this anatomic region. For example, the brain within the phantom of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised is modeled simply as a single ellipsoid of tissue With no differentiation of its internal structures. To address this need, the MIRD Committee established a Task Group in 1992 to construct a more detailed brain model to include the cerebral cortex, the white matter, the cerebellum, the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the lentiform nucleus, the cerebral spinal fluid, the lateral ventricles, and the third ventricle. This brain model has been included within a slightly modified version of the head model developed by Poston et al. in 1984. This model has been incorporated into the radiation transport code EGS4 so as to calculate photon and electron absorbed fractions in the energy range 10 keV to 4 MeV for each of thirteen sources in the brain. Furthermore, explicit positron transport have been considered, separating the contribution by the positron itself and its associated annihilations photons. No differences are found between the electron and positron absorbed fractions; however, for initial energies of positrons greater than ∼0.5 MeV, significant differences are found between absorbed fractions from explicit transport of annihilation photons and those from an assumed uniform distribution of 0.511-MeV photons. Subsequently, S values were calculated for a variety of beta-particle and positron emitters brain imaging agents. Moreover, pediatric head and brain dosimetric models are currently being developed based on this adult head model

  20. Should OCD be classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-V?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Dan J.; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Denys, Damiaan; Lochner, Christine; Nestadt, Gerald; Leckman, James F.; Rauch, Scott L.; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    In DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder. In ICD-10, OCD is classified separately from the anxiety disorders, although within the same larger category as anxiety disorders (as one of the "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform

  1. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  3. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Heading Frequency Is More Strongly Related to Cognitive Performance Than Unintentional Head Impacts in Amateur Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Walter F; Kim, Namhee; Ifrah, Chloe; Sliwinski, Martin; Zimmerman, Molly E; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    Compared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost) in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS) symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP) test performance. Active adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year. All participants completed a baseline validated questionnaire ("HeadCount-2w"), reporting 2-week recall of soccer activity, heading and unintentional head impacts. In addition, participants also completed NP tests of verbal learning, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and working memory. Most participants also completed one or more identical follow-up protocols (i.e., HeadCount-2w and NP tests) at 3- to 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Repeated measures General Estimating Equations (GEE) linear models were used to determine if variation in NP tests at each visit was related to variation in either heading or unintentional head impacts in the 2-week period before testing. 308 players (78% male) completed 741 HeadCount-2w. Mean (median) heading/2-weeks was 50 (17) for men and 26 (7) for women. Heading was significantly associated with poorer performance on psychomotor speed ( p  impacts were not significantly associated with any NP test. Results did not differ after excluding 22 HeadCount-2w with reported concussive or borderline concussive symptoms. Poorer NP test performance was consistently related to frequent heading during soccer practice and competition in the 2 weeks before testing. In contrast, unintentional head impacts incurred

  5. Internet gaming disorder, social network disorder and laterality: handedness relates to pathological use of social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Mühle, Christiane; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lenz, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The internet age bears new challenges that include health risks. It is agreed that excessive internet use may reach pathological levels. However, the concept of internet addiction lacks specificity and, therefore, warrants studies on its diagnostic and etiologic classification. This study was conducted to characterize the novel DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and the adapted criteria for the "social network disorder". Based on the established association of handedness and substance use disorders, we also explored whether internet use related to laterality. For this study, 3,287 volunteers participated in the online survey and gave particulars concerning their internet use in general, internet gaming and use of social networks, laterality markers (hand, foot, eye, ear, rotational preference in gymnastics, and head turning asymmetry) and health status. Of the participants, 1.1 % fulfilled the criteria for internet gaming disorder, and 1.8 % fulfilled the criteria for social network disorder. The applied criteria were highly correlated with the time spent on the respective internet activities (p social networks (p ≤ 4 × 10(-2)). The provided criteria proved to be user-friendly, comprehensible and well accepted. The results contribute to a better understanding of pathological internet gaming and social network use and provide evidence that biological markers of substance use disorders are involved in internet addiction.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  8. Coherent betatron instability driven by electrostatic separators: Stability analysis of the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfoush, F.A.; Bogacz, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    This paper outlines possible intensity limits due to the coherent betatron motion for the upgraded Tevatron with the electrostatic separators. Numerical simulation shows that this new vacuum chamber structure dominates the high frequency part of the coupling impedance spectrum and more likely will excite a slow head-tail instability. A simple stability analysis yields the characteristic growth-time of the unstable modes. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. A mouse model of weight-drop closed head injury: emphasis on cognitive and neurological deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability in individuals worldwide. Producing a clinically relevant TBI model in small-sized animals remains fairly challenging. For good screening of potential therapeutics, which are effective in the treatment of TBI, animal models of TBI should be established and standardized. In this study, we established mouse models of closed head injury using the Shohami weight-drop method with some modifications concerning cognitive deficiency assessment and provided a detailed description of the severe TBI animal model. We found that 250 g falling weight from 2 cm height produced severe closed head injury in C57BL/6 male mice. Cognitive disorders in mice with severe closed head injury could be detected using passive avoidance test on day 7 after injury. Findings from this study indicate that weight-drop injury animal models are suitable for further screening of brain neuroprotectants and potentially are similar to those seen in human TBI.

  10. Head-positioning scintillation camera and head holder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A holder for immobilizing the head of a patient undergoing a vertex brain scan by a Gamma Scintillation Camera is described. The holder has a uniquely designed shape capable of comfortably supporting the head. In addition, this holder can be both adjustably and removably utilized in combination with the scintillation camera so as to enable the brain scan operation to take place while the patient is in the seated position

  11. Unicameral bone cyst of the humeral head: arthroscopic curettage and bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Arrigoni, Paolo; Cabitza, Paolo; Denti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Arthroscopic surgery has improved greatly over the past decade. Treatment of various juxta-articular disorders around the shoulder have benefited from endoscopic approaches. Cystic lesions of the shoulder on the scapular side have been treated in this way. This article describes a case of a 29-year-old patient with a unicameral bone cyst on the posterior aspect of the humeral head. Arthroscopic visualization using an accessory posteroinferior portal localized the cyst through the bare area of the humeral head. A cannulated burr was used to create an opening through the cortical wall between the cyst and the joint, and a careful curettage was performed. The cavity was filled with a demineralized bone matrix enriched with autologous blood packed into an arthroscopic cannula and delivered through the accessory portal. The patient reported pain relief immediately postoperatively and at follow-up. This case demonstrates the feasibility of arthroscopic treatment of a simple bone cyst of the humeral head. We believe that the knowledge of the juxta-articular anatomy allows the applications of scope-assisted procedures to be expanded, maximizing the results of a technique that allows a shorter recovery and less painful rehabilitation.

  12. Real-world adjustments of driver seat and head restraint in Saab 9-3 vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anna; Pipkorn, Linda; Kullgren, Anders; Svensson, Mats

    2017-05-19

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), commonly denoted whiplash injury, is a worldwide problem. These injuries occur at relatively low changes of velocity (typically whiplash injury than males.  Improved seat design is the prevailing means of increasing the protection of whiplash injury for occupants in rear impacts. Since 1997, more advanced whiplash protection systems have been introduced on the market, the Saab Active Head Restraint (SAHR) being one of the most prominent. The SAHR-which is height adjustable-is mounted to a pressure plate in the seatback by means of a spring-resisted link mechanism.  Nevertheless, studies have shown that seats equipped with reactive head restraints (such as the SAHR) have a very high injury-reducing effect for males (∼60-70%) but very low or no reduction effect for females. One influencing factor could be the position of the head restraint relative to the head, because a number of studies have reported that adjustable head restraints often are incorrectly positioned by drivers.  The aim was to investigate how female and male Saab drivers adjust the seat in the car they drive the most. The seated positions of drivers in stationary conditions have been investigated in a total of 76 volunteers (34 females, 42 males) who participated in the study. Inclusion criteria incorporated driving a Saab 9-3 on a regularly basis. The majority of the volunteers (89%) adjusted the head restraint to any of the 3 uppermost positions and as many as 59% in the top position.  The average vertical distance between the top of the head and the top of the head restraint (offset) increase linearly with increasing statures, from an average of -26 mm (head below the head restraint) for small females to an average of 82 mm (head above the head restraint) for large males. On average, the offset was 23 mm for females, which is within a satisfactory range and in accordance with recommendations; the corresponding value for males was 72 mm.

  13. Heading Frequency Is More Strongly Related to Cognitive Performance Than Unintentional Head Impacts in Amateur Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Stewart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCompared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP test performance.MethodActive adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year. All participants completed a baseline validated questionnaire (“HeadCount-2w”, reporting 2-week recall of soccer activity, heading and unintentional head impacts. In addition, participants also completed NP tests of verbal learning, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and working memory. Most participants also completed one or more identical follow-up protocols (i.e., HeadCount-2w and NP tests at 3- to 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Repeated measures General Estimating Equations (GEE linear models were used to determine if variation in NP tests at each visit was related to variation in either heading or unintentional head impacts in the 2-week period before testing.Results308 players (78% male completed 741 HeadCount-2w. Mean (median heading/2-weeks was 50 (17 for men and 26 (7 for women. Heading was significantly associated with poorer performance on psychomotor speed (p < 0.001 and attention (p = 0.02 tasks and was borderline significant with poorer performance on the working memory (p = 0.06 task. Unintentional head impacts were not significantly associated with any NP test. Results did not differ after excluding 22 HeadCount-2w with reported concussive or borderline concussive symptoms

  14. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  15. Comorbidity of social anxiety disorder and antisocial personality disorder in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Todd; Heimberg, Richard G; Wang, Shuai; Schneier, Franklin R; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are not often thought of as being comorbid. However, recent research suggests the existence of a SAD subtype with characteristics atypical of SAD but common to ASPD. Thus, we explored two competing hypotheses: (1) SAD and ASPD represent opposite ends of a single dimension, or (2) SAD and ASPD exist on two separate dimensions that may be positively correlated. Data were obtained from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. SAD-ASPD was related to greater impairment and psychiatric comorbidity than either disorder alone. The SAD-ASPD group was also more likely to seek treatment for their SAD symptoms and to drink before/during antisocial acts than the SAD only group. The presence of SAD for individuals with ASPD (and vice versa) does not appear to provide any "protective benefits." SAD and ASPD appear to be two separate but correlated disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Todd; Heimberg, Richard G.; Wang, Shuai; Schneier, Franklin R.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are not often thought of as being comorbid. However, recent research suggests the existence of a SAD subtype with characteristics atypical of SAD but common to ASPD. Thus, we explored two competing hypotheses: 1) SAD and ASPD represent opposite ends of a single dimension, or 2) SAD and ASPD exist on two separate dimensions that may be positively correlated. Data were obtained from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. SAD-ASPD was related to greater impairment and psychiatric comorbidity than either disorder alone. The SAD-ASPD group was also more likely to seek treatment for their SAD symptoms and to drink before/during antisocial acts than the SAD only group. The presence of SAD for individuals with ASPD (and vice versa) does not appear to provide any “protective benefits.” SAD and ASPD appear to be two separate but correlated disorders. PMID:24384071

  17. The use of virtual reality technology in the treatment of anxiety and other psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples-Keller, Jessica L.; Bunnell, Brian E.; Kim, Sae-Jin; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality, or VR, allows users to experience a sense of presence in a computer-generated three-dimensional environment. Sensory information is delivered through a head mounted display and specialized interface devices. These devices track head movements so that the movements and images change in a natural way with head motion, allowing for a sense of immersion. VR allows for controlled delivery of sensory stimulation via the therapist and is a convenient and cost-effective treatment. The primary focus of this article is to review the available literature regarding the effectiveness of incorporating VR within the psychiatric treatment of a wide range of psychiatric disorders, with a specific focus on exposure-based intervention for anxiety disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted in order to identify studies implementing VR based treatment for anxiety or other psychiatric disorders. This review will provide an overview of the history of the development of VR based technology and its use within psychiatric treatment, an overview of the empirical evidence for VR based treatment, the benefits for using VR for psychiatric research and treatment, recommendations for how to incorporate VR into psychiatric care, and future directions for VR based treatment and clinical research. PMID:28475502

  18. Membranous nephropathy with Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangling; Wang, YanQiang

    2017-07-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) accompanying Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has rarely been described previously. We recently presented a 45-year-old Chinese male presenting with recurrent lower extremity pitting edema, or eyelid edema, proteinuria and hyperlipidemia. especially intractable hiccup and vomiting, painful tonic spasm (PTS) as the revealing symptom of a demyelinating disorder of central nervous system. The kindey biopsy specimen showed MN stage 2. Serological testing revealed antibodies AQP4, MRI head and spine revealed medulla oblongata and C1-C2 cervical vertebra lesions. Treatment with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine resulted in consistent clinical improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, S.M.; Snieder, N.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their

  20. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis in broilers: influence of sires and straight-run versus sex-separate rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, R F; Al-Rubaye, A; Reynolds, D; Yoho, D; Lester, H; Spencer, C; Hughes, J D; Pevzner, I Y

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments (E1, E2) were conducted to compare the influence of sires (sire A on dam C vs. sire B on dam C) and straight-run versus sex-separate rearing on the incidence of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in broilers. Fertile eggs from commercial breeder flocks were incubated and hatched at the University of Arkansas Poultry Research Hatchery. Male and female chicks were reared together (straight-run) or separately (sex-separate) in 3 × 3 m pens on litter or flat wire flooring with 65 (E1) or 60 (E2) birds per pen. Necropsies revealed lesions that are pathognomonic for BCO in ≥98% of the birds that became lame. The SigmaStat Z-test was used to compare cumulative BCO incidences through 8 wk of age. For birds reared on litter, the incidences of BCO were low regardless of cross or sex (range: 1.7 to 5.1%; P ≥ 0.6). Within a cross and sex, rearing the broilers straight-run versus sex-separate on wire flooring did not significantly affect the incidence of BCO. Significant incidences of BCO did not develop until after d 40. Males from the sire A cross developed a higher incidence of BCO than males from the sire B cross in E1 (27 vs. 17%, respectively; P = 0.009) but not in E2 (28.5 vs. 22.6%, respectively; P = 0.141). In both experiments, males from the sire A cross developed higher incidences of BCO than females from the sire B cross (27 vs. 11.9%, in E1; 28.5 vs. 14.8%, in E2). With the sexes pooled, broilers from the sire A cross consistently developed higher incidences of BCO than broilers from the sire B cross (21.4 vs. 14.9%, P = 0.005 in E1; 26.5 vs. 18.7%, P = 0.003 in E2). High susceptibilities to both femoral head (all femoral head necrosis = 66 to 85% incidences) and tibial head (all tibial head necrosis = 81 to 96% incidences) BCO lesions were demonstrated in lame birds from both sexes and crosses. This study supports a sire influence on the susceptibility of broilers to BCO. Sire lines can be chosen to reduce BCO susceptibility

  1. Three-Dimensional Facial Adaptation for MPEG-4 Talking Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Grammalidis

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a new method for three-dimensional (3D facial model adaptation and its integration into a text-to-speech (TTS system. The 3D facial adaptation requires a set of two orthogonal views of the user′s face with a number of feature points located on both views. Based on the correspondences of the feature points′ positions, a generic face model is deformed nonrigidly treating every facial part as a separate entity. A cylindrical texture map is then built from the two image views. The generated head models are compared to corresponding models obtained by the commonly used adaptation method that utilizes 3D radial bases functions. The generated 3D models are integrated into a talking head system, which consists of two distinct parts: a multilingual text to speech sub-system and an MPEG-4 compliant facial animation sub-system. Support for the Greek language has been added, while preserving lip and speech synchronization.

  2. [Position paper of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and the German Society of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology - current state of clinical and endoscopic diagnostics, evaluation, and therapy of swallowing disorders in children and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, C; Herrmann, I F; Rohrbach, S; Schwemmle, C; Nawka, T

    2015-03-01

    Position Paper of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and the German Society of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology - Current State of Clinical and Endoscopic Diagnostics, Evaluation, and Therapy of Swallowing Disorders in Children and AdultsSwallowing disorders are frequent. The main concern is mortality due to aspiration induced pneumonia and malnutrition. On the other hand quality of life is severely affected. The demographic trend indicates an increase of dysphagia in the future. Neurodegenerative diseases, tumors of the digestive tract and sequelae of tumor treatment in the head and neck region are the main pathologic entities.Predominantly ENT physicians and phoniatrists, are asked for diagnostics and therapy who will coordinate the interdisciplinary treatment according to the endoscopic findings.A differentiated approach in history, diagnostics, and symptom oriented treatment is necessary for the mostly complex disorders. The integration of non-medical personnel such as logopeds (speech language pathologists), physiotherapists, and occupational therapists in planning and executing an effective therapy expands and completes the patient-oriented care. Conservative treatment by these therapists is an important pillar in the treatment. Parts of the specific diagnostics can be taken over by them in close cooperation.In particular an interdisciplinary cooperation with the staff from intensive care medicine is indispensable.The diagnostic procedures of specific endoscopy as described in this position paper are part of the primary and fundamental tasks of ENT specialists and phoniatrists.Endoscopy is a medical service that is basically not delegable. Consequently substitution of the physician is precluded. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder in School-Aged Foster Children - A Confirmatory Approach to Dimensional Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Stine; Breivik, Kyrre; Heiervang, Einar; Havik, Toril; Havik, Odd E.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and external correlates of the constructs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following were addressed: First, do our data support the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD/DSED as two separate constructs? Second, are RAD and DSED distinct from other well-established dimensions of child psychopathology? Third, what are the ...

  4. Persistence of Megalencephaly in a Subgroup of Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Libero, Lauren E.; Nordahl, Christine W.; Li, Deana D.; Ferrer, Emilio; Rogers, Sally J.; Amaral, David G.

    2016-01-01

    A recurring finding in autism spectrum disorder research is that head and brain growth is disproportionate to body growth in early childhood. Nordahl et al. (2011) demonstrated that this occurs in approximately 15% of boys with autism. While the literature suggests that brain growth normalizes at older ages, this has never been evaluated in a longitudinal study. The current study evaluated head circumference and total cerebral volume in 129 male children with autism and 49 age-matched, typica...

  5. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  6. Collaborative care for panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Brinck-Claussen, Ursula Ødum; Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2017-01-01

    such as cognitive behavioral therapy. A limited number of studies suggest that collaborative care has a positive effect on symptoms for people with anxiety disorders. However, most studies are carried out in the USA and none have reported results for social phobia or generalised anxiety disorder separately. Thus...... in this protocol and focus on panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia. The aim is to investigate whether treatment according to the Collabri model has a better effect than usual treatment on symptoms when provided to people with anxiety disorders. Methods: Three cluster-randomised, clinical...... practices located in the Capital Region of Denmark. For all trials, the primary outcome is anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) 6 months after baseline. Secondary outcomes include BAI after 15 months, depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) after 6 months, level of psychosocial...

