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Sample records for head injuries penetrating

  1. Swordfish Attack—Death by Penetrating Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Hui Gooi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been very few reports of swordfish attacks on humans and none have resulted in death. Although there are no reports of unprovoked attacks on humans, swordfish can be very dangerous when provoked and they can jump and use their swords to pierce their target. We describe here an unusual case of death that resulted from intracranial penetrating injury caused by a swordfish.

  2. Pediatric gunshot penetrating head injury: a case report with 2-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Tandean; Marsal Risfandi; Iskandar Japardi

    2018-01-01

    Gunshot is a rare subset of penetrating head injury, and generally the victim dies before arriving at the hospital. This paper reported a case of an intracranial gunshot injury in a 12 year-old boy that was shot by his friend, whose primary intention was to play around, using a revolver. A missile projectile penetrated from mid frontal and came out from right occipital. Vital signs were stable with GCS 8 from physical examination. A rational management strategy should permit a good outcome. T...

  3. Penetrating Bihemispheric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Collective Review of Gunshot Wounds to the Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Lauren; Cornell, David L; Phillips, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Head injuries that cross midline structures of the brain are bihemispheric. Other terms have been used to describe such injuries, but bihemispheric is the most accurate and should be standard nomenclature. Bihemispheric head injuries are associated with greater mortality and morbidity than other penetrating traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Currently, there is a tendency to manage severe gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head nonoperatively, despite reports of improved outcome in military patients treated aggressively. Thus, controversy exists in the management of civilian TBI. PubMed was searched for query terms, and PRISMA guidelines were used. Studies were selected by relevance and inclusion of data regarding etiology, diagnosis, and management of bihemispheric TBI. Case reports, studies not in English, and records lacking information on mechanism or bihemispheric injuries were excluded. Thirteen studies were included and most contained level IV evidence. The mean mortality rate of all head GSWs was 62% in adults and 32% in children. Bihemispheric GSWs had greater mortality rates of 82% in adults and 60% in children. There was a larger proportion of self-inflicted injury in studies with greater rates of bihemispheric injuries. Bihemispheric injuries have greater mortality rates than other penetrating TBI. Violation of midline brain structures such as the diencephalon and mesencephalon, increased rate of self-inflicted wounds, and lack of a standard management algorithm may increase the lethality of these injuries. Although bihemispheric injuries historically have been considered nonsalvageable, an aggressive surgical approach has been shown to improve outcomes, particularly in the military population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Penetrating head injury with bilateral eye avulsion due to Himalayan bear bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Yam B; Roka, Narayani; Shrestha, Manzil; Puri, Puspa R; Adhikari, Hari B

    2012-12-01

    The Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), although an omnivore, is more carnivorous than its American counterpart. It is also more aggressive towards humans and is a threatened species because of the deforestation in the Himalayas. Furthermore, poverty, encroachment of the forest, extensive deforestation, lack of education and living near the forest are factors that increase the probability of such animal injuries. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who suffered a severe penetrating head injury with scalp and bilateral eye avulsion, which was managed successfully. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  5. Management and outcome of low velocity penetrating head injury caused by impacted foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Wael Mohamed Mohamed; Abbas, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Penetrating head injuries with impacted foreign bodies are rare, associated with a high incidence of morbidity and potentially life-threatening. In this study, we aimed at investigating the outcome of these cases as well as analyzing the factors affecting the prognosis. A retrospective study in which the records of 16 patients who had penetrating head injuries caused by low-velocity impacted foreign bodies were revised. All patients were males with a mean age of 28.9 years (range, 18 to 50 years). The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 13 months with a mean of 8.1 months. Causes of injury were construction accidents in 6 (37.5 %) patients, assault in 6 (37.5 %) and road traffic accidents in 4 (25 %). The impacted objects included a bar of iron, a piece of wood, a nail, a sickle and a piece of glass. Diagnostic computerized tomography (CT) of the brain was carried out on admission in all patients. Thirteen (81.3 %) patients were submitted to surgery, and all had the appropriate management in the form of antibiotics and dehydrating measures as required. The primary outcome measure was the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at the end of follow-up. At the end of follow-up, ten (62.5 %) patients had a GOS score of 5, two (12.5 %) patients had a score of 4, and four (25 %) patients had a score of 1. Low-velocity penetrating head injuries are most common in young adult males. With the appropriate management, a majority of even the most severe cases can have a favorable outcome.

  6. Penetrating missile-type head injury from a defective badminton racquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Dante; Murray, Elizabeth; Cimpello, Lynn Babcock; Conners, Gregory

    2009-06-01

    Injuries occurring during badminton are rarely serious and primarily involve the lower extremities. We report an instance wherein a patient suffered serious brain injury related to playing with a defective badminton racquet. The possibility of similar injuries following the separation of the racquet head and shaft from the handle needs to be disseminated.

  7. An Unusual Case of Cerebral Penetrating Injury by a Driven Bone Fragment Secondary to Blunt Head Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Il; Ko, Jun Kyeung; Cha, Seung Heon; Han, In Ho

    2011-01-01

    Temple trauma that appears initially localized to the skin might possess intracranial complications. Early diagnosis and management of such complications are important, to avoid neurologic sequelae. Non-penetrating head injuries with intracranial hemorrhage caused by a driven bone fragment are extremely rare. A 53-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of intracerebral hemorrhage. He was a mechanic and one day before admission to a local clinic, tip of metallic rod hit his right t...

  8. An unusual case of cerebral penetrating injury by a driven bone fragment secondary to blunt head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Il; Ko, Jun Kyeung; Cha, Seung Heon; Han, In Ho

    2011-12-01

    Temple trauma that appears initially localized to the skin might possess intracranial complications. Early diagnosis and management of such complications are important, to avoid neurologic sequelae. Non-penetrating head injuries with intracranial hemorrhage caused by a driven bone fragment are extremely rare. A 53-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of intracerebral hemorrhage. He was a mechanic and one day before admission to a local clinic, tip of metallic rod hit his right temple while cutting the rod. Initial brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated scanty subdural hematoma at right temporal lobe and left falx and intracerebral hematoma at both frontal lobes. Facial CT with 3-D reconstruction images showed a small bony defect at the right sphenoid bone's greater wing and a small bone fragment at the left frontal lobe, crossing the falx. We present the unusual case of a temple trauma patient in whom a sphenoid bone fragment migrated from its origin upward, to the contralateral frontal lobe, producing hematoma along its trajectory.

  9. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  10. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  11. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  12. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  13. [HIGH VELOCITY PENETRATING HEAD AND NECK INJURIES OF SYRIAN CIVIL WAR CASUALTIES TREATED IN THE GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Ohad; Assadi, Nidal; Sela, Eyal

    2017-05-01

    For two years the State of Israel has been treating casualties from the Syrian civil war. The Galilee Medical Center in Nahariya is the main hospital for this humanitarian mission. Objectives: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of the casualties that were treated in our department. Information from medical records of all Syrian casualties evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center were evaluated. Between March 2013 and December 2014, 450 casualties were evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center. Of those, 45 were treated in the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Of the 45 cases, 43 were male (95.5%) and the mean age was 30.4 years (range 1-79 years). There was a significant difference in terms of gender (p Syria, and 12 died. Of all Syrian injured treated in the ENT department, the vast majority were young men. The main cause of injury was gunshot wounds. It is likely that the lack of protective gear that exist in western armies is a factor in the complex injuries treated at the Galilee Medical Center.

  14. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

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    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  15. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  16. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  17. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  18. Head injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa

    1981-01-01

    Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)

  19. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  20. Spanish RPV head penetrations. Regulatory status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J.M.; Colino, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the actual status of inspection results on the Spanish PWR RPV CRD head penetrations (CRDH's), after two years of a whole program of inspections in all affected plants. Actual situation of penetrations pertaining to ALMARAZ 1 and 2, ASCO 1 and 2 and VANDELLOS 2 NPP's show any damage in those CRDH's inspected in 1993 and 1994 (roughly 20 out of 65 CRDH's at each unit). The paper presents a summary of CRDH characteristics, inspection methods and results obtained in each plant. TRILLO NPP has a different CRDH design (KWU-SIEMENS type) and for that reason is not considered an affected plant nor has conducted any inspection up to now. JOSE CABRERA (ZORITA) NPP has shown extensive damage, both in the lower side (weldment to the vessel) and in the upper free span area, near bimetallic weldment to SS 304, in active and nonactive penetrations and also in the vent nozzle. The paper comments extensively on the CRDH materials general data, root-cause analysis and structural analysis of degraded zones, inspection results, repair actions and other additional actions applied up to now. Finally, the paper deals with the regulatory actions taken by CSN on this topic, both for those NPP's actually non affected by the IGSCC phenomenon in the RPV CRDH's and for the specific safety case of ZORITA NPP. (author)

  1. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  2. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly SP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simon P Kelly, Graham MB ReevesThe Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UKPurpose: To consider the potential for ocular injury from writing implements by presenting four such cases, and to consider the incidence of such eye injuries from analysis of a national trauma database.Methods: The Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System was searched for records of eye injuries from writing instruments to provide UK estimates of such injuries. Four patients with ocular penetrating injury from pens or pencils (especially when caused by children, and examined by the authors, are described which illustrate mechanisms of injury.Results: It is estimated that around 748 ocular pen injuries and 892 ocular pencil injuries of undetermined severity occurred annually in the UK during the database surveillance period 2000–2002. No eye injuries from swords, including toy swords and fencing foils, were reported.Conclusion: Ocular perforation sometimes occur from writing instruments that are thrown in the community, especially by children. Implications for policy and prevention are discussed. Non-specialists should have a low threshold for referring patients with eye injuries if suspicious of ocular penetration, even where caused by everyday objects, such as writing instruments.Keywords: eye injury, eye, children, mechanism, writing instruments, prevention

  3. Penetrating chest injury: A miraculous life salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh B Dalavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual penetrating chest injury was caused by high velocity road traffic accident. An 18-year-old had a four wheeler accident and was brought in emergency department with a ′bamboo′ stick on the left side chest exiting through back. After the stabilization of vital parameters, an inter-costal tube drainage was done on the left side. Except the minor brochopleural fistula which healed by 10 th day, his recovery was uneventful. The outcome was consistent with current aggressive management of penetrating chest injuries. Management of penetrating chest injury involving pulmonary trauma is based on three principles. One is stabilization of hemodynamics of patient with proper clinical evaluation. Second, a mere intercostal tube drainage sufficient for majority of the cases. Third, post-operative active as well as passive physiotherapy is necessary for speedy recovery.

  4. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  5. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  6. Crack growth rates in vessel head penetration materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Blazquez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The cracks detected in reactor vessel head penetrations in certain European plants have been attributed to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). The penetrations in question are made from Inconel 600. The susceptibility of this alloy to PWSCC has been widely studied in relation to use of this material for steam generator tubes. When the first reactor vessel head penetration cracks were detected, most of the available data on crack propagation rates were from test specimens made from steam generator tubes and tested under conditions that questioned the validity of these data for assessment of the evolution of cracks in penetrations. For this reason, the scope of the Spanish Research Project on the Inspection and Repair of PWR reactor vessel head penetrations included the acquisition of data on crack propagation rates in Inconel 600, representative of the materials used for vessel head penetrations. (authors). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  7. The contemporary management of penetrating splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Regan J; Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Pasley, Jason; Teixeira, Pedro G; Esparza, Michael; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    Selective non-operative management (NOM) is standard of care for clinically stable patients with blunt splenic trauma and expectant management approaches are increasingly utilised in penetrating abdominal trauma, including in the setting of solid organ injury. Despite this evolution of clinical practice, little is known about the safety and efficacy of NOM in penetrating splenic injury. Trauma registry and medical record review identified all consecutive patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center with penetrating splenic injury between January 2001 and December 2011. Associated injuries, incidence and nature of operative intervention, local and systemic complications and mortality were determined. During the study period, 225 patients experienced penetrating splenic trauma. The majority (187/225, 83%) underwent emergent laparotomy. Thirty-eight clinically stable patients underwent a deliberate trial of NOM and 24/38 (63%) were ultimately managed without laparotomy. Amongst patients failing NOM, 3/14 (21%) underwent splenectomy while an additional 6/14 (42%) had splenorrhaphy. Hollow viscus injury (HVI) occurred in 21% of all patients failing NOM. Forty percent of all NOM patients had diaphragmatic injury (DI). All patients undergoing delayed laparotomy for HVI or a splenic procedure presented symptomatically within 24h of the initial injury. No deaths occurred in patients undergoing NOM. Although the vast majority of penetrating splenic trauma requires urgent operative management, a group of patients does present without haemodynamic instability, peritonitis or radiologic evidence of hollow viscus injury. Management of these patients is complicated as over half may remain clinically stable and can avoid laparotomy, making them potential candidates for a trial of NOM. HVI is responsible for NOM failure in up to a fifth of these cases and typically presents within 24h of injury. Delayed laparotomy, within this limited time period, did not appear to increase

  8. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society′s recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.

  9. Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period

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    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Objective: Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. Method: During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska. All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. Results: All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2% upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004, 196 (66% out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34% was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%. Conclusion: War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  10. [Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukosavljević, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska). All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB) were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2%) upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004), 196 (66%) out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34%) was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%). War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  11. CT analysis of missile head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenski, N.; Jadro-Santel, D.; Jelavic-Koic, F.; Pavic, D.; Mikulic, D.; Glavina, K.; Maskovic, J.

    1995-01-01

    Between August 1991 and December 1992, CT was performed in 154 patients who had suffered missile head injury during the war in the Republic of Croatia. In 54% CT was performed 1-24 h after injury, and in 27% follow-up CT was also obtained. The wounds were penetrating, tangential or perforating (45%, 34% and 21%, respectively). Haemorrhage was the most frequent lesion in the brain (84%). Follow-up CT evolution of haemorrhage, oedema, cerebritis, abscess, secondary vascular lesions, necrosis, encephalomalacia and hydrocephalus. The most dynamic changes occurred 7-14 days after injury. In 14% of cases, deep cerebral lesions were found in the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum periventricular region and pons, although bone and shell fragments were in a different part of the brain parenchyma. Such lesions were found in penetrating injuries only. CT proved very useful for assessing the extent and type of lesions. Although different mechanisms of brain damage in missile head injury are known, here they are, to the best of our knowledge, shown for the first time by CT. (orig.)

  12. LAPAROSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF RETROPERITONEAL INJURIES IN PENETRATING ABDOMINAL INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosai, F

    2017-09-01

    Laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal injuries is now accepted and practiced in many modern trauma centres. However its role in evaluating and managing retroperitoneal injuries is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to document our experience in using laparoscopy in a setting of penetrating abdominal injuries with suspected retroperitoneal injury in haemodynamically stable patients. A retrospective descriptive study of prospectively collected data from a trauma unit at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH) was done. All haemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal injury who were offered laparoscopy from January 2012 to December 2015 were reviewed and those who met the inclusion criteria were analysed. A total of 284 patients with penetrating abdominal injuries were reviewed and 56 met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. The median age was 30.8 years (15-60 years) and males constituted 87.5% of the study population. The most common mechanism of injury was penetrating stab wounds (62.5%). Forty-five patients (80.3%) were managed laparoscopically, of these n=16 (28.5%) had retroperitoneal injuries that required surgical intervention. The most commonly injured organ was the colon (19.6%). The conversion rate was 19.6% with most common indication for conversion been active bleeding (14%). The complication rate was 7.14% (N=4) and were all Clavien-Dindo grade 3. There were no recorded missed injuries and no mortality. The positive outcomes documented in this study with no missed injuries and absence of mortality suggests that laparoscopy is a feasible option in managing stable patients with suspected retroperitoneal injuries.

  13. Ureteric transection secondary to penetrating handlebar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Debbink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ureteric trauma is rare, occurring in <1% of all traumas. We present a unique case of a 13 year old female who sustained a penetrating abdominal injury from a bicycle handlebar. Upon initial examination there was herniation of bowel through the abdominal wound, so exploratory laparotomy was performed. A serosal injury of the colon and bleeding mesenteric veins were encountered; the retroperitoneum was not explored at that time. Postoperative course was remarkable for a doubling of the serum creatinine, increasing abdominal distention and pain. Computed tomography on postoperative day five demonstrated a large amount of intra-abdominal fluid. The patient was taken for re-exploration. The left ureter was found to be completely transected. It was repaired over a double-J stent. This case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of ureteric injury. Keywords: Ureter, Bicycle, Handlebar, Penetrating

  14. Deep penetrating brain injury with 20 years asymptomatic survival. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczek, M.; Pieninski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Authors report the case of penetrating injury of the head with large metallic fragment embedded to the brain with 20 years asymptomatic survival. Patient sustained head injury during work, 20 years ago and for these period of time was not aware of having foreign body intracranially with excellent general condition and no signs of neurological deficit. Metal nail was detected incidentally by plain skull X-ray films( and subsequent CT scan) during routine procedures when patient was admitted for surgical procedure. In our opinion presented case is uncommon because of asymptomatic course. Most of penetrating head injuries are considered as life threatening due to sudden onset, severe general patient condition and possible deterioration according to the type of injury and extent of cerebral destruction. For those reasons earliest possible neurosurgical treatment is recommended. We emphasize the role of debridement for most of brain penetration injuries. (author)

  15. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  16. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  17. Penetrating abdominal injury cases admitted in University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of penetrating abdominal injuries especially through gunshot injuries is on the increase and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our community. Control measures and ways of reducing morbidity and mortality are suggested. Keywords: penetrating abdominal injuries, gun shot injuries. Annals of ...

  18. Mechanical behaviour of pressure vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.; Ternon, F.; Vagner, J.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1994-01-01

    After leaks on Bugey 3 penetrations EdF and Framatome have started a study on the stress corrosion phenomenon of Inconel 600. In this paper, limited to the mechanical aspect, we present an estimation of in service stresses, the experimental program on mockup for visualize the surface stress and the noxiousness of potential cracks. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  19. Intention tremor after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwadate, Yasuo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Namba, Hiroki; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of intention tremor as a late complication of head injury were investigated. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 24 years. All received severe head injuries and lapsed into coma immediately afterward (Glasgow Coma Scale scores ≤8). Six patients exhibited decerebration or decortication. Hemiparesis was present in six cases and oculomotor nerve palsy in four. In the chronic stage, all patients displayed some degree of impairment of higher cortical function and five had dysarthria and/or ataxia. Initial computed tomography (CT) scans within 3 hours after the injury were obtained in five cases, of which four showed a hemorrhagic lesion in the midbrain or its surroundings. Other CT findings were diffuse cerebral swelling (four cases), intraventricular hemorrhage (three), and multiple hemorrhagic lesions (two). In the chronic stage, generalized cortical atrophy or ventricular enlargement was noted in five cases. These clinical features and CT findings indicate diffuse brain damage as well as midbrain damage and may reflect shearing injury. (author)

  20. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury | Mezue | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Associated chest injuries result in higher mortality from head injuries. This association is more likely in the young and more productive. All patients presenting with head and spinal cord injury should be specifically and carefully evaluated for associated chest injuries. Computerized tomographic has not replaced ...

  1. Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal Centre: Experience at Enugu, Nigeria. ... The thoracic spine{9(41%)}was most often involved. ... Five (23%) patients with injury at cervical level died from respiratory failure.

  2. Analysis of 178 penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ali; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Inaba, Kenji; Brown, Carlos; Browder, Timothy; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs), such as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, and intraabdominal abscess, commonly occur following penetrating abdominal trauma. However, most of the literature involves penetrating colon injuries. There are few reports describing complications following penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries. Based on the hypothesis that SSIs are commonly found following penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma, a prospective observational study was performed at an academic Level I trauma center from March 1, 2004 until August 31, 2006. The subjects were patients who had sustained a penetrating injury to the stomach or small bowel. Patients were followed for the development of an SSI, defined as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, or intraabdominal abscess. A total of 178 patients were admitted with penetrating stomach or small bowel injuries over the 29-month period. There were 121 (68%) gunshot injuries and 57 (32%) stab wounds. Associated intraabdominal injuries occurred in 74% of patients. Overall, SSIs occurred in 20% of cases. Risk factors for SSI included associated duodenal or colon injury, whereas time to operating room, blood loss, and type and duration of antibiotic use were not. When associated colon injuries were excluded, SSIs occurred in 16% of patients with gastric injuries and 13% of those with small bowel injuries. SSIs commonly follow penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma. Risk factors for SSI include associated duodenal or colon injury. Delay to operating room, blood loss, and type and length of antibiotic prophylaxis were not associated with an increased risk of SSI.

  3. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2002-06-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  4. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenski, N.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  5. Penetrating abdominal injuries in adults seen at two teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern and management outcome of penetrating abdominal injuries (PAI) in the two main teaching hospitals in Ghana. Study Design: A prospective ... Conclusion: Stab wounds are the main penetrating abdominal injuries seen mostly among young male adults in Ghana. Management was by a ...

  6. Essential radiology for head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, D.W.H.; Kreel, L.

    1988-01-01

    The book covers the guidelines established by the Royal College of Radiologists for the radiographic evaluation of head injuries. It presents a chapter reviewing the normal radiologic anatomy of the skull in six different projections. The advantages and limitations of each projection are addressed. The third chapter, contains 43 radiographs dedicated to the calcified pineal gland and other intracranial calcifications. The book reports on specific types of fractures: linear fractures of the vault, depressed fractures of the vault, fractures in children, fractures of the base of the skull, and fractures of the facial bones

  7. Tea Cup in the brain, a rare case of penetrating brain injury in pediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Arvind

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Head injuries are very common in children. All over the world, the most common mechanism is fall. These injuries are more prevalent in developing countries due to lack of education, poverty, lack of standard and scientific ways to child upbringing. Penetrating injuries in pediatric patients is extremely uncommon and usually occur due to sharp objects like knife, screw driver, drills, nails. We are reporting a rare case of a child with penetrating head injury due to tea cup, very commonly used crockery in every house hold. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has ever been reported in world literature. Our case also emphasized the need for educating people about child care.

  8. Impact of location on outcome after penetrating colon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Shahan, Charles P; Parks, Nancy A; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2012-12-01

    Most studies examining suture line failure after penetrating colon injuries have focused on right- versus left-sided injuries. In our institution, operative decisions (resection plus anastomosis vs. diversion) are based on a defined management algorithm regardless of injury location. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of injury location on outcomes after penetrating colon injuries. Consecutive patients with full thickness penetrating colon injuries for 13 years were stratified by age, injury location and mechanism, and severity of shock. According to the algorithm, patients with nondestructive injuries underwent primary repair. Destructive wounds underwent resection plus anastomosis in the absence of comorbidities or large preoperative or intraoperative transfusion requirements (>6 U of packed red blood cells); otherwise, they were diverted. Injury location was defined as ascending, transverse, descending (including splenic flexure), and sigmoid. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine whether injury location was an independent predictor of either morbidity or mortality. Four hundred sixty-nine patients were identified: 314 (67%) underwent primary repair and 155 (33%) underwent resection. Most injuries involved the transverse colon (39%), followed by the ascending colon (26%), the descending colon (21%), and the sigmoid colon (14%). Overall, there were 13 suture line failures (3%) and 72 abscesses (15%). Most suture line failures involved injuries to the descending colon (p = 0.06), whereas most abscesses followed injuries to the ascending colon (p = 0.37). Multivariable logistic regression failed to identify injury location as an independent predictor of either morbidity or mortality after adjusting for 24-hour transfusions, base excess, shock index, injury mechanism, and operative management. Injury location did not affect morbidity or mortality after penetrating colon injuries. Nondestructive injuries should be primarily

  9. Trans-orbital orbitocranial penetrating injury by pointed iron rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Tewari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-orbital orbitocranial penetrating injury (TOPI by a foreign body is an extremely rare compound head injury having a potential to cause major morbidity and mortality. Preoperative radiological imaging by CT scan is very important for operative guidance, but in remote area where CT scan is not available, the patient is generally referred to tertiary level. Here we present a case which was dealt successfully without CT scan, only on the basis of stable clinical status and X-rays. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who had an accidental injury (fall from height by rod. Immediate X-ray (anteroposterior and lateral views revealed that the pointed end of the foreign body (rod was inside the ipsilateral anterior fossa via basifrontal bone up to frontal vertex, not crossing the midline. CT scan was not available and his vitals with GCS were normal (15/15. He was operated with the help of an ophthalmic surgeon by right frontotemporal craniotomy. The patient was discharged on 10 th day without any neurological deficit except restricted right eyeball movement to superolateral and ptosis. The restricted eyeball movements recovered after third month of follow up with remnant ptosis for 2 years. This case highlights an unusual case, direct visualization and repair of brain structures with higher antibiotics can save the life even in remote areas where CT scan is still not available only on the basis of stable GCS and X-rays.

  10. Perioperative Care for Pediatric Patients With Penetrating Brain Injury: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhael, Marco; Frost, Elizabeth; Cristancho, Maria

    2017-05-19

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to be the leading cause of death and acquired disability in young children and adolescents, due to blunt or penetrating trauma, the latter being less common but more lethal. Penetrating brain injury (PBI) has not been studied extensively, mainly reported as case reports or case series, due to the assumption that both types of brain injury have common pathophysiology and consequently common management. However, recommendations and guidelines for the management of PBI differ from those of blunt TBI in regards to neuroimaging, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and surgical management including those pertaining to vascular injury. PBI was one of the exclusion criteria in the second edition of guidelines for the acute medical management of severe TBI in infants, children, and adolescents that was published in 2012 (it is referred to as "pediatric guidelines" in this review). Many reviews of TBI do not differentiate between the mechanisms of injury. We present an overview of PBI, its presenting features, epidemiology, and causes as well as an analysis of case series and the conclusions that may be drawn from those and other studies. More clinical trials specific to penetrating head injuries in children, focusing mainly on pathophysiology and management, are needed. The term PBI is specific to penetrating injury only, whereas TBI, a more inclusive term, describes mainly, but not only, blunt injury.

  11. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Although there have been significant advances in management, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. Extracranial injuries, especially chest injuries increase mortality in patients with TBI in both short.

  12. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  13. Civilian Penetrating Gunshot Injury to the Neurocranium in Enugu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... Table 1: Clinicodemographic profile of civilian penetrating gunshot neurocranial injuries ... (*Armed robbery, cultists, terrorism). [Downloaded free from ...

  14. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  15. Selective Nonoperative Management of Penetrating Abdominal Solid Organ Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Demetrios; Hadjizacharia, Pantelis; Constantinou, Costas; Brown, Carlos; Inaba, Kenji; Rhee, Peter; Salim, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and safety of selective nonoperative management in penetrating abdominal solid organ injuries. Background: Nonoperative management of blunt abdominal solid organ injuries has become the standard of care. However, routine surgical exploration remains the standard practice for all penetrating solid organ injuries. The present study examines the role of nonoperative management in selected patients with penetrating injuries to abdominal solid organs. Patients and Methods: Prospective, protocol-driven study, which included all penetrating abdominal solid organ (liver, spleen, kidney) injuries admitted to a level I trauma center, over a 20-month period. Patients with hemodynamic instability, peritonitis, or an unevaluable abdomen underwent an immediate laparotomy. Patients who were hemodynamically stable and had no signs of peritonitis were selected for further CT scan evaluation. In the absence of CT scan findings suggestive of hollow viscus injury, the patients were observed with serial clinical examinations, hemoglobin levels, and white cell counts. Patients with left thoracoabdominal injuries underwent elective laparoscopy to rule out diaphragmatic injury. Outcome parameters included survival, complications, need for delayed laparotomy in observed patients, and length of hospital stay. Results: During the study period, there were 152 patients with 185 penetrating solid organ injuries. Gunshot wounds accounted for 70.4% and stab wounds for 29.6% of injuries. Ninety-one patients (59.9%) met the criteria for immediate operation. The remaining 61 (40.1%) patients were selected for CT scan evaluation. Forty-three patients (28.3% of all patients) with 47 solid organ injuries who had no CT scan findings suspicious of hollow viscus injury were selected for clinical observation and additional laparoscopy in 2. Four patients with a “blush” on CT scan underwent angiographic embolization of the liver. Overall, 41 patients (27

  16. Management of penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekim, H.; Basel, H.; Odabasi, D.; Tuncer, M.; Gumrukcuoglu, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Penetrating heart injury is potentially a life threatening condition due to cardiac tamponade or exsanguinating hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to evaluate victims who were referred to our hospital with penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries and to review our overall outcome with this type of combined injuries. Methodology: Twenty patients with combined penetrating heart and lung injuries were operated at Yuzuncu Yil University Research Hospital, between May 1999 and January 2010. The diagnosis of combined heart and lung injuries was proved by surgical exploration in all cases. The surgical procedures mainly included the relief of cardiac tamponade, control of bleeding, repair of cardiac and pulmonary lacerations, and coronary artery bypass grafting if required. Results: In this series of 20 patients; there were 18 males and two females between the age of 14 to 60 years, with a mean age of 34.8+-13.5 years. Seventeen victims sustained stab wounds, and the remaining three were injured by a gunshot wounds. In 20 patients there were 22 cardiac chamber injuries. The most commonly injured cardiac chamber was the right ventricle followed by the left ventricle. In addition to the injuries to heart muscle, injuries to the coronary arteries were found in two patients. The most commonly injured lung lobe was the left upper lobe. Conclusion: Our experience shows that early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention are the main factors affecting patient survival after penetrating heart and lung injuries. Therefore, heart injury should always be kept in mind in victims with penetrating thoracic injuries. (author)

  17. Penetrating abdominal war injuries among the war victims at Lacor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospital for prompt and appropriate treatment. All cases of such injuries should have exploratory laparotomy as soon as possible. Introduction. Penetrating abdominal injuries among the war wounded present a challenge in its management especially in a situation with limited human and financial resources such as ours.

  18. Penetrating Brain Injury after Suicide Attempt with Speargun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ross Williams

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating cranial injury by mechanisms other than are exceedingly rare, and so strategies and guidelines for the management of PBI are largely informed by data from higher-velocity penetrating injuries. Here we present a case of penetrating brain injury by the low velocity mechanism of a harpoon from an underwater fishing speargun in an attempted suicide by a 56-year-old Caucasian male. The case raised a number of interesting points in management of lower-velocity penetrating brain injury (LVPBI, including benefit in delaying foreign body removal to allow for tamponade; the importance of history taking in establishing the social/legal significance of the events surrounding the injury; the use of cerebral angiogram in all cases of PBI; advantages of using DECT to reduce artifact when available; and antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of idiosyncratic histories of usage of penetrating objects before coming in contact with the intracranial environment. We present here the management of the case in full along with an extended discussion and review of existing literature regarding key points in management of LVPBI vs. higher velocity forms of intracranial injury.

  19. Ultrasonographic demonstration of intraneural neovascularization after penetrating nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Csillik, Anita; Dévay, Katalin; Rosero, Maja

    2018-06-01

    Hypervascularization of nerves has been shown to be a pathological sign in some peripheral nerve disorders, but has not been investigated in nerve trauma. An observational cohort study was performed of the intraneural blood flow of 30 patients (34 nerves) with penetrating nerve injuries, before or after nerve reconstruction. All patients underwent electrophysiological assessment, and B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography. Intraneural hypervascularization proximal to the site of injury was found in all nerves, which was typically marked and had a longitudinal extension of several centimeters. In 6 nerves, some blood flow was also present within the injury site or immediately distal to the injury. No correlation was found between the degree of vascularization and age, size of the scar / neuroma, or degree of reinnervation. Neovascularization of nerves proximal to injury sites appears to be an essential element of nerve regeneration after penetrating nerve injuries. Muscle Nerve 57: 994-999, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Primary repair of penetrating colon injuries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Marc A; Nelson, Richard L

    2002-12-01

    Primary repair of penetrating colon injuries is an appealing management option; however, uncertainty about its safety persists. This study was conducted to compare the morbidity and mortality of primary repair with fecal diversion in the management of penetrating colon injuries by use of a meta-analysis of randomized, prospective trials. We searched for prospective, randomized trials in MEDLINE (1966 to November 2001), the Cochrane Library, and EMBase using the terms colon, penetrating, injury, colostomy, prospective, and randomized. Studies were included if they were randomized, controlled trials that compared the outcomes of primary repair with fecal diversion in the management of penetrating colon injuries. Five studies were included. Reviewers performed data extraction independently. Outcomes evaluated from each trial included mortality, total complications, infectious complications, intra-abdominal infections, wound complications, penetrating abdominal trauma index, and length of stay. Peto odds ratios for combined effect were calculated with a 95 percent confidence interval for each outcome. Heterogeneity was also assessed for each outcome. The penetrating abdominal trauma index of included subjects did not differ significantly between studies. Mortality was not significantly different between groups (odds ratio, 1.70; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.51-5.66). However, total complications (odds ratio, 0.28; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18-0.42), total infectious complications (odds ratio, 0.41; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.27-0.63), abdominal infections including dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.59; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38-0.94), abdominal infections excluding dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.31-0.86), wound complications including dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.55; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.34-0.89), and wound complications excluding dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0

  1. Contemporary management of civilian penetrating cervicothoracic arterial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Jordan A; Moore, Andrew H; Magnotti, Louis J; Teague, Rebecca J; Ward, Tyler A; Wasmund, Joshua B; Lamb, Elena M P; Schroeppel, Thomas J; Savage, Stephanie A; Minard, Gayle; Maish, George O; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2016-08-01

    The management of arterial injury at the thoracic outlet has long hinged on the fundamental principles of extensile exposure and vascular anastomosis. Nonetheless, treatment options for such injuries have evolved to include both endovascular stent placement and temporary vascular shunts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our recent experience with penetrating cervicothoracic arterial injuries in light of these developments in trauma care. Patients with penetrating injuries to the innominate, carotid, subclavian, or axillary arteries managed at a single civilian trauma center between 2000 and 2013 were categorized as the modern era (ME) cohort. The management strategies and outcomes pertaining to the ME group were compared to those of previously reported experience (PE) concerning injuries to the innominate, carotid, subclavian, or axillary arteries at the same institution from 1974 to 1988. Over the two eras, there were 202 patients: 110 in the ME group and 92 in the PE group. Most of the injuries in both groups were managed with primary repair (45% vs. 46%; p = 0.89). A similar proportion of injuries in each group was managed with anticoagulation alone (14% vs. 10%; p = 0.40). In the ME group, two cases were managed with temporary shunt placement, and endovascular stent placement was performed in 12 patients. Outcomes were similar between the groups (bivariate comparison): mortality (ME, 15% vs. PE, 14%; p = 0.76), amputation following subclavian or axillary artery injury (ME, 5% vs. PE, 4%; p = 0.58), and posttreatment stroke following carotid injury (ME, 2% vs. PE, 6%; p = 0.57). Experience with penetrating arterial cervicothoracic injuries at a high-volume urban trauma center remained remarkably similar with respect to both anatomic distribution of injury and treatment. Conventional operative exposure and repair remain the cornerstone of treatment for most civilian cervicothoracic arterial injuries. Therapeutic study, level V.

  2. Independent risk factors of morbidity in penetrating colon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Sadullah; Gedik, Ercan; Uysal, Ersin; Taçyildiz, Ibrahim Halil

    2009-05-01

    The present study explored the factors effective on colon-related morbidity in patients with penetrating injury of the colon. The medical records of 196 patients were reviewed for variables including age, gender, factor of trauma, time between injury and operation, shock, duration of operation, Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI), Injury Severity Score (ISS), site of colon injury, Colon Injury Score, fecal contamination, number of associated intra- and extraabdominal organ injuries, units of transfused blood within the first 24 hours, and type of surgery. In order to determine the independent risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Gunshot wounds, interval between injury and operation > or =6 hours, shock, duration of the operation > or =6 hours, PATI > or =25, ISS > or =20, Colon Injury Score > or = grade 3, major fecal contamination, number of associated intraabdominal organ injuries >2, number of associated extraabdominal organ injuries >2, multiple blood transfusions, and diversion were significantly associated with morbidity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed diversion and transfusion of > or =4 units in the first 24 hours as independent risk factors affecting colon-related morbidity. Diversion and transfusion of > or =4 units in the first 24 hours were determined to be independent risk factors for colon-related morbidity.

  3. Operative management of penetrating carotid artery injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2011-07-01

    To analyse management and outcomes of carotid artery (CA) injuries. Retrospective study of the patients in the combat operations in Chechnya (1999-2002) and in peacetime (2003-2009). A total of 46 patients with missile (27) and stab (19) wounds, who had common and internal CA injury, underwent an open surgery. Temporary shunts (TSs) were placed in eight patients with more severe injuries. Retrospective analysis of patients' data. CA ligation and CA repair were performed in 9 and 37 patients, respectively. Of the nine patients with CA ligation, five developed neurologic deficit; the remaining four patients died (100% of poor outcomes). Of the 37 patients with blood flow restoration, nine patients died and neurologic deficit persisted in two patients (30% of poor outcomes) (p < 0.05). Among patients with TS, three patients died and two had stable neurologic deficit (63% of poor results). Of the patients without TS, 10 patients died and five had neurologic disorders (56% of poor outcomes) (p = 0.53). CA repair is the method of choice in CA injury. TS use does not result in a decreased mortality rate or neurologic deficit reduction in patients with severe injuries. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anabolic steroids and head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Bailes, Julian E; Turner, Ryan C; Dodson, Sean C; Sakai, Jun; Maroon, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that neurological changes seen in the syndrome of chronic traumatic encephalopathy may be due to exogenous anabolic steroid use rather than traumatic brain injury. To determine whether administration of anabolic steroids alters the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and a linear acceleration model of traumatic brain injury were used. Experimental groups were (1) preinjury anabolic steroids, (2) preinjury placebo carrier, (3) anabolic steroids without injury, (4) no steroids and no injury, (5) postinjury placebo carrier, and (6) postinjury anabolic steroids. Following a 30-day recovery, rats were euthanized, and brainstem white matter tracts underwent fluorescent immunohistochemical processing and labeling of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Digital imaging and statistical analyses were used to determine whether anabolic steroid administration resulted in a significant change in the number of injured axons. There was no statistically significant difference in number of APP-positive axons by immunohistochemical analysis between respective anabolic steroid and placebo groups. Using a standard acceleration-deceleration model of mild traumatic brain injury, we have shown successful visualization of traumatically injured axons with antibody staining of APP. Our results indicate no statistically significant effect of anabolic steroids on the number of APP-positive axons. With the use of this model, and within its limitations, we see no adverse effect or causative role of anabolic steroid administration on the brain following mild traumatic brain injury using APP counts as a marker for anatomic injury.

  5. The role of diagnostic VATS in penetrating thoracic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guasti Guido

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penetrating chest injuries account for 1–13% of thoracic trauma hospital admissions and most of these are managed with a conservative approach. Nevertheless, 18–30% of cases managed only with tube thoracostomy have residual clotted blood, considered the major risk factor for the development of fibrothorax and empyema. In addition, 4–23% of chest injury patients present persistent pneumothorax and 15–59% present an injury to the diaphragm, which is missed in 30% of cases. In order to make a correct diagnosis, reduce the number of missed injuries, chronic sequelae and late mortality we propose performing surgical exploration of all patients with a penetrating injury of the pleural cavity. Methods 1270 patients who sustained thoracic trauma were admitted to our hospital between 1994 and 2004. Of these, 16 patients had penetrating injuries: thirteen were surgically explored by means of Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS, and 3 with thoracotomy due to hemodynamic instability or suspected lesion of the heart or great vessels. Results In the 13 patients who underwent VATS, 5 injuries to the diaphragm, 3 lesions to an intercostal artery, and 1 lesion to the diaphragmatic artery were detected. In 12 of these patients a laceration of the pulmonary parenchyma was also present. A conversion to thoracotomy was necessary due to a broad laceration of the diaphragm and due to hemostasis of an intercostal artery. In all but one case, which was later converted, diagnostic imaging missed the diagnosis of laceration of the diaphragm. There was no intra- or postoperative mortality, and average hospital stay was five days. Conclusion VATS is a safe and effective way to diagnose and manage penetrating thoracic injuries, and its extensive use leads to a reduction in the number of missed, potentially fatal lesions as well as in chronic sequelae.

  6. [Penetrant injuries of colon--our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazović, R; Krivokapić, Z; Dobricanin, V

    2010-01-01

    In attemption to determine the place of primary repair in management of colon injuries, an open, non randomized clinical study was performed. Retrospective (RS) group of 62 patients according to exclusion criteria by Stone (S/F) and Flint (F1) was managed by one or two stage surgical procedure. Prospective (PR) group of 34 patients was managed using one stage repair non-selectively: two stage procedures were performed in 3 cases of advanced peritonitis and multi-segmental lacerations with impaired circulation of colon. In RS group 36 patients were managed by primary repair and in PR group, 31 were managed by primary repair. Both groups were of similar age/sex. Indexes of trauma severity were similar (TS, ISS, PATI). The latent time was shorter in PR group. Associated injuries to other body regions and abdominal organs were similar in both groups. S/F criteria and Flint grading in both (RS vs. PR) groups were similar. Comparison of attempted and successful primary repairs justifies the more liberal use of primary repair in early management of colon injuries.

  7. [Our experience in the cases with penetrating colonic injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahya, Mehmet Cemal; Derici, Hayrullah; Cin, Necat; Tatar, Fatma; Peker, Yasin; Genç, Hüdai; Deniz, Vedat; Reyhan, Enver

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the factors that effect the morbidity and mortality in patients with penetrating colonic injuries were evaluated. Fourty-two patients (37 males, 5 females; mean age 30,1; range 14 to 63 years) with penetrating colonic trauma were evaluated according to age, gender, type of penetrating trauma, location and severity of the colonic injury, associated injury, interval between the trauma and the definitive operation, hemodynamic status, blood transfusion requirement, fecal contamination, surgical procedure, postoperative complication and mortality. Type of the penetrating trauma was stab injury in twenty-eight (67%) patients, and gunshot injury in fourteen (33%) patients. The mean Colon Injury Severity Score was 2,1. The mean Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI) was 17,2 and it was over than 25 in eight (19%) patients. The symptoms of shock were present in eleven (26%) patients at admission. Blood transfusions were applied in sixteen (38%) patients. In twenty-one patients intraabdominal bleeding was observed and it was more than 500 mL in eleven (26%) patients. Primary repair was performed in 36 (86%) of the 42 patients and colostomy was performed in six (14%) patients. Morbidity and mortality rates were 41% and 10% respectively. It was found that morbidity rates were increased in patients with ATI score higher than 25, and mortality rates were increased in patients presenting shock at admission, with the amount of intraabdominal blood more than 500 mL, and who needed three or more units of blood transfusion. The primary repair of the penetrating colon trauma can be performed confidently in the hemodynamically stable patients with ATI score less than 25.

  8. Sports-related Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and head gear come in many sizes and styles for many sports and must properly fit to ... to play or practice." The "Concussion Diagnosis and Management" section details circumstances in which an athlete should ...

  9. Selective observational management of penetrating neck injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The most appropriate management of penetrating neck injury (PNI) remains controversial. This study was conducted to determine the accuracy and safety of physical examination as the basis of selective observational management of PNI at our institution. Methods. The study was conducted between 1991 and ...

  10. Laparoscopic repair of penetrating injury of the diaphragm: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we review our experience in using laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in dealing with penetrating diaphragmatic injuries due to stab wounds and look at the feasibility of using this procedure in other similar institutions. Thirty patients, all of whom were males 20-30 years of age, presented to the ...

  11. Nonoperative management of penetrating kidney injuries: a prospective audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolman, C; Navsaria, P H; Lazarus, J; Pontin, A; Nicol, A J

    2012-07-01

    The role of nonoperative management for penetrating kidney injuries is unknown. Therefore, we review the management and outcome of penetrating kidney injuries at a center with a high incidence of penetrating trauma. Data from all patients presenting with hematuria and/or kidney injury discovered on imaging or at surgery admitted to the trauma center at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa during a 19-month period (January 2007 to July 2008) were prospectively collected and reviewed. These data were analyzed for demographics, injury mechanism, perioperative management, nephrectomy rate and nonoperative success. Patients presenting with hematuria and with an acute abdomen underwent a single shot excretory urogram. Those presenting with hematuria without an indication for laparotomy underwent computerized tomography with contrast material. A total of 92 patients presented with hematuria following penetrating abdominal trauma. There were 75 (80.4%) proven renal injuries. Of the patients 84 were men and the median age was 26 years (range 14 to 51). There were 50 stab wounds and 42 gunshot renal injuries. Imaging modalities included computerized tomography in 60 cases and single shot excretory urography in 18. There were 9 patients brought directly to the operating room without further imaging. A total of 47 patients with 49 proven renal injuries were treated nonoperatively. In this group 4 patients presented with delayed hematuria, of whom 1 had a normal angiogram and 3 underwent successful angioembolization of arteriovenous fistula (2) and false aneurysm (1). All nonoperatively managed renal injuries were successfully treated without surgery. There were 18 nephrectomies performed for uncontrollable bleeding (11), hilar injuries (2) and shattered kidney (3). Post-nephrectomy complications included 1 infected renal bed hematoma requiring percutaneous drainage. Of the injuries found at laparotomy 12 were not explored, 2 were drained and 5 were treated with

  12. Penetrating cardiac injury by wire thrown from a lawn mower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, P A; Reul, G J

    1979-01-01

    The first successful surgically treated case of penetrating heart injury, specifically the right ventricle, caused by a fragment of coat hanger wire thrown by a lawn mower, is reported. Though traumatic heart injuries are rare, this case represents accurate surgical management and judgment, especially in the preoperative phase which resulted in early operating and excellent postoperative results. It is our feeling that if the patient can be transferred safely to the operating room the mortality rate is considerably lowered; however, emergency room thoracotomy, which will undoubtedly result in a greater survival rate from these spectacular injuries, should be performed in the emergency center if cardiac activity ceases or the patient's condition deteriorates considerably.

  13. "Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A

    2014-04-01

    Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Penetrating Cardiac and Hepatic Injury; Polytrauma of a Child After Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Akca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After a bombing attack, patients were brought into hospital suffering from a combination of injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries and burns which as a case of polytrauma. In penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries due to bombing possibility of cardiac injury should be kept in mind. Penetrating cardiac injuries in children are rare but has a high mortality and morbidity. In some cases there may be difficulty in diagnosis of penetrating cardiac injury. In this case we want to share the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up processes of penetrating cardiac and hepatic injury with burns of a politrauma child due to bombing.

  15. Penetrating pancreatico-duodenal injuries: a 2-year experience at cmh peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, R.A.; Qasmi, S.A.; Waqas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To outline the various treatment options and outcomes in penetrating pancreatico-duodenal injuries with emphasis on the operative decision making strategies. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery at Combined Military Hospital Peshawar, from 1st June 2008 to 30th May 2010. Patients and Methods: All combat casualties with penetrating pancreaticoduodenal injuries (PPDI) received in 'Emergency reception' of Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar were included. Data was taken from the patients medical charts and by personal evaluation and entered in a proforma. The variables used were age, sex, cause of the injury, haemo-dynamic status, conscious level, intensive care treatment duration, time to initial exploration, associated injury, grade of pancreatic injury according to Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) scoring system, grade of duodenal injury (according to PATI scoring system), total PATI score, operative repair, total hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality. Results: Twenty three patients having either or both of PPDI were included in the study out of 196 combat casualities. No case was excluded on basis of presence of associated injury. Mean age was 29.26 years (SD+-6.489) with only one (4.3%) case of female gender, the rest were male patients or soldiers. Nineteen (82.6%) cases had primary mechanism/cause of injury being splinters from Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) or bomb blasts; while 4 (17.4%) cases had Gunshot Wounds. Eighteen (78.3%) patients were haemo-dynamically stable on arrival while 5 (21.7%) patients were unstable. Mean duration of stay in hospital was 10.6 days, with a range of 1-19 days (cases with high PATI score and un-stable haemodynamic status died with-in 24 hrs). Most cases of pancreatico-duodenal injury were of mild severity i.e. grade-1 or 2 and we encountered no case of grade-5 PPDI. Most commonly occurring associated injury was to small gut. Overall mortality was 6 (26

  16. Computational fluid dynamic analysis of a closure head penetration in a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D.R.; Schwirian, R.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    ALLOY 600 has been used typically for penetrations through the closure head in pressurized water reactors because of its thermal compatibility with carbon steel, superior resistance to chloride attack and higher strength than the austenitic stainless steels. Recent plant operating experience with this alloy has indicated that this material may be susceptible to degradation. One of the major parameters relating to degradation of the head penetrations are the operational temperatures and stress levels in the penetration.

  17. Neurosurgery for management of severe head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.; Richter, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Neurosurgery as a treatment of severe head injuries is not restricted to invasive surgery but also includes peri-operative intensive care medicine. Thanks to the technological progress and advanced diagnostic tools, especially drug treatments and their efficiency as well as risks can be far better monitored and analysed today. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Tube pancreatico-duodenostomy for management of a severe penetrating pancreaticoduodenal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis; Boulas, Konstantinos A; Barettas, Nikolaos; Papageorgiou, Irene; Blouhos, Konstantinos

    2014-05-27

    Optimal management of penetrating pancreaticoduodenal injuries and better outcomes are associated with simple, fast damage control surgery and shorter operative time. The performance of pyloric exclusion and tube duodenostomy has markedly decreased. However, there is still a trend toward their performance in cases of delay duodenal repair or severe pancreaticoduodenal injury. The present report describes a case of a hemodynamically stable patient with a single penetrating gunshot trauma causing an AAST-OIS grade III pancreatic head injury and grade IV injury of the second portion of the duodenum. The patient was treated in our Level IV rural trauma center and submitted to primary closure of the posterolateral duodenal wall (the laceration of the contralateral inner medial duodenal wall could not be repaired), external duodenal and pancreatic drainage, and duodenal decompression by tube pancreatico-duodenostomy (insertion of a 18 Fr Foley catheter through the laceration of the pancreatic head toward the duodenal lumen), tube cholangiostomy, and pyloric exclusion accompanied with a feeding jejunostomy. Tube pancreatico-duodenostomy, which is described for the first time in the literature, turned out to be effective and can be considered as an option in pancreaticoduodenal trauma when the inner medial duodenal wall cannot be repaired.

  19. A Case of Undesired Bleb Developed After Penetrating Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Ozgonul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-year-old male patient was admitted to our policlinic with stinging, burning and itching in both eyes. Ophthalmological examination revealed avascular undesired bleb that releated with anterior chamber at 2-3 hour quadrant nasal limbus with the surrounding corneal and conjunctival epithelium was vascularized and the dimension was 3x3x3 mm. Towards these findings, we questioned the patient again and we found that, 40 years ago, a broken part of the shaving razor had injured his eye. After penetrating injury of the eye, because of the sutured wound leakage, undesired bleb formations can be seen. We suggest that kind of patient shold be followed up to prevent late complications of penetrating injury.

  20. Penetrating cardiac injuries in blunt chest wall trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Sirohi, Parmendra

    2012-08-01

    The present photocase illustrates the possible mechanism of direct cardiac injuries from broken sharp jagged fractured ends of ribs in blunt force trauma to the chest in run over traffic mishaps. We propose that the projecting fractured ends of the ribs penetrate the underlying thoracic organs due to the transient phenomenon of deformation of chest cavity under pressure in run over traffic mishaps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Capabilities of Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries Induced by Ballistic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.

  2. Head injury and risk for Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Lee, Pei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    in medical records. Patients were matched to 1,785 controls randomly selected from the Danish Central Population Register on sex and year of birth. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We observed no association between any head......OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between head injuries throughout life and the risk for Parkinson disease (PD) in an interview-based case-control study. METHODS: We identified 1,705 patients diagnosed with PD at 10 neurologic centers in Denmark in 1996-2009 and verified their diagnoses...

  3. Assessment and outcome of 496 penetrating gastrointestinal warfare injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafinia, M; Nafissi, N; Motamedi, M R K; Motamedi, M H K; Hashemzade, M; Hayati, Z; Panahi, F

    2010-03-01

    The abdominal viscera are among the most vulnerable organs of the body to penetrating trauma. Proper management of such trauma in war victims at the first-line hospital where these victims are first seen is of paramount importance. We reviewed medical records of war victims suffering small bowel and colorectal injuries treated at first, second and third-line hospitals during the Iraq-Iran War (1980-88) to assess surgical outcomes. The medical records of 496 Iranian war victims suffering penetrating gastrointestinal (GI) injuries treated at first, second and third-line (tertiary) hospitals, a total of 19 centres, were reviewed. Laparotomy had been performed at the 1st line hospitals for all patients who had an acute abdomen, whose wounds violated the peritoneum or whose abdominal radiographs showed air or shrapnel in the abdominal cavity. Stable patients were transferred from first-line to second-line or from second line to tertiary hospitals postoperatively. The treatments, complications and patient outcomes were documented and analyzed. There were 496 patients; 145, 220 and 131 victims underwent laparotomy for GI injuries at first, second and third-line hospitals respectively. The small intestine and colon respectively were the most prevalent abdominal organs damaged. Those first treated for GI injuries at front-line hospitals (145 victims) had more serious conditions and could not be transferred prior to surgery and presented a higher prevalence of complications and mortality. Overall mortality from GI surgery was 3.6% (18 patients). Eleven patients (7.5%) whose first GI operation was performed at frontline hospitals and 7 patients (3.2%) who underwent their first surgical operation at second-line hospitals died. The most common reason for these deaths was complications relating to the gastrointestinal operation such as anastomotic leak. Six missed injuries were seen at the frontline and one at second line hospitals. There were no deaths at the 3rd line hospitals

  4. Vessel head penetrations: French approach for maintenance in the PLIM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champigny, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1991, in the Bugey nuclear power plant, for the first time a leak occurred at the level of a vessel head penetration made with base nickel alloy (Inconel 600). This leak was caused by a primary stress corrosion cracking coming from inside the penetration tube. The crack was trough wall extent and primary fluid went out from the top of the vessel head. Immediately, Electricite de France launched important research programs and expertise in order to understand the root causes and propose solutions to this problem. The root causes confirmed PWSCC, and in the same time solutions for repair were studied and an inspection program was established to check the base metal of other vessel head penetrations. After several tests, repair solutions were abandoned because of their high costs (financial and dosimetry). EDF decided to replace all the vessel heads with Inconel 600 penetrations. Non destructive developments leaded to use eddy currents for detection and characterization but also televisual techniques to confirm. In a second step, in order to inspect without removing the inside thermal sleeve, eddy current and ultrasonic sword probes were achieved and used to inspect all vessel heads penetrations. Up to now, 75% of the vessel head have been replaced on the 900 MW and 1300 MW fleets but to replace wisely the last vessel heads EDF continues to perform NDE of the penetrations on the basis of safety criteria. This paper describes the different steps of the applied policy in France, NDE methods, criteria and the results obtained. (author)

  5. Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.

  6. Right thalamic infarction after closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Takashi; Doi, Terushige; Katsumata, Tsuguo; Kuwayama, Naoto

    1986-01-01

    We reported a case of right thalamic infarction after a closed head injury. A 12-year-old boy was hit by an autotruck. He was semi-comatose, with left temporal scalp swelling and excoriation in the left lower limb. Three days after the accident, he exhibited left hemiparesis. CT scans on the day of the accident showed no abnormality, but on the following day, right thalamic infarction appeared. Right carotid angiography showed only an irregular vascular shadow in the cisternal segment of the right internal carotid artery. Vascular obstruction after closed head injury is rare, especially in the intracranial vessels, and several pathogeneses may be postulated. The right thalamic infarction in this case was supposed to be due to the damage of the perforators from the right posterior communicating artery and the right posterior cerebral artery, which were struck as a contre-coup by the force from the left side. (author)

  7. Nail gun injuries to the head with minimal neurological consequences: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoshi, Ziyad; AlKherayf, Fahad; Da Silva, Vasco; Lesiuk, Howard

    2016-03-16

    An estimated 3700 individuals are seen annually in US emergency departments for nail gun-related injuries. Approximately 45 cases have been reported in the literature concerning nail gun injuries penetrating the cranium. These cases pose a challenge for the neurosurgeon because of the uniqueness of each case, the dynamics of high pressure nail gun injuries, and the surgical planning to remove the foreign body without further vascular injury or uncontrolled intracranial hemorrhage. Here we present four cases of penetrating nail gun injuries with variable presentations. Case 1 is of a 33-year-old white man who sustained 10 nail gunshot injuries to his head. Case 2 is of a 51-year-old white man who sustained bi-temporal nail gun injuries to his head. Cases 3 and 4 are of two white men aged 22 years and 49 years with a single nail gun injury to the head. In the context of these individual cases and a review of similar cases in the literature we present surgical approaches and considerations in the management of nail gun injuries to the cranium. Case 1 presented with cranial nerve deficits, Case 2 required intubation for low Glasgow Coma Scale, while Cases 3 and 4 were neurologically intact on presentation. Three patients underwent angiography for assessment of vascular injury and all patients underwent surgical removal of foreign objects using a vice-grip. No neurological deficits were found in these patients on follow-up. Nail gun injuries can present with variable clinical status; mortality and morbidity is low for surgically managed isolated nail gun-related injuries to the head. The current case series describes the surgical use of a vice-grip for a good grip of the nail head and controlled extraction, and these patients appear to have a good postoperative prognosis with minimal neurological deficits postoperatively and on follow-up.

  8. [Diagnostic and organizational error in head injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Czesław; Zaba, Zbigniew; Swiderski, Paweł; Lorkiewicz-Muszyíska, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at presenting a case of a diagnostic and organizational error involving lack of detection of foreign body presence in the soft tissues of the head. Head radiograms in two projections clearly demonstrated foreign bodies that resembled in shape flattened bullets, which could not have been missed upon evaluation of the X-rays. On the other hand, description of the radiograms entered by the attending physicians to the patient's medical record indicated an absence of traumatic injuries or foreign bodies. In the opinion of the authors, the case in question involved a diagnostic error: the doctors failed to detect the presence of foreign bodies in the head. The organizational error involved the failure of radiogram evaluation performed by a radiologist.

  9. Design improvement for partial penetration welds of Pressurizer heater sleeves to head junctures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Seon; Lee, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Tae-Jung; Kim, Moo-Yong

    2007-01-01

    ASME Code, Section III allows partial penetration welds for openings for instrumentation on which there are substantially no piping reactions and requires to have interference fit or limited diametral clearance between nozzles and vessel penetrations for the partial penetration welds. Pressurizer heater sleeves are nonaxisymmetrically attached on the hill-side of bottom head by partial penetration welds. The excessive stresses in the partial penetration weld regions of the heater sleeves are induced by pressure and thermal transient loads and also by the deformation due to manual welding process. The purpose of this study is 1) to improve design for the partial penetration welds between heater sleeves to head junctures, 2) to demonstrate the structural integrity according to the requirements of ASME Code, Section III and 3) to improve welding procedure considering the proposed design

  10. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren, E-mail: warren.reed@sydney.edu.au [Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  11. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda; Reed, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings

  12. Microglial Inflammasome Activation in Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephanie W; Gajavelli, Shyam; Spurlock, Markus S; Andreoni, Cody; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Bullock, M Ross; Keane, Robert W; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2018-04-02

    Penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is a significant cause of death and disability in the United States. Inflammasomes are one of the key regulators of the interleukin (IL)-1β mediated inflammatory responses after traumatic brain injury. However, the contribution of inflammasome signaling after PTBI has not been determined. In this study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham procedures or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and sacrificed at various time-points. Tissues were assessed by immunoblot analysis for expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and components of the inflammasome: apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), and gasdermin-D (GSDMD). Specific cell types expressing inflammasome proteins also were evaluated immunohistochemically and assessed quantitatively. After PBBI, expression of IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1, ASC, XIAP, and NLRP3 peaked around 48 h. Brain protein lysates from PTBI animals showed pyroptosome formation evidenced by ASC laddering, and also contained increased expression of GSDMD at 48 h after injury. ASC-positive immunoreactive neurons within the perilesional cortex were observed at 24 h. At 48 h, ASC expression was concentrated in morphologically activated cortical microglia. This expression of ASC in activated microglia persisted until 12 weeks following PBBI. This is the first report of inflammasome activation after PBBI. Our results demonstrate cell-specific patterns of inflammasome activation and pyroptosis predominantly in microglia, suggesting a sustained pro-inflammatory state following PBBI, thus offering a therapeutic target for this type of brain injury.

  13. Civilian Penetrating Gunshot Injury to the Neurocranium in Enugu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyia, Ephraim Eziechina; Chikani, Mark C; Mezue, Wilfred C; Uche, Enoch O; Iloabachie, Izuchukwu; Mesi, Matthew; Ejembi, Sunday; Agunwa, Chuka

    2017-01-01

    Civilian penetrating gunshot injuries to the neurocranium are no longer uncommon in Nigeria. Such injuries are however poorly reported. They are associated with poor outcome and, at close range, are frequently fatal, especially when inflicted by high-velocity weapons. Prompt transfer to neurosurgical service and urgent intervention may improve outcome in those that are not mortally wounded. Fifty-two patients with civilian penetrating gunshot wounds seen over a 10-year period (2004-2014) at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery Enugu were reviewed retrospectively, and their data were analyzed to evaluate factors that impacted on outcome. Only patients with clinical and imaging evidence of cranial gunshot injuries who reached hospital alive were included in the study. The overall mortality and Glasgow outcome score were analyzed. Fifty-two patients with isolated civilian penetrating gunshot wounds were identified (M:F = 7.7:1); mean (standard deviation) age was 32.8 (11.9) years. There was a high correlation (0.983) between the sex of the patients and the outcome. The overall mortality was 30.8%, whereas the mortality for patients with postresuscitation Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score ≤8 was 57%, as against 12.9% in those in whom postresuscitation GCS was >8; meaning that 87.1% of patients in whom postresuscitation GCS was >8 survived. Thirty-one patients (59.6%) had papillary abnormalities. Majority of patients with monohemispheric lesions survived while all those with diencephalic, transventricular, and posterior fossa involvement had 100% mortality. Admitting GCS and bullet trajectory were predictive of outcome.

  14. Civilian penetrating gunshot injury to the neurocranium in Enugu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Eziechina Onyia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Civilian penetrating gunshot injuries to the neurocranium are no longer uncommon in Nigeria. Such injuries are however poorly reported. They are associated with poor outcome and, at close range, are frequently fatal, especially when inflicted by high-velocity weapons. Prompt transfer to neurosurgical service and urgent intervention may improve outcome in those that are not mortally wounded. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two patients with civilian penetrating gunshot wounds seen over a 10-year period (2004–2014 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery Enugu were reviewed retrospectively, and their data were analyzed to evaluate factors that impacted on outcome. Only patients with clinical and imaging evidence of cranial gunshot injuries who reached hospital alive were included in the study. The overall mortality and Glasgow outcome score were analyzed. Results: Fifty-two patients with isolated civilian penetrating gunshot wounds were identified (M:F = 7.7:1; mean (standard deviation age was 32.8 (11.9 years. There was a high correlation (0.983 between the sex of the patients and the outcome. The overall mortality was 30.8%, whereas the mortality for patients with postresuscitation Glasgow coma scale (GCS score ≤8 was 57%, as against 12.9% in those in whom postresuscitation GCS was> 8; meaning that 87.1% of patients in whom postresuscitation GCS was> 8 survived. Thirty-one patients (59.6% had papillary abnormalities. Majority of patients with monohemispheric lesions survived while all those with diencephalic, transventricular, and posterior fossa involvement had 100% mortality. Conclusions: Admitting GCS and bullet trajectory were predictive of outcome.

  15. Head and neck injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at four hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Buch, Karen; Sung, Edward; Abujudeh, Hani; Sakai, Osamu; Aaron, Sodickson; Lev, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of head and neck injuries in patients from the Boston Marathon bombing. A total of 115 patients from the Boston Marathon bombing presenting to four hospitals who underwent imaging to evaluate for head and neck injuries were included in the study. Twelve patients with positive findings on radiography or cross-sectional imaging were included in the final analysis. The radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of these patients were evaluated for the presence of shrapnel and morphological abnormality. Head and neck injuries were seen in 12 out of 115 patients presenting to the four hospitals. There were secondary blast injuries to the head and neck in eight patients, indicated by the presence of shrapnel on imaging. In the four patients without shrapnel, there were two with subgaleal hematomas, one with facial contusion and one with mastoid injury. There were two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with brain contusion, one with cerebral laceration, and one with globe rupture. There was frontal bone, nasal bone, and orbital wall fracture in one patient each. Imaging identified 26 shrapnel fragments, 21 of which were ball bearings. Injuries to the head and neck region identified on imaging from the Boston Marathon bombing were not common. The injuries seen were predominantly secondary blast injuries from shrapnel, and did not result in calvarial penetration of the shrapnel fragments.

  16. Integrity evaluation of Alloy 600 RV head penetration tubes in Korean PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sung Ho; Hong, Sung Yull; Choi, Kwang Hee

    1995-01-01

    The structural integrity assessment of Alloy 600 RV head penetration tubes has been an important issue for the economical and reliable operation of power plants. In this paper, an overview of the integrity evaluation program for the RV head penetration tubes in Korean nuclear power plants is presented. Since the crack growth mechanism of the penetration tube is due to the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) which is mainly related to the stress at the tube, the present paper consists of three primary activities: the stress evaluation, the flaw evaluation, and data generation through material and mechanical tests. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  17. Computerised tomographic patterns in patients with head injury at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... The clinical severity of head injury is classified based on ... head injury include road traffic accidents (RTA), assaults, ... information in the management of patients with head ... Materials and Methods ... The right cerebral hemisphere was involved in 13 cases .... Nerve palsies – 3rd, 5th, 6th cranial nerves. 3.

  18. PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF HEAD INJURY | Shehu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For an effective practical management of head injury, a clear knowledge of the various causes and mechanism of head injury is essential. The concept of the brain in a rigid cranial cavity makes the pathophysiological mechanism of head trauma unique. Most problems occur due to poor handling of patients at the site of ...

  19. Postmortem CT of severe head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaru; Tsukahara, Yoshio; Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Horikoshi, Satoru; Yodonawa, Masahiko

    1983-01-01

    CT findings of fatal head injuries were analysed for the cause of death. Postmortem CT examinations were undertaken on 14 cases who died before reaching the hospital or shortly after arrival at the hospital (immediate death group). CT were also examined in non-operative 20 cases who were comatose and who died within 24 hours after severe head injuries (early death group). In the immediate death group, the following findings were demonstrated: a huge amount of free intracranial and intraventricular air in 8 cases; traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 3 cases; a mixture of pneumocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 2 cases, and intracranial hematoma in 1 case. In the early death group: a mixture of pneumocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 2 cases; traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in 5 cases; intracranial hematoma in 11 cases, and brain contusion in 2 cases. The huge amount of intracranial free air due to the severe fracture of the skull base will make the CNS collapse immediately. Basal subarachnoid hemorrhage with signs of brain-stem injuries may result in instantaneous death. Acute subdural hematoma with contusion and edema in elderly patients was the most frequent cause of death in the early death group. (author)

  20. Head injury management guidelines for general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Ganz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete examination of a head injured patient in the hospital requires a number of instruments. These include a stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, ophthalmoscope, otoscope, cotton wool, safety pin, tuning fork, reflex hammer and a small key to test the plantar response. Few of these are required at the accident scene. This is because, in the hospital, the aim is optimal definitive treatment. At the accident scene, the aim is prevention of secondary injury, rapid recording of the most important findings and safe efficient transport to the hospital. This short paper reviews how the local doctor should undertake a neurosurgical assessment of traumatic brain injury patients. Moreover, the primary management at accident scenes is described and the rationale behind the approach is outlined

  1. Brain SPECT in severs traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, F.; Eder, V.; Pottier, J.M.; Baulieu, J.L.; Fournier, P.; Legros, B.; Chiaroni, P.; Dalonneau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of the early brain scintigraphy in traumatic brain injury to the long term neuropsychological behavior. Twenty four patients had an ECD-Tc99m SPECT, within one month after the trauma; scintigraphic abnormalities were evaluated according to a semi-quantitative analysis. The neuropsychological clinical investigation was interpreted by a synthetic approach to evaluate abnormalities related to residual motor deficit, frontal behavior, memory and language disorders. Fourteen patients (58%) had sequela symptoms. SPECT revealed 80 abnormalities and CT scan only 31. Statistical analysis of uptake values showed significantly lower uptake in left basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with sequela memory disorders. We conclude that the brain perfusion scintigraphy is able to detect more lesions than CT and that it could really help to predict the neuropsychological behavior after severe head injury. Traumatology could become in the future a widely accepted indication of perfusion SPECT. (authors)

  2. Penetrating abdominal injury and peritonitis: A rare case of birth Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar Shreeprasad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of birth injuries has decreased considerably because of the identification of risk factors at an earlier stage and taking the decision for caesarian section (LSCS at proper time. Fractures, nerve palsies and central nervous system injuries comprise the majority of "birth injuries." In this study, we report a newborn that had a birth injury during LSCS. The baby sustained a penetrating abdominal injury by the knife of the surgeon, while performing LSCS. The bowel was injured at two sites, proximal jejunum and descending colon. The baby developed meconeum spillage and peritonitis. Exploratory laprotomy was done and the injuries were identified. The injured portions were resected and bowel continuity was reestablished. The baby had an uneventful recovery.

  3. Analysis of Reactor Vessel Lower Head Penetration Tube Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempniewicz, Marek

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of two studies, performed to investigate the behavior of the reactor vessel penetration tubes in case of relocation of molten material into the tubes. The first study is on the CORVIS drain line experiment 03/1. Results of pre-test calculations are presented, and compared to the later obtained experimental data. The timing of the drain line melting and the velocity of the debris flowing inside the drain line were predicted correctly, but the penetration depth was clearly underestimated. If the calculations are done using different correlation for the melt-to-wall convective heat transfer, the results are closer to the experiment. It cannot however be concluded that the alternative correlation is more appropriate until other uncertainties are clarified. The second study presents calculations performed for GKN Dodewaard CRD, instrument tubes and drain line. Calculations were performed to estimate whether the tubes have a chance to withstand the first attack of the melt and thus postpone vessel failure until the water in the lower plenum evaporates. Calculations were performed assuming that the melt can move into the tubes without any resistance, e.g. presence of water in the tubes was not taken into account. The results indicate that the critical penetration of the GKN vessel, which is most likely to fail, is the drain line. Results also indicate that external flooding should prevent early tube failure, at least in case of low vessel pressure. (author)

  4. Residual life assessment of French PWR vessel head penetrations through metallurgical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, C.; Boudot, R.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.

    1994-01-01

    In September 1991, a vessel head penetration was found leaking at Bugey 3 plant during the hydrotest included in the framework of decennial In Service Inspections. Non destructive examinations performed afterwards on several other plants have shown some cracked penetrations. Destructive expertise confirmed quickly that again this new problem is related to stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 used as base material. During the last 15 years, similar cracking have been met in steam generator tubes and secondly in pressurizer instrumentation tubes. In spite of all the work performed since that time an extension appears to be necessary for explaining the features of this new event; however material sensitivity, stress and temperature still remain the key parameters governing the behavior of Alloy 600 in PWR environment. In this paper, only the material sensitivity of vessel head penetrations is examined through metallurgical analysis in relation with SCC tests. On the basis of vessel head field experience in combination with thermomechanical process used for fabrication of original bars criteria for a sensitivity ranking of penetrations are proposed. Metallurgical investigations and SCC tests were carried out to support this sensitivity ranking. The final aim is to use such information among those quoted above for assessment of vessel heads residual life. This document is an overview of the work performed in France concerning the material sensitivity of forged Alloy 600. It represents an important part of the assessments and investigations undertaken in France on the stress corrosion cracking phenomenon affecting the reactor vessel head penetrations in PWR's

  5. Penetrating gunshot wound to the head: transotic approach to remove the bullet and masseteric-facial nerve anastomosis for early facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Pasquale; Tarantino, Roberto; Gennaro, Paolo; Mitro, Valeria; Valentini, Valentino; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Gunshot wounds to the head (GSWH) account for the majority of penetrating brain injuries, and are the most lethal. Since they are rare in Europe, the number of neurosurgeons who have experienced this type of traumatic injury is decreasing, and fewer cases are reported in the literature. We describe a case of gunshot to the temporal bone in which the bullet penetrated the skull resulting in the facial nerve paralysis. It was excised with the transotic approach. Microsurgical anastomosis among the masseteric nerve and the facial nerve was performed. GSWH are often devastating. The in-hospital mortality for civilians with penetrating craniocerebral injury is very high. Survivors often have high rate of complications. When facial paralysis is present, masseteric-facial direct neurorraphy represent a good treatment.

  6. http://www.bioline.org.br/js 104 Penetrating Tracheal Injuries – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    airway and prompt repair is the mainstay of management of penetrating tracheal injuries. Introduction ... tracheal injury was made in the 16th century ... Pearson 7 Harrington8 Sheely9 and Hood10 ..... Ed Am Col Surg (Chicago) .p.391. 12.

  7. Prognostic analysis of 216 cases with penetrating ocular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the factors of penetrating ocular injury, and to investigate the prognostic factors and treatment strategies. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 216 ocular trauma patients(221 eyes, in our hospital from November 2009 to November 2011, was completed. RESULTS: The eyeball atrophy inevitably occurred in 13 eye wounds more than 30mm. Retinal prolapse of the eyes, 78%(35/45completed vitrectomy, 33%(15/45were eyeball atrophy. The 51%(20/39of subchoroidal hemorrhage eyes were eyeball atrophy. Retinal prolapse and subchoroidal hemorrhage increased the risk of ocular atrophy(PPCONCLUSION: Serious ocular trauma prognosis related to many factors. The retina prolapse and the subchoroidal hemorrhage were important prognosis testify. A scleral buckling condensation surgery and vitrectomy have a therapeutic effect, and can improve visual function.

  8. ‘Studying Injured Minds’ - The Vietnam Head Injury Study and 40 years of brain injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eRaymont

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology and neuroimaging. The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of examination, has been extremely broad. It has been instrumental in extending the field of TBI research and in exposing pressing medical and social issues that affect those who suffer such injuries. This review summarizes the history of conflict-related TBI research and the VHIS to date, as well as the vast range of important findings the VHIS has established.

  9. Is contrast-enhanced CT indicated in acute head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauser, H.W.; Nieuwenhuizen, O. van; Veiga-Pires, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss the value of intravenous contrast enhancement in CT scanning in acute head injury. In a series of seventy consecutive patients they conclude that no incremental information was obtained by performing contrast-enhanced CT scans in the acute phase of the head injury. (orig.)

  10. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  11. Ocular Complications among Cases of Head Injury Seen in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Head injuries with ocular involvement are of great importance due to the visual morbidity and mortality which may result. Objective: To determine the pattern of ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in Memphys Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu, in south-eastern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: ...

  12. CT findings and outcome in head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, Akira

    1984-12-01

    CT findings and outcome were discussed in head injuries. Parenchymal findings were classified into 5 categories; ''normal'', ''hemispheric (isodense) swelling'', ''hemorrhagic lesions'', ''diffuse cerebral swelling'', and ''low density''. The worst outcome (73% mortality) was seen in ''hemispheric swelling''. This abnormality was quite often associated with acute subdural hematoma. Multiple ''hemorrhagic lesions'' were associated with much poorer outcome than single lesions. The older groups had more acute subdural hematomas and more ''hemorrhagic lesions''. And ''hemorrhagic lesions'' were more often multiple and larger in the older group. (author).

  13. Computed tomography in acute head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T; Inagawa, T; Yamada, T; Sota, K [Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan)

    1981-01-01

    After the introduction of CT (GE-CT/T) in January, 1980, we experienced 81 cases of head injury. We diagnosed these cases into normal in 50 cases, epidural hematoma in 8 cases, subdural hematoma in 5 cases, intracerebral hematoma in 3 cases, cerebral contusion or cerebral swelling in 14 cases and combined hematoma in 1 case, based on CT findings. We diagnose normal, when no abnormal finding is present intracranially. Epidural hematoma is visualized as a bicrescent-shaped high density area on CT scan. Subdural hematoma appears as a crescent-shaped high density area on CT finding. Intracranial hematoma is visualized as a high density area in the brain tissue on CT scan. Cerebral contusion presents as salt and pepper appearance on CT scan representing area of high and low density complex. Brain swelling is visualized as disappearance or compression of ventricles, cisterns, sulci and gyri.

  14. Residual stresses of manufacture on the PWR vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hong, S.; Todeschini, P.; Ternon, F.; Cipiere, M.F.; Gimond, C.; Faure, F.

    1997-01-01

    Since the detection in September 1991 of a leakage on a vessel head adapter of Bugey 3 during the decadal hydro-test, a study has been led by Framatome and EDF on the phenomenon, which has been identified as a stress corrosion cracking. The stress parameter particularly is an important factor in regard to the behaviour of the Alloy 600 in primary water. It has been the subject of a calculation program, which is not presented here, and of an experimental program which contents: 1 - the determination of residual stresses on the inner surface of the adapter and on the weld metal by the hole method and the diffraction of X-Rays on representative mock-ups and on a vessel head during manufacturing; 2 - the visualization of the stress field at the surface by corrosion tests on representative mock-ups in sodium hydroxide at 350 o C. The results are globally consistent with each other and give an important contribution to the interpretation of the results of the controls on site. (authors)

  15. Venous injury in abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Arabinda K. [Nemours A. I. duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States); Bradford, Ray; Thamburaj, K.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Dias, Mark S. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of serious brain injury in infants and young children who have characteristic clinical and imaging findings that are discordant with the clinical history provided. Recent attention has focused on abnormalities of the cranial venous sinuses and cortical veins, both on MRI and at autopsy. Although many have interpreted these to be secondary to the AHT, some have recently argued that these venous abnormalities represent primary cortical sinus and venous thrombosis that leads secondarily to subdural hemorrhage and secondary brain injury. Direct trauma to the veins and sinuses has been reported at autopsy in AHT, but there has been no systematic study of venous abnormalities in cases of AHT. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and characteristics of venous and sinus abnormalities in AHT. We included all children <36 months of age who were diagnosed with abusive head trauma between 2001 and 2012 and who had MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) venography as part of their diagnostic workup. We analyzed age, gender and clinical findings. MRI and MR venography were analyzed independently by two neuroradiologists with a focus on abnormalities involving the intracranial veins and venous sinuses. A total of 45 children were included. The median age was 3 months (range 15 days to 31 months) and 28 were boys (62%). Clinical findings included retinal hemorrhage in 71% and extracranial fractures in 55%. CT or MRI demonstrated subdural hemorrhage in 41 (91%); none had subdural effusions. In 31 cases (69%) MR venography demonstrated mass effect on the venous sinuses or cortical draining veins, with either displacement or partial or complete effacement of the venous structures from an adjacent subdural hematoma or brain swelling. We also describe the lollipop sign, which represents direct trauma to the cortical bridging veins and was present in 20/45 (44%) children. Evidence of displacement or compression of cortical veins

  16. Venous injury in abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Bradford, Ray; Thamburaj, K.; Boal, Danielle K.B.; Dias, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of serious brain injury in infants and young children who have characteristic clinical and imaging findings that are discordant with the clinical history provided. Recent attention has focused on abnormalities of the cranial venous sinuses and cortical veins, both on MRI and at autopsy. Although many have interpreted these to be secondary to the AHT, some have recently argued that these venous abnormalities represent primary cortical sinus and venous thrombosis that leads secondarily to subdural hemorrhage and secondary brain injury. Direct trauma to the veins and sinuses has been reported at autopsy in AHT, but there has been no systematic study of venous abnormalities in cases of AHT. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and characteristics of venous and sinus abnormalities in AHT. We included all children <36 months of age who were diagnosed with abusive head trauma between 2001 and 2012 and who had MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) venography as part of their diagnostic workup. We analyzed age, gender and clinical findings. MRI and MR venography were analyzed independently by two neuroradiologists with a focus on abnormalities involving the intracranial veins and venous sinuses. A total of 45 children were included. The median age was 3 months (range 15 days to 31 months) and 28 were boys (62%). Clinical findings included retinal hemorrhage in 71% and extracranial fractures in 55%. CT or MRI demonstrated subdural hemorrhage in 41 (91%); none had subdural effusions. In 31 cases (69%) MR venography demonstrated mass effect on the venous sinuses or cortical draining veins, with either displacement or partial or complete effacement of the venous structures from an adjacent subdural hematoma or brain swelling. We also describe the lollipop sign, which represents direct trauma to the cortical bridging veins and was present in 20/45 (44%) children. Evidence of displacement or compression of cortical veins

  17. Penetrating Colorectal Injuries: Diagnostic Performance of Multidetector CT with Trajectography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, David; Boscak, Alexis R; Anstadt, Michael J; Tirada, Nikki; Chiu, William C; Munera, Felipe; Bodanapally, Uttam K; Hornick, Michael; Stein, Deborah M

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To determine the diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography (CT) with trajectography for penetrating colorectal injuries. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved and HIPAA-compliant study was a 6-year blinded retrospective review by two independent readers of 182 consecutive patients who preoperatively underwent 40- or 64-row multidetector CT for penetrating torso trauma below the diaphragm and had surgically confirmed findings. Colorectal perforation was present in 42 patients. Trajectory analysis with postprocessing software was used for all studies. Additional signs evaluated were rectal contrast agent leak, collections of extruded fecal material, mural defect, wall thickening, abnormal enhancement, free fluid or stranding, and free air. The quality of the colorectal contrast agent administration was recorded. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), and Cohen κ were determined. Results In patients with rectal contrast agent administration (n = 151), AUCs were 0.90-0.91, which indicated excellent accuracy. Trajectory was sensitive (88%-91%). For single wounds (n = 104), sensitivity of trajectory was 96% for both readers, but was only 80% for multiple wounds (n = 47). Contrast agent leak was highly specific (96%-98%), but insensitive (42%-46%). Improved diagnostic performance was observed in patients with poor colonic distension or opacification. Accuracy remained high (AUC, 0.86-0.99) in the group without rectal contrast agent administration (n = 31). Conclusion Trajectory had excellent sensitivity, while rectal contrast agent leak was specific but insensitive. Sensitivity of trajectory was lower for multiple wounds. Accuracy remained high in patients without rectal contrast agent administration. © RSNA, 2016.

  18. Injuries to the colon from blast effect of penetrating extra-peritoneal thoraco-abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P; Oswanski, Michael F; White, Patrick W

    2004-03-01

    Although rare, blast injury to the intestine can result from penetrating thoraco-abdominal extra-peritoneal gunshot (and shotgun) wounds despite the absence of injury to the diaphragm or to the peritoneum. Injuries of the spleen, small intestine and the mesentery by this mechanism have been previously reported in the world literature. This paper reports the first two cases of non-penetrating ballistic trauma to the colon.

  19. The influence of early radiolucent lines appearing on femoral head penetration into HXLPE cemented sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Daigo; Seki, Taisuke; Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates differences in femoral head penetration between highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) cemented sockets both with and without radiolucent lines (RLLs) in the early postoperative phase and at 5 years follow-up. There were 35 patients (37 hips), mean age of 66.8 years, who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) using highly HXLPE cemented sockets. They were divided into 2 groups based on postoperative the early appearance of RLLs. Femoral head penetrations on both anteroposterior- and Lauenstein-view radiographs were evaluated, and the mean polyethylene (PE) wear rate was calculated based on femoral head penetrations between 2 and 5 years. Femoral head penetrations in the proximal direction were 0.075 mm and 0.150 mm in the RLL and non-RLL groups at 1 year postoperatively ( p = 0.019). At 5 years measured penetration was 0.107 mm and 0.125 mm in the RLL and non-RLL groups, respectively ( p = 0.320). The mean PE wear rates in anteroposterior-view were 0.008 mm/year and 0.003 mm/year in the RLL and non-RLL groups ( p = 0.390) and those in Lauenstein-view were 0.010 mm/year and 0.005 mm/year, respectively ( p = 0.239). In the RLL group, the PE bedding-in was less compared with those in the non-RLL group. Additionally, the mean PE wear rate in the RLL group tended to be higher than that in the non-RLL group. The distribution of stress loading through the cement may differ according to whether early RLLs appear.

  20. Differences in Femoral Head Penetration Between Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Cemented Sockets and Uncemented Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Daigo; Seki, Taisuke; Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating differences in femoral head penetration between highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) cemented sockets and uncemented liners during 5 years postoperatively. Ninety-six patients (106 hips) with a mean age of 64.4 (range, 35-83) years underwent total hip arthroplasty using a HXLPE cemented socket or liner and were respectively divided into cemented (35 patients [37 hips]) and uncemented (61 patients [69 hips]) groups. Femoral head penetrations were evaluated on both anteroposterior (AP)-view and Lauenstein-view radiographs, and mean polyethylene (PE) wear rates were calculated based on femoral head penetration from 2 to 5 years. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for PE wear. At 5 years postoperatively, the cemented and uncemented groups exhibited proximal direction femoral head penetrations of 0.103 mm and 0.124 mm (P = .226) and anterior direction penetrations of 0.090 mm and 0.151 mm (P = .002), respectively. The corresponding mean PE wear rates were 0.004 mm/y and 0.009 mm/y in the AP-view (P = .286) and 0.005 mm/y and 0.012 mm/y in the Lauenstein-view (P = .168), respectively. Left-side operation and high activity were independent risk factors for PE wear on AP-view. When HXLPE was used, all mean PE wear rates were very low and those of cemented sockets and uncemented liners were very similar. PE particle theory suggests that the occurrence of osteolysis and related aseptic loosening might consequently decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sentence comprehension following moderate closed head injury in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2012-09-01

    The current study explores sentence comprehension impairments among adults following moderate closed head injury. It was hypothesized that if the factor of syntactic complexity significantly affects sentence comprehension in these patients, it would testify to the existence of syntactic processing deficit along with working-memory problems. Thirty-six adults (18 closed head injury patients and 18 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and IQ) participated in the study. A picture-sentence matching task together with various tests for memory, language, and reading abilities were used to explore whether sentence comprehension impairments exist as a result of a deficit in syntactic processing or of working-memory dysfunction. Results indicate significant impairment in sentence comprehension among adults with closed head injury compared with their non-head-injured peers. Results also reveal that closed head injury patients demonstrate considerable decline in working memory, short-term memory, and semantic knowledge. Analysis of the results shows that memory impairment and syntactic complexity contribute significantly to sentence comprehension difficulties in closed head injury patients. At the same time, the presentation mode (spoken or written language) was found to have no effect on comprehension among adults with closed head injury, and their reading abilities appear to be relatively intact.

  2. Primary circuit leak detection an application on PWR vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisy, F.; Germain, J.L.; Chauvel, L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, cracks were discovered and localized in the lower part of certain vessel head adapters in EDF PWR units. While awaiting the replacement of the vessel heads in question, EDF developed systems to enable continuous monitoring of vessel head penetration, by means of early detection of leaks. One of these systems in based on detection of water vapour in a confined space above the vessel head. The efficiency of the measurement chain is particularly dependent on dilution of the leakage in the confined space prior TO entry in the sampling circuit. The detection threshold for this method is on the order of 1.2 liters/hour for a dilution rate of 1500 rate of 1500 m 3 /h and a dew point of 22 deg C. This system has now been in operation on three 1300-MW PWR units for three years, and has proved to function satisfactorily. (authors)

  3. Minimal debridement or simple wound closure as the only surgical treatment in war victims with low-velocity penetrating head injuries. Indications and management protocol based upon more than 8 years follow-up of 99 cases from Iran-Iraq conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjamshidi, Abbass; Abbassioun, Kazem; Rahmat, Hamid

    2003-08-01

    During military conflicts, surviving victims traditionally underwent large enough craniectomy or craniotomy to achieve extensive debridement of the in-driven bone, shell fragments, and debris. Meanwhile, the completely as well as the partially devitalized adjacent brain tissue would also be debrided. This might have led to additional neurologic deficit or lesser degree of recovery of functions. We studied the efficacy and safety of much more limited or even absence of surgical intervention in a selected group of wartime head-wounded patients. Among 1,150 war victims with penetrating head wounds referred to two major centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the 8-year period spanning the Iran-Iraq conflict, there were 191 head-wounded patients who underwent either no surgical intervention or a very limited debridement. We have attempted to follow up as closely as possible for more than 8 years. Ninety-nine of them fulfilled the criteria to be included in this series. Close follow-up for development of cerebral infections, functional recovery, or development of new neurologic deficits and epilepsy were performed. At least 3 contrast-enhanced CT scans were taken for each patient. All patients were victims of the battle-field areas with low- to moderate-velocity missile or shell fragment injury. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of the patients were between 8-14 when visited by the first attending neurosurgery staff. The factors considered to be effective in the outcome analysis were the entry point, the number of the in-driven bone fragments, the retained shell fragments, the brain compartments affected, and the paranasal sinus or skull base involvement with or without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula. There were 13 unilobar, 44 bilobar, 4 trilobar, 38 transventricular, and 3 skull base lesions. The number of retained metal fragments varied between 1 to 6. The number of retained bone fragments varied between 1 to 5 in 73 victims and more

  4. Development of a crack growth analysis is program for reactor head penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Choi, Kwang Hee; Park, Jeong Il [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Il; Kim, Young Jong; Yoo, Young Joon; Yoo, Wan; Maeng, Wan Young; Choi, Suk Nam; Kim, Kee Suk; Yoon, Sung Won; Kim, Jee Ho; Park, Myung Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Crack growth analysis program for Reactor Head Penetration is being developed for applying to plants such as, Kori 1, Kori 2, Kori 3,4 YoungKwang 1,2 and Uljin 1,2 (1) Stress Evaluation - The stress analysis is required to evaluate the structure integrity for the RVH penetration tubes. The RVH penetration tubes are geometrically non-symmetry except center one. Thus, 3D finite element analysis should be employed for the stress analysis. The magnitude and distribution of residual stress resulted from welding can be determined analytically by simulation welding procedure. (2) Flaw Evaluation - There are two objectives of the penetration tube flaw evaluation to predict the time required for a crack to propagate to the acceptance criteria. The first objective is to perform the parametric evaluation for a postulated crack. The second objective is to develop the flaw evaluation program for the crack detected during the inspection. (3) Characterization of Material Properties of Alloy 600 - These study is to provide data which similarly represent the properties of PWR power plants in Korea. The data is used for analyzing of the stress distribution around penetration tubes. And the PWSCC data will be used for the crack growth rate of the penetration tubes. (author). 92 refs., 121 figs.

  5. When Physics Meets Biology: Low and High Velocity Penetration, Blunt Trauma and Blast Injuries to the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne eYoung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of TBI in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems.

  6. Development of Medical Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Penetrating Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    a bird) 22. Pyramid .................................................. (found in Egypt) 23. Unicorn ...Eat 2. Care 2. Mile 2. Rose 3. Rice 3. Cake 3. Meat 4. Storm 4. Skate 4. Cream 5. Market 5. Almost 5. Relate 6. Closet 6. Sailor 6. Strike 7. Mistake 7

  7. Cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations. Working material. Proceedings of a specialists meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The IAEA Specialists` Meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations was held at the ASTM Headquarters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on May 2-4, 1995. It was attended by 39 participants from 12 countries. The meeting was held in the framework of the IAEA International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) and was organized and sponsored by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the meeting was to review experience in the field for ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. Presentations were aimed at achieving a better understanding of the behaviour of reactor component materials, providing guidance and recommendations to assure reliability and adequate performance, and proposing directions for further investigations. Refs, figs and tabs.

  8. Cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations. Working material. Proceedings of a specialists meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations was held at the ASTM Headquarters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on May 2-4, 1995. It was attended by 39 participants from 12 countries. The meeting was held in the framework of the IAEA International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) and was organized and sponsored by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the meeting was to review experience in the field for ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. Presentations were aimed at achieving a better understanding of the behaviour of reactor component materials, providing guidance and recommendations to assure reliability and adequate performance, and proposing directions for further investigations. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Head injury: audit of a clinical guideline to justify head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydon, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Head injury causes significant morbidity and mortality, and there is contention about which patients to scan. The UK National Health Service Clinical Guideline (CG) 56 provides criteria for selecting patients with clinically important brain injury who may benefit from a head CT scan, while minimising the radiation and economic burden of scanning patients without significant injury. This study aims to audit the documentation of the use of these guidelines in a busy UK trauma hospital and discusses the comparison with an Australian (New South Wales (NSW) ) head injury guideline. A retrospective cohort study of 480 patients presenting with head injury to the emergency department over 2 months was performed. The patient notes were assessed for documentation of each aspect of the clinical guidelines. Criteria were established to assess the utilisation of the CG 56. A database of clinical data was amalgamated with the head CT scan results for each patient. For the UK CG 56, 73% of the criteria were documented, with the least documented being 'signs of basal skull fracture' and 'amnesia of events'. Thirty-two per cent of patients received head CT and of these, 24% (37 patients) were reported to have pathology. Twenty-four patients underwent head CT without clinical justification being documented, none of which had reported pathology on CT. The study shows that the head injury guidelines are not being fully utilised at a major UK trauma hospital, resulting in 5% of patients being exposed to ionising radiation without apparent documented clinical justification. The NSW guideline has distinct differences to the CG 56, with a more complex algorithm and an absence of specific time frames for head CT completion. The results suggest a need for further education and awareness of head injury clinical guidelines.

  10. Stress corrosion cracking in the vessel closure head penetrations of French PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisine, D.; Cattant, F.; Champredonde, J.; Pichon, C.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1994-01-01

    During a hydrotest in September 1991, part of the statutory decennial in-service inspection, a leak was detected on the vessel head of Bugey 3, which is one of the first 900 MW 3-loop PWR's in France. This leak was due to a cracked penetration used for a control rod drive mechanism. The investigations performed identified Primary Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 as being the origin of this degradation. So a lot of the same design PWR's are a concern due to this generic problem. In this case, PWSCC was linked to: - hot temperature of the vessel head; - high residual stresses due to the welding process between peripherical penetrations and the vessel head; - sensitivity of forged Alloy 600 used for penetration manufacturing. This following paper will present the cracked analysis based, in particular, on the main results obtained in France on each of these items. These results come from the operating experience, the destructive examinations and the programs which are running on stress analysis and metallurgical characterizations. (authors). 9 figs., 2 tabs

  11. PEDIATRIC HEAD INJURIES, MECHANISM TO MANAGEMENT: EXPERIENCE OF A SINGLE CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Head injury is very common in modern life. Patients of any age group may have head injury however mechanism of head injury, pathophysiology and outcome of head injury is quite different in adults as compared to children. Road traffic accident is a common mode of head injury in adults while fall from height and household abuse is common mode in children. In Western countries, there is a separate registry system for pediatric head injury but there is no such system exist in india. Our present study is focused on pediatric head injury and evaluation of factors that affect the final outcome in pediatric patients.

  12. Mild head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasle, Veronique; Riffaud, Laurent; Longuet, Romain; Martineau-Curt, Marie; Collet, Yann; Le Fournier, Luc; Pladys, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Post-concussion syndrome is a well-described complication following moderate and severe head trauma but whether it occurs after mild head injury in children remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to mild head injury with potential additional risk factors (non-surgical lesion on computed tomographic, high kinetic trauma, or Glasgow Coma Scale <15) is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after the head trauma. This study was performed in an emergency department on children admitted between 2009 and 2013. It compared victims of mild head injury aged 6-16 years with matched children presenting isolated non-surgical forearm fracture (ratio1/2). ADHD was assessed using Conners' Global Index-Parent short version 3-40 months after the trauma. The patients were compared using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, t test or u-test as appropriate with a p value set at 0.05. During the study period, 676 patients were admitted for mild head injury. Among them, 34 (5 %) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were compared with 64 matched patients admitted for a forearm fracture. The groups were comparable. ADHD was observed in both groups (18 % in the mild head injury group, 11 % in the control group) with no significant differences between groups. The prevalence was high when compared to an expected frequency of 3.5-5.6 % in children aged 6-12 years in the general population. These results suggest that pre-existing ADHD may have contributed to injury proneness in both groups and does not argue for a specific risk of ADHD induced by mild head injury. The diagnosis of ADHD should be evoked at admission of children aged 6-16 years presenting with a trauma.

  13. Severe head injury in children - a preventable but forgotten epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe head injury in a child is a sociological disaster that crosses all sociological ... permanently disabled each year as a result of accidental injury." Over a ..... the daylight when transportation of the patient is more rapid; this results in some ...

  14. Computed tomography: ocular manifestations in acute head injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute head injuries are common in the population. Associated ocular injuries are occasionally encountered and these are of varying nature and outcome. Methods: We reviewed 98 brain computed tomographic results retrospectively. These are cases that were done between Jan. 2013- Jan. 2014. Statistical ...

  15. Head Injury, from Men to Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van den Brink (Willem Aart)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn well developed countries, injury is the leading cause of death and disability among young adults. In less developed countries the incidence of injury is high and rapidly increasing, but the relative mortality due to injuries is overshadowed by other causes, such as infections and

  16. Penetrating abdominal injuries in children: a study of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etiology, principles of management and outcome of children with ... injury, time of presentation to the Accident and Emergency ... accidents, sports and occupational and recreational ..... of severe firearm injury among children and youth.

  17. Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Wellingson S; Oliveira, Arthur MP; Andrade, Almir F; Amorim, Robson LO; Lourenço, Leonardo JO; Teixeira, Manoel J

    2011-01-01

    Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patien...

  18. Penetrating bladder trauma: a high risk factor for associated rectal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, B M; Reis, L O; Calderan, T R; de Campos, C C; Fraga, G P

    2014-01-01

    Demographics and mechanisms were analyzed in prospectively maintained level one trauma center database 1990-2012. Among 2,693 trauma laparotomies, 113 (4.1%) presented bladder lesions; 51.3% with penetrating injuries (n = 58); 41.3% (n = 24) with rectal injuries, males corresponding to 95.8%, mean age 29.8 years; 79.1% with gunshot wounds and 20.9% with impalement; 91.6% arriving the emergence room awake (Glasgow 14-15), hemodynamically stable (average systolic blood pressure 119.5 mmHg); 95.8% with macroscopic hematuria; and 100% with penetrating stigmata. Physical exam was not sensitive for rectal injuries, showing only 25% positivity in patients. While 60% of intraperitoneal bladder injuries were surgically repaired, extraperitoneal ones were mainly repaired using Foley catheter alone (87.6%). Rectal injuries, intraperitoneal in 66.6% of the cases and AAST-OIS grade II in 45.8%, were treated with primary suture plus protective colostomy; 8.3% were sigmoid injuries, and 70.8% of all injuries had a minimum stool spillage. Mean injury severity score was 19; mean length of stay 10 days; 20% of complications with no death. Concomitant rectal injuries were not a determinant prognosis factor. Penetrating bladder injuries are highly associated with rectal injuries (41.3%). Heme-negative rectal examination should not preclude proctoscopy and eventually rectal surgical exploration (only 25% sensitivity).

  19. Head injuries in snowboarders compared with head injuries in skiers. A prospective analysis of 1076 patients from 1994 to 1999 in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, O; Takaba, M; Saito, T; Endo, S

    2001-01-01

    We investigated snowboarding-related head injury cases and skiing-related head injury cases during five ski seasons at one resort area. There were 634 snowboarding-related head injuries and 442 skiing-related head injuries. The number of snowboarding head injuries increased rapidly over the study period. More male snowboarders than female snowboarders suffered head injuries. For both snowboarders and skiers, head injuries frequently occurred on the easy and middle slopes. Falls were the most frequent causes of injury in both groups. Jumping was a more frequent cause of injury in the snowboarders (30%) than in the skiers (2.5%). Injury to the occipital region predominated in the snowboarders as compared with the skiers. There were 49 organic lesions in 37 snowboarders and 46 organic lesions in 33 skiers. Subdural hematoma was frequent in the snowboarding head injury group, and fracture was frequent in the skiing head injury group compared with the snowboarding group (not significant). Subdural hematoma was likely to be caused by a fall rather than by a collision, and bone fracture was likely to be caused by a collision rather than by a fall. Four snowboarders and one skier died as a result of their head injuries. Our data suggest that snowboarding head injuries may be prevented by protection of the occipital region and refraining from jumping by beginners.

  20. Risk of Parkinson's disease after hospital contact for head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Ritz, Beate; Korbo, Lise

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a hospital contact for a head injury increases the risk of subsequently developing Parkinson's disease. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 13 695 patients with a primary diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in the Danish national...... of history of head injury. RESULTS: An overall 50% increase in prevalence of hospital contacts for head injury was seen before the first registration of Parkinson's disease in this population (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.7). The observed association was, however, due almost entirely...... to injuries that occurred during the three months before the first record of Parkinson's disease (odds ratio 8.0, 5.6 to 11.6), and no association was found between the two events when they occurred 10 or more years apart (1.1, 0.9 to 1.3). CONCLUSIONS: The steeply increased frequency of hospital contacts...

  1. Unusual head and neck injury in elevator: autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, B; Türkmen, N; Dokgöz, H

    2012-10-01

    Industrial injuries related to auto-load-carrying vehicles were not frequently reported in the literature. Presented case was, 31-year-old male furniture worker. Deceased was found in awkward position in furniture workshop. Victim was observed on his knees in front of the elevator, head and neck lodged within openings of the elevator, and head and neck structures compressed-guillotined by the lower platform of the elevator were detected. We presented rare case of head and neck compression by elevator. Key words: head - neck - accidents - elevator - autopsy.

  2. Injury patterns and mortality rates of motorcycle-related head injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycles are an emerging means of public transportation in many developing countries and has a poor safety record when compared to other road users. Subsequently, motorcycle injuries have been on the rise and head injuries are the leading cause of death, severe injury and disability globally.

  3. Hygrometric measurement for on-line monitoring of PWR vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, J.L.; Loisy, F.; Apolzan, S.

    1994-06-01

    In September 1991, a small leak was found on one of the reactor's upper vessel head penetrations. After inspection, other non-throughwall cracks were localized in the lower part of the vessel head adapter in questions. The same type of crack was later found inside some adapters on other French PWR units. After repairs, the safety authorities granted approval to continue unit operation, with the specific provision that a system for ongoing monitoring of the penetrations be set up. Two types of system were selected to detect leaks through any potential cracks: the first is based on nitrogen-13 detection and the second on steam detection. Both systems call for sampling the air in a confined space above the vessel head. The number and distribution of sampling taps in the circuit, and the balancing of their respective flow rates, are factors in proper monitoring of all vessel head penetrations. Gas-injection holes are also installed in the confined space. These holes are used during the sampling system qualification tests to simulate leaks in various positions and calculate the effective performance of the sampling system. Leaks are simulated using a helium-base gas tracer and measuring tracer concentrations in the sampling system. The system for measuring steam levels in air samples uses chilled-mirror hygrometers. A microcomputer takes regular readings, drives the various automatic functions of the measurement system and automatically analyses the readings so as to monitor operations and trigger an alarm at the first sign of a leak. This system has now been installed for a year and a half on three French PWR units and is functioning satisfactorily. (authors). 5 figs

  4. Targeted treatment of severe head injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    injury is not a homogeneous concept and is poorly classified for the purposes of treatment.1 The separation of patients into 3 categories of severity (mild, moderate and severe) remains a blunt measure used to guide therapy in individual patients. Patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), i.e. a Glasgow Coma Score ...

  5. Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva WS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patients admitted in the emergency unit was carried out. Of these patients, 180 with moderate or severe head injury were enrolled. All patients were submitted to three-view spine series X-ray and thin cut axial CT scans for spine trauma investigations.Results: 112 male patients and 78 female patients, whose ages ranged from 11 to 76 years (mean age, 34 years. The most common causes of brain trauma were pedestrians struck by motor vehicles (31.1%, car crashes (27.7%, and falls (25%. Systemic lesions were present in 80 (44.4% patients and the most common were fractures, and lung and spleen injuries. 52.8% had severe and 47.2% moderate head trauma. Fourteen patients (7.8% suffered spinal cord injury (12 in cervical spine, one in lumbar, and one thoracic spine. In elderly patients, the presence of associated lesions and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS < 9 were statistically significant as risk factors (P < 0.05 for spine injury.Conclusion: Spinal cord injury related to moderate and severe brain trauma usually affects the cervical spine. The incidence of spinal lesions and GCS < 9 points were related to greater incidence of spinal cord injury.Keywords: head injury, spine trauma, risk factors

  6. Disabling Orthostatic Headache after Penetrating Stonemason Pencil Injury to the Sacral Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Brembilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating injuries to the spine, although less common than motor vehicle accidents and falls, are important causes of injury to the spinal cord. They are essentially of two varieties: gunshot or stab wounds. Gunshot injuries to the spine are more commonly described. Stab wounds are usually inflicted by knife or other sharp objects. Rarer objects causing incidental spinal injuries include glass fragments, wood pieces, chopsticks, nailguns, and injection needles. Just few cases of penetrating vertebral injuries caused by pencil are described. The current case concerns a 42-year-old man with an accidental penetrating stonemason pencil injury into the vertebral canal without neurological deficit. After the self-removal of the foreign object the patient complained of a disabling orthostatic headache. The early identification and treatment of the intracranial hypotension due to the posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sacral fistulae were mandatory to avoid further neurological complications. In the current literature acute pattern of intracranial hypotension immediately after a penetrating injury of the vertebral column has never been reported.

  7. Coagulopathy and transfusion requirements in war related penetrating traumatic brain injury. A single centre study in a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, J; Joubert, C; Esnault, P; Montcriol, A; Nguyen, C; Meaudre, E; Dulou, R; Dagain, A

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury associated coagulopathy is frequent, either in isolated traumatic brain injury in civilian practice and in combat traumatic brain injury. In war zone, it is a matter of concern because head and neck are the second most frequent site of wartime casualty burden. Data focusing on transfusion requirements in patients with war related TBI coagulopathy are limited. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 77 penetrating traumatic brain injuries referred to a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Kabul, Afghanistan, deployed on the Kabul International Airport (KaIA), over a 30 months period. On 77 patients, 23 died during the prehospital phase and were not included in the study. Severe traumatic brain injury represented 50% of patients. Explosions were the most common injury mechanism. Extracranial injuries were present in 72% of patients. Traumatic brain injury coagulopathy was diagnosed in 67% of patients at role 3 admission. Red blood cell units (RBCu) were transfused in 39 (72%) patients, French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 41 (76%), and fresh whole blood (FWB) in 17 (31%). The results of this study support previous observations of coagulopathy as a frequent complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with war related penetrating traumatic brain injury presented with extracranial lesions. Most of them required a high level of transfusion capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute subdural hematoma, Head injury, Functional reco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    EVOLUTION DES HÉMATOMES SOUS-DURAUX AIGUS .... likelihood of functional recovery from traumatic brain injury. Howard et ... associated with decreased brainstem blood flow and that ishaemia rather than mechanical compression of.

  9. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  10. Advanced nondestructive examination of the reactor vessel head penetration tube welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvitanovic, M.; Zado, V.

    1996-01-01

    Beside a referent code examination requirements, appearance of the service induced flaws on the Reactor Vessel Head (RVH) penetration tube welds forced development of remotely operated examination tools and techniques. Several systems were developed for examination of RVH PWR type while only one system for examination of VVER - 440 type RVH has been developed by Inetec. In this article the most advanced RVH VVER - 440 type examination techniques such as ultrasonic, eddy current and visual testing techniques as well as remotely operated tool are described. (author)

  11. Radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fractures of the radial head and radial neck correspond to 1.7-5.4% of all fractures and approximately 30% may present associated injuries. In the literature, there are few reports of radial head fracture with posterior interosseous nerve injury. This study aimed to report a case of radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury. CASE REPORT: A male patient, aged 42 years, sought medical care after falling from a skateboard. The patient related pain and limitation of movement in the right elbow and difficulty to extend the fingers of the right hand. During physical examination, thumb and fingers extension deficit was observed. The wrist extension showed a slight radial deviation. After imaging, it became evident that the patient had a fracture of the radial head that was classified as grade III in the Mason classification. The patient underwent fracture fixation; at the first postoperative day, thumb and fingers extension was observed. Although rare, posterior interosseous nerve branch injury may be associated with radial head fractures. In the present case, the authors believe that neuropraxia occurred as a result of the fracture hematoma and edema.

  12. Penetrating abdomino-thoracic injury with an iron rod: An anaesthetic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating abdomino-thoracic injuries are potentially life-threatening due to the associated haemorrhagic shock and visceral injury. The management of these injuries poses specific challenges in pre-hospital care, transport, and management strategies. We report a 35-year-old male having impalement injury of the left thorax and left upper arm with a metallic rod used for construction of the house after a fall from height. One rod penetrated thorax from left shoulder and exit point was present just above the iliac crest and second rod was seen piercing left upper arm. Patient was successfully managed without any intraoperative, post-operative surgical complications, neurological damage or permanent injuries.

  13. Head Injury as Risk Factor for Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlovska, Sonja; Pedersen, Michael Skaarup; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2014-01-01

    . METHOD: The authors used linkable Danish nationwide population-based registers to investigate the incidence of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and organic mental disorders in 113,906 persons who had suffered head injuries. Data were analyzed by survival analysis...... and adjusted for gender, age, calendar year, presence of a psychiatric family history, epilepsy, infections, autoimmune diseases, and fractures not involving the skull or spine. RESULTS: Head injury was associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65, 95% CI=1...

  14. Management of penetrating colon and rectal injuries in the pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Elliott R; Nance, Michael L; Keller, Martin S; Groner, Jonathan I; Ford, Henri R; Kuhn, Ann; Tuchfarber, Barbara; Garcia, Victor; Schwab, C William; Stafford, Perry W

    2004-09-01

    Management of civilian penetrating colon injuries in the adult has evolved from the universal use of fecal diversion to the highly selective use of colostomy. We hypothesized that a similar management approach was appropriate for the pediatric population. A retrospective review of pediatric patients (age trauma centers for the period January 1990 through June 2001. For the period of review, 53 children with a penetrating colorectal injury were identified. Firearms caused 89 percent of the injuries. The colon was injured in 83 percent (n = 44) of patients and the rectum in 17 percent (n = 9) of patients. The colorectal injury was managed without colostomy in 62 percent (n = 33) and with colostomy in 38 percent (colon = 11, rectum = 9). All rectal injuries were treated with colostomy. The hospital length of stay was longer in the colostomy group (17.6 days vs. 11.4 days). The complication rate was higher in the colostomy group (55 percent vs. 27 percent), which included two patients with stoma-related complications. There was no mortality in this series. Primary repair was used safely in most cases of civilian penetrating colon injuries in the pediatric population. All rectal injuries were treated with colostomy in this series. Fecal diversion was used selectively. Colostomy was performed for selected cases of colon wounds associated with shock, multiple blood transfusions, multiple other injuries, extensive contamination, and high-velocity weapons. In the absence of these associated factors, primary repair appears justified.

  15. Experiences concerning reactor pressure vessel head penetration inspections; Erfahrungen mit Pruefungen von Reaktordruckbehaelter-Deckeldurchfuehrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnar, Angelika [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Globally observed damage at the control rod drive mechanism nozzles in PWR-type reactors (Bugey-3, Oconee 1,2,3 and ANO-1, David Besse) have triggered enhanced inspection of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) head penetrations. In Germany the regulations require a periodic inspection especially of dissimilar welds. Westinghouse has developed an automated measuring system for RPV heads aimed to inspect welded joints at open nozzles of nozzles with thermosleeves. The testing technology with remote controlled robotics is supposed to perform a weld inspection as complete as possible, restraints result from constructive difficulties for the accessibility. The new gap-scanner DE2008 was qualified at the mock-up and was implemented into the periodic in-service inspection of Neckarwestheim-1.

  16. Outcome of penetrating chest injuries in an urban level I trauma center in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heus, C; Mellema, J J; Giannakopoulos, G F; Zuidema, W P

    2015-04-25

    Most patients with penetrating chest injuries benefit from early treatment with chest tube drainage or surgery. Although penetrating chest injury is not uncommon, few descriptive studies are published, especially in Europe. The aim of this study was to review our experience and further improve our management of penetrating chest injuries in a level I trauma center in the Netherlands. All patients with penetrating chest injury between August 2004 and December 2012 were included. Demographics, mechanism of injury, physiological parameters, Injury Severity Scores (ISS), surgical and non-surgical treatment, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of hospital stay (LOS), complications and rate of mortality were collected. A total of 159 patients were analyzed. Patients included 116 (73 %) stab wounds and 34 (21 %) gunshot wounds. In 27 patients (17 %), cardiac injury was seen. The mean ISS was 12. Almost half of all patients (49 %) were treated with only chest tube drainage. Alternatively, surgical treatment was performed in 24 % of all cases. Anterolateral incision was most frequently used to gain access to the thoracic cavity. The mean LOS was 9 days. Among all patients, 17 % were admitted to the ICU with a mean stay of 3 days. In 18 (11 %) patients, one or more complications occurred. The 30-day mortality was 7.5 %. Patients presenting with penetrating chest injury are not uncommon in the Netherlands and can mostly be treated conservatively. In one-fourth of the patients, surgical treatment is performed. A structural and vigorous approach is needed for good clinical outcome.