  7. Development of Head Injury Assessment Reference Values Based on NASA Injury Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Melvin, John W.; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Granderson, Bradley; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Patalak, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a new capsule-based, crewed vehicle that will land in the ocean, and the space agency desires to reduce the risk of injury from impact during these landings. Because landing impact occurs for each flight and the crew might need to perform egress tasks, current injury assessment reference values (IARV) were deemed insufficient. Because NASCAR occupant restraint systems are more effective than the systems used to determine the current IARVs and are similar to NASA s proposed restraint system, an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new IARVs that may be more relevant to NASA s context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by completing a detailed analysis of all of the 2002-2008 NASCAR impact data. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select 4071 impacts from the 4015 recorder files provided (each file could contain multiple impact events). Of the 4071 accepted impacts, 274 were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Humanetics Hybrid-III 50th percentile numerical dummy model in LS-DYNA. Injury had occurred in 32 of the 274 selected impacts, and 27 of those injuries involved the head. A majority of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 242 non-injury impacts were randomly selected and representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of 4071 impacts. Head dynamics data (head translational acceleration, translational change in velocity, rotational acceleration, rotational velocity, HIC-15, HIC-36, and the Head 3ms clip) were filtered according to SAE J211 specifications and then transformed to a log scale. The probability of head injury was estimated using a separate logistic regression analysis for each log-transformed predictor candidate. Using the log transformation constrains the estimated probability of injury to become negligible as IARVs approach

  8. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  9. Analysis of femur head microstructure in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, C B V; Salata, C; Silva, C M da; Almeida, C E de; Nogueira, L P; Almeida, A P; Colaço, M V; Barroso, R C; Ferreira-Machado, S C; Alessio, R C P V; Braz, D; Tromba, G

    2013-01-01

    It is well accepted that rat ovariectomy (OVX) is a model of estrogen deficiency. OVX played a very important role in the initiating and developing of osteoporosis and it has been shown to be a major risk factor for the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. In this work we used synchrotron radiation computed microtomography to investigate the skeletal effects in femoral head of female Wistar rats after bilateral ovariectomy surgery. The CT system was set up at the SYRMEP beamline in the synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). Micro-CT images provided 3D information on precise trabecular microstructure by the reconstruction of multiple 2D images with almost 2 μm resolution. Our aim was to use histomorphometric analysis to reveal the effect of OVX on the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular bone microarchitecture. Evaluated morphometric parameters were trabecular bone volume-tissue volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th). OVX group presented noticeable reduction in the Tb.N and Tb.Th when compared with control group (P 0.05). Our data may help to gain more insight into the potential mechanism of osteoporotic femoral head fractures

  10. Representation of heading direction in far and near head space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Berg, A.V. van den

    2003-01-01

    Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye

  11. Cyclothymic disorder in youth: why is it overlooked, what do we know and where is the field headed?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meter, Anna R; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    Cyclothymic disorder is a chronic and impairing subtype of bipolar disorder, largely neglected in pediatric research. Consequently, it is rarely diagnosed clinically despite potentially being the most prevalent form of bipolar disorder. Lack of attention has added to confusion about the diagnosis and clinical presentation of cyclothymic disorder. In pediatric studies, cyclothymic disorder is commonly grouped with ‘subthreshold’ presentations of bipolar disorder under the undifferentiated labe...

  12. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  13. Transvertism: a disorder of the sense of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesey, L; Person, E

    1976-01-01

    Transvestism is not simply a sexual disorder, but is best understood as primarily a disorder of the sense of self. A descriptive background of transvestism is provided through a review of developmental history, clinical course, presonality structure, and family history. The predominant transvestic fantasies and their modes of enactment are described. The disorder of the sence of self that gives rise to transvestic behavior is identified as a split in the ego into incompatible male and female gender identities. The split is attributed to an early identification with the mother as a defense against unresolved separation anxiety engendered during the separation-individuation phase of infantile development. The effect of this split upon the sense of reality, object relations, and adaptation to stress in transvestism are examined for a psychodynamic point of view.

  14. Axis of eye rotation changes with head-pitch orientation during head impulses about earth-vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Schubert, Michael C; Clendaniel, Richard A; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C; Minor, Lloyd B; Zee, David S

    2006-06-01

    The goal of this study was to assess how the axis of head rotation, Listing's law, and eye position influence the axis of eye rotation during brief, rapid head rotations. We specifically asked how the axis of eye rotation during the initial angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) changed when the pitch orientation of the head relative to Earth-vertical was varied, but the initial position of the eye in the orbit and the orientation of Listing's plane with respect to the head were fixed. We measured three-dimensional eye and head rotation axes in eight normal humans using the search coil technique during head-and-trunk (whole-body) and head-on-trunk (head-only) "impulses" about an Earth-vertical axis. The head was initially oriented at one of five pitch angles (30 degrees nose down, 15 degrees nose down, 0 degrees, 15 degrees nose up, 30 degrees nose up). The fixation target was always aligned with the nasooccipital axis. Whole-body impulses were passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 80 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 1000 degrees /s2. Head-only impulses were also passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 150 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 3000 degrees /s2. During whole-body impulses, the axis of eye rotation tilted in the same direction, and by an amount proportional (0.51 +/- 0.09), to the starting pitch head orientation (P rotation could be predicted from vectorial summation of the gains (eye velocity/head velocity) obtained for rotations about the pure yaw and roll head axes. Thus, even when the orientation of Listing's plane and eye position in the orbit are fixed, the axis of eye rotation during the VOR reflects a compromise between the requirements of Listing's law and a perfectly compensatory VOR.

  15. Predictors of comorbid personality disorders in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latas, M; Starcevic, V; Trajkovic, G; Bogojevic, G

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain predictors of comorbid personality disorders in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDAG). Sixty consecutive outpatients with PDAG were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) for the purpose of diagnosing personality disorders. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of any comorbid personality disorder, any DSM-IV cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C personality disorder. Independent variables in these regressions were gender, age, duration of panic disorder (PD), severity of PDAG, and scores on self-report instruments that assess the patient's perception of their parents, childhood separation anxiety, and traumatic experiences. High levels of parental protection on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), indicating a perception of the parents as overprotective and controlling, emerged as the only statistically significant predictor of any comorbid personality disorder. This finding was attributed to the association between parental overprotection and cluster B personality disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder. The duration of PD was a significant predictor of any cluster B and any cluster C personality disorder, suggesting that some of the cluster B and cluster C personality disorders may be a consequence of the long-lasting PDAG. Any cluster B personality disorder was also associated with younger age. In conclusion, despite a generally nonspecific nature of the relationship between parental overprotection in childhood and adult psychopathology, the findings of this study suggest some specificity for the association between parental overprotection in childhood and personality disturbance in PDAG patients, particularly cluster B personality disorders.

  16. Effect of ice surface size on collision rates and head impacts at the World Junior Hockey Championships, 2002 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Richard

    2005-03-01

    To determine if collision rates and head impacts in elite junior hockey differed between games played on the small North American ice surface (85 ft wide), an intermediate-size Finnish ice surface (94 ft wide), and the large standard international ice surface (100 ft wide). Videotape analysis of all games involving Team Canada from the 2002 (large ice, Czech Republic), 2003 (small ice, Canada), and 2004 (intermediate ice, Finland) World Junior Championships. All collisions were counted and separated into various categories (volitional player/player bodychecks, into boards or open ice, plus accidental/incidental player/boards, player/ice, head/stick, head/puck). Further subdivisions included collisions involving the head directly or indirectly and notably severe head impacts. Small, intermediate, and large ice surface mean collisions/game, respectively, were 295, 258, 222, total collisions; 251, 220, 181, volitional bodychecks; 126, 115, 88, into boards; 125, 106, 93, open ice; 71, 52, 44, total head; 44, 36, 30, indirect head; 26, 16, 13, direct head; and 1.3, 0.5, 0.3, severe head (P < 0.05 for small-intermediate ice and intermediate-large ice differences in total collisions; P < 0.005 for small-large ice difference; P < 0.05 for small-intermediate ice differences in head impacts; P < 0.01 for small-large ice differences in total and severe head impacts). There is a significant inverse correlation between ice size and collision rates in elite hockey, including direct, indirect, and severe head impacts. These findings suggest that uniform usage of the larger international rinks could reduce the risk of injury, and specifically, concussions in elite hockey by decreasing the occurrence of collisions and head impacts.

  17. The vestibulocochlear bases for wartime posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigno, T A; Armonda, R A; Bell, R S; Severson, M A

    2017-09-01

    Preliminary findings based on earlier retrospective studies of 229 wartime head injuries managed by the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC)/National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) Neurosurgery Service during the period 2003-08 detected a threefold rise in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) manifestations (10.45%) among Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) having concomitant vestibulocochlear injuries compared to 3% for the TBI group without vestibulo-cochlear damage (VCD), prompting the authors to undertake a more focused study of the vestibulo-auditory pathway in explaining the development of posttraumatic stress disorder manifestations among the mostly Blast-exposed head-injured. The subsequent historical review of PTSD pathophysiology studies, the evidence for an expanded vestibular system and of a dominant vestibular system, the vascular vulnerability of the vestibular nerves in stress states as well as the period of cortical imprinting has led to the formation of a coherent hypotheses utilizing the vestibulocochlear pathway in understanding the development of PTSD manifestations. Neuroimaging and neurophysiologic tests to further validate the vestibulocochlear concept on the development of PTSD manifestations are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved transcranial magnetic stimulation coil design with realistic head modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2013-03-01

    We are investigating Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a noninvasive technique based on electromagnetic induction which causes stimulation of the neurons in the brain. TMS can be used as a pain-free alternative to conventional electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) which is still widely implemented for treatment of major depression. Development of improved TMS coils capable of stimulating subcortical regions could also allow TMS to replace invasive deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires surgical implantation of electrodes in the brain. Our new designs allow new applications of the technique to be established for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications of psychiatric disorders and neurological diseases. Calculation of the fields generated inside the head is vital for the use of this method for treatment. In prior work we have implemented a realistic head model, incorporating inhomogeneous tissue structures and electrical conductivities, allowing the site of neuronal activation to be accurately calculated. We will show how we utilize this model in the development of novel TMS coil designs to improve the depth of penetration and localization of stimulation produced by stimulator coils.

  19. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S.A.; Hale, W.W.; Branje, S.J.T.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Frijns, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239

  20. The Role of the New Zealand Plateau in the Tasman Sea Circulation and Separation of the East Australian Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Christopher Y. S.; Kiss, Andrew E.; van Sebille, Erik; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; England, Matthew H.

    2018-02-01

    The East Australian Current (EAC) plays a major role in regional climate, circulation, and ecosystems, but predicting future changes is hampered by limited understanding of the factors controlling EAC separation. While there has been speculation that the presence of New Zealand may be important for the EAC separation, the prevailing view is that the time-mean partial separation is set by the ocean's response to gradients in the wind stress curl. This study focuses on the role of New Zealand, and the associated adjacent bathymetry, in the partial separation of the EAC and ocean circulation in the Tasman Sea. Here utilizing an eddy-permitting ocean model (NEMO), we find that the complete removal of the New Zealand plateau leads to a smaller fraction of EAC transport heading east and more heading south, with the mean separation latitude shifting >100 km southward. To examine the underlying dynamics, we remove New Zealand with two linear models: the Sverdrup/Godfrey Island Rule and NEMO in linear mode. We find that linear processes and deep bathymetry play a major role in the mean Tasman Front position, whereas nonlinear processes are crucial for the extent of the EAC retroflection. Contrary to past work, we find that meridional gradients in the basin-wide wind stress curl are not the sole factor determining the latitude of EAC separation. We suggest that the Tasman Front location is set by either the maximum meridional gradient in the wind stress curl or the northern tip of New Zealand, whichever is furthest north.

  1. Assessment of temporomandibular and cervical spine disorders in tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björne, Assar

    2007-01-01

    In treating patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction it was noticed that tinnitus and vertigo were common in such patients and there was also muscular tension in jaw and neck. During treatment of these patients it was also noted that injection of lidocaine in a jaw muscle (m. pt. lat.) reduced not only their muscular problems but also that the tinnitus was reduced while the local anesthetic was active. Evaluation of 39 patients with disabling tinnitus, and all suffered from tinnitus, revealed that 10 of them had bilateral tinnitus and TMJ disorders revealed that pain in the face, temples or jaw occurred often among these patients. Many of such patients had also symptoms of cervical spine disorders, head, neck and shoulder pain, and limitations in side bending and rotation were also frequent complaints. One-third of these patients could influence tinnitus by jaw movements and 75% could trigger vertigo by head or neck movements. Treatment of jaw and neck disorders in 24 patients with Ménière's disease had a beneficial effect on not only their episodic vertigo but also on their tinnitus and aural fullness. At the 3-year follow-up, intensity of all symptoms were significantly reduced (p<0.001).

  2. MXene molecular sieving membranes for highly efficient gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Wei, Yanying; Li, Libo; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Haihui; Xue, Jian; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Suqing; Caro, Jürgen; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-01-11

    Molecular sieving membranes with sufficient and uniform nanochannels that break the permeability-selectivity trade-off are desirable for energy-efficient gas separation, and the arising two-dimensional (2D) materials provide new routes for membrane development. However, for 2D lamellar membranes, disordered interlayer nanochannels for mass transport are usually formed between randomly stacked neighboring nanosheets, which is obstructive for highly efficient separation. Therefore, manufacturing lamellar membranes with highly ordered nanochannel structures for fast and precise molecular sieving is still challenging. Here, we report on lamellar stacked MXene membranes with aligned and regular subnanometer channels, taking advantage of the abundant surface-terminating groups on the MXene nanosheets, which exhibit excellent gas separation performance with H 2 permeability >2200 Barrer and H 2 /CO 2 selectivity >160, superior to the state-of-the-art membranes. The results of molecular dynamics simulations quantitatively support the experiments, confirming the subnanometer interlayer spacing between the neighboring MXene nanosheets as molecular sieving channels for gas separation.

  3. The challenge of the global elimination of iodine deficiency disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der F.

    1997-01-01

    Most nations of the world are well positioned for success in their pursuit of the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) by the year 2000. In 1990 at the World Summit for Children, Heads of State and Government had agreed on this global goal and in 1992 at the International

  4. The point spread function of the human head and its implications for transcranial current stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2012-01-01

    Rational development of transcranial current stimulation (tCS) requires solving the ‘forward problem’: the computation of the electric field distribution in the head resulting from the application of scalp currents. Derivation of forward models has represented a major effort in brain stimulation research, with model complexity ranging from spherical shells to individualized head models based on magnetic resonance imagery. Despite such effort, an easily accessible benchmark head model is greatly needed when individualized modeling is either undesired (to observe general population trends as opposed to individual differences) or unfeasible. Here, we derive a closed-form linear system which relates the applied current to the induced electric potential. It is shown that in the spherical harmonic (Fourier) domain, a simple scalar multiplication relates the current density on the scalp to the electric potential in the brain. Equivalently, the current density in the head follows as the spherical convolution between the scalp current distribution and the point spread function of the head, which we derive. Thus, if one knows the spherical harmonic representation of the scalp current (i.e. the electrode locations and current intensity to be employed), one can easily compute the resulting electric field at any point inside the head. Conversely, one may also readily determine the scalp current distribution required to generate an arbitrary electric field in the brain (the ‘backward problem’ in tCS). We demonstrate the simplicity and utility of the model with a series of characteristic curves which sweep across a variety of stimulation parameters: electrode size, depth of stimulation, head size and anode–cathode separation. Finally, theoretically optimal montages for targeting an infinitesimal point in the brain are shown. (paper)

  5. Head up tilt test in the diagnosis of neurocardiogenic syncope in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Vrajesh; Bavdekar, Manisha; Karia, Samir

    2004-06-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) is a common paroxysmal disorder that is often misdiagnosed as a seizure disorder. Head up tilt test (HUTT) has been used to confirm this diagnosis. There is no data available of its use in children / adolescents from India. To study the usefulness of the HUTT in children and adolescents with suspected NCS. This was a part retrospective and later prospective study set in a tertiary child neurology outpatient department (OPD). Patients with a strong clinical suspicion of syncope were recruited for the study. Clinical and treatment details were either retrieved from the chart or prospectively recorded in later patients. The HUTT was then carried out at baseline and after provocation and the results correlated with the clinical diagnosis. Eighteen children with a mean age of 10.8 years were studied. Eight had precipitating factors. Thirteen had premonitory symptoms. Pallor, temperature change, diaphoresis, headache, tonic / clonic movements, post-ictal confusion and peri-ictal headache were symptoms noticed. Sixteen had a positive HUTT. Seven were on long-term anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Two had epileptiform abnormalities on their electroencephalogram (EEG). The diagnosis of syncope is often confused with epilepsy. Head up tilt test has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of NCS in children / adolescents. It is fairly safe and easy to perform.

  6. The impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-I; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Ching-Yen; Yang, Ching-Hui; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2014-11-10

    No study has simultaneously investigated the impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms (PPS) among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The study aimed to investigate this issue. This open-label study enrolled 155 outpatients with MDD, who were then treated with venlafaxine 75 mg per day for four weeks. Eighty-five participants with good compliance completed the treatment. Migraine was diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the severity of eight PPS. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate the impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on PPS. Compared with patients without migraine, patients with migraine had a greater severity of PPS at baseline and post-treatment. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive severity, migraine independently predicted the intensities of eight PPS at baseline and four PPS post-treatment. Moreover, migraine independently predicted poorer treatment responses of chest pain and full remission of pains in the head, chest, neck and/or shoulder. Anxiety disorders predicted less full remission of pains in the abdomen and limbs. Migraine and anxiety disorders have negative impacts on PPS among patients with MDD. Integrating the treatment of migraine and anxiety disorders into the management of depression might help to improve PPS and the prognosis of MDD.

  7. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Is Better Conceptualized as a Disorder of Emotional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Monica; Quinn, Declan; Duncan, Don; Graham, Tom; Balbuena, Lloyd

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) can be differentiated into distinct subtypes associated with different outcomes in adulthood. We examined whether ODD is conceptually independent and coherent, and whether ODD and Conduct Disorder (CD) are expressions of the same core deficit. The data come from a sample of 4,380 children for whom SNAP rating scales were available. Parallel analysis was performed on the eight-item ODD diagnostic items and on the SNAP-90 scale. These were factor analyzed and the components were correlated. ODD has one underlying factor, whereas the parent-rated SNAP has nine underlying factors. ODD items grouped together with emotional lability and irritability items, which did not group with CD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the separation of ODD and CD but not ODD and emotion dysregulation. The expanded ODD factor more likely captures a disorder of emotion regulation, rather than a disruptive behavior disorder.

  8. The exploding head syndrome: polysomnographic recordings and therapeutic suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, C; Svanborg, E

    1991-06-01

    Attention has recently been drawn to a condition termed the exploding head syndrome, which is characterized by unpleasant, even terrifying sensations of flashing lights and/or sounds during reported sleep. Nine patients complaining of sensations of explosions in the head during sleep or drowsiness were investigated with polysomnographic recordings. None of them had any neurological disorder. Five patients reported explosions during the recording sessions. According to the recordings, the attacks always took place when the patients were awake and relaxed. In two cases abrupt electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic changes indicating increasing alertness were recorded at the time of the reported attacks. In the remaining three cases no EEG changes were seen. Thus, there were no indications of an epileptic etiology to the condition. In all patients the symptoms ameliorated spontaneously with time. The severity of the symptoms was reduced by reassurance of the harmlessness of the condition. Clomipramine was prescribed to three patients who all reported immediate relief of symptoms. It is concluded that symptoms of this type are probably not true hypnagogic phenomena but may be an expression of emotional stress in the awake state.