  17. Development of Head Injury Assessment Reference Values Based on NASA Injury Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Melvin, John W.; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Granderson, Bradley; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Patalak, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a new capsule-based, crewed vehicle that will land in the ocean, and the space agency desires to reduce the risk of injury from impact during these landings. Because landing impact occurs for each flight and the crew might need to perform egress tasks, current injury assessment reference values (IARV) were deemed insufficient. Because NASCAR occupant restraint systems are more effective than the systems used to determine the current IARVs and are similar to NASA s proposed restraint system, an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new IARVs that may be more relevant to NASA s context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by completing a detailed analysis of all of the 2002-2008 NASCAR impact data. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select 4071 impacts from the 4015 recorder files provided (each file could contain multiple impact events). Of the 4071 accepted impacts, 274 were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Humanetics Hybrid-III 50th percentile numerical dummy model in LS-DYNA. Injury had occurred in 32 of the 274 selected impacts, and 27 of those injuries involved the head. A majority of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 242 non-injury impacts were randomly selected and representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of 4071 impacts. Head dynamics data (head translational acceleration, translational change in velocity, rotational acceleration, rotational velocity, HIC-15, HIC-36, and the Head 3ms clip) were filtered according to SAE J211 specifications and then transformed to a log scale. The probability of head injury was estimated using a separate logistic regression analysis for each log-transformed predictor candidate. Using the log transformation constrains the estimated probability of injury to become negligible as IARVs approach

  18. Subcutaneous emphysema of the upper extremity following penetrating blackthorn injury to the wrist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, W H C

    2009-02-01

    SUMMARY: Noninfective subcutaneous emphysema of the upper extremity, albeit rare, has to be borne in mind when treating patients with subcutaneous emphysema. The misdiagnosis of this condition as its serious infective counterpart often leads to unnecessary aggressive treatment. Noninfective subcutaneous emphysema often accompanies a patient who has no systemic symptoms of illness. Unfortunately, the distinction is not always easy especially when history of injury suggests involvement of an infective or reactive element. Penetrating blackthorn injury is common, especially in rural communities, and often occurs from farming or gardening activities. Blackthorn penetration can cause numerous tissue reactions once embedded under the skin and they are often contaminated with soil. Here we present, for the first time, a case where penetrating blackthorn injury to the wrist resulted in noninfective subcutaneous emphysema involving the whole upper limb and neck, and its subsequent management.

  19. Do head-restraints protect the neck from whiplash injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, F

    1989-01-01

    Over an 11-month period a study was made of all patients presenting to an accident and emergency department who had sustained whiplash as a result of rear-bumper impacts. The patients were analysed with respect to the presence of head-restraints in their vehicles. A significant increase in the incidence of whiplash was found in patients whose vehicles did not have head-restraints fitted. Legislation requiring all passenger cars to have head-restraints fitted as standard would have a major impact in reducing the number of whiplash injuries sustained in rear bumper impacts. PMID:2712983

  20. Clinical utility of MR FLAIR imaging for head injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashikaga, Ryuichiro [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-12-01

    To study the utility of fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR images in the evaluation of traumatic head injury, 56 patients with traumatic head injuries were examined with long TR/TE spin-echo (SE) sequences and FLAIR sequences. In 40 of them, long TR/short TE images were added to those sequences. Careful readings of MR images were done by two well-trained neuroradiologists. The chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of our results. The relative sensitivities of FLAIR images were significantly better than those of long TR/TE, long TR/short TE images for the detection of diffuse axonal injury (p<0.01), cortical contusion (p<0.01), and subdural hematoma (p<0.01 for long TR/TE, p<0.05 for long TR/short TE). The number of cases of epidural hematoma and brainstem injury was too small for statistical significance to be determined. In 9 patients with corpus callosum injuries. FLAIR images demonstrated the lesions as abnormally high signal intensity in the septum pellucidum and fornix. Only sagittal FLAIR images could definitely discriminate the traumatic lesions of the fornix from the surrounding CSF. In addition, FLAIR images could easily discriminate DAI of the corpus callosum from CSF of the cavum velli interpositi. MR FLAIR images were found to be useful for detecting traumatic head injuries. (author)

  1. Computed tomographic study of the complication of head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Tadashi; Waga, Shiro

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is quite effective in the diagnosis of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral contusion. Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with head injury were admitted to the hospital and studied by CT in the year from 1977 to 1980. Fourty-sevenof 209 patients had the complications of head injury, including 6 patients with carotidcavernous fistula (CCF), 6 with traumatic aneurysm, 10 with pneumocephalus, 4 with intracranial foreign body, 15 with optic nerve injury, and 14 with other cranial nerve palsy. Five patients with CCF had abnormal finding on CT. Two traumatic aneurysms of the superficial temporal artery were visualized on CT after injection of contrast material, but all traumatic aneurysms of the carotid siphon were not seven on CT. CT in all 10 patients with pneumocephalus and in all 4 patients with intracranial foreign body was of diagnostic value: On CT in two patients even small air bubbles were seen in details. In the CT examination of 29 patients who presented with cranial nerve injury, we could not find out any abnormality on CT. We emphasize that CT is much less effective in the diagnosis of vascular complication of head injury and traumatic cranial nerve injury. (author)

  2. Review of adult head injury admissions into the intensive care unit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mode of injury was road traffic accident. All the patients admitted to ICU had either moderate or severe head injury, with 73.7% having severe head injury. About 26.3% of the patients had associated cervical spine injuries and 50% had various musculoskeletal and soft tissue injuries. Cranial computed ...

  3. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists` meeting on cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, C.E.; Raney, S.J. [comps.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This report contains 17 papers that were presented in four sessions at the IAEA Specialists` meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations held at ASTM Headquarters in Philadelphia on May 2-3, 1995. The papers are compiled here in the order that presentations were made in the sessions, and they relate to operational observations, inspection techniques, analytical modeling, and regulatory control. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to review experience in the field of ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. The emphasis was to allow a better understanding of RPV material behavior, to provide guidance supporting reliability and adequate performance, and to assist in defining directions for further investigations. The international nature of the meeting is illustrated by the fact that papers were presented by researchers from 10 countries. There were technical experts present form other countries who participated in discussions of the results presented. This present document incorporates the final version of the papers as received from the authors. The final chapter includes conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists' meeting on cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.; Raney, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains 17 papers that were presented in four sessions at the IAEA Specialists' meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations held at ASTM Headquarters in Philadelphia on May 2-3, 1995. The papers are compiled here in the order that presentations were made in the sessions, and they relate to operational observations, inspection techniques, analytical modeling, and regulatory control. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to review experience in the field of ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. The emphasis was to allow a better understanding of RPV material behavior, to provide guidance supporting reliability and adequate performance, and to assist in defining directions for further investigations. The international nature of the meeting is illustrated by the fact that papers were presented by researchers from 10 countries. There were technical experts present form other countries who participated in discussions of the results presented. This present document incorporates the final version of the papers as received from the authors. The final chapter includes conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  5. Accidental and Nonaccidental Head Injuries in Infants: Distinguishing Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fifty infants hospitalized with head injury over a 3-year period, 57 (38% due to child abuse, were studied prospectively at the Departments of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Neuro-ophthalmology, and Legal Medicine, CHRU de Lille, France.

  6. Organisation of traumatic head injury management in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollid, S; Sundstrøm, T; Ingebrigtsen, T

    2009-01-01

    ; 67% had specific protocols for the treatment of traumatic head injury. Computed tomography (CT) was available in 93% of the hospitals, and 59% of the hospitals could link CT scans to the regional neurosurgical department. CONCLUSIONS: Most Nordic hospitals are well prepared to manage patients...

  7. Recovery versus retest effects in attention after closed head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Timmerman, M.E.; van Zomeren, A.H; Deelman, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    Recovery in 60 patients with a closed-head injury (CHI) in the first year posttrauma was assessed repeatedly with a series of attention tests. A matched group of healthy subjects was tested at the same intervals to allow us to control for practice effects. The results of a multilevel analysis for

  8. Asymmetry of critical closing pressure following head injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A; Schmidt, E; Hiler, M; Smielewski, P; Pickard, J; Czosnyka, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Critical closing pressure (CCP) is the arterial pressure below which the vessels collapse. Hypothetically it is the sum of intracranial pressure (ICP) and vessel wall tension in the cerebral circulation. This study investigated transhemispherical asymmetry of CCP by studying its correlation with radiological findings on computed tomography (CT) scans in head injury patients.

  9. Computed Tomography: Ocular Manifestations In Acute Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Methods: We reviewed 98 brain computed tomographic results retrospectively. ... was also performed to compare the difference of the ocular findings and sexes. ... Ocular findings were more in males and the severity of the ocular findings was .... Male. Female. Indications. Acute mild closed head injury. 12(15.0). 1(5.6).

  10. Non-accidental head injury - the evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Timothy J. [University of Manchester, Blackley, Department of Child Health, Booth Hall Children' s Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    A postmortem examination and the CT scan documented the above injuries (neuropathology showed acute but with foci of older subdural bleeding) and indicated that in addition there were five recent rib fractures (left ribs 3-5 posteriorly and right ribs 6-7 posteriorly), a large perimacular retinal fold in the left retina, and subscalp bruising in the area of the anterior fontanelle and the occipital area. Family proceedings were commenced in order to protect the 2-year-old girl. Expert forensic, neuro- and eye pathologists instructed on behalf of the girl's father were of the view that the baby's injuries were likely to have resulted from the fall from the bed to the carpet, or alternatively from the step-father's efforts to revive the infant; other possibilities being apnoea and cerebral anoxia and cardiac arrest resulting from gastrooesophageal reflux or overly rough rocking of the baby in a baby rocker by the 2-year-old girl, the scalp bruising allegedly being the result of palpation of the baby's fontanelle by the treating paediatricians. The rib fractures were attributed to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. This short review looks at the type of evidence that might help one to distinguish between the differing opinions offered as to the cause of this child's injuries. (orig.)

  11. Non-accidental head injury - the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Timothy J.

    A postmortem examination and the CT scan documented the above injuries (neuropathology showed acute but with foci of older subdural bleeding) and indicated that in addition there were five recent rib fractures (left ribs 3-5 posteriorly and right ribs 6-7 posteriorly), a large perimacular retinal fold in the left retina, and subscalp bruising in the area of the anterior fontanelle and the occipital area. Family proceedings were commenced in order to protect the 2-year-old girl. Expert forensic, neuro- and eye pathologists instructed on behalf of the girl's father were of the view that the baby's injuries were likely to have resulted from the fall from the bed to the carpet, or alternatively from the step-father's efforts to revive the infant; other possibilities being apnoea and cerebral anoxia and cardiac arrest resulting from gastrooesophageal reflux or overly rough rocking of the baby in a baby rocker by the 2-year-old girl, the scalp bruising allegedly being the result of palpation of the baby's fontanelle by the treating paediatricians. The rib fractures were attributed to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. This short review looks at the type of evidence that might help one to distinguish between the differing opinions offered as to the cause of this child's injuries. (orig.)

  12. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, D K; Brison, R J

    2015-04-01

    Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED) care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12-0.22). The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  13. Penetrating injury caused by the gear pedal of a motor-cycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of a penetrating injury to the left lower extremity caused by the gear pedal of a motor-cycle that pierced through the foot of one of the 3 passengers on a motor-cycle involved in a road traffic accident. He had no neurovascular injury but was found radiologically to have an ipsilateral tibia fracture. The object was ...

  14. Characterization and Application of a Large Animal Model of Penetrating Ballistic Brain Injury (PBBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Jump, South American Track and Field Grand Prix. Cuenca, Ecuador , 2004. - Goodwill Ambassador, Ministry of Tourism of Ecuador . Quito, Ecuador , 2000...they only comprise 11.5% of all-cause injury deaths and have a case fatality rate (CFR) of less than 1% [33]. In contrast, penetrating TBIs due to...because many cases of mild closed TBI are not detected post-injury and because the bodily distribution of wounds for all combat casualties (e.g. Wounded In

  15. Syringe needle skull penetration reduces brain injuries and secondary inflammation following intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Yang, Zhijun; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is beneficial for delivering stem cell grafts effectively, however, this approach may subsequently result in brain injury and secondary inflammation. To reduce the risk of promoting brain injury and secondary inflammation, two methods were compared in the present study. Murine skulls were penetrated using a drill on the left side and a syringe needle on the right. Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=84/group): Group A, receiving...

  16. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  17. BIOMECHANICS OF HEAD INJURY IN OLYMPIC TAEKWONDO AND BOXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, G.P.; Pieter, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to examine differences between taekwondo kicks and boxing punches in resultant linear head acceleration (RLA), head injury criterion (HIC15), peak head velocity, and peak foot and fist velocities. Data from two existing publications on boxing punches and taekwondo kicks were compared. Methods For taekwondo head impacts a Hybrid II Crash Dummy (Hybrid II) head was instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer mounted inside the Hybrid II head. The Hybrid II was fixed to a height-adjustable frame and fitted with a protective taekwondo helmet. For boxing testing, a Hybrid III Crash Dummy head was instrumented with an array of tri-axial accelerometers mounted at the head centre of gravity. Results Differences in RLA between the roundhouse kick (130.11±51.67 g) and hook punch (71.23±32.19 g, d = 1.39) and in HIC15 (clench axe kick: 162.63±104.10; uppercut: 24.10±12.54, d = 2.29) were observed. Conclusions Taekwondo kicks demonstrated significantly larger magnitudes than boxing punches for both RLA and HIC. PMID:24744497

  18. Penetrating Ocular Injuries in Pediatric Age Group in a Rural Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penetrating injury is defined as a single full thickness laceration of the eyeball usually caused by a sharp object. ... common cause of mono-ocular preventable blindness in pediatric age group. The three ... the eye was done using the torch light, slit lamp, direct, and indirect ... All patients were given tetanus toxoid 0.5 mL.

  19. Penetrating Maxillary Sinus Injury With Loss Of Vision Caused By An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good visual outcome following ocular emergencies will depend on prompt presentation, recognition and assessment as well as initial management. Penetrating injury of the orbit involving paranasal sinuses with retained foreign body in the orbito-maxillary region are uncommon.Thirty to fifty percent of all ocular traumas are ...

  20. Management of a Low-Energy Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-energy penetrating nail injury to the brain is an extremely rare neurosurgical emergency. The most common cause of nail gun injury is work related accidents; other causes result from accidental firing of a nail gun, suicide attempts by firing nail guns into the brain, and bomb blasts containing pieces of nails. Neurosurgical treatment performed by craniotomy still seems to be the safest one; there are reports of complications such as subdural hematoma and intraparenchymal hemorrhages following the blind removal of foreign bodies leading to suggestions that all penetrating foreign bodies should be removed under direct vision. We report a rarely described neurosurgical approach for removal of a penetrating nail from the brain and skull without evidence of associated hematoma and other brain lesions.

  1. Dealing with the Surgical and Medical Challenges of Penetrating Brain Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Syrmos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peacetime has reduced the overall incidence of penetrating brain injuries (PBI, and those related to missile penetration are not common anymore at least in western countries. Nevertheless, PBI still occur, and car crashes or work accidents are their main causes. The management of such cases is characterized by many challenges, not only from a surgical and medical point of view, but also for the different and sometimes bizarre dynamics by which they present. Herein we report an unusual deep penetrating brain injury, due to a high-energy crash against a metallic rod in a construction site, with a good surgical outcome despite dramatic clinical conditions on admission. A discussion of the surgical results and functional outcome related to PBI, as found in the English medical literature, is provided. Moreover the most common postoperative complications along with the diagnostic flow charts and therapeutic options useful to prevent inappropriate treatment are highlighted.

  2. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Tackler’s head position relative to the ball carrier is highly correlated with head and neck injuries in rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Shiota, Yuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Maki, Nobukazu; Matsuura, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the tackler’s head position during one-on-one tackling in rugby and to determine the incidence of head, neck and shoulder injuries through analysis of game videos, injury records and a questionnaire completed by the tacklers themselves. Methods We randomly selected 28 game videos featuring two university teams in competitions held in 2015 and 2016. Tackles were categorised according to tackler’s head position. The ‘pre-contact phase’ was defined; its duration and the number of steps taken by the ball carrier prior to a tackle were evaluated. Results In total, 3970 tackles, including 317 (8.0%) with the tackler’s head incorrectly positioned (ie, in front of the ball carrier) were examined. Thirty-two head, neck or shoulder injuries occurred for an injury incidence of 0.8% (32/3970). The incidence of injury in tackles with incorrect head positioning was 69.4/1000 tackles; the injury incidence with correct head positioning (ie, behind or to one side of the ball carrier) was 2.7/1000 tackles. Concussions, neck injuries, ‘stingers’ and nasal fractures occurred significantly more often during tackles with incorrect head positioning than during tackles with correct head positioning. Significantly fewer steps were taken before tackles with incorrect head positioning that resulted in injury than before tackles that did not result in injury. Conclusion Tackling with incorrect head position relative to the ball carrier resulted in a significantly higher incidence of concussions, neck injuries, stingers and nasal fractures than tackling with correct head position. Tackles with shorter duration and distance before contact resulted in more injuries. PMID:29162618

  4. Usefulness of routine computed tomography in the evaluation of penetrating war injuries to the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Bassam; Mahfouz, Mohammad Z; Izzat, Mohammad Bashar

    2018-05-02

    This review was conducted to compare the contributions of chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) towards detecting intrathoracic damage in patients with penetrating war injuries to the chest and to determine whether identification of additional injuries by chest CT will have an impact on the choice of therapeutic interventions and clinical outcomes. We reviewed records of 449 patients (374 men, mean age 29.3 ± 14.8 years) who were admitted to our hospital with penetrating war injuries to the chest over a 7-year period. Collected data included mechanisms of injury, associated injuries, results of CXRs and chest CTs, methods of management, in-hospital stays, complications and mortalities. Immediate screening CXRs were obtained in all patients not requiring emergent thoracotomies, of which 91.4% showed positive signs of injury. Chest CTs were performed at the discretion of the physicians in 49.4% of patients, and CXR-positive findings were confirmed in all cases, while revealing additional injuries in 11% of patients. Chest CT findings led to additional closed chest drainage in 5.6% of patients but had no impact on treatment strategy in 94.4% of scanned patients. Follow-up CXRs showed new positive findings in 22 patients, leading to additional closed chest drainage in 3 patients and delayed open thoracotomies in 7 other patients. CXRs continue as the primary diagnostic modality in the assessment of patients with penetrating war injuries to the chest. Chest CTs can be omitted in most patients, thus reducing CT imaging case-load substantially, while most clinically significant chest injuries remain sufficiently recognized.

  5. Use of Sengstaken-Blakemore intrahepatic balloon: an alternative for liver-penetrating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Zago, Thiago Messias; Pereira, Bruno Monteiro; Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues Araujo; Silveira, Henrique Jose Virgili

    2012-09-01

    Severe lesions in the liver are associated with a high mortality rate. Alternative surgical techniques such as the use of an intrahepatic balloon may be effective and reduce mortality in severe hepatic lesions. This study aimed to demonstrate the experience of a university hospital in the use of the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon in patients with transfixing penetrating hepatic injury as an alternative way to treat these challenging injuries. A retrospective study based on the trauma registry of a university hospital was performed. All patients admitted with hepatic penetrating injuries and treated with the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon within the period 1990-2010 were reviewed. Forty-six patients with transfixing hepatic injuries were treated with the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon in the study period. The most frequent cause of injury was gunshot wound (87 % of the patients). The mean trauma scores on admission were Revised Trauma Score (RTS) = 7.12 ± 1.46, Injury Severity Score (ISS) = 22.4 ± 9.7, and Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI) = 19.5 ± 11. According to the severity of the hepatic trauma, 71.8 % of patients had grade III, 23.9 % grade IV, and 4.3 % grade V injuries. Associated abdominal injuries were found in 89.1 % of the patients. The most frequent liver-related complications were hepatic abscess postoperative bleeding (8.6 %), biliary fistula (8.6 %), (4.3 %), and biliary peritonitis (2.1 %). Surgical reintervention was necessary in 14 patients (31.1 %). From those 14, only 3 had the balloon removed. The overall morbidity and mortality rates were 56.5 % and 23.9 % (11 patients), respectively. The knowledge of alternative surgical techniques is essential in improving survival in patients with severe penetrating hepatic injuries. The use of intrahepatic balloon is a viable surgical strategy.

  6. Role of age and injury mechanism on cervical spine injury tolerance from head contact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Chirvi, Sajal; Voo, Liming; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu

    2018-02-17

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age and injury mechanism on cervical spine tolerance to injury from head contact loading using survival analysis. This study analyzed data from previously conducted experiments using post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Group A tests used the upright intact head-cervical column experimental model. The inferior end of the specimen was fixed, the head was balanced by a mechanical system, and natural lordosis was removed. Specimens were placed on a testing device via a load cell. The piston applied loading at the vertex region. Spinal injuries were identified using medical images. Group B tests used the inverted head-cervical column experimental model. In one study, head-T1 specimens were fixed distally, and C7-T1 joints were oriented anteriorly, preserving lordosis. Torso mass of 16 kg was added to the specimen. In another inverted head-cervical column study, occiput-T2 columns were obtained, an artificial head was attached, T1-T2 was fixed, C4-C5 disc was maintained horizontal in the lordosis posture, and C7-T1 was unconstrained. The specimens were attached to the drop test carriage carrying a torso mass of 15 kg. A load cell at the inferior end measured neck loads in both studies. Axial neck force and age were used as the primary response variable and covariate to derive injury probability curves using survival analysis. Group A tests showed that age is a significant (P < .05) and negative covariate; that is, increasing age resulted in decreasing force for the same risk. Injuries were mainly vertebral body fractures and concentrated at one level, mid-to-lower cervical spine, and were attributed to compression-related mechanisms. However, age was not a significant covariate for the combined data from group B tests. Both group B tests produced many soft tissue injuries, at all levels, from C1 to T1. The injury mechanism was attributed to mainly extension. Multiple and noncontiguous injuries occurred

  7. Accidental head injuries in children under 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Fischer, T.; Chapman, S.; Wilson, B.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the type and nature of head injuries sustained by children under the age of 5 years who present to a busy accident and emergency (A and E) department following an accidental fall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included all children under the age of 5 years, who over an 8-month period were referred to our A and E Department with head injury following an accidental fall. Data were collected regarding the height of the fall, whether or not stairs were involved, the type of surface that the child landed on and the height of the child. This was correlated with any soft-tissue injury or skull fracture. RESULTS: A total of 72 children (aged 4 months to 4.75 years) fulfilled all the criteria for an accidental fall. The heights of the falls ranged from less than 50 cm to over 3 m, with the majority below 1 m. Of the falls, 49 were onto a hard surface and 23 were onto a soft surface. Of the 72 children, 52 had visible evidence of head injury, 35 (71%) of 49 being the result of falls onto hard surfaces and 17 (74%) of 23 onto soft (carpeted) surfaces. There was no significant difference in the type of surface that resulted in a visible head injury. A visible head injury was seen in all children who fell from a height of over 1.5 m and in 95% of children who fell over 1 m. Of the 72 children, 32 (44%) had skull radiographs performed in accordance with established guidelines and 4 (12.5%) were identified as having a fracture. Of the 3 linear parietal fractures 2 were inflicted by falls of just over 1 m (from a work surface) and 1 by a fall of 80 to 90 cm onto the hard-edged surface of a stone fire surround. The 4th was a fracture of the base of skull following a fall from more than 3 m (from a first-storey window). CONCLUSIONS: In the vast majority of domestic accidents children do not suffer significant harm. Skull fractures are rare and probably occur in less than 5% of cases. To cause a skull fracture the fall needs to be from over 1 m or, if from a

  8. Roentgenologic findings of non-penetrating extracardiac chest injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Duck; Ra, Woo Youn [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    Of the conventional P-A and A-P chest films which have been studied, many roentgenologic signs suggested for chest trauma. In the present study, an effort was designated to further clarify the x-ray findings of the nonpenetrating extracardiac chest injuries and to observe the x-ray findings being a leading maneuver of surgical procedure. Fat embolism and shock lung must be kept in mind on follow up films. The results thus obtained are summarized as follows; 1. Most of cases are visualized between the age of 10 and 50 and more common in male. 2. The denoting rib fracture, hemopneumothorax, and lung contusion are direct roentgenologic signs. 3. In case of serious result which showed pulmonary edema pattern on conventional chest films, we thought fat embolism or shock lung to be the cause of death.

  9. Corrosion Damage in Penetration Nozzle and Its Weldment of Reactor Pressure Vessel Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Yi, Young Sun; Kim, Dong Jin; Jung, Man Kyo

    2003-07-01

    The recent status on corrosion damage of reactor vessel head (RVH) penetration nozzles at primary water reactors (PWRs), including control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) and thermocouple nozzles, was investigated. The studies for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) characteristics of Alloy 600 and Alloy 182/82 were reviewed and summarized in terms of the crack initiation and crack growth rate. The studies on the boric acid corrosion (BAC) of low alloy steels were also included in this report. PWSCC was found to be the main failure mechanism of RVH CRDM nozzles, which are constituted with Alloy 600 base metal and Alloy 182 weld filler materials. Alloy 600 and Alloy 182/82 are very susceptible to intergranular SCC in the PWR environments. The PWSCC crack initiation and growth features in the fusion zone of Alloy 182/82 were strongly dependant on solidification anisotropy during welding, test temperature, weld heat, mechanical loading, stress relief heat treatment, cold work and so on. BAC of low alloy steels is a wastage phenomenon due to general corrosion occurring on the over-all surface area of material. Systematic studies, concerned with structural integrity of RVH penetration nozzles as well as improvement of PWSCC resistance of nickel-based weld metals in the simulated PWR environment, are needed

  10. Penetrating injury of the lungs and multiple injuries of lower extremities caused by aircraft bombs splinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Injuries caused by aircraft bombs cause severe damages to the human body. They are characterized by massive destruction of injured tissues and organs, primary contamination by polymorph bacterial flora and modified reactivity of the body. Upon being wounded by aircraft bombs projectiles a victim simultaneously sustains severe damages of many organs and organ systems due to the fact that a large number of projectiles at the same time injure the chest, stomach, head and extremities. Case report. We presented a patient, 41 years of age, injured by aircraft bomb with hemo-pneumothorax and destruction of the bone and soft tissue structures of the foot, as well as the treatment result of such heavy injuries. After receiving thoracocentesis and short reanimation, the patient underwent surgical procedure. The team performed thoracotomy, primary treatment of the wound and atypical resection of the left lung. Thoracic drains were placed. The wounds on the lower leg and feet were treated primarily. Due to massive destruction of bone tissue of the right foot by cluster bomb splinters, and impossibility of reconstruction of the foot, guillotine amputation of the right lower leg was performed. Twelve days after the wounding caused by cluster bomb splinters, soft tissue of the left lower leg was covered by Tirsch free transplantant and the defect in the area of the left foot was covered by dorsalis pedis flap. The transplant and flap were accepted and the donor sites were epithelized. Twenty-six days following the wounding reamputation was performed and amputation stump of the right lower leg was closed. The patient was given a lower leg prosthesis with which he could move. Conclusion. Upon being wounded by aircraft bomb splinters, the injured person sustains severe wounds of multiple organs and organ systems due to simultaneous injuries caused by a large number of projectiles. It is necessary to take care of the vital organs first because they

  11. Intraindividual variability as an indicator of malingering in head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Esther; Slick, Daniel J; Levy-Bencheton, Judi; Hunter, Michael; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F

    2002-07-01

    The utility of various measures of malingering was evaluated using an analog design in which half the participants (composed of three groups: naive healthy people, professionals working with head-injured people, individuals who suffered a head injury but not currently in litigation) were asked to try their best and the remainder was asked to feign believable injury. Participants were assessed with the Reliable Digit Span (RDS) task, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), and the Computerized Dot Counting Test (CDCT) on three separate occasions in order to determine whether repeat administration of tests improves prediction. The results indicated that regardless of an individual's experience, consideration of both level of performance (particularly on forced-choice symptom validity tasks) and intraindividual variability holds considerable promise for the detection of malingering.

  12. Risk factors for head injury events in professional rugby union: a video analysis of 464 head injury events to inform proposed injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Kemp, Simon; Brown, James; Fuller, Gordon; Hester, Ben; Cross, Matthew; Quarrie, Ken

    2017-08-01

    The tackle is responsible for the majority of head injuries during rugby union. In order to address head injury risk, risk factors during the tackle must first be identified. This study analysed tackle characteristics in the professional game in order to inform potential interventions. 464 tackles resulting in a head injury assessment (HIA) were analysed in detail, with tackle type, direction, speed, acceleration, nature of head contact and player body position the characteristics of interest. Propensity to cause an HIA was significantly greater for active shoulder tackles, front-on tackles, high speeder tackles and an accelerating tackler. Head contact between a tackler's head and ball carrier's head or shoulder was significantly more likely to cause an HIA than contact below the level of the shoulder (incident rate ratio (IRR) 4.25, 95%-CI 3.38 to 5.35). The tackler experiences the majority (78%) of HIAs when head-to-head contact occurs. An upright tackler was 1.5 times more likely to experience an HIA than a bent at the waist tackler (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.76). This study confirms that energy transfer in the tackle is a risk factor for head injury, since direction, type and speed all influence HIA propensity. The study provides evidence that body position and the height of tackles should be a focus for interventions, since lowering height and adopting a bent at the waist body position is associated with reduced risk for both tacklers and ball carriers. To this end, World Rugby has implemented law change based on the present data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Indications for computed tomography in patients with mild head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kenichiro; Wada, Kojiro; Takahara, Takashi; Shirotani, Toshiki

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting outcome were analyzed in 1,064 patients, 621 males and 443 females aged 10 to 104 years (mean 46±23 years), with mild head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score≥14) but no neurological signs presenting within 6 hours after injury. Intracranial lesion was found in 4.7% (50/1,064), and 0.66% (7/1,064) required surgical treatment. The Japan Coma Scale (JCS) and GCS assessments were well correlated (r=0.797). Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlations between computed tomography (CT) abnormality and age≥60 years, male sex, JCS score≥1, alcohol consumption, headache, nausea/vomiting, and transient loss of consciousness (LOC)/amnesia. Univariate analysis revealed that pedestrian in a motor vehicle accident, falling from height, and mechanisms of injuries except blows were correlated to intracranial injury. No significant correlations were found between craniofacial soft tissue injury and intracranial injury. Patients with occipital impact, nonfrontal impact, or skull fracture were more likely have intracranial lesions. Bleeding tendency was not correlated with CT abnormality. The following indications were proposed for CT: JCS score>0, presence of accessory symptoms (headache, nausea/vomiting, LOC/amnesia), and age≥60 years. These criteria would reduce the frequency of CT by 29% (309/1,064). Applying these indications to subsequent patients with GCS scores 14-15, 114 of 168 patients required CT, and intracranial lesions were found in 13. Two refused CT. Fifty-four of the 168 patients did not need CT according to the indications, but 38 of the 54 patients actually underwent CT because of social reasons (n=21) or patient request (n=17). These indications for CT including JCS may be useful in the management of patients with mild head injury. (author)

  14. Video incident analysis of head injuries in high school girls' lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V; Lincoln, Andrew E; Almquist, Jon L; Dunn, Reginald E; Hinton, Richard Y

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of injury mechanisms and game situations associated with head injuries in girls' high school lacrosse is necessary to target prevention efforts. To use video analysis and injury data to provide an objective and comprehensive visual record to identify mechanisms of injury, game characteristics, and penalties associated with head injury in girls' high school lacrosse. Descriptive epidemiology study. In the 25 public high schools of 1 school system, 529 varsity and junior varsity girls' lacrosse games were videotaped by trained videographers during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. Video of head injury incidents was examined to identify associated mechanisms and game characteristics using a lacrosse-specific coding instrument. Of the 25 head injuries (21 concussions and 4 contusions) recorded as game-related incidents by athletic trainers during the 2 seasons, 20 head injuries were captured on video, and 14 incidents had sufficient image quality for analysis. All 14 incidents of head injury (11 concussions, 3 contusions) involved varsity-level athletes. Most head injuries resulted from stick-to-head contact (n = 8), followed by body-to-head contact (n = 4). The most frequent player activities were defending a shot (n = 4) and competing for a loose ball (n = 4). Ten of the 14 head injuries occurred inside the 12-m arc and in front of the goal, and no penalty was called in 12 injury incidents. All injuries involved 2 players, and most resulted from unintentional actions. Turf versus grass did not appear to influence number of head injuries. Comprehensive video analysis suggests that play near the goal at the varsity high school level is associated with head injuries. Absence of penalty calls on most of these plays suggests an area for exploration, such as the extent to which current rules are enforced and the effectiveness of existing rules for the prevention of head injury.

  15. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    30 am – 5:00 pm Overview of Blast Physics and Applications Doubletree Hotel Crystal City Arlington VA, Between the Pentagon and National Airport at...provided) 8:30 Introduction and Overview Dr. Stefan Duma, Virginia Tech Head Injury Biomechanics 8:45 “Instrumented Helmet Data Collection and Analysis...of NASA Suit Interface and Landing Conditions” Ms. Kerry Danelson, Wake Forest University 4:05 “Modeling Human Variation: Orbit Anthropometry and

  16. The state of head injury biomechanics: past, present, and future part 2: physical experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Werner; Monson, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    This presentation is the continuation of the article published in Critical Reviews of Biomedical Engineering, 29(5-6), 2001. That issue contained topics dealing with components and geometry of the human head, classification of head injuries, some early experimental studies, and tolerance considerations. It then dealt with head motion and load characterization, investigations during the period from 1939 to 1966, injury causation and early modeling efforts, the 1966 Head Injury Conference and its sequels, mechanical properties of solid tissues, fluid characterization, and early investigation of the mechanical properties of cranial materials. It continued with a description of the systematic investigations of solid cranial components and structural properties since 1966, fetal cranial properties, analytical head modeling, and numerical solutions of head injury. The paper concluded with experimental dynamic loading of human living and cadaver heads, dynamic loading of surrogate heads, and head injury mechanics. This portion of the paper describes physical head injury experimentation involving animals, primarily primates, human cadavers, volunteers, and inanimate physical models. In order to address the entire domain of head injury biomechanics in the two-part survey, it was intended that this information be supplemented by discussions of head injury tolerance and criteria, automotive and sports safety considerations, and the design of protective equipment, but Professor Goldsmith passed away before these sections could be completed. It is nevertheless anticipated that this attenuated installment will provide, in conjunction with the first part of the survey, a valuable resource for students and practitioners of head injury biomechanics.

  17. A ten-year study of penetrating injuries of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesanya, Adedoyin A; Ekanem, Ekanem E

    2004-12-01

    Colon injury has been associated with a high risk of septic complications and mortality. We prospectively studied the pattern, management, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients who sustained penetrating colon injuries. Sixty patients who presented to our hospital with penetrating colon injuries over a ten-year period (1992 to 2001) were studied. Colon wounds were caused by gunshots in 55 (91.7 percent) patients and knife stabs in 5 (8.3 percent). There was a delay of more than 12 hours before laparotomy in 30 (50 percent) patients. Moderate or major fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity occurred in 58 (96.7 percent) patients. The average penetrating abdominal trauma index score was 25.9 and 20 (33.3 percent) patients sustained Flint Grade 3 colon injury. Associated intra-abdominal injuries occurred in the small bowel (73.3 percent), liver (25 percent), stomach (23.3 percent), and mesentery (16.7 percent). Right colon wounds (35) were managed by primary repair in 24 (68.6 percent) patients and proximal diverting colostomy in 11 (31.4 percent), whereas left colon wounds (25) were managed by diverting colostomy in 22 (88.0 percent) patients and primary repair in 3 (12.0 percent) patients. Common complications included wound infection (56.7 percent), septicemia (31.7 percent), and enterocutaneous fistula (16.7 percent). The overall mortality rate was 33.3 percent and colon injury-related mortality was 21.7 percent. Presence of destructive colon injury was associated with a greater than fourfold increased incidence of death. Other significant risk factors included shock on admission, major fecal contamination, duration of operation more than four hours, penetrating abdominal trauma index score >25, and more than two postoperative complications. There was no difference in outcome between patients who had primary repair and those undergoing diverting colostomy. Colostomy closure-related morbidity was 21 percent and mortality was 5.3 percent. A more liberal

  18. Patients who reattend after head injury: a high risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Knottenbelt, J. D.; Peden, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess risk factors for important neurosurgical effects in patients who reattend after head injury. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SUBJECTS--606 patients who reattended a trauma unit after minor head injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intracranial abnormality detected on computed tomography or the need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS--Five patients died: two from unrelated causes and three from raised intracranial pressure. On multiple regression analysis the only significant predictor for both abnormality on computed tomography (14.4% of reattenders) and the need for operation (5% of reattenders) was vault fracture seen on the skull radiograph (P personality change, and seizures were significantly associated only with abnormality on computed tomography. Headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were common in reattenders but were found to have no independent significance. CONCLUSIONS--All patients who reattend after head injury should undergo computed tomography as at least 14% of scans can be expected to yield positive results. Where this facility is not available patients with predictors for operation should be urgently referred for neurosurgical opinion. Other patients can be readmitted and need referral only if symptoms persist despite symptomatic treatment or there is neurological deterioration while under observation. These patients are a high risk group and should be treated seriously. PMID:8520273

  19. Glucose and oxygen metabolism after penetrating ballistic-like brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajavelli, Shyam; Kentaro, Shimoda; Diaz, Julio; Yokobori, Shoji; Spurlock, Markus; Diaz, Daniel; Jackson, Clayton; Wick, Alexandra; Zhao, Weizhao; Leung, Lai Y; Shear, Deborah; Tortella, Frank; Bullock, M Ross

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in all age groups. Among TBI, penetrating traumatic brain injuries (PTBI) have the worst prognosis and represent the leading cause of TBI-related morbidity and death. However, there are no specific drugs/interventions due to unclear pathophysiology. To gain insights we looked at cerebral metabolism in a PTBI rat model: penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Early after injury, regional cerebral oxygen tension and consumption significantly decreased in the ipsilateral cortex in the PBBI group compared with the control group. At the same time point, glucose uptake was significantly reduced globally in the PBBI group compared with the control group. Examination of Fluorojade B-stained brain sections at 24 hours after PBBI revealed an incomplete overlap of metabolic impairment and neurodegeneration. As expected, the injury core had the most severe metabolic impairment and highest neurodegeneration. However, in the peri-lesional area, despite similar metabolic impairment, there was lesser neurodegeneration. Given our findings, the data suggest the presence of two distinct zones of primary injury, of which only one recovers. We anticipate the peri-lesional area encompassing the PBBI ischemic penumbra, could be salvaged by acute therapies. PMID:25669903

  20. Laparoscopic repair of penetrating injury of the diaphragm: an experience from a district hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yahya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review our experience in using laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in dealing with penetrating diaphragmatic injuries due to stab wounds and look at the feasibility of using this procedure in other similar institutions.Thirty patients, all of whom were males 20-30 years of age, presented to the surgical emergency unit of our hospital with upper abdominal and lower chest wall stab wounds between 01-05-1998 and 30-11-2006. Diagnosis of the diaphragm injury was either obvious with omentum herniating through the chest wall, or occult with confirmation of the injury at laparoscopy.All patients underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, which resulted in identification and efficient treatment of eight patients with diaphragmatic injury, and thereby laparotomy was avoided. The procedure converted to open surgery in one patient because of a small left-sided colonic tear. Laparoscopy is an efficient tool for the diagnosis and management of diaphragmatic injuries. It should be used routinely instead of exploratory laparotomy in haemodynamically stable patients with penetrating lower chest injuries.

  1. Fall Risk Assessment Predicts Fall-Related Injury, Hip Fracture, and Head Injury in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Eriksson, Joel; Larsson, Berit; Odén, Anders; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the role of a fall risk assessment, using the Downton Fall Risk Index (DFRI), in predicting fall-related injury, fall-related head injury and hip fracture, and death, in a large cohort of older women and men residing in Sweden. Cross sectional observational study. Sweden. Older adults (mean age 82.4 ± 7.8) who had a fall risk assessment using the DFRI at baseline (N = 128,596). Information on all fall-related injuries, all fall-related head injuries and hip fractures, and all-cause mortality was collected from the Swedish Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. The predictive role of DFRI was calculated using Poisson regression models with age, sex, height, weight, and comorbidities as covariates, taking time to outcome or end of study into account. During a median follow-up of 253 days (interquartile range 90-402 days) (>80,000 patient-years), 15,299 participants had a fall-related injury, 2,864 a head injury, and 2,557 a hip fracture, and 23,307 died. High fall risk (DFRI ≥3) independently predicted fall-related injury (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.39-1.49), hip fracture (HR = 1.51, 95% CI =1.38-1.66), head injury (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22), and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.35-1.43). DFRI more strongly predicted head injury (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.21-1.36 vs HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.11) and hip fracture (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53 vs HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05-1.11) in 70-year old men than in 90-year old women (P Fall risk assessment using DFRI independently predicts fall-related injury, fall-related head injury and hip fracture, and all-cause mortality in older men and women, indicating its clinical usefulness to identify individuals who would benefit from interventions. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Multiple growing fractures and cerebral venous anomaly after penetrating injuries: delayed diagnosis in a battered child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkat, S.; Vandevenne, J.E.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. de

    2001-01-01

    A growing fracture usually results from a skull fracture with dural tear after blunt head trauma during infancy. We present a case of child abuse with multiple growing fractures resulting from penetrating head trauma by scissors. MR imaging confirmed the presence of growing fractures and revealed a presumably post-traumatic venous anomaly (occluded left cavernous sinus and aberrant posterior venous drainage via the internal cerebral veins). Diagnosis of the growing fractures and venous anomaly was delayed until the age of 15 years. Medical expertise should be more readily available to battered children, and MR imaging is advocated in growing skull fracture to exclude associated post-traumatic brain lesions. (orig.)

  3. Multiple growing fractures and cerebral venous anomaly after penetrating injuries: delayed diagnosis in a battered child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkat, S.; Vandevenne, J.E.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. de [Dept. of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Edegem (Belgium)

    2001-05-01

    A growing fracture usually results from a skull fracture with dural tear after blunt head trauma during infancy. We present a case of child abuse with multiple growing fractures resulting from penetrating head trauma by scissors. MR imaging confirmed the presence of growing fractures and revealed a presumably post-traumatic venous anomaly (occluded left cavernous sinus and aberrant posterior venous drainage via the internal cerebral veins). Diagnosis of the growing fractures and venous anomaly was delayed until the age of 15 years. Medical expertise should be more readily available to battered children, and MR imaging is advocated in growing skull fracture to exclude associated post-traumatic brain lesions. (orig.)

  4. Vascular geometry as a risk factor for non-penetrating traumatic injuries of the aortic arch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schicho

    Full Text Available To assess biomechanical factors in aortic arch geometry contributing to the development of non-penetrating aortic arch injury (NAAI in multiply injured patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS ≥ 16.230 consecutive multiply injured trauma patients with an ISS ≥ 16 admitted to our Level-I trauma center during a consecutive 24-month period were prospectively included of whom 13 presented with NAAI (5.7%. Standardized whole-body CT in a 2x128-detector-row scanner included a head-and-neck CTA. Aortic arch diameters, width, height, angles and thoracic width and height were measured in individuals with NAAI and ISS-, sex-, age-, and trauma mechanism-matched controls.There was no difference between groups regarding sex, age, ISS, and aortic diameters. The aortic arch angle in individuals with NAAI (71.3° ± 14.9° was larger than in healthy control (60.7° ± 8.6°; p*<0.05. In patients with NAAI, the distance between ascendent and descendent aorta was larger (5.2 cm ± 1.9 cm than in control (2.8 ± 0.5 cm; ***p<0.001. The aortic arch is higher above tracheal bifurcation in NAAI (3.6 cm ± 0.6 cm than in matched control (2.4 cm ± 0.3 cm; ***p<0.001. Accordingly, the area under the aortic arch, calculated as half of an eliptic shape, is significantly larger in patients with NAAI (15.0 cm2 ± 6.5 cm2 when compared to age- and sex-matched controls without NAAI (5.5 cm2 ± 1.3 cm2; ***p<0.001.Besides the magnitude of deceleration and direction of impact, width and height of the aortic arch are the 3rd and 4th factor directly contributing to the risk of developing traumatic NAAI in severely injured patients.

  5. Penetrating Obturator Artery Injury after Gunshot Wounds: A Successful Multidisciplinary Trauma Team Approach to a Potentially Lethal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraqa, Tareq I; Shin, Ji-Sun J; Diallo, Ismael; Sachwani-Daswani, Gul R; Mercer, Leo C

    2017-11-17

    Obturator artery injury (OAI) from pelvic gunshot wounds (GSW) is a rarely reported condition. Hemorrhages from pelvic trauma (PT) are mostly venous. Arterial hemorrhages represent about 10-20% of PTs. When arterial hemorrhages from PT occur, they are a severe and deadly complication often causing significant hemodynamic instability and eventual shock. A  23-year-old male presented to our emergency service via a private vehicle with multiple gunshot wounds to both thighs and to the lower back, resulted in rectal and obturator artery (OA) injuries. The patient underwent a successful coil-embolization of the right OA. Given the density of structures within the pelvis, patients who sustain gunshot wounds to the pelvic region are at high risk for injury to the small bowel, sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder, and/or vascular structures. While bleeding is the major cause of early mortality in PT, rectal injuries carry the highest mortality due to visceral injuries. A high clinical index of suspicion is needed to diagnose an iliac artery injury or injury to its branches. Prompt computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) and embolization of the OA is the best method to control and stop the bleeding and improve the mortality outcome. Clinicians caring for patients presenting with pelvic gunshot wounds should pay attention to the delayed presentation of internal hemorrhage from the OAs. A multidisciplinary team approach is crucial in the successful management of penetrating injuries to the obturator artery.

  6. Biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min S; Levy, Michael L

    2008-02-01

    With the increased conditioning, size, and speed of professional athletes and the increase in individuals engaging in sports and recreational activities, there is potential for rising numbers of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Fortunately, parallel strides in basic research technology and improvements in computer and video technology have created a new era of discovery in the study of the biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries. Although prevention will always be the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injuries, ongoing studies will lead to the development of newer protective equipment, improved recognition and management of concussions on the field of play, and modification of rules and guidelines to make these activities safer and more enjoyable.

  7. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Ting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22. The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  8. Snowboard head injury: prospective study in Chino, Nagano, for two seasons from 1995 to 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, H; Fujimaki, T; Ueki, K; Takahashi, M; Yoshida, H; Kirino, T

    1999-06-01

    The popularity of snowboarding has been growing rapidly throughout the world. To date, however, the risk of head injury associated with this relatively new winter sport, especially in comparison with alpine skiing, has not been well analyzed. This study was conducted to assess the risk of head injury in snowboarding and to elucidate its features in comparison with skiing head injury. We prospectively analyzed 301 cases of head injuries related to snowboarding or skiing experienced from December of 1995 to May of 1997 at our institution, which is located close to the most popular skiing areas in Japan. Of those injuries, 143 cases were snowboard related and 158 cases were ski related. In addition to appropriate medical evaluation and medical care, detailed examination was performed on every patient to determine various factors, including sex, age, skill level, cause and mechanism of the accident, and the side of impact to the head. The data are statistically analyzed to elucidate unique features of snowboard head injury. During the study period, 2.2 million snowboarders and 4.2 million skiers visited the five skiing facilities that are covered by our hospital. Thus, the incidence of head injury was 6.5 per 100,000 visits for snowboarders and 3.8 per 100,000 visits for skiers. Beginning snowboarders more frequently sustained head injuries compared with beginning skiers (60 of 142 vs. 48 of 154, p = 0.022). Likewise, frequent causes of snowboarding head injuries were fall during jumping (43 of 139 vs. 2 of 147, pskiing head injuries (1.3%). Of 11 major head injury cases, 10 were caused by occipital impact. These results indicate that snowboarders, particularly beginners, are at higher risk for head injury, frequently involving occipital impact, and could lead to more major head injuries. We propose that measures should be taken to protect the head, especially the occiput, in snowboarding.

  9. Treatment of penetrating hepatic injuries: a retrospective analysis of 50 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonullu, D; Koksoy, F N; Ilgun, S; Demiray, O; Yucel, O; Yucel, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of non-operative treatment via retrospective analysis of our patients. Fifty patients with penetrating hepatic injuries were examined retrospectively with respect to trauma scores, associated injuries, complications, and mortality parameters. Thirteen injuries were caused by firearms, whereas 37 injuries were caused by stab wounds. Forty-three patients (86%) underwent laparotomy and 7 patients (14%) were monitored by CT and clinical findings (nonoperative group, NO group). The laparotomies were evaluated as non-therapeutic in 11 patients (22%) (NTL group) and therapeutic in 32 patients (64%) (TL group). The morbidity and mortality rates were 40 and 10%, respectively. RTS and ISS scores of the nonsurviving and the surviving patients were significantly different. The rates of major venous, grade IV-V hepatic injuries, and gunshot wounds were significantly higher in the nonsurviving patients when compared to the surviving patients. Major venous and grade IV-V hepatic injuries were the primary factors determining mortality and these injuries generally occurred as a result of firearm injuries. NTL occurring at a rate of 22% would decrease to 2% if 'RTS <7' criteria was added to the hemodynamic instability and/or peritoneal irritation findings determining surgical candidacy. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Liver trauma from penetrating injuries. Miscellanea, personal series, clinical and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzano, A.; Nocera, V.; De Rosa, A.; Vigliotti, A.; Rossi, E.; Carbone, M.; Gatta, G.

    2000-01-01

    Penetrating liver wounds are related to many causes and rank second after blunt abdominal and liver trauma. In this report are examined the clinical and radiological findings of personal series of patients with penetrating trauma, especially by firearms and stab and cut wounds. It will also tried to define the diagnostic workup of these traumas, which is especially based on CT signs of liver damage and associated changes and which is of basic importance for following treatment, both surgical or conservative. In the last seven years it was retrospectively reviewed 31 cases of penetrating liver trauma. The patients were 19 men and 12 women, ranging in age 18 to 73 (mean 42), with penetrating liver injuries from firearms (16 patients) and stab (9 cases) wounds; 6 patients had injuries from different cases. Abdominal CT was carried out in emergency with the CT Angiography (CTA) technique in all patients. In the patients with suspected chest and abdomen involvement CT was performed from the mid-chest for accurate assessment of diaphragm and lung bases and to exclude associated pleuropulmonary damage. Penetrating liver wounds were caused by firearms in 70% of cases, by stabbing in 12% and, in the extant 18%, by other cases such as home accidents, road and work traumas, and liver biopsy. In this series, the liver was most frequently involved, especially by firearms wounds; in the 16 cases the most frequent injuries were hemorrhagic tears. It was found bullets in the liver in 6 cases. In one case of home accident the patient wounded himself while slicing bread with a long knife, which cut into the anterior abdominal wall and tore the anterior liver capsule, as seen at CTA. Penetrating wounds to liver and abdomen are less frequent than those to the chest. In the past decade the use of CT has changed the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to such injuries completely, decreasing the resort to explorative laparotomy and hepatorrhaphy. Indeed, CT provides a clear picture of

  11. Early surgical managment of penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, R G

    1976-09-01

    Pars plana vitrectomy technic can be used in the early management of certain penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, including selected intraocular foreign bodies. This study reports the results of ten consecutive cases of intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment treated by a combination of vitrectomy (including lensectomy when necessary) and foreign-body extraction with forceps. The foreign body was successfully removed in nine of ten eyes, and nine of ten eyes were salvaged. This favorable experience using early vitreous surgery suggests that the vitrectomy technic can be used in other penetrating injuries involving the posterior segment that are not associated with intraocular foreign bodies. Possible indications for early vitrectomy are presented, including cases with a poor prognosis when managed by conventional methods.

  12. Multiple-Projectile Penetrating Neck Injury from a Modified Nail-Containing Gas Pistol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Dimitrov Pazardzhikliev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Penetrating neck injuries result from missiles and stab wounds. A gas pistol is a non-lethal weapon for self-defence. Case Report: We present a case where the use of a modified gun led to multiple injuries in a single shot. Four projectiles were embedded in the neck, one in the larynx and three in the cervical spine. The first was removed via a combined external and endoscopic approach, while the rest were put on follow-up. Conclusion: The reported case shows that damage from modified gas pistols, although rarely life threatening, may cause long term discomfort and diminished quality of life.

  13. Is non-operative approach applicable for penetrating injuries of the left thoraco-abdominal region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Kones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Currently, diagnostic laparoscopy (DL is recommended for the left thoraco-abdominal region penetrating injuries (LTARP. However, organ and diaphragmatic injury may not be detected in all of these patients. Our aim is to focus on this LTARP patient group without any operative findings and to highlight the evaluation of diagnostic tools in the high-tech era for a possible selected conservative treatment. Material and methods: The patients who were admitted to ED due to LTARP, and who underwent routine DL were evaluated retrospectively in terms of demographic, clinical, radiological, and operative findings of the patients. Results: The current study included 79 patients with LTARP. In 44 of 79 patients, abdominal injury was not detected. In 30 patients an isolated diaphragmatic injury was revealed and in 4 patients a visceral injury was accompanying to diaphragmatic injury. Surgical findings revealed that the diaphragm was the organ most likely to sustain injury. In patients with more than one positive diagnostic findings need for surgery rate was 61.5%, however; in patients with one positive diagnostic finding (n = 53, positive surgical finding rate was only 35.8%, (p = 0.03. Regarding the combined use of all diagnostic tools in these patients; such as physical examination, plain chest X-ray, and computed tomography, when this method was used for pre-operative diagnosis, sensitivity was measured as 82.7%, specificity 84.1%, PPV 77.4% and NPV 88.1%. Conclusion: Although DL is reliable for diagnosis of diaphragmatic and visceral injury in patients with LTARP. However, individual decision making for laparoscopic intervention is needed to prevent morbidity of an unnecessary operation under emergent setting due to high rates of negative intraabdominal findings. Keywords: Wounds penetrating, Physical examination, Diagnostic imaging, Treatment outcome

  14. Intraocular eyelashes and iris cyst in anterior chamber following penetrating eye injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabin Sahu,1 Lila Raj Puri,1 Sanjay Kumar Singh2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Lahan, Siraha, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Biratnagar Eye Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal Background: The presence of intraocular eyelashes following penetrating eye injury or ocular surgery is relatively uncommon. The response of the eye to intraocular eyelashes is variable. The eyelash may be symptomatic or may remain asymptomatic for long periods. Objective: We report a case with two intraocular eyelashes and an iris cyst after 2 years of asymptomatic period following penetrating eye injury. Case presentation: A 24-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye which he had noticed for the previous 2 weeks. His visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye, improving to 6/9 with -2.5 DC × 140° correction. The intraocular pressure was 12 mmHg in both eyes. On slit-lamp examination, the left eye showed 8 mm linear peripheral corneal opacity nasally, two eyelashes in the superior anterior chamber, and an iris cyst measuring 4 mm × 4 mm in the superior iris. The right eye was normal. Dilated fundus examination of both eyes was normal. The eyelashes and cyst were removed surgically. There were no complications during the 3-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Intraocular implantation of eyelashes following penetrating eye injury can remain asymptomatic for long periods; however, late development of iris cyst may occur. Keywords: intraocular eyelashes, iris cyst, penetrating eye injury

  15. [Neuropsychological evaluation of a case of organic personality disorder due to penetrating brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de la Torre, J C; Pérez-Ríos, M

    1996-06-01

    In this paper, an organic personality disorder case by penetrating brain injury, predominantly localized in the right frontal lobe, is presented. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging (CT scan studies) were performed. We assessed the main cognitive aspect: orientation, attention, memory, intelligence, language, visual-spatial functioning, motor functioning, executive functioning and personality. The results obtained, point out disorders in the patient's behavior and in the executive functions. Likewise, other cognitive functions as: attention, memory, language and visual-spatial functioning, show specific deficits.