  9. The effects of swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, oral mucositis and xerostomia on nutritional status, oral intake and weight loss in head and neck cancer patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Valentina; Stevanin, Simone; Bianchi, Monica; Aleo, Giuseppe; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-04-01

    Combined-modality treatment of head and neck cancer is becoming more common, driven by the idea that organ(s) preservation should maintain patient appearance and the function of organ(s) involved. Even if treatments have improved, they can still be associated with acute and late adverse effects. The aim of this systematic review was to retrieve current data on how swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, oral mucositis, and xerostomia affect nutritional status, oral intake and weight loss in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. A systematic literature search covered four relevant electronic databases from January 2005 to May 2015. Retrieved papers were categorised and evaluated considering their methodological quality. Two independent reviewers reviewed manuscripts and abstracted data using a standardised form. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using the Edwards Method Score. Of the 1459 abstracts reviewed, a total of 25 studies were included. The most studied symptom was dysphagia, even if symptoms were interconnected and affected one other. In most of the selected studies the level of evidence was between 2 and 3, and their quality level was from medium to low. There are limited data about dysgeusia, oral mucositis and xerostomia outcomes available for HNC patients. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials and multicenter-prospective cohort studies, therefore further research is needed to ascertain which aspects of these symptoms should be measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relaxation processes in a lower disorder order transition diblock copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Alejandro; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Nogales, Aurora; Hernández, Rebeca; Sprung, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of lower disorder-order temperature diblock copolymer leading to phase separation has been observed by X ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Two different modes have been characterized. A non-diffusive mode appears at temperatures below the disorder to order transition, which can be associated to compositional fluctuations, that becomes slower as the interaction parameter increases, in a similar way to the one observed for diblock copolymers exhibiting phase separation upon cooling. At temperatures above the disorder to order transition T ODT , the dynamics becomes diffusive, indicating that after phase separation in Lower Disorder-Order Transition (LDOT) diblock copolymers, the diffusion of chain segments across the interface is the governing dynamics. As the segregation is stronger, the diffusive process becomes slower. Both observed modes have been predicted by the theory describing upper order-disorder transition systems, assuming incompressibility. However, the present results indicate that the existence of these two modes is more universal as they are present also in compressible diblock copolymers exhibiting a lower disorder-order transition. No such a theory describing the dynamics in LDOT block copolymers is available, and these experimental results may offer some hints to understanding the dynamics in these systems. The dynamics has also been studied in the ordered state, and for the present system, the non-diffusive mode disappears and only a diffusive mode is observed. This mode is related to the transport of segment in the interphase, due to the weak segregation on this system

  11. Exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sports psychiatry: mental health and mental disorders in athletes and exercise treatment of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-03-21

    Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.

  13. Numerical study of microphase separation in gels and random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Nariya

    2004-01-01

    Microphase separation in gels and random media is numerically studied using a Ginzburg-Landau model. A random field destroys long-range orientational (lamellar) order and gives rise to a disordered bicontinuous morphology. The dependence of the correlation length on the field strength is distinct from that of random-field magnets

  14. Association of nail biting and psychiatric disorders in children and their parents in a psychiatrically referred sample of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanizadeh Ahmad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nail biting (NB is a very common unwanted behavior. The majority of children are motivated to stop NB and have already tried to stop it, but are generally unsuccessful in doing so. It is a difficult behavior to modify or treat. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of children with NB who present at a child and adolescent mental healthcare outpatient clinic and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method A consecutive sample of 450 referred children was examined for NB and 63 (14% were found to have NB. The children and adolescents with nail biting and their parents were interviewed according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. They were also asked about lip biting, head banging, skin biting, and hair pulling behaviors. Results Nail biting is common amongst children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent mental health clinic. The most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders in these children were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (74.6%, oppositional defiant disorder (36%, separation anxiety disorder (20.6%, enuresis (15.6%, tic disorder (12.7% and obsessive compulsive disorder (11.1%. The rates of major depressive disorder, mental retardation, and pervasive developmental disorder were 6.7%, 9.5%, 3.2%, respectively. There was no association between the age of onset of nail biting and the co-morbid psychiatric disorder. Severity and frequency of NB were not associated with any co-morbid psychiatric disorder. About 56.8% of the mothers and 45.9% of the fathers were suffering from at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorder found in these parents was major depression. Conclusion Nail biting presents in a significant proportion of referrals to a mental healthcare clinic setting. Nail biting should be routinely looked for and asked for in the child and adolescent mental healthcare setting

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder Diagnoses From the Perspective of the DSM-5 Personality Traits: A Study on Italian Clinical Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the associations between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorder traits and domains and categorically diagnosed narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), respectively, 238 inpatient and outpatient participants who were consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy, were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Based on SCID-II, the participants were assigned to the following groups: a) NPD (n = 49), b) BPD (n = 32), c) any other PD (n = 91), and d) no PD (n = 63). Emotional lability, separation insecurity, depressivity, impulsivity, risk taking, and hostility were significantly associated with BPD diagnosis. Attention seeking significantly discriminated participants who received an SCID-II categorical NPD diagnosis. Separation insecurity, impulsivity, distractibility, and perceptual dysregulation were the DSM-5 traits that significantly discriminated BPD participants. Domain-level analyses confirmed and extended trait-level findings.

  16. Testing a technical-scale counterflow compact heat exchanger for the separation of uranium hexafluoride from hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornberger, P.; Seidel, D.; Steinhaus, H.

    1981-07-01

    When enriching the light uranium isotope U-235 according to the separation nozzle method, UF 6 and light auxiliary gas (H 2 ) must be separated from each other at the head as well as at the shoulder of the cascade. After pre-separation at a special separation nozzle stage, fine separation is planned by means of a low-temperature separator made as a compact heat exchanger. This report describes first testing under process conditions of a representative section of the separator blocks intended for technical-scale operation. It is proved that the rated loading capacity is attained while the residual UF 6 concentration contained in the escaping hydrogen can be lowered down to values less than 1 ppm. It is further shown that the requirement of constant pressure drop at the separator, which is decisive for the smooth interplay of preseparator stage and low-temperature separator, can be imposed by direct control of the supply of the refrigerating medium through the variable to be kept constant. A concept of control is proposed for industrial application necessitating the operation of several low-temperature separators staggered in terms of time. This concept allows the relatively simple optimum utilization of the separator capacity even under variable operating conditions. (orig.) [de

  17. Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking) disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on "conditions for further study." There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.

  18. Age-related changes in the hemodynamics of the femoral head as evaluated by early phase of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Takahashi, Kenji A.

    2006-01-01

    The femoral head is reported to be in a markedly hypoemic state as compared with other tissues even under normal conditions, and it is therefore necessary to understand its hemodynamics to investigate the pathogenesis of hip disorders. It is known that aspects of intraosseous hemodynamics including blood flow and blood pool can be evaluated soon after radioisotope administration. In this study, hemodynamic changes in the femoral head according to gender and age were examined by investigating accumulation of radioisotope in the tissue during the early phase of bone scintigraphy. The subjects of this study consisted of 58 joints of 31 men and 75 joints of 41 women, whose ages ranged from 15 to 87 years (average age: 67.9 years). Images of bone scintigraphy were obtained for 15 to 20 minutes at 5 minutes and at 3 hours after radioisotope administration. The ratio of accumulation in the femoral head to that in the diaphysis (head-to-diaphysis ratio, HD ratio) was calculated. HD ratios obtained 15-20 minutes later ranged from 0.01 to 7.35 (1.88±0.91, mean±SD). HD ratios decreased with age, and a significant inverse correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.27 (p=0.001). The HD ratio among men was 0.01-3.57 (1.66±0.71), while that among women was 0.53-7.35 (2.05±1.01), and a significant difference was observed in HD ratio between men and women (p=0.02). There was a significant difference in HD ratios between men and women in their teens to forties (p=0.03), while no significant differences was observed in the other age groups. HD ratios obtained 3 hours later ranged from 0.44 to 6.32 (1.95±0.79, mean±SD), and no significant correlation was observed between age and HD ratio, demonstrating a correlation coefficient of -0.14. The present study demonstrated that blood flow and blood pool of the femoral head decrease with aging particularly in women. This hemodynamic deterioration of the femoral head caused by aging

  19. Uncertainties in effective dose estimates of adult CT head scans: The effect of head size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Bibbo, Giovanni; Pattison, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study is an extension of a previous study where the uncertainties in effective dose estimates from adult CT head scans were calculated using four CT effective dose estimation methods, three of which were computer programs (CT-EXPO, CTDOSIMETRY, and IMPACTDOSE) and one that involved the dose length product (DLP). However, that study did not include the uncertainty contribution due to variations in head sizes. Methods: The uncertainties due to head size variations were estimated by first using the computer program data to calculate doses to small and large heads. These doses were then compared with doses calculated for the phantom heads used by the computer programs. An uncertainty was then assigned based on the difference between the small and large head doses and the doses of the phantom heads. Results: The uncertainties due to head size variations alone were found to be between 4% and 26% depending on the method used and the patient gender. When these uncertainties were included with the results of the previous study, the overall uncertainties in effective dose estimates (stated at the 95% confidence interval) were 20%-31% (CT-EXPO), 15%-30% (CTDOSIMETRY), 20%-36% (IMPACTDOSE), and 31%-40% (DLP). Conclusions: For the computer programs, the lower overall uncertainties were still achieved when measured values of CT dose index were used rather than tabulated values. For DLP dose estimates, head size variations made the largest (for males) and second largest (for females) contributions to effective dose uncertainty. An improvement in the uncertainty of the DLP method dose estimates will be achieved if head size variation can be taken into account.

  20. Uncertainties in effective dose estimates of adult CT head scans: The effect of head size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Bibbo, Giovanni; Pattison, John E. [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia) and School of Electrical and Information Engineering (Applied Physics), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Division of Medical Imaging, Women' s and Children' s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia 5006 (Australia) and School of Electrical and Information Engineering (Applied Physics), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); School of Electrical and Information Engineering (Applied Physics), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: This study is an extension of a previous study where the uncertainties in effective dose estimates from adult CT head scans were calculated using four CT effective dose estimation methods, three of which were computer programs (CT-EXPO, CTDOSIMETRY, and IMPACTDOSE) and one that involved the dose length product (DLP). However, that study did not include the uncertainty contribution due to variations in head sizes. Methods: The uncertainties due to head size variations were estimated by first using the computer program data to calculate doses to small and large heads. These doses were then compared with doses calculated for the phantom heads used by the computer programs. An uncertainty was then assigned based on the difference between the small and large head doses and the doses of the phantom heads. Results: The uncertainties due to head size variations alone were found to be between 4% and 26% depending on the method used and the patient gender. When these uncertainties were included with the results of the previous study, the overall uncertainties in effective dose estimates (stated at the 95% confidence interval) were 20%-31% (CT-EXPO), 15%-30% (CTDOSIMETRY), 20%-36% (IMPACTDOSE), and 31%-40% (DLP). Conclusions: For the computer programs, the lower overall uncertainties were still achieved when measured values of CT dose index were used rather than tabulated values. For DLP dose estimates, head size variations made the largest (for males) and second largest (for females) contributions to effective dose uncertainty. An improvement in the uncertainty of the DLP method dose estimates will be achieved if head size variation can be taken into account.

  1. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  2. Mediating and Moderating Role of Depression, Conduct Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Developing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mediating/moderating effects of common internalizing /externalizing disorders on the association between ADHD and adolescent substance use disorders (SUD in a population-based birth cohort.Among 5718 children in the birth cohort, 343 ADHD incident cases and 712 matched controls were identified. Psychiatric diagnoses prior to age 19 were classified into DSM-IV categories. The association between ADHD and SUD was summarized (hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI. The effect of depression, CD/ODD, anxiety was evaluated separately.Assessment of the joint effects of ADHD and each psychiatric disorder did not support a moderating effect of these disorders on SUD on additive scale. However, the association between ADHD and SUD was partially explained by a mediating role of these psychiatric disorders.For clinicians our results emphasize that depression (or CD/ODD confers greater risk for SUD than ADHD alone. Early detection/treatment of SUD among adolescents with depression (or CD/ODD is crucial regardless of ADHD.

  3. Mediating and Moderating Role of Depression, Conduct Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Developing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J; Colligan, Robert C; Voigt, Robert G; Weaver, Amy L; Katusic, Slavica K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the mediating/moderating effects of common internalizing /externalizing disorders on the association between ADHD and adolescent substance use disorders (SUD) in a population-based birth cohort. Among 5718 children in the birth cohort, 343 ADHD incident cases and 712 matched controls were identified. Psychiatric diagnoses prior to age 19 were classified into DSM-IV categories. The association between ADHD and SUD was summarized (hazard ratios (HR), 95% CI). The effect of depression, CD/ODD, anxiety was evaluated separately. Assessment of the joint effects of ADHD and each psychiatric disorder did not support a moderating effect of these disorders on SUD on additive scale. However, the association between ADHD and SUD was partially explained by a mediating role of these psychiatric disorders. For clinicians our results emphasize that depression (or CD/ODD) confers greater risk for SUD than ADHD alone. Early detection/treatment of SUD among adolescents with depression (or CD/ODD) is crucial regardless of ADHD.

  4. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  5. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-19

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ∼100  Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  6. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ˜100 Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  7. Multi-head Watson-Crick automata

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Ray, Kumar Sankar

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by multi-head finite automata and Watson-Crick automata in this paper, we introduce new structure namely multi-head Watson-Crick automata where we replace the single tape of multi-head finite automaton by a DNA double strand. The content of the second tape is determined using a complementarity relation similar to Watson-Crick complementarity relation. We establish the superiority of our model over multi-head finite automata and also show that both the deterministic and non-determinis...

  8. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prazeres AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review

  9. Superior anti-suicidal effects of electroconvulsive therapy in unipolar disorder and bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Sung; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Ho, Pei-Shen; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2017-12-11

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has long been believed to reduce suicidal tendencies in patients with affective disorders; however, ECT recipients, who constitute the most severely ill and suicidal patients, are not eligible to participate in head-to-head randomized controlled trials. Large-scale studies are required to investigate the anti-suicidal effects of ECT vs psychopharmacotherapy. A nationwide retrospective cohort study design was used. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Inpatients with unipolar disorder or bipolar disorder who received ECT (n = 487) were observed from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2013 for suicide events. The non-ECT control cohort consisted of inpatients with psychopharmacotherapy randomly matched (ratio, 1:4) by age, sex, and diagnosis. After potential confounds had been accounted for, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.803, indicating that ECT recipients showed a 19.7% lower risk of suicide than control individuals. The stratum-specific adjusted HR was 0.79 in patients with unipolar disorder (P = .041) and 0.923 in patients with bipolar disorder (P = .254). Upon further stratification of the patients with bipolar disorder by their affective states, the adjusted HR was 0.805 (P = .046) for bipolar depression, 1.048 for bipolar mania (P = .538), and 0.976 for mixed bipolar state (P = .126). Compared with psychopharmacotherapy, ECT exerted superior anti-suicidal effects in patients with unipolar disorder and bipolar depression; however, there was a lack of superior anti-suicidal effects of ECT in the treatment of patients with bipolar mania and mixed state. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Multi-dimensional grating interferometer based on fibre-fed measurement heads arranged in Littrow configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiaudinytė, Lauryna; Molnar, Gabor; Köning, Rainer; Flügge, Jens

    2018-05-01

    Industrial application versatility of interferometric encoders increases the urge to measure several degrees of freedom. A novel grating interferometer containing a commercially available, minimized Michelson interferometer and three fibre-fed measurement heads is presented in this paper. Moreover, the arrangement is designed for simultaneous displacement measurements in two perpendicular planes. In the proposed setup, beam splitters are located in the fibre heads, therefore the grating is separated from the light source and the photo detector, which influence measurement results by generated heat. The operating principle of the proposed system as well as error sources influencing measurement results are discussed in this paper. Further, the benefits and shortcomings of the setup are presented. A simple Littrow-configuration-based design leads to a compact-size interferometric encoder suitable for multidimensional measurements.

  11. Geometric calibration method for multiple head cone beam SPECT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, Ph.; Grangeat, P.; Guillemaud, R.; Sauze, R.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for performing geometric calibration on Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) cone beam systems with multiple cone beam collimators, each having its own orientation parameters. This calibration method relies on the fact that, in tomography, for each head, the relative position of the rotation axis and of the collimator does not change during the acquisition. In order to ensure the method stability, the parameters to be estimated in intrinsic parameters and extrinsic parameters are separated. The intrinsic parameters describe the acquisition geometry and the extrinsic parameters position of the detection system with respect to the rotation axis. (authors) 3 refs

  12. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... into Head Start and from Head Start to public school. 1308.21 Section 1308.21 Public Welfare... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START... Standards § 1308.21 Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to...

  13. Maternal separation as a model of brain-gut axis dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2011-03-01

    Early life stress has been implicated in many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Maternal separation in rodents is a well-studied model of early life stress. However, stress during this critical period also induces alterations in many systems throughout the body. Thus, a variety of other disorders that are associated with adverse early life events are often comorbid with psychiatric illnesses, suggesting a common underlying aetiology. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is thought to involve a dysfunctional interaction between the brain and the gut. Essential aspects of the brain-gut axis include spinal pathways, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, the immune system, as well as the enteric microbiota. Accumulating evidence suggest that stress, especially in early life, is a predisposing factor to IBS.

  14. Psychiatric comorbidities among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders: a community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Amaro da Silva Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in a community sample of adolescents, the presence of comorbidities in different anxiety disorders. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, initially composed of 2,457 adolescents, aged between 10-17 years old, from public schools of the area covered by the Basic Health Unit of a university hospital. We applied the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED to assess for anxiety disorders. Then, 138 positive cases in the screening were assessed for mental disorders through the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Results Patients with anxiety disorders had more association with other anxiety disorders, as well as depression, and enuresis. The most common comorbidity described in our study was between generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 4.21, 95% CI 1.88, 9.58. Significant association was observed between other disorders such as enuresis and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 3.81, 95% CI 1.16, 12.49, as well as depression and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.52, 7.61. Conclusion Our study showed a relevant presence of comorbidities adolescents with anxiety disorders, selected from a community sample, especially regarding other anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  15. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  16. Management of somatic pain induced by head-and-neck cancer treatment: definition and assessment. Guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Society (SFORL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binczak, M; Navez, M; Perrichon, C; Blanchard, D; Bollet, M; Calmels, P; Couturaud, C; Dreyer, C; Espitalier, F; Testelin, S; Albert, S; Morinière, S

    2014-09-01

    The authors present the guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Society (Société Française d'Oto-rhino-Laryngologie et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou [SFORL]) for the management of somatic pain induced by head-and-neck cancer treatment, and in particular the instruments needed for the definition and initial assessment of the various types of pain. A multidisciplinary work group was entrusted with a review of the scientific literature on the above topic. Guidelines were drawn up, based on the articles retrieved and the group members' individual experience. They were then read over by an editorial group independent of the work group. The final version was established in a coordination meeting. The guidelines were graded as A, B, C or expert opinion, by decreasing level of evidence. The priority is to eliminate tumoral recurrence when pain reappears or changes following head-and-neck cancer treatment. Neuropathic pain screening instruments and pain assessment scales should be used to assess pain intensity and treatment efficacy. Functional rehabilitation sessions should be prescribed to reduce musculoskeletal pain and prevent ankylosis and postural disorder. Psychotherapy and mind-body therapy, when available, should be provided in case of chronic pain. In case of recalcitrant complex pain, referral should be made to a multidisciplinary pain structure. The management of somatic pain induced by head-and-neck cancer treatment above all requires identifying and assessing the intensity of the various types of pain involved, their functional impact and their emotional component. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. An investigation of head movement with a view to minimising motion artefact during SPECT and PET imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, H.; Clarke, G.H.; Guy, R.; McKay, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Motion artefact has long been recognised as a major cause of image degradation. Single Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of the brain are playing an important role in the diagnosis and management of several neurological disorders. If these imaging modalities are to contribute fully to medical imaging it is essential that the improved spatial resolution of these systems is not compromised by patient movement. Thirty volunteer subjects have been examined using a simple video technique and the video images were used to classify and measure head movements which may occur during brain imaging. All subjects demonstrated angular movement within the transverse plane or rotation of the head. Angular movement within the sagittal plane or flexion/extension of the neck occurred in 69% of subjects and 72% of subjects exhibited translational movement of the sagittal plane. There was no movement of the coronal plane; nor was there any translational movement of the sagittal plane. These results suggest that when positioning the patient's head for brain imaging a system of head restraint which minimises rotation of the head should be used if image quality is to be maintained

  18. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  19. A clinical study of temporomandibular disorder. The value of bone scintigraphy as an aid to diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Masashi [Nippon Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata

    2000-07-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is still not defined with respect to the point of an entity, terminological problems, and clinical classification and gradings. Moreover, diagnostic problems of internal deranegement and osteodeformity at the temporomandibular joint such as type IV and mechanism of bone remodeling at condylar head are also still not clear. In this investigation, we tried to classify the severity and progressive grading according to the symptoms and objective laboratory data taken from soft tissues such as muscles related to mastication, discs and ligaments, and hard tissues such as condylar head and temporal bone changes around the temporomandibular joint. Preliminary diagnostic clinical tool of the assessment of temporomandibular joint by maens of bone scintigraphy was attributed to the additional diagnostic procedure and research for the bone remodeling for the temporomandibular disorder because this can be defined between subjective and objective symptoms in this disorder. Bone scintigraphy will solve many problems concerning undefined degenerative bone changes in TMD, enable more accurate diagnosis, and the selection of treatment and prognosis in future investigation. Also, it is believed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) nuclear bone imaging is a highly accurate diagnostic method for craniomandibular disorders. (author)

  20. A clinical study of temporomandibular disorder. The value of bone scintigraphy as an aid to diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Masashi

    2000-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is still not defined with respect to the point of an entity, terminological problems, and clinical classification and gradings. Moreover, diagnostic problems of internal deranegement and osteodeformity at the temporomandibular joint such as type IV and mechanism of bone remodeling at condylar head are also still not clear. In this investigation, we tried to classify the severity and progressive grading according to the symptoms and objective laboratory data taken from soft tissues such as muscles related to mastication, discs and ligaments, and hard tissues such as condylar head and temporal bone changes around the temporomandibular joint. Preliminary diagnostic clinical tool of the assessment of temporomandibular joint by maens of bone scintigraphy was attributed to the additional diagnostic procedure and research for the bone remodeling for the temporomandibular disorder because this can be defined between subjective and objective symptoms in this disorder. Bone scintigraphy will solve many problems concerning undefined degenerative bone changes in TMD, enable more accurate diagnosis, and the selection of treatment and prognosis in future investigation. Also, it is believed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) nuclear bone imaging is a highly accurate diagnostic method for craniomandibular disorders. (author)

  1. Fear of Vaginal Penetration in the Absence of Pain as a Separate Category of Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Conceptual Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rabinowitz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional sexual pain disorders in women are a particular challenge to the gynecologist, inasmuch as phobic avoidance and guarding on the part of the patient lead to difficulties in the gynecological examination and diagnosis. In some such cases examination may even be impossible. Vaginismus is the commonly diagnosed etiology of such cases. This article offers an overview of vaginismus and approaches to its treatment but also examines a subset of penetration-avoidant patients who do not appear to have a pain component. We have reviewed this separate category conceptually and clinically, and propose that this case subset be separated from the diagnosis of vaginismus and designated as vaginal penetration phobia (VPP. We further propose that this category be diagnosed as one of several possible presentations of phobic disorder, under the rubric of mental health disorder, and thus be separated from gynecology. The nosological implications are raised.

  2. Fear of Vaginal Penetration in the Absence of Pain as a Separate Category of Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Conceptual Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, David; Lowenstein, Lior; Gruenwald, Ilan

    2017-01-01

    Functional sexual pain disorders in women are a particular challenge to the gynecologist, inasmuch as phobic avoidance and guarding on the part of the patient lead to difficulties in the gynecological examination and diagnosis. In some such cases examination may even be impossible. Vaginismus is the commonly diagnosed etiology of such cases. This article offers an overview of vaginismus and approaches to its treatment but also examines a subset of penetration-avoidant patients who do not appear to have a pain component. We have reviewed this separate category conceptually and clinically, and propose that this case subset be separated from the diagnosis of vaginismus and designated as vaginal penetration phobia (VPP). We further propose that this category be diagnosed as one of several possible presentations of phobic disorder, under the rubric of mental health disorder, and thus be separated from gynecology. The nosological implications are raised. PMID:28467769

  3. Meteor head echo polarization at 930 MHz studied with the EISCAT UHF HPLA radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wannberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The polarization characteristics of 930-MHz meteor head echoes have been studied for the first time, using data obtained in a series of radar measurements carried out with the tristatic EISCAT UHF high power, large aperture (HPLA radar system in October 2009. An analysis of 44 tri-static head echo events shows that the polarization of the echo signal recorded by the Kiruna receiver often fluctuates strongly on time scales of tens of microseconds, illustrating that the scattering process is essentially stochastic. On longer timescales (> milliseconds, more than 90 % of the recorded events show an average polarization signature that is independent of meteor direction of arrival and echo strength and equal to that of an incoherent-scatter return from underdense plasma filling the tristatic observation volume. This shows that the head echo plasma targets scatter isotropically, which in turn implies that they are much smaller than the 33-cm wavelength and close to spherically symmetric, in very good agreement with results from a previous EISCAT UHF study of the head echo RCS/meteor angle-of-incidence relationship. Significant polarization is present in only three events with unique target trajectories. These all show a larger effective target cross section transverse to the trajectory than parallel to it. We propose that the observed polarization may be a signature of a transverse charge separation plasma resonance in the region immediately behind the meteor head, similar to the resonance effects previously discussed in connection with meteor trail echoes by Herlofson, Billam and Browne, Jones and Jones and others.

  4. Separation of silicon carbide-coated fertile and fissile particles by gas classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1976-07-01

    The separation of 235 U and 233 U in the reprocessing of HTGR fuels is a key feature of the feed-breed fuel cycle concept. This is attained in the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reactor by coating the fissile (Th- 235 U) particles and the fertile (Th- 233 U) particles separately with silicon carbide (SiC) layers to contain the fission products and to protect the kernels from burning in the head-end reprocessing steps. Pneumatic (gas) classification based on size and density differences is the reference process for separating the SiC-coated particles into fissile and fertile streams for subsequent handling. Terminal velocities have been calculated for the +- 2 sigma ranges of particle sizes and densities for ''Fissile B''--''Fertile A'' particles used in the FSV reactor. Because of overlapping particle fractions, a continuous pneumatic separator appears infeasible; however, a batch separation process can be envisioned. Changing the gas from air to CO 2 and/or the temperature to 300 0 C results in less than 10 percent change in calculated terminal velocities. Recently reported work in gas classification is discussed in light of the theoretical calculations. The pneumatic separation of fissile and fertile particles needs more study, specifically with regard to (1) measuring the recoveries and separation efficiencies of actual fissile and fertile fractions in the tests of the pneumatic classifiers; and (2) improving the contactor design or flowsheet to avoid apparent flow separation or flooding problems at the feed point when using the feed rates required for the pilot plant

  5. Self-motion perception and vestibulo-ocular reflex during whole body yaw rotation in standing subjects: the role of head position and neck proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Kyriakareli, Artemis; Schieppati, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2011-04-01

    Self-motion perception and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were studied during whole body yaw rotation in the dark at different static head positions. Rotations consisted of four cycles of symmetric sinusoidal and asymmetric oscillations. Self-motion perception was evaluated by measuring the ability of subjects to manually track a static remembered target. VOR was recorded separately and the slow phase eye position (SPEP) was computed. Three different head static yaw deviations (active and passive) relative to the trunk (0°, 45° to right and 45° to left) were examined. Active head deviations had a significant effect during asymmetric oscillation: the movement perception was enhanced when the head was kept turned toward the side of body rotation and decreased in the opposite direction. Conversely, passive head deviations had no effect on movement perception. Further, vibration (100 Hz) of the neck muscles splenius capitis and sternocleidomastoideus remarkably influenced perceived rotation during asymmetric oscillation. On the other hand, SPEP of VOR was modulated by active head deviation, but was not influenced by neck muscle vibration. Through its effects on motion perception and reflex gain, head position improved gaze stability and enhanced self-motion perception in the direction of the head deviation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brush head composition, wear profile, and cleaning efficacy: an assessment of three electric brush heads using in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eva; Meyners, Michael; Markgraf, Dirk; Stoerkel, Ulrich; von Koppenfels, Roxana; Adam, Ralf; Soukup, Martin; Wehrbein, Heinrich; Erbe, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate a current store brand (SB) brush head for composition/physical characteristics, Wear Index (WI), and cleaning efficacy versus the previous SB brush head refill design (SB control) and the Oral-B Precision Clean brush head (positive control, PC). This research consisted of three parts: 1) Analytical analysis using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry to evaluate the chemical composition of the current SB brush head bristles relative to the SB control. In addition, physical parameters such as bristle count and diameter were determined. 2) Wear Index (WI) investigation to determine the Wear Index scores of in vitro-aged brush heads at four weeks (one month) and 13 weeks (three months) by a trained investigator. To "age" the brush heads, a robot system was used as a new alternative in vitro method to simulate aging by consumer use. 3) Robot testing to determine the cleaning performance of in vitro-aged brush heads, comparing one month-aged current SB brush heads with the SB control (one and three months-aged) and the PC brush heads (three months-aged) in a standardized fashion. 1) FT-IR analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the current and control SB refill brush heads is identical. In terms of physical parameters, the current SB brush head has 12% more bristles and a slightly oval brush head compared to the round brush head of the SB control. 2) Wear Index analysis showed there was no difference in the one month-aged current SB brush head versus the one month-aged SB control (1.67 vs. 1.50, p = 0.65) or versus the three months-aged PC brush head (1.67 vs. 1.50, p = 0.65). The one month-aged current SB brush head demonstrated statistically significantly less wear than the three months-aged SB control (1.67 vs. 2.67, p = 0.01). 3) Analysis of cleaning efficacy shows that the one month-aged current SB brush head had improved cleaning performance over the one month-aged SB control brush head (p < 0

  7. Antisocial personality disorder is on a continuum with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are different diagnostic constructs. It is unclear whether they are separate clinical syndromes or whether psychopathy is a severe form of ASPD. A representative sample of 496 prisoners in England and Wales was interviewed in the second phase of a survey carried out in 1997 using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis II personality disorders, and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Among those 18 years and older (n = 470), 211 (44.9%) received a diagnosis of ASPD, of whom 67 (31.8%) were classified as psychopaths, indicated by Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores of 25 and above. Symptoms of ASPD and psychopathy both demonstrated low diagnostic contrast when comparing subgroups of ASPD above and below the cutoff for psychopathy. There were no differences in demography, Axis I comorbidity, and treatment-seeking behavior. Psychopathic individuals with ASPD demonstrated comorbid schizoid and narcissistic personality disorder, more severe conduct disorder and adult antisocial symptoms, and more violent convictions. Psychopathy and ASPD are not separate diagnostic entities, but psychopathic ASPD is a more severe form than ASPD alone with greater risk of violence. Dimensional scores of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorders (other than ASPD) may be helpful in identifying this specific subgroup. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exciton Formation in Disordered Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochikhin, A.; Reznitsky, A.; Permogorov, S.

    1999-01-01

    Stationary luminescence spectra of disordered solid solutions can be accounted by the model of localized excitons. Detailed analysis of the long time decay kinetics of luminescence shows that exciton formation in these systems is in great extent due to the bimolecular reaction of separated carrie...

  9. Does a dose-response relation exist between spinal pain and temporomandibular disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englund Erling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to test whether a reciprocal dose-response relation exists between frequency/severity of spinal pain and temporomandibular disorders (TMD. Methods A total of 616 subjects with varying severity of spinal pain or no spinal pain completed a questionnaire focusing on symptoms in the jaw, head and spinal region. A subset of the population (n = 266 were sampled regardless of presence or absence of spinal pain. We used two different designs, one with frequency/severity of spinal pain, and the other, with frequency/severity of TMD symptoms as independent variable. All 616 participants were allocated to four groups, one control group without spinal pain and three spinal pain groups. The subjects in the subset were allocated to one control group without TMD symptoms and three TMD groups. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated for presence of frequent TMD symptoms in the separate spinal pain groups as well as for frequent spinal pain in the separate TMD groups. Results The analysis showed increasing ORs for TMD with increasing frequency/severity of spinal pain. We also found increasing ORs for spinal pain with increasing frequency/severity of TMD symptoms. Conclusion This study shows a reciprocal dose-response-like relationship between spinal pain and TMD. The results indicate that these two conditions may share common risk factors or that they may influence each other. Studies on the temporal sequence between spinal pain and TMD are warranted.

  10. Hoarding disorder: a new diagnosis for DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Cols, David; Frost, Randy O; Pertusa, Alberto; Clark, Lee Anna; Saxena, Sanjaya; Leckman, James F; Stein, Dan J; Matsunaga, Hisato; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2010-06-01

    This article provides a focused review of the literature on compulsive hoarding and presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. In DSM-IV-TR, hoarding is listed as one of the diagnostic criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). According to DSM-IV-TR, when hoarding is extreme, clinicians should consider a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and may diagnose both OCPD and OCD if the criteria for both are met. However, compulsive hoarding seems to frequently be independent from other neurological and psychiatric disorders, including OCD and OCPD. In this review, we first address whether hoarding should be considered a symptom of OCD and/or a criterion of OCPD. Second, we address whether compulsive hoarding should be classified as a separate disorder in DSM-V, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of doing so. Finally, we discuss where compulsive hoarding should be classified in DSM-V if included as a separate disorder. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence to recommend the creation of a new disorder, provisionally called hoarding disorder. Given the historical link between hoarding and OCD/OCPD, and the conservative approach adopted by DSM-V, it may make sense to provisionally list it as an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. An alternative to our recommendation would be to include it in an Appendix of Criteria Sets Provided for Further Study. The creation of a new diagnosis in DSM-V would likely increase public awareness, improve identification of cases, and stimulate both research and the development of specific treatments for hoarding disorder. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Is Heading in Youth Soccer Dangerous Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.

  12. Site characterization and validation - Head variations during the entire experimental period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, D.; Brightman, M.; Black, J.; Parry, S.

    1992-01-01

    The site characterization and validation project lasted for five years from 1986 to 1991. It consisted of a number of experiments within the region known as the SCV site. During this period of experimentation a monitoring system was established within the mine for the purpose of measuring the variation of head at a number of locations within and around the site. The system installed was based around a set of equipment known as a Piezomac TM system. In this system there is one central pressure transducer and each borehole interval is connected to it in turn. It can measure up to 55 separate points during each measurement 'cycle'. Monitoring points were either complete boreholes or sections of boreholes isolated by packers. In order to produce reasonable file size, data sets were screened. The results show that the SCV site was always responding to some form of hydrogeological disturbance. Many key tests were performed against changing background trends. This was particularly so of the simulated drift experiment and the large scale crosshole tests. However, some estimates of long term equilibrium heads before and after excavation of the validation drift have been made. Contoured plots of heads before and after show significant reduction of steady state heads as a result of drift excavation. Furthermore contouring the estimated long term drawdowns responding to the simulated drift experiment shows the specific influence of the H zone and the A/B zone. Overall the results of the monitoring show that the mine was a very active hydrogeological environment during the experimentation. Additionally it was often very difficult to clearly identify the causes of such disturbances. (au)

  13. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  14. The bi-directional associations between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John J.; Saha, Sukanta; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Browne, Mark Oakley; Caldas de Almeida, Jose M.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Have, Margreet ten; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Sampson, Nancy; Posada-Villa, José; Kendler, Kenneth; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective While it is now recognized that psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with an increased risk of later mental disorders, we lack a detailed understanding of the reciprocal time-lagged relationships between first onsets of PEs and mental disorders. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of PEs and 21 common DSM-IV mental disorders among 31,261 adult respondents from 18 countries. Results Temporally primary PEs were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of 8 of the 21 mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, adult separation anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, alcohol abuse), with ORs (95%CI) ranging from 1.3 (1.2–1.5; major depressive disorder) to 2.0 (1.5–2.6; bipolar disorder). In contrast, 18 of 21 primary mental disorders were significantly associated with subsequent first onset of PEs, with ORs (95% CI) ranging from 1.5 (1.0–2.1; childhood separation anxiety disorder) to 2.8 (1.0–7.8; anorexia nervosa). Conclusions While temporally primary PEs are associated with an elevated risk of several subsequent mental disorders, we found that most mental disorder are associated with an elevated risk of subsequent PEs. Further investigation of the underlying factors accounting for these time-order relationships might shed light on the etiology of PEs. PMID:26988628

  15. Transformation strain by chemical disordering in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ju

    2004-01-01

    Swelling is observed in radiation-induced amorphization of SiC, which can be attributed to both structural and chemical disordering. By first-principles calculations, an attempt is made to separate the two factors by creating complete chemical disorder with no initial structural disorder in a 64-atom supercell. By relaxing all stresses and internal forces, significant transformation strains, both hydrostatic and shear, are observed. The relaxed configurations are found to be metallic. Softening of the bulk modulus is found to correlate closely with volume expansion, regardless of whether the expansion is caused by structural or chemical disordering, or with no disorder at all. It is postulated that partial chemical disordering contributes significantly to the internal residual stresses and macroscopic swelling of amorphous SiC

  16. Parafunctional habits are associated cumulatively to painful temporomandibular disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana FERNANDES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the effect of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits, both separately and cumulatively, on the likelihood of adolescents to present painful TMD. The study was conducted on a sample of 1,094 adolescents (aged 12-14. The presence of painful TMD was assessed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, Axis I. Data on sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits (nail/pen/pencil/lip/cheek biting, resting one’s head on one’s hand, and gum chewing were researched by self-report. After adjusting for potential demographic confounders using logistic regression, each of the predictor variables (sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and parafunctional habits was significantly associated with painful TMD. In addition, the odds for painful TMD were higher in the concomitant presence of two (OR=4.6, [95%CI=2.06, 10.37] or three predictor (OR=13.7, [95%CI=5.72, 32.96] variables. These findings indicate that the presence of concomitant muscle activities during sleep and awake bruxism and parafunctional habits increases the likelihood almost linearly of adolescents to present painful TMD.

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  1. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  2. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  3. Shivering heat production and core cooling during head-in and head-out immersion in 17 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Thea; Cahill, Farrell; Kocay, Sheila; Giesbrecht, Gordon G

    2008-05-01

    Many cold-water scenarios cause the head to be partially or fully immersed (e.g., ship wreck survival, scuba diving, cold-water adventure swim racing, cold-water drowning, etc.). However, the specific effects of head cold exposure are minimally understood. This study isolated the effect of whole-head submersion in cold water on surface heat loss and body core cooling when the protective shivering mechanism was intact. Eight healthy men were studied in 17 degrees C water under four conditions: the body was either insulated or exposed, with the head either out of the water or completely submersed under the water within each insulated/exposed subcondition. Submersion of the head (7% of the body surface area) in the body-exposed condition increased total heat loss by 11% (P < 0.05). After 45 min, head-submersion increased core cooling by 343% in the body-insulated subcondition (head-out: 0.13 +/- 0.2 degree C, head-in: 0.47 +/- 0.3 degree C; P < 0.05) and by 56% in the body-exposed subcondition (head-out: 0.40 +/- 0.3 degree C and head-in: 0.73 +/- 0.6 degree C; P < 0.05). In both body-exposed and body-insulated subconditions, head submersion increased the rate of core cooling disproportionally more than the relative increase in total heat loss. This exaggerated core-cooling effect is consistent with a head cooling induced reduction of the thermal core, which could be stimulated by cooling of thermosensitive and/or trigeminal receptors in the scalp, neck, and face. These cooling effects of head submersion are not prevented by shivering heat production.

  4. Pigeons (C. livia Follow Their Head during Turning Flight: Head Stabilization Underlies the Visual Control of Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo G. Ros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Similar flight control principles operate across insect and vertebrate fliers. These principles indicate that robust solutions have evolved to meet complex behavioral challenges. Following from studies of visual and cervical feedback control of flight in insects, we investigate the role of head stabilization in providing feedback cues for controlling turning flight in pigeons. Based on previous observations that the eyes of pigeons remain at relatively fixed orientations within the head during flight, we test potential sensory control inputs derived from head and body movements during 90° aerial turns. We observe that periods of angular head stabilization alternate with rapid head repositioning movements (head saccades, and confirm that control of head motion is decoupled from aerodynamic and inertial forces acting on the bird's continuously rotating body during turning flapping flight. Visual cues inferred from head saccades correlate with changes in flight trajectory; whereas the magnitude of neck bending predicts angular changes in body position. The control of head motion to stabilize a pigeon's gaze may therefore facilitate extraction of important motion cues, in addition to offering mechanisms for controlling body and wing movements. Strong similarities between the sensory flight control of birds and insects may also inspire novel designs of robust controllers for human-engineered autonomous aerial vehicles.