  16. Complications following blunt and penetrating injuries in 216 victims of chest trauma requiring tube thoracostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, T S; Gyles, N R; Eisenstein, C L; Soracco, C A

    1989-10-01

    Tube thoracostomy (TT) is required in the treatment of many blunt and penetrating injuries of the chest. In addition to complications from the injuries, TT may contribute to morbidity by introducing microorganisms into the pleural space or by incomplete lung expansion and evacuation of pleural blood. We have attempted to assess the impact of TT following penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma by examining a consecutive series of 216 patients seen at two urban trauma centers with such injuries who required TT over a 30-month period. Ninety-four patients suffered blunt chest trauma; 122 patients were victims of penetrating wounds. Patients with blunt injuries had longer ventilator requirements (12.6 +/- 14 days vs. 3.7 +/- 7.1 days, p = 0.003), longer intensive care stays (12.2 +/- 12.5 days vs. 4.1 +/- 7.5 days, p = 0.001), and longer periods of TT, (6.5 +/- 4.9 days vs. 5.2 +/- 4.5 days, p = 0.018). Empyema occurred in six patients (3%). Residual hemothorax was found in 39 patients (18%), seven of whom required decortication. Recurrent pneumothorax developed in 51 patients (24%) and ten required repeat TT. Complications occurred in 78 patients (36%). Patients with blunt trauma experienced more complications (44%) than those with penetrating wounds (30%) (p = 0.04). However, only seven of 13 patients developing empyema or requiring decortication had blunt trauma. Despite longer requirements for mechanical ventilation, intensive care, and intubation, victims of blunt trauma seemed to have effective drainage of their pleural space by TT without increased risk of infectious complications.

  17. Crack of reactor vessel upper head penetration nozzles in Korean nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doh, E.; Lee, T-S.; Kim, J-Y.; Lee, C-H. [KEPCO Plant Service and Engineering Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Since the first CRDM nozzles of reactor vessel head at Kori unit 1 in Korea were inspected in 2003, no CRDM nozzle cracks had been revealed prior to the inspection at Hanbit unit 3 in October 2012, even though many foreign plants had been reporting PWSCC cracks. In October 2012, seven axial cracks from 6 CRDM nozzles at Hanbit unit 3, and in November 2013, six axial cracks from 6 CRDM nozzles at Hanbit unit 4 were detected by TOFD Ultrasonic testing from ID of nozzles. There were confirmed to be PWSCC by Dye penetrant testing and Replica on the surface of J-groove weld of CRDM nozzles. Both plants are OPR-1000 types. All flaws started from the surface of J-groove weld at interface with OD of nozzle, but did not grow up to the top of J-groove weld, and did not make any Leak path up to head outside. The Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) system of CRDM nozzle inspection for Westinghouse type plants has been applied in Korea since July 2011. However, its application for OPR-1000 is still under development in Korea. The experience of PDI inspection for Westinghouse type plant contributed greatly to the detection and evaluation of PWSCC of CRDM nozzles at OPR- 1000 of Hanbit unit 3 & 4. The experimentally based procedure of flaw detection and the enhanced detection technique of examiners made it possible to detect and to determine the PWSCC indications. Embedded Flaw Repair process was approved by government authority, and the repair of the 6 CRDM nozzles in each plant was conducted by a consortium of Westinghouse and KPS. (author)

  18. Longitudinal Evaluation of Wound Healing after Penetrating Corneal Injury: Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang Keng; Cai, Jianhao; Rong, Shi Song; Peng, Kun; Xia, Honghe; Jin, Chuan; Lu, Xuehui; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Haoyu; Jhanji, Vishal

    2017-07-01

    Ocular imaging can enhance our understanding of wound healing. We report anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) findings in penetrating corneal injury. Serial ASOCT was performed after repair of penetrating corneal injury. Internal aberrations of wound edges were labeled as "steps" or "gaps" on ASOCT images. The wound type was characterized as: type 1: continuous inner wound edge or step height ≤ 80 µm; type 2: step height > 80 µm; type 3: gap between wound edges; and type 4: intraocular tissue adherent to wound. Surgical outcomes of different wound types were compared. 50 consecutive patients were included (6 females, 44 males; mean age 33 ± 12 years). The average size of wound was 4.2 ± 2.6 mm (type 1, 8 eyes; type 2, 27 eyes; type 3, 12 eyes; type 4, 3 eyes). At the end of 3 months, 70% (n = 35) of the wounds were type 1. At the end of 6 months, all type 1 wounds had healed completely, whereas about half of type 2 (48.1%) and type 3 (50%) wounds had recovered to type 1 configuration. The wound type at baseline affected the height of step (p = 0.047) and corneal thickness at 6 months (p = 0.035). ASOCT is a useful tool for monitoring wound healing in cases with penetrating corneal injury. Majority of the wound edges appose between 3 and 6 months after trauma. In our study, baseline wound configuration affected the healing pattern.

  19. Isolated traumatic head injury in children: Analysis of 276 observations

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    Bahloul Mabrouk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : To determine predictive factors of mortality among children after isolated traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods : In this retrospective study, we included all consecutive children with isolated traumatic brain injury admitted to the 22-bed intensive care unit (ICU of Habib Bourguiba University Hospital (Sfax, Tunisia. Basic demographic, clinical, biochemical, and radiological data were recorded on admission and during ICU stay. Results : There were 276 patients with 196 boys (71% and 80 girls, with a mean age of 6.7 ± 3.8 years. The main cause of trauma was road traffic accident (58.3%. Mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 ± 2, Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS was 23.3 ± 5.9, Mean Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS was 4.8 ± 2.3, and Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM was 10.8 ± 8. A total of 259 children required mechanical ventilation. Forty-eight children (17.4% died. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with a poor prognosis were PRISM > 24 (OR: 10.98, neurovegetative disorder (OR: 7.1, meningeal hemorrhage (OR: 2.74, and lesion type VI according to Marshall tomographic grading (OR: 13.26. Conclusion : In Tunisia, head injury is a frequent cause of hospital admission and is most often due to road traffic injuries. Short-term prognosis is influenced by demographic, clinical, radiological, and biochemical factors. The need to put preventive measures in place is underscored.

  20. Syringe needle skull penetration reduces brain injuries and secondary inflammation following intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Yang, Zhijun; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-03-01

    Intracerebral neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is beneficial for delivering stem cell grafts effectively, however, this approach may subsequently result in brain injury and secondary inflammation. To reduce the risk of promoting brain injury and secondary inflammation, two methods were compared in the present study. Murine skulls were penetrated using a drill on the left side and a syringe needle on the right. Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=84/group): Group A, receiving NSCs in the left hemisphere and PBS in the right; group B, receiving NSCs in the right hemisphere and PBS in the left; and group C, receiving equal NSCs in both hemispheres. Murine brains were stained for morphological analysis and subsequent evaluation of infiltrated immune cells. ELISA was performed to detect neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factors in the brain. The findings indicated that brain injury and secondary inflammation in the left hemisphere were more severe than those in the right hemisphere, following NSC transplantation. In contrast to the left hemisphere, more neurotrophic factors but less pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected in the right hemisphere. In addition, increased levels of neurotrophic factors and interleukin (IL)-10 were observed in the NSC transplantation side when compared with the PBS-treated hemispheres, although lower levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were detected. In conclusion, the present study indicated that syringe needle skull penetration vs. drill penetration is an improved method that reduces the risk of brain injury and secondary inflammation following intracerebral NSC transplantation. Furthermore, NSCs have the potential to modulate inflammation secondary to brain injuries.

  1. Simulation of time of flight defraction signals for reactor vessel head penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Tae Hun; Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Jeong Seok [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The simulation of nondestructive testing has been used in the prediction of the signal characteristics of various defects and in the development of the procedures. CIVA, a simulation tool dedicated to nondestructive testing, has good accuracy and speed, and provides a three-dimensional graphical user interface for improved visualization and familiar data displays consistent with an NDE technique. Even though internal validations have been performed by the CIVA software development specialists, an independent validation study is necessary for the assessment of the accuracy of the software prior to practical use. In this study, time of flight diffraction signals of ultrasonic inspection of a calibration block for reactor vessel head penetrations were simulated using CIVA. The results were compared to the experimentally inspected signals. The accuracy of the simulated signals and the possible range for simulation were verified. It was found that, there is a good agreement between the CIVA simulated and experimental results in the A-scan signal, B-scan image, and measurement of depth.

  2. Simulation of time of flight defraction signals for reactor vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Hun; Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Jeong Seok

    2016-01-01

    The simulation of nondestructive testing has been used in the prediction of the signal characteristics of various defects and in the development of the procedures. CIVA, a simulation tool dedicated to nondestructive testing, has good accuracy and speed, and provides a three-dimensional graphical user interface for improved visualization and familiar data displays consistent with an NDE technique. Even though internal validations have been performed by the CIVA software development specialists, an independent validation study is necessary for the assessment of the accuracy of the software prior to practical use. In this study, time of flight diffraction signals of ultrasonic inspection of a calibration block for reactor vessel head penetrations were simulated using CIVA. The results were compared to the experimentally inspected signals. The accuracy of the simulated signals and the possible range for simulation were verified. It was found that, there is a good agreement between the CIVA simulated and experimental results in the A-scan signal, B-scan image, and measurement of depth

  3. Ischemic Retinopathy and Neovascular Proliferation Secondary to Severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Coban-Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case with severe head trauma and perforating globe injury in one eye and ischemic retinopathy and neovascular proliferation in the other eye. A 37-year-old male was brought to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident with severe maxillofacial trauma. Ophthalmic examination revealed hematoma of the left eyelids as well as traumatic rupture and disorganization of the left globe. On the right eye, anterior segment and fundoscopic examination were normal. Primary globe repair was performed. At postoperative one-month visit, the right eye revealed no pathology of the optic disc and macula but severe neovascularization in the temporal peripheral retina. The patient was diagnosed as ischemic retinopathy and neovascular proliferation due to head trauma.

  4. [The German guideline "legal evaluation after closed head injury"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallesch, C W; Fries, W; Marx, P; du Mesnil de Rochemont, R; Roschmann, R; Schmidt, R; Schwerdtfeger, K; Tegenthoff, M; Widder, B

    2013-09-01

    In 2005, the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurowissenschaftliche Begutachtung" (German Society for Neuroscientific Legal Evaluation) together with other Societies published a guideline for the legal evaluation of patients with closed head injuries. Meanwhile, not only scientific progress in imaging techniques but also in other fields such as neuropsychology has necessitated a revision, which is presented here. In the mean time, the handling of guidelines has been systematised in Germany so that a registration with the Cooperation of German Medical Learned Societies is applied for and publication in the German Guideline Registry is expected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Personality disorder symptomatology and neuropsychological functioning in closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Swirsky-Sacchetti, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Despite an emerging literature characterizing the neuropsychological profiles of borderline, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders, relations between personality disorder traits and neurocognitive domains remain unknown. The authors examined associations among Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales and eight neuropsychological domains in 161 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation following closed head injury. Most personality disorder scales were associated with some decrement in cognitive function, particularly speeded processing, executive function, and language, while histrionic and narcissistic scales had positive relations with neuropsychological functioning. Results suggest that many personality disorder traits are related to neurocognitive function, particularly those functions subserved by frontal and temporal regions.

  6. Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures after Head Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scévola

    2009-01-01

    another medical illness. The gold standard for PNES diagnosis is video electroencephalogram (Video-EEG. PNESs are defined by modern psychiatry as conversion and dissociative disorders but these disorders may coexist with many others psychiatric disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. It is well known that epileptic seizures are a frequent and well-studied complication of traumatic head injury (THI. However, THI may also generate psychic symptoms including PNES. In this paper we describe a patient who developed PNES after THI in a bus accident and received a diagnosis of refractory epilepsy for 24 years until she underwent Video-EEG.

  7. Deficit in figure-ground segmentation following closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, G C; Baylis, L L

    1997-08-01

    Patient CB showed a severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation following a closed head injury. Unlike normal subjects, CB was unable to parse smaller and brighter parts of stimuli as figure. Moreover, she did not show the normal effect that symmetrical regions are seen as figure, although she was able to make overt judgments of symmetry. Since she was able to attend normally to isolated objects, CB demonstrates a dissociation between figure ground segmentation and subsequent processes of attention. Despite her severe impairment in figure-ground segmentation, CB showed normal 'parallel' single feature visual search. This suggests that figure-ground segmentation is dissociable from 'preattentive' processes such as visual search.

  8. Factors Influencing Helmet Use, Head Injury, and Hospitalization Among Children Involved in Skateboarding and Snowboarding Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders.

  9. Factors affecting mortality after penetrating cardiac injuries: 10-year experience at urban level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; Jhunjhunwala, Rashi; Gelbard, Rondi B; Dougherty, Stacy D; Carr, Jacquelyn S; Dente, Christopher J; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Vercruysse, Gary A; Feliciano, David V; Morse, Bryan C

    2017-06-01

    Despite the lethality of injuries to the heart, optimizing factors that impact mortality for victims that do survive to reach the hospital is critical. From 2003 to 2012, prehospital data, injury characteristics, and clinical patient factors were analyzed for victims with penetrating cardiac injuries (PCIs) at an urban, level I trauma center. Over the 10-year study, 80 PCI patients survived to reach the hospital. Of the 21 factors analyzed, prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] = 30), scene time greater than 10 minutes (OR = 58), resuscitative thoracotomy (OR = 19), and massive left hemothorax (OR = 15) had the greatest impact on mortality. Cardiac tamponade physiology demonstrated a "protective" effect for survivors to the hospital (OR = .08). Trauma surgeons can improve mortality after PCI by minimizing time to the operating room for early control of hemorrhage. In PCI patients, tamponade may provide a physiologic advantage (lower mortality) compared to exsanguination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Computerized tomography and prognosis in paediatric head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomberg, T.; Rink, U.; Pikkoja, E.; Tikk, A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have analysed the computerized tomography (CT) findings and their correlation with the clinical state, early and late outcome in children and adolescents with head injuries (HI). This study represents clinical and CT data of 82 consecutive HI patients under 18 years of age. Among them 51 (62%) were boys and 31 (38 %) girls. The application of CT to the evaluation of the morphologic manifestations of HI in children has shown some differences in forms and mechanisms of injury and in outcome compared to adults. In the paediatric HI the most frequent finding was diffuse brain swelling with CT evidence of ventricular and cisternal compression or obliteration. Prognostically the most unfavourable findings were shearing injury, intracerebral and subdural haematomas combined with brain swelling and parenchymal damage. According to the Lidcombe impairment scale, outcome from severe paediatric HI was determined in the 3rd and 6th months, one year and 2 years after the injury. The outcome two years after severe HI varied to a great extent and was better in children than in adults. Although there was long-term disruption of the patient's quality of life, our data show that as there are no predictors of individual outcomes in child HI, no child should be excluded from early and long-term rehabilitation. (author)

  11. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laparoscopic management of retroperitoneal injuries from penetrating abdominal trauma in haemodynamically stable patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koto, Modise Zacharia; Matsevych, Oleh Y; Mosai, Fusi; Balabyeki, Moses; Aldous, Colleen

    2018-02-27

    Laparoscopy is increasingly utilised in the trauma setting. However, its safety and reliability in evaluating and managing retroperitoneal injuries are not known. The aim of this study was to analyse our experience with laparoscopic management of retroperitoneal injuries due to penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) and to investigate its feasibility, safety and accuracy in haemodynamically stable patients. Over a 4-year period, patients approached laparoscopically with retroperitoneal injuries were analysed. Mechanism, location and severity of injuries were recorded. Surgical procedures, conversion rate and reasons for conversion and outcomes were described. Of the 284 patients with PAT, 56 patients had involvement of retroperitoneum. Stab wounds accounted 62.5% of patients. The mean Injury Severity Score was 7.4 (4-20). Among retroperitoneal injuries, the colon (27%) was the most commonly involved hollow viscera followed by duodenum (5%). The kidney (5%) and the pancreas (4%) were the injured solid organs. The conversion rate was 19.6% and was mainly due to active bleeding (73%). Significantly more patients with gunshot wound were converted to laparotomy (38% vs. 9%). Therapeutic laparoscopy was performed in 36% of patients. There were no recorded missed injuries or mortality. Five (9%) patients developed the Clavien-Dindo Grade 3 complications, three were managed with reoperation, one with drainage/debridement and one with endovascular technique. Laparoscopic management of retroperitoneal injuries is safe and feasible in haemodynamically stable patients with PAT. However, a high conversion rate indicates difficulties in managing these injuries. The requirements are the dexterity in laparoscopy and readiness to convert in the event of bleeding.

  13. Comparison of the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab and dexamethasone in experimental posterior penetrating eye injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Oner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effects of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and dexamethasone in an experimental rabbit model of posterior penetrating ocular injury. METHODS: Thirty white New Zealand rabbits were included in the study. A posterior penetrating ocular injury was performed at the superotemporal quadrant. They were randomly divided into three groups. The rabbits in group 1 received intravitreal dexamethasone, in group 2 they received intravitreal bevacizumab and those in group 3 received intravitreal physiological saline solution in both eyes. All eyes were examined ophthalmologically on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days following the injury and the clinical findings were scored. On the day 28, the eyes were enucleated, evaluated and scored macroscopically, histopathologically and scanning electron microscopically. RESULTS: The median clinical score on the 14th and 28th days and the median macroscopic score of the dexamethasone group was significantly better than that of control (P=0.004, 0.018. Dexamethasone group was also better than that of bevacizumab group but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Retinal detachment rate was 8.3%, 16.6% and 12.5% in the dexamethasone group, bevacizumab group and control group, respectively (P=0.476. More extensive fibrocelluler proliferations were observed in controls compared with dexamethasone and bevacizumab groups. But these differences did not reach the statistical significance (P=0.538. In scanning electron microscopy all groups showed fibreous stalk and dense collagen fibrils in vitreous. CONCLUSION: This study shows that intravitreal injection of both dexamethasone and bevacizumab may reduce the intraocular fibrous proliferation after an experimental posterior penetrating ocular injury in rabbits.

  14. [Penetrating orbitocranial injury: a review of the literature and a case report of injury by a watercolor brush in a 3-year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzaev, D A; Danilin, V E; Letyagin, G V; Istomina, T K; Chishchina, N V

    We present a rare case of orbitocranial penetrating injury by a watercolor brush in a 3-year-old child. Injuries of this localization can affect important orbital structures (eyeball, blood vessels, nerves, muscles) and cause severe intracranial damages. In some cases, diagnosis of these injuries in children may be difficult due to the lack of marked clinical manifestations. The presented clinical case illustrates the approaches for choosing methods for diagnosis of injury in childhood and subsequent treatment options.

  15. Flow to partially penetrating wells in unconfined heterogeneous aquifers: Mean head and interpretation of pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, G.; Lessoff, S. C.

    2011-06-01

    A partially penetrating well of length Lw and radius Rw starts to pump at constant discharge Qw at t = 0 from an unconfined aquifer of thickness D. The aquifer is of random and stationary conductivity characterized by KG (geometric mean), σY2 (log conductivity variance), and I and Iv (the horizontal and vertical integral scales). The flow problem is solved under a few simplifying assumptions commonly adopted in the literature for homogeneous media: Rw/Lw ≪ 1, linearization of the free surface condition, and constant drainable porosity n. Additionally, it is assumed that Rw/I well boundary conditions) and that a first-order approximation in σY2 (extended to finite σY2 on a conjectural basis) is adopted. The solution is obtained for the mean head field and the associated water table equation. The main result of the analysis is that the flow domain can be divided into three zones for : (1) the neighborhood of the well R ≪ I, where = (Qw/LwKA)h0(R, z, tKefuv/nD), with h0 being the zero-order solution pertaining to a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer, KA being the conductivity arithmetic mean, and Kefuv being the effective vertical conductivity in mean uniform flow, (2) an exterior zone R ⪆ I in which ?H? = (Qw/LwKefuh)h0(R?, z, tKefuv/nD), with Kefuh being the horizontal effective conductivity, and (3) an intermediate zone in which the solution requires a few numerical quadratures, not carried out here. The application to pumping tests reveals that identification of the aquifer parameters for homogeneous and anisotropic aquifers by commonly used methods can be applied for the drawdown measured in an observation well of length Low?Iv (to ensure exchange of space and ensemble head averages) in the second zone in order to identify Kefuh, Kefuv, and n. In contrast, the use of the drawdown in the well (first zone) leads to an overestimation of Kefuh by the factor KA/Kefuh.

  16. Brain CT findings in head injury with skull fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, In Tae; Lee, Hae Kyung; Chung, Mi Kyung; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Kim, Ki Jeong

    1982-01-01

    CT has revolutionized the evaluation and management of patients with head injuries. CT in non-invasion and rapidly provides accurate information regarding the presence, extent and nature of intracranial lesions resulting from trauma. We have reviewed the CT scans of 114 patients, who got head injury with confirmed to skull fracture in plain films. The results were as follows: 1. Of all cases, traffic accident was the most frequent cause and in children fall down was more than 50%. 2. Compound linear fracture was the most frequent type fractures in plain skull film.3. Of all 114 cases, epidural hematoma was 16%, subdural hematoma was 18.4%, intracerebral hematoma was 14.4%, subdural hygroma was 2.4%, normal finding was 50%. 4. Mortality rate was 13.2%. 5. Fracture was detected by CT about 28.9%, depression fracture was more easily detected in CT. 6. Incidence rate of counter coup lesion was 14.9% and mortality rate was higher than same site lesion. 7. The shape of epidural hematoma was biconvex in 75%, planoconvex in 25%. 8. The shape of subdural hematoma was cresentic shape 82.6%, biconvex shape 8.7%, planoconvex shape 8.7%

  17. Workshop for disabled survivors of severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, P S

    1973-08-18

    Existing services for the disabled do not cater for the needs of lame-brain survivors of severe head injury who may be capable of productive work though they may never become employable. A grant from the Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust made it possible to set up in 1967 a special workshop in premises provided by the regional hospital board. The hospital management committee assumed financial responsibility for the centre after three years, and after five years the Department of Health and Social Security purchased adjoining premises, which will double the present accommodation for about 35 persons. Though 45% of the 101 patients attending the workshop have returned to work, no financial support has yet been received from the Department of Employment. A suitably staffed hostel is needed for patients who live too far away to travel daily to and from the workshop. This undertaking has shown a need for special facilities for some of the victims of severe head injury, who differ in many important ways from other disabled persons.

  18. [Therapy of head injuries caused by animal slaughter guns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Richard; Klintschar, Michael; Weger, Martin; Weger, Wolfgang; Quittan, Michael; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Homann, Carl N

    2003-01-01

    Slaughterer's guns ("humane killers") are powder-activated cattle skull impacting tools. Today mechanical stunning is typical for country like regions, because in the municipal slaughter-houses electrical stunning of pigs and ruminants is preferred. In rare cases these weapons are used for suicide. They then cause penetrating brain lesions and if the victim survives the brain-damage, an encephalitis caused by the impacted material results. The neurosurgical treatment is to revise the gunshot canal and to remove impacted fragments of bone and contaminated skin (imprimat) under antibiotic cover. A psychiatric treatment of the mostly underlying depression and a rehabilitative treatment should complete therapy. So treatment of slaughterer's gun injury should have a multidisciplinary approach.

  19. The "swing-ding": a golf-related head injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Arthur; Cohen, Alan R; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased incidence of golf-associated head injuries in children and adolescents. At the authors' institution, they have identified a unique pattern of head injury associated with a swinging golf club. In this study, the authors highlight the mechanism of this injury and report their experience treating it. The authors reviewed the database of Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital Trauma Center and performed a retrospective analysis of golf injuries recorded over a 10-year period (January 2000-April 2010). They identified 13 children (9 boys and 4 girls) who sustained head injuries in golfing accidents. All patients were 10 years of age or younger. The medical charts were reviewed and follow-up interviews were conducted to better delineate the details of the injuries. Injuries included 13 depressed skull fractures, 7 epidural hematomas, and 1 cerebral contusion. All 13 patients sustained their injuries after being struck in the head by a golf club. Seven sustained injuries on the follow-through of the initial swing and 3 sustained injuries on the backswing. All but one patient required neurosurgical intervention. Five patients developed neurological sequelae. None of the children had prior experience with golf equipment. All but one injury occurred in the child's own backyard. There was no direct supervision by an adult in any of the cases. Golfing can lead to serious head injuries in children. The authors noticed a unique pattern of golf-related head injuries, previously not described, that they have termed the "swing-ding." This golf club-inflicted injury occurs when a child stands too close to a swinging golfer and is struck in the head, subsequently sustaining a comminuted depressed skull fracture in the frontal or temporal region, with or without further intracranial injury. The study suggests that a lack of adult supervision, minimal previous golf experience, and proximity of the child to the swinging golfer are all

  20. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  1. Branch retinal artery occlusion post-penetrating globe injury with intraocular foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Manish; Chaudhary, Pranita; Jain, Ashish

    2018-01-01

    Intraocular foreign body (IOFB) in cases of penetrating eye injury accounts for an important indication of vitreoretinal intervention following ocular trauma. Vascular occlusion as a complication of IOFB is rare. Here we present a case of a 34-year-old male with post-traumatic cataract and an intraocular metallic foreign body (IOFB) lodged in the superficial layers of the retina inferotemporal to the disc, causing an inferotemporal branch retinal artery occlusion. The case was managed by lensectomy with pars plana vitrectomy and IOFB removal followed by a second procedure of secondary IOL implantation. Final best-corrected visual acuity improved to 6/24. This case highlights an unusual sequelae following penetrating ocular trauma.

  2. Branch retinal artery occlusion post-penetrating globe injury with intraocular foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Nagpal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular foreign body (IOFB in cases of penetrating eye injury accounts for an important indication of vitreoretinal intervention following ocular trauma. Vascular occlusion as a complication of IOFB is rare. Here we present a case of a 34-year-old male with post-traumatic cataract and an intraocular metallic foreign body (IOFB lodged in the superficial layers of the retina inferotemporal to the disc, causing an inferotemporal branch retinal artery occlusion. The case was managed by lensectomy with pars plana vitrectomy and IOFB removal followed by a second procedure of secondary IOL implantation. Final best-corrected visual acuity improved to 6/24. This case highlights an unusual sequelae following penetrating ocular trauma.

  3. Optimal timing of tracheostomy after trauma without associated head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jeffrey E; Gulack, Brian C; Nussbaum, Daniel P; Green, Cindy L; Vaslef, Steven N; Shapiro, Mark L; Scarborough, John E

    2015-10-01

    Controversy exists over optimal timing of tracheostomy in patients with respiratory failure after blunt trauma. The study aimed to determine whether the timing of tracheostomy affects mortality in this population. The 2008-2011 National Trauma Data Bank was queried to identify blunt trauma patients without concomitant head injury who required tracheostomy for respiratory failure between hospital days 4 and 21. Restricted cubic spline analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between tracheostomy timing and the odds of inhospital mortality. The cohort was stratified based on this analysis. Unadjusted characteristics and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of tracheostomy timing on mortality after adjustment for age, gender, race, payor status, level of trauma center, injury severity score, presentation Glasgow coma scale, and thoracic and abdominal abbreviated injury score. There were 9662 patients included in the study. Restricted cubic spline analysis demonstrated a nonlinear relationship between timing of tracheostomy and mortality, with higher odds of mortality occurring with tracheostomy placement within 10 d of admission compared with later time points. The cohort was therefore stratified into early and delayed tracheostomy groups relative to this time point. The resulting groups contained 5402 (55.9%) and 4260 (44.1%) patients, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, the delayed tracheostomy group continued to have significantly reduced odds of mortality (Adjusted odds ratio, 0.82, 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.95, C-statistic, 0.700). Among non-head injured blunt trauma patients with prolonged respiratory failure, tracheostomy placement within 10 d of admission may result in increased mortality compared with later time points. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical value of computerized tomography scanning in severe head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shiro; Yano, Masami; Otsuka, Toshibumi; Nakazawa, Shozo

    1982-01-01

    Serial computerized tomography (SCT) was performed on 138 patients suffering from severe head injuries (8 or less on the Glasgow Coma Scale). Standard practice called for scans to be done upon admission (within hours of the injury), and after 1, 3, 7 days and 1 month. Subsequent CT's depended on the patient's condition. Clinical results at the time of discharge were graded according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Patients who died, were in a persistent vegetative state, or were severely disabled were considered to have a ''bad outcome''. On the other hand, patients who were somewhat disabled or made good recoveries were considered to have a ''good outcome''. During the serial CT scan, there were new findings (not visualized on the initial CT but appearing on subsequent ones) in 91 of the 138 patients. These new findings were classified as follows; 1) decreased density collection in the subdural space (DDC), 2) ventricular dilation (VD), 3) intracerebral hematoma (ICH), 4) intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), 5) extracerebral hematoma (ECH), 6) edema (E), 7) infarction (I). We defined ICH, IVH, ECH, E and I as new lesions. Of the 60 patients with new lesions 12 had good outcomes and 48 had poor outcomes. There were 78 patients who did not have any new lesions, 60 with good outcomes and 18 with poor outcomes. A significant correlation was found between good outcomes and the absence of new lesions, and between bad outcomes and the development of new lesions (p 2 = 44.038). We conclude that SCT can help predict the outcome with severe head injury patients and may be very important in their examination and care. (J.P.N.)

  5. Helmet Use and Head Injury in Homer's Iliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Homer's detailed descriptions of head injuries inflicted during the Trojan War are of particular interest to individuals in the medical community. Although studies have examined the prevalence of such injuries, none have examined the preventive measures taken to avoid them. An in-depth review of helmet use in Homer's Iliad was conducted to address this previously unexplored facet of the epic. An English translation of Homer's text was reviewed for all references to helmet use. The number of helmet references in each book was recorded, along with other pertinent details for each reference. There were 87 references to helmets (40 combat, 47 noncombat). The helmet belonged to a Greek warrior in 41 cases (47.1%), a Trojan warrior in 38 cases (43.6%), a divinity in 5 cases (5.7%), and a general group of warriors in 3 cases (3.4%). Helmet use provided protective benefit to Greek warriors at a rate of 30.0% (3 of 10) and Trojan warriors at a rate of 11.1% (2 of 18). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.23). The overall combined protective benefit of helmet use in the text was 17.9% (5 of 28). Helmets belonging to 15 specific Greek warriors and 18 specific Trojan warriors were referenced in the text. Helmets belonging to Hector (n = 12) and Achilles (n = 8) were most frequently mentioned. Helmet use and head injury both play a prominent role in Homer's Iliad. Helmets are frequently used in combat settings but with relatively little success. Helmets are also used in various noncombat settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of triple-contrast multi-detector computed tomography for detection of penetrating gastrointestinal injury: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksobhavivat, Nitima [Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Ratchathewi, Bangkok (Thailand); Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Boscak, Alexis R.; Sliker, Clint W.; Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Archer-Arroyo, Krystal; Miller, Lisa A.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Alexander, Melvin T.; Mirvis, Stuart E. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M.; Scalea, Thomas M. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Neither the performance of CT in diagnosing penetrating gastrointestinal injury nor its ability to discriminate patients requiring either observation or surgery has been determined. This was a prospective, single-institutional observational study of patients with penetrating injury to the torso who underwent CT. Based on CT signs, reviewers determined the presence of a gastrointestinal injury and the need for surgery or observation. The primary outcome measures were operative findings and clinical follow-up. CT results were compared with the primary outcome measures. Of one hundred and seventy-one patients (72 gunshot wounds, 99 stab wounds; age range, 18-57 years; median age, 28 years) with penetrating torso trauma who underwent CT, 45 % were followed by an operation and 55 % by clinical follow up. Thirty-five patients had a gastrointestinal injury at surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CT for diagnosing a gastrointestinal injury for all patients were each 91 %, and for predicting the need for surgery, they were 94 %, 93 %, 93 %, respectively. Among the 3 % of patients who failed observation, 1 % had a gastrointestinal injury. CT is a useful technique to diagnose gastrointestinal injury following penetrating torso injury. CT can help discriminate patients requiring observation or surgery. (orig.)

  7. The research into head injury criteria dependence on car speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pelenytė-Vyšniauskienė

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways of car collisions which depend on car motion modes before and after crashes, speed, kinds of baskets, their heights, weights and rigidity. The machinery of the occupant’s movement at the moment of the crash is even more diffi cult. In order to find out precisely the chance of body injury, it is important to measure not only parameters that were mentioned above but also occupant’s height, weight, age, position of sitting, condition of body, whether there was any protection system used. The largest number of car crashes happen at the moment of frontal crash. This article’s aim is to analyse the types of frontal crashes and their repartition, to diagnose what part in occupant’s safety the protection system’s use takes, and also to analyse head injury coefficient dependence on car speed and show critical injuries and fatality limits in cases when driver is driving with no seat-belts in and while the car is without airbag. The research is done at the moment of ideal frontal crash by simulating distance from the occupant body to the wheel in diff erent types of baskets.

  8. Functional brain study of chronic traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceballos Alonso, Concepcion; Pelegrin Valero, Carmelo; Cordoba Diaz de Laspra, Elena

    2000-01-01

    Explosive aggressive behaviour is a significant clinical and medico-legal problem in patients suffering from head injury. However, experts in neuropsychiatry have proposed a specific category for this disorder: the o rganic aggressive syndrome: . The basic reason for proposing this diagnosis is that it describes the specificity of the violent conduct secondary to 'brain damage' with greater precision. Early diagnosis and treatment of the injury is critical. The impact of hnetium-99m-hexamethylpropuleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was examined for measuring brain damage in correlation to neuropsychological performance in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We thus report the case of a twelve-year-old child with a history of CET, who presents with serious episodes of heteroaggressiveness and suggest the usefulness of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) to establish the validity of this psychiatric diagnosis. The appearance of modern functional neuro-image techniques (SPECT) may help to increase the validity of clinical diagnoses in the field of psychiatry in general and of forensic psychiatry in particularly, as the related findings may be used as demarcation criteria to establish syndromic diagnoses (Au)

  9. Mortality resulting from head injury in professional boxing: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lissa C; Newman, C Benjamin; Volk, Hunter; Svinth, Joseph R; Conklin, Jordan; Levy, Michael L

    2010-08-01

    The majority of boxing-related fatalities result from traumatic brain injury. Biomechanical forces in boxing result in rotational acceleration with resultant subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury. Given the inherent risk and the ongoing criticism boxing has received, we evaluated mortalities associated with professional boxing. We used the Velazquez Fatality Collection of boxing injuries and supplementary sources to analyze mortality from 1950 to 2007. Variables evaluated included age at time of death, association with knockout or other outcome of match, rounds fought, weight class, location of fight, and location of preterminal event. There were 339 mortalities between 1950 and 2007 (mean age, 24 +/- 3.8 years); 64% were associated with knockout and 15% with technical knockout. A higher percentage occurred in the lower weight classes. The preterminal event occurred in the ring (61%), in the locker room (17%), and outside the arena (22%). We evaluated for significant changes after 1983 when championship bouts were reduced from 15 to 12 rounds. There was a significant decline in mortality after 1983. We found no significant variables to support that this decline is related to a reduction in rounds. Rather, we hypothesize the decline to be the result of a reduction in exposure to repetitive head trauma (shorter careers and fewer fights), along with increased medical oversight and stricter safety regulations. Increased efforts should be made to improve medical supervision of boxers. Mandatory central nervous system imaging after a knockout could lead to a significant reduction in associated mortality.

  10. Mortality resulting from head injury in professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lissa C; Newman, C Benjamin; Volk, Hunter; Svinth, Joseph R; Conklin, Jordan; Levy, Michael L

    2010-11-01

    The majority of boxing-related fatalities result from traumatic brain injury. Biomechanical forces in boxing result in rotational acceleration with resultant subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury. Given the inherent risk and the ongoing criticism boxing has received, we evaluated mortalities associated with professional boxing. We used the Velaquez Fatality Collection of boxing injuries and supplementary sources to analyze mortality from 1950 to 2007. Variables evaluated included age at time of death, association with knockout or other outcome of match, rounds fought, weight class, location of fight, and location of pretermial event. There were 339 mortalities between 1950 and 2007 (mean age, 24 ± 3.8 years); 64% were associated with knockout and 15% with technical knockout. A higher percentage occurred in the lower weight classes. The preterminal event occurred in the ring (61%), in the locker room (17%), and outside the arena (22%), We evaluated for significant changes after 1983 when championship bouts were reduced from 15 to 12 rounds. There was a significant decline in mortality after 1983. We found no significant variables to support that this decline is related to a reduction in rounds. Rather, we hypothesize the decline to be the result of a reduction in exposure to repetitive head trauma (shorter careers and fewer fights), along with increased medical oversight and stricter safety regulations. Increased efforts should be made to improve medical supervisions of boxers. Mandatory central nervous system imaging after a knockout could lead to a significant reduction in associated mortality.

  11. Evaluation of possible head injuries ensuing a cricket ball impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohotti, Damith; Fernando, P L N; Zaghloul, Amir

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research is to study the behaviour of a human head during the event of an impact of a cricket ball. While many recent incidents were reported in relation to head injuries caused by the impact of cricket balls, there is no clear information available in the published literature about the possible threat levels and the protection level of the current protective equipment. This research investigates the effects of an impact of a cricket ball on a human head and the level of protection offered by the existing standard cricket helmet. An experimental program was carried out to measure the localised pressure caused by the impact of standard cricket balls. The balls were directed at a speed of 110 km/h on a 3D printed head model, with and without a standard cricket helmet. Numerical simulations were carried out using advanced finite element package LS-DYNA to validate the experimental results. The experimental and numerical results showed approximately a 60% reduction in the pressure on the head model when the helmet was used. Both frontal and side impact resulted in head acceleration values in the range of 225-250 g at a ball speed of 110 km/h. There was a 36% reduction observed in the peak acceleration of the brain when wearing a helmet. Furthermore, numerical simulations showed a 67% reduction in the force on the skull and a 95% reduction in the skull internal energy when introducing the helmet. (1) Upon impact, high localised pressure could cause concussion for a player without helmet. (2) When a helmet was used, the acceleration of the brain observed in the numerical results was at non-critical levels according to existing standards. (3) A significant increase in the threat levels was observed for a player without helmet, based on force, pressure, acceleration and energy criteria, which resulted in recommending the compulsory use of the cricket helmet. (4) Numerical results showed a good correlation with experimental results and hence, the

  12. Significance of focal relaxation times in head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inao, Suguru; Furuse, Masahiro; Saso, Katsuyoshi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Izawa, Akira

    1987-11-01

    Serial examinations by nuclear magnetic resonance-computed tomography were carried out in 35 head-injured patients aged 7 to 77 years. The injuries were classified as cerebral contusion (nine cases), acute epidural hematoma (eight cases), acute cerebral swelling (two cases), and chronic subdural hematoma (16 cases). The results of 92 measurements were divided into two groups: acute stage (within 3 days of injury) and chronic stage (2 weeks or longer after injury). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T/sub 1/) of brain tissue adjacent to chronic subdural hematoma were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. A Fonar QED 80-alpha system was used for magnetic resonance imaging and measurement of focal T/sub 1/. The T/sub 1/ values at the region of interest were measured 3 to 5 times by the field focusing technique (468 gauss in the focused spot), and the mean value was used for evaluation. The standard T/sub 1/ values obtained from healthy subjects were 290 +- 41 msec in the cerebral cortex and 230 +- 34 msec in the white matter. Prolongation of T/sub 1/ in perifocal brain gradually shortened over time and normalized in the chronic stage. The degree of contusional edema may have been reflected in alterations in T/sub 1/. In contrast, parenchymal injury resulted in a progressive T/sub 1/ elevation, which far exceeded 500 msec in the chronic stage. Such time courses of T/sub 1/ may indicate irreversible tissue damage. There were no noticeable changes in tissue T/sub 1/ over time in patients with acute diffuse cerebral swelling or those who underwent evacuation of acute epidural or chronic subdural hematomas. The underlying pathophysiology in such situations seems to be not brain edema but cerebral hyperemia. In the presence of ischemia, the T/sub 1/ value was prolonged in the early stage, reflecting progression of is chemic edema. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Demographic Profile and Pathological Patterns of Head Injury in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Hoxha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head injury (HI is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA, followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000 are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic records of traumatized subjects between 2007- 2012. The prospectively-collected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84% of age range of 15yrs -35yrs (70%. RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8%, falling (3% etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extra-dural hematoma was found in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%, cerebral contusion (37%, skull bone fractures (35%, etc. Severe alteration of the consciousness was observed in 57% of the cases, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of the subjects included in our study. Discussion: This survey demonstrates that the majority of HI victims' is young and middle age males target group exposed to RTA. The increase of vehicles' use in placecountry-regionAlbania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that driving newer vehicles with safer technology or helmets use while motorcycling can potentially decline the fatal outcome.

  14. A video analysis of head injuries satisfying the criteria for a head injury assessment in professional Rugby Union: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Fuller, Gordon Ward; Hester, Ben; Kemp, Simon; Cross, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Concussion is the most common match injury in professional Rugby Union, accounting for 25% of match injuries. The primary prevention of head injuries requires that the injury mechanism be known so that interventions can be targeted to specifically overall incidence by focusing on characteristics with the greatest propensity to cause a head injury. 611 head injury assessment (HIA) events in professional Rugby Union over a 3-year period were analysed, with specific reference to match events, position, time and nature of head contact. 464 (76%) of HIA events occur during tackles, with the tackler experiencing a significantly greater propensity for an HIA than the ball carrier (1.40 HIAs/1000 tackles for the tackler vs 0.54 HIAs/1000 tackles for the ball carrier, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.59). Propensity was significantly greater for backline players than forwards (IRR 1.54, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.84), but did not increase over the course of the match. Head to head contact accounted for the most tackler HIAs, with the greatest propensity. By virtue of its high propensity and frequency, the tackle should be the focus for interventions that may include law change and technique education. A specific investigation of the characteristics of the tackle is warranted to refine the approach to preventative strategies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Head injury predictors in sports trauma--a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fábio A O; de Sousa, Ricardo J Alves

    2015-08-01

    Head injuries occur in a great variety of sports. Many of these have been associated with neurological injuries, affecting the central nervous system. Some examples are motorsports, cycling, skiing, horse riding, mountaineering and most contact sports such as football, ice and field hockey, soccer, lacrosse, etc. The outcome of head impacts in these sports can be very severe. The worst-case scenarios of permanent disability or even death are possibilities. Over recent decades, many In recent decades, a great number of head injury criteria and respective thresholds have been proposed. However, the available information is much dispersed and a consensus has still not been achieved regarding the best injury criteria or even their thresholds. This review paper gives a thorough overview of the work carried out by the scientific community in the field of impact biomechanics about head injuries sustained during sports activity. The main goal is to review the head injury criteria, as well as their thresholds. Several are reviewed, from the predictors based on kinematics to the ones based on human tissue thresholds. In this work, we start to briefly introduce the head injuries and their mechanisms commonly seen as a result of head trauma in sports. Then, we present and summarize the head injury criteria and their respective thresholds. © IMechE 2015.

  16. Head Injury Secondary to Suspected Child Maltreatment: Results of a Prospective Canadian National Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Susan; Ward, Michelle; Moreau, Katherine; Fortin, Gilles; King, Jim; MacKay, Morag; Plint, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence, clinical features, and demographic profile of head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment (abuse or neglect) in Canada to help inform the development and evaluation of prevention programs for abusive head injuries. Methods: From March 1, 2005 to February 28, 2008, an average of 2,545…

  17. ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in a neurosurgi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZENWUGO CHIEDOZIE OBIORA

    ocular cranial nerves were the most commonly occurring complication among the cases of head injury seen in Memphys. Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu. Key words: Ocular complications, head injury, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Road traffic accidents have been on the increase in Nigeria. Some studies have attributed this ...

  18. The study of lymphocytes glucocorticoid receptor in severe head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dapei; Wang Haodan; Zhao Qihuang

    1994-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptors (GCR) of peripheral lymphocytes from 14 patients with severe head injury and 11 normal volunteers are studied by means of single point method of radioligand binding assay. All these patients receive surgical therapy and glucocorticoid of routine dosage. The results show that the GCR level of these patients is lower than that of the normal, while the plasma cortisol level is much higher. These changes correlate closely to the patients' clinical outcome. It is indicated that the GCR level can reflect the degree of stress of these patients and their response to glucocorticoid therapy. Using peripheral lymphocytes instead of the brain biopsy for the measurement of GCR can reflect the GCR changes of brain tissue, it's more convenient to get the sample and more acceptable to the patients

  19. Prognosis of the computerized tomography in the severe head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Nieto, J.J.; Lorenzo Dominguez, M.T.; Martin Sanchez, M.J.; Sanchez Gonzalez, E.

    1991-01-01

    A prospective study is made with sixty five people affected of severe head injury, that is to say, with eight or less points in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), when they get to the hospital. They are studied by computerized tomography at the income, but also, three and seven days after arriving. In this way, we appraise the type of the lesion the intensity and the possible effect-wass, considering in the last case, three features: a) ventricular collapse; b) the mean line structure s shift; c) perimesencefalic cisterns affectation. The findings of this study, are parametized and we were able to introduce them into a computer, getting. The relations between these findings ands the end-results. These last ones appraised throungh the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). We could confirm, that certain findings in the computerized tomography have and unavoidable prognosis, where as others have a better prognosis. (Author)

  20. Characteristics of helmet or knit cap use in head injury of snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Osamu; Hirashima, Yutaka; Origasa, Hideki; Endo, Shunro

    2007-11-01

    The rate of head injury is 1.86-6 times higher for snowboarding than for skiing. Detailed data about the usefulness of a helmet or knit cap for protecting against serious head injuries have not been reported. The present study evaluated the use of a helmet or knit cap for preventing head injuries. Questionnaire data were collected from 1,190 consecutive patients in a hospital during the 1999/2000-2002/2003 winter seasons at Uonuma ski resort, Niigata, Japan. Patients were divided into the helmet, knit cap, and no cap groups. Upper technical level was highest and jumping as the cause of injury was most frequent in the helmet group. After adjustment for other confounders, there was a significant negative association between the occurrence of serious head injury during snowboarding and female sex (adjusted odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.421-0.718, p jumping (adjusted odds ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval 1.48-3.43, p = 0.0001). Among snowboarding maneuvers, only jumping showed a significant negative association between wearing of a helmet or knit cap and the occurrence of serious head injury (p = 0.036). Snowboarders who wear helmets might attempt dangerous maneuvers causing injuries. Wearing of a helmet or knit cap protected against serious head injuries on jumping. Every snowboarder should wear a helmet or knit cap on jumping to prevent head injury.

  1. Tomographic aspects of penetrating thoracic trauma: injuries from firearms and other weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz Melo; Pessoa, Fernanda Miraldi Clement; Saint-Martin, Nara; Ancilotti Filho, Roger [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the various computed tomography findings in penetrating chest trauma, as well as to determine the frequency and extent of the lesions. Material and Methods: We studied the computed tomography findings from 40 cases of penetrating thoracic trauma, of which 35 (85.8%) were gunshot wounds and 5 (14.2%) were caused by another type of weapon. Results: Pulmonary lesions were found in 39 cases (97.5%), manifesting as contusions in 34 cases (85%), atelectasis in 8 (20%), lacerations in 1 (2.5%) and hematomas in 1 (2.5%). Hemothorax was seen in 31 cases (77.5%), and pneumothorax was seen in 22 cases (55%). Mediastinal lesions were observed in 8 cases (20%), including mediastinal hematoma in 3 cases (7.5%), hemopericardium in 3 (7.5%), and pneumomediastinum in 2 (5%). Diaphragmatic rupture was seen in 2 cases (5%). Conclusion: In patients with penetrating thoracic trauma, computed tomography of the chest is an important tool for characterizing the affected organs and evaluating the path of injury, as well as the severity and extent of the lesions. The images obtained are also useful in estimating the risk of death and determining the best therapeutic approach. (author)

  2. Tomographic aspects of penetrating thoracic trauma: injuries from firearms and other weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Severo Alves de Melo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the various computed tomography findings in penetrating chest trauma, as well as to determine the frequency and extent of the lesions. Material and Methods: We studied the computed tomography findings from 40 cases of penetrating thoracic trauma, of which 35 (85.8% were gunshot wounds and 5 (14.2% were caused by another type of weapon. Results: Pulmonary lesions were found in 39 cases (97.5%, manifesting as contusions in 34 cases (85%, atelectasis in 8 (20%, lacerations in 1 (2.5% and hematomas in 1 (2.5%. Hemothorax was seen in 31 cases (77.5%, and pneumothorax was seen in 22 cases (55%. Mediastinal lesions were observed in 8 cases (20%, including mediastinal hematoma in 3 cases (7.5%, hemopericardium in 3 (7.5%, and pneumomediastinum in 2 (5%. Diaphragmatic rupture was seen in 2 cases (5%. Conclusion: In patients with penetrating thoracic trauma, computed tomography of the chest is an important tool for characterizing the affected organs and evaluating the path of injury, as well as the severity and extent of the lesions. The images obtained are also useful in estimating the risk of death and determining the best therapeutic approach.

  3. Tomographic aspects of penetrating thoracic trauma: injuries from firearms and other weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz Melo; Pessoa, Fernanda Miraldi Clemente; Saint-Martin, Nara; Ancilotti Filho, Roger; Souza, Arthur Soares; Marchiori, Edson

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the various computed tomography findings in penetrating chest trauma, as well as to determine the frequency and extent of the lesions. We studied the computed tomography findings from 40 cases of penetrating thoracic trauma, of which 35 (85.8%) were gunshot wounds and 5 (14.2%) were caused by another type of weapon. Pulmonary lesions were found in 39 cases (97.5%), manifesting as contusions in 34 cases (85%), atelectasis in 8 (20%), lacerations in 1 (2.5%) and hematomas in 1 (2.5%). Hemothorax was seen in 31 cases (77.5%), and pneumothorax was seen in 22 cases (55%). Mediastinal lesions were observed in 8 cases (20%), including mediastinal hematoma in 3 cases (7.5%), hemopericardium in 3 (7.5%), and pneumomediastinum in 2 (5%). Diaphragmatic rupture was seen in 2 cases (5%). In patients with penetrating thoracic trauma, computed tomography of the chest is an important tool for characterizing the affected organs and evaluating the path of injury, as well as the severity and extent of the lesions. The images obtained are also useful in estimating the risk of death and determining the best therapeutic approach.

  4. Tomographic aspects of penetrating thoracic trauma: injuries from firearms and other weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz Melo; Pessoa, Fernanda Miraldi Clement; Saint-Martin, Nara; Ancilotti Filho, Roger; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Marchiori, Edson

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the various computed tomography findings in penetrating chest trauma, as well as to determine the frequency and extent of the lesions. Material and Methods: We studied the computed tomography findings from 40 cases of penetrating thoracic trauma, of which 35 (85.8%) were gunshot wounds and 5 (14.2%) were caused by another type of weapon. Results: Pulmonary lesions were found in 39 cases (97.5%), manifesting as contusions in 34 cases (85%), atelectasis in 8 (20%), lacerations in 1 (2.5%) and hematomas in 1 (2.5%). Hemothorax was seen in 31 cases (77.5%), and pneumothorax was seen in 22 cases (55%). Mediastinal lesions were observed in 8 cases (20%), including mediastinal hematoma in 3 cases (7.5%), hemopericardium in 3 (7.5%), and pneumomediastinum in 2 (5%). Diaphragmatic rupture was seen in 2 cases (5%). Conclusion: In patients with penetrating thoracic trauma, computed tomography of the chest is an important tool for characterizing the affected organs and evaluating the path of injury, as well as the severity and extent of the lesions. The images obtained are also useful in estimating the risk of death and determining the best therapeutic approach. (author)

  5. Variations in the Presentation of Aphasia in Patients with Closed Head Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Oliver Kavanagh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature review on the topic. In a busy acute surgical unit one can dismiss aphasia following head injury as behaviour related to intoxication. Early recognition with prolonged and intensive speech and language rehabilitation therapy yields a favourable outcome as highlighted in our experience. These may serve as a reference for clinicians faced with this unusual outcome.

  6. Variations in the presentation of aphasia in patients with closed head injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara Oliver

    2012-01-31

    Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature review on the topic. In a busy acute surgical unit one can dismiss aphasia following head injury as behaviour related to intoxication. Early recognition with prolonged and intensive speech and language rehabilitation therapy yields a favourable outcome as highlighted in our experience. These may serve as a reference for clinicians faced with this unusual outcome.

  7. Assessment of head injury of children due to golf ball impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Wang, Fang

    2010-10-01

    Head trauma injury due to impact by a flying golf ball is one of the most severe possible injury accidents on the golf course. Numerical simulations based on the finite element method are presented to investigate head injury in children due to impact by a flying golf ball. The stress and energy flow patterns in a head model during the golf ball impact are computed for various combinations of striking speed, falling angle of the golf ball before impact, and impact location. It is found that a child is more prone to head injury due to golf ball impact on the frontal and side/temporal areas. The simulated results are found to conform to the clinical reports on children's head injuries from flying golf balls.

  8. Non-operative management of right side thoracoabdominal penetrating injuries--the value of testing chest tube effluent for bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rezende Neto, João Baptista; Guimarães, Tiago Nunes; Madureira, João Lopo; Drumond, Domingos André Fernandes; Leal, Juliana Campos; Rocha, Aroldo; Oliveira, Rodrigo Guimarães; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2009-05-01

    While mandatory surgery for all thoracoabdominal penetrating injuries is advocated by some, the high rate of unnecessary operations challenges this approach. However, the consequences of intrathoracic bile remains poorly investigated. We sought to evaluate the outcome of patients who underwent non-operative management of right side thoracoabdominal (RST) penetrating trauma, and the levels of bilirubin obtained from those patients' chest tube effluent. We managed non-operatively all stable patients with a single RST penetrating injury. Chest tube effluent samples were obtained six times within (4-8 h; 12-16 h; 20-24 h; 28-32 h; 36-40 h; 48 h and 72 h) of admission for bilirubin measurement and blood for complete blood count, bilirubin, alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) assays. For comparison we studied patients with single left thoracic penetrating injury. Forty-two patients with RST injuries were included. All had liver and lung injuries confirmed by CT scans. Only one patient failed non-operative management. Chest tube bilirubin peaked at 48 h post-trauma (mean 3.3+/-4.1 mg/dL) and was always higher than both serum bilirubin (pchest tube effluent from control group (27 patients with left side thoracic trauma). Serum ALT and AST were higher in RST injury patients (ptrauma appears to be safe. Bile originating from the liver injury reaches the right thoracic cavity but does not reflect the severity of that injury. The highest concentration was found in the patient failing non-operative management. The presence of intrathoracic bile in selected patients who sustain RST penetrating trauma, with liver injury, does not preclude non-operative management. Our study suggests that monitoring chest tube effluent bilirubin may provide helpful information when managing a patient non-operatively.