  5. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  6. Identification of neuromotor deficits common to autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and imitation deficits specific to autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaldi, Monica; Rauh, Reinhold; Müller, Cora; Irion, Lisa; Saville, Christopher W N; Schulz, Eberhard; Klein, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in motor and imitation abilities are a core finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but impaired motor functions are also found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given recent theorising about potential aetiological overlap between the two disorders, the present study aimed to assess difficulties in motor performance and imitation of facial movements and meaningless gestures in a sample of 24 ADHD patients, 22 patients with ASD, and 20 typically developing children, matched for age (6-13 years) and similar in IQ (>80). Furthermore, we explored the impact of comorbid ADHD symptoms on motor and imitation performance in the ASD sample and the interrelationships between the two groups of variables in the clinical groups separately. The results show motor dysfunction was common to both disorders, but imitation deficits were specific to ASD. Together with the pattern of interrelated motor and imitation abilities, which we found exclusively in the ASD group, our findings suggest complex phenotypic, and possibly aetiological, relationships between the two neurodevelopmental conditions.

  7. The rise and fall of dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel

    2012-12-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID), once considered rare, was frequently diagnosed during the 1980s and 1990s, after which interest declined. This is the trajectory of a medical fad. DID was based on poorly conceived theories and used potentially damaging treatment methods. The problem continues, given that the DSM-5 includes DID and accords dissociative disorders a separate chapter in its manual.

  8. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  9. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  11. Social Network as predictor for onset of alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Tolstrup, Janne; Becker, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    in a prospective design. Methods: Information on social network and covariates was obtained from 9589 men and women aged 21–99 years in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, followed for registration of alcohol use disorder in the Danish National Patient Registry and the WINALCO database. Results: Men who lived alone......Objective: Social network has been linked to alcohol use disorder in several studies. However, since the majority of such findings are crosssectional, causal interpretation is difficult. The aim of the present study was to test if social network characteristics predict alcohol use disorder......, were separated or divorced or widowers had a higher risk of developing alcohol use disorder: HR among men living alone vs. men not living alone was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.59–3.27), and HR among separated/divorced men vs. married men was 2.55 (95% CI: 1.33–4.89). No such associations were found among women...

  12. Examining sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation......Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA...... of anxiety disorders, and potential sex differences in the effectiveness of different treatments. The chapter contains suggestions for future research, including important questions that remain to be answered....

  13. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  14. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury in children predictive of subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, Edward H.; Gerring, Joan P.; Davatzikos, Christos; Bryan, R. Nick

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between the spatial distributions of lesions detected at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in children, adolescents, and young adults after closed-head injury (CHI) and development of the reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained in 94 subjects without a history of PTSD as determined by parental interview were analyzed. MR images were obtained 3 months after CHI. Lesions were manually delineated and registered to the Talairach coordinate system. Mann-Whitney analysis of lesion distribution and PTSD status at 1 year (again, as determined by parental interview) was performed, consisting of an analysis of lesion distribution versus the major symptoms of PTSD: reexperiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance. RESULTS: Of the 94 subjects, 41 met the PTSD reexperiencing criterion and nine met all three PTSD criteria. Subjects who met the reexperiencing criterion had fewer lesions in limbic system structures (eg, the cingulum) on the right than did subjects who did not meet this criterion (Mann-Whitney, P =.003). CONCLUSION: Lesions induced by CHI in the limbic system on the right may inhibit subsequent manifestation of PTSD reexperiencing symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults. Copyright RSNA, 2002.

  15. Disordered multihyperuniformity derived from binary plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Enrique; Weis, Jean-Jacques; Torquato, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Disordered multihyperuniform many-particle systems are exotic amorphous states that allow exquisite color sensing capabilities due to their anomalous suppression of density fluctuations for distinct subsets of particles, as recently evidenced in photoreceptor mosaics in avian retina. Motivated by this biological finding, we present a statistical-mechanical model that rigorously achieves disordered multihyperuniform many-body systems by tuning interactions in binary mixtures of nonadditive hard-disk plasmas. We demonstrate that multihyperuniformity competes with phase separation and stabilizes a clustered phase. Our work provides a systematic means to generate disordered multihyperuniform solids, and hence lays the groundwork to explore their potentially unique photonic, phononic, electronic, and transport properties.

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchack, Kristian E; Thomas, Craig A

    2016-12-15

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills. Therefore, early identification of autism spectrum disorder is important, and experts recommend the use of a validated screening tool at 18- and 24-month well-child visits. Medications can be used as adjunctive treatment for maladaptive behaviors and comorbid psychiatric conditions, but there is no single medical therapy that is effective for all symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Prognosis is heavily affected by the severity of diagnosis and the presence of intellectual disability. Children with optimal outcomes receive earlier, more intensive behavioral interventions and less pharmacologic treatment.

  17. Multi-headed comparatives in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marques

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering a global picture of the subtype of comparative constructions known as ‘multi-headed comparatives’ (from the fact that they exhibit more than one comparative operator in semantic interdependence. As a prerequisite to the fulfilment of his goal, an attempt will be made to clarify the scope of the notion ‘comparative construction’ and to draw a general typology of such constructions. The boundaries of the notion ‘comparative construction’ are defined by contrasting a “genuine” class of comparative constructions with others that hold some syntactic or semantic resemblance to them. Different typologies will be taken into consideration. As for multi-headed comparatives, even though different examples of these constructions have been identified in the scarce literature on the matter, the discussion on their syntactic patterns and meaning is still embryonic. This paper suggests that the expressive power of these comparatives, which seem to provide a particular strategy of information compression, is higher than has been assumed. Four sub-kinds of multi-headed comparatives are identified, based on meaning differences, namely: multi-headed comparatives with a distributive reading, multi-headed comparatives with a cumulative reading, multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of ‘ratios’ reading, and multi-headed comparatives with a comparison of differences reading. While resorting to some classic English examples, the object language will predominantly be Portuguese.

  18. Clinical efficacy and safety of fluoxetine in generalized anxiety disorder in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou C

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chuan Zou,1 Xiang Ding,1 Joseph H Flaherty,2 Birong Dong1 1The Center of Gerontology and Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China; 2St Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a prevalent, disabling disease and is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders both in Western countries and the People's Republic of China. Fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake (SSRI, is widely utilized in the management of GAD in clinical practice despite the lack of strong evidence. This article reviews fluoxetine trials to investigate fluoxetine's efficacy and tolerability in Chinese patients with GAD. Methods: A literature review was conducted using the following databases up to and including April 2013: Chinese BioMedical Literature, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. We selected clinical studies that utilized fluoxetine for GAD in which all participants were Chinese. Results: Fifteen open-label, non-placebo trials were identified and analyzed; eleven anxiolytics were compared with fluoxetine separately. Short-term efficacy of fluoxetine had been established in these open-label, head-to-head controlled trials. Fluoxetine had rapid onset of action (approximately 1–2 weeks and seemed to be effective in maintenance treatment. Fluoxetine was generally well-tolerated with the most common side effect of dry month and nausea. Compared to other anxiolytic agents, fluoxetine was equivalent with all of the comparative anxiolytics in terms of efficacy except mirtazapine which showed conflicting results with fluoxetine in two studies. In terms of side effects, fluoxetine was better tolerated than diazepam, doxepine, and amitriptyline, less tolerated than escitalopram, and had similar tolerability with duloxetine as well as alprazolam. Conclusion: Given the high risk of bias of the included studies, the overall small sample

  19. A Twin Study of Normative Personality and DSM-IV Personality Disorder Criterion Counts: Evidence for Separate Genetic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Nikolai; Aggen, Steven H; Krueger, Robert F; Kendler, Kenneth S; Neale, Michael C; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Gillespie, Nathan A; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2018-03-21

    Both normative personality and DSM-IV personality disorders have been found to be heritable. However, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which the genetic and environmental influences underlying DSM personality disorders are shared with those of normative personality. The aims of this study were to assess the phenotypic similarity between normative and pathological personality and to investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences underlying individual differences in normative personality account for symptom variance across DSM-IV personality disorders. A large population-based sample of adult twins was assessed for DSM-IV personality disorder criteria with structured interviews at two waves spanning a 10-year interval. At the second assessment, participants also completed the Big Five Inventory, a self-report instrument assessing the five-factor normative personality model. The proportion of genetic and environmental liabilities unique to the individual personality disorder measures, and hence not shared with the five Big Five Inventory domains, were estimated by means of multivariate Cholesky twin decompositions. The median percentage of genetic liability to the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders assessed at wave 1 that was not shared with the Big Five domains was 64%, whereas for the six personality disorders that were assessed concurrently at wave 2, the median was 39%. Conversely, the median proportions of unique environmental liability in the personality disorders for wave 1 and wave 2 were 97% and 96%, respectively. The results indicate that a moderate-to-sizable proportion of the genetic influence underlying DSM-IV personality disorders is not shared with the domain constructs of the Big Five model of normative personality. Caution should be exercised in assuming that normative personality measures can serve as proxies for DSM personality disorders when investigating the etiology of these disorders.

  20. [Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection and pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tadahiro; Yasuda, Hideki; Nagashima, Ikuo; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshiada, Masahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki

    2003-06-01

    A duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) was first reported by Beger et al. in 1980. However, its application has been limited to chronic pancreatitis because of it is a subtotal pancreatic head resection. In 1990, we reported duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection (DPTPHR) in 26 cases. This opened the way for total pancreatic head resection, expanding the application of this approach to tumorigenic morbidities such as intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IMPT), other benign tumors, and small pancreatic cancers. On the other hand, Nakao et al. reported pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenectomy (PHRSD) as an alternative pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy technique in 24 cases. Hirata et al. also reported this technique as a new pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenostomy with increased vessel preservation. When performing DPTPHR, the surgeon should ensure adequate duodenal blood supply. Avoidance of duodenal ischemia is very important in this operation, and thus it is necessary to maintain blood flow in the posterior pancreatoduodenal artery and to preserve the mesoduodenal vessels. Postoperative pancreatic functional tests reveal that DPTPHR is superior to PPPD, including PHSRD, because the entire duodenum and duodenal integrity is very important for postoperative pancreatic function.

  1. Validation and calibration of HeadCount, a self-report measure for quantifying heading exposure in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenaccio, E; Caccese, J; Wakschlag, N; Fleysher, R; Kim, N; Kim, M; Buckley, T A; Stewart, W F; Lipton, R B; Kaminski, T; Lipton, M L

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of repetitive head impacts due to heading are an area of increasing concern, and exposure must be accurately measured; however, the validity of self-report of cumulative soccer heading is not known. In order to validate HeadCount, a 2-week recall questionnaire, the number of player-reported headers was compared to the number of headers observed by trained raters for a men's and a women's collegiate soccer teams during an entire season of competitive play using Spearman's correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and calibrated using a generalized estimating equation. The average Spearman's rho was 0.85 for men and 0.79 for women. The average ICC was 0.75 in men and 0.38 in women. The calibration analysis demonstrated that men tend to report heading accurately while women tend to overestimate. HeadCount is a valid instrument for tracking heading behaviour, but may have to be calibrated in women.

  2. Neuroanatomy of conversion disorder: towards a network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Ismael; Thouvenot, Eric; Abbar, Mocrane; Mouchabac, Stéphane; Courtet, Philippe; Olié, Emilie

    2018-06-27

    The pathophysiology of conversion disorder is not well understood, although studies using functional brain imaging in patients with motor and sensory symptoms are progressively increasing. We conducted a systematic review of the literature with the aim of summarising the available data on the neuroanatomical features of this disorder. We also propose a general model of the neurobiological disturbance in motor conversion disorder. We systematically searched articles in Medline using the Medical Subject Headings terms '(conversion disorder or hysterical motor disorder) and (neuropsychology or cognition) or (functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography or neuroimaging) or (genetics or polymorphisms or epigenetics) or (biomarkers or biology)', following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Two authors independently reviewed the retrieved records and abstracts, assessed the exhaustiveness of data abstraction, and confirmed the quality rating. Analysis of the available literature data shows that multiple specialised brain networks (self-agency, action monitoring, salience system, and memory suppression) influence action selection and modulate supplementary motor area activation. Some findings suggest that conceptualisation of movement and motor intention is preserved in patients with limb weakness. More studies are needed to fully understand the brain alterations in conversion disorders and pave the way for the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  3. Nonverbal synchrony of head- and body-movement in psychotherapy: different signals have different associations with outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eRamseyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The coordination of patient’s and therapist’s bodily movement – nonverbal synchrony – has been empirically shown to be associated with psychotherapy outcome. This finding was based on dynamic movement patterns of the whole body. The present paper is a new analysis of an existing dataset (Ramseyer & Tschacher, 2011, which extends previous findings by differentiating movements pertaining to head and upper-body regions. Method: In a sample of 70 patients (37 female, 33 male treated at an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, we quantified nonverbal synchrony with an automated objective video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Head- and body-synchrony was quantified during the initial 15 minutes of video-recorded therapy sessions. Micro-outcome was assessed with self-report post-session questionnaires provided by patients and their therapists. Macro-outcome was measured with questionnaires that quantified attainment of treatment goals and changes in experiencing and behavior at the end of therapy. Results: The differentiation of head- and body-synchrony showed that these two facets of motor coordination were differentially associated with outcome. Head-synchrony predicted global outcome of therapy, while body-synchrony did not, and body-synchrony predicted session outcome, while head-synchrony did not. Conclusions: The results pose an important amendment to previous findings, which showed that nonverbal synchrony embodied both outcome and interpersonal variables of psychotherapy dyads. The separation of head- and body-synchrony suggested that distinct mechanisms may operate in these two regions: Head-synchrony embodied phenomena with a long temporal extension (overall therapy success, while body-synchrony embodied phenomena of a more immediate nature (session-level success. More explorations with fine-grained analyses of synchronized phenomena in nonverbal behavior may shed additional light on the embodiment of

  4. Medical Treatment for Burn Patients with Eating Disorders: A Case Report

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    Minekatsu Akimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many cases of burn patients who also suffer from psychiatric problems, including eating disorders. We present a case of a 38-year-old female with an eating disorder and depression who became light-headed and fell, spilling boiling water from a kettle on herself at home sustaining partial thickness and full thickness burns over 5% of her total body surface area: left buttock and right thigh and calf. Eating disorders (in the present case, anorexia nervosa cause emaciation and malnutrition, and consent for hospitalization from the patient and/or family is often difficult. During the medical treatment of burns for these patients, consideration not only of physical symptoms caused by malnutrition but also the psychiatric issues is required. Therefore, multifaceted and complex care must be given to burn patients with eating disorders.

  5. Antisite-disorder driven large exchange bias effect in phase separated La{sub 1.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} double perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, R.C.; Paladhi, D. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dasgupta, Papri; Poddar, A. [Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, West Bengal (India); Singh, Ripandeep; Das, A. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nath, T.K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Investigations of structural and magnetic properties of polycrystalline hole doped double perovskite La{sub 1.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} has clearly revealed the existence of structural antisite-disorder (either, Co–O–Co or Mn–O–Mn) in the system. The ordering of Co{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} gives rise to a ferromagnetic transition around 157 K. A spin-canted antiferromagnetic transition is found in this material at T{sub CAFM} ~9 K. The effect of antisite-disorder in the double perovskite structure is most likely the prime reason for antiferromagnetic interaction. The temperature dependent inverse susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss like behaviour and it yields an effective paramagnetic moment of 6.49 μ{sub B}. At very low temperature (Tdisordered La{sub 1.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CoMnO{sub 6} mainly on the basis of uncompensated interface spins. - Highlights: • Large exchange bias (EB) effect has been observed in 25% Ca doped La{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6} antisite-disordered system. • Neutron powder diffraction analysis clearly suggested canted antiferromagnetic spin ordering at low temperature in our phase separated system. • A phenomenological model has been proposed for experimental results. • The results may be useful to acquire enough information about exchange biased interfaces for various magnetic device applications.

  6. Characterizing Heterogeneity within Head and Neck Lesions Using Cluster Analysis of Multi-Parametric MRI Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Borri

    Full Text Available To describe a methodology, based on cluster analysis, to partition multi-parametric functional imaging data into groups (or clusters of similar functional characteristics, with the aim of characterizing functional heterogeneity within head and neck tumour volumes. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach on a set of longitudinal MRI data, analysing the evolution of the obtained sub-sets with treatment.The cluster analysis workflow was applied to a combination of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted imaging MRI data from a cohort of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck patients. Cumulative distributions of voxels, containing pre and post-treatment data and including both primary tumours and lymph nodes, were partitioned into k clusters (k = 2, 3 or 4. Principal component analysis and cluster validation were employed to investigate data composition and to independently determine the optimal number of clusters. The evolution of the resulting sub-regions with induction chemotherapy treatment was assessed relative to the number of clusters.The clustering algorithm was able to separate clusters which significantly reduced in voxel number following induction chemotherapy from clusters with a non-significant reduction. Partitioning with the optimal number of clusters (k = 4, determined with cluster validation, produced the best separation between reducing and non-reducing clusters.The proposed methodology was able to identify tumour sub-regions with distinct functional properties, independently separating clusters which were affected differently by treatment. This work demonstrates that unsupervised cluster analysis, with no prior knowledge of the data, can be employed to provide a multi-parametric characterization of functional heterogeneity within tumour volumes.

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: poorer prognosis than non-head and neck sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, G B; Madana, J; Da Silva, S D; Hier, M P; Mlynarek, A M; Black, M J

    2016-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neurocutaneous malignancy. This study investigated whether patients with Merkel cell carcinoma in the head and neck had poorer outcomes than patients with Merkel cell carcinoma located elsewhere. A retrospective study was performed of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Jewish General Hospital in Montréal, Canada, from 1993 to 2013. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics and disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were examined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-seven patients were identified. Although basic clinicopathological characteristics and treatments were similar between head and neck and non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma groups, disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were significantly lower in the head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma group (log-rank test; p = 0.043 and p = 0.001, respectively). Mortality was mainly due to distant metastasis. Patients with head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma had poorer survival rates than patients with non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma in our study. The tendency to obtain close margins, a less predictable metastatic pattern, and/or intrinsic tumour factors related to the head and neck may explain this discrepancy.

  8. Binge Eating Disorder and Its Relationship to Bulimia Nervosa and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    LaCaille, Lara Schultz

    2002-01-01

    Recent research indicates that 2% to 4% of the population meet diagnostic criteria for the newly proposed binge eating disorder, and that it is much more common (30%) among the treatment-seeking obese. Although recognized as a significant problem, binge eating disorder is l1l not well understood, and there is debate about whether binge eating disorder is a distinct disorder. It has been argued that binge eating disorder is simply a variant or milder form of bulimia nervosa and not a separate ...

  9. Sub-dimensions of social-communication impairment in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Somer L.; Havdahl, Karoline Alexandra; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More refined dimensions of social-communication impairment are needed to elucidate the clinical and biological boundaries of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood onset psychiatric disorders associated with social difficulties, as well as to facilitate investigations in treatment and long-term outcomes of these disorders.METHODS: This study was intended to identify separable dimensions of clinician-observed social-communication impairments by examining scores on a wi...