  9. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-2-0165 TITLE: “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 & 3”.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...27Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0165 “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2...Virginia Tech – Wake Forest University, Center for Injury Biomechanics and the U.S. Army entitled “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury

  10. Stiletto stabbing: penetrating injury to the hypothalamus with hyperacute diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itshayek, Eyal; Gomori, John Moshe; Spektor, Sergey; Cohen, José E

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a well documented complication observed after traumatic head injuries. We report a case of hyperacute onset DI in a 19-year-old male who sustained a hypothalamic-pituitary injury when he was stabbed in the head with a 30-cm long thin-bladed knife. At CT, our patient showed significant hemorrhagic contusions of the lower hypothalamus. He developed polydipsia, polyuria, and mild hypernatremia in the Emergency Department. Diagnostic digital subtraction angiography showed a hypervascular congestive pituitary gland with prominent draining veins. On the third day his hypernatremia became severe (183mEq/L). He was managed with parenteral fluids and a regimen of intranasal DDAVP (1-desamino 8-d-arginine vasopressin), leading to improved plasmatic sodium levels, urine output, and urinary specific gravity. In patients presenting with hyperacute posttraumatic DI, emergency room physicians and neurosurgeons should rule out direct injury to the hypothalamus and/or the posterior lobe of the pituitary, and initiate early pharmacological treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Head injury causation scenarios for belted, rear-seated children in frontal impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Katarina; Arbogast, Kristy B; Bostrom, Ola

    2011-02-01

    Head injuries are the most common serious injuries sustained by children in motor vehicle crashes and are of critical importance with regard to long-term disability. There is a lack of understanding of how seat belt-restrained children sustain head injuries in frontal impacts. The aim of the study was to identify the AIS2+ head injury causation scenarios for rear-seated, belt-restrained children in frontal impacts, including the set of parameters contributing to the injury. In-depth crash investigations from two National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) databases, the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS; 1997-2008) and the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN; 1996-2009), were collected and analyzed in detail. Selection criteria were all frontal impacts with principal direction of force (PDOF) of 11, 12, and 1 o'clock involving rear-seated, three-point belt-restrained, with or without booster cushion, children from 3 to 13 years with an AIS2+ head injury. Cases were analyzed using the BioTab method of injury causation assessment in order to systematically analyze the injury causation scenario for each case. There were 27 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, 19 cases with MAIS2 head injuries and 8 cases with MAIS3+ head injuries, including 2 fatalities. Three major injury causation scenarios were identified, including head contact with seatback (10 cases), head contact with side interior (7 cases,) and no evidence of head contact (9 cases). Head injuries with seatback or side interior contact typically included a PDOF greater than 10 degree (similar to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety [IIHS] and EuroNCAP offset frontal testing) and vehicle maneuvers. For seatback contact, the vehicle's movements contributed to occupant kinematics inboard the vehicle, causing a less than optimal restraint of the torso and/or torso roll out of the shoulder belt. For side interior contact, the PDOF and

  12. Epidemiological features of 1 281 patients with head injuries arising from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Chao-hua

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To analyze the epidemiologi-cal features of patients with head injuries in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Methods: Medical records of patients with head inju-ries who were admitted to 14 hospitals in Deyang, Mianyang and Chengdu cities after the earthquake were retrospec-tively analyzed. The patients’ age, gender, cause of injury, diagnosis, and outcome were analyzed retrospectively. Results: A total of 1 281 patients with 807 males and 474 females were included. According to Glasgow Coma Scale score at admission, 1 029 patients presented with mild injury, 161 moderate injury and 91 severe injury. The major cause of injuries (83% was bruise by collapsed buildings. Open head injuries accounted for 60.8%. A total of 720 pa-tients underwent surgical treatment. Good recovery was achieved in 1 056 patients, moderate disability in 106, se-vere disability in 71, coma in 29 and death in 19. Conclusions: In this series, male patients were more than female patients. The main cause of injury was hit by falling objects due to building collapse. Minor and open craniocerebral injuries were most common. The epidemio-logical features of head injuries in Wenchuan earthquake may be helpful to preparation for future rescue. Key words: Brain injuries; Epidemiology; Earthquakes; Rescue work

  13. Head injuries (TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S; Xu, Likang; Faul, Mark

    2017-08-18

    This is a descriptive study. It determined the annual, national incidence of head injuries (traumatic brain injury, TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashes. It evaluated NASS-CDS for exposure and incidence of various head injuries in towaway crashes. It evaluated 3 health databases for emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths due to TBI in motor vehicle occupants. Four databases were evaluated using 1997-2010 data on adult (15+ years old) and child (0-14 years old) occupants in motor vehicle crashes: (1) NASS-CDS estimated the annual incidence of various head injuries and outcomes in towaway crashes, (2) National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)-estimated ED visits for TBI, (3) National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) estimated hospitalizations for TBI, and (4) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) estimated TBI deaths. The 4 databases provide annual national totals for TBI related injury and death in motor vehicle crashes based on differing definitions with TBI coded by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) in NASS-CDS and by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in the health data. Adults: NASS-CDS had 16,980 ± 2,411 (risk = 0.43 ± 0.06%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 3,930,543 exposed adults in towaway crashes annually. There were 49,881 ± 9,729 (risk = 1.27 ± 0.25%) hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury, without death. There were 6,753 ± 882 (risk = 0.17 ± 0.02%) fatalities with a head injury cause. The public health data had 89,331 ± 6,870 ED visits, 33,598 ± 1,052 hospitalizations, and 6,682 ± 22 deaths with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 48% more hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury without death than NHDS occupants hospitalized with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 29% more deaths with AIS 3+ head injury than NVSS occupant TBI deaths but only 1% more deaths with a head injury cause. Children: NASS-CDS had 1,453 ± 318 (risk = 0.32 ± 0.07%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 454,973 exposed

  14. Endoscopy-guided vitreoretinal surgery following penetrating corneal injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Motoko Kawashima1, Shinichi Kawashima2, Murat Dogru1,3, Makoto Inoue4, Jun Shimazaki1,51Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, International University of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ocular Surface and Visual Optics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 4Kyorin Eye Center, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanIntroduction: Severe ocular trauma requires emergency surgery, and a fresh corneal graft may not always be available. We describe a case of perforating eye injury with corneal ­opacity, suspected endophthalmitis, and an intraocular foreign body. The patient was successfully treated with a two-step procedure comprising endoscopy-guided vitrectomy followed by corneal transplantation. This surgical technique offers a good option to vitrectomy with simultaneous keratoplasty in emergency cases where no graft is immediately available and there is the ­possibility of infection due to the presence of a foreign body.Case presentation: A 55-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital with a ­perforating corneal and lens injury sustained with a muddy ferrous rod. Primary corneal sutures and lensectomy were performed immediately. Vitreoretinal surgery was required due to ­suspected endophthalmitis, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, dialysis and necrosis of the peripheral retina. Instead of conventional vitrectomy, endoscopy-guided vitreous surgery was performed with the Solid Fiber Catheter AS-611 (FiberTech, Tokyo, Japan due to the presence of corneal opacity and the unavailability of a donor cornea. The retina was successfully attached with the aid of a silicon oil tamponade. Following removal of the silicon oil at 3 months after surgery, penetrating keratoplasty and intraocular lens implantation with ciliary sulcus suture fixation were performed. At 6 months after penetrating

  15. Penetrating injuries to the duodenum: An analysis of 879 patients from the National Trauma Data Bank, 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bradley; Turco, Lauren; McDonald, Dan; Mause, Alison; Walters, Ryan W

    2017-11-01

    Despite wide belief that the duodenal Organ Injury Scale has been validated, this has not been reported in the published literature. Based on clinical experience, we hypothesize that the American Association for Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scale (AAST-OIS) for duodenal injuries can independently predict mortality. Our objectives were threefold: (1) describe the national profile of penetrating duodenal injuries, (2) identify predictors of morbidity and mortality, and (3) validate the duodenum AAST-OIS as a statistically significant predictor of mortality. Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 and International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) E-codes, we identified 879 penetrating duodenal trauma patients from the National Trauma Data Bank between 2010 and 2014. We controlled patient-level covariates of age, biological sex, systolic blood pressure (SBP), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, pulse, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Organ Injury Scale (OIS) grade. We estimated multivariable generalized linear mixed models to account for the nesting of patients within trauma centers. Our results indicated an overall mortality rate of 14.4%. Approximately 10% of patients died within 24 hours of admission, of whom 76% died in the first 6 hours. Patients averaged approximately five associated injuries, 45% of which involved the liver and colon. Statistically significant independent predictors of mortality were firearm mechanism, SBP, GCS, pulse, ISS, and AAST-OIS grade. Specifically, odds of death were decreased with 10 mm Hg higher admission SBP (13% decreased odds), one point higher GCS (14.4%), 10-beat lower pulse (8.2%), and 10-point lower ISS (51.0%). This study is the first to report the national profile of penetrating duodenal injuries. Using the National Trauma Data Bank, we identified patterns of injury, predictors of outcome, and validated the AAST-OIS for duodenal injuries as a statistically significant predictor of morbidity

  16. Meta-analytic evaluation of the association between head injury and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yukari; Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2017-10-01

    Head injury is considered as a potential risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, several recent studies have suggested that head injury is not a cause, but a consequence of latent ALS. We aimed to evaluate such a possibility of reverse causation with meta-analyses considering time lags between the incidence of head injuries and the occurrence of ALS. We searched Medline and Web of Science for case-control, cross-sectional, or cohort studies that quantitatively investigated the head-injury-related risk of ALS and were published until 1 December 2016. After selecting appropriate publications based on PRISMA statement, we performed random-effects meta-analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sixteen of 825 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The association between head injuries and ALS was statistically significant when the meta-analysis included all the 16 studies (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.21-1.74). However, in the meta-analyses considering the time lags between the experience of head injuries and diagnosis of ALS, the association was weaker (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.46, time lag ≥ 1 year) or not significant (e.g. OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.84-1.59, time lag ≥ 3 years). Although it did not deny associations between head injuries and ALS, the current study suggests a possibility that such a head-injury-oriented risk of ALS has been somewhat overestimated. For more accurate evaluation, it would be necessary to conduct more epidemiological studies that consider the time lags between the occurrence of head injuries and the diagnosis of ALS.

  17. Inferior vena cava filter penetration following Whipple surgical procedure causing ureteral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed Kamel; Ezzeldin, Islam B; Moustafa, Amr Soliman; Ertel, Nathan; Oser, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of an indwelling inferior vena cava filter that penetrated the IVC wall after Whipple's pancreatico-duodenectomy procedure performed in a patient with ampullary carcinoma, resulting in right ureteral injury and obstruction with subsequent hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This was incidentally discovered on a computed tomography scan performed as routine follow up to evaluate the results of the surgery. We retrieved the inferior vena cava filter and placed a nephrostomy catheter to relieve the ureteral obstruction. Our case highlights the importance of careful inferior vena cava manipulation during abdominal surgery in the presence of an inferior vena cava filter, and the option of temporary removal of the filter to be placed again after surgery in order to avoid this complication, unless protection is required against clot migration during the surgical procedure.

  18. The utility of presacral drainage in penetrating rectal injuries in adult and pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Kate B; Beazley, Thomas M; Cleveland, Brent; Khaneki, Sina; Markel, Troy A; Hammer, Peter M; Savage, Stephanie; Williams, Regan F

    2017-11-01

    With changing weaponry associated with injuries in civilian trauma, there is no clinical census on the utility of presacral drainage (PSD) in penetrating rectal injuries (PRIs), particularly in pediatric patients. Patients with PRI from July 2004-June 2014 treated at two free-standing children's hospitals and two adult level 1 trauma centers were compared by age (pediatric patients ≤16 years) and PSD. A stratified analysis was performed based on age. The primary outcome was pelvic/presacral abscess. We identified 81 patients with PRI; 19 pediatric, 62 adult. Forty patients had PSD; only three pediatric patients had a drain. Adult patients were more likely to have sustained gunshot wounds (84%), whereas pediatric patients were more likely to sustain impalement injuries (59%). Pediatric patients were more likely to have distal extraperitoneal injuries (56% versus 27% in adults, P = 0.03). PSD was more common in adult patients (59% versus 14%, P = 0.0004), African-Americans (71% versus 11% Caucasian, P adult and pediatric patients. There were three cases of pelvic/presacral abscess, all in the adult patients (P = 0.31); one patient with PSD and two without PSD (P = 0.58). In stratified analysis, there were no differences in any infectious complication between those with and without PSD. Pelvic/presacral abscess is a rare complication of PRI, especially in pediatric patients. PSD is not associated with decreased rates of infectious complications and may not be necessary in the treatment of PRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short and long term maintenance strategy for reactor vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, A.; Heuze, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents elements based on : surveys, operating inspection, theoretical studies, safety analysis, laboratory results, that enabled to determine maintenance options and short and long term strategies for processing on reactor vessel head leaks. (TEC). 1 tab

  20. A CLINICAL STUDY OF OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS OF HEAD INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Shamrao Sarawade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to record the prevalence and pattern of various ophthalmic manifestations in patients of head injury and to attempt a correlation between the ocular signs, neurological signs and final outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred and twenty patients with head injury having ocular findings, presenting from December 2014 to July 2016, were taken for study. Detailed ophthalmological examination of the patients was carried out and the results of the study are depicted in the form of percentages, graphs and charts. RESULTS The most common cause of head injury found in our study was road traffic accident. The commonest eye finding was oedema and ecchymosis of eyelids. Prime causal factors affecting visual acuity found in our study were corneal tear, globe rupture, optic nerve injury and avulsion of eyeball. CONCLUSION Head injuries with ocular manifestations occur in younger age group. Road traffic accident was the most common cause. Males have to work outside their home for their jobs more than that of females. So they are more prone to accidents. Oedema and ecchymosis of eyelids constitute the most common ocular finding. Patients with mild ocular injuries pointed towards good visual prognosis. Most of them had mild head injury and hence good prognosis in terms of survival of the patient. The patients with severe ocular injuries like corneal tear, globe rupture and optic nerve injury showed poor visual prognosis.

  1. Concussions and Head Injuries in English Community Rugby Union Match Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Michael; Goodison, William; Stokes, Keith A

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has described general injury patterns in community-level rugby union, but specific information on time-loss head injuries has not been reported. To establish the incidence and nature of significant time-loss head injuries in English community rugby match play, and to identify the injury risk for specific contact events. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over 6 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), 76 (2011-2012), 50 (2012-2013), 67 (2013-2014), and 58 (2014-2015) English community rugby clubs (Rugby Football Union levels 3-9) over a total of 175,940 hours of player match exposure. Club injury management staff reported information for all head injuries sustained during match play whereby the player was absent for 8 days or greater. Clubs were subdivided into semiprofessional (mean player age, 24.6 ± 4.7 years), amateur (24.9 ± 5.1 years), and recreational (25.6 ± 6.1 years) playing levels. Contact events from a sample of 30 matches filmed over seasons 2009-2010, 2010-2011, and 2011-2012 provided mean values for the frequency of contact events. The overall incidence for time-loss head injuries was 2.43 injuries per 1000 player match hours, with a higher incidence for the amateur (2.78; 95% CI, 2.37-3.20) compared with recreational (2.20; 95% CI, 1.86-2.53) ( P = .032) playing level but not different to the semiprofessional (2.31; 95% CI, 1.83-2.79) playing level. Concussion was the most common time-loss head injury, with 1.46 per 1000 player match hours. The tackle event was associated with 64% of all head injuries and 74% of all concussions. There was also a higher risk of injuries per tackle (0.33 per 1000 events; 95% CI, 0.30-0.37) compared with all other contact events. Concussion was the most common head injury diagnosis, although it is likely that this injury was underreported. Continuing education programs for medical staff and players are essential for the improved identification and management of

  2. Intracranial Pressure Response to Non-Penetrating Ballistic Impact: An Experimental Study Using a Pig Physical Head Model and Live Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Kang, Jianyi; Chen, Jing; Li, Guanhua; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the intracranial pressure response to non-penetrating ballistic impact using a "scalp-skull-brain" pig physical head model and live pigs. Forty-eight ballistic tests targeting the physical head model and anesthetized pigs protected by aramid plates were conducted with standard 9 mm bullets at low (279-297 m/s), moderate (350-372 m/s), and high (409-436 m/s) velocities. Intracranial pressure responses were recorded with pressure sensors embedded in similar brain locations in the physical head model and the anesthetized pigs. Three parameters of intracranial pressure were determined from the measured data: intracranial maximum pressure (Pmax), intracranial maximum pressure impulse (PImax), and the duration of the first positive phase (PPD). The intracranial pressure waves exhibited blast-like characteristics for both the physical model and l live pigs. Of all three parameters, Pmax is most sensitive to impact velocity, with means of 126 kPa (219 kPa), 178 kPa (474 kPa), and 241 kPa (751 kPa) for the physical model (live pigs) for low, moderate, and high impact velocities, respectively. The mean PPD becomes increasingly short as the impact velocity increases, whereas PImax shows the opposite trend. Although the pressure parameters of the physical model were much lower than those of the live pigs, good correlations between the physical model and the live pigs for the three pressure parameters, especially Pmax, were found using linear regression. This investigation suggests that Pmax is a preferred parameter for predicting the severity of the brain injury resulting from behind armor blunt trauma (BABT). PMID:23055817

  3. Abusive head trauma and accidental head injury: a 20-year comparative study of referrals to a hospital child protection team

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Simon; Vincent, Andrea L; Reed, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe children referred for suspected abusive head trauma (AHT) to a hospital child protection team in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods Comparative review of demographics, histories, injuries, investigations and diagnostic outcomes for referrals under 15 years old from 1991 to 2010. Results Records were available for 345 children. Referrals increased markedly (88 in the first decade, 257 in the second), but the diagnostic ratio was stable: AHT 60%, accidental or natural 29% and uncertain cause 11%. The probability of AHT was similar regardless of socio-economic status or ethnicity. In children under 2 years old with accidental head injuries (75/255, 29%) or AHT (180/255, 71%), characteristics of particular interest for AHT included no history of trauma (88/98, 90%), no evidence of impact to the head (84/93, 90%), complex skull fractures with intracranial injury (22/28, 79%), subdural haemorrhage (160/179, 89%) and hypoxic ischaemic injury (38/39, 97%). In children over 2 years old, these characteristics did not differ significantly between children with accidental head injuries (21/47, 45%) and AHT (26/47, 55%). The mortality of AHT was higher in children over 2 years old (10/26, 38%) than under 2 years (19/180, 11%). Conclusions The striking increase in referrals for AHT probably represents increasing incidence. The decision to refer a hospitalised child with a head injury for assessment for possible AHT should not be influenced by socio-economic status or ethnicity. Children over 2 years old hospitalised for AHT are usually injured by mechanisms involving impact and should be considered at high risk of death. PMID:26130384

  4. Children and youth with 'unspecified injury to the head': implications for traumatic brain injury research and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vincy; Mann, Robert E; Pole, Jason D; Colantonio, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The case definition for traumatic brain injury (TBI) often includes 'unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic codes. However, research has shown that the inclusion of these codes leads to false positives. As such, it is important to determine the degree to which inclusion of these codes affect the overall numbers and profiles of the TBI population. The objective of this paper was to profile and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics, intention and mechanism of injury, and discharge disposition of hospitalized children and youth aged 19 years and under using (1) an inclusive TBI case definition that included 'unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic codes, (2) a restricted TBI case definition that excluded 'unspecified injury to the head 'diagnostic codes, and (3) the 'unspecified injury to the head' only case definition. The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System and the Discharge Abstract Database from Ontario, Canada, were used to identify cases between fiscal years 2003/04 and 2009/10. The rate of TBI episodes of care using the inclusive case definition for TBI (2,667.2 per 100,000) was 1.65 times higher than that of the restricted case definition (1,613.3 per 100,000). 'Unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic codes made up of 39.5 % of all cases identified with the inclusive case definition. Exclusion of 'unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic code in the TBI case definition resulted in a significantly higher proportion of patients in the intensive care units (p definition of TBI for the children and youth population is important, as it has implications for the numbers used for policy, resource allocation, prevention, and planning of healthcare services. This paper can inform future work on reaching consensus on the diagnostic codes for defining TBI in children and youth.

  5. A subgroup analysis of penetrating injuries to the pancreas: 777 patients from the National Trauma Data Bank, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bradley; Turco, Lauren; McDonald, Dan; Mause, Elizabeth; Walters, Ryan W

    2018-05-01

    This study is the first to analyze penetrating injuries to the pancreas within subgroups of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), early deaths, and potential survivors. Our objectives were to identify national patterns of injury, predictors of mortality, and to validate the American Association for Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scale (AAST-OIS) pancreas injury grades by mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital and intensive care unit length of stay and days on mechanical ventilation. Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 and ICD-9-CM E-codes, we identified 777 penetrating pancreatic trauma patients from the National Trauma Data Bank that occurred between 2010 and 2014. Severe TBI was identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS; n = 7), early deaths were those that occurred within 24 h of admission (n = 82), and potential survivors included patients without severe TBI who survived longer than 24 h following admission (n = 690). We estimated multivariable generalized linear mixed models to predict mortality to account for the nesting of potential survivors within trauma centers. Our results indicated that overall mortality decreased from 16.9% to 6.8% after excluding severe TBI and early deaths. Approximately, 11% of patients died within 24 h of admission, of whom 78% died in the first 6 h. Associated injuries to the stomach, liver, and major vasculature occurred in approximately 50% of patients; rates of associated injuries were highest in patients who died within 6 h of admission. In potential survivors, mortality increased by AAST-OIS grade: 3.5% I/II; 8.3% III; 9.6% IV; and 13.8% V. Predictors of mortality with significantly increased odds of death were patients with increasing age, lower admission GCS, higher admission pulse rate, and more severe injuries as indicated by Organ Injury Scale grade. From 777 patients, we identified national patterns of injury, predictors of outcome, and mortality by AAST-OIS grade within

  6. Head Injury and Intracranial Pressure Monitor Using Ultrasonic and Low-Frequency Acoustic (ULFA) Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this research project is the development of a non-invasive method and instrument for head injury detection and monitoring using a new approach based on ultrasonic and low-frequency acoustic (ULFA...

  7. Head Injury and Intracranial Pressure Monitor Using Ultrasonic and Low-Frequency (ULFA) Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this research project is the development of a non-invasive method and instrument for head injury detection and monitoring using a new approach based on ultrasonic and low-frequency acoustic (ULFA...

  8. Utilization of head CT during injury visits to United States emergency departments: 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Brian J; Borczuk, Pierre; Zachrison, Kori S; Goldstein, Joshua N; Berlyand, Yosef; Raja, Ali S

    2018-05-18

    Studies have shown increasing utilization of head computed tomography (CT) imaging of emergency department (ED) patients presenting with an injury-related visit. Multiple initiatives, including the Choosing Wisely™ campaign and evidence-based clinical decision support based on validated decision rules, have targeted head CT use in patients with injuries. Therefore, we investigated national trends in the use of head CT during injury-related ED visits from 2012 to 2015. This was a secondary analysis of data from the annual United States (U.S.) National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2012 to 2015. The study population was defined as injury-related ED visits, and we sought to determine the percentage in which a head CT was ordered and, secondarily, to determine both the diagnostic yield of clinically significant intracranial findings and hospital characteristics associated with increased head CT utilization. Between 2012 and 2015, 12.25% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.48-13.02%) of injury-related visits received at least one head CT. Overall head CT utilization showed an increased trend during the study period (2012: 11.7%, 2015: 13.23%, p = 0.09), but the results were not statistically significant. The diagnostic yield of head CT for a significant intracranial injury over the period of four years was 7.4% (9.68% in 2012 vs. 7.67% in 2015, p = 0.23). Head CT use along with diagnostic yield has remained stable from 2012 to 2015 among patients presenting to the ED for an injury-related visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the Prevalence of Traumatic Head Injury amongst Recreational Surfers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Surfing is a popular recreational sport that carries a substantial risk of injury. Although head injuries are frequently documented in the surfing population, an in depth assessment of the prevalence of surfing-related head injury has not been reported. A web-based survey was conducted in May of 2015. Participants were asked a series of questions regarding surfing-related injuries and demographic characteristics. A total of 50 responses were obtained, of which 35 (70%) reported sustaining a head injury. The most common injury was laceration of the head/face (n=27), followed by concussion (n=13). Other injuries, such as skull fracture and broken nose, were also reported. Only 2 of the 50 participants reported wearing a protective helmet. Neurosurgical intervention was required in 2 instances. Increased emphasis on preventative measures by the medical community may reduce the future incidence of such injuries. Medical professionals should be aware of the most common forms of injury sustained by the surfing population in order to better recognize and treat these conditions.

  10. Head injury as a PTSD predictor among Oklahoma City bombing survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walilko, Timothy; North, Carol; Young, Lee Ann; Lux, Warren E; Warden, Deborah L; Jaffee, Michael S; Moore, David F

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the Oklahoma City (OKC) bombing retrospective review was to investigate the relationship between physical injury, environmental contributors, and psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an event-based, matched design study focused on injury. The 182 selected participants were a random subset of the 1,092 direct survivors from the OKC bombing. Only 124 of these 182 cases had a full complement of medical/clinical data in the OKC database. These 124 cases were assessed to explore relationships among PTSD diagnoses, levels of blast exposure, and physical injuries. Associations among variables were statistically tested using contingency analysis and logistic regression. Comparison of the PTSD cases to symptoms/diagnoses reported in the medical records reveals a statistically significant association between PTSD and head/brain injuries associated with head acceleration. PTSD was not highly correlated with other injuries. Although blast pressure and impulse were highly correlated with head injuries, the correlation with PTSD was not statistically significant. Thus, a correlation between blast pressure and PTSD may exist, but higher fidelity pressure calculations are required to elucidate this potential relationship. This study provides clear evidence that head injury is associated with subsequent PTSD, giving caregivers' information on what physical injuries may suggest the development of psychologic disorders to aid them in developing a profile for the identification of future survivors of terrorist attacks and Warfighters with brain injuries and potential PTSD.

  11. Pseudoaneurysm of the occipital artery: an unusual cause of persisting headache after minor head injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial arteries in the scalp are uncommon sequelae of head injury. We report on a patient who presented four weeks after a minor head injury with a tender, pulsating and enlarging mass in the course of the left occipital artery. There was associated headache radiating to the vertex. Computed tomographic angiography confirmed the lesion to be a pseudoaneurysm of the occipital artery. The lump was resected with complete resolution of symptoms.

  12. Delayed symptoms and death after minor head trauma with occult vertebral artery injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Auer, R N; Krcek, J; Butt, J C

    1994-01-01

    Head injury without loss of consciousness is seldom accompanied by grave complications. We report the case of an 18 year old cyclist who was struck by a car in a minor road traffic accident, suffered minor head injury without loss of consciousness, and died unexpectedly seven weeks later with vomiting and coma. Necropsy revealed an expanding cerebellar infarct and vertebral artery thrombosis, superimposed on an old dissecting intramural haematoma of the right vertebral artery in the atlantoax...

  13. Imaging of optic nerve head pore structure with motion corrected deeply penetrating OCT using tracking SLO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienola, Kari V.; Braaf, Boy; Sheehy, Christy K.; Yang, Qiang; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; de Boer, Johannes F.; Roorda, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To remove the eye motion and stabilize the optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system for obtaining high quality images of the optic nerve head (ONH) and the pore structure of the lamina cribrosa. Methods An optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument was combined with an active eye

  14. Personality change following head injury: assessment with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoo, E; de Deyne, C; Colardyn, F; de Soete, G; Jannes, C

    1997-11-01

    We evaluated personality change following head injury in 68 patients at 6 months postinjury using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess the five personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. All items had to be rated twice, once for the preinjury and once for the current status. Twenty-eight trauma patients with injuries to other parts of the body than the head were used as controls. For the head-injured group, 63 relatives also completed the questionnaire. The results showed no differences between the ratings of head-injured patients and the ratings of trauma control patients. Both groups showed significant change in the personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Compared to their relatives, head-injured patients report a smaller change in Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Changes were not reported on the Openness and Agreeableness scales, by neither the head-injured or their relatives, nor by the trauma controls.

  15. More than just a urinary catheter — Haemorrhage control by using a Foley catheter in a penetrating aortic root injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Elmoghrabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of great vessel injuries in thoracic trauma is reported at 0.3–10%, predominantly due to a penetrating mechanism. Thoracic aortic injuries, more specifically those within proximity of the aortic root are challenging to manage and unceasing bleeding hampers adequate visualisation for performing repair. We report a case of a 31-year-old male that presented to the emergency department 1 h after sustaining a stab wound injury within proximity of the left upper sternal border. Vital signs were stable on presentation. Physical examination revealed a 1.5 cm laceration in the 3rd intercostal space. Chest X-ray revealed a small left pneumothorax, FAST scan was negative, and CT of the chest revealed left sided haemopneumothorax and haemopericardium. The patient was emergently transferred to the operating room where median thoracotomy was performed. A significant amount of bleeding was observed originating from a 1 cm laceration of the aortic root. Bleeding was controlled using a Foley catheter after unsuccessful attempts of digital compression, and the laceration was repaired using pledgeted sutures. Postoperative echocardiography and CT scan of the chest revealed normal cardiac functions with resolution of haemopericardium and haemopneumothorax, and the patient was discharged in a stable condition. High index of suspicion should be maintained for injury to the great vessels in patients with penetrating chest injuries, despite apparent haemodynamic stability. In this case, balloon tamponade using a Foley catheter served as a quick and simple technique that resulted in an almost bloodless field, facilitating adequate visualisation for definitive repair. Although the use of this technique has been previously described, this report serves as a reminder that a Foley catheter can be successfully used for balloon catheter tamponade in injuries to the aortic root. Keywords: Aortic root, Injury, Foley's catheter, Balloon catheter, Aorta

  16. Families, Head Injury, and Cognitive-Communicative Impairments: Issues for Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePompei, Roberta; Zarski, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for the incorporation of family counseling into rehabilitation programs treating cognitive-communicative disorders in head-injured individuals. The paper describes general family responses that may be anticipated when a family system experiences head injury, functional versus dysfunctional family responses to a crisis, and three…

  17. Characteristics of Syntactic Comprehension Deficits Following Closed Head Injury versus Left Cerebrovascular Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Hinz, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined the ability to assign thematic roles and to coindex referentially dependent noun phrases in closed head injured adults (N=20), adult stroke patients (N=20), and normal adults (N=20). Results suggested that syntactic comprehension disturbances are similar following left cerebral hemisphere infarction and closed head injury.…

  18. Time pressure management as a compensatory strategy training after closed head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasotti, L; Kovacs, F; Eling, PATM; Brouwer, WH

    Following severe closed head injury, deficits in speed of information processing are common. As a result, many head-injured patients experience a feeling of "information overload" in daily tasks that once were relatively easy. Many remedial programmes have been designed that treat different aspects

  19. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Leonardo BO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  20. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, Joao; Silva, Fabriccio Df; Porto, Leonardo Bo; Teixeira, Luiz C; Tien, Homer; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2009-06-26

    We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  1. Multi-scale mechanics of traumatic brain injury : predicting axonal strains from head loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloots, R.J.H.; Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Kleiven, S.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The length scales involved in the development of diffuse axonal injury typically range from the head level (i.e., mechanical loading) to the cellular level. The parts of the brain that are vulnerable to this type of injury are mainly the brainstem and the corpus callosum, which are regions with

  2. Forensic medical study on morphology and formative mechanism of blunt head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hong-wei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To study the patterns and morphologic characteristics of blunt head injury and analyse its formative mechanism in attempt to provide references for medicolegal expertise. Methods: The statistical analysis was done in terms of gender, age, as well as the nature, pattern, location, and feature of the injuries. Results: Among the 202 cases of head injury-induced death, 124 were male and 78 female with the age ranging from 1-81 years. Death caused by homicide was dominant (106, 52.5%, followed by suicide (49, 24.3% and accident (44, 21.8%. The majority of suicide-induced death were by falling from height, and traffic crash was responsible for majority of unexpected death cases. The morphology and pathogenesis of the injuries varied according to differences on the mode, magnitude, and orientation of the outside force giving rise to blunt injury as well as the character of vulnerants. Conclusion: Studies on the morphology and its forma-tive rationale of blunt head injury will offer easy access to medicolegal expertise on the mode and character of the injury. Key words: Brain; Head injuries, closed; Cranioce-rebral trauma; Forensic medicine

  3. Preliminary study on the head-injury by using SPECT with 99mTc-HMPAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yihui; Liu Yongchang; Lin Xiangtong

    1994-01-01

    After the acute period of head trauma some cases of patients may have some symptoms, such as headache, poor memory, vertigo, et al. In this study, among 42 patients most of whom had normal CT or MRI abnormal findings of brain perfusion imaging were seen in 33 patients (78.6%). Multiple perfusion defects were observed in some patients (13/42). These indicate that the head-injury syndrome is closely related to brain blood perfusion. authors' conclusion is that the brain SPECT is able to find out the etiology of head injury syndrome

  4. Imaging characteristics and treatment of a penetrating brain injury caused by an oropharyngeal foreign body in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jennifer; Cooper Murphy, Megan; Broome, Cameron; Tayari, Hamaseh; Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo

    2017-07-20

    A 4-year-old Border collie was presented with one episode of collapse, altered mentation, and a suspected pharyngeal stick injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography showed a linear foreign body penetrating the right oropharynx, through the foramen ovale and the brain parenchyma. The foreign body was surgically removed and medical treatment initiated. Complete resolution of clinical signs was noted at recheck 8 weeks later. Repeat MRI showed chronic secondary changes in the brain parenchyma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the advanced imaging findings and successful treatment of a penetrating oropharyngeal intracranial foreign body in a dog. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. Neural signatures of third-party punishment: evidence from penetrating traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Moody, Lara; Grafman, Jordan; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The ability to survive within a cooperative society depends on impartial third-party punishment (TPP) of social norm violations. Two cognitive mechanisms have been postulated as necessary for the successful completion of TPP: evaluation of legal responsibility and selection of a suitable punishment given the magnitude of the crime. Converging neuroimaging research suggests two supporting domain-general networks; a mentalizing network for evaluation of legal responsibility and a central-executive network for determination of punishment. A whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach was used in conjunction with a rank-order TPP task to identify brain regions necessary for TPP in a large sample of patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury. Patients who demonstrated atypical TPP had specific lesions in core regions of the mentalizing (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [PFC], ventromedial PFC) and central-executive (bilateral dorsolateral PFC, right intraparietal sulcus) networks. Altruism and executive functioning (concept formation skills) were significant predictors of TPP: altruism was uniquely associated with TPP in patients with lesions in right dorsolateral PFC and executive functioning was uniquely associated with TPP in individuals with lesions in left PFC. Our findings contribute to the extant literature to support underlying neural networks associated with TPP, with specific brain-behavior causal relationships confirming recent functional neuroimaging research. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTION OF MYELOPIDUM UNDER ITS INCLUSION IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH PENETRATING OCULAR INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gavrilova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Examination of immunomodulatory actions and clinical efficiency of myelopidum when included into complex therapy that was carried out in 24 male patients with severe (stage 3 penetrating eye injury in the course of trauma treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein, lactoferrin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and activity of complement system were measured in peripheral blood, and concentrations of lactoferrin and IL-8 were determined in tears. An increase in lactoferrin, C-reactive protein, IL-1β, IL-8, and C5 complement component levels was detected during early post-traumatic period, as compared with data from the control group. As compared to effects of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs included into standard therapy, treatment with myelopidum has led to a more favorable clinical course of traumatic process, and resulted into more pronounced anti-inflammatory effect that was manifested by decrease in lactoferrin and C-reactive protein levels, reduction of IL-1β concentration, and C5 complement component activity. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 239-244.

  7. Artificial neural networks: Predicting head CT findings in elderly patients presenting with minor head injury after a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenberry, Michael W; Brown, Charles K; Brewer, Kori L

    2017-02-01

    To construct an artificial neural network (ANN) model that can predict the presence of acute CT findings with both high sensitivity and high specificity when applied to the population of patients≥age 65years who have incurred minor head injury after a fall. An ANN was created in the Python programming language using a population of 514 patients ≥ age 65 years presenting to the ED with minor head injury after a fall. The patient dataset was divided into three parts: 60% for "training", 20% for "cross validation", and 20% for "testing". Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were determined by comparing the model's predictions to the actual correct answers for each patient. On the "cross validation" data, the model attained a sensitivity ("recall") of 100.00%, specificity of 78.95%, PPV ("precision") of 78.95%, NPV of 100.00%, and accuracy of 88.24% in detecting the presence of positive head CTs. On the "test" data, the model attained a sensitivity of 97.78%, specificity of 89.47%, PPV of 88.00%, NPV of 98.08%, and accuracy of 93.14% in detecting the presence of positive head CTs. ANNs show great potential for predicting CT findings in the population of patients ≥ 65 years of age presenting with minor head injury after a fall. As a good first step, the ANN showed comparable sensitivity, predictive values, and accuracy, with a much higher specificity than the existing decision rules in clinical usage for predicting head CTs with acute intracranial findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microstructural brain injury in post-concussion syndrome after minor head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Marion; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Vernooij, Meike W.; Lugt, Aad van der; Houston, Gavin C.; Dippel, Diederik W.J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    After minor head injury (MHI), post-concussive symptoms commonly occur. The purpose of this study was to correlate the severity of post-concussive symptoms in MHI patients with MRI measures of microstructural brain injury, namely mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as the presence of microhaemorrhages. Twenty MHI patients and 12 healthy controls were scanned at 3 T using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-resolution gradient recalled echo (HRGRE) T2*-weighted sequences. One patient was excluded from the analysis because of bilateral subdural haematomas. DTI data were preprocessed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics. The resulting MD and FA images were correlated with the severity of post-concussive symptoms evaluated with the Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire. The number and location of microhaemorrhages were assessed on the HRGRE T2*-weighted images. Comparing patients with controls, there were no differences in MD. FA was decreased in the right temporal subcortical white matter. MD was increased in association with the severity of post-concussive symptoms in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. FA was reduced in association with the severity of post-concussive symptoms in the uncinate fasciculus, the IFO, the internal capsule and the corpus callosum, as well as in the parietal and frontal subcortical white matter. Microhaemorrhages were observed in one patient only. The severity of post-concussive symptoms after MHI was significantly correlated with a reduction of white matter integrity, providing evidence of microstructural brain injury as a neuropathological substrate of the post-concussion syndrome. (orig.)

  9. The association of temporomandibular disorder pain with history of head and neck injury in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dena J; Mueller, Beth A; Critchlow, Cathy W; LeResche, Linda

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of self-reported temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain among adolescents in relation to previous head and/or neck injury. 3,101 enrollees (11 to 17 years of age) of a nonprofit integrated health-care system were interviewed by telephone. Two hundred four cases with self-reported TMD pain and 194 controls without self-reported TMD pain frequency-matched to the cases by age and gender completed standardized in-person interviews and physical examinations in which reports of previous head/neck injuries were recorded. Odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the relative risks of TMD pain associated with prior head and/or neck injuries were calculated using logistic regression. A greater proportion of subjects reporting TMD pain (36%) than controls (25%) had a history of head and/or neck injuries (OR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.1-2.8). In a separate analysis, the presence of TMD based upon the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) was assessed in relation to prior head and/or neck injury. Cases reporting TMD pain and meeting the RDC/TMD criteria for myofascial pain and/or arthralgia or arthritis were 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.8) times more likely to have had a prior head injury than were controls with neither self-reported nor RDC/TMD pain diagnoses. The results suggest a modest association of prior head injuries with both self-reported and clinically diagnosed TMD pain in adolescents.

  10. Outcomes of a questionnaire survey on intracranial hypotension following minor head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi, Kenji; Aruga, Tohru; Abe, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Takeki; Onuma, Takehide; Katayama, Yoichi; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Shima, Katsuji; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Intracranial hypotension (IH) is a rare condition caused by leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recently, a small number of clinicians have proposed a new concept about IH following minor head injury. They suggest that many of their patients with IH can be successfully treated with epidural blood patch therapy. They also argue that some patients with post-traumatic cervical syndrome and general fatigue syndrome suffer from IH following minor head injury. Consequently, IH following minor head injury was widely recognized and dealt with as a social problem in Japan. On the other hand, pathophysiological aspects of the condition as well as the provisional criteria to describe this clinical entity remain to be elucidated. In 2006, the Japan Society of Neurotraumatology performed a questionnaire survey asking 44 hospitals belonging to trustees of this society about IH following minor head injury. This paper provides a report of the outcomes of this survey. The response rate to this questionnaire was 57% (25/44). Fifty-six percent of respondents did not have experience of IH following minor head injury. Moreover, respondents' criteria for describing this disease differed greatly, especially in the radiological examinations and symptoms for the diagnosis of this entity which showed significant variation. These problems might originate from the general features of this disease. With the exception of postural headache, the symptoms of this disease varied enormously. This wide range of symptoms confused with the pathophysiolosies of a great many similar conditions. As such, clarifications of the pathophysiological characteristics of IH following minor head injury, together with consensus on specific criteria to describe the condition, are required. In conclusion, the results of this survey revealed many serious scientific and social problems associated with the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial hypotension following minor head injury. Scientific study including the

  11. Scalp Hematoma Characteristics Associated With Intracranial Injury in Pediatric Minor Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emma C M; Grool, Anne M; Klassen, Terry P; Correll, Rhonda; Jarvis, Anna; Joubert, Gary; Bailey, Benoit; Chauvin-Kimoff, Laurel; Pusic, Martin; McConnell, Don; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri; Silver, Norm; Taylor, Brett; Osmond, Martin H

    2016-05-01

    Minor head trauma accounts for a significant proportion of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. In children younger than 24 months, scalp hematomas are thought to be associated with the presence of intracranial injury (ICI). We investigated which scalp hematoma characteristics were associated with increased odds of ICI in children less than 17 years who presented to the ED following minor head injury and whether an underlying linear skull fracture may explain this relationship. This was a secondary analysis of 3,866 patients enrolled in the Canadian Assessment of Tomography of Childhood Head Injury (CATCH) study. Information about scalp hematoma presence (yes/no), location (frontal, temporal/parietal, occipital), and size (small and localized, large and boggy) was collected by emergency physicians using a structured data collection form. ICI was defined as the presence of an acute brain lesion on computed tomography. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, dangerous injury mechanism, irritability on examination, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, and clinical signs of basal skull fracture. ICI was present in 159 (4.1%) patients. The presence of a scalp hematoma (n = 1,189) in any location was associated with significantly greater odds of ICI (odds ratio [OR] = 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.06 to 6.02), particularly for those located in temporal/parietal (OR = 6.0, 95% CI = 3.9 to 9.3) and occipital regions (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 3.5 to 8.9). Both small and localized and large and boggy hematomas were significantly associated with ICI, although larger hematomas conferred larger odds (OR = 9.9, 95% CI = 6.3 to 15.5). Although the presence of a scalp hematoma was associated with greater odds of ICI in all age groups, odds were greatest in children aged 0 to 6 months (OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 1.5 to 119.3). Linear skull fractures were present in 156 (4.0%) patients. Of the 111 patients with scalp hematoma and ICI, 57 (51%) patients had

  12. Intracranial traumatic lesion risk factors in elderly patients with minor head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochi, Masato; Hori, Shigeaki

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of the risk factors of intracranial traumatic lesions in elderly patients with minor head injury. Sixty-nine elderly patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 13-15 after head injury who had presented within 24 hours of trauma and admitted to hospital were included in this study. The indications for admission were a GCS score of 13 or 14 on presentation, loss of consciousness, retrograde or posttraumatic amnesia, local neurological deficit, severe headache and vomiting, dangerous mechanism of injury, skull fracture and abnormal CT findings. The relationship between the clinical findings and intracranial traumatic lesions was analized by univariate and multivariate analysis. The relationship between the clinical findings and surgical intervention was also analized by the same methods in those who had intracranial traumatic lesions. The mean and median age of patients were 81.1 and 83 years, respectively. Of 69 patients, 41 had intracranial traumatic lesions present on their CT scan. Of these, 6 needed surgical intervention. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 and a loss of consciousness at injury were identified as independent risk factors of intracranial traumatic lesions in elderly patients with minor head injury and a dangerous mechanism of injury was identified as an independent risk factor of surgical intervention in those who had traumatic intracranial lesions. Our results offer useful information for evaluating patients with minor head injury in Japan's aging society. (author)

  13. Clinical features of the head injury caused by child abuse in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Jun

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis and managements of the head injury in battered children are greatly complicated by medical history and the mechanisms of injury. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical features of the head injury in battered children. Clinical signs and symptoms, the mechanisms of injury, intracranial pathology, and prognosis of 25 battered children with head injury treated between 1984 and 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. The age of 25 children was between 1 month and 2 years old. The average of the ages was 7 months old. In 68% of 25 patients, the age was 6 months or less. The medical history of head injury was unclear in 16 children. The chief complains were disturbance of consciousness, convulsion, vomiting and hypothermia. Retinal hemorrhages were recognized in 88% of the patients and these were bilateral in 68%. Acute subdural hematomas (19 cases) and chronic subdural hematomas (6 cases) were shown on CTs or MRIs. In four cases, cerebral contusions were complicated as intracranial pathology. In 44% of the patients, the hypoxic-ischemic injury was confirmed on CTs or MRIs. Fractures of limbs and ribs were recognized on skeletal survey in 40% of the patients. 71% of 17 survival cases had moderate or severe psychomotor disabilities at the end of follow-up periods. In children under 2 years of age with subdural hematomas, clinical investigations other than CT and MRI, included ophthalmoscopy by ophthalmologist and skeletal survey, are crucial and mandatory for early diagnosis of the child abuse. (author)

  14. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  15. How children with head injury represent real and deceptive emotion in short narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, M; Barnes, M A; Wilkinson, M; Humphreys, R P

    1998-02-15

    Narratives are not only about events, but also about the emotions those events elicit. Understanding a narrative involves not just the affective valence of implied emotional states, but the formation of an explicit mental representation of those states. In turn, this representation provides a mechanism that particularizes emotion and modulates its display, which then allows emotional expression to be modified according to particular contexts. This includes understanding that a character may feel an emotion but inhibit its display or even express a deceptive emotion. We studied how 59 school-aged children with head injury and 87 normally-developing age-matched controls understand real and deceptive emotions in brief narratives. Children with head injury showed less sensitivity than controls to how emotions are expressed in narratives. While they understood the real emotions in the text, and could recall what provoked the emotion and the reason for concealing it, they were less able than controls to identify deceptive emotions. Within the head injury group, factors such as an earlier age at head injury and frontal lobe contusions were associated with poor understanding of deceptive emotions. The results are discussed in terms of the distinction between emotions as felt and emotions as a cognitive framework for understanding other people's actions and mental states. We conclude that children with head injury understand emotional communication, the spontaneous externalization of real affect, but not emotive communication, the conscious, strategic modification of affective signals to influence others through deceptive facial expressions.

  16. Role of Postmortem Multislice Computed Tomography Scan in Close Blunt Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijo Sidipratomo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional autopsy in Indonesia is not well accepted as it is contrary to religion and culture. New radiological imaging method such as multislice computed tomography (MSCT scan has potential to be a diagnostic tool in forensic pathology. The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of MSCT scan in finding abnormalities in close blunt head injury compared with autopsy. METHODS: This study used descriptive qualitative method. Postmortem cases in Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were selected based on inclusion criteria. Then MSCT scan and autopsy were conducted. MSCT scan and autopsy results were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 491 postmortem cases of blunt head injury. However, only 10 cases fulfilled inclusion criteria. Subarachnoid haemorrhages were identified 100% with MSCT scan and 80% with autopsy. Cerebral oedemas were identified 100% either with MSCT scan and autopsy. Subdural haemorrhages were identified 100% with MSCT scan, while 50% with autopsy. Multiple fractures were identified 80% with MSCT scan, while 40% with auto. CONCLUSIONS: MSCT scan showed a sensitive detection in finding abnormalities in close blunt head injury. Therefore it could be as an alternative choice of examination in close blunt head injury cases. KEYWORDS: multislice computed tomography scan, postmortem, blunt head injury, autopsy.

  17. Cognitive contributions to theory of mind ability in children with a traumatic head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Naomi Kahana; Milgram, Noach

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to examine the contribution of intellectual abilities, executive functions (EF), and facial emotion recognition to difficulties in Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in children with a traumatic head injury. Israeli children with a traumatic head injury were compared with their non-injured counterparts. Each group included 18 children (12 males) ages 7-13. Measurements included reading the mind in the eyes, facial emotion recognition, reasoning the other's characteristics based on motive and outcome, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, similarities and digit span (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised 95 subscales), verbal fluency, and the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Non-injured children performed significantly better on ToM, abstract reasoning, and EF measures compared with children with a traumatic head injury. However, differences in ToM abilities between the groups were no longer significant after controlling for abstract reasoning, working memory, verbal fluency, or facial emotion recognition. Impaired ToM recognition and reasoning abilities after a head injury may result from other cognitive impairments. In children with mild and moderate head injury, poorer performance on ToM tasks may reflect poorer abstract reasoning, a general tendency to concretize stimuli, working memory and verbal fluency deficits, and difficulties in facial emotion recognition, rather than deficits in the ability to understand the other's thoughts and emotions. ToM impairments may be secondary to a range of cognitive deficits in determining social outcomes in this population.

  18. Team medicine in head injury. Usefulness of telemedicine in cooperation with medically depopulated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takazawa, Hiroki; Morita, Takahiro; Narisawa, Ayumi; Saito, Atsushi; Koyama, Shinya; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Michiharu

    2011-01-01

    Our hospital is located between Tsugaru and Shimokita Peninsulas that are wide medically depopulated areas. The depopulated Tsugaru District has only 2 neurosurgical units, and many patients have to be transferred from the district general hospitals. Since 1989, we have been using an image transfer system that is useful for accurately diagnosing patients with head injury. Between January 2005 and September 2010, 644 patients with head injury were admitted to our hospital. The patients who used and did not use telemedicine were 78 and 566, respectively. In both groups, the background (age, gender, and type of head injury), surgery rate, and time of entry into the operating room were analyzed. There were no significant differences in the age, gender, and type of head injuries between the 2 groups. The surgery rate was 25.6% (28 patients) in the telemedicine group and 12.4% (70 patients) in the direct admission group. The average amount of time between admission and entry into the operating room was 2 h and 13 min in the telemedicine group and 2 h and 57 min in the direct admission group. There were significant differences between the telemedicine and direct admission groups (p<0.05). These results suggest that telemedicine is useful in the treatment of patients with head injuries in a widely depopulated area. (author)

  19. Psychosocial consequences of head injury in children and adolescents: implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, M G; McCabe, R J

    1990-01-01

    Studies measuring psychosocial outcome in children and adolescents have shown that head injury leads to cognitive impairment which is directly related to the severity of injury in those with very severe head injury. Psychiatric disorders are also related to the severity of injury but here the relationship suggests that mediating factors are involved. No specific pattern of post-traumatic psychological/psychiatric dysfunction emerges from the studies, but it is clear that, as with adults, psychosocial recovery lags behind physical. Head injury affects the functioning of the young person in the family, at school, and within the wider community, often resulting in a secondary handicap of low self-esteem. The multitude of deficits which are a consequence of severe head injury present a challenge for rehabilitation specialists. A multi-disciplinary, multi-specialist, and multi-agency response is required. As a result, families are often presented with a bewildering array of treatments and programmes at different agencies. A case manager can be helpful in ensuring the appropriate use of available resources and can be the one professional in charge of a coordinating case record.

  20. Suspected alcohol and addictive narcotic use were more at risk to severe head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Cedera kepala menyebabkan dampak seperti gangguan kognitif, perilaku dan keterbatasan fisik. Tujuan studi ini untuk menentukan faktor utama yang berkontribusi terhadap keparahan cedera kepala pada pasien yang dirawat inap di rumah sakit. Metode: Studi ini merupakan bagian dari penelitian “Pengembangan Database Registri Trauma sebagai Penunjang Sistem Surveilans Cedera”. Data dikumpulkan dengan cara abstraksi dari rekam medis oleh petugas terlatih dengan formulir registri pada pasien cedera yang dirawat inap di 3 rumah sakit dari bulan Januari – Agustus 2010. Keparahan cedera diklasifikasikan berdasarkan Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS dengan batasan nilai 3-9 mengalami cedera kepala berat, 10-12 cedera kepala sedang dan 13-15 cedera kepala ringan. Hasil: Dari 450 pasien cedera rawat inap terdapat 36 pasien (8% yang mengalami cedera kepala berat. Pasien dengan indikasi mengkonsumsi alkohol/narkotik mempunyai risiko hampir 5 kali mengalami cedera kepala berat [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 4,77; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,04–21,75] dibanding tanpa indikasi. Pasien yang tidak dirujuk mempunyai risiko 5,5 kali  mengalami cedera kepala berat (ORa=5,50; 95% CI=2,28–13,27 dibanding pasien yang dirujuk. Pasien cedera karena kecelakaaan lalu lintas dibanding bukan kecelakaan lalu lintas mempunyai risiko 3 kali mengalami cedera kepala berat (ORa=3,43; 95% CI=1,14–10,32. Kesimpulan: Indikasi mengkonsumsi alkohol/narkotik berkontribusi paling besar terhadap keparahan cedera kepala. Kampanye anti alkohol/narkotik dan perlu dilakukan untuk mencegah cedera kepala berat. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:34-40   Abstract Background: The impact of head injuries were cognitive disorder, behavioral disorder and physical limitation. The objective of this study was to identify a major factor that contributes to head injury severity in hospitalized patients. Methods: This study was part of research "Development of Trauma Registry Databases as a

  1. A six year prospective study of the incidence and causes of head and neck injuries in international football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C W; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2005-08-01

    To identify those risk factors that have the greatest impact on the incidence of head and neck injuries in international football. A case-control study of players sustaining head and neck injuries during 20 FIFA tournaments (men and women) from 1998 to 2004. Video recordings of incidents were used to identify a range of parameters associated with the incidents. Team physicians provided medical reports describing the nature of each injury. chi2 tests (pvideo sequences. The commonest injuries were contusions (53%), lacerations (20%), and concussions (11%). The incidence of all head and neck injuries was 12.5/1000 player hours (men 12.8, women 11.5) and 3.7 for lost-time injuries (men 3.5, women 4.1). The commonest causes of injury involved aerial challenges (55%) and the use of the upper extremity (33%) or head (30%). The unfair use of the upper extremity was significantly more likely to cause an injury than any other player action. Only one injury (a neck muscle strain) occurred as a result of heading the ball throughout the 20 tournaments equivalent to 0.05 injuries/1000 player hours. Players' actions most likely to cause a head or neck injury were the use of the upper extremity or the head but in the majority of cases these challenges were deemed to be fair and within the laws of the game.

  2. Analysis of 162 colon injuries in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma: concomitant stomach injury results in a higher rate of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patricia A; Kirton, Orlando C; Dresner, Lisa S; Tortella, Bartholomew; Kestner, Mark M

    2004-02-01

    Fecal contamination from colon injury has been thought to be the most significant factor for the development of surgical site infection (SSI) after trauma. However, there are increasing data to suggest that other factors may play a role in the development of postinjury infection in patients after colon injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of gastric wounding on the development of SSI and nonsurgical site infection (NSSI) in patients with colon injury. Post hoc analysis was performed on data prospectively collected for 317 patients presenting with penetrating hollow viscus injury. One hundred sixty-two patients with colon injury were subdivided into one of three groups: patients with isolated colon wounds (C), patients with colon and stomach wounds with or without other organ injury (C+S), and patients with colon and other organ injury but no stomach injury (C-S) and assessed for the development of SSI and NSSI. Infection rates were also determined for patients who sustained isolated gastric injury (S) and gastric injury in combination with other injuries other than colon (S-C). Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index, operative times, and transfusion were assessed. Discrete variables were analyzed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. Risk factor analysis was performed by multivariate logistic regression. C+S patients had a higher rate of SSI infection (31%) than C patients (3.6%) (p=0.008) and C-S patients (13%) (p=0.021). Similarly, the incidence of NSSI was also significantly greater in the C+S group (37%) compared with the C patients (7.5%) (p=0.07) and the C-S patients (17%) (p=0.019). There was no difference in the rate of SSI or NSSI between the C and C-S groups (p=0.3 and p=0.24, respectively). The rate of SSI was significantly greater in the C+S patients when compared with the S-C patients (31% vs. 10%, p=0.008), but there was no statistical difference in the rate of NSSI in the C+S group and the S-C group (37

  3. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pediatric patients with severe head injury in Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank. Analysis of the prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tamotsu; Haraoka, Jo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of the pediatric patients in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank: Project 2004. Project 2004 consisted of severe head injury patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less on admission or during course and patients who were operated for traumatic intracranial lesion between 2004-2006. The subjects were 101 pediatric patients aged 15 years old or less (mean: 7.8 y/o). We retrospectively examined the patients' age, GCS, cause of injury, duration and time of patient transfer, pupillary abnormality, body temperature, serum glucose level, Injury Severity Score (ISS) excluding cranio-cervical score, skull fracture, CT classification of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank (TCDB), main lesion of focal brain injury on CT, and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on CT. The mortality rate in children is lower than in adults: 18.8% vs. 39.7%. The factors that correlated to the poor outcome in pediatric patients are lower GCS score on admission, pupillary abnormality, hyperglycemia (more than 200 mg/dl), complications of severe other organ injury, diffuse injury III according to classification of CT, acute subdural hematoma and SAH. Pathophysiologically pediatric patients are not miniatures of adult patients. The data of Project 2004 is extremely significant and indicates the profile of one general view of pediatric patients with severe head injury in Japan. However, further collection of data and careful analysis are necessary for standardizing pediatric head trauma care. (author)

  5. Sigmoid and transverse sinus thrombosis after closed head injury presenting with unilateral hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brors, D. [Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head- and Neck-Surgery; Dept. of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Head, Neck and Facial Plastic Surgery, Klinikum Fulda (Germany); Schaefers, M. [Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany); Schick, B.; Draf, W. [Dept. of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Head, Neck and Facial Plastic Surgery, Klinikum Fulda (Germany); Dazert, S. [Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head- and Neck-Surgery; Kahle, G. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Fulda (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    Sinus thrombosis has rarely been associated with closed head injury; more often, thrombosis of the sigmoid or transverse sinus is caused by otogenic inflammations or tumours, or occurs during pregnancy. Symptoms are frequently vague, while untreated thrombus progression may be fatal due to venous congestion and infarction. We report a 32-year-old man presenting with right hearing loss, tinnitus and headache 2 days after a closed head injury. Neurological examination showed no additional abnormality. The EEG showed focal bifrontal slowing. CT revealed a fracture of the occipital bone. MRI and MRA demonstrated complete thrombosis of the right sigmoid and transverse sinuses. After 2 weeks of intravenous heparin therapy followed by warfarin, the patient's hearing improved and MRI and MRA showed complete recanalisation of the sigmoid and transverse sinuses. Venous sinus thrombosis can be an undetected sequel to head injury. Appropriate imaging studies should be carried out to enable therapy to be started as soon as possible. (orig.)