  10. Anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in preschool children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Frank W; Backes, Aline; Sander, Charlotte S; Weber, Monika; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in preschool children and their associations with behavioral inhibition as a temperamental precursor. A representative sample of 1,342 children aged 4–7 years (M = 6;1, SD = 4.80) was examined with a standardized parental questionnaire, including items referring to anxiety disorders at the current age and behavioral inhibition at the age of 2 years. The total prevalence of anxiety disorders was 22.2 %. Separation anxiety (SAD) affected 7 %, social phobia (SOC) 10.7 %, specific phobia (PHOB) 9.8 % and depression/generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD) 3.4 % of children. The prevalence of most types of anxiety was higher in girls except for separation anxiety, which affected more boys. Behavioral inhibition in the second year of life was associated with all types of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are common but frequently overlooked in preschool children. Different subtypes can be differentiated and are often preceded by behavioral inhibition. Assessment, prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders are recommended in preschool children.

  11. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Tomoyuki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo): head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  12. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Matoba

    Full Text Available Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo: head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  13. A comparative study of radionuclide bone scan, X-ray and MRI on early femoral head necrosis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jihua; Ji Qinglian; Xu Aide; Zuo Shuyao; Gao Zhenhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize radionuclide bone scan signs in the early femoral head necrosis (FHN) in adults, to compare them with MRI and X-ray findings and to discuss the pathological basis of radionuclide bone scan findings from the view of MRI. Methods: Forty cases (63 hips) with early FHN in adult patients proved by follow-up studies or pathology were analyzed. All patients underwent radionuclide bone scan, MRI and X-ray examination within a period of less than 7 d separately. Results: 1) Radionuclide bone scan manifestations of the early FHN corresponding to different MRI signs included: focally decreased uptake of radioisotope, focally increased uptake, atypical or typical doughnut sign, mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or femoral neck, and diffused increase of uptake in the whole head. 2) In 40 cases (63 hips), there was statistical difference in diagnosis early FHN in adults not only between radionuclide bone scan and X-ray but also between MRI and X-ray in sensitivity (P 0.05). Conclusions: 1) The atypical or typical doughnut sign and mildly increased uptake in the superior part of femoral head with band-like region of obviously increased uptake in inferior part of femoral head or neck are specific signs for diagnosing early FHN. 2) For sensitivity, radionuclide bone scan and MRI are equally superior to X-ray. (authors)

  14. Knowledge and application of correct car seat head restraint usage among chiropractic college interns: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John Am; Burke, Jeanmarie; Gavencak, John; Panwar, Pervinder

    2005-03-01

    Cervical spine injuries sustained in rear-end crashes cost at least $7 billion in insurance claims annually in the United States alone. When positioned correctly, head restraint systems have been proven effective in reducing the risk of whiplash associated disorders. Chiropractors should be knowledgeable about the correct use of head restraint systems to educate their patients and thereby prevent or minimize such injuries. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of correct positioning of car seat head restraints among the interns at our institution. The secondary objective was to determine the same chiropractic interns' knowledge of the correct positioning of car seat head restraints. It was hypothesized that 100 percent of interns would have their head restraint correctly positioned within an acceptable range and that all interns would possess the knowledge to instruct patients in the correct positioning of head restraints. Cross-sectional study of a convenient sample of 30 chiropractic interns from one institution. Interns driving into the parking lot of our health center were asked to volunteer to have measurements taken and to complete a survey. Vertical and horizontal positions of the head restraint were measured using a beam compass. A survey was administered to determine knowledge of correct head restraint position. The results were recorded, entered into a spreadsheet, and analyzed. 13.3 percent of subjects knew the recommended vertical distance and only 20 percent of subjects knew the recommended horizontal distance. Chi Square analyses substantiated that the majority of subjects were unaware of guidelines set forth by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the correct positioning of the head restraint (chi(2) (vertical) = 16.13, chi(2) (horizontal) = 10.80, p .05). Interestingly, the 13.3 percent of the subjects who were aware of the vertical plane recommendations did not correctly position their own

  15. Investigations of internal turbulent flows in a low-head tubular pump and its performance predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, X L; Chen, X S; Wang, F J; Yang, W; Wu, Y L

    2012-01-01

    Based on the RANS equations, standard k−ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm, the internal turbulent flows in a low-head tubular pump were simulated by using the FLUENT software. Based on the predicted flow fields, the external performance curves including the head-discharge, efficiency-discharge and power-discharge curves were further obtained. The calculated results indicate that the internal flow pattern is smooth at the best efficiency point (BEP). When it works under off-design operating cases, the flow pattern inside the diffuser and the discharge passage is disorder, and at the same time, the hydraulic losses mainly come from the secondary flows. At large flow rates, the minimum static pressure near the inlet of the blade pressure surfaces due to the negative attack angle. At small flow rates, the minimum value happens near the inlet of the suction surfaces. At the BEP, the lowest static pressure appears in the region behind the suction surfaces inlet. The newly-designed model is validated by the comparisons between its predicted external performance and the experimental data of the JGM-3 model. This research provides some important references for the optimization of a low-head tubular pump.

  16. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  17. Subdimensions of social-communication impairment in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L; Havdahl, Karoline Alexandra; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    More refined dimensions of social-communication impairment are needed to elucidate the clinical and biological boundaries of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood onset psychiatric disorders associated with social difficulties, as well as to facilitate investigations in treatment and long-term outcomes of these disorders. This study was intended to identify separable dimensions of clinician-observed social-communication impairments by examining scores on a widely used autism diagnostic instrument. Participants included verbally fluent children ages 3-13 years, who were given a clinical diagnosis of ASD (n = 120) or non-ASD (i.e. ADHD, language disorder, intellectual disability, mood or anxiety disorder; n = 118) following a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis examined the factor structure of algorithm items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), Module 3. Results indicated that a three-factor model consisting of repetitive behaviors and two separate social-communication behavior factors had superior fit compared to a two-factor model that included repetitive behaviors and one social-communication behavior factor. In the three-factor model, impairments in 'Basic Social-Communication' behaviors (e.g. eye contact, facial expressions, gestures) were separated from impairments in 'Interaction quality.' Confirmatory factor analysis in an independent sample of children in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) further supported the division of social-communication impairments into these two factors. Scores in Interaction Quality were significantly associated with nonverbal IQ and male sex in the ASD group, and with age in the non-ASD group, while scores in basic social communication were not significantly associated with any of these child characteristics in either diagnostic group. Efforts to conceptualize level, or severity, of social-communication impairment in children with

  18. Systematic biases in human heading estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F Cuturi

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is vital to everyday navigation and locomotion. Despite extensive behavioral and physiological research on both visual and vestibular heading estimation over more than two decades, the accuracy of heading estimation has not yet been systematically evaluated. Therefore human visual and vestibular heading estimation was assessed in the horizontal plane using a motion platform and stereo visual display. Heading angle was overestimated during forward movements and underestimated during backward movements in response to both visual and vestibular stimuli, indicating an overall multimodal bias toward lateral directions. Lateral biases are consistent with the overrepresentation of lateral preferred directions observed in neural populations that carry visual and vestibular heading information, including MSTd and otolith afferent populations. Due to this overrepresentation, population vector decoding yields patterns of bias remarkably similar to those observed behaviorally. Lateral biases are inconsistent with standard bayesian accounts which predict that estimates should be biased toward the most common straight forward heading direction. Nevertheless, lateral biases may be functionally relevant. They effectively constitute a perceptual scale expansion around straight ahead which could allow for more precise estimation and provide a high gain feedback signal to facilitate maintenance of straight-forward heading during everyday navigation and locomotion.

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  20. Modular to Monoblock: Difficulties of Detaching the M(2)a-Magnum(TM) Head Are Common in Metal-on-metal Revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntymäki, Heikki; Mäkelä, Keijo T; Vahlberg, Tero; Hirviniemi, Joni; Niinimäki, Tuukka

    2016-09-01

    Modern hip implants typically feature modular heads, which allow for easy exchange and removal from the femoral stem at the time of revision. However, owing to fretting, corrosion, or cold welding, the modular head may be difficult or impossible to separate from the underlying trunnion, especially if the implant has titanium interfaces between the head and the stem. We have repeatedly encountered difficulty removing the titanium sleeve adapter in the M(2)a-Magnum(TM) implant. Although the manufacturer warns about this complication and cases with these difficulties have been reported to the United States FDA, we believed this topic is important to study, because the frequency of difficulties in head removal is unknown and the complications related to this event have not been characterized. We asked: (1) Do revisions of M(2)a-Magnum(TM) implants differ from those of M(2)a-38(TM) implants in terms of ease of removal of the femoral head? (2) In cases where difficulty with M(2)a-Magnum(TM) head removal occurred, was the operative time, bleeding, risk of periprosthetic fracture, or joint infection increased compared with cases where the M(2)a-Magnum(TM) head was removed without difficulties? Between 2004 and 2014, we revised 296 THAs with metal-on-metal implants that involved M(2)a-Magnum(TM) (123) or M(2)a-38(TM) heads (88); of those, 84 were planned to include a femoral stem revision and insufficient data were available for three operations, so they were excluded from this analysis, leaving 124 THAs in the current retrospective study (70 THAs with M(2)a-Magnum(TM) and 54 THAs with M(2)a-38(TM) heads).The method of modular head removal, any difficulties removing the femoral head from the trunnion, operation time, and complications were recorded based on chart review. All the observed problems of detaching the head or taper adapter were among M(2)a-Magnum(TM) heads; there were no problems detaching the head in revisions of the M(2)a-38(TM) implant. In 29% (20 of 70) of

  1. Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Cooper, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are extremely common and are often associated with lifelong psychiatric disturbance. Consistent with DSM-5 and the extant literature, this review concerns the assessment and treatment of specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. Evidence-based psychological treatments (cognitive behaviour therapy; CBT) for these disorders have been developed and investigated, and in recent years promising low-intensity versions of CBT interventions have been proposed that offer a means to increase access to evidence-based treatments. There is some evidence of effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people, however, routine prescription is not recommended due to concerns about potential harm.

  2. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womersley Jacqueline S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1 in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100 was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of

  3. Head-up and head-down displays integration in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    In automotive industry, the dashboard has been ergonomically developed in order to keep the driver focused on the horizon while driving, but the possibility to access external electronic devices constraints the driver to turn away his face, generating dangerous situations in spite of the short periods of time. Therefore, this work explores the integration of Head-Up Displays and Head-Down Displays in automobiles, proposing configurations that give to drivers the facility to driving focused. In this way, some of the main ergonomic comments about those configurations are proposed; and also, some technical comments regarding the implemented arrangements are given.

  4. An Investigation of the Manifestations of Nose, Sinus, Larynx, Head, and Neck among the Elderly Population in Rural Areas of Rasht City, Iran (2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Banan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Given the growing elderly population in the country, significant proportion of chronic diseases in this group, and necessity of investigation on aspects of the elderly health in order to prevent disability and reduce the complications of diseases in them, this study was conducted to determine the manifestations of nose, sinus, larynx, head, and neck among the elderly over 60 years in the rural areas around Rasht City. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 35 villages of were randomly selected Rasht city from, and 413 elderly subjects randomly entered the study. After obtaining a written informed consent, the elderly were examined by general practitioners and an otolaryngologist.   Results: A total of 413 subjects [195 (47.20% females and 218 (52.80% males] with the mean age of 73.47±7.04 participated in this study. The most common sinonasal disorder was septal deviation (60.68%. Other sinonasal disorders were mucosa paleness (18.23%, stuffy nose feeling (12.83%, hyposmia (12.10%, anosmia (3.14% and nasal polyposis (1.43%. The most common oral disorder was dental problems (88.90%. Other common disorders of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx included dry mouth (46.73%, dysphagia (24.21%, snoring (40.19%, inflamed mucosa (14.50%, and the most common neck disorder was thyroid enlargement (2.56%. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the prevalence of nose, sinus, larynx, head, and neck disorders is significant among the elderly population of Guilan.  

  5. Varus femoral osteotomy improves sphericity of the femoral head in older children with severe form of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Terje; Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein

    2012-09-01

    In the Norwegian prospective study on Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD), we found varus femoral osteotomy gave better femoral head sphericity at a mean of 5 years postoperative than physiotherapy in children older than 6.0 years at diagnosis with femoral head necrosis of more than 50%. That study did not include separate analyses for hips with 100% necrosis and those with a percentage of necrosis between 50% and 100%. We asked whether (1) femoral osteotomy improves femoral head sphericity at followup in all patients with more than 50% femoral head necrosis or in selected groups only and (2) there is a critical age between 6.0 and 10.0 years over which femoral osteotomy does not improve the prognosis. We treated 70 patients with unilateral LCPD, age at diagnosis of more than 6.0 years, and femoral head necrosis of more than 50% with varus femoral osteotomy between 1996 and 2000. We classified necrosis using the Catterall classification. We established a control group of 51 similar children who received physiotherapy. At the 5-year followup visit, the hips were graded according to femoral head shape: spherical, ovoid, or flat. At 5-year followup, there was no difference between the treatment groups in radiographic outcome in Catterall Group 3 hips. In Catterall Group 4 hips, femoral head sphericity was better in the osteotomy group, with flat femoral heads in 14% compared to 75% after physiotherapy. The same trend toward better head sphericity occurred when the lateral pillar classification was used. In children aged 6.0 to 10.0 years, in whom the whole femoral head is affected, femoral head sphericity 5 years after femoral osteotomy was better than that after physiotherapy.

  6. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogne, Janet A

    2017-08-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in the United States, believed to affect an estimated 2.8 million adults. In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, BED was recognized as a separate diagnosis. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of BED including assessment, diagnosis, and current pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options. Implications for nursing are also addressed. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(8), 32-38.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts: relationships to bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter R; Light, Katrina J; Rowe, Sarah L; Cloninger, C Robert; Kennedy, Martin A

    2010-03-01

    Self-mutilation has traditionally been associated with borderline personality disorder, and seldom examined separately from suicide attempts. Clinical experience suggests that self-mutilation is common in bipolar disorder. A family study was conducted on the molecular genetics of depression and personality, in which the proband had been treated for depression. All probands and parents or siblings were interviewed with a structured interview and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. Fourteen per cent of subjects interviewed reported a history of self-mutilation, mostly by wrist cutting. Self-mutilation was more common in bipolar I disorder subjects then in any other diagnostic groups. In multiple logistic regression self-mutilation was predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance, but not by borderline personality disorder. Furthermore, the relatives of non-bipolar depressed probands with self-mutilation had higher rates of bipolar I or II disorder and higher rates of self-mutilation. Sixteen per cent of subjects reported suicide attempts and these were most common in those with bipolar I disorder and in those with borderline personality disorder. On multiple logistic regression, however, only mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance predicted suicide attempts. Suicide attempts, unlike self-mutilation, were not familial. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts are only partially overlapping behaviours, although both are predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance. Self-mutilation has a particularly strong association with bipolar disorder. Clinicians need to think of bipolar disorder, not borderline personality disorder, when assessing an individual who has a history of self-mutilation.

  8. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  9. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  10. Blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults according to age. Measurement with positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Toshikazu; Kimori, Kokuto; Nakamura, Fuminori; Inoue, Shigehiro; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Hirasawa, Yasusuke; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2001-01-01

    To deepen understanding of hemodynamics in the femoral head, i.e., the essential factor in clarifying pathogenesis of hip disorders, this study examined blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults, and their changes with age, by using positron emission tomography (PET). In 16 healthy adult males (age: 20-78 years old, mean age: 42 years), blood flow was measured by means of the H 2 15 O dynamic study method, and blood volume was measured by means of the 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide bolus inhalation method. Blood flow was 1.68-6.47 ml/min/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.52±1.2), and blood volume was 1.67-6.03 ml/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.00±1.27). Blood flow significantly decreased (p<0.01) with age, and blood volume significantly increased (P<0.05). PET was useful in the measurement of blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads. With age, physiological hemodynamic changes also increased in femoral heads. (author)

  11. A simple rapid process for semi-automated brain extraction from magnetic resonance images of the whole mouse head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delora, Adam; Gonzales, Aaron; Medina, Christopher S; Mitchell, Adam; Mohed, Abdul Faheem; Jacobs, Russell E; Bearer, Elaine L

    2016-01-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-developed technique in neuroscience. Limitations in applying MRI to rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders include the large number of animals required to achieve statistical significance, and the paucity of automation tools for the critical early step in processing, brain extraction, which prepares brain images for alignment and voxel-wise statistics. This novel timesaving automation of template-based brain extraction ("skull-stripping") is capable of quickly and reliably extracting the brain from large numbers of whole head images in a single step. The method is simple to install and requires minimal user interaction. This method is equally applicable to different types of MR images. Results were evaluated with Dice and Jacquard similarity indices and compared in 3D surface projections with other stripping approaches. Statistical comparisons demonstrate that individual variation of brain volumes are preserved. A downloadable software package not otherwise available for extraction of brains from whole head images is included here. This software tool increases speed, can be used with an atlas or a template from within the dataset, and produces masks that need little further refinement. Our new automation can be applied to any MR dataset, since the starting point is a template mask generated specifically for that dataset. The method reliably and rapidly extracts brain images from whole head images, rendering them useable for subsequent analytical processing. This software tool will accelerate the exploitation of mouse models for the investigation of human brain disorders by MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, D C; van Zelst, W H; Schoevers, R A; Comijs, H C; Voshaar, R C Oude

    2015-07-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking previously examined determinants into account. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.0), we established comorbid anxiety disorders (social phobia (SP), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and agoraphobia (AGO)) in 350 patients (aged ≥60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria within the past six months. Adjusted for age, sex, and level of education, we first examined previously identified determinants of anxious depression: depression severity, suicidality, partner status, loneliness, chronic diseases, and gait speed in multiple logistic regression models. Subsequently, associations were explored with the big five personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events. First, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the presence of any anxiety disorder (yes/no) as dependent variable, where after analyses were repeated for each anxiety disorder, separately. In our sample, the prevalence rate of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression was 38.6%. Determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders were a lower age, female sex, less education, higher depression severity, early traumatization, neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Nonetheless, determinants differed across the specific anxiety disorders and lumping all anxiety disorder together masked some determinants (education, personality). Our findings stress the need to examine determinants of comorbid anxiety disorder for specific anxiety disorders separately, enabling the development of targeted interventions within subgroups of depressed patients.

  13. Analysis of femur head microstructure in ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C. B. V.; Nogueira, L. P.; Salata, C.; da Silva, C. M.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; de Almeida, C. E.; Almeida, A. P.; Colaço, M. V.; Alessio, R. C. P. V.; Braz, D.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2013-07-01

    It is well accepted that rat ovariectomy (OVX) is a model of estrogen deficiency. OVX played a very important role in the initiating and developing of osteoporosis and it has been shown to be a major risk factor for the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. In this work we used synchrotron radiation computed microtomography to investigate the skeletal effects in femoral head of female Wistar rats after bilateral ovariectomy surgery. The CT system was set up at the SYRMEP beamline in the synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). Micro-CT images provided 3D information on precise trabecular microstructure by the reconstruction of multiple 2D images with almost 2 μm resolution. Our aim was to use histomorphometric analysis to reveal the effect of OVX on the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular bone microarchitecture. Evaluated morphometric parameters were trabecular bone volume-tissue volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th). OVX group presented noticeable reduction in the Tb.N and Tb.Th when compared with control group (P TV and Tb.Sp were slightly lower in the OVX animals than that of the control group during the experimental period, which was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Our data may help to gain more insight into the potential mechanism of osteoporotic femoral head fractures.

  14. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is

  15. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  16. Subchondral Insufficiency Fracture of the Femoral Head in a Pregnant Woman with Pre-existing Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kyoko; Mimura, Tomohiro; Moritani, Suzuko; Kawasaki, Taku; Imai, Shinji; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Kimura, Fuminori; Murakami, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is a fragility fracture secondary to osteoporosis that leads to collapse of the femoral head with no evidence of osteonecrosis. SIF of the femoral head has been reported in adults of varying ages and both sexes, but it has never been reported to occur in pregnant women. Herein, we describe a 40-year-old primiparous patient with pre-existing anorexia nervosa who developed SIF of the femoral head in the third trimester. At 29 weeks of gestation, the patient complained of sudden pain on walking in both hips. Despite the bed rest, her hip pain increased; consequently, cesarean section was performed at 36 weeks. After delivery, plain radiographs showed that the left femoral head was collapsed. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry indicated that the patient was osteoporotic. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her hips showed the findings that were compatible with SIF. Her left hip pain worsened during follow-up, and a radiograph showed progressive collapse of the left femoral head. The patient then underwent left bipolar hip arthroplasty 18 months after delivery, and she was diagnosed with SIF histopathologically. This is the first report of SIF in a pregnant woman that may reflect pregnancy-associated osteoporosis. SIF in pregnancy might be overlooked or misdiagnosed because the MRI findings have several overlaps with those of other hip disorders. Precise diagnosis of SIF in pregnancy may contribute to a better outcome by avoiding early arthroplasty in young women and appropriate evaluation of the osteopenic status of the patient.

  17. Cleveland Clinic intelligent mouthguard: a new technology to accurately measure head impact in athletes and soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey

    2013-05-01

    Nearly 2 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur in the U.S. each year, with societal costs approaching $60 billion. Including mild TBI and concussion, TBI's are prevalent in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as in domestic athletes. Long-term risks of single and cumulative head impact dosage may present in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Quantifying head impact dosage and understanding associated risk factors for the development of long-term sequelae is critical toward developing guidelines for TBI exposure and post-exposure management. The current knowledge gap between head impact exposure and clinical outcomes limits the understanding of underlying TBI mechanisms, including effective treatment protocols and prevention methods for soldiers and athletes. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap, Cleveland Clinic is developing the "Intelligent Mouthguard" head impact dosimeter. Current testing indicates the Intelligent Mouthguard can quantify linear acceleration with 3% error and angular acceleration with 17% error during impacts ranging from 10g to 174g and 850rad/s2 to 10000rad/s2, respectively. Correlation was high (R2 > 0.99, R2 = 0.98, respectively). Near-term development will be geared towards quantifying head impact dosages in vitro, longitudinally in athletes and to test new sensors for possible improved accuracy and reduced bias. Long-term, the IMG may be useful to soldiers to be paired with neurocognitive clinical data quantifying resultant TBI functional deficits.

  18. Chemical constituents and anti-ulcerogenic potential of the scales of Cynara scolymus (artichoke) heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mahmoud I; Mohamed, Tahia K; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Abdel Lateef, Azza M; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H

    2013-08-15

    Cynara scolymus L. (Asteraseae) (artichoke) is commonly eaten as a vegetable; its leaves are frequently used in folk medicine in the treatment of hepatitis, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and dyspeptic disorders. The purpose of this study is to determine the chemical composition of the volatile oil and alcoholic extract of artichoke head scales. In addition, the role of the methanol extract as an anti-ulcer agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats was evaluated. Six flavonoids and one phenolic acid were obtained from the methanol extract. Also, 37 compounds were identified in the volatile oil, the majority including mono- and sesquiterpenes. The artichoke extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) significantly (P artichoke induced an increase in gastric mucus production, and a reduction of the depth and severity of mucosal lesions. Artichoke dose-dependently reduced the elevated ethanol gastric malonylaldehyde, and reduced glutathione levels and catalase activity. These results suggest that the head scales of artichoke possess potential anti-ulcer activity. The present paper describes the identification of volatile oil for the first time along with the isolation and identification of the constituents of the methanol extract. Moreover, the high anti-ulcerogenic potential of scales of C. scolymus heads was established here for the first time. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The Modified Risk Factors of Health Heads of the Medical Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    symptoms of health disorders. Among the leaders of medical organizations appears typical for the whole population the situation: lack of awareness of the true state of their health, the presence of manifestations of the negative impact of modifiable risk factors of health, low motivation and psychological readiness for health promotion. The necessary intensification of actions aimed at shaping the attitudes of the heads of medical institutions for their health as the managed category healthy behavior. The health of the heads of medical institutions affect the efficiency of healthcare organizations and is reflected in the quality of medical care provided to the population. 

  20. Dementia and cognitive disorder identified at a forensic psychiatric examination - a study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Anette; Kristiansson, Marianne; Björkstén, Karin Sparring

    2017-09-18

    Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. Out of 1471 cases, there were 54 cases of dementia or cognitive disorder. Case files were scrutinized and 17 cases of dementia and 4 cases of cognitive disorder likely to get a dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting were identified and further studied. There were 18 men and 3 women; Median age 66 (n = 21; Range 35-77) years of age. Eleven men but no women had a previous criminal record. There were a total of 38 crimes, mostly violent, committed by the 21 persons. The crimes were of impulsive rather that pre-meditated character. According to the forensic psychiatric diagnoses, dementia was caused by cerebrovascular disorder (n = 4), alcohol or substance abuse (n = 3), cerebral haemorrhage and alcohol (n = 1), head trauma and alcohol (n = 2), Alzheimer's disease (n = 2), Parkinson's disease (n = 1), herpes encephalitis (n = 1) and unspecified (3). Out of four persons diagnosed with cognitive disorder, one also had delusional disorder and another one psychotic disorder and alcohol dependence. An alcohol-related diagnosis was established in ten cases. There were only two cases of Dementia of Alzheimer's type, one of whom also had alcohol intoxication. None was diagnosed with a personality disorder. All but one had a history of somatic or psychiatric comorbidity like head traumas, stroke, other cardio-vascular disorders, epilepsy, depression, psychotic disorders and suicide attempts. In this very ill group, the suggested verdict was probation in one case and different forms of care in the remaining

  1. Cortical Volume Alterations in Conduct Disordered Adolescents with and without Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L. Olvera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that bipolar disorder (BD and conduct disorder (CD are co-occurring disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging has revealed differences in the structure and function of the frontal cortex in these disorders when studied separately; however, the impact of BD comorbidity on brain structure in adolescents with CD has not yet been examined. Method: We conducted an optimized voxel based morphometry (VBM study of juvenile offenders with the following diagnoses: conduct disorder with comorbid bipolar disorder (CD-BD; n = 24, conduct disorder without bipolar disorder (CD; n = 24 and healthy controls (HC, n = 24. Participants were 13–17 years of age, in a residential treatment facility for repeat offenders. The three groups in this study were similar in age, gender, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Results: We found CD-BD subjects had decreased volume relative to controls at the voxel level in the right medial prefrontal cortex (PFC. Using a Threshold-Free Cluster Enhancement (TFCE technique, the CD-BD subjects had significantly decreased volumes of the right medial prefrontal cortex and portions of the superior and inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate and temporal gyrus. The CD subjects did not have differences in brain volume compared to control subjects or CD-BD subjects. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the comorbidity between CD and BD is associated with neurobiological impact namely volumetric differences from healthy controls. Furthermore subjects with this comorbidity had poorer lifetime functioning, more mood and attentional dysfunction, and more medication exposure than subjects with CD who were not BD.

  2. Clinical assessment of patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ilanit; Greenberg, Martin S

    2013-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of chronic pain disorders of the mouth, jaws, and face is frequently complex. It is common for patients with chronic orofacial pain to consult multiple clinicians and receive ineffective treatment before a correct diagnosis is reached. This problem is a significant public health concern. Clinicians can minimize error by starting the diagnostic procedure with a careful, accurate history and thorough head and neck examination followed by a thoughtfully constructed differential diagnosis. The possibility that the patient has symptoms of a life-threatening underlying disease rather than a more common dental, sinus, or temporomandibular disorder must always be considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Oral manifestations of thyroid disorders and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Chandna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid is the major regulator of metabolism and affects all of the bodily functions. Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common glandular disorder of the endocrine system which may rear its head in any system in the body including the mouth. The oral cavity is adversely affected by either an excess or deficiency of these hormones. Before treating a patient who has thyroid disorder, the endocrinologist needs to be familiar with the oral manifestations of thyroid dysfunctions. The patient with a thyroid dysfunction, as well as the patient taking medications for it, requires proper risk management before considering dental treatment by the dentist. Thus, communication of dentist with endocrinologist must be bidirectional, to maintain patient′s oral and thyroid health.

  4. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  5. Does cognitive performance map to categorical diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder? A discriminant functions analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Bryce, Shayden; Tan, Eric J; Neill, Erica; Gurvich, Caroline; Louise, Stephanie; Rossell, Susan L

    2016-03-01

    Despite known overlaps in the pattern of cognitive impairments in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder (SZA), few studies have examined the extent to which cognitive performance validates traditional diagnostic boundaries in these groups. Individuals with SZ (n=49), schizoaffective disorder (n=33) and BD (n=35) completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring the domains of processing speed, immediate memory, semantic memory, learning, working memory, executive function and sustained attention. A discriminant functions analysis revealed a significant function comprising semantic memory, immediate memory and processing speed that maximally separated patients with SZ from those with BD. Initial classification scores on the basis of this function showed modest diagnostic accuracy, owing in part to the misclassification of SZA patients as having SZ. When SZA patients were removed from the model, a second cross-validated classifier yielded slightly improved diagnostic accuracy and a single function solution, of which semantic memory loaded most heavily. A cluster of non-executive cognitive processes appears to have some validity in mapping onto traditional nosological boundaries. However, since semantic memory performance was the primary driver of the discrimination between BD and SZ, it is possible that performance differences between the disorders in this cognitive domain in particular, index separate underlying aetiologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of escitalopram vs. citalopram in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, Bruno; Moore, Nicholas; Verdoux, Hélène; Auray, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    Clinical trials have shown better efficacy of escitalopram over citalopram, and review-based economic models the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram vs. citalopram (brand and generic). No head-to-head clinical trial has, however, evaluated the cost-effectiveness of both drugs so far. The aim of this study was to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of escitalopram compared with citalopram in patients with major depressive disorder. An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted by general practitioners and psychiatrists comparing fixed doses of escitalopram (20 mg/day) or citalopram (40 mg/day) over 8 weeks in ambulatory care patients with major depressive disorder (baseline Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score > or =30). Resources use was recorded using a standardized form recording use of healthcare services and days of sick leave for the 2-month prestudy period and for the 8-week study period. Statistically significant improvements were observed in patients treated with escitalopram. Mean per-patient costs for the escitalopram group, compared with the citalopram group, were 41% lower (96 euro vs. 163 euro; Pescitalopram compared with citalopram recipients, assuming a parity price between escitalopram and citalopram. Bootstrapped distributions of the cost-effectiveness ratios also showed better effectiveness and lower costs for escitalopram compared with citalopram. Escitalopram is significantly more effective than citalopram, and is associated with lower healthcare costs. This prospective economic analysis demonstrated that escitalopram is a cost-effective first-line treatment option for major depressive disorder.

  7. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... separation anxiety. Sometimes behavior problems go along with mood episodes. Young people may take a lot of risks, such as driving too fast or spending too much money. Some young people with bipolar disorder think about suicide. Watch for any signs of suicidal thinking. Take ...

  8. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  9. A review on cognitive and brain endophenotypes that may be common in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and facilitate the search for pleiotropic genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    We propose to bring together the hitherto rather separate research fields of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and argue that by contrasting and combining findings of the endophenotypes of ASD and ADHD new insights can be gained into the etiology and

  10. Efficacy analysis of tomosynthesis in the diagnosis of the femoral head osteochondropathy (Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Vasil'ev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that the prevalence of the femoral head osteochondropathy is 2.9% of all bone and muscle disorders and 25% of the disorders of the hip joint, this problem demands special attention, while late diagnosis could lead to disability of the patient.Aim: To compare and clarify X-ray symptomatology of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease found by standard digital radiography and by tomosynthesis.Materials and methods: Eighty six patients aged from 5 to 12 years with the femoral head osteochondropathy were allocated into two groups: 43  patients from the group  1 were assessed by standard two-plane digital radiography (frontal and Lauenstein projections, whereas 43  patients from the group  2 were assessed by direct plane tomosynthesis only. The investigations were performed with the X-ray machine FDR AcSelerate  200 (Fujifilm, Japan with the function of tomosynthesis. Radiographic symptoms of the disease were assessed in the subgroups that were identified depending on the disease stage: 24 patients had stage I, 20 – stage II, 20 – stage III, and 22 – stages IV and V.Results: Standard radiography could not detect any bone abnormalities in any patient with stage I of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (n1 = 12, 100%; however, by means of tomosynthesis, all patients from this subgroup (n2 = 12, 100% had minimally increased density on the affected side. In 9  (75% patients, tomosynthesis showed cystiform remodeling of trabecular structure in subchondral parts of the femoral head of the affected hip, and in 2 (17% patients, flattening of the inner epiphysis pole was visualized. At stage II of the disease standard radiography showed femoral head compression with widening of the joint space in 8 (80% patients, absence of subchondral lucency in 6 (60%, and increased density of the femoral head in 4 (40%. In all these patients (n2 = 10, 100% tomosynthesis showed signs of intra-articular effusion, in 6 (60% cases there were

  11. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: altered functioning in three mental domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2013-02-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder.

  12. Tackler’s head position relative to the ball carrier is highly correlated with head and neck injuries in rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Shiota, Yuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Maki, Nobukazu; Matsuura, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the tackler’s head position during one-on-one tackling in rugby and to determine the incidence of head, neck and shoulder injuries through analysis of game videos, injury records and a questionnaire completed by the tacklers themselves. Methods We randomly selected 28 game videos featuring two university teams in competitions held in 2015 and 2016. Tackles were categorised according to tackler’s head position. The ‘pre-contact phase’ was defined; its duration and the number of steps taken by the ball carrier prior to a tackle were evaluated. Results In total, 3970 tackles, including 317 (8.0%) with the tackler’s head incorrectly positioned (ie, in front of the ball carrier) were examined. Thirty-two head, neck or shoulder injuries occurred for an injury incidence of 0.8% (32/3970). The incidence of injury in tackles with incorrect head positioning was 69.4/1000 tackles; the injury incidence with correct head positioning (ie, behind or to one side of the ball carrier) was 2.7/1000 tackles. Concussions, neck injuries, ‘stingers’ and nasal fractures occurred significantly more often during tackles with incorrect head positioning than during tackles with correct head positioning. Significantly fewer steps were taken before tackles with incorrect head positioning that resulted in injury than before tackles that did not result in injury. Conclusion Tackling with incorrect head position relative to the ball carrier resulted in a significantly higher incidence of concussions, neck injuries, stingers and nasal fractures than tackling with correct head position. Tackles with shorter duration and distance before contact resulted in more injuries. PMID:29162618

  13. Perspectives about family meals from single-headed and dual-headed households: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Hoppmann, Caroline; Hanson, Carrie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that family meals are protective for adolescent healthful eating behaviors. However, little is known about what parents think of these findings and whether parents from single- vs dual-headed households have differing perspectives about the findings. In addition, parents' perspectives regarding barriers to applying the findings on family meals in their own homes and suggestions for more widespread adoption of the findings are unknown. The current study aimed to identify single- and dual-headed household parents' perspectives regarding the research findings on family meals, barriers to applying the findings in their own homes, and suggestions for helping families have more family meals. The current qualitative study included 59 parents who participated in substudy of two linked multilevel studies-EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT). Parents (91.5% female) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results from the current study suggest that parents from both single- and dual-headed households have similar perspectives regarding why family meals are protective for healthful eating habits for adolescents (eg, provides structure/routine, opportunities for communication, connection), but provide similar and different reasons for barriers to family meals (eg, single-headed=cost vs dual-headed=lack of creativity) and ideas and suggestions for how to increase the frequency of family meals (eg, single-headed=give fewer options vs dual-headed=include children in the meal preparation). Findings can help inform public health intervention researchers and providers who work with adolescents and their families to understand how to approach discussions regarding reasons for having family meals, barriers to carrying out family meals, and ways to increase family meals depending on family structure. Copyright

  14. Experience with TZ-04 (artificial saliva) for complications after radiotherapy of head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaki, Syuji; Mochimatsu, Izumi; Ono, Isamu; Kawabe, Yoshitaka; Morita, Kozo.

    1981-01-01

    Radiotherapy for malignant tumor of the head and neck induces xerostomias dryness of the mouth and other symptoms in the patients. TZ-04, an artificial saliva, was tried in 60 patients with these symptoms. Improvements of symptoms were observed in 55% of the patients immediately after the administration, and in 57% through 4 weeks of the administration. The drug was especially effective for epipharyngeal carcinoma in which radiation injury of the parotid gland induced marked hypofunction of salivary secretion. In each symptom, improvement and effectiveness were evaluated by degree of symptoms; improvement and effectiveness were significantly high in the patients with severe symptoms of oral pain and sleep disorder. Laboratory report showed that this drug can be used safely without side effects. Therefore, this drug is recommended to the patients with xerostomia and other symptoms resulting from radiation therapy of head and neck tumors. (Ueda, J.)

  15. High-speed counter-current chromatography in separation of betacyanins from flowers of red Gomphrena globosa L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spórna-Kucab, Aneta; Hołda, Ewelina; Wybraniec, Sławomir

    2016-10-15

    Antioxidant and possible chemopreventive properties of betacyanins, natural plant pigments, contribute to a growing interest in their chemistry and separation. Mixtures of betacyanins from fresh red Gomphrena globosa L. cultivar flowers were separated in three highly polar solvent systems by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) for a direct comparison of their separation effectiveness. Three samples of crude extract (600mg) were run on semi-preparative scale in solvent system (NH4)2SO4soln - EtOH (2.0:1.0, v/v) (system I) and the modified systems: EtOH - ACN - 1-PrOH - (NH4)2SO4satd.soln - H2O (0.5:0.5:0.5:1.2:1.0, v/v/v/v/v) (system II) and EtOH - ACN - (NH4)2SO4satd.soln - H2O (1.0:0.5:1.2:1.0, v/v/v/v) (system III). The systems were used in the head-to-tail (system I) or tail-to-head (systems II and III) mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 2.0ml/min and the column rotation speed was 860rpm. The retention of the stationary phase was 52.0% (system I), 80.2% (systems II) and 82.0% (system III). The betacyanins in the crude extract as well as HSCCC fractions were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. System I was applied for the first time in HSCCC for the separation of betacyanins and was quite effective in separation of amaranthine and 17-decarboxy-amaranthine (αI=1.19) and very effective for 17-decarboxy-amaranthine and betanin (αI=2.20). Modification of system I with acetonitrile (system III) as well as acetonitrile and propanol (system II) increased their separation effectiveness. Systems II-III enable complete separation of 17-decarboxy-amaranthine (KD(II)=2.94,KD(III)=2.42) and betanin (KD(II)=2.46,KD(III)=1.10) as well as betanin and gomphrenin I (KD(II)=1.62, KD(III)=0.74). In addition, separation of amaranthine and 17-decarboxy-amaranthine is the most effective in system II, therefore, this system proved to be the most suitable for the separation of all polar betacyanins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Issues on the diagnosis and etiopathogenesis of mood disorders: reconsidering DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Yukako; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Aleksic, Branko; Ozaki, Norio

    2018-02-01

    The authors present a narrative review from the diagnostic and nosologic viewpoints of mood disorders (bipolar and depressive ones) by revisiting the revision from the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision to DSM-5, including the following: the separation of the bipolar and depressive sections; the addition of increased energy and continuation of symptoms to the hypo/manic criteria; the elimination of mixed episodes; the creation of new categories and specifiers ("other specified bipolar and related disorder", "disruptive mood dysregulation disorder", "with anxious distress", "with mixed features", "with peripartum onset"); the categorization of hypo/manic episodes during antidepressant treatment into bipolar disorder; the elimination of the "bereavement exclusion"; the ambiguous separation between bipolar I and II; the insufficient distinction between "other specified bipolar and related disorders" and major depressive disorder; the differentiation regarding borderline personality disorder; agitation; premenstrual dysphoric disorder; and society and psychiatry. Through this analysis, we point out both the achievements and limitations of DSM-5. In addition, to examine the future direction of psychiatry, we introduce our cohort study regarding maternal depression and an outline of the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria project in the US. Finally, we advocate the importance of elucidating etiopathogeneses by starting from or going beyond the DSM operational diagnostic system, which has shown great efficacy.