  6. Sigmoid and transverse sinus thrombosis after closed head injury presenting with unilateral hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brors, D [Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head- and Neck-Surgery; Dept. of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Head, Neck and Facial Plastic Surgery, Klinikum Fulda (Germany); Schaefers, M [Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany); Schick, B; Draf, W [Dept. of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Head, Neck and Facial Plastic Surgery, Klinikum Fulda (Germany); Dazert, S [Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head- and Neck-Surgery; Kahle, G [Department of Radiology, Hospital Fulda (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    Sinus thrombosis has rarely been associated with closed head injury; more often, thrombosis of the sigmoid or transverse sinus is caused by otogenic inflammations or tumours, or occurs during pregnancy. Symptoms are frequently vague, while untreated thrombus progression may be fatal due to venous congestion and infarction. We report a 32-year-old man presenting with right hearing loss, tinnitus and headache 2 days after a closed head injury. Neurological examination showed no additional abnormality. The EEG showed focal bifrontal slowing. CT revealed a fracture of the occipital bone. MRI and MRA demonstrated complete thrombosis of the right sigmoid and transverse sinuses. After 2 weeks of intravenous heparin therapy followed by warfarin, the patient's hearing improved and MRI and MRA showed complete recanalisation of the sigmoid and transverse sinuses. Venous sinus thrombosis can be an undetected sequel to head injury. Appropriate imaging studies should be carried out to enable therapy to be started as soon as possible. (orig.)

  7. Sigmoid and transverse sinus thrombosis after closed head injury presenting with unilateral hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brors, D.; Schaefers, M.; Schick, B.; Draf, W.; Dazert, S.

    2001-01-01

    Sinus thrombosis has rarely been associated with closed head injury; more often, thrombosis of the sigmoid or transverse sinus is caused by otogenic inflammations or tumours, or occurs during pregnancy. Symptoms are frequently vague, while untreated thrombus progression may be fatal due to venous congestion and infarction. We report a 32-year-old man presenting with right hearing loss, tinnitus and headache 2 days after a closed head injury. Neurological examination showed no additional abnormality. The EEG showed focal bifrontal slowing. CT revealed a fracture of the occipital bone. MRI and MRA demonstrated complete thrombosis of the right sigmoid and transverse sinuses. After 2 weeks of intravenous heparin therapy followed by warfarin, the patient's hearing improved and MRI and MRA showed complete recanalisation of the sigmoid and transverse sinuses. Venous sinus thrombosis can be an undetected sequel to head injury. Appropriate imaging studies should be carried out to enable therapy to be started as soon as possible. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of patients with head trauma and traumatic axonal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera Betancourt, Dra.C. Gretel; Van Duc, Dr. Hanh; Casares Delgado, Dr. Jorge Alejandro; Hernández González, Dr. Erick Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Background: traumatic axonal injury is characterized by multifocal lesions, consequences of primary, secondary and tertiary damage which is able to cause varying degrees of disability. Objective: to characterize patients with traumatic axonal injury. Methods: a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015. The target population was composed of 35 patients over age 18 whose diagnosis was traumatic axonal injury type I and IV of the Marshall computed tomographic (CT) classification. With the data collected from medical records revisions and direct observation, a database was created in SPSS for its processing through univariate and multivariate techniques. Results: male patients between 18 and 30 years old without bad habits prevailed. Most of the patients survived and death was associated with the presence of severe traumatic axonal injury, Marshall computed tomographic (CT) classification degree III, complications and presence of trauma in thorax, abdomen and cervical spine. Conclusions: diagnosis of traumatic axonal injury is based on the clinical radiological correlation based on images from tomography and it is confirmed by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histological study shows injuries that are not demonstrated in the most advanced radiological studies. Its prevention is the most fundamental base in medical assistance, followed by neurocritical attention oriented by neuromonitoring. (author)

  9. Pathophysiology of repetitive head injury in sports. Prevention against catastrophic brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tatsuro; Kawamata, Tatsuro; Katayama, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The most common head injury in sports is concussion and experiencing multiple concussions in a short period of time sometimes can cause severe brain damage. In this paper, we investigate severe brain damage due to repeated head injury in sports and discuss the pathophysiology of repeated sports injury. The majority of these severe cases are usually male adolescents or young adults that suffer a second head injury before they have recovered from the first head injury. All cases that could be confirmed by brain CT scan after the second injury revealed brain swelling associated with a thin subdural hematoma. We suggested that the existence of subdural hematoma is one of the major causes of brain swelling after repeated head injury in sports. Since repeated concussions occurring within a short period may have a risk for severe brain damage, the diagnosis for initial cerebral concussion should be done appropriately. To prevent catastrophic brain damage, the player who suffered from concussion should not engage in any sports before recovery. The american Academy of Neurology and Colorado Medical Society set a guideline to return to play after cerebral concussion. An international conference on concussion in sports was held at Prague in 2004. The summary and agreement of this meeting was published and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) was introduced to treat sports-related concussion. In addition, a number of computerized cognitive assessment tests and test batteries have been developed to allow athletes to return to play. It is important that coaches, as well as players and trainers, understand the medical issues involved in concussion. (author)

  10. Corpus callosum lesions after closed head injury in children: MRI, clinical features and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, D.B.; Bruce, D.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-four children who sustained moderate to severe closed head injury underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight (24%) had MRI evidence of corpus callosum injury, most commonly within the posterior body and splenium. In contradistinction to reports in adults, there was no definite relationship between callosal injury and lower initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores, nor was there a significantly higher incidence of primary brain-stem lesions, diffuse axonal shear injury or intraventricular hemorrhage. In none of these 8 children did the initial admission computed tomography show evidence of callosal injury. Callosal injuries on MRI are not necessarily a poor prognostic finding, the majority of the 8 children showing good functional recovery. (orig.)

  11. Stress corrosion cracking in the vessel closure head penetrations of French PWR`s; Fissuration par corrosion sous contrainte de penetrations de couvercle de cuve de reacteur nucleaire francais a eau pressurisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisine, D.; Cattant, F.; Champredonde, J.; Pichon, C.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1994-01-01

    During a hydrotest in September 1991, part of the statutory decennial in-service inspection, a leak was detected on the vessel head of Bugey 3, which is one of the first 900 MW 3-loop PWR`s in France. This leak was due to a cracked penetration used for a control rod drive mechanism. The investigations performed identified Primary Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 as being the origin of this degradation. So a lot of the same design PWR`s are a concern due to this generic problem. In this case, PWSCC was linked to: - hot temperature of the vessel head; - high residual stresses due to the welding process between peripherical penetrations and the vessel head; - sensitivity of forged Alloy 600 used for penetration manufacturing. This following paper will present the cracked analysis based, in particular, on the main results obtained in France on each of these items. These results come from the operating experience, the destructive examinations and the programs which are running on stress analysis and metallurgical characterizations. (authors). 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Establishment of a head injury by club model in rabbits and experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yunxing; Xi Huanjiu; Zhang Jing; Li Hongwei; Yin Zhiyong; Zhao Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish an animal model to replicate the injury by club in forensic medicine. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were divided into control group (n=4), minor injury group (n=10), and severe injury group (n=10). Based on the BIM-Ⅱ Horizontal Bio-impact Machine, a self-designed iron bar was used to produce head injury by club. Six hours after injury, all the rabbits were subjected to a CT examination and dissected to observe the injury morphology and undergo routine pathological examination. Four control, six minor and severe rabbits were given moisture content examination. Results: Varying degrees of positive signs of the nervous system were observed in all the injured rabbits within 6 hours. The mortality rate was 1/10 in the minor injury group and 6/10 in the severe injury group. The morphological changes consisted of different levels of scalp hematoma, skull fracture, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage and brain injury. The difference in moisture content between the three groups was of statistical significance. Conclusion: Under the rigidly-controlled experimental condition, this animal model produces good reproducibility and stable results. Meanwhile, it can simulate the morphology of injury by club and be used to study the mechanism of injury by club in forensic medicine. (authors)

  13. Spasm of the near reflex associated with head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Christopher; Sachdev, Arun; Gottlob, Irene

    2002-03-01

    Spasm of the near reflex is characterized by intermittent miosis, convergence spasm and pseudomyopia with blurred vision at distance. Usually, it is a functional disorder in young patients with underlying emotional problems. Only rarely is it caused by organic disorder. We report a patient who developed convergent spasm associated with miosis after head trauma at the age of 84 years.

  14. Femoral head injuries: Which treatment strategy can be recommended?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henle, Philipp; Kloen, Peter; Siebenrock, Klaus A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite different operative and non-operative treatment regimens, the outcome after femoral head fractures has changed little over the past decades. The initial trauma itself as well as secondary changes such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis or heterotopic ossification is often

  15. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    OpenAIRE

    D. K. Ting; R. J. Brison

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston,...

  16. Seizure Severity Is Correlated With Severity of Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Abusive Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Andra L; Stence, Nicholas V; O'Neill, Brent R; Sillau, Stefan H; Chapman, Kevin E

    2017-12-12

    The objective of this study was to characterize hypoxic-ischemic injury and seizures in abusive head trauma. We performed a retrospective study of 58 children with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury due to abusive head trauma. Continuous electroencephalograms and magnetic resonance images were scored. Electrographic seizures (51.2%) and hypoxic-ischemic injury (77.4%) were common in our cohort. Younger age was associated with electrographic seizures (no seizures: median age 13.5 months, interquartile range five to 25 months, versus seizures: 4.5 months, interquartile range 3 to 9.5 months; P = 0.001). Severity of hypoxic-ischemic injury was also associated with seizures (no seizures: median injury score 1.0, interquartile range 0 to 3, versus seizures: 4.5, interquartile range 3 to 8; P = 0.01), but traumatic injury severity was not associated with seizures (no seizures: mean injury score 3.78 ± 1.68 versus seizures: mean injury score 3.83 ± 0.95, P = 0.89). There was a correlation between hypoxic-ischemic injury severity and seizure burden when controlling for patient age (r s =0.61, P interquartile range 0 to 0.23 on magnetic resonance imaging done within two days versus median restricted diffusion ratio 0.13, interquartile range 0.01 to 0.43 on magnetic resonance imaging done after two days, P = 0.03). Electrographic seizures are common in children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury from abusive head trauma, and therefore children with suspected abusive head trauma should be monitored with continuous electroencephalogram. Severity of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is correlated with severity of seizures, and evidence of hypoxic-ischemic injury on magnetic resonance imaging may evolve over time. Therefore children with a high seizure burden should be reimaged to evaluate for evolving hypoxic-ischemic injury. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A mouse model of weight-drop closed head injury: emphasis on cognitive and neurological deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability in individuals worldwide. Producing a clinically relevant TBI model in small-sized animals remains fairly challenging. For good screening of potential therapeutics, which are effective in the treatment of TBI, animal models of TBI should be established and standardized. In this study, we established mouse models of closed head injury using the Shohami weight-drop method with some modifications concerning cognitive deficiency assessment and provided a detailed description of the severe TBI animal model. We found that 250 g falling weight from 2 cm height produced severe closed head injury in C57BL/6 male mice. Cognitive disorders in mice with severe closed head injury could be detected using passive avoidance test on day 7 after injury. Findings from this study indicate that weight-drop injury animal models are suitable for further screening of brain neuroprotectants and potentially are similar to those seen in human TBI.

  18. Paediatric head injuries in the Kwazulu-Natal Province of South Africa: a developing country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere-Dede, Ebenezer K; Nkalakata, Munyaradzi C; Nkomo, Tshepo; Hadley, G P; Madiba, Thandinkosi E

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the causes, management and outcome of head injuries in paediatric patients admitted to the paediatric surgery unit at King Edward VIII Hospital over a 3-year period, from 1999 to 2001. There were 506 patients (331 male; M:F ratio 2:1) and the mean age was 71.99 +36.8 months (2 weeks to 180 months). The injuries were due to: motor vehicle crashes (324); falls (121); assault (30); inadvertent injury (23); and unknown (11). Forty-nine patients (9%) were admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8. The most common intracranial pathology on computed tomography was: intracranial haematoma/haemorrhage (44); contusion (16); and brain oedema (10). Nineteen patients (3.4%) underwent neurosurgical intervention and the rest were managed conservatively. Eighteen died in hospital (3.6%). The mean hospital stay was 5 ± 12 days. Twenty-three patients (4.5%) were discharged with neurological sequelae. Few paediatric patients are admitted with severe head injury: the majority from blunt injury caused by motor vehicle crashes. Management mainly requires simple neurological observation in a general ward with a surprisingly good prognosis. Specific protocols for paediatric head injuries have been proposed based on these findings.

  19. Risk of maltreatment-related injury: a cross-sectional study of children under five years old admitted to hospital with a head or neck injury or fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Lee

    Full Text Available To determine the predictive value and sensitivity of demographic features and injuries (indicators for maltreatment-related codes in hospital discharge records of children admitted with a head or neck injury or fracture.Population-based, cross sectional study.NHS hospitals in England.Children under five years old admitted acutely to hospital with head or neck injury or fracture.Hospital Episodes Statistics, 1997 to 2009.Maltreatment-related injury admissions, defined by ICD10 codes, were used to calculate for each indicator (demographic feature and/or type of injury: i the predictive value (proportion of injury admissions that were maltreatment-related; ii sensitivity (proportion of all maltreatment-related injury admissions with the indicator.Of 260,294 childhood admissions for fracture or head or neck injury, 3.2% (8,337 were maltreatment-related. With increasing age of the child, the predictive value for maltreatment-related injury declined but sensitivity increased. Half of the maltreatment-related admissions occurred in children older than one year, and 63% occurred in children with head injuries without fractures or intracranial injury.Highly predictive injuries accounted for very few maltreatment-related admissions. Protocols that focus on high-risk injuries may miss the majority of maltreated children.

  20. The scourge of head injury among commercial motorcycle riders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lated deaths and disability worldwide but more so in low and middle ... industry have been received with mixed feelings, resist- ance by operators ... Efforts to promote road safety especial- ly protective gear use ... of human and non-human resources and inadequate .... nity at large. With the right strategies, these injuries can.

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction Among Head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was carried out to investigate the relationship between some stress hormones (i.e. prolactin and cortisol) and ... Twenty-five TBI patients were included in the study consecutively. .... pituitary function. ... overwhelmingly a male gender problem with about ... injury, and may continue for the period of acute critical.

  2. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Concussive Head Injuries in Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez Garcia, David; Otte, Andreas; Glaudemans, Andor WJM; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Gielen, Jan LMA; Zwerver, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Concussions in sports and during recreational activities are a major source of traumatic brain injury in our society. This is mainly relevant in adolescence and young adulthood, where the annual rate of diagnosed concussions is increasing from year to year. Contact sports (e.g., ice hockey, American

  3. Delayed life-threatening subdural hematoma after minor head injury in a patient with severe coagulopathy: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Marc; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Smits, Marion; van de Beek, Diederik

    2009-01-01

    Minor head injury is a frequent cause for neurologic consultation and imaging. Most patients with minor head injury will make an uneventful recovery, but in a very small proportion of these patients life threatening intracranial complications occur. We describe a patient on oral anticoagulation

  4. Delayed life-threatening subdural hematoma after minor head injury in a patient with severe coagulopathy: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Engelen (Marc); P.J. Nederkoorn (Paul); M. Smits (Marion); D. van de Beek (Diederik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMinor head injury is a frequent cause for neurologic consultation and imaging. Most patients with minor head injury will make an uneventful recovery, but in a very small proportion of these patients life threatening intracranial complications occur. We describe a patient on oral

  5. Four cases with localized brain-stem lesion on CT scan following closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Naokatsu; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo; Takase, Manabu; Ono, Junichi.

    1981-01-01

    Cases of primary brain-stem injury following closed head injury, verified by a CT scan, have been increasingly reported. However, most of them have other intracranial lesions in addition to the brain stem, resulting in a poor outcome. The CT scan of 200 cases with severe head injury-Araki's classification of types 3 and 4 - were analysed. Four cases out of them had localized brain-stem lesion without any other significant intracranial injury on a CT scan at the acute stage and had a better outcome than had previously been reported. In this analysis, these 4 cases were studied, and the CT findings, prognosis, and pathogenesis of the localized brain-stem injury were discussed. Follow-up CT of three cases, and taken one month or more later, showed diffuse cortical atrophy. This may indicate the presence of diffuse cerebral injury which could not be seen on CT scans at the acute stage. This atrophic change may also be related with the mechanism of posttraumatic conscious impairment and posttraumatic neurological deficits, such as mental symptoms and impairment of the higher cortical function. Shearing injury is a probable pathogenesis for this diffuse cortical injury. On the other hand, one case did not have any cortical atrophy on a follow-up CT scan. Therefore, this is a case with a localized primary brain-stem injury. Coup injury against the brain stem by a tentorial margin in a case with a small tentorial opening is a possible mechanism producing the localized brain-stem injury. (J.P.N.)

  6. Head and face injuries and helmet use among injured motorcyclists with road accidents in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Dadkhah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to assess the frequency of head and face injuries in motorcyclists who had an accident and to find out the relationship between helmet use and frequency of these injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-stage sampling method provides data on the injured motorcyclists with road accidents. Data came from a registration form which has documented information of each injured person who had a road accident and hospitalized in the biggest hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Al-Zahra. All the registration forms were surveyed for hospitalization period, treatment costs, severity of injury, and date of accident during 2010 (n = 1626. Later, among the list of injured motorcyclists during the last 3 months of the registration form, 125 cases were randomly selected and interviewed by phone regarding occurrence of the head and face injuries and whether wearing helmet during the accident. Confidence intervals (CI, Chi-square, and Phi and Cramer’s correlation coefficient were applied. The ethical approval was provided. RESULTS: Accident by motorcycle was 31.0% of all road accidents. The frequency of motorcycle accidents was higher in the autumn and among 21-25 year olds. The mean period of hospitalization was 4.3 days and the mean of hospital costs was about 9000000 Rials [about 8200 United States dollar (USD, in 2010]. Of motorcyclist, 35.0% reported they were helmeted when they had the accident. The frequency of head and face injuries was 51.0% among all the injured motorcyclists, 22.0% and 78.0% among the helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, respectively (P = 0.009, r = -0.267. CONCLUSION: Motorcycle accidents comprise a large number of road accidents and cause substantial morbidity and financial impact for the community members. Head and face injuries are the most common trauma in motorcyclists, and the injury rate is higher among non-helmeted motorcyclists.

  7. Management of penetrating extraperitoneal rectal injuries: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosarge, Patrick L; Como, John J; Fox, Nicole; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Haut, Elliott R; Dorion, Heath A; Patel, Nimitt J; Rushing, Amy; Raff, Lauren A; McDonald, Amy A; Robinson, Bryce R H; McGwin, Gerald; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2016-03-01

    The management of penetrating rectal trauma invokes a complex decision tree that advocates the principles of proximal diversion (diversion) of the fecal stream, irrigation of stool from the distal rectum, and presacral drainage based on data from World War II and the Vietnam War. This guideline seeks to define the initial operative management principles for nondestructive extraperitoneal rectal injuries. A systematic review of the MEDLINE database using PubMed was performed. The search retrieved English language articles regarding penetrating rectal trauma from January 1900 to July 2014. Letters to the editor, case reports, book chapters, and review articles were excluded. Topics of investigation included the management principles of diversion, irrigation of stool from the distal rectum, and presacral drainage using the GRADE methodology. A total of 306 articles were screened leading to a full-text review of 56 articles. Eighteen articles were used to formulate the recommendations of this guideline. This guideline consists of three conditional evidence-based recommendations. First, we conditionally recommend proximal diversion for management of these injuries. Second, we conditionally recommend the avoidance of routine presacral drains and distal rectal washout in the management of these injuries.

  8. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel: the head injury that may have prolonged the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Heather A; Mullin, Jeffrey P; Sloffer, Chris A

    2016-07-01

    War-related head injury, indeed neurological injury in general, has been a part of the history of humankind for as long as there has been warfare. Such injuries can result in the removal of the individual from combat, thus eliminating any subsequent contribution that he or she might have made to the battle. However, at times, the injuries can have more wide-reaching effects. In the case of commanders or leaders, the impact of their injuries may include the loss of their influence, planning, and leadership, and thus have a disproportionate effect on the battle, or indeed the war. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was a talented military strategist and leader who was respected by friends and foes alike. He held an honored reputation by the German people and the military leadership. His head injury on July 17, 1944, resulted in his being removed from the field of battle in northern France, but also meant that he was not able to lend his stature to the assassination attempt of Adolph Hitler on July 20. It is possible that, had he been able to lend his stature to the events, Hitler's hold on the nation's government might have been loosened, and the war might have been brought to an end a year earlier. The authors review Rommel's career, his injury, the subsequent medical treatment, and his subsequent death.

  9. A new objective method for CT triage after minor head injury--serum S100B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Rommer, Bertil Roland

    2009-01-01

    The risk of acute intracranial complication after minor head injury (MHI) is low. Despite this, a computed tomography (CT) scan is generally recommended for all patients following MHI. Admission for clinical observation is a secondary management option when a CT scan is unavailable or is judged i...

  10. HYPERTRANSLATION OF THE HEAD BACKWARDS - PART OF THE MECHANISM OF CERVICAL WHIPLASH INJURY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENNING, L

    Based upon a review of the literature, a theory is developed that in whiplash injury the primary mechanism of the trauma is not hyperretroflexion but hypertranslation of the head backwards. Thus a hyperanteflexion (not hyperretroflexion) of the upper cervical spine, probably especially of the

  11. Divided attention years after severe closed head injury : The effect of dependencies between the subtasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, W; Verzendaal, M; van der Naalt, J; Smit, J; van Zomeren, E

    2001-01-01

    Lesions of white matter which connects distant brain areas are characteristic for closed head injury (CHI). It was predicted that this impairs divided attention only if dependent subtasks are used which require communication between corresponding brain processes. Fourteen chronic severe CHI patients

  12. Prognosis of head injury. In relation to age, CT findings and the GCS on admission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Kamei, Ichiro; Ooiwa, Yoshitsugu; Hyotani, Genhachi; Yabumoto, Michio; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi [Japanese Red Cross Society, Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Medical Center; Kakishita, Koji; Inui, Yoshiro

    1996-02-01

    We have carried out a retrospective study of head injury patients to determine the factors that predict their outcomes. The subjects consisted of 74 head injury patients (Glasgow Coma Scale: 3-12) treated at our hospital from January, 1989 to March, 1994. Age, CT findings and the GCS on admission were investigated as outcome-predicting factors. CT findings were classified according to the TCDB (Traumatic Coma Data Bank) and the outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the head injury. In our study, the factors indicated favorable outcomes were as follows; age younger than 50 years old, GCS higher than 6, appearance of the basal cisterns on CT scan, existence of removable acute epidural hematoma. In contrast, the factors that indicated unfavorable outcomes were as follows; disappearance of the basal cisterns on CT scan, existence of apparent acute subdural hematoma and/or intracranial hematoma associated with cerebral contusion. Based on these findings, we can more accurately estimate the prognosis of head injury. (author)

  13. Clinical Utility of '99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT Findings in Chronic Head Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin ll; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon; Kim, Young Soo

    1992-01-01

    Minima deterioration of cerebral perfusion or microanatomical changes were undetectable on conventional Brain CT or MRI. So evaluation of focal functional changes of the brain parenchyme is essential in chronic head injury patients, who did not show focal anatomical changes on these radiological studies. However, the patients who had longstanding neurologic sequelae following head injury, there had been no available imaging modalities for evaluating these patients precisely. Therefore we tried to detect the focal functional changes on the brain parenchyme using 99m Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT on the patients of chronic head injuries. Twenty three patients who had suffered from headache, memory dysfunction, personality change and insomnia lasting more than six months following head injury were included in our cases, which showed no anatomical abnormalities on Brain CT or MRI. At first they underwent psychological test whether the symptoms were organic or not. Also we were able to evaluate the cerebral perfusion changes with 99m Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in 22 patients among the 23, which five patients were focal and 17 patients were nonfocally diffuse perfusion changes. Thus we can predict the perfusion changes such as local vascular deterioration or functional defects using 99m Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in the patients who had suffered from post-traumatic sequelae, which changes were undetectable on Brain CT or MRI.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of serum creatine kinase BB as index of brain damage after head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P; Jones, H M; Hitchcock, R; Adams, N; Thompson, R J [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)

    1980-09-20

    Brain-type creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 54 patients with head injuries. CK-BB was not detectable in 476 out of 1006 controls, the remaining 530 normal samples containing a mean of 1.5 +- SDO.75 ..mu..g/l. The mean CK-BB concentrations in patients with mild, moderate, and fatal head injuries were all significantly higher than the control value (p<0.01 in each instance). Patients with serious head injury had serum concentrations many times the normal value, in two cases within 30 minutes after impact. Fatally injured patients continued to have high serum concentrations several days after injury. In less serious cases values approached normal within two or three days. Every patient with evidence of cerebral laceration, bruising, or swelling had a serum CK-BB concentration above normal. Raised concentrations were found in 14 out of 22 patients with concussion only. Thus the serum CK-BB concentration appears to be a sensitive index of brain damage and may prove useful in the management and follow-up of head-injured patients.

  15. pattern of referrals of head injury to the university college hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. In the developing countries, also known as low-middle income countries (LMIC), head injury (HI) constitutes a sizeable proportion of the clinical caseloads of most neurosurgical units.1-3 The optimal care of many cases of HI, especially the severe ones, is time bound. The time was put at 4 hours for ...

  16. Radioimmunoassay of serum creatine kinase BB as index of brain damage after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.P.; Jones, H.M.; Hitchcock, R.; Adams, N.; Thompson, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Brain-type creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 54 patients with head injuries. CK-BB was not detectable in 476 out of 1006 controls, the remaining 530 normal samples containing a mean of 1.5 +- SDO.75 μg/l. The mean CK-BB concentrations in patients with mild, moderate, and fatal head injuries were all significantly higher than the control value (p<0.01 in each instance). Patients with serious head injury had serum concentrations many times the normal value, in two cases within 30 minutes after impact. Fatally injured patients continued to have high serum concentrations several days after injury. In less serious cases values approached normal within two or three days. Every patient with evidence of cerebral laceration, bruising, or swelling had a serum CK-BB concentration above normal. Raised concentrations were found in 14 out of 22 patients with concussion only. Thus the serum CK-BB concentration appears to be a sensitive index of brain damage and may prove useful in the management and follow-up of head-injured patients. (author)

  17. Proposed diagnosis criteria for inflicted head injury of children younger than two years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Aritaki, Kentarou; Yotani, Nobuyuki; Miyasaka, Mikiko; Nishina, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish whether children's head injuries are due to physical abuse or unintentional accidents. However, in the literature, medical findings specific to infant physical abuse were identified. Thus, we developed diagnostic criteria for inflicted head injury (IHI) and assessed its validity. Subjects were collected from all patients who were less than two years old when they visited National Center for Child Health (NCCHD) and Development and underwent head CT scan to assess head trauma from March 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005. Diagnostic criteria for IHI were developed based on definitions of Duhaime et al (1992) and Reece et al (2001). Validity of diagnosis criteria was assessed by comparing the official report to the Child Guidance Center (CGC) from NCCHD to the disposition decided by the CGC. Two-hundred and sixty cases were collected and diagnosed. There was a 86.5% match of the number of cases which were diagnosed as IHI or non-IHI using the IHI diagnostic criteria with official reports to CGC from NCCHD. Among the cases which were diagnosed as presumptive IHI and also reported to the CGC, 20 cases (83.3%) were regarded as abused cases by the CGC. The diagnostic criteria for IHI were valid and would be useful for pediatricians not to condone inflicted head injury. (author)

  18. Fatal head injury: a sequelae to electric shock - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanth, S H; Hugar, Basappa S; Chandra, Y P Girish; Krishnan, A Gokula

    2015-03-01

    Deaths due to electric shock are increasing despite stringent laws and preventive measures. These shocks are a leading cause of death amongst construction workers. In about 20% of the cases, no visible injury due to electricity can be seen. In some cases, non-electrical injuries are present and at times there are no eyewitnesses to provide a detailed account of events. In such circumstances, examination of scene of death, autopsy and accident reconstruction with the help of an electrical expert are all necessary to determine the cause of death. Here, we report one such case where a mason working on the second floor of a building under construction sustained an electrical injury, following which he was thrown to the ground sustaining a fatal traumatic injury. After careful consideration, his death was attributed to the head injury. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Incidence and severity of head and neck injuries in victims of road traffic crashes: In an economically developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Rahman, Yassir S Abdul; Mitra, Biswadev

    2009-01-01

    Head and neck injuries following the road traffic crashes (RTCs) are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed and developing countries and may also result in temporary or permanent disability. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence pattern of head and neck injuries, investigate its trend and identify the severity of injuries involved with road traffic crashes (RTCs) during the period 2001-2006. This is a retrospective descriptive hospital based study. The patients with head and neck injuries were seen and treated in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Hamad General Hospital and other Trauma Centers of the Hamad Medical Corporation following the road traffic crashes during the period 2001-2006. This study is a retrospective analysis of 6709 patients attended and treated at the Accident and Emergency and Trauma centers for head and neck injuries over a 6 year period. Head and neck injuries were determined according to the ICD 10 criteria. Of these, 3013 drivers, 2502 passengers, 704 pedestrians and 490 two wheel riders (motor bike and cyclists). Details of all the road traffic crash patients were compiled in the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and the data of patients with head and neck injuries were extracted from this database. A total of 6709 patients with head and neck injuries was reported during the study period. Majority of the victims were non-Qataris (68.7%), men (85.9%) and in the age group 20-44 years (68.5%). There were statistical significant differences in relation to age, nationality, gender, and accident during week ends for head and neck injuries (pQatar from road traffic crashes. The incidence of head and neck injuries is still very high in Qatar, but the severity of injury was mild in most of the victims. The findings of the study highlighted the need for taking urgent steps for safety of people especially drivers and passengers.

  20. A heuristic approach and heretic view on the technical issues and pitfalls in the management of penetrating abdominal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tugba H; Ndofor, Brown C; Smith, Martin D; Degiannis, Elias

    2010-07-14

    There is a general decline in penetrating abdominal trauma throughout the western world. As a result of that, there is a significant loss of expertise in dealing with this type of injury particularly when the patient presents to theatre with physiological instability. A significant percentage of these patients will not be operated by a trauma surgeon but, by the "occasional trauma surgeon", who is usually trained as a general surgeon. Most general surgeons have a general knowledge of operating penetrating trauma, knowledge originating from their training years and possibly enhanced by reading operative surgery textbooks. Unfortunately, the details included in most of these books are not extensive enough to provide them with enough armamentaria to tackle the difficult case. In this scenario, their operative dexterity and knowledge cannot be compared to that of their trauma surgeon colleagues, something that is taken for granted in the trauma textbooks. Techniques that are considered basic and easy by the trauma surgeons can be unfamiliar and difficult to general surgeons. Knowing the danger points and pitfalls that will be encountered in penetrating trauma to the abdomen, will help the occasional trauma surgeons to avoid intraoperative errors and improve patient care. This manuscript provides a heuristic approach from surgeons working in a high volume penetrating trauma centers in South African. Some of the statements could be considered heretic by the "accepted" trauma literature. We believe that this heuristic ("rule of thumb" approach, that originating from "try and error" experience) can help surgical trainees or less experienced in penetrating trauma surgeons to improve their surgical decision making and technique, resulting in better patient outcome.

  1. A heuristic approach and heretic view on the technical issues and pitfalls in the management of penetrating abdominal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Martin D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a general decline in penetrating abdominal trauma throughout the western world. As a result of that, there is a significant loss of expertise in dealing with this type of injury particularly when the patient presents to theatre with physiological instability. A significant percentage of these patients will not be operated by a trauma surgeon but, by the "occasional trauma surgeon", who is usually trained as a general surgeon. Most general surgeons have a general knowledge of operating penetrating trauma, knowledge originating from their training years and possibly enhanced by reading operative surgery textbooks. Unfortunately, the details included in most of these books are not extensive enough to provide them with enough armamentaria to tackle the difficult case. In this scenario, their operative dexterity and knowledge cannot be compared to that of their trauma surgeon colleagues, something that is taken for granted in the trauma textbooks. Techniques that are considered basic and easy by the trauma surgeons can be unfamiliar and difficult to general surgeons. Knowing the danger points and pitfalls that will be encountered in penetrating trauma to the abdomen, will help the occasional trauma surgeons to avoid intraoperative errors and improve patient care. This manuscript provides a heuristic approach from surgeons working in a high volume penetrating trauma centers in South African. Some of the statements could be considered heretic by the "accepted" trauma literature. We believe that this heuristic ("rule of thumb" approach, that originating from "try and error" experience can help surgical trainees or less experienced in penetrating trauma surgeons to improve their surgical decision making and technique, resulting in better patient outcome.

  2. Experience on treatment of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Heng; Feng Dongxia; Ma Yuanpin; Chen Jinqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic principle for the management of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage. Method: the clinical data of treatment and prognosis from 24 patients, in which 15 received operative and 9 conservative measures were collected and analyzed. Results: In 15 operated cases, the vision of 10 cases including one with blindness before operation was improved obviously, while those of other 5 did not get any improvement. In 9 conservatively treated cases, the vision was improved in 4 cases, deteriorated in 4 case and no change in 1 case with blindness after injury. Conclusion: One the optic nerve damage has been manifested by clinical or radiological evidences in acute head injury patients, despite it was primary or secondary reason, surgical optic nerve bone canal decompression should be done as soon as possible

  3. Influence of prayer and prayer habits on outcome in patients with severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannemreddy, Prasad; Bryan, Kris; Nanda, Anil

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of prayers on the recovery of the unconscious patients admitted after traumatic brain injury. A retrospective study of patients with severe head injury was conducted. The Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were examined along with age, gender, smoking, and alcohol intake. There were 13 patients who received prayer and 13 who did not receive prayer during the hospital stay with almost identical mean Glasgow Coma Scale score. The prayer group stayed in the hospital for more days (P = .03). On multivariate analysis, patients' age (P = .01), admission Glasgow Coma Scale score (P = .009), and prayer habits (P = .007) were significant factors. Patients with prayers habits recovered better following severe head injury. The role of intercessory prayer needs further studies in larger groups.

  4. Head Injury in the Elderly: What Are the Outcomes of Neurosurgical Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Kathrin Joanna; Jeyaretna, Deva Sanjeeva; Enki, Doyo Gragn; Whitfield, Peter C

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies show that an increasing proportion of those presenting with head trauma are elderly. This study details the outcomes of elderly patients with head trauma admitted to a regional United Kingdom neurosurgical unit. The notes and imaging were reviewed of all patients with head injury aged ≥75 years, admitted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2010, including mortality data up to at least 2 years after discharge. Outcomes comprised death as an inpatient, by 30 days and 1 year after discharge; Glasgow Outcome Score; discharge Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score; recurrence; readmission; reoperation; and complication. A total of 263 patients were admitted: 26 with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH); 175 with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH); and 46 with mixed subdural collections (ACSDH). Sixteen patients had other head injury diagnoses. Patients with ASDH had a significantly lower survival rate than did those with CSDH or ACSDH: the odds of inpatient death for patients with ASDH was 15.38 (vs. those with CSDH). For all subdural hematomas (SDHs), low American Society of Anesthesiologists score was an independent predictor of early death. Death at 1 year was predicted by head injury severity measured by admission GCS score (P = 0.028), long anesthetic (P = 0.002), and the presence of bilateral SDH (P = 0.002). Unfavorable Glasgow Outcome Scale score (1-3) was predicted by age greater than 85 years (P = 0.029); larger depth of subdural (P neurosurgery after head injury have SDHs. Our results are better than many previously reported; however, the rate of death for those with ASDH is still high. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Are Men With a History of Head Injury Less Responsive to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Intimate Partner Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerele, Felicia A; Murphy, Christopher M; Williams, Megan R

    2017-06-01

    Head injury is highly prevalent among intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders. This study investigates responsiveness to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for partnerviolent men with and without a history of head injury using archival data on 310 males seeking IPV counseling at a community domestic violence agency. Participants reported on their history of head injury, age at injury, and length of time unconscious in a structured interview at program intake. Criminal justice outcomes were assessed for the 2-year period after scheduled completion of treatment using a publicly available state database. A significantly greater percentage of men with a history of head injury (N = 84) than those without (N = 226) had criminal involvement for incidents of partner abuse during the follow-up period. In addition, men with a history of moderate-to-severe head injury (n = 25) had more criminal involvement for general violence than those with no history of head injury. The findings highlight the need to screen partner-violent men for head injury and to develop and investigate intervention enhancements for those individuals.

  6. Understanding Edward Muybridge: historical review of behavioral alterations after a 19th-century head injury and their multifactorial influence on human life and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro

    2015-07-01

    Edward Muybridge was an Anglo-American photographer, well known for his pioneering contributions in photography and his invention of the "zoopraxiscope," a forerunner of motion pictures. However, this 19th-century genius, with two original patents in photographic technology, made outstanding contributions in art and neurology alike, the latter being seldom acknowledged. A head injury that he sustained changed his behavior and artistic expression. The shift of his interests from animal motion photography to human locomotion and gait remains a pivotal milestone in our understanding of patterns in biomechanics and clinical neurology, while his own behavioral patterns, owing to an injury to the orbitofrontal cortex, remain a mystery even for cognitive neurologists. The behavioral changes he exhibited and the legal conundrum that followed, including a murder of which he was acquitted, all depict the complexities of his personality and impact of frontal lobe injuries. This article highlights the life journey of Muybridge, drawing parallels with Phineas Gage, whose penetrating head injury has been studied widely. The wide sojourn of Muybridge also illustrates the strong connections that he maintained with Stanford and Pennsylvania universities, which were later considered pinnacles of higher education on the two coasts of the United States.

  7. Study of cerebral circulation for patients with head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Mitsuru; Aoki, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Yoshitaka; Haga, Daisuke; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Machida, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury is widely known to cause a dynamic cerebral blood flow (CBF). Especially, decrease of CBF has been reported. In the present study we measured the CBF, the mean transit time (MTT) and the cerebral blood volume (CBV). Our purpose was to investigate the possibility to estimate the outcome with use of these physiological parameters, and the relationship between the clinical condition of the patients and these parameters. In 24 patients with traumatic brain injury, Xe-CT and Perfusion CT were performed at the same time in the phase II (Day 1-3). We measured CBF by using Xe-CT and MTT by using Perfusion CT and calculated CBV by using AZ-7000W98 computer system. We evaluated the relationship between these values and outcome, grading on admission and discussed the usefulness of deciding on courses of treatment. The results were correlated with the outcome and values of CBF and MTT. Significant differences in CBF and MTT were found between favorable outcome group (good recovery (GR) and moderate disability (MD)) and poor outcome group (severe disability (SD), vegetative state (VS) and dead (D)). We could estimate the outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by analyzing values of CBF and MTT. The probability was 78%. (authors)

  8. Unilateral hypoxic-ischemic injury in young children from abusive head trauma, lacking craniocervical vascular dissection or cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Alexander M.; Thompson, Linda R.; Truwit, Charles L.; Velders, Scott; Karagulle, Ayse; Kiragu, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) in young children usually has a severe outcome when associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), which is best characterized by MRI in the acute or subacute phase utilizing diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). HIE in this setting has been hypothesized to result from stretching of the spinal cord, brainstem, or vasculature. To provide clinical correlation in patients with unilateral HIE and to postulate a mechanism in the setting of suspected AHT. IRB approval was obtained. Over a 5-year period, the medical records and images were reviewed of the 53 children ≤3 years of age who presented with acute head trauma according to the hospital registry. The children were subselected in order to determine how many suffered either HIE or AHT, and to detect those with unilateral HIE. In 11 of the 53 children, the etiology of the head trauma was highly suspicious for abuse. In 38 the head trauma was accidental and in 4 the trauma was of unknown etiology and at the time of this report was unresolved legally. Of the 53, 4 suffered HIE confirmed by CT or MRI. In three of these four with HIE the trauma was considered highly suspicious for AHT. Two of these three were the only patients with unilateral HIE, and both (7 months and 14 months of age) presented with early subacute phase HIE seen on DW MRI (range 4-7 days) and are described in detail with clinical correlation. The third child with AHT and HIE had bilateral findings. In the fourth patient the HIE was bilateral and was considered accidental. The work-up for both patients with unilateral HIE included head CT, craniocervical MRI, and craniocervical MR angiography (MRA). In both, there was mostly unilateral, deep white matter restricted diffusion, with subdural hematomas that were small compared to the extent of hypoxic-ischemic insult, and no skull fracture. Craniocervical MRA and axial thin-section fat-saturation images were negative for dissection, brainstem, or cord injury. Legal

  9. Unilateral hypoxic-ischemic injury in young children from abusive head trauma, lacking craniocervical vascular dissection or cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Alexander M.; Thompson, Linda R.; Truwit, Charles L.; Velders, Scott; Karagulle, Ayse; Kiragu, Andrew [University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) in young children usually has a severe outcome when associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), which is best characterized by MRI in the acute or subacute phase utilizing diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). HIE in this setting has been hypothesized to result from stretching of the spinal cord, brainstem, or vasculature. To provide clinical correlation in patients with unilateral HIE and to postulate a mechanism in the setting of suspected AHT. IRB approval was obtained. Over a 5-year period, the medical records and images were reviewed of the 53 children {<=}3 years of age who presented with acute head trauma according to the hospital registry. The children were subselected in order to determine how many suffered either HIE or AHT, and to detect those with unilateral HIE. In 11 of the 53 children, the etiology of the head trauma was highly suspicious for abuse. In 38 the head trauma was accidental and in 4 the trauma was of unknown etiology and at the time of this report was unresolved legally. Of the 53, 4 suffered HIE confirmed by CT or MRI. In three of these four with HIE the trauma was considered highly suspicious for AHT. Two of these three were the only patients with unilateral HIE, and both (7 months and 14 months of age) presented with early subacute phase HIE seen on DW MRI (range 4-7 days) and are described in detail with clinical correlation. The third child with AHT and HIE had bilateral findings. In the fourth patient the HIE was bilateral and was considered accidental. The work-up for both patients with unilateral HIE included head CT, craniocervical MRI, and craniocervical MR angiography (MRA). In both, there was mostly unilateral, deep white matter restricted diffusion, with subdural hematomas that were small compared to the extent of hypoxic-ischemic insult, and no skull fracture. Craniocervical MRA and axial thin-section fat-saturation images were negative for dissection, brainstem, or cord injury. Legal

  10. Emergency department thoracotomy for penetrating injuries of the heart and great vessels: an appraisal of 283 consecutive cases from two urban trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, Mark J; Shiroff, Adam M; Franco, Michael; Stawicki, S Peter; Molina, Ezequiel J; Gaughan, John P; Reilly, Patrick M; Schwab, C William; Pryor, John P; Goldberg, Amy J

    2009-12-01

    Historically, patients with penetrating cardiac injuries have enjoyed the best survival after emergency department thoracotomy (EDT), but further examination of these series reveals a preponderance of cardiac stab wound (SW) survivors with only sporadic cardiac gunshot wound (GSW) survivors. Our primary study objective was to determine which patients requiring EDT for penetrating cardiac or great vessel (CGV) injury are salvageable. All patients who underwent EDT for penetrating CGV injuries in two urban, level I trauma centers during 2000 to 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, injury (mechanism, anatomic injury), prehospital care, and physiology (signs of life [SOL], vital signs, and cardiac rhythm) were analyzed with respect to hospital survival. The study population (n = 283) comprised young (mean age, 27.1 years +/- 10.1 years) men (96.1%) injured by gunshot (GSW, 88.3%) or SWs (11.7%). Patients were compared by injury mechanism and number of CGV wounds with respect to survival (SW, 24.2%; GSW, 2.8%; p cumulative impact of penetrating injury mechanism, ED SOL, and number of CGV wounds was analyzed together, we established that those sustaining multiple CGV GSWs (regardless of ED SOL) were nearly unsalvageable. These results indicate that when multiple CGV GSWs are encountered after EDT, further resuscitative efforts may be terminated without limiting the opportunity for survival.

  11. Head injuries presenting to emergency departments in the United States from 1990 to 1999 for ice hockey, soccer, and football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J Scott

    2004-03-01

    To examine the number and rates of head injuries occurring in the community as a whole for the team sports of ice hockey, soccer, and football by analyzing data from patients presenting to US emergency departments (EDs) from 1990 to 1999. Retrospective analysis. Data compiled for the US Consumer Product Safety Commission using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were used to generate estimates for the total number of head injuries, concussions, internal head injuries, and skull fractures occurring on a national level from the years 1990 to 1999. These data were combined with yearly participation figures to generate rates of injuries presenting to the ED for each sport. There were an estimated 17,008 head injuries from ice hockey, 86,697 from soccer, and 204,802 from football that presented to US EDs from 1990 to 1999. The total number of concussions presenting to EDs in the United States over the same period was estimated to be 4820 from ice hockey, 21,715 from soccer, and 68,861 from football. While the rates of head injuries, concussions, and combined concussions/internal head injuries/skull fractures presenting to EDs per 10,000 players were not always statistically similar for all 3 sports in each year data were available, they were usually comparable. While the total numbers of head injuries, concussions, and combined concussions/skull fractures/internal head injuries presenting to EDs in the United States are different for ice hockey, soccer, and football for the years studied, the yearly rates for these injuries are comparable among all 3 sports.

  12. Traumatismos raquimedulares penetrantes em adolescentes Traumatismos raquimedulares penetrantes en adolescentes Penetrating spinal cord injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Campos Moraes Amato

    2009-09-01

    ó entre cirugía o tratamiento conservador. RESULTADOS: el promedio de edad fue de 16 años (13 a 18 años. La media de hospitalización inicial fue de 11 días (4 a 180 días. Cuatro pacientes fueron sometidos al tratamiento conservador. Solo un paciente sometido a laminectomía migró para Frankel E. Ningún paciente presentó infección de la herida o inestabilidad tardía de la columna vertebral. CONCLUSIÓN: las lesiones medulares secundarias desempeñan poca importancia en el resultado neurológico, lo cual lleva a la definición clínica del cuadro en la admisión hospitalar de la mayoría de los casos. Hubo una nítida predominancia de TRMp en adolescentes del sexo masculino. No ocurrió diferencia significativa entre las conductas realizadas en relación al resultado neurológico, infección e inestabilidad. El tratamiento debe ser individualizado, sin negligencia en el tratamiento clínico y considerando la cirugía sólo para casos específicos.OBJECTIVE: to analyze the management of a series of adolescents with penetrating spinal cord injuries (pSCI and comparing to literature, provide the best therapeutic strategy to these patients. METHODS: retrospective evaluation of medical reports of ten consecutive cases of pSCI, nine from the male sex and one from the female. All the patients were under 18 years old. The clinical history, neurologic evaluation and the images exams were analyzed. The therapeutic management varied between surgery and conservative. RESULTS: the average age was 16 years old (form 13 to 18 years. The median time spent at the first hospitalization was 11 days (from 4 to 180 days. Four patients were submitted to laminectomy, one to wound debridement and five to conservative treatment. Only one patient submitted to laminectomy had neurological improvement. No patients presented in this series showed, in the follow-up, wound infection or spinal instability. CONCLUSION: secondary spinal cord injuries are less relevant to the neurological status

  13. Selective Nonoperative Management of Penetrating Torso Injury From Combat Fragmentation Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    outlines the paradigm of care: “Penetrating inju- ries below the nipples , above the symphysis pubis, and between the posterior axillary lines must be...abdo- men and were hemodynamically stable and without abdom- inal pain or tenderness. CT scan of some of these casualties revealed fragments in the lumen

  14. Accuracy of conventional imaging of penetrating torso injuries in the trauma resuscitation room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S.E. Varin (Dorien); A.N. Ringburg (Akkie); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); P. Patka (Peter); I.B. Schipper (Inger)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractChest X-ray (CXR), abdominal ultrasound, cardiac ultrasound, and abdominal X-ray are the most frequently used imaging modalities to radiologically evaluate patients with penetrating torso trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of these imaging modalities. From January

  15. Attention to affective pictures in closed head injury: event-related brain potentials and cardiac responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Reinvang, Ivar; Svebak, Sven; Nielsen, Christopher S; Sundet, Kjetil

    2005-02-01

    We examined whether closed head injury patients show altered patterns of selective attention to stimulus categories that naturally evoke differential responses in healthy people. Self-reported rating and electrophysiological (event-related potentials [ERPs], heart rate [HR]) responses to affective pictures were studied in patients with mild head injury (n = 20; CT/MRI negative), in patients with predominantly frontal brain lesions (n = 12; CT/MRI confirmed), and in healthy controls (n = 20). Affective valence similarly modulated HR and ERP responses in all groups, but group differences occurred that were independent of picture valence. The attenuation of P3-slow wave amplitudes in the mild head injury group indicates a reduction in the engagement of attentional resources to the task. In contrast, the general enhancement of ERP amplitudes at occipital sites in the group with primarily frontal brain injury may reflect disinhibition of input at sensory receptive areas, possibly due to a deficit in top-down modulation performed by anterior control systems.

  16. Role of skull radiography in the initial evaluation of minor head injury: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murshid, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The use of skull radiography in the initial evaluation of minor head injured patients is controversial. In an attempt to evaluate its benefits, a retrospective study of 566 cases subjected to skull radiography following close minor head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale 13-15), is presented. A skull fracture (linear vault, depressed or base of skull) was present in 64 (11%) cases. Only three (5%) who were found to have a skull fracture on skull radiography developed an intracranial injury which required surgery. Intracranial injuries developed in 19 (3%) cases and were followed by surgery in six (32%). All, except for one case, had a decreased level of consciousness and a Glasgow Coma Scale less than 15, few had focal neurological deficits. Management had not been altered by the results of skull radiography in any of the cases. We concluded that skull radiographs are unnecessary for the decision process in closed minor head injury because management decisions are based primarily on a careful neurological examination. When intracranial injuries are a concern, a CT scan should be obtained. (author)

  17. The CRASH trial protocol (Corticosteroid randomisation after significant head injury [ISRCTN74459797

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, millions of people are treated each year for significant head injury. A substantial proportion die, and many more are disabled. If short term corticosteroid infusion could be reliably shown to reduce these risks by just a few percent then this might affect the treatment of a few hundred thousand patients a year, protecting thousands from death or long term disability. Study design CRASH is a large simple, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of a 48-hour infusion of corticosteroids on death and on neurological disability, among adults with head injury and some impairment of consciousness. Head injured patients with impaired consciousness who are judged to be 16 years or older are eligible if the responsible doctor is, for any reason, substantially uncertain whether or not to use corticosteroids. Organisation The CRASH trial will determine reliably the effects on death and disability of a short corticosteroid infusion following significant head injury. To detect or refute improvements of only a few percent in outcome, many thousands of acute head injury patients must be randomised between control and steroid infusions. Such large numbers will be possible only if hundreds of doctors and nurses can collaborate in the participating emergency departments. Since they are busy, and working in emergency situations, the trial involves them in almost no extra work: no special investigations or changes to usual management are required, and data collection is absolutely minimal. The trial is on-going and new collaborators are welcome. Further information about the trial is available at http://www.crash.lshtm.ac.uk

  18. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05. From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4% reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%, males (73.7%, and motorcyclists (51.3%. More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3% located in the head (20.7% and face (21.6%. Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870 and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061, while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954. Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions.

  19. Paediatric mild head injury: is routine admission to a tertiary trauma hospital necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallapragada, Krishna; Peddada, Ratna Soundarya; Dexter, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that children with isolated linear skull fractures have excellent clinical outcomes and low risk of surgery. We wish to identify other injury patterns within the spectrum of paediatric mild head injury, which need only conservative management. Children with low risk of evolving neurosurgical lesions could be safely managed in primary hospitals. We retrospectively analysed all children with mild head injury (i.e. admission Glasgow coma score 13-15) and skull fracture or haematoma on a head computed tomography scan admitted to Westmead Children's Hospital, Sydney over the years 2009-2014. Data were collected regarding demographics, clinical findings, mechanism of injury, head computed tomography scan findings, neurosurgical intervention, outcome and length of admission. Wilcoxon paired test was used with P value <0.05 considered significant. Four hundred and ten children were analysed. Three hundred and eighty-one (93%) children were managed conservatively, 18 (4%) underwent evacuation of extradural haematoma (TBI surgery) and 11 (3%) needed fracture repair surgery. Two children evolved a surgical lesion 24 h post-admission. Only 17 of 214 children transferred from peripheral hospitals needed neurosurgery. Overall outcomes: zero deaths, one needed brain injury rehabilitation and 63 needed child protection unit intervention. Seventy-five percentage of children with non-surgical lesions were discharged within 2 days. Eighty-three percentage of road transfers were discharged within 3 days. Children with small intracranial haematomas and/or skull fractures who need no surgery only require brief inpatient symptomatic treatment and could be safely managed in primary hospitals. Improved tertiary hospital transfer guidelines with protocols to manage clinical deterioration could have cost benefit without risking patient safety. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Head and neck control varies with perturbation acceleration but not jerk: implications for whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2009-04-15

    Recent studies have proposed that a high rate of acceleration onset, i.e. high jerk, during a low-speed vehicle collision increases the risk of whiplash injury by triggering inappropriate muscle responses and/or increasing peak head acceleration. Our goal was to test these proposed mechanisms at realistic jerk levels and then to determine how collision jerk affects the potential for whiplash injuries. Twenty-three seated volunteers (8 F, 15 M) were exposed to multiple experiments involving perturbations simulating the onset of a vehicle collision in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In the first experiment, subjects experienced five forward and five rearward perturbations to look for the inappropriate muscle responses and 'floppy' head kinematics previously attributed to high jerk perturbations. In the second experiment, we independently varied the jerk ( approximately 125 to 3 000 m s(-3)) and acceleration ( approximately 0.65 to 2.6 g) of the perturbation to assess their effect on the electromyographic (EMG) responses of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), scalene (SCAL) and cervical paraspinal (PARA) muscles and the kinematic responses of the head and neck. In the first experiment, we found neither inappropriate muscle responses nor floppy head kinematics when subjects had their eyes open, but observed two subjects with floppy head kinematics with eyes closed. In the second experiment, we found that about 70% of the variations in the SCM and SCAL responses and about 95% of the variations in head/neck kinematics were explained by changes in perturbation acceleration in both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Less than 2% of the variation in the muscle and kinematic responses was explained by changes in perturbation jerk and, where significant, response amplitudes diminished with increasing jerk. Based on these findings, collision jerk appears to have little or no role in the genesis of whiplash injuries in low-speed vehicle crashes.

  1. The Current State of Head and Neck Injuries in Extreme Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinay K.; Rango, Juan; Connaughton, Alexander J.; Lombardo, Daniel J.; Sabesan, Vani J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since their conception during the mid-1970s, international participation in extreme sports has grown rapidly. The recent death of extreme snowmobiler Caleb Moore at the 2013 Winter X Games has demonstrated the serious risks associated with these sports. Purpose: To examine the incidence and prevalence of head and neck injuries (HNIs) in extreme sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was used to acquire data from 7 sports (2000-2011) that were included in the Winter and Summer X Games. Data from the NEISS database were collected for each individual sport per year and type of HNI. Cumulative data for overall incidence and injuries over the entire 11-year period were calculated. National estimates were determined using NEISS-weighted calculations. Incidence rates were calculated for extreme sports using data from Outdoor Foundation Participation Reports. Results: Over 4 million injuries were reported between 2000 and 2011, of which 11.3% were HNIs. Of all HNIs, 83% were head injuries and 17% neck injuries. The 4 sports with the highest total incidence of HNI were skateboarding (129,600), snowboarding (97,527), skiing (83,313), and motocross (78,236). Severe HNI (cervical or skull fracture) accounted for 2.5% of extreme sports HNIs. Of these, skateboarding had the highest percentage of severe HNIs. Conclusion: The number of serious injuries suffered in extreme sports has increased as participation in the sports continues to grow. A greater awareness of the dangers associated with these sports offers an opportunity for sports medicine and orthopaedic physicians to advocate for safer equipment, improved on-site medical care, and further research regarding extreme sports injuries. PMID:26535369

  2. Penetrating abdomino-thoracic injuries: report of four impressive, spectacular and representative cases as well as their challenging surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Frank; Meyer, Frank; Huth, Christof; Halloul, Zuhir; Lippert, Hans

    2011-03-01

    Gunshot wounds are rare events in European countries, but stab and impalement injuries occur more frequently and are often spectacular. The aim of the study was to describe several types of penetrating abdomino-thoracic injuries as well as the appropriate surgical interventions, including complex wound management. The representative case series includes four patients with abdomino-thoracic penetrating trauma (two impalements and two stabbings), who were treated in a surgical university hospital (tertiary) centre during a 12-month period. 1. A man was impaled on a steel pipe, which entered the body above the right kidney and behind the liver through the mediastinum via the right thorax, passing the heart and aortic arch up to the left clavicle. The rod was removed via sternotomy and median laparotomy. Only the left subclavian vein required repair. Postoperatively, a residual lesion of the left brachial plexus caused temporary pneumonia. 2. A leg of a collapsing chair drilled into a woman's left foramen obturatorium and exited the body at the right anterior iliac spine. At a regional hospital, the chair leg was removed and the canal caused by gluteal penetration was excised. Exploratory laparotomy revealed peritonitis resulting from a perforated ileum. The injury was repaired with segmental resection and anastomosis. Postoperative right inguinal wound necrosis necessitated excision and vacuum-assisted closure sealing. The patient has residual paresthesia in her left leg resulting from a sacral plexus lesion. 3. During an altercation, a man was stabbed twice in the right thorax. The right pulmonary lobe, the diaphragm, and the liver dome between segment VIII and V were injured. The patient also had a large scalp avulsion at the left and right parietooccipital site and transection of the biceps muscle at the middle third of the right humerus. The chest injuries, approached via right subcostal incision and right anterior thoracotomy were managed with liver packing (two

  3. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  4. Interactive eBooks in educating patients and their families about head injury regardless of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyouni, Ronald; Mahmoodi, Amin; Mahmoodi, Amir; Huang, Melissa; Tran, Diem Kieu; Chen, Jefferson W

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common and debilitating injury that is particularly prevalent in patients over 60. Given the influence of head injury on dementia (and vice versa), and the increased likelihood of ground-level falls, elderly patients are vulnerable to TBI. Educational interventions can increase knowledge and influence preventative activity to decrease the likelihood of further TBI. We sought to determine the efficacy of interactive tablet-based educational interventions in elderly patients on self-reported knowledge. Patients and family members, ages 20-90, presenting to a NeuroTrauma clinic completed a pre-survey to assess baseline TBI or concussion knowledge, depending on their diagnosis. Participants then received an interactive electronic book (eBook), or a text-based pamphlet with identical information, and completed a post-survey to test interim knowledge improvement. All participants (n=180), regardless of age, had significantly higher post-survey scores (peBook (n=39) scored lower than their younger counterparts despite higher pre-survey scores (peBook (n=20, 90) significantly improved on the post-survey (peBook (p<0.01, 95% CI). We demonstrated that interactive educational interventions are effective in the elderly TBI population. Enhanced educational awareness in the elderly population, especially patients at risk or with prior TBI, may prevent further head injury by educating patients on the importance of avoiding further head injury and taking precautionary measures to decrease the likelihood of further injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Patterns of injury in penetrating sharp trauma in a Provincial KwaZulu-Natal Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lockyer

    2013-06-01

    Discussion: Most patients suffered multiple wounds over multiple sites but these did not frequently require admission to hospital and caused no deaths. As long as clinicians remain vigilant for more severe injuries, these patients can generally be treated in low resourced environments. The majority of patients were discharged directly from the Emergency Centre making it the best place for these people to receive health education to prevent further injuries.

  6. Patterns of injury in penetrating sharp trauma in a Provincial KwaZulu-Natal Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lockyer*

    2013-12-01

    Discussion: Most patients suffered multiple wounds over multiple sites but these did not frequently require admission to hospital and caused no deaths. As long as clinicians remain vigilant for more severe injuries, these patients can generally be treated in low resourced environments. The majority of patients were discharged directly from the Emergency Centre making it the best place for these people to receive health education to prevent further injuries.

  7. Lesão cerebral penetrante por grande fragmento de fibra de amianto tratada por craniectomia descompressiva: relato de caso Penetrating brain injury due to a large asbestos fragment treated by decompressive craniectomy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cardoso de Andrade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se caso de paciente de 22 anos vítima de traumatismo cranioencefálico penetrante por fragmento de fibra de amianto medindo 15 x 12 cm, e seu tratamento bem sucedido por craniectomia descompressiva. Ao contrário da lesão encefálica por projétil de arma de fogo, lesão encefálica penetrante por objeto de baixa energia é incomum. A maioria dos casos relatados na literatura envolve lesões cranio-orbitárias ou autoflagelação em pacientes psiquiátricos. O caso relatado torna-se especial em virtude das grandes dimensões do objeto penetrante, do tratamento por craniectomia descompressiva e do bom resultado funcional alcançado.We report the case of a 22-year-old man victim of penetrating brain injury due to a 15 x 12 asbestos fragment and a successfully treatment via decompressive craniectomy. Unlike gunshot wounds to the head, penetrating brain injury from low energy objects are unusual. Most cases reported involve cranio-orbitary injuries as well as self inflicted lesions in mentally ill patients. The reported case is noteworthy due to the large dimensions of the foreign body, the treatment via decompressive craniectomy and the good patient functional outcome.

  8. Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Kay; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2009-01-01

    . There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury....... change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not...

  9. EVALUATION OF THORACOSCOPY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF DIAPHRAGMATIC INJURIES IN PENETRATING THORACOABDOMINAL TRAUMA WITHOUT LUNG DEFLATION AT DR GEORGE MUKHARI ACADEMIC HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsakala, L

    2017-06-01

    With a mortality estimated at 25% when missed, diaphragmatic injuries due to penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma present a diagnostic challenge for both the radiologist and the surgeon. In the current literature, chest x-ray has a sensitivity of 27-60% for left-sided injuries and only 17% for right-sided injuries while, CT scan has a sensitivity of 14-61% and a specificity of 76-99%. Thoracoscopy using a single lung ventilation is one of the modalities of choice for the diagnosis of these injuries with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 87.5%. This was a prospective study; all stable trauma patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal injury aged 18 years and above admitted to the trauma unit at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital during the period of the study were included. All patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma who were unstable, or necessitating prompt management and all paediatric patients were excluded from the study. In theatre, under general anaesthesia, we first performed thoracoscopy without single lung ventilation followed by laparoscopy as control on each patient. Data was collected using a standard proforma by the attending surgeon and was analysed by a statistician using IBM SPSS 22 software. A total of 32 patients met the inclusion criteria of which 4 were female (12.5%) and 28 male (87.5%) with the median age of 29 years. Of the 32 patients, 27 had thoracoabdominal stab wounds (84.3%) and 5 had gunshot wounds (15.6%). Fourteen patients (43.75%) had left sided injury and 18 patients (56.25%) had injury to the right side. The incidence of diaphragmatic injury was 37.5% (n = 12). No injuries were missed on thoracoscopy; there was no mortality or morbidity. Thoracoscopy without single lung ventilation is safe and comparable to thoracoscopy with single lung ventilation as a diagnostic tool for diaphragmatic injuries in stable patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma.

  10. ROLE OF MELATONIN IN EXPRESSION OF MALONDIALDEHYDE ON MICROGLIA CELLS OF RAT INDUCED HEAD INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Nasution

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: brain injury is condition that harm human life. This study examines the application of melatonin in reducing oxidant status and barriers to the formation of cerebral edema in a rat brain injury model. The main purpose of this study is to prove the role of melatonin on the expression of Malondialdehyde (MDA and histological injury in a rat head injury model. Methods: This study was a randomized experimental posttest only control group design. This experimental was carried out on male Sprague Dawley strain Rattus novergicus, aged of 10-12 weeks, and weight of 300 g. Rat brain injury model was performed based on Marmarou (1994.1 Histology were observed using hematoxilen-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, MDA was assessed using antibodies specific to each MDA protein. Observation and calculation of immunohistochemistry studies were also performed. Results: In this study, histological observation area covers an area of bleeding, number of immune-competent cells and the diameter of the arteries. Histology observation results showed that there is a significant reduction in diameter of arterial blood vessels of the brain injury tissue. Immunohisto-chemistry results showed that there is a significant reduction of MDA expression amount microglia cells of brain injury tissue. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that Melatonin is a potent hydrogen peroxide scavenger that reduce the production of MDA. 

  11. Quetiapine Induced Acute Dystonia in a patient with History of severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with a history of severe head injury 10 years ago regained ability to walk after years of being bound to a wheelchair. During the last psychiatric hospitalization, quetiapine was increased to therapeutic dose using a normal titration. As a result the patient developed dystonia of multiple muscle groups requiring 4 days of hospitalization for remittance of symptoms. In this paper, we take a close look at the literature concerning extrapiramidal symptoms (EPS in this context, and we suggest that in patients with a history of head injury, it is warranted to consider a slower titration of antipsychotic medications, including ones that are considered having a lower risk of EPS such as quetiapine.

  12. The use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of blunt and penetrating abdominal injuries: 10-year experience at a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremy J; Garwe, Tabitha; Raines, Alexander R; Thurman, Joseph B; Carter, Sandra; Bender, Jeffrey S; Albrecht, Roxie M

    2013-03-01

    Diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) has decreased the rate of nontherapeutic laparotomy for patients suffering from penetrating injuries. We evaluated whether DL similarly lowers the rate of nontherapeutic laparotomy for patients with blunt injuries. All patients undergoing DL over a 10-year period (ie, 2001-2010) in a single level 1 trauma center were classified by the mechanism of injury. Demographic and perioperative data were compared using the Student t and Fisher exact tests. There were 131 patients included, 22 of whom sustained blunt injuries. Patients suffering from blunt injuries were more severely injured (Injury Severity Score 18.0 vs 7.3, P = .0001). The most common indication for DL after blunt injury was a computed tomographic scan concerning for bowel injury (59.1%). The rate of nontherapeutic laparotomy for patients sustaining penetrating vs blunt injury was 1.8% and nil, respectively. DL, when coupled with computed tomographic findings, is an effective tool for the initial management of patients with blunt injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of External and Internal Injury in Cases of Fatal Blunt Trauma Head Injury Autopsied at Tertiary Care Centre in Eastern Nepal

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    Bikash Sah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Blunt trauma is more likely to be missed because clinical signs are less obvious in many regions of the body. This study was done with an objective to compare external and internal injuries of autopsy cases with fatal blunt trauma head injuries.Materials & Methods: This was a hospital based, cross sectional and analytical study done on the autopsy cases at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal (tertiary hospital in eastern Nepal from 13th April 2012 to 13th April 2013 with Head injuries by blunt trauma with or without concomitant non-head injuries. The decomposed bodies and the bodies where cause of trauma could not be differentiated were excluded. Postmortem examination was conducted on all the cases and the injuries present on all the body parts were noted. Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS score was given for each injury. Appropriate statistical tool was used to compare the AIS scores of external and internal injuries. The test of significance was fixed at p < 0.01. Results: The correlation of scalp injuries with that of skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral injury and overall internal head injury were 0.591, 0.772, 0.439 and 0.600 respectively and all these correlations were statistically significant whereas the correlation between concomitant external and internal non-head injuries is -0.092 which is statistically not significant.Conclusion: Within the limits of this study it is possible to conclude that there was significant association between periodontitis and anxiety, and depression.

  14. A population-based study of sport and recreation-related head injuries treated in a Canadian health region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew W; Jones, C Allyson; Rowe, Brian H; Voaklander, Donald C

    2012-07-01

    To report the rates of SR-related HIs presenting to EDs in a Canadian population-based sample. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using administrative data, sport and recreation-related emergency department presentations for persons 0-35 years of age, from April 1997 through March 2008, were obtained from the Edmonton Zone (formerly the Capital Health Region), Alberta Health Services through the Ambulatory Care Classification System. Of the 3,230,890 visits to the emergency departments of the five hospitals in Edmonton, 63,219 sport and recreation-related injury records and 4935 sport and recreation-head injury records were identified. Head injuries were most frequently treated for the activities of hockey (20.7%), cycling (12.0%), and skiing/snowboarding/sledding. Males accounted for 71.9% (n=3546) and patients less than 18 years of age sustained 3446 (69.8%) sport and recreation-head injuries. Sport and recreation-related head injuries most frequently treated in emergency departments involve common activities such as hockey, cycling, skiing/snowboarding/sledding, and soccer. Males and those less than 18 years of age sustain the majority of sport and recreation-related head injuries treated in emergency departments. These findings underscore the importance of sport-specific policies and safety promotion for the prevention of head injuries, in sports and recreational activities. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  15. A preliminary assessment of the effects of heat flux distribution and penetration on the creep rupture of a reactor vessel lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.; Simpson, R.; Witt, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Lower Head Failure (LHF) Experiment Program is to experimentally investigate and characterize the failure of the reactor vessel lower head due to thermal and pressure loads under severe accident conditions. The experiment is performed using 1/5-scale models of a typical PWR pressure vessel. Experiments are performed for various internal pressure and imposed heat flux distributions with and without instrumentation guide tube penetrations. The experimental program is complemented by a modest modeling program based on the application of vessel creep rupture codes developed in the TMI Vessel Investigation Project. The first three experiments under the LHF program investigated the creep rupture of simulated reactor pressure vessels without penetrations. The heat flux distributions for the three experiments are uniform (LHF-1), center-peaked (LHF-2), and side-peaked (LHF-3), respectively. For all the experiments, appreciable vessel deformation was observed to initiate at vessel wall temperatures above 900K and the vessel typically failed at approximately 1000K. The size of failure was always observed to be smaller than the heated region. For experiments with non-uniform heat flux distributions, failure typically occurs in the region of peak temperature. A brief discussion of the effect of penetration is also presented

  16. Head injury in asylum seekers and refugees referred with psychological trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, S.M.; Craig, R.; Gardani, M.; McMillan, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Individuals who seek asylum are frequently fleeing violent persecution and may experience head injury (HI). However, little is known about the prevalence of HI in asylum seekers and refugees (ASR) despite the potential for HI to significantly affect cognitive and emotional functioning and to compromise asylum outcomes. This preliminary study investigates the prevalence of HI in ASR referred to a complex psychological trauma service. Method. Participants were 115 adult ASR referred ...

  17. Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant head and neck injuries: their underlying mechanism. A prospective autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Babić, Dragan; Djonić, Danijela; Djurić, Marija

    2012-09-01

    It is a well-documented fact that pontomedullary lacerations (PML) occur as a result of severe craniocervical injury, but their underlying mechanism has yet to be fully clarified. The aim of this prospective study has been to give greater insight into the underlying mechanism of PML through determining the site of blunt head-impact, as well as the presence of concomitant head and neck injuries in cases of brainstem PML. A total of 56 cases with partial PML have been analysed for this study. The case group was composed of 40 men and 16 women, averaging in age 44.2 ± 19.2 years and consisting of 7 motorcyclists, 4 bicyclists, 18 car occupants, 16 pedestrians, and 10 victims of falls from a height, as well as 1 victim of a fall from standing height. The presented study has shown that there are several possible mechanisms of PML. Impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, most often leads to this fatal injury, due to the impact force transmission either through the jawbone or vertebral column; most likely in combination with a fronto-posterior hyperextension of the head. Additionally, lateral head-impacts with subsequent hinge fractures and PML may also be a possible mechanism. The jawbone and other facial bones are able to act as shock absorbers, and their fracture may diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. The upper cervical spine can act as damper and energy absorber as well, and may prevent any occurrence of fracture to the base of the skull.

  18. Role of Postmortem Multislice Computed Tomography Scan in Close Blunt Head Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sidipratomo, Prijo; Prija, Trijono Karmawan Sukana; Murtala, Bachtiar; Purwadianto, Agus; Lawrence, Gatot Susilo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional autopsy in Indonesia is not well accepted as it is contrary to religion and culture. New radiological imaging method such as multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scan has potential to be a diagnostic tool in forensic pathology. The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of MSCT scan in finding abnormalities in close blunt head injury compared with autopsy. METHODS: This study used descriptive qualitative method. Postmortem cases in Department of Forensic M...

  19. Quetiapine Induced Acute Dystonia in a patient with History of severe Head Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Bota; Joanne W. Witkowski

    2010-01-01

    A patient with a history of severe head injury 10 years ago regained ability to walk after years of being bound to a wheelchair. During the last psychiatric hospitalization, quetiapine was increased to therapeutic dose using a normal titration. As a result the patient developed dystonia of multiple muscle groups requiring 4 days of hospitalization for remittance of symptoms. In this paper, we take a close look at the literature concerning extrapiramidal symptoms (EPS) in this context, and we ...

  20. The influence of severe malnutrition on rehabilitation in patients with severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Zoltán

    2004-10-07

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the consequences of severe malnutrition in patients with severe head injury during rehabilitation. The data were collected from medical records of patients admitted to the neurorehabilitation unit over the last 5 years. Twenty of 1850 patients had severe malnutrition, the body mass index (BMI) of these patients were under 15 (10-14) kg/m2. The majority of patients suffered traumatic brain damage (17/20). Thirteen patients arrived with percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy /PEG, three nasogastric tube in 3 cases we placed PEG. The nutritional strategy included a high-calorie diet, by means of bolus feeding five times during the day, continuous feeding during the night; the daily intake target being more than 2500 kcal. During rehabilitation treatment the majority of patients (13/20) revealed weight gain with a rate of 0.5-2 kg/week. The following complications were treated during the rehabilitation phase: 20 pressure sores, 20 contractures, 11 urinal infections, 6 cases of pneumonia, 2 of purulent bronchitis, 6 of sepsis, 1 penoscrotal abscess, epidydymitis, and 1 case of purulent arthritis. The patients required total assistance at the time of admission. At discharge 10 patients remained completely dependent, 6 patients needed minimal assistance, and 4 patients could perform daily activities independently. The average length of stay in our unit was 78/6-150/days. Patients with head injury suffering from severe malnutrition exhibit serious complications at the time of admission as well as during rehabilitation treatment. The patients were very difficult to mobilize. The length of stay at the rehabilitation unit was 28 days longer when complicated by malnutrition, than head injuries showing normal nutritional status. These findings underline the importance of adequate nutrition in patients with head injury in both the acute ward and in the rehabilitation unit.

  1. Safety and efficacy of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis following blunt head injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Fairleigh; Batty, Lachlan; Pitt, Veronica; Chau, Marisa; Pattuwage, Loyal; Gruen, Russell L

    2013-10-01

    Patients with blunt head injury are at high risk of venous thromboembolism. However, pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis (PTP) may cause progression of intracranial hemorrhage, and clinicians must often weigh up the risks and benefits. This review aimed to determine whether adding PTP to mechanical prophylaxis confers net benefit or harm and the optimal timing, dose, and agent for PTP in patients with blunt head injury. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and www.clinicaltrials.gov on April 24, 2013, to identify controlled studies and ongoing trials that assessed the efficacy or safety of thromboprophylaxis interventions in the early management of head-injured patients. Studies were classified based on types of interventions and comparisons, and the quality of included studies was assessed using Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. We intended to undertake a meta-analysis if studies were sufficiently similar. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including four randomized controlled trials. At least two randomized controlled trials were at high risk of bias owing to inadequate randomization and concealment of allocation, and observational studies were potentially confounded by substantial differences between comparison groups. Heterogeneity of included studies precluded meta-analysis. Results were mixed, with some studies supporting and others refuting addition of PTP to mechanical interventions. Little evidence was available about dose or choice of agent. The safety and efficacy of early PTP in patients without early progression of hemorrhage is unclear. There is currently insufficient evidence to guide thromboprophylaxis in patients with blunt head injury. Standardized definitions and outcome measurements would facilitate comparison of outcomes across future studies. Studies in mixed populations should report head-injured specific subgroup data. Future

  2. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  3. Pathophysiological changes detected by MRI within 24 hours after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Tsukasa; Wakabayashi, Shinichi; Nariai, Tadashi; Ohno, Kikuo; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi; Fukui, Shinsuke; Takei, Hidenori.

    1995-01-01

    This report concerns the evaluation of the usefulness of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with head injuries. For this purpose we compared the CT and MRI results obtained on 48 such patients. MRI of all cases was taken within 24 hours after head injury using a 1.5-Tesla unit. The sensitivity of the two modalities in the detection of small traumatic lesions was compared. Traumatic lesions of 23 patients (47.9%) were not detected by CT, but they were demonstrated on MRI. Overall, MRI was significantly more sensitive than CT in detecting early and/or subtle traumatic changes of the brain parenchyma (P 1 -WI and T 2 -WI. (B) Corpus callosum lesions with hyperintensity on T 2 -WI were in fact hemorrhagic contusions by signal changes on sequential MRI. The follow-up of chronological changes of a given corpus callosum lesion was essential for confirmation of its pathology. (C) In one case, scratch-like lesions with strong hypointensity on T 1 -WI and hyperintensity on T 2 -WI were clearly demonstrated in the white matter. These observations appeared to indicate axonal damages. (D) Even if initial GCS score is low ( 2 -WI and subsequently disappeared completely. We conclude that performing MRI in the early stage of a head injury is of utility for the understanding of pertinent pathophysiological changes and for predicting outcome. (author)

  4. Imaging of spinal injury in abusive head trauma: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Ishak, Ramsay; Zacharia, Thomas T.; Dias, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal imaging has been a neglected part of abusive head trauma (AHT) imaging. As most of the radiographs and CT spine are negative in AHT in infants, the cervical spine is assumed to be normal. There is increasing evidence in the role of injury to brainstem and cervical cord in the pathogenesis of AHT. In addition, in courts of law, there is fierce debate about AHT, its mimics and other disparate nontraumatic diagnoses explaining the neuroradiological and skeletal findings. However, this discussion ignores the evidence and significance of spinal injury. We sought to study the cervical spine in an AHT cohort to understand the true prevalence of spinal injuries in AHT and contrast it with cohorts of accidental and nontraumatic groups to give the clinicians a robust diagnostic tool in evaluating AHT. The purpose of this study is to compare the relative incidence of spinal ligamentous and soft-tissue abnormalities on spinal MRI among three groups of children ages < 48 months: (1) those with AHT, (2) those with accidental trauma, and (3) those with nontraumatic conditions. This comparative study included 183 children who underwent spine MRI: 67 with AHT, 46 with accidental trauma and a clinical suspicion of spinal injury, and 70 with nontraumatic conditions. Clinical and radiographic findings were collected in all cases and were analyzed retrospectively to identify MRI evidence of traumatic spinal injuries. The incidence of spinal injuries among the three groups was compared. The incidence of spinal ligamentous injuries was calculated for those with and without radiographic evidence of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. All comparisons were performed using Fisher exact test with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Cervical spine ligamentous injuries (predominantly the nuchal, atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial ligaments) were present in 78% of the AHT group, 46% of the accidental trauma group and 1% of the nontraumatic group; all of these differences were

  5. Imaging of spinal injury in abusive head trauma: a retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Arabinda K. [Nemours A.I. DuPont Children Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States); Ishak, Ramsay; Zacharia, Thomas T. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Dias, Mark S. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Spinal imaging has been a neglected part of abusive head trauma (AHT) imaging. As most of the radiographs and CT spine are negative in AHT in infants, the cervical spine is assumed to be normal. There is increasing evidence in the role of injury to brainstem and cervical cord in the pathogenesis of AHT. In addition, in courts of law, there is fierce debate about AHT, its mimics and other disparate nontraumatic diagnoses explaining the neuroradiological and skeletal findings. However, this discussion ignores the evidence and significance of spinal injury. We sought to study the cervical spine in an AHT cohort to understand the true prevalence of spinal injuries in AHT and contrast it with cohorts of accidental and nontraumatic groups to give the clinicians a robust diagnostic tool in evaluating AHT. The purpose of this study is to compare the relative incidence of spinal ligamentous and soft-tissue abnormalities on spinal MRI among three groups of children ages < 48 months: (1) those with AHT, (2) those with accidental trauma, and (3) those with nontraumatic conditions. This comparative study included 183 children who underwent spine MRI: 67 with AHT, 46 with accidental trauma and a clinical suspicion of spinal injury, and 70 with nontraumatic conditions. Clinical and radiographic findings were collected in all cases and were analyzed retrospectively to identify MRI evidence of traumatic spinal injuries. The incidence of spinal injuries among the three groups was compared. The incidence of spinal ligamentous injuries was calculated for those with and without radiographic evidence of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. All comparisons were performed using Fisher exact test with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Cervical spine ligamentous injuries (predominantly the nuchal, atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial ligaments) were present in 78% of the AHT group, 46% of the accidental trauma group and 1% of the nontraumatic group; all of these differences were

  6. Usefulness of MRI detection of cervical spine and brain injuries in the evaluation of abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Khademian, Zarir; Vezina, Gilbert; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Rice, Amy [Independent Consultant (Biostatistics), Chevy Chase, MD (United States); Hinds, Tanya [Children' s National Medical Center, Child and Adolescent Protection Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-07-15

    In the evaluation of children younger than 3 years with intracranial hemorrhage it can be difficult to determine whether the cause of hemorrhage was traumatic, and if so, whether abusive head trauma (AHT) is a possibility. Cervical spine MRI is not a routine part of the nationally recommended imaging workup for children with suspected abusive head trauma. There is increasing evidence that spinal injuries are found at autopsy or MRI in abused children. However the prevalence of cervical spine injuries in children evaluated for abusive head trauma is unknown. We sought to determine both the incidence and the spectrum of cervical spine and brain injuries in children being evaluated for possible abusive head trauma. We also examined the relationship between cervical and brain MRI findings and selected study outcome categories. This study is a 3-year retrospective review of children evaluated for abusive head trauma. Inclusion criteria were: children with head trauma seen at our institution between 2008 and 2010, age younger than 36 months, availability of diagnostic-quality brain and cervical spine MRI, and child abuse team involvement because abusive head trauma was a possibility. A child abuse pediatrician and pediatric radiologists, all with board certification, were involved in data collection, image interpretation and data analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata v12.1. The study included 74 children (43 boys, 31 girls) with a mean age of 164 days (range, 20-679 days). Study outcomes were categorized as: n = 26 children with accidental head trauma, n = 38 with abusive head trauma (n = 18 presumptive AHT, n = 20 suspicious for AHT), and n = 10 with undefined head trauma. We found cervical spine injuries in 27/74 (36%) children. Most cervical spine injuries were ligamentous injuries. One child had intrathecal spinal blood and two had spinal cord edema; all three of these children had ligamentous injury. MRI signs of cervical injury did not show a

  7. Usefulness of MRI detection of cervical spine and brain injuries in the evaluation of abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Khademian, Zarir; Vezina, Gilbert; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Rice, Amy; Hinds, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    In the evaluation of children younger than 3 years with intracranial hemorrhage it can be difficult to determine whether the cause of hemorrhage was traumatic, and if so, whether abusive head trauma (AHT) is a possibility. Cervical spine MRI is not a routine part of the nationally recommended imaging workup for children with suspected abusive head trauma. There is increasing evidence that spinal injuries are found at autopsy or MRI in abused children. However the prevalence of cervical spine injuries in children evaluated for abusive head trauma is unknown. We sought to determine both the incidence and the spectrum of cervical spine and brain injuries in children being evaluated for possible abusive head trauma. We also examined the relationship between cervical and brain MRI findings and selected study outcome categories. This study is a 3-year retrospective review of children evaluated for abusive head trauma. Inclusion criteria were: children with head trauma seen at our institution between 2008 and 2010, age younger than 36 months, availability of diagnostic-quality brain and cervical spine MRI, and child abuse team involvement because abusive head trauma was a possibility. A child abuse pediatrician and pediatric radiologists, all with board certification, were involved in data collection, image interpretation and data analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata v12.1. The study included 74 children (43 boys, 31 girls) with a mean age of 164 days (range, 20-679 days). Study outcomes were categorized as: n = 26 children with accidental head trauma, n = 38 with abusive head trauma (n = 18 presumptive AHT, n = 20 suspicious for AHT), and n = 10 with undefined head trauma. We found cervical spine injuries in 27/74 (36%) children. Most cervical spine injuries were ligamentous injuries. One child had intrathecal spinal blood and two had spinal cord edema; all three of these children had ligamentous injury. MRI signs of cervical injury did not show a

  8. Antifungal Wound Penetration of Amphotericin and Voriconazole in Combat-related Injuries: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    invasive fungal infection in accord- ance with the LRMC “blast protocol” [8], demonstrating angioinvasive non-septate branching hyphae diagnostic of...different occasions between post-injury days 12 and 46, with non-septate branching hyphae observed but not cultured on 5 additional soft tissue specimens

  9. Penetrating injury caused by the gear pedal of a motor-cycle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    He had no neurovascular injury but was found radiologically to have an ipsilateral tibia fracture. ... radiologiquement d'avoir une fracture du tibia ipsilatéral. ... the ankle joint. It passed out from the lateral aspect approximately 6 cm distal to the lateral malleolus. He also sustained a laceration measuring about 10cm on the ...

  10. Effectiveness of rugby headgear in preventing soft tissue injuries to the head: a case-control and video cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Lyons, R A; Evans, R; Newcombe, R G; Nash, P; McCabe, M; Palmer, S R

    2004-04-01

    To determine if headgear use by rugby players was associated with a reduced risk of head or facial laceration, abrasion, or fracture. An emergency department based case-control study in South Wales, UK, with cases being rugby players treated for superficial head and facial injuries and controls being their matched opponents during the game. A review of videos of the 41 games in the 1999 Rugby World Cup was also carried out to compare with the case-control study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to measure association between exposure (headgear wearing) and outcome (head and facial injuries). In the case-control study, 164 pairs were analysed, with headgear worn by 12.8% of cases and 21.3% of controls. Headgear use was associated with substantial but non-significant reductions in superficial head (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.19) and facial (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.46) injuries. The video study followed 547 players over 41 games, during which there were 47 bleeding injuries to the head. Headgear use significantly reduced the risk of bleeding head injury in forwards (OR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.99, p = 0.02), but not in backs. There was also a higher risk of facial injury among forwards, but this was not significant. The combined results suggest that headgear can prevent certain types of superficial head injuries in players at all levels of the game, but the evidence is strongest for superficial head injury in elite forwards. A randomised controlled trial would be the best way to study this further.

  11. Hospitalised and Fatal Head Injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji: Findings from an Island-Wide Trauma Registry (TRIP 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Bridget; Raj, Naina; Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, head injury is a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity. A disproportionately greater burden is borne by low- and middle-income countries. The incidence and characteristics of fatal and hospitalised head injuries in Fiji are unknown. Methods Using prospective data from the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospital system, the epidemiology of fatal and hospitalised head injuries was investigated (2004–2005). Results In total, 226 hospital admissions and 50 fatalities (66% died prior to admission) with a principal diagnosis of head injury were identified (crude annual rates of 34.7 and 7.7/100,000, respectively). Males were more likely to die and be hospitalised as a result of head injury than females. The highest fatality rate was among those in the 30–44-year age group. Road traffic crashes were the leading causes of injuries resulting in death (70%), followed by ‘hit by person or object’ and falls (14% each). Among people admitted to hospital, road traffic crashes (34.5%) and falls (33.2%) were the leading causes of injury. The leading cause of head injuries in children was falls, in 15–29-year-olds road traffic crashes, and in adults aged 30–44 years or 45 years and older ‘hit by person or object’. Among the two major ethnic groups, Fijians had higher rates of falls and ‘hit by person or object’ and Indians higher rates for road traffic crashes. There were no statistically significant differences between the overall rates of head injuries or the fatal and non-fatal rates among Fijians or Indians by gender following age standardisation to the total Fijian national population. Conclusion Despite underestimating the overall burden, this study identified head injury to be a major cause of death and hospitalisation in Fiji. The predominance of males and road traffic-related injuries is consistent with studies on head injuries conducted in other low- and middle-income countries. The high fatality rate among those aged 30–44

  12. Early-onset Infectious Complications among Penetrating and Severe Closed Traumatic Brain Injury in Active Duty Deployed during OIF and OEF, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    seizures, hydrocephalus, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leaks, infections inside the skull, vascular injuries, and cranial nerve injuries. 9-11 The...the form of early in-theater cranial decompression, followed by aggressive critical care management. 8 Medical advances, in addition to improved body...p = 0.66). However, closed TBI patients were significantly more likely than penetrating TBI patients to have anoxic brain damage (coma, stupor

  13. Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harr, Marianne Efskind; Heskestad, Ben; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients.The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate...... whether the physicians' compliance to the guidelines is affected when patients are influenced by alcohol....

  14. Development of a guinea pig cutaneous radiation injury model using low penetrating X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathleen E; Tan, Alick; Kim, Lila; Espinoza, Theresa; Meeks, Christopher; Johnston, William; Maulhardt, Holly; Donald, Melissa; Hill, Colin; diZerega, Gere S

    2016-08-01

    A guinea pig skin model was developed to determine the dose-dependent response to soft X-ray radiation into the dermis. X-ray exposure (50 kVp) was defined to a 4.0 × 4.0 cm area on the lateral surface of a guinea pig using lead shielding. Guinea pigs were exposed to a single fraction of X-ray irradiation ranging from 25-79 Gy via an XRAD320ix Biological Irradiator with the collimator removed. Gross skin changes were measured using clinical assessments defined by the Kumar scale. Skin contracture was assessed, as well as histological evaluations. Loss of dermal integrity was shown after a single dose of soft X-ray radiation at or above 32 Gy with the central 2.0 × 2.0 cm of the exposed site being the most affected. Hallmarks of the skin injury included moist desquamation, ulceration and wound contracture, as well as alterations in epithelium, dermis, muscle and adipose. Changes in the skin were time- and radiation dose-dependent. Full-thickness injury occurred without animal mortality or gross changes in the underlying organs. The guinea pig is an appropriate small animal model for the short-term screening of countermeasures for cutaneous radiation injury (CRI).

  15. Computed Tomography Profile and its Utilization in Head Injury Patients in Emergency Department: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Waganekar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, head injury can be classified as minor (GCS 13–15, moderate (GCS 9–12, and severe (GCS 3–8. There is a lot of controversy in the use of computed tomography (CT in head injury patients. Aims: This study was intended to estimate the rate of CT positivity in head injury patients and to define the criteria for doing CT in head injury patients. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study in the emergency department (ED over a 12-month period. Subjects and Methods: Study involved all head injury patients attending ED. Risk factors studied were a loss of consciousness (LOC, vomiting, seizures, ear bleed, nosebleed, external injuries, and alcohol intoxication. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison of CT positivity with the patient's demographics and clinical characteristics was carried out using Chi-square. Results: A total of 1782 patients were included in this study. Overall CT positivity was 50.9%. In minor head injury (MHI, CT positivity rate was 38%. The study showed significant association of CT positivity with five variables: LOC >5 min, vomiting, seizures, ear bleed, and nosebleed. Conclusions: From the study, we recommend following: CT is indicated in all patients with moderate and severe head injury (GCS ≤12. Low threshold for taking CT is advisable in elderly and alcohol-intoxicated patients. In MHI, CT is indicated if any one of the following risk factors are present: LOC >5 min, history of vomiting, history of seizures, history of ear bleed, and history of nosebleed.

  16. Traumatic brain injuries in illustrated literature: experience from a series of over 700 head injuries in the Asterix comic books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Marcel A; Slotty, Philipp; Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze the epidemiology and specific risk factors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the Asterix illustrated comic books. Among the illustrated literature, TBI is a predominating injury pattern. A retrospective analysis of TBI in all 34 Asterix comic books was performed by examining the initial neurological status and signs of TBI. Clinical data were correlated to information regarding the trauma mechanism, the sociocultural background of victims and offenders, and the circumstances of the traumata, to identify specific risk factors. Seven hundred and four TBIs were identified. The majority of persons involved were adult and male. The major cause of trauma was assault (98.8%). Traumata were classified to be severe in over 50% (GCS 3-8). Different neurological deficits and signs of basal skull fractures were identified. Although over half of head-injury victims had a severe initial impairment of consciousness, no case of death or permanent neurological deficit was found. The largest group of head-injured characters was constituted by Romans (63.9%), while Gauls caused nearly 90% of the TBIs. A helmet had been worn by 70.5% of victims but had been lost in the vast majority of cases (87.7%). In 83% of cases, TBIs were caused under the influence of a doping agent called "the magic potion". Although over half of patients had an initially severe impairment of consciousness after TBI, no permanent deficit could be found. Roman nationality, hypoglossal paresis, lost helmet, and ingestion of the magic potion were significantly correlated with severe initial impairment of consciousness (p ≤ 0.05).

  17. [Characteristics and Treatment Strategies for Penetrating Injuries on the Example of Gunshot and Blast Victims without Ballistic Body Armour in Afghanistan (2009 - 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsgen, Christoph; Willms, Arnulf; Richardsen, Ines; Bieler, Dan; Kollig, Erwin; Schwab, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Much like other countries, Germany has recently seen terrorist attacks being planned, executed or prevented at the last minute. This highlights the need for expertise in the treatment of penetrating torso traumas by bullets or explosions. Data on the treatment of firearm injuries and, even more so, blast injuries often stems from crises or war regions. However, it is difficult to compare injuries from such regions with injuries from civilian terrorist attacks due to the ballistic body protection (protective vests, body armour) worn by soldiers. Methods An analysis was performed based on data from patients who were treated in the German Military Hospital Mazar-e Sharif for gunshots or injuries from explosions in the years 2009 to 2013. The data selection was based on patients with penetrating injuries to the thorax and/or abdomen. For better comparability with civilian attack scenarios, this study only included civilian patients without ballistic body protection (body armour, protective vests). Results Out of 117 analysed patients, 58 were affected by firearms and 59 by explosive injuries of the thorax or abdomen. 60% of patients had a thoracic injury, 69% had an abdominal injury, and 25.6% had combined thoracic-abdominal injuries. Blast injury patients were significantly more affected by thoracic trauma. As regards abdominal injuries, liver, intestinal, and colonic lesions were leading in number. Patients with blast injuries had significantly more injured organs and a significantly higher ISS averaging 29. 26% of the shot patients and 41% of the blast wounded patients received Damage Control Surgery (DCS). Despite a lower ISS, gunshot victims did not have a lower total number of operations per patient. Overall mortality was 13.7% (10.3% gunshot wounds, 16.7% blast injury). The highest mortality rate (25.7%) was recorded for patients with combined thoracoabdominal injuries (vs. 8.3% for thoracic and 8.7% for abdominal injuries). The ISS of deceased patients was

  18. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators regulate reactive microglia after penetrating brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Following brain injury, microglia assume a reactive-like state and secrete pro-inflammatory molecules that can potentiate damage. A therapeutic strategy that may limit microgliosis is of potential interest. In this context, selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene and tamoxifen, are known to reduce microglia activation induced by neuroinflammatory stimuli in young animals. In the present study, we have assessed whether raloxifene and tamoxifen are able to affect microglia activation after brain injury in young and aged animals in time points relevant to clinics, which is hours after brain trauma. Volume fraction of MHC-II+ microglia was estimated according to the point-counting method of Weibel within a distance of 350 μm from the lateral border of the wound, and cellular morphology was measured by fractal analysis. Two groups of animals were studied: 1 young rats, ovariectomized at 2 months of age; and 2 aged rats, ovariectomized at 18 months of age. Fifteen days after ovariectomy animals received a stab wound brain injury and the treatment with estrogenic compounds. Our findings indicate that raloxifene and tamoxifen reduced microglia activation in both young and aged animals. Although the volume fraction of reactive microglia was found lower in aged animals, this was accompanied by important changes in cell morphology, where aged microglia assume a bushier and hyperplasic aspect when compared to young microglia. These data suggest that early regulation of microglia activation provides a mechanism by which SERMs may exert a neuroprotective effect in the setting of a brain trauma.

  19. Head injury in asylum seekers and refugees referred with psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, S M; Craig, R; Gardani, M; McMillan, T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who seek asylum are frequently fleeing violent persecution and may experience head injury (HI). However, little is known about the prevalence of HI in asylum seekers and refugees (ASR) despite the potential for HI to significantly affect cognitive and emotional functioning and to compromise asylum outcomes. This preliminary study investigates the prevalence of HI in ASR referred to a complex psychological trauma service. Participants were 115 adult ASR referred to a community psychological trauma service with moderate to severe mental health problems associated with psychological trauma. They were screened for a history of HI using a questionnaire developed for the study. Interpreters were used when required. The overall prevalence of HI was 51%. At least 38% of those with HI had a moderate-severe HI that could cause persisting disability. In 53% of those with HI, the cause was torture, human trafficking or domestic violence. Repeat HI can have cumulative effects on function; it was common, and was reported in 68% of those with HI. An injury to the head was not known to mental health clinicians prior to screening in 64% of cases. The emotional and cognitive consequences of HI in ASR may increase the vulnerability of this disadvantaged group, and can be associated with neurobehavioural problems affecting daily life and may compromise asylum outcomes. Routine screening for HI in ASR is needed, as are links to neuropsychology and brain injury services for advice, assessment and intervention.

  20. Radiological diagnosis in patients with head injury alone or in combination with multiple trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. Head injury alone or in combination with multiple trauma is the main cause of death and severe disability in individuals under 45 years old. This review is intended to describe the relevant imaging modalities, to analyze their specific value and limitations and to illustrate the most important radiologic findings. The indications for diagnostic imaging within the context of an interdisciplinary linkage of diagnostic and therapeutic measures are discussed.Material and methods. Recent publications are analyzed and compared to the experiences of our own hospital. In terms of a critical synoptic assessment the currently best standard of care is described in consideration of an interdisciplinary care concept.Results. Radiologic imaging modalities crucially contribute to the complete injury assessment and provide an indispensable basis for any therapeutic decision. Comprehensive neuromonitoring and reliable demonstration of delayed or secondary brain damage is impossible without modern imaging technology. Computed tomography (CT) further continues to be the most important imaging modality, while magnetic resonance imaging despite it's partly superior diagnostic informations remains reserved to particular diagnostic problems.Conclusions. Suitable constructive prerequisites, an interdisciplinary care concept and integration of the radiologist in hospital-adapted diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms significantly improves the outcome of patients with acute head injury. Beside the correct diagnosis itself the time to establish a diagnosis above all has a crucial impact on successful management and good outcome of these patients. (orig.) [de

  1. Lesiones penetrantes maxilofaciales: Presentación de 4 casos Penetrating maxillofacial injuries: Report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Díaz Fernández

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Una historia y examen físico detallado deben ser imperativos en todos los pacientes con sospechas de lesiones penetrantes de la región maxilofacial por parte del cirujano maxilofacial, con participación activa y frecuente de oftalmólogos, otorrinolaringólogos y neurocirujanos, incluso ante lesiones aparentemente triviales. La exploración por radiografías simples, ultrasonidos y especialmente la tomografía axial computadorizada de reconstrucción tridimensional, constituye la mejor vía para detectar lesiones oculares y/ u orbitarias, fracturas del complejo craneofacial, precisar localización, naturaleza y relación del objeto hiriente con órganos y estructuras anatómicas importantes. Se presentan 4 pacientes con este tipo de lesiones proporcionadas por 3 tipos de objetos de naturaleza y características diferentes. Se enfatiza en los aspectos terapéuticos y se ilustra el trabajo con imágenes por rayos X simples y TAC. Se emiten consideraciones a tener presentes en este tipo de lesiones resaltando aquellas con extensión intracraneal.A medical history and a detailed physical examination should be imperative in all the patients with suspicion of penetrating injuries of the maxillofacial region, on the part of the maxillofacial surgeon with an active and frequent participation of ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists and neurosurgeons, even in the case of apparently trivial injuries. The exploration by simple X rays, ultrasounds and, specially, computerized axial tomography of tridimensional reconstruction is the best way to detect ocular and/or orbital injuries, fractures of the craniofacial complex , and to determine the localization, nature and relation of the wounding object to organs and important anatomical structures. 4 patients with this type of injuries produced by three types of objects of different nature and characteristics are presented. Emphasis is made on the therapeutic aspects and the paper is illustrated with

  2. Reprodaetion of an animal model of multiple intestinal injuries mimicking "lethal triad" caused by severe penetrating abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-fei WANG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of multi-intestinal injuries with "lethal triad" characterized by low body temperature,acidosis and coagulopathy.Methods Six female domestic outbred pigs were anesthetized,and the carotid artery and jugular vein were cannulated for monitoring the blood pressure and heart rate and for infusion of fluid.The animals were shot with a gun to create a severe penetrating abdominal trauma.Immediately after the shooting,50% of total blood volume(35ml/kg hemorrhage was drawn from the carotid artery in 20min.After a 40min shock period,4h of pre-hospital phase was mimicked by normal saline(NS resuscitation to maintain systolic blood pressure(SBP > 80mmHg or mean arterial pressure(MAP > 60mmHg.When SBP > 80mmHg or MAP > 60mmHg,no fluid infusion or additional bleeding was given.Hemodynamic parameters were recorded,and pathology of myocardium,lung,small intestine and liver was observed.Results There were multiple intestinal perforations(8-10 site injuries/pig leading to intra-abdominal contamination,mesenteric injury(1-2 site injuries/pig resulted in partial intestinal ischemia and intra-abdominal hemorrhage,and no large colon and mesenteric vascular injury.One pig died before the completion of the model establishment(at the end of pre-hospital resuscitation.The typical symptoms of trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock were observed in survival animals.Low temperature(33.3±0.5℃,acidosis(pH=7.242±0.064,and coagulopathy(protrombin time and activated partial thromboplasting time prolonged were observed after pre-hospital resuscitation.Pathology showed that myocardium,lung,small intestine and liver were severely injured.Conclusions A new model,simulating three stages of "traumatic hemorrhagic shock,pre-hospital recovery and hospital treatment" and inducing the "lethal triad" accompanied with abdominal pollution,has been successfully established.This model has good stability and high reproducibility.The survival animals can be

  3. Clinical manifestations that predict abnormal brain computed tomography (CT in children with minor head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Alharthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed tomography (CT used in pediatric pediatrics brain injury (TBI to ascertain neurological manifestations. Nevertheless, this practice is associated with adverse effects. Reports in the literature suggest incidents of morbidity and mortality in children due to exposure to radiation. Hence, it is found imperative to search for a reliable alternative. Objectives: The aim of this study is to find a reliable clinical alternative to detect an intracranial injury without resorting to the CT. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in patients (1-14 years with blunt head injury and having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS of 13-15 who had CT performed on them. Using statistical analysis, the correlation between clinical examination and positive CT manifestation is analyzed for different age-groups and various mechanisms of injury. Results: No statistically significant association between parameteres such as Loss of Consciousness, ′fall′ as mechanism of injury, motor vehicle accidents (MVA, more than two discrete episodes of vomiting and the CT finding of intracranial injury could be noted. Analyzed data have led to believe that GCS of 13 at presentation is the only important clinical predictor of intracranial injury. Conclusion: Retrospective data, small sample size and limited number of factors for assessing clinical manifestation might present constraints on the predictive rule that was derived from this review. Such limitations notwithstanding, the decision to determine which patients should undergo neuroimaging is encouraged to be based on clinical judgments. Further analysis with higher sample sizes may be required to authenticate and validate findings.

  4. The scourge of head injury among commercial motorcycle riders in Kampala; a preventable clinical and public health menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamulegeya, Louis H; Kizito, Mark; Nassali, Rosemary; Bagayana, Shiela; Elobu, Alex E

    2015-09-01

    Trauma is an increasingly important cause of disease globally. Half of this trauma is from road traffic injuries with motorcycles contributing 21-58%. Low protective gear use, lack of regulation and weak traffic law enforcement contribute to unsafe nature of commercial motorcycles also known as "boda boda" in Uganda. To determine the prevalence of protective gear use, the occurrence of head injury and the relationship between the two among commercial motorcycle riders in Kampala. Following ethical approval we recruited consecutive consenting participants to this analytical cross-sectional study. Data was collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaires, double entered in Epidata and analyzed with STATA. Proportions and means were used to summarize data. Odds ratios were calculated for association between wearing helmets and occurrence and severity of head injury. All 328 participants recruited were male. Of these, 18.6% used Protective gear and 71.1 % sustained head injury. Helmets protected users from head injury (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.23-0.8) and significantly reduced its severity when it occurred. Protective gear use was low, with high occurrence of head injury among commercial motorcycle riders in Uganda. More effective strategies are needed to promote protective gear use among Uganda's commercial motorcycle riders.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Ileal Patch in Delayed Primary Repair of Penetrating Colon Injuries: An Animal Study

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    Hamid Reza Abbasi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary repair of traumatic colonic perforation is progressively gaining acceptance as the best method of management. However, when delayed, the risk of infection-related complications may increase. Here, we present a new method of repairing colon perforation in the presence of peritonitis. Acute colon injury was simulated in 22 German shepherd dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups of 11 and after 24 hours they were operated on. The perforations were repaired by subserosal suture technique. In the first group (group A, ileal patch was used. In the other group (group B, the colon was closed by debridement and anastomosis. After 6 weeks, the repairs were assessed on the basis of survival, gross and histological assessments. Nine (82% dogs in group A and six (56% in group B survived. Ileal patch utilization significantly decreased the mortality rate (p < 0.05. The cause of death in two group A dogs and five group B dogs was peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess formation. None of the surviving dogs showed evidence of anastomotic leakage or breakdown. Small bowel patch used in primary repair of colon injury in the presence of peritonitis may decrease the risk of postoperative infection-related complications and the mortality rate.

  6. The epidemiological trends of head injury in the largest Canadian adult trauma center from 1986 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, David W; Vachhrajani, Shobhan; Pirouzmand, Farhad

    2011-06-01

    This study documents the epidemiology of head injury over the course of 22 years in the largest Level I adult trauma center in Canada. This information defines the current state, changing pattern, and relative distribution of demographic factors in a defined group of trauma patients. It will aid in hypothesis generation to direct etiological research, administrative resource allocation, and preventative strategies. Data on all the trauma patients treated at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (SHSC) from 1986 to 2007 were collected in a consecutive, prospective fashion. The authors reviewed these data from the Sunnybrook Trauma Registry Database in a retrospective fashion. The aggregate data on head injury included demographic data, cause of injury, and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The collected data were analyzed using univariate techniques to depict the trend of variables over years. The authors used the length of stay (LOS) and number of deaths per year (case fatality rate) as crude measures of outcome. A total of 16,678 patients were treated through the Level I trauma center at SHSC from January 1986 to December 2007. Of these, 9315 patients met the inclusion criteria (ISS > 12, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score > 0). The median age of all trauma patients was 36 years, and 69.6% were male. The median ISS of the head-injury patients was 27. The median age of this group of patients increased by 12 years over the study period. Motorized vehicle accidents accounted for the greatest number of head injuries (60.3%) although the relative percentage decreased over the study period. The median transfer time of patients sustaining a head injury was 2.58 hours, and there was an approximately 45 minute improvement over the 22-year study period. The median LOS in our center decreased from 19 to 10 days over the study period. The average case fatality rate was 17.4% over the study period. In multivariate analysis, more severe injuries were associated with increased LOS as

  7. [Prevalence of helmet use in children and adolescents in Germany and preventable bicycle-related head injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, J; Hintzpeter, B; Neuhauser, H; Schlaud, M

    2011-08-01

    Head injuries are the main cause of death in bicycle-related accidents among children and adolescents. According to a Cochrane Review, the risk of head injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.26-0.37) or brain injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.23-0.42) decreases by 69% if a helmet is worn. This study presents the prevalence of helmet use in cycling children and adolescents in Germany and the proportion of head injuries that could be prevented by wearing helmets. The potential effects of increased helmet wearing rates on the population attributable risk percentage for head injuries (PAR%) are demonstrated. The prevalence of helmet use in children aged 3-17 years was analysed using data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The percentage of head injuries preventable by helmet use in this group is estimated by calculating PAR%. Prevalence rates of helmet use and odds ratios from a Cochrane Review about the effectiveness of bicycle helmets for the prevention of head injuries were used for analysis. The potential effect of increased helmet use is shown in 3 scenarios by means of differences of PAR% values in the most relevant age groups. The older the children, the less likely they are to wear a helmet: 89.5% (95% CI 88.0%-90.8%) of the 3- to 6-year-old children wear a helmet when cycling but only 11.0% (95% CI 9.3%-12.9%) of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents do. In the youngest group (3-6 years) 19% of bicycle-related head injuries are attributable to the non-use of helmets, but this proportion rises to 67% in the oldest group (14-17 years). The PAR% of head injuries associated with not wearing a helmet may be reduced by more than a third by increasing the helmet wearing rate to 67% (2 out of 3) among adolescents, and may be reduced to half if 75% of adolescents wore a helmet. Particularly older children and adolescents hardly use bicycle helmets, hence the rate of preventable head injury is high. Efforts towards increasing helmet use

  8. Medieval times' influencing figure Rhaze's approach to head injuries in Liber Almansoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acıduman, Ahmet; Aşkit, Cağatay; Belen, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    To present the chapter "On wound of the head and fracture of the head bone" of Kitāb al-Manṣūrī / Liber Almansoris, which was one of the early works of Rhazes. Both Arabic (Süleymaniye Manuscript Library, Ayasofya collection, Nr. 3751 and Millet Library, Feyzullah Efendi collection, Nr. 1327) and the Latin (Basileae, 1544) texts of Kitāb al-Manṣūrī / Liber Almansoris were studied, and the 26th section of the 7th chapter, entitled "Fī al-shajja kasr al-'aẓm al-ra's / De plagis capitis et fractura cranei / On wound of the head and fracture of the head bone" was translated into English and English text created. Rhazes underlined removing bone fragments in depressed and separated fractures of cranium along with protection of the dura, but he did not describe any surgical technique in this chapter. Galen's contemplation for the care of the dura with its integrity and as well his proposal to remove the bone fragments for preventing the dura from injury were the golden standards at the time that Rhazes also followed in the treatment of skull fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Automatic Calculation of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient in Patients with Head Injury: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Laura; Shaw, Martin; Piper, Ian; Arvind, D K; Hawthorne, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The non-surgical management of patients with traumatic brain injury is the treatment and prevention of secondary insults, such as low cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Most clinical pressure monitoring systems measure pressure relative to atmospheric pressure. If a patient is managed with their head tilted up, relative to their arterial pressure transducer, then a hydrostatic pressure gradient (HPG) can act against arterial pressure and cause significant errors in calculated CPP.To correct for HPG, the arterial pressure transducer should be placed level with the intracranial pressure transducer. However, this is not always achieved. In this chapter, we describe a pilot study investigating the application of speckled computing (or "specks") for the automatic monitoring of the patient's head tilt and subsequent automatic calculation of HPG. In future applications this will allow us to automatically correct CPP to take into account any HPG.

  10. A Political Case of Penetrating Cranial Trauma: The Injury of James Scott Brady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard; Kalakoti, Piyush; Hanif, Rimal; Ahmed, Osama; Nanda, Anil; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2017-09-01

    James Brady, the White House press secretary during President Ronald Reagan's first term in office, was 1 of 4 people (including the President) wounded during an attempted assassination attempt on President Reagan's life on March 30, 1981. John Hinckley, Jr. was found not guilty of this attempt by reason of insanity. The assassination attempt was a ploy by Hinckley, Jr. to impress the actress Jodie Foster. Brady was the most seriously injured of the 4 who were wounded. He suffered a gunshot wound to the left forehead that traveled through the left frontal lobe, corpus callosum, and then into the right frontal and temporal lobes. He initially required a bifrontal craniotomy for evacuation of a right frontotemporal intraparenchymal hemorrhage and debridement of tract. His postoperative course was complicated by seizures, cerebrospinal fluid leakage (necessitating multiple reparative procedures), aspiration pneumonia, and pulmonary emboli. Despite the severity of his injury and perioperative morbidities, Mr. Brady made good recovery. Although permanently left with residual weakness on the left side of his body, making a wheelchair necessary, Brady maintained cognitive and personality traits that were very close to his preinjury baseline. As a result, James Brady and his wife, Sarah, led a call to create legislative reform subsequently known as the "Brady Bill." This bill controversially made mandatory background checks for the purchase of firearms from licensed dealers. Our work aims to describe the assassination attempt, the neurosurgical injury and management of Mr. Brady's case, and the brief historical sequel that followed. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  11. Intraventricular catheter placement by electromagnetic navigation safely applied in a paediatric major head injury patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenblatten, Christoph Alexander; Altermatt, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    In the management of severe head injuries, the use of intraventricular catheters for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and the option of cerebrospinal fluid drainage is gold standard. In children and adolescents, the insertion of a cannula in a compressed ventricle in case of elevated intracranial pressure is difficult; therefore, a pressure sensor is placed more often intraparenchymal as an alternative option. In cases of persistent elevated ICP despite maximal brain pressure management, the use of an intraventricular monitoring device with the possibility of cerebrospinal fluid drainage is favourable. We present the method of intracranial catheter placement by means of an electromagnetic navigation technique.

  12. The outcome after head injury in patients with radiologically demonstrated brain contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, P.K.; Tysnes, O.B.

    1993-01-01

    The early and late outcome was evaluated in head injury patients who presented brain contusion(s) on the cranial CT scan and in patients hospitalized for concussion. There was a high degree of concurrence between mortality and CT findings. Late complaints were common among cases of concussion of the brain. However, the frequency of impaired memory and concentration, speech problems, paresis and epileptic seizures was increased in cases where the CT scan showed brain contusion. Adaptive and social functioning was most impaired in cases with multifocal contusions in both hemispheres. 16 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Therapeutic effectiveness of epicranial nerve blocks on post-traumatic syndrome from head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Caputi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The autor describes the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from headache and dizziness, sometimes nausea, tinnitus in the right ear, and diffuse scalp allodynia following an occupational accident involving a head injury. Hyposensitizing treatment by anesthetic blockade at the emergence points of the epicranial nerves, which were hyperalgesic to fi nger pressure, rapidly controlled the allodynia and eventually the headache. Unexpectedly, the patient also reported reduced dizziness and resolution of the tinnitus. The unforeseen outcome highlights the unpredictable therapeutic potential of a simple and modestly invasive procedure. The neuropathophysiological interpretation is consequently very interesting.

  14. Primary oculomotor nerve palsy due to mild head injury. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuno, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Teramoto, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Two patients with primary oculomotor nerve palsy due to direct mild head injury are reported. They presented with internal ophthalmoplegia, dilated nonreactive pupils, and very mild disturbance in consciousness. Except for the persistent oculomotor nerve palsy, both the patients recovered fully within one week. Neither demonstrated a history that was suggestive of a cause for their oculomotor nerve palsy. Initial CT scans demonstrated localized subarachnoid hemorrhage around the brain stem. One of the patients had sustained a fracture of the anterior clinoid process. As the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the oculomotor nerve palsy we suspected mild injury to the pupillomotor fibers at the anterior petroclinoidal ligament and that of the pupillary fibers at the posterior petroclinoidal ligament. We speculate that these perforating fibers at the anterior petroclinoidal ligament acted as a fulcrum due to downward displacement of the brainstem at the time of impact. (author)

  15. Cognitive dysfunction in young men following head injury in childhood and adolescence: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2003-01-01

    admissions and the draft board, 3091 young men were identified who had been injured before age 18 and tested at age 18 or shortly thereafter: 970 had suffered a single concussion and were in hospital for one day only; 521 had two concussions at separate times and were in hospital for one day only on each...... Danish men appearing before the draft board had a score classified as dysfunctional). RESULTS: For young men who had suffered a single concussion, cranial fracture, or cerebral lesion before 12 years of age, resulting in less than 12 days of hospital admission (n = 376), rates of cognitive dysfunction.......0, irrespective of age at injury. For cases of two concussions, all odds ratios were > 1.4 but were not significant for all age groupings. CONCLUSIONS: For milder forms of single head injury before age 12 there is no evidence of enduring cognitive dysfunction. The apparent effect at later ages may reflect...

  16. Age related outcome in acute subdural haematoma following traumatic head injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanif, S

    2009-09-01

    Acute subdural haematoma (ASDH) is one of the conditions most strongly associated with severe brain injury. Reports prior to 1980 describe overall mortality rates for acute subdural haematomas (SDH\\'s) ranging from 40% to 90% with poor outcomes observed in all age groups. Recently, improved results have been reported with rapid diagnosis and surgical treatment. The elderly are predisposed to bleeding due to normal cerebral atrophy related to aging, stretching the bridging veins from the dura. Prognosis in ASDH is associated with age, time from injury to treatment, presence of pupillary abnormalities, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) or motor score on admission, immediate coma or lucid interval, computerized tomography findings (haematoma volume, degree of midline shift, associated intradural lesion, compression of basal cisterns), post-operative intracranial pressure and type of surgery. Advancing age is known to be a determinant of outcome in head injury. We present the results of a retrospective study carried out in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland\\'s national neurosurgical centre. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of age on outcome in patients with ASDH following severe head injury. Only cases with acute subdural haematoma requiring surgical evacuation were recruited. Mortality was significantly higher in older patients (50% above 70 years, 25.6% between 40 and 70 years and 26% below 40 years). Overall poor outcome (defined as Glasgow outcome scores 3-5) was also higher in older patients; 74.1% above 70 years, 48% between 40 and 70 years and 30% below 40 years. Poor outcome in traumatic acute subdural haematoma is higher in elderly patients even after surgical intervention.

  17. Isolated Post-Traumatic Radial Head Dislocation, A Rare and Easily Missed Injury-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Gupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the head of the radius may be either congenital, an isolated injury or more commonly part of a complex injury to the elbow such as the Monteggia fracturedislocation. Isolated traumatic radial head dislocation without associated injuries in children is a rare and easily missed condition. We report such a case in a 7-year-old boy without any associated injuries or co-morbid conditions. Initially the diagnosis was missed, and 6 weeks later open reduction was performed with annular ligament reconstruction surgery. At the one-year follow up, the patient had returned to most normal activities, showing only slight terminal restriction of pronation. We discuss the injury mechanism and management for the Monteggia fracturedislocation and review the available literature.

  18. Complication following primary repair of a penetrating bull horn injury to the trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mozaffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old male patient was admitted to the casualty with a bull horn injury in the lower zone of the neck in the midline. The patient was conscious and distressed but hemodynamically stable. Local examination revealed a lacerated wound. He underwent emergency primary repair of the wound under halothane anesthesia; intubation was done keeping in readiness all preparations for difficult airway management. Postoperatively, elective controlled ventilation was performed with continuous infusion of muscle relaxant. After approximately 8 hours of controlled ventilation, the syringe pump failed; this initially went unnoticed and made the patient cough and buck on the tube. Infusion was restarted after a bolus dose of vecuronium bromide intravenously but, meanwhile, the patient developed subcutaneous emphysema in the neck. He was immediately transferred to the operating room, where exploration of the surgical site revealed dehiscence of the tracheal wound; this had led to the subcutaneous emphysema. Repair of the tracheal wound dehiscence was not possible due to both lack of space and lack of tissue for apposition. Hence, a tracheostomy tube was inserted through the tracheal wound and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit for elective controlled ventilation. The patient was weaned off the ventilator within 24 h and transferred to the surgical ward on spontaneous ventilation with the tracheostomy tube in situ. The size of the patient′s tracheostomy tube was reduced gradually by the serial exchange method. The wound ultimately healed with minimal scarring.

  19. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  20. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Luong, Mai Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2010-04-01

    To compare estimated prevalence of head injuries among road traffic injury patients admitted to hospitals, before and after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Before and after study of all road traffic injury patients with head injuries admitted to 20 provincial and central hospitals 3 months before and after the new law came into effect on 15 December 2007. Relative risk was computed and comparison made for the periods of 3 months before and after the new law. The study found a 16 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries (4683 to 3522; relative risk [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and an 18 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic death (deaths in hospital plus injured patients discharged to die at home; 566 to 417; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Over the first 3 months of the comprehensive mandatory helmet legislation there has been a significant reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries among patients admitted to 20 hospitals. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.

  1. Plasma aldosterone and CT findings in head injury, especially in acute subdural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hideaki

    1988-12-01

    As we have already reported, an increase in the plasma aldosterone level was regulary found after severe head injury. And the values of plasma aldosterone in unconscious patients with increased intracranial pressure were significantly higher than those in patients without unconsciousness. Thus, plasma aldosterone in acute phase of head injury seems to be a sensitive index of increased intracranial pressure. In the present study, we measured plasma aldosterone levels in three groups ; subdural hematoma with mid-line shift (group A), cerebral contusion without mid-line shift (group B) and cerebral conceussion (group C). In group A, the peak value of aldosterone was markedly high (283.9 +- 142.5). In B, the peak value (143.7 +- 27.8) was higher than in C (116.3 +- 35.0). And, correlation between the serum aldosterone levels and CT findings, especially the mid-line shift was found. As a conclusion, the serum levels of aldosterone seems to be associated with intracranial pressure.

  2. Head injury in childhood: comparison of sonography with the conventional X-ray and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, S.; Riebel, T.; Nazarenko, O.; Bassir, C.; Steger, W.; Vogl, T.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare the value of ultrasound, conventional X-ray diagnosis and CT in detecting skull fractures and intracranial haemorrhage in children suffering from a head injury. Material and methods: We examined 210 children who had a head injury. In all cases the calvarium was investigated by ultrasound using a 7.0 MHz linear transducer. In children with an open fontanel (n=190) the cerebrum was screened additionally by ultrasound following a standard protocol. The sonographic findings were correlated to the X-ray examination (n=21) and CT (n=13). Results: Ultrasound enabled diagnosis of linear calvarial fractures (n=29), depressed fratures (n=6) and intracranial haemorrhage (n=8). X-Ray and XT examination confirmed the diagnosis of linear calvarial fractures in 16 cases, of depressed fractures in 6 cases. CT confirmed the sonographic diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage in 8 cases. Conclusion: Ultrasound as a primary method can replace the conventional X-ray in detecting calvarial fracture and posttraumatic sequelae. Additional CT examination depends on the sonographic and neurological status. (orig.) [de

  3. The autopsy-correlation of computed tomography in acute severe head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Shin; Kim, Hong; Mikabe, Toshio; Karasawa, Hideharu; Watanabe, Saburo

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the importance of Contrast-Enhanced CT (C.E.CT) in establishing the variety of the intracranial pathological process in acute severe head injuries. During a two-and-a-half-year period (June, 1977 - December, 1979) thirty-three patients with acute severe head injuries were autopsied, all of whom had been scanned on admission. Among them, 14 patients had undergone both plain CT and C.E.CT on admission. Brain slices were examined macroscopically in three categories; brain contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Each category was then compared retrospectively with the plain CT and C.E.CT findings. C.E.CT was found to correspond much better to the autopsy finding than plain CT in the following three points: (1) C.E.CT clearly enhances the contusion areas and reveals occult contusion areas. (2) C.E.CT enhances the areas corresponding to the subarachnoid space due to the breakdown of brain-surface blood vessels. (3) C.E.CT reveals the enlargement and formation of the intracerebral hematoma by the extravasation of the intravenous contrast material from injured arterial vessels. (author)

  4. Demographic, medical, and psychiatric factors in work and marital status after mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Duchnick, Jennifer J; Luis, Cheryl A

    2003-01-01

    To explore factors associated with long-term outcomes of work and marital status in individuals who had experienced a mild head injury (MHI), as well as those who had not. Population-based study using logistical regression analyses to investigate the impact of preinjury characteristics on work and marital status. Two groups of Vietnam-era Army veterans: 626 who had experienced a MHI an average of 8 years before examination, and 3,896 who had not. Demographic characteristics, concurrent medical conditions, early life psychiatric problems, loss of consciousness (LOC), and interactions among these variables were used to predict current work and marital status. Multiple variables were associated with work and marital status in the sample with MHI, accounting for approximately 23% and 17% of the variance in these two outcome variables, respectively. In contrast, the same factors accounted for significantly less variance in outcome in the sample without a head injury-13.3% and 9.4% for work and marital status, respectively. These findings suggest a more potent role for and increased vulnerability to the influence of demographic, medical, and psychiatric factors on outcomes after a MHI. That is, MHI itself moderates the influence of preinjury characteristics on work and marital status. In addition, in those who had a MHI, moderator relationships were found between education and LOC for both work and marital status. Similarly, complex moderator relationships among race, region of residence, and LOC were found for both work and marital status outcomes.

  5. Risk of mild head injury in preschool children: relationship to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Hatice; Altun, İdiris

    2018-04-25

    To investigate whether there is an association between mild head injury (MHI) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in preschool children. The study included a patient group of 30 children aged 3-6 years with mild head trauma and a control group of 30 healthy and age- and sex-matched children. The symptoms of ADHD were evaluated using the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised Long (CPRS-RL) form. The mean age was 4.73 ± 1.13 years in the patient group and 4.65 ± 0.99 years in the control group. No significant differences were determined between the groups in terms of age, gender, parents' age and education (p > 0.05). The total subscale points as reported by the parents of the children with MHI were significantly higher than those for the control group in terms of the following subscales: oppositional, cognitive problems/inattention, hyperactivity, social problems, ADHD index, Conners' Global Index (CGI)-Irritability-Impulsiveness, CGI-Emotional Lability, CGI-Total and DSM-IV ADHD symptoms (p < 0.05). A history of previous trauma treated in emergency services was determined in eight of the 30 patients (26.7%). The findings of this study suggest that preschool children with MHI have more pre-injury ADHD symptoms and oppositional and emotional-behavioural symptoms than healthy children without trauma. Clinicians should screen children with MHI for ADHD symptoms and refer them for treatment when necessary. Evaluation of children presenting with MHI by a child psychiatrist may prevent repetition of injuries.

  6. Word Memory Test Predicts Recovery in Claimants With Work-Related Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Annette; Abada, Abigail; Haws, Calvin; Park, Joanne; Niemeläinen, Riikka; Gross, Douglas P

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the predictive validity of the Word Memory Test (WMT), a verbal memory neuropsychological test developed as a performance validity measure to assess memory, effort, and performance consistency. Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Workers' compensation rehabilitation facility. Participants included workers' compensation claimants with work-related head injury (N=188; mean age, 44y; 161 men [85.6%]). Not applicable. Outcome measures for determining predictive validity included days to suspension of wage replacement benefits during the 1-year follow-up and work status at discharge in claimants undergoing rehabilitation. Analysis included multivariable Cox and logistic regression. Better WMT performance was significantly but weakly correlated with younger age (r=-.30), documented brain abnormality (r=.28), and loss of consciousness at the time of injury (r=.25). Claimants with documented brain abnormalities on diagnostic imaging scans performed better (∼9%) on the WMT than those without brain abnormalities. The WMT predicted days receiving benefits (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.24) and work status outcome at program discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.34). Our results provide evidence for the predictive validity of the WMT in workers' compensation claimants. Younger claimants and those with more severe brain injuries performed better on the WMT. It may be that financial incentives or other factors related to the compensation claim affected the performance. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A biopsychosocial investigation of changes in self-concept on the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Avneel; Ownsworth, Tamara; King, Joshua; Shields, Cassandra

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of the "good-old-days" bias, neuropsychological functioning and cued recall of life events on self-concept change. Forty seven adults with TBI (70% male, 1-5 years post-injury) and 47 matched controls rated their past and present self-concept on the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale (HISD) III. TBI participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. The matched control group of 47 were from a sample of 78 uninjured participants who were randomised to complete either the Social Readjustment Rating Scale-Revised (cued recall) or HISD (non-cued recall) first. Consistent with the good-old-days bias, participants with TBI rated their pre-injury self-concept as more positive than their present self-concept and the present self-concept of controls (p concept ratings were related to lower estimated premorbid IQ and poorer verbal fluency and delayed memory (p concept change (p concept as significantly more negative than the non-cued group (p concept change by affecting retrospective ratings of past self-concept. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of contextual cues on self-concept change after TBI.

  8. Neuroimaging for non-accidental head injury in childhood: A proposed protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspan, T.; Griffiths, P.D.; McConachie, N.S.; Punt, J.A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a major cause of neurological disability and death during infancy. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating craniospinal injury, both for guiding medical management and the forensic aspects of abusive trauma. The damage sustained is varied, complex and may be accompanied by an evolving pattern of brain injury secondary to a cascade of metabolic and physiological derangements. Regrettably, many cases are poorly or incompletely evaluated leading to diagnostic errors and difficulties in executing subsequent child care or criminal proceedings. It is evident, from cases referred to the authors, that imaging protocols for NAHI are lacking (or only loosely adhered to, if present) in many centres throughout the U.K. Future research in this field will also be hampered if there is a lack of consistent and reliable radiological data. There is no nationally agreed protocol for imaging NAHI. We propose such a protocol, based upon a wide experience in the medical management of child abuse and extensive involvement in the medicolegal aspects of NAHI. Jaspan, T., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 44--53

  9. Dislocation of the fibular head in an unusual sports injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Riaz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One of the primary functions of the proximal tibiofibular joint is slight rotation to accommodate rotational stress at the ankle. Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation is a rare injury and accounts for less than 1% of all knee injuries. This dislocation has been reported in patients who had been engaged in football, ballet dancing, equestrian jumping, parachuting and snowboarding. Case presentation A 20-year-old man was injured whilst playing football. He felt a pop in the right knee and was subsequently unable to bear weight on it. The range of movement in his knee joint was limited. Anterior-posterior and lateral X-rays of the knee revealed anterolateral dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Comparison views confirmed the anterolateral dislocation. He had a failed manipulation under anaesthesia and the joint needed an open reduction in which the fibular head was levered back into place. Operative findings revealed a horizontal type of joint. Conclusion An exceedingly rare dislocation of a horizontal type of proximal tibiofibular joint was presented following a football injury. This dislocation was irreducible by a closed method.

  10. Neuroimaging for non-accidental head injury in childhood: A proposed protocol

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    Jaspan, T.; Griffiths, P.D.; McConachie, N.S.; Punt, J.A.G

    2003-01-01

    Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a major cause of neurological disability and death during infancy. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in evaluating craniospinal injury, both for guiding medical management and the forensic aspects of abusive trauma. The damage sustained is varied, complex and may be accompanied by an evolving pattern of brain injury secondary to a cascade of metabolic and physiological derangements. Regrettably, many cases are poorly or incompletely evaluated leading to diagnostic errors and difficulties in executing subsequent child care or criminal proceedings. It is evident, from cases referred to the authors, that imaging protocols for NAHI are lacking (or only loosely adhered to, if present) in many centres throughout the U.K. Future research in this field will also be hampered if there is a lack of consistent and reliable radiological data. There is no nationally agreed protocol for imaging NAHI. We propose such a protocol, based upon a wide experience in the medical management of child abuse and extensive involvement in the medicolegal aspects of NAHI. Jaspan, T., et al. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 44--53.

  11. An observational study of compliance with the Scandinavian guidelines for management of minimal, mild and moderate head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heskestad, Ben; Waterloo, Knut; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2012-01-01

    The Scandinavian guidelines for management of minimal, mild and moderate head injuries were developed to provide safe and cost effective assessment of head injured patients. In a previous study conducted one year after publication and implementation of the guidelines (2003), we showed low...... compliance, involving over-triage with computed tomography (CT) and hospital admissions. The aim of the present study was to investigate guideline compliance after an educational intervention....

  12. Colon diversion versus primary colonic repair in gunshot abdomen with penetrating colon injury in Libyan revolution conflict 2011 (a single center experience).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Salah; Bendardaf, Rashed; Bougrara, Muftah; Hagam, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is comparing colon diversion versus primary repair in penetrating colon gunshot injuries. A retrospective study of 63 cases of gunshot abdomen with penetrating colon injury were admitted to Al-jalla Hospital in 2011 in Benghazi, Libya. After surgical intervention, these patients were observed for any postoperative complications. During the study period, 63 eligible patients included, 62 (98.4%) were males and 1 (1.6%) was female. And the mean age was 29.24 years. Eighteen patients had an injury on the right side of the colon, while 16, 6, 11, 6, 2, 3, and 1 patients had an injury on the transverse, left, sigmoid, rectum, right transverse, left transverse, and total colonic injury, respectively. In the first group, 23 patients (36.5%) was treated with colon diversion, (2 with Hartmann's operation, 21 with loop colostomy). In the second group, 40 patients (63.4 %) was treated with primary repair. Eighteen (28.5%) with right hemicolectomy, 5 (7.9%) with transverse colon resection and anastomosis, and 17 (26.9%) with simple repair. We evaluate the rate of postoperative complication and compare the postoperative morbidity between both groups. In our study, there was no significant statistical difference between types of operations and rate of complications (P = 0.18). We could not see any advantage of the diversion over the primary repair. To reduce risk of the psychological trauma, complications of colostomy, unnecessary repeated hospitalization, decrease of economic cost, and complications of stoma revision operation, we should consider that the primary repair of penetrating colon injuries is an acceptable alternative method of treatment over the colostomy.

  13. Exploring the mechanisms of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian head injuries caused by ground impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sha; Li, Jiani; Xu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In pedestrian-vehicle accidents, pedestrians typically suffer from secondary impact with the ground after the primary contact with vehicles. However, information about the fundamental mechanism of pedestrian head injury from ground impact remains minimal, thereby hindering further improvement in pedestrian safety. This study addresses this issue by using multi-body modeling and computation to investigate the influence of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian safety. Accordingly, a simulation matrix is constructed to vary bonnet leading-edge height, bonnet length, bonnet angle, and windshield angle. Subsequently, a set of 315 pedestrian-vehicle crash simulations are conducted using the multi-body simulation software MADYMO. Three vehicle velocities, i.e., 20, 30, and 40km/h, are set as the scenarios. Results show that the top governing factor is bonnet leading-edge height. The posture and head injury at the instant of head ground impact vary dramatically with increasing height because of the significant rise of the body bending point and the movement of the collision point. The bonnet angle is the second dominant factor that affects head-ground injury, followed by bonnet length and windshield angle. The results may elucidate one of the critical barriers to understanding head injury caused by ground impact and provide a solid theoretical guideline for considering pedestrian safety in vehicle design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of impact speed on head and brain injury outcome in vulnerable road user impacts to the car hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Zhang, Liying; Boström, Ola; Yang, King

    2007-10-01

    EuroNCAP and regulations in Europe and Japan evaluate the pedestrian protection performance of cars. The test methods are similar and they all have requirements for the passive protection of the hood area at a pedestrian to car impact speed of 40 km/h. In Europe, a proposal for a second phase of the regulation mandates a brake-assist system along with passive requirements. The system assists the driver in optimizing the braking performance during panic braking, resulting in activation only when the driver brakes sufficiently. In a European study this was estimated to occur in about 50% of pedestrian accidents. A future system for brake assistance will likely include automatic braking, in response to a pre-crash sensor, to avoid or mitigate injuries of vulnerable road users. An important question is whether these systems will provide sufficient protection, or if a parallel, passive pedestrian protection system will be necessary. This study investigated the influence of impact speed on head and brain injury risk, in impacts to the carhood. One car model was chosen and a rigid adjustable plate was mounted under the hood. Free-flying headform impacts were carried out at 20 and 30 km/h head impact velocities at different under-hood distances, 20 to 100 mm; and were compared to earlier tests at 40 km/h. The EEVC WG17 adult pedestrian headform was used for non-rotating tests and a Hybrid III adult 50th percentile head was used for rotational tests where linear and rotational acceleration was measured. Data from the rotational tests was used as input to a validated finite element model of the human head, the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM). The model was utilized to assess brain injury risk and potential injury mechanism in a pedestrian-hood impact. Although this study showed that it was not necessarily true that a lower HIC value reduced the risk for brain injury, it appeared, for the tested car model, under-hood distances of 60 mm in 20 km/h and 80 mm

  15. Vestibular and stabilometric findings in whiplash injury and minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacci, A; Ferrazzi, M; Berrettini, S; Panicucci, E; Matteucci, J; Bruschini, L; Ursino, F; Fattori, B

    2011-12-01

    Vertigo and postural instability following whiplash and/or minor head injuries is very frequent. According to some authors, post-whiplash vertigo cannot be caused by real injury to vestibular structures; other authors maintain that vestibular damage is possible even in the case of isolated whiplash, with vascular or post-traumatic involvement. Furthermore, many of the balance disorders reported after trauma can be justified by post-traumatic modification to the cervical proprioceptive input, with consequent damage to the vestibular spinal reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vestibular condition and postural status in a group of patients (Group A, n = 90) affected with balance disorders following whiplash, and in a second group (Group B, n = 20) with balance disorders after minor head injury associated with whiplash. Both groups were submitted to videonystagmography (VNG) and stabilometric investigation (open eyes - O E, closed eyes - CE, closed eyes with head retroflexed - CER) within 15 days of their injuries and repeated within 10 days after conclusion of cervical physiotherapy treatment. The VNG tests revealed vestibulopathy in 19% of cases in Group A (11% peripheral, 5% central, 3% in an undefined site) and in 60% of subjects in Group B (50% peripheral, 10% central). At the follow-up examination, all cases of non-compensated labyrinth deficit showed signs of compensation, while there were two cases (2%) in Group A and one case (5%) in Group B of PPV. As far as the altered posturographic recordings are concerned, while there was no specific pattern in the two groups, they were clearly pathologic, especially during CER. Both in OE and in CE there was an increase in the surface values and in those pertaining to shifting of the gravity centre on the sagittal plane, which was even more evident during CER. In Group A, the pre-post-physiotherapy comparison of CER results showed that there was a statistically significant improvement in the majority of the

  16. EFFECT OF CEREBROPROTEIN HYDROLYSATE WITH CITICOLINE VERSUS CITICOLINE ALONE IN THE INITIAL MANAGEMENT OF HEAD INJURY AND ITS CLINICAL OUTCOME “A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED COMPARATIVE STUDY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadaraju D. N

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury is an important cause of morbidity. It also represents the most frequent reason for neurological illness after headache. Compared with other types of brain insult, traumatic brain injury produces more diffuse injury causing more cognitive and neuropsychiatric disturbances. Various drugs have been used in an attempt to improve the clinical outcome, citicoline and Cerebrolysin hydrolysate have been used to improve the clinical outcome in traumatic brain injury. The evidence thus far has been conflicting with reports in favour and against the use of these drugs in the clinical benefit of the patients with traumatic brain injury. We attempt to determine the benefits and advantages of using these drugs in the management of traumatic brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study comprising 60 patients of head injury admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effect of cerebroprotein hydrolysate with citicoline compared to citicoline alone in the initial management of head injury and its clinical outcome and to assess the improvement. RESULTS Sixty patients with head injury were recruited and divided into group A and group B randomly. The mean age was 43.5 years with 43 male patients and 17 female patients. The GCS at admission of 27 patients was mild head injury and of 33 patients was moderate head injury. Group A had 13 patients with mild head injury and 17 patients with moderate head injury. Group B had 14 patients with mild and 16 patients with moderate head injury at the time of admission. The GCS was assessed at 1 week and 3 weeks. On assessing the patients at 1 week, group A had 14 patients with mild head injury and 16 patients with moderate head injury, whereas group B had 14 patients with mild and 16 patients with moderate head injury. The extended Glasgow Outcome Scale

  17. Clinical analysis of spinal cord injury with or without cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, spondylosis, and canal stenosis in elderly head injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, Ryuta; Onda, Hidetaka; Yokobori, Shoji; Araki, Takashi; Fuse, Akira; Toda, Shigeki; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Teramoto, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Patients with degenerative diseases of the cervical spine, such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, spondylosis, and canal stenosis, sometimes present with acute spinal cord injury caused by minor trauma. However, the relative risk of cervical cord injury with these diseases is unknown. The clinical and radiological features of 94 elderly patients with head injury, 57 men and 37 women aged from 65 to 98 years (mean 76.6 years), were retrospectively analyzed to assess the association of spinal cord injury with degenerative cervical diseases. Degenerative cervical diseases were present in 25 patients, and spinal cord injury was more common in the patients with degenerative diseases (11/25 patients) than in the patients without such diseases (3/69 patients; relative risk=10.2). The incidence of degenerative cervical diseases seems to be increasing in Japan because life expectancy has increased and the elderly are a rapidly growing part of the population. A fall while walking or cycling is a common mechanism of head injury and/or cervical cord injury in the elderly. To decrease the occurrence of cervical myelopathy, prevention by increasing social awareness and avoiding traffic accidents and falls is important. (author)

  18. Getting My Bearings, Returning to School: Issues Facing Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Ethan J.; Getch, Yvette Q.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a blow to the head or other penetrating head injury resulting in impairment of the brain's functioning. Despite the high incidence of TBI in adolescents, many educators still consider TBI to be a low-incidence disability. In addition, school personnel often report receiving little to no pre-service…

  19. The Head Injury Retrieval Trial (HIRT): a single-centre randomised controlled trial of physician prehospital management of severe blunt head injury compared with management by paramedics only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Alan A; Mann, Kristy P; Fearnside, Michael; Poynter, Elwyn; Gebski, Val

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced prehospital interventions for severe brain injury remains controversial. No previous randomised trial has been conducted to evaluate additional physician intervention compared with paramedic only care. Methods Participants in this prospective, randomised controlled trial were adult patients with blunt trauma with either a scene GCS score <9 (original definition), or GCS<13 and an Abbreviated Injury Scale score for the head region ≥3 (modified definition). Patients were randomised to either standard ground paramedic treatment or standard treatment plus a physician arriving by helicopter. Patients were evaluated by 30-day mortality and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores. Due to high non-compliance rates, both intention-to-treat and as-treated analyses were preplanned. Results 375 patients met the original definition, of which 197 was allocated to physician care. Differences in the 6-month GOS scores were not significant on intention-to-treat analysis (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.66, p=0.62) nor was the 30-day mortality (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.38, p=0.66). As-treated analysis showed a 16% reduction in 30-day mortality in those receiving additional physician care; 60/195 (29%) versus 81/180 (45%), p<0.01, Number needed to treat =6. 338 patients met the modified definition, of which 182 were allocated to physician care. The 6-month GOS scores were not significantly different on intention-to-treat analysis (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.75, p=0.56) nor was the 30-day mortality (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.66, p=0.84). As-treated analyses were also not significantly different. Conclusions This trial suggests a potential mortality reduction in patients with blunt trauma with GCS<9 receiving additional physician care (original definition only). Confirmatory studies which also address non-compliance issues are needed. Trial registration number NCT00112398. PMID:25795741

  20. Sequential computerized tomography changes and related final outcome in severe head injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobato, R.D.; Gomez, P.A.; Alday, R.

    1997-01-01

    The authors analyzed the serial computerized tomography (CT) findings in a large series of severely head injured patients in order to assess the variability in gross intracranial pathology through the acute posttraumatic period and determine the most common patterns of CT change. A second aim was to compare the prognostic significance of the different CT diagnostic categories used in the study (Traumatic Coma Data Bank CT pathological classification) when gleaned either from the initial (postadmission) or the control CT scans, and determine the extent to which having a second CT scan provides more prognostic information than only one scan. 92 patients (13.3 % of the total population) died soon after injury. Of the 587 who survived long enough to have at least one control CT scan 23.6 % developed new diffuse brain swelling, and 20.9 % new focal mass lesions most of which had to be evacuated. The relative risk for requiring a delayed operation as related to the diagnostic category established by using the initial CT scans was by decreasing order: diffuse injury IV (30.7 %), diffuse injury III (30.5 %), non evacuated mass (20 %), evacuated mass (20.2 %), diffuse injury II (12.1 %), and diffuse injury I (8.6 %). Overall, 51.2 % of the patients developed significant CT changes (for worse or better) occurring either spontaneously or following surgery, and their final outcomes were more closely related to the control than to the initial CT diagnoses. In fact, the final outcome was more accurately predicted by using the control CT scans (81.2 % of the cases) than by using the initial CT scans (71.5 % of the cases only). Since the majority of relevant CT changes developed within 48 hours after injury a pathological categorization made by using an early control CT scan seems to be most useful for prognostic purposes. Prognosis associated with the CT pathological categories used in the study was similar independently of the moment of the acute posttraumatic period at which

  1. Clinical factors associated with intracranial complications after pediatric traumatic head injury: an observational study of children submitted to a neurosurgical referral unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åstrand, Ramona Alice; Undén, Johan; Hesselgard, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Clinically validated guidelines for the management of head injury in children do not exist, and the treatment is often based upon adult management routines. In order to examine the safety of this procedure, an analysis of clinical factors associated with complications after pediatric head injury ...

  2. Clinical factors associated with intracranial complications after pediatric traumatic head injury: an observational study of children submitted to a neurosurgical referral unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åstrand, Ramona Alice; Undén, Johan; Hesselgard, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Clinically validated guidelines for the management of head injury in children do not exist, and the treatment is often based upon adult management routines. In order to examine the safety of this procedure, an analysis of clinical factors associated with complications after pediatric head injury...

  3. Fast vigilance decrement in closed head injury patients as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipio, M L; Novitski, N; Tervaniemi, M; Alho, K; Ohman, J; Salonen, O; Näätänen, R

    2001-05-25

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured from 24 chronic closed head injury (CHI) patients and 18 age- and education-matched controls. The oddball paradigm was applied while subjects were watching a silent movie. The standard (p=0.8) sound of 75 ms duration had a basic frequency of 500 Hz with harmonic partials of 1000 Hz and 1500 Hz, whereas these frequencies for the pitch deviant were each 10% higher. The frequencies of the duration deviant matched with those of the standard but was 25 ms in duration. The MMN (mismatch negativity), generated by the brain's automatic auditory change-detector mechanism, was elicited by both deviants. No significant differences in the MMN latency or amplitude for either pitch or duration deviants were found between the groups. However, the MMN amplitude for the pitch deviant decreased in the patient group during the experiment considerably faster than in controls, suggesting a faster vigilance decrement in the patients.

  4. Famous head injuries of the first aerial war: deaths of the "Knights of the Air".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Prateeka; Mau, Christine; Sabourin, Victor M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2015-07-01

    World War I advanced the development of aviation from the concept of flight to the use of aircraft on the battlefield. Fighter planes advanced technologically as the war progressed. Fighter pilot aces Francesco Baracca and Manfred von Richthofen (the Red Baron) were two of the most famous pilots of this time period. These courageous fighter aces skillfully maneuvered their SPAD and Albatros planes, respectively, while battling enemies and scoring aerial victories that contributed to the course of the war. The media thrilled the public with their depictions of the heroic feats of fighter pilots such as Baracca and the Red Baron. Despite their aerial prowess, both pilots would eventually be shot down in combat. Although the accounts of their deaths are debated, it is undeniable that both were victims of traumatic head injury.

  5. Does head CT scan pathology predict outcome after mild traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannsjö, M; Backheden, M; Johansson, U; Af Geijerstam, J L; Borg, J

    2013-01-01

    More evidence is needed to forward our understanding of the key determinants of poor outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). A large, prospective, national cohort of patients was studied to analyse the effect of head CT scan pathology on the outcome. One-thousand two-hundred and sixty-two patients with MTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score 15) at 39 emergency departments completed a study protocol including acute head CT scan examination and follow-up by the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 3 months after MTBI. Binary logistic regression was used for the assessment of prediction ability. In 751 men (60%) and 511 women (40%), with a mean age of 30 years (median 21, range 6-94), we observed relevant or suspect relevant pathologic findings on acute CT scan in 52 patients (4%). Patients aged below 30 years reported better outcome both with respect to symptoms and GOSE as compared to patients in older age groups. Men reported better outcome than women as regards symptoms (OR 0.64, CI 0.49-0.85 for ≥3 symptoms) and global function (OR 0.60, CI 0.39-0.92 for GOSE 1-6). Pathology on acute CT scan examination had no effect on self-reported symptoms or global function at 3 months after MTBI. Female gender and older age predicted a less favourable outcome. The findings support the view that other factors than brain injury deserve attention to minimize long-term complaints after MTBI. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  6. Epidemiology and management of head injury in paediatric age group in North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Chinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paediatric head injury (HI is the single most common cause of death and permanent disability in children world over, and this is increasingly becoming worrisome in our society because of increased risks and proneness to road traffic accidents on our highways and streets. The study set to determine causes and management of HI among children in our society. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of all children aged 0-15 years with traumatic head injury (THIs who were managed at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between July, 2006 and August, 2008. Results: A total of 45 children with THIs presented to the casualty unit of the hospital; 30 (66.7% were boys and 15 (33.3% were girls. Three (6.7% children were less than 1 year of age, 21 (46.7% were between 1 years and 6 years while 16 (35.6% and 5 (11.0% were aged 7-11 years and 12-15 years respectively. Thirty six (80.0% of the children were pedestrians, 6 (13.4% fell from a height, while 2 (4.4% and 1 (2.2% were as a result of home accident and assault, respectively. Twenty one patients (46.7% had mild HI, while 53.3% had moderate to severe category. Forty one (91.1% of children were managed as in-patients, mostly (95.1% by conservative non-operative management, while 4 (8.9% were treated on the out-patient basis. The mortality rate was 17.8%. Conclusion: H1 among children is of a great concern, because of its incremental magnitude, due to increasing child labour and interstate religious discipleship among children, with attendant high mortality and permanent disabilities. Necessary laws and legislations should be formulated and implemented with organized campaigns and public enlightenment to prevent and mitigate this menace.

  7. Admissions for isolated nonoperative mild head injuries: Sharing the burden among trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Mejaddam, Ali Y; Chang, Yuchiao; DeMoya, Marc A; King, David R; Yeh, Daniel D; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Alam, Hasan B; Velmahos, George C

    2016-10-01

    Isolated nonoperative mild head injuries (INOMHI) occur with increasing frequency in an aging population. These patients often have multiple social, discharge, and rehabilitation issues, which far exceed the acute component of their care. This study was aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with INOMHI admitted to three services: trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology. Retrospective case series (January 1, 2009 to August 31, 2013) at an academic Level I trauma center. According to an institutional protocol, INOMHI patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13 to 15 were admitted on a weekly rotational basis to trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology. The three populations were compared, and the primary outcomes were survival rate to discharge, neurological status at hospital discharge as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), and discharge disposition. Four hundred eighty-eight INOMHI patients were admitted (trauma surgery, 172; neurosurgery, 131; neurology, 185). The mean age of the study population was 65.3 years, and 58.8% of patients were male. Seventy-seven percent of patients has a GCS score of 15. Age, sex, mechanism of injury, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale in head and neck, and GCS were similar among the three groups. Patients who were admitted to trauma surgery, neurosurgery and neurology services had similar proportions of survivors (98.8% vs 95.7% vs 94.7%), and discharge disposition (home, 57.0% vs 61.6% vs 55.7%). The proportion of patients with GOS of 4 or 5 on discharge was slightly higher among patients admitted to trauma (97.7% vs 93.0% vs 92.4%). In a logistic regression model adjusting for Charlson Comorbidity Index CCI and Abbreviated Injury Scale head and neck scores, patients who were admitted to neurology or neurosurgery had significantly lower odds being discharged with GOS 4 or 5. While the trauma group had the lowest proportion of repeats of brain computed tomography (61

  8. Head and neck injury patterns in fatal falls: epidemiologic and biomechanical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Fatal falls often involve a head impact, which are in turn associated with a fracture of the skull or cervical spine. Prior authors have noted that the degree of inversion of the victim at the time of impact is an important predictor of the distribution of skull fractures, with skull base fractures more common than skull vault fractures in falls with a high degree of inversion. The majority of fatal fall publications have focused on skull fractures, and no research has described the association between fall circumstances and the distribution of fractures in the skull and neck. In the present study, we accessed data regarding head and neck fractures resulting from fatal falls from a Swedish autopsy database for the years 1992-2010, for the purposes of examining the relationships between skull and cervical spine fracture distribution and the circumstances of the fatal fall. Out of 102,310 medico-legal autopsies performed there were 1008 cases of falls associated with skull or cervical spine fractures. The circumstances of the falls were grouped in 3 statistically homogenous categories; falls occurring at ground level, falls from a height of stairs, and falls from ≥3 m. Only head and neck injuries and fractures that were associated with the fatal CNS injuries were included for study, and categorized as skull vault and skull base fractures, upper cervical injuries (C0-C1 dislocation, C1 and C2 fractures), and lower cervical fractures. Logistic regression modeling revealed increased odds of skull base and lower cervical fracture in the middle and upper fall severity groups, relative to ground level falls (lower cervical <3 m falls, OR = 2.55 [1.32, 4.92]; lower cervical ≥3 m falls, OR = 2.23 [0.98, 5.08]; skull base <3 m falls, OR = 1.82 [1.32, 2.50]; skull base ≥3 m falls, OR = 2.30 [1.55, 3.40]). C0-C1 dislocations were strongly related to fall height, with an OR of 8.3 for ≥3 m falls versus ground level. The findings of increased odds of skull

  9. HEAD INJURIES IN FULL CONTACT KARATE COMPETITION! IS THE PREJUDICE IN MANAGEMENT MINIMISING THE REQUIRED INVESTIGATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Graham

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A 33 year old male karate practitioner presented himself for a full-contact national karate competition. This individual competed for approximately 2 minutes and received a kick to the head. He collapsed in the competitive arena, and suffered a tonic-clonic seizure, lasting for 3 minutes 25 seconds. Examination in the competitive arena revealed an individual who was unconscious. First aid, and paramedic support was provided immediately. Medical assessment identified the presence of vital signs. Glasgow coma scale (GCS, post trauma was recorded as 3/15 until the fifth minute. A patent airway was established and a neck brace was applied. Blood pressure within 1 minute of trauma was 195/98 mm.Hg, heart rate was 185 bpm and respiratory rate was 40 breaths·min-1. Oxygen was administered via a ventimask. The patient was conveyed to the medical area. The patient regained consciousness one minute after the seizure had resolved, but had amnesia concerning the event. GCS at five minutes was recorded as 13/15. The patient was transferred by ambulance to the nearest Hospital. The patient was discharged, following examination without further investigation. The finding of this study suggests that an individual with a history of head injury should have received computerised tomography as a minimum investigation. This may help eleviate the risk of further medical complications

  10. Nursing care of service members with head injury during the Vietnam war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Terri L

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe and analyze the nursing management of head-injured soldiers by military nurses serving in the Vietnam War. This study used traditional historical methods and a military history framework. Primary sources included original military reports, letters, and policies from the Vietnam War period (located in the archives of the Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History in Falls Church, VA); journal articles of the time period; and autobiographical texts. Secondary sources consisted of biographical and historical texts and Web sites of historical societies. Findings supported that advances in medicine, nursing, and technology throughout the 1960s have an overall positive impact on patient care in a combat zone. The Vietnam War was a time when new theories in the management of head injuries led directly to overall improvements in survival. In conclusion, nurses were professionally and emotionally challenged on a near daily basis but were able to directly apply new nursing science in a combat environment to help improve survivability for those who may not have previously survived off the battlefield.

  11. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage segmentation from clinical head CT of patients with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; Wilkes, Sean; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Butman, John A.; Pham, Dzung L.

    2015-03-01

    Quantification of hemorrhages in head computed tomography (CT) images from patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has potential applications in monitoring disease progression and better understanding of the patho-physiology of TBI. Although manual segmentations can provide accurate measures of hemorrhages, the processing time and inter-rater variability make it infeasible for large studies. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic novel pipeline for segmenting intraparenchymal hemorrhages (IPH) from clinical head CT images. Unlike previous methods of model based segmentation or active contour techniques, we rely on relevant and matching examples from already segmented images by trained raters. The CT images are first skull-stripped. Then example patches from an "atlas" CT and its manual segmentation are used to learn a two-class sparse dictionary for hemorrhage and normal tissue. Next, for a given "subject" CT, a subject patch is modeled as a sparse convex combination of a few atlas patches from the dictionary. The same convex combination is applied to the atlas segmentation patches to generate a membership for the hemorrhages at each voxel. Hemorrhages are segmented from 25 subjects with various degrees of TBI. Results are compared with segmentations obtained from an expert rater. A median Dice coefficient of 0.85 between automated and manual segmentations is achieved. A linear fit between automated and manual volumes show a slope of 1.0047, indicating a negligible bias in volume estimation.

  12. Susceptibility of the MMPI-2-RF neurological complaints and cognitive complaints scales to over-reporting in simulated head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Elizabeth; Reese, Caitlin; Suhr, Julie; Larrabee, Glenn J

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effect of simulated head injury on scores on the Neurological Complaints (NUC) and Cognitive Complaints (COG) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Young adults with a history of mild head injury were randomly assigned to simulate head injury or give their best effort on a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the MMPI-2-RF. Simulators who also showed poor effort on performance validity tests (PVTs) were compared with controls who showed valid performance on PVTs. Results showed that both scales, but especially NUC, are elevated in individuals simulating head injury, with medium to large effect sizes. Although both scales were highly correlated with all MMPI-2-RF over-reporting validity scales, the relationship of Response Bias Scale to both NUC and COG was much stronger in the simulators than controls. Even accounting for over-reporting on the MMPI-2-RF, NUC was related to general somatic complaints regardless of group membership, whereas COG was related to both psychological distress and somatic complaints in the control group only. Neither scale was related to actual neuropsychological performance, regardless of group membership. Overall, results provide further evidence that self-reported cognitive symptoms can be due to many causes, not necessarily cognitive impairment, and can be exaggerated in a non-credible manner.

  13. Indices of slowness of information processing in head injury patients : Tests for selective attention related to ERP latencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Naalt, van der Joukje; Weerden , van Tiemen; Zomeren , van Adriaan H.

    2004-01-01

    We explored the relation between neuropsychological (attention tests involving time constraints) and neurophysiological (N2 and P3 event-related potential (ERP) latencies) indices of slowness of information processing after closed head injury (CHI). A group of 44 CHI patients performed worse than

  14. Clinical Utility of '9{sup 9m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT Findings in Chronic Head Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin ll; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon; Kim, Young Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Minima deterioration of cerebral perfusion or microanatomical changes were undetectable on conventional Brain CT or MRI. So evaluation of focal functional changes of the brain parenchyme is essential in chronic head injury patients, who did not show focal anatomical changes on these radiological studies. However, the patients who had longstanding neurologic sequelae following head injury, there had been no available imaging modalities for evaluating these patients precisely. Therefore we tried to detect the focal functional changes on the brain parenchyme using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT on the patients of chronic head injuries. Twenty three patients who had suffered from headache, memory dysfunction, personality change and insomnia lasting more than six months following head injury were included in our cases, which showed no anatomical abnormalities on Brain CT or MRI. At first they underwent psychological test whether the symptoms were organic or not. Also we were able to evaluate the cerebral perfusion changes with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in 22 patients among the 23, which five patients were focal and 17 patients were nonfocally diffuse perfusion changes. Thus we can predict the perfusion changes such as local vascular deterioration or functional defects using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in the patients who had suffered from post-traumatic sequelae, which changes were undetectable on Brain CT or MRI.

  15. Detection and monitoring of cerebral hemodynamic disturbances with transcranial color-coded duplex sonography in patients after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochanowicz, J.; Mariak, Z.; Lyson, T.; Lewko, J.; Krejza, J.; Bilello, M.

    2006-01-01

    Reduced cerebral blood flow after severe head injury results in an increased risk of ischemic brain damage. Blood flow should therefore be monitored with a simple, reliable method. Transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography (TCCS) is an accepted tool for the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm; however, its usefulness in evaluating patients with head injury has not been proven. Cerebral blood-flow velocity in the middle, anterior, and posterior cerebral arteries was measured with a 2.5 MHz probe (Aplio SSA 770A, Toshiba, Japan) in 36 subjects with moderate or severe head injury. Serial measurements of resistance index (RI), peak-systolic, end-diastolic, and mean velocity in the middle cerebral arteries were performed 2-24 h after head trauma and in the subsequent days during hospitalization. Immediately after head trauma, increased RI values, and unusually decreased blood-flow velocity (mainly in MCA) were observed. Microcirculation disturbances were suspected because the end-diastolic velocity had substantially diminished. Changes in blood-flow parameters correlated with the clinical state, and in most cases, a poor prognosis. In some patients, blood-flow velocity increased above the normal reference limit and this implied poor prognosis. Transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography is a reliable, repeatable, and accessible tool that provides information about cerebral blood-flow disturbances and may hold diagnostic and prognostic importance. (orig.)

  16. From conception to evaluation of mobile services for people with head injury: A participatory design perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussard, Pierre-Yves; Pigot, Hélène; Giroux, Sylvain

    2018-07-01

    Adults with cognitive impairments lack the means to organise their daily life, plan their appointments, cope with fatigue, and manage their budget. They manifest interest in using new technologies to be part of society. Unfortunately, the applications offered on smart phones are often beyond their cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to design a mobile cognitive assistant to enhance autonomy of people living with acquired traumatic brain injury. Participatory design methodologies guided this research by involving adults with cognitive impairments (CI) and their caregivers in the early stages of the design process. The population of the study is composed of four male adults who present cognitive impairments (three with head injury and one with stroke) and three caregivers. The first phase of this research was to design the Services Assistance Mobile and Intelligent (SAMI) application based on the needs expressed by the participants. During three focus groups, needs emerged concerning planning, health monitoring and money management and led to the implementation of assistive solutions on an Android mobile phone. During the second phase, the participants evaluated the mobile assistant SAMI at home for eight weeks. The results demonstrate that the participants were able to participate actively in the conception of SAMI and to use it successfully. People with CI showed a slight improvement in their life satisfaction. Due to the small number of participants, these promising results need to be confirmed by a larger-scale study.

  17. The contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic head injuries in the forensic setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cryan, J

    2010-11-01

    Excessive drinking increases the risk of dying unnaturally. In the Republic of Ireland such deaths are referred to the State Pathologist. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is routinely measured. We created a database of cases presenting to the State Pathologist over a nine year period (2000-2008 inclusive) to evaluate the relationship between alcohol and fatal traumatic brain injuries (FTBI). Of a total of 1778 cases, 332 (275 Male [M]; 57 Female [F]) died of head injuries. Fatalities were highest in males aged 36-50 (N = 97) and 26-35 (N = 73). Assaults (N = 147), falls (N = 95), road traffic accidents (RTA) (N = 50) and suicide (N = 15) were the commonest modes of presentation. A positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was found in 36% of assaults, 41% of falls and 40% of suicides. In the RTA group BAC was positive in 59% of pedestrians, 33% of drivers and 14% of passengers. Alcohol clearly plays a significant role in FTBI in the forensic setting.

  18. Translational Research in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Support for Patients with Severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-liang LIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To explore the key points of the translational research in enteral and pareenteral nutrition support for patients with severe head injury (SHI, and to analyze the influence of different nutritional support routes on the prognosis of SHI patients. Methods: Totally 141 patients with severe craniocerebral injury were selected as study subjects, 47 cases for each group, and were given early enteral nutrition (EEN, delayed enteral nutrition (DEN, and parenteral nutrition (PN, respectively. The effect of different nutritional support routes on SHI patients was observed. Results: After 14 d of treatment, Glasgow coma scale (GCS scores of 3 groups were higher than treatment before (P<0.01, and with statistical differences among groups (P<0.05, or P<0.01. The levels of serum albumin, total serum protein and hemoglobin were higher in EEN group than the other groups (P<0.01. The level of serum albumin was lower in PN group than in DEN group (P<0.05. There were statistical differences in the incidence of complications among three groups (χ2=9.2487, P=0.0098. Conclusion: EEN support is more conductive to the improvement of the nutrition status, reduction of the incidence of complications, and promotion of the prognosis of SHI patients than DEN and PN.

  19. A combined microdialysis and FDG-PET study of glucose metabolism in head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Peter J; O'Connell, Mark T; Seal, Alex; Nortje, Jurgens; Timofeev, Ivan; Al-Rawi, Pippa G; Coles, Jonathan P; Fryer, Timothy D; Menon, David K; Pickard, John D; Carpenter, Keri L H

    2009-01-01

    Microdialysis continuously monitors the chemistry of a small focal volume of the cerebral extracellular space. Positron emission tomography (PET) establishes metabolism of the whole brain but only for the scan's duration. This study's objective was to apply these techniques together, in patients with traumatic brain injury, to assess the relationship between microdialysis (extracellular glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and the lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio as a marker of anaerobic metabolism) and PET parameters of glucose metabolism using the glucose analogue [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). In particular, we aimed to determine the fate of glucose in terms of differential metabolism to pyruvate and lactate. Microdialysis catheters (CMA70 or CMA71) were inserted into the cerebral cortex of 17 patients with major head injury. Microdialysis was performed during FDG-PET scans with regions of interest for PET analysis defined by the location of the gold-tipped microdialysis catheter. Microdialysate analysis was performed on a CMA600 analyser. There was significant linear relationship between the PET-derived parameter of glucose metabolism (regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose; CMRglc) and levels of lactate (r = 0.778, p glucose was metabolised to both lactate and pyruvate, but was not associated with an increase in the L/P ratio. This suggests an increase in glucose metabolism to both lactate and pyruvate, as opposed to a shift towards anaerobic metabolism.

  20. Withholding and withdrawing of life support from patients with severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callahan, J G; Fink, C; Pitts, L H; Luce, J M

    1995-09-01

    To characterize the withholding or withdrawing of life support from patients with severe head injury. San Francisco General Hospital, a city and county hospital with a Level I trauma center. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics and functional outcome of severely head-injured (Glasgow Coma Score of family members. Forty-seven patients who were admitted to a medical-surgical intensive care unit over a 1-yr period. Twenty-four patients had life support withheld or withdrawn, and 23 patients did not. Physician and family separately assessed patient's probable functional outcome, degree of communication between them, reasons important in recommending or deciding on discontinuation of life support, and the result of action taken. Six months later, the families reviewed the process of their decision, how well physician(s) had communicated, and what might have improved communication. Of 24 patients with life support discontinued, 22 died; two were discharged from the hospital. Twenty-three of the 24 patients had a poor prognosis on admission. Of the 23 patients who were continued on life support for the duration of their hospitalization, ten had a poor (p Family's assessment of prognosis agreed with physician's assessment in 22 of the 24 patients from whom life support was discontinued (p families' assessments. Physicians' considerations in recommending limitation of care and families' considerations in making decisions were the same, primarily an inevitably poor prognosis. Neither physician nor families cited cost or availability of care as a deciding factor. Two families disagreed with the recommendation to limit care after initial agreement because the patients' prognosis improved from "likely death" to "vegetative." Care was therefore continued, and both patients remained vegetative 6 months after admission to the hospital and discharge to chronic care facilities. Life support is commonly withheld or withdrawn from patients with severe

  1. Frequent mild head injury promotes trigeminal sensitivity concomitant with microglial proliferation, astrocytosis, and increased neuropeptide levels in the trigeminal pain system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburski, Ashley L; Cheng, Lan; Assari, Soroush; Darvish, Kurosh; Elliott, Melanie B

    2017-12-01

    Frequent mild head injuries or concussion along with the presence of headache may contribute to the persistence of concussion symptoms. In this study, the acute effects of recovery between mild head injuries and the frequency of injuries on a headache behavior, trigeminal allodynia, was assessed using von Frey testing up to one week after injury, while histopathological changes in the trigeminal pain pathway were evaluated using western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry.  RESULTS: A decreased recovery time combined with an increased mild closed head injury (CHI) frequency results in reduced trigeminal allodynia thresholds compared to controls. The repetitive CHI group with the highest injury frequency showed the greatest reduction in trigeminal thresholds along with greatest increased levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Repetitive CHI resulted in astrogliosis in the