  17. Parsing the familiality of oppositional defiant disorder from that of conduct disorder: a familial risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Carter R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Mick, Eric; Hughes, Samantha; Small, Jacqueline; Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Family risk analysis can provide an improved understanding of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attending to the comorbidity with conduct disorder (CD). We compared rates of psychiatric disorders in relatives of 78 control probands without ODD and CD (Control, N=265), relatives of 10 control probands with ODD and without CD (ODD, N=37), relatives of 19 ADHD probands without ODD and CD (ADHD, N=71), relatives of 38 ADHD probands with ODD and without CD (ADHD+ODD, N=130), and relatives of 50 ADHD probands with ODD and CD (ADHD+ODD+CD, N=170). Rates of ADHD were significantly higher in all three ADHD groups compared to the Control group, while rates of ODD were significantly higher in all three ODD groups compared to the Control group. Evidence for co-segregation was found in the ADHD+ODD group. Rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and addictions in the relatives were significantly elevated only in the ADHD+ODD+CD group. ADHD and ODD are familial disorders, and ADHD plus ODD outside the context of CD may mark a familial subtype of ADHD. ODD and CD confer different familial risks, providing further support for the hypothesis that ODD and CD are separate disorders.

  18. Comparison of clinical characteristics of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections and childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Victor, Andrea M; Pipal, Allison J; Williams, Kyle A

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify unique clinical characteristics of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) compared with a control group of children with non-PANDAS obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with respect to ancillary symptoms, types of obsessions and compulsions, symptom severity, and co-morbid DSM-IV diagnoses. Classification of PANDAS was based on review of pediatric and psychiatric records using the criteria developed by Swedo and colleagues. Children aged 6-14 with PANDAS (n = 21) and non-PANDAS OCD (n = 18) were assessed by blind independent evaluators using the PANDAS Questionnaire, Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. PANDAS children were significantly more likely to present with separation anxiety, urinary urgency, hyperactivity, impulsivity, deterioration in handwriting, and decline in school performance during their initial episode of neuropsychiatric illness compared with children with OCD. Total tics and vocal tics were more severe in PANDAS children. Separation anxiety disorder and social phobia were more prevalent in non-PANDAS OCD children. Children with non-PANDAS OCD were significantly more likely to include others in their rituals. There were no significant differences between groups on demographics or severity of OCD. Distinguishing clinical characteristics in PANDAS, which included urinary urgency, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and deterioration in handwriting, are linked to basal ganglia functions. These clinical characteristics will aid in the differentiation of PANDAS children for research and clinical purposes and ultimately advance our understanding and treatment of this disorder.

  19. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  20. 29 CFR 1620.21 - Head of household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head of household. 1620.21 Section 1620.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.21 Head of household. Since a “head of household” or “head of family” status bears no relationship to the...

  1. Treatment of Conduct Disorder with a Multisystemic and Multimodal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubinger, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a childhood disorder that is often resistant to treatment. Current treatment methods often focus on separate interventions for each environment that the child or adolescent is exhibiting antisocial behavior. Additionally the focus is on the behavior of the child and often does not focus on the family unit or the biology behind…

  2. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  3. Head pain referral during examination of the neck in migraine and tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dean H; Drummond, Peter D

    2012-09-01

    To investigate if and to what extent typical head pain can be reproduced in tension-type headache (TTH), migraine without aura sufferers, and controls when sustained pressure was applied to the lateral posterior arch of C1 and the articular pillar of C2, stressing the atlantooccipital and C2-3 segments respectively. Occipital and neck symptoms often accompany primary headache, suggesting involvement of cervical afferents in central pain processing mechanisms in these disorders. Referral of head pain from upper cervical structures is made possible by convergence of cervical and trigeminal nociceptive afferent information in the trigemino-cervical nucleus. Upper cervical segmental and C2-3 zygapophysial joint dysfunction is recognized as a potential source of noxious afferent information and is present in primary headache sufferers. Furthermore, referral of head pain has been demonstrated from symptomatic upper cervical segments and the C2-3 zygapophysial joints, suggesting that head pain referral may be a characteristic of cervical afferent involvement in headache. Thirty-four headache sufferers and 14 controls were examined interictally. Headache patients were diagnosed according the criteria of the International Headache Society and comprised 20 migraine without aura (females n = 18; males n = 2; average age 35.3 years) and 14 TTH sufferers (females n = 11; males n = 3; average age 30.7 years). Two techniques were used specifically to stress the atlantooccipital segments (Technique 1 - C1) and C2-3 zygapophysial joints (Technique 2 - C2). Two techniques were also applied to the arm--the common extensor origin and the mid belly of the biceps brachii. Participants reported reproduction of head pain with "yes" or "no" and rated the intensity of head pain and local pressure of application on a scale of 0 -10, where 0 = no pain and 10 = intolerable pain. None of the subjects reported head pain during application of techniques on the arm. Head pain referral during the

  4. 21 CFR 868.1930 - Stethoscope head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stethoscope head. 868.1930 Section 868.1930 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1930 Stethoscope head. (a) Identification. A stethoscope head is a weighted chest piece used during anesthesia to listen to a patient's heart, breath, and...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.103 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1918.103 Section 1918.103 Labor... must ensure that head protection complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ANSI Z89.1... as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... helmets. (1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ANSI Z89.1... as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.135 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1910.135 Section 1910.135 Labor... head protection. (1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i... consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section. [59 FR 16362...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.100 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1926.100 Section 1926.100 Labor... § 1926.100 Head protection. (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head... protected by protective helmets. (b) Helmets for the protection of employees against impact and penetration...

  9. Head impact in a snowboarding accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, N; Llari, M; Donnadieu, T; Masson, C; Arnoux, P J

    2017-09-01

    To effectively prevent sport traumatic brain injury (TBI), means of protection need to be designed and tested in relation to the reality of head impact. This study quantifies head impacts during a typical snowboarding accident to evaluate helmet standards. A snowboarder numerical model was proposed, validated against experimental data, and used to quantify the influence of accident conditions (speed, snow stiffness, morphology, and position) on head impacts (locations, velocities, and accelerations) and injury risk during snowboarding backward falls. Three hundred twenty-four scenarios were simulated: 70% presented a high risk of mild TBI (head peak acceleration >80 g) and 15% presented a high risk of severe TBI (head injury criterion >1000). Snow stiffness, speed, and snowboarder morphology were the main factors influencing head impact metrics. Mean normal head impact speed (28 ± 6 km/h) was higher than equivalent impact speed used in American standard helmet test (ASTM F2040), and mean tangential impact speed, not included in standard tests, was 13.8 (±7 km/h). In 97% of simulated impacts, the peak head acceleration was below 300 g, which is the pass/fail criteria used in standard tests. Results suggest that initial speed, impacted surface, and pass/fail criteria used in helmet standard performance tests do not fully reflect magnitude and variability of snowboarding backward-fall impacts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Empirical support for a reclassification of eating disorders NOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helverskov, J L; Lyng, B; Clausen, L; Mors, O; Frydenberg, M; Thomsen, P H; Rokkedal, K

    2011-01-01

    To explore the empirical support for a reclassification of the eating disorders NOS (EDNOS) category. In a cross-sectional design eight specific subgroups of EDNOS were compared to anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) on interview-based data and questionnaire measures. The sample consisted of 965 patients in the age 13-54 years admitted to treatment for an eating disorder. According to the DSM-IV 176(18%) presented with AN, 290(30%) with BN and 499(52%) with EDNOS. Of all EDNOS cases 34% could be reclassified as AN or BN. Three specific subgroups emerged as separate diagnostic entities. A heterogeneous subgroup of 122 patients (13% of all) was proposed as 'true' EDNOS. Implications of the results on the DSM-V are discussed. The results support a broader definition of AN and BN and suggest subgroups of EDNOS as separate diagnostic entities. This results in a substantial reduction of the heterogeneous EDNOS group. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan L.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n = 476) with prenatal drug exposures documented…

  12. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  13. [Experimental study on avascular necrosis of femoral head in chickens induced by different glucocorticoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun-Sheng; Lin, Na; Lin, Shi-Fu; Wan, Rong; Chen, Wei-Heng

    2010-03-01

    To study the effects of Methylprednisolone and Dexamethasone on the avascular necrosis of femoral head in chickens. Thirty-six chickens were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 6): control group (group A), Methylprednisolone low dose group (group B), Methylprednisolone large dose group (group C), small dose Dexamethasone and horse serum group (group D), middle dose Dexamethasone and horse serum group (group E), and Dexamethasone large dose group (group F). On the 6th and 12th weeks, blood samples were obtained to determine the level of total cholesterol triglyeride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). On the 12th week, femoral heads were taken off. Paraffin tissue sections were prepared to detect histopathologic change with hematoxylin and eosin staining. On the 6th week, compared with group A, the level of CHO increased significantly in group C and group F (P < 0.05), and TG increased in group B, C and group E, while HDL decreased in group B, C and group E. On the 12th week, the level of TG and CHO increased in group B, C, E and group F, and HDL decreased in group C, D and group E (P < 0.05). LDL was not detected in most chickens. The ratio of empty lacuna was higher in group C and group E compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). Methylprednisolone is easier to induce osteonecrosis of femoral head than Dexamethasone. The condition of metabolic disorder in blood may be the basic pathomechanism of steroid-induced necrosis of femoral head.

  14. The relationship between separation anxiety and impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L; Rowe, Richard; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon; Pickles, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the contemporaneous and prognostic relationship between symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and associated functional impairment. The sample comprised n=2067 8–16 year-old twins from a community-based registry. Juvenile subjects and their parents completed a personal interview on two occasions, separated by an average follow-up period of 18 months, about the subject’s current history of SAD and associated functional impairment. Results showed that SAD symptoms typically caused very little impairment but demonstrated significant continuity over time. Older youth had significantly more persistent symptoms than younger children. Prior symptom level independently predicted future symptom level and diagnostic symptom threshold, with and without impairment. Neither diagnostic threshold nor severity of impairment independently predicted outcomes after taking account of prior symptom levels. The results indicate that impairment may index current treatment need but symptom levels provide the best information about severity and prognosis. PMID:17658718

  15. Cervical posture analysis in dental students and its correlation with temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara-Souza, Mariana Barbosa; Figueredo, Olívia Maria Costa; Maia, Paulo Raphael Leite; Dantas, Isabelle de Sousa; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and craniocervical posture in the sagittal plane measured from lateral radiographs of the head. The sample was comprised of 80 randomly selected students of dentistry at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) was used to evaluate the signs and symptoms of TMD. Lateral radiographs of each individual were used to measure the position of the hyoid bone, the craniocervical angle, and the occiput-atlas distance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationships between craniocervical posture measures and TMD. No relationship was found between TMD and the craniocervical posture measured by the positioning of the hyoid bone, head rotation, and the extension/flexion of the head (p > 0.05). It can be concluded, therefore, that no relationship exists between cervical posture in the sagittal plane and TMD.

  16. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephanie M; Bos, Jelte E; Klis, Sjaak F L

    2014-01-01

    To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. To test a new, more simple method of unilateral stimulation with head tilt and the body remaining on axis. During stationary and during 360 deg/s rotation, 12 healthy blindfolded subjects had their heads tilted 30 degrees sideways, positioning one otolithic organ on the axis of rotation after the other. The haptic subjective vertical (SV) was recorded several times by means of a manually adjustable rod. It was found that during stationary the SV tilted about 4 degrees on average in the direction of the head. During rotation, the SV tilted about 9 degrees on average. We therefore estimate the effect of eccentric otolith rotation to be 5 degrees on average. Tilt of the subjective vertical induced by head tilt during on-axis body rotation can provide a relatively uncomplicated alternative to test unilateral otolithic function as compared to body and head translation during rotation. Moreover, unlike eccentric rotation of the entire body, somatosensory cues are minimized by keeping the body fixed on axis and by subtracting the effect of head tilt per se.

  17. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  18. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  19. Developmental stress elicits preference for methamphetamine in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womersley, Jacqueline S; Mpeta, Bafokeng; Dimatelis, Jacqueline J; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Stein, Dan J; Russell, Vivienne A

    2016-06-17

    Developmental stress has been hypothesised to interact with genetic predisposition to increase the risk of developing substance use disorders. Here we have investigated the effects of maternal separation-induced developmental stress using a behavioural proxy of methamphetamine preference in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the spontaneously hypertensive rat, versus Wistar Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley comparator strains. Analysis of results obtained using a conditioned place preference paradigm revealed a significant strain × stress interaction with maternal separation inducing preference for the methamphetamine-associated compartment in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Maternal separation increased behavioural sensitization to the locomotor-stimulatory effects of methamphetamine in both spontaneously hypertensive and Sprague-Dawley strains but not in Wistar Kyoto rats. Our findings indicate that developmental stress in a genetic rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may foster a vulnerability to the development of substance use disorders.

  20. Profile of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirino E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Kirino1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, 3Juntendo Institute of Mental Health, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a pernicious illness. Compared with the later-onset form, early onset bipolar disorder is associated with worse psychosocial outcomes, and is characterized by rapid cycling and increased risks of substance abuse and suicide attempts. Controlling mood episodes and preventing relapse in this group of pediatric patients requires careful treatment. Here, we review the effectiveness of aripiprazole for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, with discussion of this drug's unique pharmacological profile and various clinical study outcomes. Aripiprazole acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as well as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors. It can be safely used in children and adolescents, as it is highly tolerated and shows lower rates of the side effects typically observed with other antipsychotic drugs, including sedation, weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. The presently reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-RCTs generally reported aripiprazole to be effective and well-tolerated in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, the present conclusions must be evaluated cautiously. Furthermore, aripiprazole cannot yet be considered a preferred treatment for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, as there is not yet evidence that aripiprazole shows greater efficacy compared to other second-generation antipsychotics. Additional data are needed from future head-to-head comparison studies. Keywords: child, mania, mixed state

  1. "Ode Ori": a culture-bound disorder with prominent somatic features in Yoruba Nigerian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, R O

    1987-03-01

    Thirty patients diagnosed by Nigerian Yoruba traditional healers as suffering from a condition termed "Ode Ori" are described. The chief complaints were of a crawling sensation in the head and body, noises in the ears, palpitations and various other somatic complaints. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were prominent in all the patients and indeed the most common DSM-III diagnoses were of depressive and anxiety disorders. The significance of the disorder and its features is discussed in the context of the socio-cultural background of the patients.

  2. Psychiatric aspects of pediatric epilepsy: Focus on anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric co-morbidities are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy, which can be in the form of cognitive deficits like - inattention and intellectual disability, motor disturbances like - hyperactivity, emotional disturbances like - depression and anxiety disorders and behavioral problems like - impulsivity, aggression and even psychotic behavior. Anxiety disorders like - Obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and panic attacks are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy. Presence of co-morbid anxiety disorder in pediatric epilepsy is responsible for scholastic decline, peer maladjustment and poor quality of life. Management of anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy is always a challenge. Until, there is no general consensus regarding management of anxiety disorders in pediatric epilepsy. Despite its enormous impact on an individual′s life, this area has not been addressed adequately through clinical research. This review focuses on psychiatric aspects of pediatric epilepsy with specific emphasis on anxiety disorders.

  3. Is mask-based stereotactic head-and-neck fixation as precise as stereotactic head fixation for precision radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Bogner, Joachim; Dieckmann, Karin; Poetter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare setup accuracy and reproducibility of a stereotactic head and a head-and-neck fixation system, both based on thermoplastic material. Methods and Material: Ten patients were immobilized with a head and a head-and-neck fixation system (both BrainLAB, Germany). Both mask systems were modified with a custom-made mouthpiece and a strip of thermoplastic material attached to the lower part of the mask. During the first treatment session, after positioning patients using room lasers, two orthogonal portal images were taken as reference. Later on, at least five sets of orthogonal portal images were acquired for each patient. The isocentric setup accuracy was determined by comparing field edges and anatomic landmarks and the repositioning accuracy in the mask was obtained by comparing individual anatomic landmarks with respect to the metal balls, fixed on the masks. Systematic and random deviations and resulting three-dimensional (3D) vectors were calculated. Additionally, margins were derived from the systematic and random component of the isocentric setup accuracy. Finally, inter- and intraobserver variations were analyzed. Results: The systematic variation of the isocentric setup accuracy was very similar for the two mask systems, but the random variations were slightly larger for the head-and-neck system, resulting in a 0.4-mm larger 3D vector. The repositioning variations for the head mask were smaller compared with the head-and-neck mask, resulting in smaller 3D vectors for the random (∼0.4 mm) and systematic variations (∼0.6 mm). For both mask systems, a 2-mm margin can be used in lateral and anteroposterior direction, whereas in craniocaudal direction, this margin should be extended to 2.5 mm for the head mask and to 3 mm for the head-and-neck mask. The average absolute differences between two observers were within 0.5 mm, maximum deviations around 1 mm. Conclusion: Thermoplastic mask-based stereotactic head

  4. Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming for Aircraft Conflict Avoidance by Sequentially Applying Velocity and Heading Angle Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Cafieri , Sonia; Omheni , Riadh

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider the problem of aircraft conflict avoidance in Air Traffic Management systems. Given an initial configuration of a number of aircraft sharing the same airspace, the main goal of conflict avoidance is to guarantee that a minimum safety distance between each pair of aircraft is always respected during their flights. We consider aircraft separation achieved by heading angle deviations, and propose a mixed 0-1 nonlinear optimization model, that is then combined ...

  5. Survey of Neurological Disorders in Children Aged 9-15 Years in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, G G

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of neurological disorders in resource-poor settings, although likely to be high, is largely unexplored. The prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders, including epilepsy and intellectual, motor, vision, and hearing deficits, in children aged 9 to 15 years in the community were investigated. A new instrument was developed, validated, and used in a 2-stage community survey for neurological disorders in Lucknow, India. Screen-positives and random proportion of screen-negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence of different neurological disorders was calculated by weighted proportions. Of 6431 children screened, 221 were positive. A total of 214 screen-positives and 251 screen-negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 31.3 per 1000 children of this age group (weighted 95% confidence interval = 16.5, 46.4). The final model for risk factors included age, mud house, delayed cry at birth, and previous head injury. The prevalence of neurological disorders is high in this region. Predictors of neurological disorders are largely modifiable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY RELATED DISORDERS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN RURAL KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Davis Manuel; Mini John; Rekha N. S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric problem in school going children worldwide. OBJECTIVE This study was done to find the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescents in rural Kerala. METHODS A school based survey was done among children of 10 to 13 years using SCARED anxiety scale. Specific items in the SCARED scale were used to assess panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety dis...

  7. High-power CO laser with RF discharge for isotope separation employing condensation repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, I. Ya.; Koptev, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    High-power CO laser can be the effective tool in such applications as isotope separation using the free-jet CRISLA method. The way of transfer from CO small-scale experimental installation to industrial high-power CO lasers is proposed through the use of a low-current radio-frequency (RF) electric discharge in a supersonic stream without an electron gun. The calculation model of scaling CO laser with RF discharge in supersonic stream was developed. The developed model allows to calculate parameters of laser installation and optimize them with the purpose of reception of high efficiency and low cost of installation as a whole. The technical decision of industrial CO laser for isotope separation employing condensation repression is considered. The estimated cost of laser is some hundred thousand dollars USA and small sizes of laser head give possibility to install it in any place.

  8. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducin